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Sample records for auditory feedback differs

  1. Effect of auditory feedback differs according to side of hemiparesis: a comparative pilot study

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    Bensmail Djamel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following stroke, patients frequently demonstrate loss of motor control and function and altered kinematic parameters of reaching movements. Feedback is an essential component of rehabilitation and auditory feedback of kinematic parameters may be a useful tool for rehabilitation of reaching movements at the impairment level. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 2 types of auditory feedback on the kinematics of reaching movements in hemiparetic stroke patients and to compare differences between patients with right (RHD and left hemisphere damage (LHD. Methods 10 healthy controls, 8 stroke patients with LHD and 8 with RHD were included. Patient groups had similar levels of upper limb function. Two types of auditory feedback (spatial and simple were developed and provided online during reaching movements to 9 targets in the workspace. Kinematics of the upper limb were recorded with an electromagnetic system. Kinematics were compared between groups (Mann Whitney test and the effect of auditory feedback on kinematics was tested within each patient group (Friedman test. Results In the patient groups, peak hand velocity was lower, the number of velocity peaks was higher and movements were more curved than in the healthy group. Despite having a similar clinical level, kinematics differed between LHD and RHD groups. Peak velocity was similar but LHD patients had fewer velocity peaks and less curved movements than RHD patients. The addition of auditory feedback improved the curvature index in patients with RHD and deteriorated peak velocity, the number of velocity peaks and curvature index in LHD patients. No difference between types of feedback was found in either patient group. Conclusion In stroke patients, side of lesion should be considered when examining arm reaching kinematics. Further studies are necessary to evaluate differences in responses to auditory feedback between patients with lesions in opposite

  2. Different auditory feedback control for echolocation and communication in horseshoe bats.

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    Ying Liu

    Full Text Available Auditory feedback from the animal's own voice is essential during bat echolocation: to optimize signal detection, bats continuously adjust various call parameters in response to changing echo signals. Auditory feedback seems also necessary for controlling many bat communication calls, although it remains unclear how auditory feedback control differs in echolocation and communication. We tackled this question by analyzing echolocation and communication in greater horseshoe bats, whose echolocation pulses are dominated by a constant frequency component that matches the frequency range they hear best. To maintain echoes within this "auditory fovea", horseshoe bats constantly adjust their echolocation call frequency depending on the frequency of the returning echo signal. This Doppler-shift compensation (DSC behavior represents one of the most precise forms of sensory-motor feedback known. We examined the variability of echolocation pulses emitted at rest (resting frequencies, RFs and one type of communication signal which resembles an echolocation pulse but is much shorter (short constant frequency communication calls, SCFs and produced only during social interactions. We found that while RFs varied from day to day, corroborating earlier studies in other constant frequency bats, SCF-frequencies remained unchanged. In addition, RFs overlapped for some bats whereas SCF-frequencies were always distinctly different. This indicates that auditory feedback during echolocation changed with varying RFs but remained constant or may have been absent during emission of SCF calls for communication. This fundamentally different feedback mechanism for echolocation and communication may have enabled these bats to use SCF calls for individual recognition whereas they adjusted RF calls to accommodate the daily shifts of their auditory fovea.

  3. Tactile feedback improves auditory spatial localization

    OpenAIRE

    Gori, Monica; Vercillo, Tiziana; Sandini, Giulio; Burr, David

    2014-01-01

    Our recent studies suggest that congenitally blind adults have severely impaired thresholds in an auditory spatial bisection task, pointing to the importance of vision in constructing complex auditory spatial maps (Gori et al., 2014). To explore strategies that may improve the auditory spatial sense in visually impaired people, we investigated the impact of tactile feedback on spatial auditory localization in 48 blindfolded sighted subjects. We measured auditory spatial bisection thresholds b...

  4. Tactile feedback improves auditory spatial localization

    OpenAIRE

    Monica eGori; Tiziana eVercillo; Giulio eSandini; David eBurr

    2014-01-01

    Our recent studies suggest that congenitally blind adults have severely impaired thresholds in an auditory spatial-bisection task, pointing to the importance of vision in constructing complex auditory spatial maps (Gori et al., 2014). To explore strategies that may improve the auditory spatial sense in visually impaired people, we investigated the impact of tactile feedback on spatial auditory localization in 48 blindfolded sighted subjects. We measured auditory spatial bisection thresholds b...

  5. Effects of auditory feedback consistency on vowel production

    OpenAIRE

    Franken, M.; McQueen, J.; Hagoort, P.; Acheson, D.

    2015-01-01

    In investigations of feedback control during speech production, researchers have focused on two different kinds of responses to erroneous or unexpected auditory feedback. Compensation refers to online, feedback-based corrections of articulations. In contrast, adaptation refers to long-term changes in the speech production system after exposure to erroneous/unexpected feedback, which may last even after feedback is normal again. In the current study, we aimed to compare both types of feedback ...

  6. Tactile feedback improves auditory spatial localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, Monica; Vercillo, Tiziana; Sandini, Giulio; Burr, David

    2014-01-01

    Our recent studies suggest that congenitally blind adults have severely impaired thresholds in an auditory spatial bisection task, pointing to the importance of vision in constructing complex auditory spatial maps (Gori et al., 2014). To explore strategies that may improve the auditory spatial sense in visually impaired people, we investigated the impact of tactile feedback on spatial auditory localization in 48 blindfolded sighted subjects. We measured auditory spatial bisection thresholds before and after training, either with tactile feedback, verbal feedback, or no feedback. Audio thresholds were first measured with a spatial bisection task: subjects judged whether the second sound of a three sound sequence was spatially closer to the first or the third sound. The tactile feedback group underwent two audio-tactile feedback sessions of 100 trials, where each auditory trial was followed by the same spatial sequence played on the subject's forearm; auditory spatial bisection thresholds were evaluated after each session. In the verbal feedback condition, the positions of the sounds were verbally reported to the subject after each feedback trial. The no feedback group did the same sequence of trials, with no feedback. Performance improved significantly only after audio-tactile feedback. The results suggest that direct tactile feedback interacts with the auditory spatial localization system, possibly by a process of cross-sensory recalibration. Control tests with the subject rotated suggested that this effect occurs only when the tactile and acoustic sequences are spatially congruent. Our results suggest that the tactile system can be used to recalibrate the auditory sense of space. These results encourage the possibility of designing rehabilitation programs to help blind persons establish a robust auditory sense of space, through training with the tactile modality. PMID:25368587

  7. Tactile feedback improves auditory spatial localization

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    Monica eGori

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Our recent studies suggest that congenitally blind adults have severely impaired thresholds in an auditory spatial-bisection task, pointing to the importance of vision in constructing complex auditory spatial maps (Gori et al., 2014. To explore strategies that may improve the auditory spatial sense in visually impaired people, we investigated the impact of tactile feedback on spatial auditory localization in 48 blindfolded sighted subjects. We measured auditory spatial bisection thresholds before and after training, either with tactile feedback, verbal feedback or no feedback. Audio thresholds were first measured with a spatial bisection task: subjects judged whether the second sound of a three sound sequence was spatially closer to the first or the third sound. The tactile-feedback group underwent two audio-tactile feedback sessions of 100 trials, where each auditory trial was followed by the same spatial sequence played on the subject’s forearm; auditory spatial bisection thresholds were evaluated after each session. In the verbal-feedback condition, the positions of the sounds were verbally reported to the subject after each feedback trial. The no-feedback group did the same sequence of trials, with no feedback. Performance improved significantly only after audio-tactile feedback. The results suggest that direct tactile feedback interacts with the auditory spatial localization system, possibly by a process of cross-sensory recalibration. Control tests with the subject rotated suggested that this effect occurs only when the tactile and acoustic sequences are spatially coherent. Our results suggest that the tactile system can be used to recalibrate the auditory sense of space. These results encourage the possibility of designing rehabilitation programs to help blind persons establish a robust auditory sense of space, through training with the tactile modality.

  8. Delayed auditory feedback in polyglot simultaneous interpreters.

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    Fabbro, F; Darò, V

    1995-03-01

    Twelve polyglot students of simultaneous interpretation and 12 controls (students of the faculty of Medicine) were submitted to a task of verbal fluency under amplified normal auditory feedback (NAF) and under three delayed auditory feedback (DAF) conditions with three different delay intervals (150, 200, and 250 msec). The control group showed a significant reduction in verbal fluency and a significant increase in the number of mistakes in all three DAF conditions. The interpreters' group, however, did not show any significant speech disruption neither in the subjects' mother tongue (L1) nor in their second language (L2) across all DAF conditions. Interpreters' general high verbal fluency along with their ability to pay less attention to their own verbal output make them more resistant to the interfering effects of DAF on speech. PMID:7757448

  9. Representation of Reward Feedback in Primate Auditory Cortex

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    Michael eBrosch

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that auditory cortex is plastic on different time scales and that this plasticity is driven by the reinforcement that is used to motivate subjects to learn or to perform an auditory task. Motivated by these findings, we study in detail properties of neuronal firing in auditory cortex that is related to reward feedback. We recorded from the auditory cortex of two monkeys while they were performing an auditory categorization task. Monkeys listened to a sequence of tones and had to signal when the frequency of adjacent tones stepped in downward direction, irrespective of the tone frequency and step size. Correct identifications were rewarded with either a large or a small amount of water. The size of reward depended on the monkeys' performance in the previous trial: it was large after a correct trial and small after an incorrect trial. The rewards served to maintain task performance. During task performance we found three successive periods of neuronal firing in auditory cortex that reflected (1 the reward expectancy for each trial, (2 the reward size received and (3 the mismatch between the expected and delivered reward. These results, together with control experiments suggest that auditory cortex receives reward feedback that could be used to adapt auditory cortex to task requirements. Additionally, the results presented here extend previous observations of non-auditory roles of auditory cortex and shows that auditory cortex is even more cognitively influenced than lately recognized.

  10. Representation of reward feedback in primate auditory cortex.

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    Brosch, Michael; Selezneva, Elena; Scheich, Henning

    2011-01-01

    It is well established that auditory cortex is plastic on different time scales and that this plasticity is driven by the reinforcement that is used to motivate subjects to learn or to perform an auditory task. Motivated by these findings, we study in detail properties of neuronal firing in auditory cortex that is related to reward feedback. We recorded from the auditory cortex of two monkeys while they were performing an auditory categorization task. Monkeys listened to a sequence of tones and had to signal when the frequency of adjacent tones stepped in downward direction, irrespective of the tone frequency and step size. Correct identifications were rewarded with either a large or a small amount of water. The size of reward depended on the monkeys' performance in the previous trial: it was large after a correct trial and small after an incorrect trial. The rewards served to maintain task performance. During task performance we found three successive periods of neuronal firing in auditory cortex that reflected (1) the reward expectancy for each trial, (2) the reward-size received, and (3) the mismatch between the expected and delivered reward. These results, together with control experiments suggest that auditory cortex receives reward feedback that could be used to adapt auditory cortex to task requirements. Additionally, the results presented here extend previous observations of non-auditory roles of auditory cortex and shows that auditory cortex is even more cognitively influenced than lately recognized.

  11. Formant compensation for auditory feedback with English vowels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitsuya, Takashi; MacDonald, Ewen N; Munhall, Kevin G;

    2015-01-01

    to differences in the degree of lingual contact or jaw openness. This may in turn influence the ways in which speakers compensate for auditory feedback. The aim of the current study was to examine speakers' compensatory behavior with six English monophthongs. Specifically, the current study tested to see...

  12. Altered Sensory Feedbacks in Pianist's Dystonia: the altered auditory feedback paradigm and the glove effect

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    Felicia Pei-Hsin Cheng

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study investigates the effect of altered auditory feedback (AAF in musician's dystonia (MD and discusses whether altered auditory feedback can be considered as a sensory trick in MD. Furthermore, the effect of AAF is compared with altered tactile feedback, which can serve as a sensory trick in several other forms of focal dystonia. Methods: The method is based on scale analysis (Jabusch et al. 2004. Experiment 1 employs synchronization paradigm: 12 MD patients and 25 healthy pianists had to repeatedly play C-major scales in synchrony with a metronome on a MIDI-piano with 3 auditory feedback conditions: 1. normal feedback; 2. no feedback; 3. constant delayed feedback. Experiment 2 employs synchronization-continuation paradigm: 12 MD patients and 12 healthy pianists had to repeatedly play C-major scales in two phases: first in synchrony with a metronome, secondly continue the established tempo without the metronome. There are 4 experimental conditions, among them 3 are the same altered auditory feedback as in Experiment 1 and 1 is related to altered tactile sensory input. The coefficient of variation of inter-onset intervals of the key depressions was calculated to evaluate fine motor control. Results: In both experiments, the healthy controls and the patients behaved very similarly. There is no difference in the regularity of playing between the two groups under any condition, and neither did AAF nor did altered tactile feedback have a beneficial effect on patients’ fine motor control. Conclusions: The results of the two experiments suggest that in the context of our experimental designs, AAF and altered tactile feedback play a minor role in motor coordination in patients with musicians' dystonia. We propose that altered auditory and tactile feedback do not serve as effective sensory tricks and may not temporarily reduce the symptoms of patients suffering from MD in this experimental context.

  13. Temporal coordination in joint music performance: effects of endogenous rhythms and auditory feedback.

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    Zamm, Anna; Pfordresher, Peter Q; Palmer, Caroline

    2015-02-01

    Many behaviors require that individuals coordinate the timing of their actions with others. The current study investigated the role of two factors in temporal coordination of joint music performance: differences in partners' spontaneous (uncued) rate and auditory feedback generated by oneself and one's partner. Pianists performed melodies independently (in a Solo condition), and with a partner (in a duet condition), either at the same time as a partner (Unison), or at a temporal offset (Round), such that pianists heard their partner produce a serially shifted copy of their own sequence. Access to self-produced auditory information during duet performance was manipulated as well: Performers heard either full auditory feedback (Full), or only feedback from their partner (Other). Larger differences in partners' spontaneous rates of Solo performances were associated with larger asynchronies (less effective synchronization) during duet performance. Auditory feedback also influenced temporal coordination of duet performance: Pianists were more coordinated (smaller tone onset asynchronies and more mutual adaptation) during duet performances when self-generated auditory feedback aligned with partner-generated feedback (Unison) than when it did not (Round). Removal of self-feedback disrupted coordination (larger tone onset asynchronies) during Round performances only. Together, findings suggest that differences in partners' spontaneous rates of Solo performances, as well as differences in self- and partner-generated auditory feedback, influence temporal coordination of joint sensorimotor behaviors.

  14. Effect of task-related continuous auditory feedback during learning of tracking motion exercises

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    Rosati Giulio

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper presents the results of a set of experiments in which we used continuous auditory feedback to augment motor training exercises. This feedback modality is mostly underexploited in current robotic rehabilitation systems, which usually implement only very basic auditory interfaces. Our hypothesis is that properly designed continuous auditory feedback could be used to represent temporal and spatial information that could in turn, improve performance and motor learning. Methods We implemented three different experiments on healthy subjects, who were asked to track a target on a screen by moving an input device (controller with their hand. Different visual and auditory feedback modalities were envisaged. The first experiment investigated whether continuous task-related auditory feedback can help improve performance to a greater extent than error-related audio feedback, or visual feedback alone. In the second experiment we used sensory substitution to compare different types of auditory feedback with equivalent visual feedback, in order to find out whether mapping the same information on a different sensory channel (the visual channel yielded comparable effects with those gained in the first experiment. The final experiment applied a continuously changing visuomotor transformation between the controller and the screen and mapped kinematic information, computed in either coordinate system (controller or video, to the audio channel, in order to investigate which information was more relevant to the user. Results Task-related audio feedback significantly improved performance with respect to visual feedback alone, whilst error-related feedback did not. Secondly, performance in audio tasks was significantly better with respect to the equivalent sensory-substituted visual tasks. Finally, with respect to visual feedback alone, video-task-related sound feedback decreased the tracking error during the learning of a novel

  15. Auditory feedback perturbation in children with developmental speech disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terband, H.R.; van Brenk, F.J.; van Doornik-van der Zee, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Background/purpose: Several studies indicate a close relation between auditory and speech motor functions in children with speech sound disorders (SSD). The aim of this study was to investigate the ability to compensate and adapt for perturbed auditory feedback in children with SSD compared to age-m

  16. Learning to produce speech with an altered vocal tract: The role of auditory feedback

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    Jones, Jeffery A.; Munhall, K. G.

    2003-01-01

    Modifying the vocal tract alters a speaker's previously learned acoustic-articulatory relationship. This study investigated the contribution of auditory feedback to the process of adapting to vocal-tract modifications. Subjects said the word /tas/ while wearing a dental prosthesis that extended the length of their maxillary incisor teeth. The prosthesis affected /s/ productions and the subjects were asked to learn to produce ``normal'' /s/'s. They alternately received normal auditory feedback and noise that masked their natural feedback during productions. Acoustic analysis of the speakers' /s/ productions showed that the distribution of energy across the spectra moved toward that of normal, unperturbed production with increased experience with the prosthesis. However, the acoustic analysis did not show any significant differences in learning dependent on auditory feedback. By contrast, when naive listeners were asked to rate the quality of the speakers' utterances, productions made when auditory feedback was available were evaluated to be closer to the subjects' normal productions than when feedback was masked. The perceptual analysis showed that speakers were able to use auditory information to partially compensate for the vocal-tract modification. Furthermore, utterances produced during the masked conditions also improved over a session, demonstrating that the compensatory articulations were learned and available after auditory feedback was removed.

  17. Speech Compensation for Time-Scale-Modified Auditory Feedback

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    Ogane, Rintaro; Honda, Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine speech compensation in response to time-scale-modified auditory feedback during the transition of the semivowel for a target utterance of /ija/. Method: Each utterance session consisted of 10 control trials in the normal feedback condition followed by 20 perturbed trials in the modified auditory…

  18. The Role of Auditory and Kinaesthetic Feedback Mechanisms on Phonatory Stability in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Rathna Kumar, S. B.; Azeem, Suhail; Choudhary, Abhishek Kumar; Prakash, S. G. R.

    2012-01-01

    Auditory feedback plays an important role in phonatory control. When auditory feedback is disrupted, various changes are observed in vocal motor control. Vocal intensity and fundamental frequency (F0) levels tend to increase in response to auditory masking. Because of the close reflexive links between the auditory and phonatory systems, it is likely that phonatory stability may be disrupted when auditory feedback is disrupted or altered. However, studies on phonatory stability under auditory ...

  19. Feedback valence affects auditory perceptual learning independently of feedback probability

    OpenAIRE

    Amitay, S.; Moore, D. R.; Molloy, K.; Halliday, L. F.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that negative feedback is more effective in driving learning than positive feedback. We investigated the effect on learning of providing varying amounts of negative and positive feedback while listeners attempted to discriminate between three identical tones; an impossible task that nevertheless produces robust learning. Four feedback conditions were compared during training: 90% positive feedback or 10% negative feedback informed the participants that they wer...

  20. Making and monitoring errors based on altered auditory feedback

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    Peter ePfordresher

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has demonstrated that altered auditory feedback (AAF disrupts music performance and causes disruptions in both action planning and the perception of feedback events. It has been proposed that this disruption occurs because of interference within a shared representation for perception and action (Pfordresher, 2006. Studies reported here address this claim from the standpoint of error monitoring. In Experiment 1 participants performed short melodies on a keyboard while hearing no auditory feedback, normal auditory feedback, or alterations to feedback pitch on some subset of events. Participants overestimated error frequency when AAF was present but not for normal feedback. Experiment 2 introduced a concurrent load task to determine whether error monitoring requires executive resources. Although the concurrent task enhanced the effect of AAF, it did not alter participants’ tendency to overestimate errors when AAF was present. A third correlational study addressed whether effects of AAF are reduced for a subset of the population who may lack the kind of perception/action associations that lead to AAF disruption: poor-pitch singers. Effects of manipulations similar to those presented in Experiments 1 and 2 were reduced for these individuals. We propose that these results are consistent with the notion that AAF interference is based on associations between perception and action within a forward internal model of auditory-motor relationships.

  1. The role of auditory feedback in sustaining vocal vibratoa)

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    Leydon, Ciara; Bauer, Jay J.; Larson, Charles R.

    2006-01-01

    Vocal vibrato and tremor are characterized by oscillations in voice fundamental frequency (F0). These oscillations may be sustained by a control loop within the auditory system. One component of the control loop is the pitch-shift reflex (PSR). The PSR is a closed loop negative feedback reflex that is triggered in response to discrepancies between intended and perceived pitch with a latency of ~ 100 ms. Consecutive compensatory reflexive responses lead to oscillations in pitch every ~200 ms, resulting in ~5-Hz modulation of F0. Pitch-shift reflexes were elicited experimentally in six subjects while they sustained /u/ vowels at a comfortable pitch and loudness. Auditory feedback was sinusoidally modulated at discrete integer frequencies (1 to 10 Hz) with ±25 cents amplitude. Modulated auditory feedback induced oscillations in voice F0 output of all subjects at rates consistent with vocal vibrato and tremor. Transfer functions revealed peak gains at 4 to 7 Hz in all subjects, with an average peak gain at 5 Hz. These gains occurred in the modulation frequency region where the voice output and auditory feedback signals were in phase. A control loop in the auditory system may sustain vocal vibrato and tremorlike oscillations in voice F0. PMID:14514211

  2. The role of auditory feedback in sustaining vocal vibrato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leydon, Ciara; Bauer, Jay J.; Larson, Charles R.

    2003-09-01

    Vocal vibrato and tremor are characterized by oscillations in voice fundamental frequency (F0). These oscillations may be sustained by a control loop within the auditory system. One component of the control loop is the pitch-shift reflex (PSR). The PSR is a closed loop negative feedback reflex that is triggered in response to discrepancies between intended and perceived pitch with a latency of ~100 ms. Consecutive compensatory reflexive responses lead to oscillations in pitch every ~200 ms, resulting in ~5-Hz modulation of F0. Pitch-shift reflexes were elicited experimentally in six subjects while they sustained /you/ vowels at a comfortable pitch and loudness. Auditory feedback was sinusoidally modulated at discrete integer frequencies (1 to 10 Hz) with +/-25 cents amplitude. Modulated auditory feedback induced oscillations in voice F0 output of all subjects at rates consistent with vocal vibrato and tremor. Transfer functions revealed peak gains at 4 to 7 Hz in all subjects, with an average peak gain at 5 Hz. These gains occurred in the modulation frequency region where the voice output and auditory feedback signals were in phase. A control loop in the auditory system may sustain vocal vibrato and tremorlike oscillations in voice F0.

  3. Task-irrelevant auditory feedback facilitates motor performance in musicians

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    Virginia eConde

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available An efficient and fast auditory–motor network is a basic resource for trained musicians due to the importance of motor anticipation of sound production in musical performance. When playing an instrument, motor performance always goes along with the production of sounds and the integration between both modalities plays an essential role in the course of musical training. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of task-irrelevant auditory feedback during motor performance in musicians using a serial reaction time task (SRTT. Our hypothesis was that musicians, due to their extensive auditory–motor practice routine during musical training, have a superior performance and learning capabilities when receiving auditory feedback during SRTT relative to musicians performing the SRTT without any auditory feedback. Here we provide novel evidence that task-irrelevant auditory feedback is capable to reinforce SRTT performance but not learning, a finding that might provide further insight into auditory-motor integration in musicians on a behavioral level.

  4. Auditory Masking Effects on Speech Fluency in Apraxia of Speech and Aphasia: Comparison to Altered Auditory Feedback

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    Jacks, Adam; Haley, Katarina L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To study the effects of masked auditory feedback (MAF) on speech fluency in adults with aphasia and/or apraxia of speech (APH/AOS). We hypothesized that adults with AOS would increase speech fluency when speaking with noise. Altered auditory feedback (AAF; i.e., delayed/frequency-shifted feedback) was included as a control condition not…

  5. The role of vowel perceptual cues in compensatory responses to perturbations of speech auditory feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Reilly, Kevin J.; Dougherty, Kathleen E.

    2013-01-01

    The perturbation of acoustic features in a speaker's auditory feedback elicits rapid compensatory responses that demonstrate the importance of auditory feedback for control of speech output. The current study investigated whether responses to a perturbation of speech auditory feedback vary depending on the importance of the perturbed feature to perception of the vowel being produced. Auditory feedback of speakers' first formant frequency (F1) was shifted upward by 130 mels in randomly selecte...

  6. Partial Compensation for Altered Auditory Feedback: A Tradeoff with Somatosensory Feedback?

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    Katseff, Shira; Houde, John; Johnson, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Talkers are known to compensate only partially for experimentally-induced changes to their auditory feedback. In a typical experiment, talkers might hear their F1 feedback shifted higher (so that /[epsilon]/ sounds like /[ash]/, for example), and compensate by lowering F1 in their subsequent speech by about a quarter of that distance. Here, we…

  7. Online contributions of auditory feedback to neural activity in avian song control circuitry

    OpenAIRE

    Sakata, Jon T.; Michael S. Brainard

    2008-01-01

    Birdsong, like human speech, relies critically on auditory feedback to provide information about the quality of vocalizations. Although the importance of auditory feedback to vocal learning is well established, whether and how feedback signals influence vocal premotor circuitry has remained obscure. Previous studies in singing birds have not detected changes to vocal premotor activity following perturbations of auditory feedback, leading to the hypothesis that contributions of feedback to voc...

  8. Negative feedback influences auditory recognition: behavioral and event-related potential evidence.

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    Kuelzow, Nadine; Nessler, Doreen; Saenger, Jessica; Schneider, Till R; Debener, Stefan

    2010-08-01

    Stress induced by negative feedback is known to impair recognition memory, although little is known about its neural correlates. Immediately before an auditory recognition test, a negative- and positive-feedback group received different, faked scores about their performance in a Tower-of-Hanoi task. Negative feedback increased reaction times for correct rejections of new sounds. Although the positive-feedback group showed frontally and parietally more positive-going event-related potentials for correctly recognized old items than correct rejections (OLD/NEW effect) between 400 and 700 ms, suggesting the presence of familiarity and recollection-related recognition processes, the negative-feedback group showed late (>1100 ms) sustained right-frontal OLD/NEW effects possibly reflecting postmemory monitoring. Hence, negative feedback might change recognition memory by disabling recollection in favor of postmemory monitoring processes. PMID:20531235

  9. Interactions between auditory and somatosensory feedback for voice F0 control

    OpenAIRE

    Larson, Charles R.; Altman, Kenneth W.; Liu, Hanjun; Hain, Timothy C.

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the importance of both kinesthetic and auditory feedback for control of voice fundamental frequency (F0). In the present study, a possible interaction between auditory feedback and kinesthetic feedback for control of voice F0 was tested by administering local anesthetic to the vocal folds in the presence of perturbations in voice pitch feedback. Responses to pitch-shifted voice feedback were larger when the vocal fold mucosa was anesthetized than during norm...

  10. Rhythmic walking interactions with auditory feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jylhä, Antti; Serafin, Stefania; Erkut, Cumhur

    2012-01-01

    Walking is a natural rhythmic activity that has become of interest as a means of interacting with software systems such as computer games. Therefore, designing multimodal walking interactions calls for further examination. This exploratory study presents a system capable of different kinds of...

  11. The effects of delayed auditory and visual feedback on speech production

    OpenAIRE

    Chesters, Jennifer; Baghai-Ravary, Ladan; Möttönen, Riikka

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring the sensory consequences of articulatory movements supports speaking. For example, delaying auditory feedback of a speakers’ voice disrupts speech production. Also, there is evidence that this disruption may be decreased by immediate visual feedback, i.e., seeing one’s own articulatory movements. It is, however, unknown whether delayed visual feedback affects speech production in fluent speakers. Here, the effects of delayed auditory and visual feedback on speech fluency (i.e., spe...

  12. Error-dependent modulation of speech-induced auditory suppression for pitch-shifted voice feedback

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    Larson Charles R

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The motor-driven predictions about expected sensory feedback (efference copies have been proposed to play an important role in recognition of sensory consequences of self-produced motor actions. In the auditory system, this effect was suggested to result in suppression of sensory neural responses to self-produced voices that are predicted by the efference copies during vocal production in comparison with passive listening to the playback of the identical self-vocalizations. In the present study, event-related potentials (ERPs were recorded in response to upward pitch shift stimuli (PSS with five different magnitudes (0, +50, +100, +200 and +400 cents at voice onset during active vocal production and passive listening to the playback. Results Results indicated that the suppression of the N1 component during vocal production was largest for unaltered voice feedback (PSS: 0 cents, became smaller as the magnitude of PSS increased to 200 cents, and was almost completely eliminated in response to 400 cents stimuli. Conclusions Findings of the present study suggest that the brain utilizes the motor predictions (efference copies to determine the source of incoming stimuli and maximally suppresses the auditory responses to unaltered feedback of self-vocalizations. The reduction of suppression for 50, 100 and 200 cents and its elimination for 400 cents pitch-shifted voice auditory feedback support the idea that motor-driven suppression of voice feedback leads to distinctly different sensory neural processing of self vs. non-self vocalizations. This characteristic may enable the audio-vocal system to more effectively detect and correct for unexpected errors in the feedback of self-produced voice pitch compared with externally-generated sounds.

  13. Adaptive auditory feedback control of the production of formant trajectories in the Mandarin triphthong /iau/ and its pattern of generalization.

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    Cai, Shanqing; Ghosh, Satrajit S; Guenther, Frank H; Perkell, Joseph S

    2010-10-01

    In order to test whether auditory feedback is involved in the planning of complex articulatory gestures in time-varying phonemes, the current study examined native Mandarin speakers' responses to auditory perturbations of their auditory feedback of the trajectory of the first formant frequency during their production of the triphthong /iau/. On average, subjects adaptively adjusted their productions to partially compensate for the perturbations in auditory feedback. This result indicates that auditory feedback control of speech movements is not restricted to quasi-static gestures in monophthongs as found in previous studies, but also extends to time-varying gestures. To probe the internal structure of the mechanisms of auditory-motor transformations, the pattern of generalization of the adaptation learned on the triphthong /iau/ to other vowels with different temporal and spatial characteristics (produced only under masking noise) was tested. A broad but weak pattern of generalization was observed; the strength of the generalization diminished with increasing dissimilarity from /iau/. The details and implications of the pattern of generalization are examined and discussed in light of previous sensorimotor adaptation studies of both speech and limb motor control and a neurocomputational model of speech motor control. PMID:20968374

  14. Compensation for pitch-shifted auditory feedback during the production of Mandarin tone sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yi; Larson, Charles R.; Bauer, Jay J.; Hain, Timothy C.

    2004-08-01

    Recent research has found that while speaking, subjects react to perturbations in pitch of voice auditory feedback by changing their voice fundamental frequency (F0) to compensate for the perceived pitch-shift. The long response latencies (150-200 ms) suggest they may be too slow to assist in on-line control of the local pitch contour patterns associated with lexical tones on a syllable-to-syllable basis. In the present study, we introduced pitch-shifted auditory feedback to native speakers of Mandarin Chinese while they produced disyllabic sequences /ma ma/ with different tonal combinations at a natural speaking rate. Voice F0 response latencies (100-150 ms) to the pitch perturbations were shorter than syllable durations reported elsewhere. Response magnitudes increased from 50 cents during static tone to 85 cents during dynamic tone productions. Response latencies and peak times decreased in phrases involving a dynamic change in F0. The larger response magnitudes and shorter latency and peak times in tasks requiring accurate, dynamic control of F0, indicate this automatic system for regulation of voice F0 may be task-dependent. These findings suggest that auditory feedback may be used to help regulate voice F0 during production of bi-tonal Mandarin phrases.

  15. Auditory reafferences: The influence of real-time feedback on movement control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eKennel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Auditory reafferences are real-time auditory products created by a person’s own movements. Whereas the interdependency of action and perception is generally well studied, the auditory feedback channel and the influence of perceptual processes during movement execution remain largely unconsidered. We argue that movements have a rhythmic character that is closely connected to sound, making it possible to manipulate auditory reafferences online to understand their role in motor control. We examined if step sounds, occurring as a by-product of running, have an influence on the performance of a complex movement task. Twenty participants completed a hurdling task in three auditory feedback conditions: a control condition with normal auditory feedback, a white noise condition in which sound was masked, and a delayed auditory feedback condition. Overall time and kinematic data were collected. Results show that delayed auditory feedback led to a significantly slower overall time and changed kinematic parameters. Our findings complement previous investigations in a natural movement situation with nonartificial auditory cues. Our results support the existing theoretical understanding of action–perception coupling and hold potential for applied work, where naturally occurring movement sounds can be implemented in the motor learning processes.

  16. Auditory feedback and memory for music performance: sound evidence for an encoding effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finney, Steven A; Palmer, Caroline

    2003-01-01

    Research on the effects of context and task on learning and memory has included approaches that emphasize processes during learning (e.g., Craik & Tulving, 1975) and approaches that emphasize a match of conditions during learning with conditions during a later test of memory (e.g., Morris, Bransford, & Franks, 1977; Proteau, 1992; Tulving & Thomson, 1973). We investigated the effects of auditory context on learning and retrieval in three experiments on memorized music performance (a form of serial recall). Auditory feedback (presence or absence) was manipulated while pianists learned musical pieces from notation and when they later played the pieces from memory. Auditory feedback during learning significantly improved later recall. However, auditory feedback at test did not significantly affect recall, nor was there an interaction between conditions at learning and test. Auditory feedback in music performance appears to be a contextual factor that affects learning but is relatively independent of retrieval conditions. PMID:12699143

  17. Role of auditory feedback in the control of successive keystrokes during piano playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Shinichi; Soechting, John F

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the role of auditory feedback derived from one keystroke in the control of the rhythmicity and velocity of successive keystrokes during piano playing. We examined the effects of transient auditory perturbations with respect to the pitch, loudness, and timing of one tone on subsequent keystrokes while six pianists played short excerpts from three simple musical pieces having different tempi ("event rates"). Immediately after a delay in tone production, the inter-keystroke interval became shorter. This compensatory action depended on the tempo, being most prominent at the medium tempo. This indicates that temporal information provided by auditory feedback is utilized to regulate the timing of movement elements produced in a sequence. We also found that the keystroke velocity changed after the timing, pitch, or loudness of a tone was altered, although the response differed depending on the type of perturbation. While delaying the timing or altering the pitch led to an increase in the velocity, altering the loudness changed the velocity in an inconsistent manner. Furthermore, perturbing a tone elicited by the right hand also affected the rhythmicity and velocity of keystrokes with the left hand, indicating that bimanual coordination of tone production was maintained. Finally, altering the pitch sometimes resulted in striking an incorrect key, mostly in the slow piece, emphasizing the importance of pitch information for accurate planning and execution of sequential piano keystrokes. PMID:20521031

  18. Effects of auditory feedback during gait training on hemiplegic patients' weight bearing and dynamic balance ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ki, Kyong-Il; Kim, Mi-Sun; Moon, Young; Choi, Jong-Duk

    2015-04-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of auditory feedback during gait on the weight bearing of patients with hemiplegia resulting from a stroke. [Subjects] Thirty hemiplegic patients participated in this experiment and they were randomly allocated to an experimental group and a control group. [Methods] Both groups received neuro-developmental treatment for four weeks and the experimental group additionally received auditory feedback during gait training. In order to examine auditory feedback effects on weight bearing during gait, a motion analysis system GAITRite was used to measure the duration of the stance phase and single limb stance phase of the subjects. [Results] The experimental group showed statistically significant improvements in the duration of the stance phase and single limb stance phase of the paretic side and the results of the Timed Up and Go Test after the training. [Conclusion] Auditory feedback during gait training significantly improved the duration of the stance phase and single limb stance phase of hemiplegic stroke patients.

  19. The effect of spectrally and temporally altered auditory feedback on speech intonation by hard of hearing listeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barac-Cikoja, Dragana; Tamaki, Chizuko; Thomas, Lannie

    2003-04-01

    Eight listeners with severe to profound hearing loss read a six-sentence passage under spectrally altered and/or delayed auditory feedback. Spectral manipulation was implemented by filtering the speech signal into either one or four frequency bands, extracting respective amplitude envelope(s), and amplitude-modulating the corresponding noise band(s). Thus, the resulting auditory feedback did not preserve intonation information, although the four-band noise signal remained intelligible. The two noise conditions and the unaltered speech were each tested under the simultaneous and three delayed (50 ms, 100 ms, 200 ms) feedback conditions. Auditory feedback was presented via insert earphones at the listener's most comfortable level. Recorded speech was analyzed for the form and domain of the fundamental frequency (f0) declination, the magnitude of the sentence initial f0 peak (P1), and the fall-rise pattern of f0 at the phrasal boundaries. A significant interaction between the two feedback manipulations was found. Intonation characteristics were affected by speech delay only under the spectrally unaltered feedback: The magnitude of P1 and the slope of the f0 topline both increased with the delay. The spectral smearing diminished the fall-rise pattern within a sentence. Individual differences in the magnitude of these effects were significant.

  20. Psycho-physiological assessment of a prosthetic hand sensory feedback system based on an auditory display: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Jose

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prosthetic hand users have to rely extensively on visual feedback, which seems to lead to a high conscious burden for the users, in order to manipulate their prosthetic devices. Indirect methods (electro-cutaneous, vibrotactile, auditory cues have been used to convey information from the artificial limb to the amputee, but the usability and advantages of these feedback methods were explored mainly by looking at the performance results, not taking into account measurements of the user’s mental effort, attention, and emotions. The main objective of this study was to explore the feasibility of using psycho-physiological measurements to assess cognitive effort when manipulating a robot hand with and without the usage of a sensory substitution system based on auditory feedback, and how these psycho-physiological recordings relate to temporal and grasping performance in a static setting. Methods 10 male subjects (26+/-years old, participated in this study and were asked to come for 2 consecutive days. On the first day the experiment objective, tasks, and experiment setting was explained. Then, they completed a 30 minutes guided training. On the second day each subject was tested in 3 different modalities: Auditory Feedback only control (AF, Visual Feedback only control (VF, and Audiovisual Feedback control (AVF. For each modality they were asked to perform 10 trials. At the end of each test, the subject had to answer the NASA TLX questionnaire. Also, during the test the subject’s EEG, ECG, electro-dermal activity (EDA, and respiration rate were measured. Results The results show that a higher mental effort is needed when the subjects rely only on their vision, and that this effort seems to be reduced when auditory feedback is added to the human-machine interaction (multimodal feedback. Furthermore, better temporal performance and better grasping performance was obtained in the audiovisual modality. Conclusions The performance

  1. Categorical vowel perception enhances the effectiveness and generalization of auditory feedback in human-machine-interfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Larson

    Full Text Available Human-machine interface (HMI designs offer the possibility of improving quality of life for patient populations as well as augmenting normal user function. Despite pragmatic benefits, utilizing auditory feedback for HMI control remains underutilized, in part due to observed limitations in effectiveness. The goal of this study was to determine the extent to which categorical speech perception could be used to improve an auditory HMI. Using surface electromyography, 24 healthy speakers of American English participated in 4 sessions to learn to control an HMI using auditory feedback (provided via vowel synthesis. Participants trained on 3 targets in sessions 1-3 and were tested on 3 novel targets in session 4. An "established categories with text cues" group of eight participants were trained and tested on auditory targets corresponding to standard American English vowels using auditory and text target cues. An "established categories without text cues" group of eight participants were trained and tested on the same targets using only auditory cuing of target vowel identity. A "new categories" group of eight participants were trained and tested on targets that corresponded to vowel-like sounds not part of American English. Analyses of user performance revealed significant effects of session and group (established categories groups and the new categories group, and a trend for an interaction between session and group. Results suggest that auditory feedback can be effectively used for HMI operation when paired with established categorical (native vowel targets with an unambiguous cue.

  2. Vocal responses to perturbations in voice auditory feedback in individuals with Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanjun Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: One of the most common symptoms of speech deficits in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD is significantly reduced vocal loudness and pitch range. The present study investigated whether abnormal vocalizations in individuals with PD are related to sensory processing of voice auditory feedback. Perturbations in loudness or pitch of voice auditory feedback are known to elicit short latency, compensatory responses in voice amplitude or fundamental frequency. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Twelve individuals with Parkinson's disease and 13 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects sustained a vowel sound (/α/ and received unexpected, brief (200 ms perturbations in voice loudness (±3 or 6 dB or pitch (±100 cents auditory feedback. Results showed that, while all subjects produced compensatory responses in their voice amplitude or fundamental frequency, individuals with PD exhibited larger response magnitudes than the control subjects. Furthermore, for loudness-shifted feedback, upward stimuli resulted in shorter response latencies than downward stimuli in the control subjects but not in individuals with PD. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The larger response magnitudes in individuals with PD compared with the control subjects suggest that processing of voice auditory feedback is abnormal in PD. Although the precise mechanisms of the voice feedback processing are unknown, results of this study suggest that abnormal voice control in individuals with PD may be related to dysfunctional mechanisms of error detection or correction in sensory feedback processing.

  3. Multivoxel Patterns Reveal Functionally Differentiated Networks Underlying Auditory Feedback Processing of Speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Zane Z.; Vicente-Grabovetsky, Alejandro; MacDonald, Ewen N.;

    2013-01-01

    human participants were vocalizing monosyllabic words, and to present the same auditory stimuli while participants were passively listening. Whole-brain analysis of neural-pattern similarity revealed three functional networks that were differentially sensitive to distorted auditory feedback during...... vocalization, compared with during passive listening. One network of regions appears to encode an “error signal” regardless of acoustic features of the error: this network, including right angular gyrus, right supplementary motor area, and bilateral cerebellum, yielded consistent neural patterns across...... presented as auditory concomitants of vocalization. A third network, showing a distinct functional pattern from the other two, appears to capture aspects of both neural response profiles. Together, our findings suggest that auditory feedback processing during speech motor control may rely on multiple...

  4. Combined mirror visual and auditory feedback therapy for upper limb phantom pain: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Kun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Phantom limb sensation and phantom limb pain is a very common issue after amputations. In recent years there has been accumulating data implicating 'mirror visual feedback' or 'mirror therapy' as helpful in the treatment of phantom limb sensation and phantom limb pain. Case presentation We present the case of a 24-year-old Caucasian man, a left upper limb amputee, treated with mirror visual feedback combined with auditory feedback with improved pain relief. Conclusion This case may suggest that auditory feedback might enhance the effectiveness of mirror visual feedback and serve as a valuable addition to the complex multi-sensory processing of body perception in patients who are amputees.

  5. Different Students, Different Corrective Feedback%Different Students,Different Corrective Feedback

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施瑞

    2016-01-01

    There are many kinds of corrective feedback for SLA learners, which include explicit feedback, recast and prompts. Since teacher plays a very important role in SLA teaching, we should carefully use corrective feedback. From the book A Research Agenda For Second Language Acquisition Of Pre-literate And Low-literate Adult And Adolescent Learners's examples and my own real teaching experience, I assume that teacher should choose different corrective feedback to different students. Their learning abilities, English levels as well as their characteristics and personalities should be all taken into account when you are giving a corrective feedback to students. In other words, as a SLA teacher, we should teach students in accordance with their aptitude. And teachers better use different corrective feedback when they are going to response or react to their different students.

  6. Familial bias and auditory feedback regulation of vocal babbling patterns during early song development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Daisuke; Mori, Chihiro; Sawai, Azusa; Wada, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Learned vocalizations are a crucial acoustic biosignal conveying individual traits in many species. Songbirds learn song patterns by listening to a tutor song and performing vocal practice during a sensitive developmental period. However, when and how individual differences in song patterns develop remain unknown. Here, we report that individual differences in vocal output exist even at the earliest song development stage, called subsong. Experiments involving the manipulation of both breeding pairs and song tutoring conditions revealed that the parental pair combination contributes to generating familial differences in syllable duration and variability in the subsong of offspring. Furthermore, after deafening, juveniles immediately changed their subsong by shortening the syllable durations but maintained the individual variability of their subsong temporal patterns, suggesting both auditory-sensitive modification and independent intrinsic regulation of vocal output. These results indicate that the temporal patterns of subsong are not merely disordered vocalization but are regulated by familial bias with sensitivity to auditory feedback, thus generating individual variability at the initiation of vocal development. PMID:27444993

  7. Relationship between Sympathetic Skin Responses and Auditory Hypersensitivity to Different Auditory Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Fumi; Iwanaga, Ryoichiro; Chono, Mami; Fujihara, Saori; Tokunaga, Akiko; Murata, Jun; Tanaka, Koji; Nakane, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Goro

    2014-07-01

    [Purpose] Auditory hypersensitivity has been widely reported in patients with autism spectrum disorders. However, the neurological background of auditory hypersensitivity is currently not clear. The present study examined the relationship between sympathetic nervous system responses and auditory hypersensitivity induced by different types of auditory stimuli. [Methods] We exposed 20 healthy young adults to six different types of auditory stimuli. The amounts of palmar sweating resulting from the auditory stimuli were compared between groups with (hypersensitive) and without (non-hypersensitive) auditory hypersensitivity. [Results] Although no group × type of stimulus × first stimulus interaction was observed for the extent of reaction, significant type of stimulus × first stimulus interaction was noted for the extent of reaction. For an 80 dB-6,000 Hz stimulus, the trends for palmar sweating differed between the groups. For the first stimulus, the variance became larger in the hypersensitive group than in the non-hypersensitive group. [Conclusion] Subjects who regularly felt excessive reactions to auditory stimuli tended to have excessive sympathetic responses to repeated loud noises compared with subjects who did not feel excessive reactions. People with auditory hypersensitivity may be classified into several subtypes depending on their reaction patterns to auditory stimuli.

  8. Individual Variability in Delayed Auditory Feedback Effects on Speech Fluency and Rate in Normally Fluent Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, HeeCheong; Kraft, Shelly Jo; Zhang, Jingfei; Loucks, Torrey; Ambrose, Nicoline G.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Delayed auditory feedback (DAF) is known to induce stuttering-like disfluencies (SLDs) and cause speech rate reductions in normally fluent adults, but the reason for speech disruptions is not fully known, and individual variation has not been well characterized. Studying individual variation in susceptibility to DAF may identify factors…

  9. Auditory feedback affects perception of effort when exercising with a Pulley machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bordegoni, Monica; Ferrise, Francesco; Grani, Francesco;

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe an experiment that investigates the role of auditory feedback in affecting the perception of effort when using a physical pulley machine. Specifically, we investigated whether variations in the amplitude and frequency content of the pulley sound affect perception of effort....... Results show that variations in frequency content affect the perception of effort....

  10. Atypical delayed auditory feedback effect and Lombard effect on speech production in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, I-Fan; Mochida, Takemi; Asada, Kosuke; Ayaya, Satsuki; Kumagaya, Shin-Ichiro; Kato, Masaharu

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show impaired social interaction and communication, which may be related to their difficulties in speech production. To investigate the mechanisms of atypical speech production in this population, we examined feedback control by delaying the auditory feedback of their own speech, which degraded speech fluency. We also examined feedforward control by adding loud pink noise to the auditory feedback, which led to increased vocal effort in producing...

  11. The experience of agency in sequence production with altered auditory feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couchman, Justin J; Beasley, Robertson; Pfordresher, Peter Q

    2012-03-01

    When speaking or producing music, people rely in part on auditory feedback - the sounds associated with the performed action. Three experiments investigated the degree to which alterations of auditory feedback (AAF) during music performances influence the experience of agency (i.e., the sense that your actions led to auditory events) and the possible link between agency and the disruptive effect of AAF on production. Participants performed short novel melodies from memory on a keyboard. Auditory feedback during performances was manipulated with respect to its pitch contents and/or its synchrony with actions. Participants rated their experience of agency after each trial. In all experiments, AAF reduced judgments of agency across conditions. Performance was most disrupted (measured by error rates and slowing) when AAF led to an ambiguous experience of agency, suggesting that there may be some causal relationship between agency and disruption. However, analyses revealed that these two effects were probably independent. A control experiment verified that performers can make veridical judgments of agency. PMID:22056210

  12. Adaptive auditory feedback control of the production of formant trajectories in the Mandarin triphthong ∕iau∕ and its pattern of generalization

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Shanqing; Ghosh, Satrajit S.; Frank H Guenther; Perkell, Joseph S.

    2010-01-01

    In order to test whether auditory feedback is involved in the planning of complex articulatory gestures in time-varying phonemes, the current study examined native Mandarin speakers' responses to auditory perturbations of their auditory feedback of the trajectory of the first formant frequency during their production of the triphthong ∕iau∕. On average, subjects adaptively adjusted their productions to partially compensate for the perturbations in auditory feedback. This result indicates that...

  13. Auditory place theory and frequency difference limen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jialu

    2006-01-01

    It has been a barrier that the place code is far too coarse a mechanism to account for the finest frequency difference limen for place theory of hearing since it was proposed in 19th century. A place correlation model, which takes the energy distribution of a pure tone in neighboring bands of auditory filters into full account, was presented in this paper. The model based on the place theory and some experimental results of the psychophysical tuning curves of hearing can explain the finest difference limen for frequency (about 0.02 or 0.3% at 1000 Hz)easily. Using a standard 1/3 octave filter bank of which the relationship between the frequency of a input pure tone apart from the centre frequency of K-th filter band, △f, and the output intensity difference between K-th and (K + 1)-th filters, △E, was established in order to show the fine frequency detection ability of the filter bank. This model can also be used to abstract the fundamental frequency of speech and to measure the frequency of pure tone precisely.

  14. Modeling neural correlates of auditory attention in evoked potentials using corticothalamic feedback dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenado, Carlos; Haab, Lars; Strauss, Daniel J

    2007-01-01

    Auditory evoked cortical potentials (AECP) are well established as diagnostic tool in audiology and gain more and more impact in experimental neuropsychology, neuro-science, and psychiatry, e.g., for the attention deficit disorder, schizophrenia, or for studying the tinnitus decompensation. The modulation of AECP due to exogenous and endogenous attention plays a major role in many clinical applications and has experimentally been studied in neuropsychology. However the relation of corticothalamic feedback dynamics to focal and non-focal attention and its large-scale effect reflected in AECPs is far from being understood. In this paper, we model neural correlates of auditory attention reflected in AECPs using corticothalamic feedback dynamics. We present a mapping of a recently developed multiscale model of evoked potentials to the hearing path and discuss for the first time its neurofunctionality in terms of corticothalamic feedback loops related to focal and non-focal attention. Our model reinforced recent experimental results related to online attention monitoring using AECPs with application as objective tinnitus decompensation measure. It is concluded that our model presents a promising approach to gain a deeper understanding of the neurodynamics of auditory attention and might be use as an efficient forward model to reinforce hypotheses that are obtained from experimental paradigms involving AECPs. PMID:18002948

  15. Functional sex differences in human primary auditory cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruytjens, Liesbet; Georgiadis, Janniko R.; Holstege, Gert; Wit, Hero P.; Albers, Frans W. J.; Willemsen, Antoon T. M.

    2007-01-01

    Background We used PET to study cortical activation during auditory stimulation and found sex differences in the human primary auditory cortex (PAC). Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 10 male and 10 female volunteers while listening to sounds (music or white noise) and during a bas

  16. Comparison of auditory hallucinations across different disorders and syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sommer, Iris E. C.; Koops, Sanne; Blom, Jan Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Auditory hallucinations can be experienced in the context of many different disorders and syndromes. The differential diagnosis basically rests on the presence or absence of accompanying symptoms. In terms of clinical relevance, the most important distinction to be made is between auditory hallucina

  17. Atypical delayed auditory feedback effect and Lombard effect on speech production in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, I-Fan; Mochida, Takemi; Asada, Kosuke; Ayaya, Satsuki; Kumagaya, Shin-Ichiro; Kato, Masaharu

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show impaired social interaction and communication, which may be related to their difficulties in speech production. To investigate the mechanisms of atypical speech production in this population, we examined feedback control by delaying the auditory feedback of their own speech, which degraded speech fluency. We also examined feedforward control by adding loud pink noise to the auditory feedback, which led to increased vocal effort in producing speech. The results of Japanese speakers show that, compared with neurotypical (NT) individuals, high-functioning adults with ASD (including Asperger's disorder, autistic disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified) were more affected by delayed auditory feedback but less affected by external noise. These findings indicate that, in contrast to NT individuals, those with ASD relied more on feedback control than on feedforward control in speech production, which is consistent with the hypothesis that this population exhibits attenuated Bayesian priors. PMID:26441607

  18. Atypical delayed auditory feedback effect and Lombard effect on speech production in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Fan Lin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD show impaired social interaction and communication, which may be related to their difficulties in speech production. To investigate the mechanisms of atypical speech production in this population, we examined feedback control by delaying the auditory feedback of their own speech, which degraded speech fluency. We also examined feedforward control by adding loud pink noise to the auditory feedback, which led to increased vocal effort in producing speech. The results of Japanese speakers show that, compared with neurotypical individuals, high-functioning adults with ASD (including Asperger's disorder, autistic disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified were more affected by delayed auditory feedback but less affected by external noise. These findings indicate that, in contrast to neurotypical individuals, those with ASD relied more on feedback control than on feedforward control in speech production, which is consistent with the hypothesis that this population exhibits attenuated Bayesian priors.

  19. Functional sex differences in human primary auditory cortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruytjens, Liesbet [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Groningen (Netherlands); University Medical Center Utrecht, Department Otorhinolaryngology, P.O. Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Georgiadis, Janniko R. [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Groningen (Netherlands); Holstege, Gert [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Center for Uroneurology, Groningen (Netherlands); Wit, Hero P. [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Groningen (Netherlands); Albers, Frans W.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department Otorhinolaryngology, P.O. Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Willemsen, Antoon T.M. [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2007-12-15

    We used PET to study cortical activation during auditory stimulation and found sex differences in the human primary auditory cortex (PAC). Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 10 male and 10 female volunteers while listening to sounds (music or white noise) and during a baseline (no auditory stimulation). We found a sex difference in activation of the left and right PAC when comparing music to noise. The PAC was more activated by music than by noise in both men and women. But this difference between the two stimuli was significantly higher in men than in women. To investigate whether this difference could be attributed to either music or noise, we compared both stimuli with the baseline and revealed that noise gave a significantly higher activation in the female PAC than in the male PAC. Moreover, the male group showed a deactivation in the right prefrontal cortex when comparing noise to the baseline, which was not present in the female group. Interestingly, the auditory and prefrontal regions are anatomically and functionally linked and the prefrontal cortex is known to be engaged in auditory tasks that involve sustained or selective auditory attention. Thus we hypothesize that differences in attention result in a different deactivation of the right prefrontal cortex, which in turn modulates the activation of the PAC and thus explains the sex differences found in the activation of the PAC. Our results suggest that sex is an important factor in auditory brain studies. (orig.)

  20. Functional sex differences in human primary auditory cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We used PET to study cortical activation during auditory stimulation and found sex differences in the human primary auditory cortex (PAC). Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 10 male and 10 female volunteers while listening to sounds (music or white noise) and during a baseline (no auditory stimulation). We found a sex difference in activation of the left and right PAC when comparing music to noise. The PAC was more activated by music than by noise in both men and women. But this difference between the two stimuli was significantly higher in men than in women. To investigate whether this difference could be attributed to either music or noise, we compared both stimuli with the baseline and revealed that noise gave a significantly higher activation in the female PAC than in the male PAC. Moreover, the male group showed a deactivation in the right prefrontal cortex when comparing noise to the baseline, which was not present in the female group. Interestingly, the auditory and prefrontal regions are anatomically and functionally linked and the prefrontal cortex is known to be engaged in auditory tasks that involve sustained or selective auditory attention. Thus we hypothesize that differences in attention result in a different deactivation of the right prefrontal cortex, which in turn modulates the activation of the PAC and thus explains the sex differences found in the activation of the PAC. Our results suggest that sex is an important factor in auditory brain studies. (orig.)

  1. Sex differences in the representation of call stimuli in a songbird secondary auditory area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giret, Nicolas; Menardy, Fabien; Del Negro, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how communication sounds are encoded in the central auditory system is critical to deciphering the neural bases of acoustic communication. Songbirds use learned or unlearned vocalizations in a variety of social interactions. They have telencephalic auditory areas specialized for processing natural sounds and considered as playing a critical role in the discrimination of behaviorally relevant vocal sounds. The zebra finch, a highly social songbird species, forms lifelong pair bonds. Only male zebra finches sing. However, both sexes produce the distance call when placed in visual isolation. This call is sexually dimorphic, is learned only in males and provides support for individual recognition in both sexes. Here, we assessed whether auditory processing of distance calls differs between paired males and females by recording spiking activity in a secondary auditory area, the caudolateral mesopallium (CLM), while presenting the distance calls of a variety of individuals, including the bird itself, the mate, familiar and unfamiliar males and females. In males, the CLM is potentially involved in auditory feedback processing important for vocal learning. Based on both the analyses of spike rates and temporal aspects of discharges, our results clearly indicate that call-evoked responses of CLM neurons are sexually dimorphic, being stronger, lasting longer, and conveying more information about calls in males than in females. In addition, how auditory responses vary among call types differ between sexes. In females, response strength differs between familiar male and female calls. In males, temporal features of responses reveal a sensitivity to the bird's own call. These findings provide evidence that sexual dimorphism occurs in higher-order processing areas within the auditory system. They suggest a sexual dimorphism in the function of the CLM, contributing to transmit information about the self-generated calls in males and to storage of information about the

  2. Sex differences in the representation of call stimuli in a songbird secondary auditory area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas eGiret

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how communication sounds are encoded in the central auditory system is critical to deciphering the neural bases of acoustic communication. Songbirds use learned or unlearned vocalizations in a variety of social interactions. They have telencephalic auditory areas specialized for processing natural sounds and considered as playing a critical role in the discrimination of behaviorally relevant vocal sounds. The zebra finch, a highly social songbird species, forms lifelong pair bonds. Only male zebra finches sing. However, both sexes produce the distance call when placed in visual isolation. This call is sexually dimorphic, is learned only in males and provides support for individual recognition in both sexes. Here, we assessed whether auditory processing of distance calls differs between paired males and females by recording spiking activity in a secondary auditory area, the caudolateral mesopallium (CLM, while presenting the distance calls of a variety of individuals, including the bird itself, the mate, familiar and unfamiliar males and females. In males, the CLM is potentially involved in auditory feedback processing important for vocal learning. Based on both the analyses of spike rates and temporal aspects of discharges, our results clearly indicate that call-evoked responses of CLM neurons are sexually dimorphic, being stronger, lasting longer and conveying more information about calls in males than in females. In addition, how auditory responses vary among call types differ between sexes. In females, response strength differs between familiar male and female calls. In males, temporal features of responses reveal a sensitivity to the bird’s own call. These findings provide evidence that sexual dimorphism occurs in higher-order processing areas within the auditory system. They suggest a sexual dimorphism in the function of the CLM, contributing to transmit information about the self-generated calls in males and to storage of

  3. Temporal recalibration in vocalization induced by adaptation of delayed auditory feedback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Yamamoto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We ordinarily perceive our voice sound as occurring simultaneously with vocal production, but the sense of simultaneity in vocalization can be easily interrupted by delayed auditory feedback (DAF. DAF causes normal people to have difficulty speaking fluently but helps people with stuttering to improve speech fluency. However, the underlying temporal mechanism for integrating the motor production of voice and the auditory perception of vocal sound remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the temporal tuning mechanism integrating vocal sensory and voice sounds under DAF with an adaptation technique. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Participants produced a single voice sound repeatedly with specific delay times of DAF (0, 66, 133 ms during three minutes to induce 'Lag Adaptation'. They then judged the simultaneity between motor sensation and vocal sound given feedback. We found that lag adaptation induced a shift in simultaneity responses toward the adapted auditory delays. This indicates that the temporal tuning mechanism in vocalization can be temporally recalibrated after prolonged exposure to delayed vocal sounds. Furthermore, we found that the temporal recalibration in vocalization can be affected by averaging delay times in the adaptation phase. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest vocalization is finely tuned by the temporal recalibration mechanism, which acutely monitors the integration of temporal delays between motor sensation and vocal sound.

  4. Effect of an auditory feedback substitution, tactilo-kinesthetic, or visual feedback on kinematics of pouring water from kettle into cup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, Sigal; Halaby, Orli; Dekel-Chen, Dotan; Dierick, Frédéric

    2015-11-01

    Pouring hot water from a kettle into a cup may prove a hazardous task, especially for the elderly or the visually-impaired. Individuals with deteriorating eyesight may endanger their hands by performing this task with both hands, relaying on tactilo-kinesthetic feedback (TKF). Auditory feedback (AF) may allow them to perform the task singlehandedly, thereby reducing the risk for injury. However since relying on an AF is not intuitive and requires practice, we aimed to determine if AF supplied during the task of pouring water can be used naturally as visual feedback (VF) following practice. For this purpose, we quantified, in young healthy sighted subjects (n = 20), the performance and kinematics of pouring water in the presence of three isolated feedbacks: visual, tactilo-kinesthetic, or auditory. There were no significant differences between the weights of spilled water in the AF condition compared to the TKF condition in the first, fifth or thirteenth trials. The subjectively-reported difficulty levels of using the TKF and the AF were significantly reduced between the first and thirteenth trials for both TKF (p = 0.01) and AF (p = 0.001). Trunk rotation during the first trial using the TKF was significantly lower than the trunk rotation while using VF. Also, shoulder adduction during the first trial using the TKF was significantly higher than the shoulder adduction while using the VF. During the AF trials, the median travel distance of the tip of the kettle was significantly reduced in the first trials so that in the thirtieth trial it did not differ significantly from the median travel distance during the thirtieth trial using TKF and VF. The maximal velocity of the tip of the kettle was constant for each of the feedback conditions but was higher in 10 cm s(-1) using VF than TKF, which was higher in 10 cm s(-1) from using AF. The smoothness of movement of the TKF and AF conditions, expressed by the normalized jerk score (NJSM), was one and two orders

  5. Auditory feedback control of vocal pitch during sustained vocalization: a cross-sectional study of adult aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Auditory feedback has been demonstrated to play an important role in the control of voice fundamental frequency (F(0, but the mechanisms underlying the processing of auditory feedback remain poorly understood. It has been well documented that young adults can use auditory feedback to stabilize their voice F(0 by making compensatory responses to perturbations they hear in their vocal pitch feedback. However, little is known about the effects of aging on the processing of audio-vocal feedback during vocalization. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we recruited adults who were between 19 and 75 years of age and divided them into five age groups. Using a pitch-shift paradigm, the pitch of their vocal feedback was unexpectedly shifted ±50 or ±100 cents during sustained vocalization of the vowel sound/u/. Compensatory vocal F(0 response magnitudes and latencies to pitch feedback perturbations were examined. A significant effect of age was found such that response magnitudes increased with increasing age until maximal values were reached for adults 51-60 years of age and then decreased for adults 61-75 years of age. Adults 51-60 years of age were also more sensitive to the direction and magnitude of the pitch feedback perturbations compared to younger adults. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate that the pitch-shift reflex systematically changes across the adult lifespan. Understanding aging-related changes to the role of auditory feedback is critically important for our theoretical understanding of speech production and the clinical applications of that knowledge.

  6. The Effect of Delayed Auditory Feedback on Activity in the Temporal Lobe while Speaking: A Positron Emission Tomography Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaso, Hideki; Eisner, Frank; Wise, Richard J. S.; Scott, Sophie K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Delayed auditory feedback is a technique that can improve fluency in stutterers, while disrupting fluency in many nonstuttering individuals. The aim of this study was to determine the neural basis for the detection of and compensation for such a delay, and the effects of increases in the delay duration. Method: Positron emission…

  7. Lifespan Differences in Cortical Dynamics of Auditory Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Viktor; Gruber, Walter; Klimesch, Wolfgang; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2009-01-01

    Using electroencephalographic recordings (EEG), we assessed differences in oscillatory cortical activity during auditory-oddball performance between children aged 9-13 years, younger adults, and older adults. From childhood to old age, phase synchronization increased within and between electrodes, whereas whole power and evoked power decreased. We…

  8. Effects of different kinds of robot feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Kerstin; Lohan, K. S.; Nehaniv, C.;

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate to what extent tutors' behavior is influenced by different kinds of robot feedback. In particular, we study the effects of online robot feedback in which the robot responds either contingently to the tutor's social behavior or by tracking the objects presented. Also......, we investigate the impact of the robot's learning success on tutors' tutoring strategies. Our results show that only in the condition in which the robot's behavior is socially contingent, the human tutors adjust their behavior to the robot. In the developmentally equally plausible object......-driven condition, in which the robot tracked the objects presented, tutors do not change their behavior significantly, even though in both conditions the robot develops from a prelinguistic stage to producing keywords. Socially contingent robot feedback has thus the potential to influence tutors' behavior over...

  9. A Study of Teacher Feedback in Different English Class Types

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Huan

    2016-01-01

    This essay mainly focuses on the feedback move in IRF(initiate-response-feedback) to investigate the characters and functions of teacher feedback in different class types through classroom observation. The research finds that (1) teachers in dif-ferent class types prefer to adopt evaluative feedback and use more positive feedback .(2) the proportion of each feedback is dif-ferent in listening and speaking, reading and writing class. The implications are that English teachers in senior high school should adopt different feedback flexibly and consider what kind of feedback is more likely elicit the students’output in different class types.

  10. A software module for implementing auditory and visual feedback on a video-based eye tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosanlall, Bharat; Gertner, Izidor; Geri, George A.; Arrington, Karl F.

    2016-05-01

    We describe here the design and implementation of a software module that provides both auditory and visual feedback of the eye position measured by a commercially available eye tracking system. The present audio-visual feedback module (AVFM) serves as an extension to the Arrington Research ViewPoint EyeTracker, but it can be easily modified for use with other similar systems. Two modes of audio feedback and one mode of visual feedback are provided in reference to a circular area-of-interest (AOI). Auditory feedback can be either a click tone emitted when the user's gaze point enters or leaves the AOI, or a sinusoidal waveform with frequency inversely proportional to the distance from the gaze point to the center of the AOI. Visual feedback is in the form of a small circular light patch that is presented whenever the gaze-point is within the AOI. The AVFM processes data that are sent to a dynamic-link library by the EyeTracker. The AVFM's multithreaded implementation also allows real-time data collection (1 kHz sampling rate) and graphics processing that allow display of the current/past gaze-points as well as the AOI. The feedback provided by the AVFM described here has applications in military target acquisition and personnel training, as well as in visual experimentation, clinical research, marketing research, and sports training.

  11. Terminal feedback outperforms concurrent visual, auditory, and haptic feedback in learning a complex rowing-type task

    OpenAIRE

    Sigrist, Roland; Rauter, Georg; Riener, Robert; Wolf, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Augmented feedback, provided by coaches or displays, is a well-established strategy to accelerate motor learning. Frequent terminal feedback and concurrent feedback have been shown to be detrimental for simple motor task learning but supportive for complex motor task learning. However, conclusions on optimal feedback strategies have been mainly drawn from studies on artificial laboratory tasks with visual feedback only. Therefore, the authors compared the effectiveness of learning a complex, ...

  12. Fast negative feedback enables mammalian auditory nerve fibers to encode a wide dynamic range of sound intensities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Ospeck

    Full Text Available Mammalian auditory nerve fibers (ANF are remarkable for being able to encode a 40 dB, or hundred fold, range of sound pressure levels into their firing rate. Most of the fibers are very sensitive and raise their quiescent spike rate by a small amount for a faint sound at auditory threshold. Then as the sound intensity is increased, they slowly increase their spike rate, with some fibers going up as high as ∼300 Hz. In this way mammals are able to combine sensitivity and wide dynamic range. They are also able to discern sounds embedded within background noise. ANF receive efferent feedback, which suggests that the fibers are readjusted according to the background noise in order to maximize the information content of their auditory spike trains. Inner hair cells activate currents in the unmyelinated distal dendrites of ANF where sound intensity is rate-coded into action potentials. We model this spike generator compartment as an attenuator that employs fast negative feedback. Input current induces rapid and proportional leak currents. This way ANF are able to have a linear frequency to input current (f-I curve that has a wide dynamic range. The ANF spike generator remains very sensitive to threshold currents, but efferent feedback is able to lower its gain in response to noise.

  13. Neuronal mechanisms of voice control are affected by implicit expectancy of externally triggered perturbations in auditory feedback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Korzyukov

    Full Text Available Accurate vocal production relies on several factors including sensory feedback and the ability to predict future challenges to the control processes. Repetitive patterns of perturbations in sensory feedback by themselves elicit implicit expectations in the vocal control system regarding the timing, quality and direction of perturbations. In the present study, the predictability of voice pitch-shifted auditory feedback was experimentally manipulated. A block of trials where all pitch-shift stimuli were upward, and therefore predictable was contrasted against an unpredictable block of trials in which the stimulus direction was randomized between upward and downward pitch-shifts. It was found that predictable perturbations in voice auditory feedback led to a reduction in the proportion of compensatory vocal responses, which might be indicative of a reduction in vocal control. The predictable perturbations also led to a reduction in the magnitude of the N1 component of cortical Event Related Potentials (ERP that was associated with the reflexive compensations to the perturbations. We hypothesize that formation of expectancy in our study is accompanied by involuntary allocation of attentional resources occurring as a result of habituation or learning, that in turn trigger limited and controlled exploration-related motor variability in the vocal control system.

  14. Learning expressive percussion performance under different visual feedback conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Brandmeyer, A.; Sadakata, M.; Timmers, R.; Desain, P.

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted to test the effect of two different forms of real-time visual feedback on expressive percussion performance. Conservatory percussion students performed imitations of recorded teacher performances while receiving either high-level feedback on the expressive style of their performances, low-level feedback on the timing and dynamics of the performed notes, or no feedback. The high-level feedback was based on a Bayesian analysis of the performances, while the low-level feedb...

  15. Effect of visual distraction and auditory feedback on patient effort during robot-assisted movement training after stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinkensmeyer David J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Practicing arm and gait movements with robotic assistance after neurologic injury can help patients improve their movement ability, but patients sometimes reduce their effort during training in response to the assistance. Reduced effort has been hypothesized to diminish clinical outcomes of robotic training. To better understand patient slacking, we studied the role of visual distraction and auditory feedback in modulating patient effort during a common robot-assisted tracking task. Methods Fourteen participants with chronic left hemiparesis from stroke, five control participants with chronic right hemiparesis and fourteen non-impaired healthy control participants, tracked a visual target with their arms while receiving adaptive assistance from a robotic arm exoskeleton. We compared four practice conditions: the baseline tracking task alone; tracking while also performing a visual distracter task; tracking with the visual distracter and sound feedback; and tracking with sound feedback. For the distracter task, symbols were randomly displayed in the corners of the computer screen, and the participants were instructed to click a mouse button when a target symbol appeared. The sound feedback consisted of a repeating beep, with the frequency of repetition made to increase with increasing tracking error. Results Participants with stroke halved their effort and doubled their tracking error when performing the visual distracter task with their left hemiparetic arm. With sound feedback, however, these participants increased their effort and decreased their tracking error close to their baseline levels, while also performing the distracter task successfully. These effects were significantly smaller for the participants who used their non-paretic arm and for the participants without stroke. Conclusions Visual distraction decreased participants effort during a standard robot-assisted movement training task. This effect was greater for

  16. Utility estimation of the application of auditory-visual-tactile sense feedback in respiratory gated radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Jung Hun; KIm, Byeong Jin; Roh, Shi Won; Lee, Hyeon Chan; Jang, Hyeong Jun; Kim, Hoi Nam [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Biomedical Engineering, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Jae Hoon [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Jae [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Gwang Yang Health Collage, Gwangyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possibility to optimize the gated treatment delivery time and maintenance of stable respiratory by the introduction of breath with the assistance of auditory-visual-tactile sense. The experimenter's respiration were measured by ANZAI 4D system. We obtained natural breathing signal, monitor-induced breathing signal, monitor and ventilator-induced breathing signal, and breath-hold signal using real time monitor during 10 minutes beam-on-time. In order to check the stability of respiratory signals distributed in each group were compared with means, standard deviation, variation value, beam{sub t}ime of the respiratory signal. The stability of each respiratory was measured in consideration of deviation change studied in each respiratory time lapse. As a result of an analysis of respiratory signal, all experimenters has showed that breathing signal used both Real time monitor and Ventilator was the most stable and shortest time. In this study, it was evaluated that respiratory gated radiation therapy with auditory-visual-tactual sense and without auditory-visual-tactual sense feedback. The study showed that respiratory gated radiation therapy delivery time could significantly be improved by the application of video feedback when this is combined with audio-tactual sense assistance. This delivery technique did prove its feasibility to limit the tumor motion during treatment delivery for all patients to a defined value while maintaining the accuracy and proved the applicability of the technique in a conventional clinical schedule.

  17. A temporal predictive code for voice motor control: Evidence from ERP and behavioral responses to pitch-shifted auditory feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behroozmand, Roozbeh; Sangtian, Stacey; Korzyukov, Oleg; Larson, Charles R

    2016-04-01

    The predictive coding model suggests that voice motor control is regulated by a process in which the mismatch (error) between feedforward predictions and sensory feedback is detected and used to correct vocal motor behavior. In this study, we investigated how predictions about timing of pitch perturbations in voice auditory feedback would modulate ERP and behavioral responses during vocal production. We designed six counterbalanced blocks in which a +100 cents pitch-shift stimulus perturbed voice auditory feedback during vowel sound vocalizations. In three blocks, there was a fixed delay (500, 750 or 1000 ms) between voice and pitch-shift stimulus onset (predictable), whereas in the other three blocks, stimulus onset delay was randomized between 500, 750 and 1000 ms (unpredictable). We found that subjects produced compensatory (opposing) vocal responses that started at 80 ms after the onset of the unpredictable stimuli. However, for predictable stimuli, subjects initiated vocal responses at 20 ms before and followed the direction of pitch shifts in voice feedback. Analysis of ERPs showed that the amplitudes of the N1 and P2 components were significantly reduced in response to predictable compared with unpredictable stimuli. These findings indicate that predictions about temporal features of sensory feedback can modulate vocal motor behavior. In the context of the predictive coding model, temporally-predictable stimuli are learned and reinforced by the internal feedforward system, and as indexed by the ERP suppression, the sensory feedback contribution is reduced for their processing. These findings provide new insights into the neural mechanisms of vocal production and motor control.

  18. Synchronization between two different chaotic systems with nonlinear feedback control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lü Ling; Guo Zhi-An; Zhang Chao

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents chaos synchronization between two different chaotic systems by using a nonlinear controller, in which the nonlinear functions of the system are used as a nonlinear feedback term. The feedback controller is designed on the basis of stability theory, and the area of feedback gain is determined. The artificial simulation results show that this control method is commendably effective and feasible.

  19. Logarithmic temporal axis manipulation and its application for measuring auditory contributions in F0 control using a transformed auditory feedback procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanaga, Ryuichiro; Kawahara, Hideki

    2003-10-01

    A new parameter extraction procedure based on logarithmic transformation of the temporal axis was applied to investigate auditory effects on voice F0 control to overcome artifacts due to natural fluctuations and nonlinearities in speech production mechanisms. The proposed method may add complementary information to recent findings reported by using frequency shift feedback method [Burnett and Larson, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112 (2002)], in terms of dynamic aspects of F0 control. In a series of experiments, dependencies of system parameters in F0 control on subjects, F0 and style (musical expressions and speaking) were tested using six participants. They were three male and three female students specialized in musical education. They were asked to sustain a Japanese vowel /a/ for about 10 s repeatedly up to 2 min in total while hearing F0 modulated feedback speech, that was modulated using an M-sequence. The results replicated qualitatively the previous finding [Kawahara and Williams, Vocal Fold Physiology, (1995)] and provided more accurate estimates. Relations with designing an artificial singer also will be discussed. [Work partly supported by the grant in aids in scientific research (B) 14380165 and Wakayama University.

  20. Neurophysiological Mechanisms of Auditory Information Processing in Adolescence: A Study on Sex Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakos, Sarolta; Töllner, Thomas; Trinkl, Monika; Landes, Iris; Bartling, Jürgen; Grossheinrich, Nicola; Schulte-Körne, Gerd; Greimel, Ellen

    2016-04-01

    To date, little is known about sex differences in the neurophysiological correlates underlying auditory information processing. In the present study, auditory evoked potentials were evoked in typically developing male (n = 15) and female (n = 14) adolescents (13-18 years) during an auditory oddball task. Girls compared to boys displayed lower N100 and P300 amplitudes to targets. Larger N100 amplitudes in adolescent boys might indicate higher neural sensitivity to changes of incoming auditory information. The P300 findings point toward sex differences in auditory working memory and might suggest that adolescent boys might allocate more attentional resources when processing relevant auditory stimuli than adolescent girls. PMID:27379950

  1. Behavioral and brain pattern differences between acting and observing in an auditory task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ventouras Errikos M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent research has shown that errors seem to influence the patterns of brain activity. Additionally current notions support the idea that similar brain mechanisms are activated during acting and observing. The aim of the present study was to examine the patterns of brain activity of actors and observers elicited upon receiving feedback information of the actor's response. Methods The task used in the present research was an auditory identification task that included both acting and observing settings, ensuring concurrent ERP measurements of both participants. The performance of the participants was investigated in conditions of varying complexity. ERP data were analyzed with regards to the conditions of acting and observing in conjunction to correct and erroneous responses. Results The obtained results showed that the complexity induced by cue dissimilarity between trials was a demodulating factor leading to poorer performance. The electrophysiological results suggest that feedback information results in different intensities of the ERP patterns of observers and actors depending on whether the actor had made an error or not. The LORETA source localization method yielded significantly larger electrical activity in the supplementary motor area (Brodmann area 6, the posterior cingulate gyrus (Brodmann area 31/23 and the parietal lobe (Precuneus/Brodmann area 7/5. Conclusion These findings suggest that feedback information has a different effect on the intensities of the ERP patterns of actors and observers depending on whether the actor committed an error. Certain neural systems, including medial frontal area, posterior cingulate gyrus and precuneus may mediate these modulating effects. Further research is needed to elucidate in more detail the neuroanatomical and neuropsychological substrates of these systems.

  2. Developmental differences in visual and auditory processing of complex sentences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, J R; MacWhinney, B; Harasaki, Y

    2000-01-01

    Children aged 8 through 11 (N = 250) were given a word-by-word sentence task in both the visual and auditory modes. The sentences included an object relative clause, a subject relative clause, or a conjoined verb phrase. Each sentence was followed by a true-false question, testing the subject of either the first or second verb. Participants were also given two memory span measures: digit span and reading span. High digit span children slowed down more at the transition from the main to the relative clause than did the low digit span children. The findings suggest the presence of a U-shaped learning pattern for on-line processing of restrictive relative clauses. Off-line accuracy scores showed different patterns for good comprehenders and poor comprehenders. Poor comprehenders answered the second verb questions at levels that were consistently below chance. Their answers were based on an incorrect local attachment strategy that treated the second noun as the subject of the second verb. For example, they often answered yes to the question "The girl chases the policeman" after the object relative sentence "The boy that the girl sees chases the policeman." Interestingly, low memory span poor comprehenders used the local attachment strategy less consistently than high memory span poor comprehenders, and all poor comprehenders used this strategy less consistently for harder than for easier sentences. PMID:11016560

  3. Long-range correlation properties in timing of skilled piano performance: the influence of auditory feedback and deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrojo Ruiz, María; Hong, Sang Bin; Hennig, Holger; Altenmüller, Eckart; Kühn, Andrea A

    2014-01-01

    Unintentional timing deviations during musical performance can be conceived of as timing errors. However, recent research on humanizing computer-generated music has demonstrated that timing fluctuations that exhibit long-range temporal correlations (LRTC) are preferred by human listeners. This preference can be accounted for by the ubiquitous presence of LRTC in human tapping and rhythmic performances. Interestingly, the manifestation of LRTC in tapping behavior seems to be driven in a subject-specific manner by the LRTC properties of resting-state background cortical oscillatory activity. In this framework, the current study aimed to investigate whether propagation of timing deviations during the skilled, memorized piano performance (without metronome) of 17 professional pianists exhibits LRTC and whether the structure of the correlations is influenced by the presence or absence of auditory feedback. As an additional goal, we set out to investigate the influence of altering the dynamics along the cortico-basal-ganglia-thalamo-cortical network via deep brain stimulation (DBS) on the LRTC properties of musical performance. Specifically, we investigated temporal deviations during the skilled piano performance of a non-professional pianist who was treated with subthalamic-deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) due to severe Parkinson's disease, with predominant tremor affecting his right upper extremity. In the tremor-affected right hand, the timing fluctuations of the performance exhibited random correlations with DBS OFF. By contrast, DBS restored long-range dependency in the temporal fluctuations, corresponding with the general motor improvement on DBS. Overall, the present investigations demonstrate the presence of LRTC in skilled piano performances, indicating that unintentional temporal deviations are correlated over a wide range of time scales. This phenomenon is stable after removal of the auditory feedback, but is altered by STN-DBS, which suggests that cortico

  4. Long-range correlation properties in timing of skilled piano performance: the influence of auditory feedback and deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrojo Ruiz, María; Hong, Sang Bin; Hennig, Holger; Altenmüller, Eckart; Kühn, Andrea A

    2014-01-01

    Unintentional timing deviations during musical performance can be conceived of as timing errors. However, recent research on humanizing computer-generated music has demonstrated that timing fluctuations that exhibit long-range temporal correlations (LRTC) are preferred by human listeners. This preference can be accounted for by the ubiquitous presence of LRTC in human tapping and rhythmic performances. Interestingly, the manifestation of LRTC in tapping behavior seems to be driven in a subject-specific manner by the LRTC properties of resting-state background cortical oscillatory activity. In this framework, the current study aimed to investigate whether propagation of timing deviations during the skilled, memorized piano performance (without metronome) of 17 professional pianists exhibits LRTC and whether the structure of the correlations is influenced by the presence or absence of auditory feedback. As an additional goal, we set out to investigate the influence of altering the dynamics along the cortico-basal-ganglia-thalamo-cortical network via deep brain stimulation (DBS) on the LRTC properties of musical performance. Specifically, we investigated temporal deviations during the skilled piano performance of a non-professional pianist who was treated with subthalamic-deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) due to severe Parkinson's disease, with predominant tremor affecting his right upper extremity. In the tremor-affected right hand, the timing fluctuations of the performance exhibited random correlations with DBS OFF. By contrast, DBS restored long-range dependency in the temporal fluctuations, corresponding with the general motor improvement on DBS. Overall, the present investigations demonstrate the presence of LRTC in skilled piano performances, indicating that unintentional temporal deviations are correlated over a wide range of time scales. This phenomenon is stable after removal of the auditory feedback, but is altered by STN-DBS, which suggests that cortico

  5. Long-range correlation properties in timing of skilled piano performance: the influence of auditory feedback and deep brain stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eHerrojo Ruiz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Unintentional timing deviations during musical performance can be conceived of as timing errors. However, recent research on humanizing computer-generated music has demonstrated that timing fluctuations that exhibit long-range temporal correlations (LRTC are preferred by human listeners. This preference can be accounted for by the ubiquitous presence of LRTC in human tapping and rhythmic performances. Interestingly, the manifestation of LRTC in tapping behavior seems to be driven in a subject-specific manner by the LRTC properties of resting-state background cortical oscillatory activity. In this framework, the current study aimed to investigate whether propagation of timing deviations during the skilled, memorized piano performance (without metronome of 17 professional pianists exhibits LRTC and whether the structure of the correlations is influenced by the presence or absence of auditory feedback.As an additional goal, we set out to investigate the influence of altering the dynamics along the cortico-basal-ganglia-thalamo-cortical network via deep brain stimulation (DBS on the LRTC properties of musical performance. Specifically, we investigated temporal deviations during the skilled piano performance of a non-professional pianist who was treated with subthalamic-deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS due to severe Parkinson's disease, with predominant tremor affecting his right upper extremity. In the tremor-affected right hand, the timing fluctuations of the performance exhibited random correlations with DBS OFF. By contrast, DBS restored long-range dependency in the temporal fluctuations, corresponding with the general motor improvement on DBS.Overall, the present investigations are the first to demonstrate the presence of LRTC in skilled piano performances, indicating that unintentional temporal deviations are correlated over a wide range of time scales. This phenomenon is stable after removal of the auditory feedback, but is altered by STN

  6. Frequency-Offset Cartesian Feedback Based on Polyphase Difference Amplifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Zanchi, Marta G.; Pauly, John M.; Scott, Greig C

    2010-01-01

    A modified Cartesian feedback method called “frequency-offset Cartesian feedback” and based on polyphase difference amplifiers is described that significantly reduces the problems associated with quadrature errors and DC-offsets in classic Cartesian feedback power amplifier control systems.

  7. Learning expressive percussion performance under different visual feedback conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandmeyer, Alex; Timmers, Renee; Sadakata, Makiko; Desain, Peter

    2011-03-01

    A study was conducted to test the effect of two different forms of real-time visual feedback on expressive percussion performance. Conservatory percussion students performed imitations of recorded teacher performances while receiving either high-level feedback on the expressive style of their performances, low-level feedback on the timing and dynamics of the performed notes, or no feedback. The high-level feedback was based on a Bayesian analysis of the performances, while the low-level feedback was based on the raw participant timing and dynamics data. Results indicated that neither form of feedback led to significantly smaller timing and dynamics errors. However, high-level feedback did lead to a higher proficiency in imitating the expressive style of the target performances, as indicated by a probabilistic measure of expressive style. We conclude that, while potentially disruptive to timing processes involved in music performance due to extraneous cognitive load, high-level visual feedback can improve participant imitations of expressive performance features. PMID:20574662

  8. Immediate effects of different frequencies of auditory stimulation on lower limb motor function of healthy people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lili; Huang, Qiuchen; Hu, Chunying; Ye, Miao

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to explore the immediate effects of different frequencies of auditory stimulation on the lower limb motor function of healthy people. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 7 healthy people (5 males and 2 females). The subjects’ lower limb function was measured without auditory stimulation (control), and with auditory stimulation of 500, 1,000, 1,500, and 2,000 Hz. The measured parameters were maximum knee extension torque, average knee extension torque, the Timed Up and Go test (TUG) time, Functional Reach (FR), and the 10-meter walking time. [Results] The TUG times of 500, 1,500, and 2,000 Hz auditory stimulation showed significant decreases compared to the control. The 10-m walking times of 1,000 and 2,000 Hz auditory stimulation showed significant decreases compared to the control. [Conclusion] The results show that auditory stimulation improved the TUG and 10-meter walking times of healthy people and that different frequencies of auditory stimulation had different effects on lower limb motor function. PMID:27630392

  9. Different patterns of auditory cortex activation revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last few years, functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) has been widely accepted as an effective tool for mapping brain activities in both the sensorimotor and the cognitive field. The present work aims to assess the possibility of using fMRI methods to study the cortical response to different acoustic stimuli. Furthermore, we refer to recent data collected at Frankfurt University on the cortical pattern of auditory hallucinations. Healthy subjects showed broad bilateral activation, mostly located in the transverse gyrus of Heschl. The analysis of the cortical activation induced by different stimuli has pointed out a remarkable difference in the spatial and temporal features of the auditory cortex response to pulsed tones and pure tones. The activated areas during episodes of auditory hallucinations match the location of primary auditory cortex as defined in control measurements with the same patients and in the experiments on healthy subjects. (authors)

  10. Speakers' acceptance of real-time speech exchange indicates that we use auditory feedback to specify the meaning of what we say.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Andreas; Hall, Lars; Breidegard, Björn; Balkenius, Christian; Johansson, Petter

    2014-06-01

    Speech is usually assumed to start with a clearly defined preverbal message, which provides a benchmark for self-monitoring and a robust sense of agency for one's utterances. However, an alternative hypothesis states that speakers often have no detailed preview of what they are about to say, and that they instead use auditory feedback to infer the meaning of their words. In the experiment reported here, participants performed a Stroop color-naming task while we covertly manipulated their auditory feedback in real time so that they said one thing but heard themselves saying something else. Under ideal timing conditions, two thirds of these semantic exchanges went undetected by the participants, and in 85% of all nondetected exchanges, the inserted words were experienced as self-produced. These findings indicate that the sense of agency for speech has a strong inferential component, and that auditory feedback of one's own voice acts as a pathway for semantic monitoring, potentially overriding other feedback loops. PMID:24777489

  11. Effects of auditory stimulation with music of different intensities on heart period

    OpenAIRE

    do Amaral, Joice A.T.; Guida, Heraldo L.; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Barnabé, Viviani; Vanderlei, Franciele M.; Vitor E Valenti

    2015-01-01

    Various studies have indicated that music therapy with relaxant music improves cardiac function of patients treated with cardiotoxic medication and heavy-metal music acutely reduces heart rate variability (HRV). There is also evidence that white noise auditory stimulation above 50 dB causes cardiac autonomic responses. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the acute effects of musical auditory stimulation with different intensities on cardiac autonomic regulation. This study was performed on 24...

  12. Frequency-Offset Cartesian Feedback Based on Polyphase Difference Amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchi, Marta G; Pauly, John M; Scott, Greig C

    2010-05-01

    A modified Cartesian feedback method called "frequency-offset Cartesian feedback" and based on polyphase difference amplifiers is described that significantly reduces the problems associated with quadrature errors and DC-offsets in classic Cartesian feedback power amplifier control systems.In this method, the reference input and feedback signals are down-converted and compared at a low intermediate frequency (IF) instead of at DC. The polyphase difference amplifiers create a complex control bandwidth centered at this low IF, which is typically offset from DC by 200-1500 kHz. Consequently, the loop gain peak does not overlap DC where voltage offsets, drift, and local oscillator leakage create errors. Moreover, quadrature mismatch errors are significantly attenuated in the control bandwidth. Since the polyphase amplifiers selectively amplify the complex signals characterized by a +90° phase relationship representing positive frequency signals, the control system operates somewhat like single sideband (SSB) modulation. However, the approach still allows the same modulation bandwidth control as classic Cartesian feedback.In this paper, the behavior of the polyphase difference amplifier is described through both the results of simulations, based on a theoretical analysis of their architecture, and experiments. We then describe our first printed circuit board prototype of a frequency-offset Cartesian feedback transmitter and its performance in open and closed loop configuration. This approach should be especially useful in magnetic resonance imaging transmit array systems. PMID:20814450

  13. Effects of different types of auditory temporal training on language skills: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ferraz Borges Murphy

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have investigated the effects of auditory temporal training on language disorders. Recently, the effects of new approaches, such as musical training and the use of software, have also been considered. To investigate the effects of different auditory temporal training approaches on language skills, we reviewed the available literature on musical training, the use of software and formal auditory training by searching the SciELO, MEDLINE, LILACS-BIREME and EMBASE databases. Study Design: Systematic review. Results: Using evidence levels I and II as the criteria, 29 of the 523 papers found were deemed relevant to one of the topics (use of software - 13 papers; formal auditory training - six papers; and musical training - 10 papers. Of the three approaches, studies that investigated the use of software and musical training had the highest levels of evidence; however, these studies also raised concerns about the hypothesized relationship between auditory temporal processing and language. Future studies are necessary to investigate the actual contribution of these three types of auditory temporal training to language skills.

  14. Open Touch/Sound Maps: A system to convey street data through haptic and auditory feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaklanis, Nikolaos; Votis, Konstantinos; Tzovaras, Dimitrios

    2013-08-01

    The use of spatial (geographic) information is becoming ever more central and pervasive in today's internet society but the most of it is currently inaccessible to visually impaired users. However, access in visual maps is severely restricted to visually impaired and people with blindness, due to their inability to interpret graphical information. Thus, alternative ways of a map's presentation have to be explored, in order to enforce the accessibility of maps. Multiple types of sensory perception like touch and hearing may work as a substitute of vision for the exploration of maps. The use of multimodal virtual environments seems to be a promising alternative for people with visual impairments. The present paper introduces a tool for automatic multimodal map generation having haptic and audio feedback using OpenStreetMap data. For a desired map area, an elevation map is being automatically generated and can be explored by touch, using a haptic device. A sonification and a text-to-speech (TTS) mechanism provide also audio navigation information during the haptic exploration of the map.

  15. Auditory and motor imagery modulate learning in music performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel M.; Palmer, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Skilled performers such as athletes or musicians can improve their performance by imagining the actions or sensory outcomes associated with their skill. Performers vary widely in their auditory and motor imagery abilities, and these individual differences influence sensorimotor learning. It is unknown whether imagery abilities influence both memory encoding and retrieval. We examined how auditory and motor imagery abilities influence musicians' encoding (during Learning, as they practiced novel melodies), and retrieval (during Recall of those melodies). Pianists learned melodies by listening without performing (auditory learning) or performing without sound (motor learning); following Learning, pianists performed the melodies from memory with auditory feedback (Recall). During either Learning (Experiment 1) or Recall (Experiment 2), pianists experienced either auditory interference, motor interference, or no interference. Pitch accuracy (percentage of correct pitches produced) and temporal regularity (variability of quarter-note interonset intervals) were measured at Recall. Independent tests measured auditory and motor imagery skills. Pianists' pitch accuracy was higher following auditory learning than following motor learning and lower in motor interference conditions (Experiments 1 and 2). Both auditory and motor imagery skills improved pitch accuracy overall. Auditory imagery skills modulated pitch accuracy encoding (Experiment 1): Higher auditory imagery skill corresponded to higher pitch accuracy following auditory learning with auditory or motor interference, and following motor learning with motor or no interference. These findings suggest that auditory imagery abilities decrease vulnerability to interference and compensate for missing auditory feedback at encoding. Auditory imagery skills also influenced temporal regularity at retrieval (Experiment 2): Higher auditory imagery skill predicted greater temporal regularity during Recall in the presence of

  16. Auditory and motor imagery modulate learning in music performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel M; Palmer, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Skilled performers such as athletes or musicians can improve their performance by imagining the actions or sensory outcomes associated with their skill. Performers vary widely in their auditory and motor imagery abilities, and these individual differences influence sensorimotor learning. It is unknown whether imagery abilities influence both memory encoding and retrieval. We examined how auditory and motor imagery abilities influence musicians' encoding (during Learning, as they practiced novel melodies), and retrieval (during Recall of those melodies). Pianists learned melodies by listening without performing (auditory learning) or performing without sound (motor learning); following Learning, pianists performed the melodies from memory with auditory feedback (Recall). During either Learning (Experiment 1) or Recall (Experiment 2), pianists experienced either auditory interference, motor interference, or no interference. Pitch accuracy (percentage of correct pitches produced) and temporal regularity (variability of quarter-note interonset intervals) were measured at Recall. Independent tests measured auditory and motor imagery skills. Pianists' pitch accuracy was higher following auditory learning than following motor learning and lower in motor interference conditions (Experiments 1 and 2). Both auditory and motor imagery skills improved pitch accuracy overall. Auditory imagery skills modulated pitch accuracy encoding (Experiment 1): Higher auditory imagery skill corresponded to higher pitch accuracy following auditory learning with auditory or motor interference, and following motor learning with motor or no interference. These findings suggest that auditory imagery abilities decrease vulnerability to interference and compensate for missing auditory feedback at encoding. Auditory imagery skills also influenced temporal regularity at retrieval (Experiment 2): Higher auditory imagery skill predicted greater temporal regularity during Recall in the presence of

  17. Visual-auditory differences in duration discrimination of intervals in the subsecond and second range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eRammsayer

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A common finding in time psychophysics is that temporal acuity is much better for auditory than for visual stimuli. The present study aimed to examine modality-specific differences in duration discrimination within the conceptual framework of the Distinct Timing Hypothesis. This theoretical account proposes that durations in the lower milliseconds range are processed automatically while longer durations are processed by a cognitive mechanism. A sample of 46 participants performed two auditory and visual duration discrimination tasks with extremely brief (50-ms standard duration and longer (1000-ms standard duration intervals. Better discrimination performance for auditory compared to visual intervals could be established for extremely brief and longer intervals. However, when performance on duration discrimination of longer intervals in the one-second range was controlled for modality-specific input from the sensory-automatic timing mechanism, the visual-auditory difference disappeared completely as indicated by virtually identical Weber fractions for both sensory modalities. These findings support the idea of a sensory-automatic mechanism underlying the observed visual-auditory differences in duration discrimination of extremely brief intervals in the millisecond range and longer intervals in the one-second range. Our data are consistent with the notion of a gradual transition from a purely modality-specific, sensory-automatic to a more cognitive, amodal timing mechanism. Within this transition zone, both mechanisms appear to operate simultaneously but the influence of the sensory-automatic timing mechanism is expected to continuously decrease with increasing interval duration.

  18. The predictive ability of different customer feedback metrics for retention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, Evert; Verhoef, Peter C.; Wiesel, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    This study systematically compares different customer feedback metrics (CFMs) - namely customer satisfaction, the Net Promoter Score, and the Customer Effort Score - to test their ability to predict retention across a wide range of industries. We classify the CFMs according to a time focus (past, pr

  19. Age differences in visual-auditory self-motion perception during a simulated driving task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eRamkhalawansingh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that visual-auditory cue integration may change as a function of age such that integration is heightened among older adults. Our goal was to determine whether these changes in multisensory integration are also observed in the context of self-motion perception under realistic task constraints. Thus, we developed a simulated driving paradigm in which we provided older and younger adults with visual motion cues (i.e. optic flow and systematically manipulated the presence or absence of congruent auditory cues to self-motion (i.e. engine, tire, and wind sounds. Results demonstrated that the presence or absence of congruent auditory input had different effects on older and younger adults. Both age groups demonstrated a reduction in speed variability when auditory cues were present compared to when they were absent, but older adults demonstrated a proportionally greater reduction in speed variability under combined sensory conditions. These results are consistent with evidence indicating that multisensory integration is heightened in older adults. Importantly, this study is the first to provide evidence to suggest that age differences in multisensory integration may generalize from simple stimulus detection tasks to the integration of the more complex and dynamic visual and auditory cues that are experienced during self-motion.

  20. Auditory and motor imagery modulate learning in music performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M. Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Skilled performers such as athletes or musicians can improve their performance by imagining the actions or sensory outcomes associated with their skill. Performers vary widely in their auditory and motor imagery abilities, and these individual differences influence sensorimotor learning. It is unknown whether imagery abilities influence both memory encoding and retrieval. We examined how auditory and motor imagery abilities influence musicians’ encoding (during Learning, as they practiced novel melodies, and retrieval (during Recall of those melodies. Pianists learned melodies by listening without performing (auditory learning or performing without sound (motor learning; following Learning, pianists performed the melodies from memory with auditory feedback (Recall. During either Learning (Experiment 1 or Recall (Experiment 2, pianists experienced either auditory interference, motor interference, or no interference. Pitch accuracy (percentage of correct pitches produced and temporal regularity (variability of quarter-note interonset intervals were measured at Recall. Independent tests measured auditory and motor imagery skills. Pianists’ pitch accuracy was higher following auditory learning than following motor learning and lower in motor interference conditions (Experiments 1 and 2. Both auditory and motor imagery skills improved pitch accuracy overall. Auditory imagery skills modulated pitch accuracy encoding (Experiment 1: Higher auditory imagery skill corresponded to higher pitch accuracy following auditory learning with auditory or motor interference, and following motor learning with motor or no interference. These findings suggest that auditory imagery abilities decrease vulnerability to interference and compensate for missing auditory feedback at encoding. Auditory imagery skills also influenced temporal regularity at retrieval (Experiment 2: Higher auditory imagery skill predicted greater temporal regularity during Recall in the

  1. Self-generated auditory feedback as a cue to support rhythmic motor stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krupenia, Stas S.; Hoffmann, Pablo F.; Zalmanov, Hagar;

    2011-01-01

    A goal of the SKILLS project is to develop Virtual Reality (VR)-based training simulators for different application domains, one of which is juggling. Within this context the value of multimodal VR environments for skill acquisition is investigated. In this study, we investigated whether it was n......A goal of the SKILLS project is to develop Virtual Reality (VR)-based training simulators for different application domains, one of which is juggling. Within this context the value of multimodal VR environments for skill acquisition is investigated. In this study, we investigated whether...

  2. Lifespan Differences in Nonlinear Dynamics during Rest and Auditory Oddball Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Viktor; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2012-01-01

    Electroencephalographic recordings (EEG) were used to assess age-associated differences in nonlinear brain dynamics during both rest and auditory oddball performance in children aged 9.0-12.8 years, younger adults, and older adults. We computed nonlinear coupling dynamics and dimensional complexity, and also determined spectral alpha power as an…

  3. Exploration of auditory P50 gating in schizophrenia by way of difference waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnfred, Sidse M

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT : Electroencephalographic measures of information processing encompass both mid-latency evoked potentials like the pre-attentive auditory P50 potential and a host of later more cognitive components like P300 and N400.Difference waves have mostly been employed in studies of later event...

  4. Acute Auditory Stimulation with Different Styles of Music Influences Cardiac Autonomic Regulation in Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Ap. F. da Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: No clear evidence is available in the literature regarding the acute effect of different styles of music on cardiac autonomic control. Objectives: The present study aimed to evaluate the acute effects of classical baroque and heavy metal musical auditory stimulation on Heart Rate Variability (HRV in healthy men. Patients and Methods: In this study, HRV was analyzed regarding time (SDNN, RMSSD, NN50, and pNN50 and frequency domain (LF, HF, and LF / HF in 12 healthy men. HRV was recorded at seated rest for 10 minutes. Subsequently, the participants were exposed to classical baroque or heavy metal music for five minutes through an earphone at seated rest. After exposure to the first song, they remained at rest for five minutes and they were again exposed to classical baroque or heavy metal music. The music sequence was random for each individual. Standard statistical methods were used for calculation of means and standard deviations. Besides, ANOVA and Friedman test were used for parametric and non-parametric distributions, respectively. Results: While listening to heavy metal music, SDNN was reduced compared to the baseline (P = 0.023. In addition, the LF index (ms2 and nu was reduced during exposure to both heavy metal and classical baroque musical auditory stimulation compared to the control condition (P = 0.010 and P = 0.048, respectively. However, the HF index (ms2 was reduced only during auditory stimulation with music heavy metal (P = 0.01. The LF/HF ratio on the other hand decreased during auditory stimulation with classical baroque music (P = 0.019. Conclusions: Acute auditory stimulation with the selected heavy metal musical auditory stimulation decreased the sympathetic and parasympathetic modulation on the heart, while exposure to a selected classical baroque music reduced sympathetic regulation on the heart.

  5. Auditory feedback of one’s own voice is used for high-level semantic monitoring: the self-comprehension hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eLind

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available What would it be like if we said one thing, and heard ourselves saying something else? Would we notice something was wrong? Or would we believe we said the thing we heard? Is feedback of our own speech only used to detect errors, or does it also help to specify the meaning of what we say? Comparator models of self-monitoring favor the first alternative, and hold that our sense of agency is given by the comparison between intentions and outcomes, while inferential models argue that agency is a more fluent construct, dependent on contextual inferences about the most likely cause of an action. In this paper, we present a theory about the use of feedback during speech. Specifically, we discuss inferential models of speech production that question the standard comparator assumption that the meaning of our utterances is fully specified before articulation. We then argue that auditory feedback provides speakers with a channel for high-level, semantic self-comprehension. In support of this we discuss results using a method we recently developed called Real-time Speech Exchange (RSE. In our first study using RSE (Lind et al, submitted participants were fitted with headsets and performed a computerized Stroop task. We surreptitiously recorded words they said, and later in the test we played them back at the exact same time that the participants uttered something else, while blocking the actual feedback of their voice. Thus, participants said one thing, but heard themselves saying something else. The results showed that when timing conditions were ideal, more than two thirds of the manipulations went undetected. Crucially, in a large proportion of the non-detected manipulated trials, the inserted words were experienced as self-produced by the participants. This indicates that our sense of agency for speech has a strong inferential component, and that auditory feedback of our own voice acts as a pathway for semantic monitoring.

  6. Material differences of auditory source retrieval:Evidence from event-related potential studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIE AiQing; GUO ChunYan; SHEN MoWei

    2008-01-01

    Two event-related potential experiments were conducted to investigate the temporal and the spatial distributions of the old/new effects for the item recognition task and the auditory source retrieval task using picture and Chinese character as stimuli respectively. Stimuli were presented on the center of the screen with their names read out either by female or by male voice simultaneously during the study phase and then two testa were performed separately. One test task was to differentiate the old items from the new ones, and the other task was to judge the items read out by a certain voice during the study phase as targets and other ones as non-targets. The results showed that the old/new effect of the auditory source retrieval task was more sustained over time than that of the item recognition task in both experiments, and the spatial distribution of the former effect was wider than that of the latter one. Both experiments recorded reliable old/new effect over the prefrontal cortex during the source retrieval task. However, there existed some differences of the old/new effect for the auditory source retrieval task between picture and Chinese character, and LORETA source analysis indicated that the differ-ences might be rooted in the temporal lobe. These findings demonstrate that the relevancy of the old/new effects between the item recognition task and the auditory source retrieval task supports the dual-process model; the spatial and the temporal distributions of the old/new effect elicited by the auditory source retrieval task are regulated by both the feature of the experimental material and the perceptual attribute of the voice.

  7. Frequency difference beyond behavioral limen reflected by frequency following response of human auditory Brainstem

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Qin; Gong, Qin

    2014-01-01

    Background The present study investigated whether the frequency-following response (FFR) of the auditory brainstem can represent individual frequency-discrimination ability. Method We measured behavioral frequency-difference limens (FDLs) in normal hearing young adults. Then FFRs were evoked by two pure tones, whose frequency difference was no larger than behavioral FDL. Discrimination of FFRs to individual frequencies was conducted as the neural representation of stimulus frequency differenc...

  8. Rehabilitation of the Upper Extremity after Stroke: A Case Series Evaluating REO Therapy and an Auditory Sensor Feedback for Trunk Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Thielman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose. Training in the virtual environment in post stroke rehab is being established as a new approach for neurorehabilitation, specifically, ReoTherapy (REO a robot-assisted virtual training device. Trunk stabilization strapping has been part of the concept with this device, and literature is lacking to support this for long-term functional changes with individuals after stroke. The purpose of this case series was to measure the feasibility of auditory trunk sensor feedback during REO therapy, in moderate to severely impaired individuals after stroke. Case Description. Using an open label crossover comparison design, 3 chronic stroke subjects were trained for 12 sessions over six weeks on either the REO or the control condition of task related training (TRT; after a washout period of 4 weeks; the alternative therapy was given. Outcomes. With both interventions, clinically relevant improvements were found for measures of body function and structure, as well as for activity, for two participants. Providing auditory feedback during REO training for trunk control was found to be feasible. Discussion. The degree of changes evident varied per protocol and may be due to the appropriateness of the technique chosen, as well as based on patients impaired arm motor control.

  9. Gender related differences in visual and auditory processing of verbal and figural tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Jaušovec, Norbert; Jaušovec, Ksenija

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate gender related differences in brain activity for tasks of verbal and figural content presented in the visual and auditory modality. Thirty male and 30 female respondents solved four tasks while their electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded. Also recorded was the percentage of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin (%StO2) in the respondents' frontal brain areas with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The main findings of the study can be summarized as ...

  10. He hears, she hears: are there sex differences in auditory processing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Kathleen M; Phan, Mimi L; Lu, Kai; Vicario, David S

    2015-03-01

    Songbirds learn individually unique songs through vocal imitation and use them in courtship and territorial displays. Previous work has identified a forebrain auditory area, the caudomedial nidopallium (NCM), that appears specialized for discriminating and remembering conspecific vocalizations. In zebra finches (ZFs), only males produce learned vocalizations, but both sexes process these and other signals. This study assessed sex differences in auditory processing by recording extracellular multiunit activity at multiple sites within NCM. Juvenile female ZFs (n = 46) were reared in individual isolation and artificially tutored with song. In adulthood, songs were played back to assess auditory responses, stimulus-specific adaptation, neural bias for conspecific song, and memory for the tutor's song, as well as recently heard songs. In a subset of females (n = 36), estradiol (E2) levels were manipulated to test the contribution of E2, known to be synthesized in the brain, to auditory responses. Untreated females (n = 10) showed significant differences in response magnitude and stimulus-specific adaptation compared to males reared in the same paradigm (n = 9). In hormone-manipulated females, E2 augmentation facilitated the memory for recently heard songs in adulthood, but neither E2 augmentation (n = 15) nor E2 synthesis blockade (n = 9) affected tutor song memory or the neural bias for conspecific song. The results demonstrate subtle sex differences in processing communication signals, and show that E2 levels in female songbirds can affect the memory for songs of potential suitors, thus contributing to the process of mate selection. The results also have potential relevance to clinical interventions that manipulate E2 in human patients. PMID:25220950

  11. Detection Rates of Cortical Auditory Evoked Potentials at Different Sensation Levels in Infants with Sensory/Neural Hearing Loss and Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner-Berry, Kirsty; Chang, Hsiuwen; Ching, Teresa Y C; Hou, Sanna

    2016-02-01

    With the introduction of newborn hearing screening, infants are being diagnosed with hearing loss during the first few months of life. For infants with a sensory/neural hearing loss (SNHL), the audiogram can be estimated objectively using auditory brainstem response (ABR) testing and hearing aids prescribed accordingly. However, for infants with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) due to the abnormal/absent ABR waveforms, alternative measures of auditory function are needed to assess the need for amplification and evaluate whether aided benefit has been achieved. Cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs) are used to assess aided benefit in infants with hearing loss; however, there is insufficient information regarding the relationship between stimulus audibility and CAEP detection rates. It is also not clear whether CAEP detection rates differ between infants with SNHL and infants with ANSD. This study involved retrospective collection of CAEP, hearing threshold, and hearing aid gain data to investigate the relationship between stimulus audibility and CAEP detection rates. The results demonstrate that increases in stimulus audibility result in an increase in detection rate. For the same range of sensation levels, there was no difference in the detection rates between infants with SNHL and ANSD. PMID:27587922

  12. An exploration of spatial auditory BCI paradigms with different sounds: music notes versus beeps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Minqiang; Daly, Ian; Jin, Jing; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Xingyu; Cichocki, Andrzej

    2016-06-01

    Visual brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are not suitable for people who cannot reliably maintain their eye gaze. Considering that this group usually maintains audition, an auditory based BCI may be a good choice for them. In this paper, we explore two auditory patterns: (1) a pattern utilizing symmetrical spatial cues with multiple frequency beeps [called the high low medium (HLM) pattern], and (2) a pattern utilizing non-symmetrical spatial cues with six tones derived from the diatonic scale [called the diatonic scale (DS) pattern]. These two patterns are compared to each other in terms of accuracy to determine which auditory pattern is better. The HLM pattern uses three different frequency beeps and has a symmetrical spatial distribution. The DS pattern uses six spoken stimuli, which are six notes solmizated as "do", "re", "mi", "fa", "sol" and "la", and derived from the diatonic scale. These six sounds are distributed to six, spatially distributed, speakers. Thus, we compare a BCI paradigm using beeps with another BCI paradigm using tones on the diatonic scale, when the stimuli are spatially distributed. Although no significant differences are found between the ERPs, the HLM pattern performs better than the DS pattern: the online accuracy achieved with the HLM pattern is significantly higher than that achieved with the DS pattern (p = 0.0028). PMID:27275376

  13. Enhanced entanglement of two different mechanical resonators via coherent feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jie; Zippilli, Stefano; Vitali, David; Zhang, Tiancai

    2016-01-01

    It is shown [New J. Phys. 17, 103037 (2015)] that extremely large and robust entanglement between two different mechanical resonators could be achieved, either dynamically or in the steady state, in an optomechanical system in which a single cavity mode driven by a suitably chosen two-tone field is coupled to two mechanical modes. The main limitation of the scheme is that the cavity decay rate must be much smaller than the two mechanical frequencies and their difference, allowing taking the rotating wave approximation where counter-rotating, non-resonant terms associated with the bichromatic driving are negligible. Here we show that, by simply adding a coherent feedback loop, the large entanglement can be remarkably enhanced and the effective cavity decay rate can be significantly reduced. Therefore, it improves the results of Ref. [New J. Phys. 17, 103037 (2015)] and meantime greatly extends the validity of the scheme.

  14. Auditory Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... field differ in their opinions about the potential benefits of hearing aids, cochlear implants, and other technologies for people with auditory neuropathy. Some professionals report that hearing aids and personal listening devices such as frequency modulation (FM) systems are ...

  15. Auditory event-related responses to diphthongs in different attention conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, David J; Steinmetzger, Kurt; Tøndering, John

    2016-07-28

    The modulation of auditory event-related potentials (ERP) by attention generally results in larger amplitudes when stimuli are attended. We measured the P1-N1-P2 acoustic change complex elicited with synthetic overt (second formant, F2Δ=1000Hz) and subtle (F2Δ=100Hz) diphthongs, while subjects (i) attended to the auditory stimuli, (ii) ignored the auditory stimuli and watched a film, and (iii) diverted their attention to a visual discrimination task. Responses elicited by diphthongs where F2 values rose and fell were found to be different and this precluded their combined analysis. Multivariate analysis of ERP components from the rising F2 changes showed main effects of attention on P2 amplitude and latency, and N1-P2 amplitude. P2 amplitude decreased by 40% between the attend and ignore conditions, and by 60% between the attend and divert conditions. The effect of diphthong magnitude was significant for components from a broader temporal window which included P1 latency and N1 amplitude. N1 latency did not vary between attention conditions, a finding that may be related to stimulation with a continuous vowel. These data show that a discernible P1-N1-P2 response can be observed to subtle vowel quality transitions, even when the attention of a subject is diverted to an unrelated visual task. PMID:27158036

  16. Bridging the Gap between Expert-Novice Differences: The Model-Based Feedback Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifenthaler, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    The study adds to the body of knowledge about different types of feedback. Feedback is considered a fundamental component for supporting and regulating learning processes. Especially in computer-based and self-regulated learning environments, the nature of feedback is of critical importance. Hence, this study investigates different types of…

  17. Auditory same/different concept learning and generalization in black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeschele, Marisa; Cook, Robert G; Guillette, Lauren M; Hahn, Allison H; Sturdy, Christopher B

    2012-01-01

    Abstract concept learning was thought to be uniquely human, but has since been observed in many other species. Discriminating same from different is one abstract relation that has been studied frequently. In the current experiment, using operant conditioning, we tested whether black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) could discriminate sets of auditory stimuli based on whether all the sounds within a sequence were the same or different from one another. The chickadees were successful at solving this same/different relational task, and transferred their learning to same/different sequences involving novel combinations of training notes and novel notes within the range of pitches experienced during training. The chickadees showed limited transfer to pitches that was not used in training, suggesting that the processing of absolute pitch may constrain their relational performance. Our results indicate, for the first time, that black-capped chickadees readily form relational auditory same and different categories, adding to the list of perceptual, behavioural, and cognitive abilities that make this species an important comparative model for human language and cognition.

  18. Auditory same/different concept learning and generalization in black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Hoeschele

    Full Text Available Abstract concept learning was thought to be uniquely human, but has since been observed in many other species. Discriminating same from different is one abstract relation that has been studied frequently. In the current experiment, using operant conditioning, we tested whether black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus could discriminate sets of auditory stimuli based on whether all the sounds within a sequence were the same or different from one another. The chickadees were successful at solving this same/different relational task, and transferred their learning to same/different sequences involving novel combinations of training notes and novel notes within the range of pitches experienced during training. The chickadees showed limited transfer to pitches that was not used in training, suggesting that the processing of absolute pitch may constrain their relational performance. Our results indicate, for the first time, that black-capped chickadees readily form relational auditory same and different categories, adding to the list of perceptual, behavioural, and cognitive abilities that make this species an important comparative model for human language and cognition.

  19. State-dependent changes in auditory sensory gating in different cortical areas in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renli Qi

    Full Text Available Sensory gating is a process in which the brain's response to a repetitive stimulus is attenuated; it is thought to contribute to information processing by enabling organisms to filter extraneous sensory inputs from the environment. To date, sensory gating has typically been used to determine whether brain function is impaired, such as in individuals with schizophrenia or addiction. In healthy subjects, sensory gating is sensitive to a subject's behavioral state, such as acute stress and attention. The cortical response to sensory stimulation significantly decreases during sleep; however, information processing continues throughout sleep, and an auditory evoked potential (AEP can be elicited by sound. It is not known whether sensory gating changes during sleep. Sleep is a non-uniform process in the whole brain with regional differences in neural activities. Thus, another question arises concerning whether sensory gating changes are uniform in different brain areas from waking to sleep. To address these questions, we used the sound stimuli of a Conditioning-testing paradigm to examine sensory gating during waking, rapid eye movement (REM sleep and Non-REM (NREM sleep in different cortical areas in rats. We demonstrated the following: 1. Auditory sensory gating was affected by vigilant states in the frontal and parietal areas but not in the occipital areas. 2. Auditory sensory gating decreased in NREM sleep but not REM sleep from waking in the frontal and parietal areas. 3. The decreased sensory gating in the frontal and parietal areas during NREM sleep was the result of a significant increase in the test sound amplitude.

  20. Muscle involvement during intermittent contraction patterns with different target force feedback modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjøgaard, G; Jørgensen, L V; Ekner, D;

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Assess the effect of different feedback modes during intermittent contractions on primary and assessory muscle activity. BACKGROUND: Intermittent contractions and physiological responses have been studied in laboratory settings. However, the feedback given to the subjects regarding...... the two different feedback modes. In line with this, EMG recorded from four shoulder/arm muscles analyzed for amplitude and frequency showed similar activity initially; but later, during the 30 min contraction larger amplitudes were attained during proprioceptive feedback than visual feedback. CONCLUSIONS......: Feedback mode significantly effects the muscle involvement and fatigue during intermittent contractions. RelevanceIntermittent contractions are common in many work places and various feedback modes are being given regarding work requirements. The choice of feedback may significantly affect the muscle load...

  1. Auditory-motor learning influences auditory memory for music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel M; Palmer, Caroline

    2012-05-01

    In two experiments, we investigated how auditory-motor learning influences performers' memory for music. Skilled pianists learned novel melodies in four conditions: auditory only (listening), motor only (performing without sound), strongly coupled auditory-motor (normal performance), and weakly coupled auditory-motor (performing along with auditory recordings). Pianists' recognition of the learned melodies was better following auditory-only or auditory-motor (weakly coupled and strongly coupled) learning than following motor-only learning, and better following strongly coupled auditory-motor learning than following auditory-only learning. Auditory and motor imagery abilities modulated the learning effects: Pianists with high auditory imagery scores had better recognition following motor-only learning, suggesting that auditory imagery compensated for missing auditory feedback at the learning stage. Experiment 2 replicated the findings of Experiment 1 with melodies that contained greater variation in acoustic features. Melodies that were slower and less variable in tempo and intensity were remembered better following weakly coupled auditory-motor learning. These findings suggest that motor learning can aid performers' auditory recognition of music beyond auditory learning alone, and that motor learning is influenced by individual abilities in mental imagery and by variation in acoustic features. PMID:22271265

  2. Exploration of auditory P50 gating in schizophrenia by way of difference waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnfred Sidse M

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Electroencephalographic measures of information processing encompass both mid-latency evoked potentials like the pre-attentive auditory P50 potential and a host of later more cognitive components like P300 and N400. Difference waves have mostly been employed in studies of later event related potentials but here this method along with low frequency filtering is applied exploratory on auditory P50 gating data, previously analyzed in the standard format (reported in Am J Psychiatry 2003, 160:2236-8. The exploration was motivated by the observation during visual peak detection that the AEP waveform was different in the patient group, although this was not reflected by the peak measures. The sample included un-medicated schizophrenia spectrum patients (n = 17 and healthy controls (n = 24. The patients had an attenuated difference P50. This attenuation was primarily seen in the sub-sample of patients with severe negative symptoms. The difference attenuation was due to low amplitude at the first stimulus. This suggests an abnormality in readiness more than an abnormality in gating in the patient group.

  3. Effects of auditory stimulation with music of different intensities on heart period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Amaral, Joice A T; Guida, Heraldo L; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Barnabé, Viviani; Vanderlei, Franciele M; Valenti, Vitor E

    2016-01-01

    Various studies have indicated that music therapy with relaxant music improves cardiac function of patients treated with cardiotoxic medication and heavy-metal music acutely reduces heart rate variability (HRV). There is also evidence that white noise auditory stimulation above 50 dB causes cardiac autonomic responses. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the acute effects of musical auditory stimulation with different intensities on cardiac autonomic regulation. This study was performed on 24 healthy women between 18 and 25 years of age. We analyzed HRV in the time [standard deviation of normal-to-normal RR intervals (SDNN), percentage of adjacent RR intervals with a difference of duration >50 ms (pNN50), and root-mean square of differences between adjacent normal RR intervals in a time interval (RMSSD)] and frequency [low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF), and LF/HF ratio] domains. HRV was recorded at rest for 10 minutes. Subsequently, the volunteers were exposed to baroque or heavy-metal music for 5 minutes through an earphone. The volunteers were exposed to three equivalent sound levels (60-70, 70-80, and 80-90 dB). After the first baroque or heavy-metal music, they remained at rest for 5 minutes and then they were exposed to the other music. The sequence of songs was randomized for each individual. Heavy-metal musical auditory stimulation at 80-90 dB reduced the SDNN index compared with control (44.39 ± 14.40 ms vs. 34.88 ± 8.69 ms), and stimulation at 60-70 dB decreased the LF (ms(2)) index compared with control (668.83 ± 648.74 ms(2) vs. 392.5 ± 179.94 ms(2)). Baroque music at 60-70 dB reduced the LF (ms(2)) index (587.75 ± 318.44 ms(2) vs. 376.21 ± 178.85 ms(2)). In conclusion, heavy-metal and baroque musical auditory stimulation at lower intensities acutely reduced global modulation of the heart and only heavy-metal music reduced HRV at higher intensities. PMID:26870675

  4. Assessing Nonverbal Same/Different Judgments of Auditory Stimuli in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities: A Methodological Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serna, Richard W; Preston, Mark A; Thompson, G Brooks

    2009-01-01

    This methodological paper reports an initial attempt to evaluate the feasibility and utility of a nonverbal task for assessing generalized same/different judgments of auditory stimuli in individuals who have intellectual disabilities. Study 1 asked whether participants could readily acquire a baseline of auditory same/different, go-left/go-right performance with minimal prompting. Sample stimuli consisted of pairs of successively presented sine-wave tones. If the tones were identical, participants were reinforced for selections of a visual stimulus on the left side of the computer screen; if the two stimuli were different, selections of the visual stimulus on the right were reinforced. Two of five participants readily acquired the task, generalized performance to other stimuli and completed a rudimentary protocol for examining auditory discriminations that are potentially more difficult than those used to establish the initial task. In Study 2, two participants who could not perform the go-left/go-right task with tone stimuli, but could do so with spoken-word stimuli, successfully transferred control by spoken words to tones via an auditory superimposition-and-fading procedure. The findings support the feasibility of using the task as a general-purpose auditory discrimination assessment.

  5. Intraspecific and intergenerational differences in plant-soil feedbacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagg, Cameron; Boller, Beat; Schneider, Salome; Widmer, Franco; van der Heijden, Marcel G A

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between plant and soil communities are known to play an integral role in shaping ecosystems. Plants influence the composition of soil communities and soil communities in turn influence plant performance. Such a plant-soil feedback may incur selection pressure on plants and the associati

  6. Time course of auditory streaming: Do CI users differ from normal-hearing listeners?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eBöckmann-Barthel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In a complex acoustical environment with multiple sound sources the auditory system uses streaming as a tool to organize the incoming sounds in one or more streams depending on the stimulus parameters. Streaming is commonly studied by alternating sequences of signals. These are often tones with different frequencies. The present study investigates stream segregation in cochlear implant (CI users, where hearing is restored by electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve. CI users listened to 30-s long sequences of alternating A and B harmonic complexes at four different fundamental frequency separations, ranging from 2 to 14 semitones. They had to indicate as promptly as possible after sequence onset, if they perceived one stream or two streams and, in addition, any changes of the percept throughout the rest of the sequence. The conventional view is that the initial percept is always that of a single stream which may after some time change to a percept of two streams. This general build-up hypothesis has recently been challenged on the basis of a new analysis of data of normal-hearing listeners which showed a build-up response only for an intermediate frequency separation. Using the same experimental paradigm and analysis, the present study found that the results of CI users agree with those of the normal-hearing listeners: (i the probability of the first decision to be a one-stream percept decreased and that of a two-stream percept increased as Δf increased, and (ii a build-up was only found for 6 semitones. Only the time elapsed before the listeners made their first decision of the percept was prolonged as compared to normal-hearing listeners. The similarity in the data of the CI user and the normal-hearing listeners indicates that the quality of stream formation is similar in these groups of listeners.

  7. Automatic Thermal Control System with Temperature Difference or Derivation Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darina Matiskova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Automatic thermal control systems seem to be non-linear systems with thermal inertias and time delay. A controller is also non-linear because its information and power signals are limited. The application of methods that are available to on-linear systems together with computer simulation and mathematical modelling creates a possibility to acquire important information about the researched system. This paper provides a new look at the heated system model and also designs the structure of the thermal system with temperature derivation feedback. The designed system was simulated by using a special software in Turbo Pascal. Time responses of this system are compared to responses of a conventional thermal system. The thermal system with temperature derivation feedback provides better transients, better quality of regulation and better dynamical properties.

  8. Employing Different Ways to Provide Large Class Formative Feedback in College English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Lihua; Yang Bo; Ou Ying

    2015-01-01

    Formative feedback is usually regarded as crucial for encouraging and consolidating students’ learning. Appropriate and timely formative feedback can help motivate and develop student’s knowledge, skills and understanding in some content area or general skills. In this paper, the authors provide college English instructors with different ways of offering flexible, prompt, effective and directive formative feedback to large class in college English teaching.

  9. Individual Differences in Auditory Sentence Comprehension in Children: An Exploratory Event-Related Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeatman, Jason D.; Ben-Shachar, Michal; Glover, Gary H.; Feldman, Heidi M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore changes in activation of the cortical network that serves auditory sentence comprehension in children in response to increasing demands of complex sentences. A further goal is to study how individual differences in children's receptive language abilities are associated with such changes in cortical…

  10. Cognitive Strategy Use as an Index of Developmental Differences in Neural Responses to Feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lau M.; Visser, Ingmar; Crone, Eveline A.;

    2014-01-01

    Developmental differences in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and superior parietal cortex (SPC) activation are associated with differences in how children, adolescents, and adults learn from performance feedback in rule-learning tasks (Crone, Zanolie...

  11. Response stability and variability induced in humans by different feedback contingenies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maes, J.H.R.

    2003-01-01

    In two experiments, the behavioral effects of different response-feedback contingencies were examined with a task requiring human subjects to repeatedly type three-key sequences on a computer keyboard. In Experiment 1, the subjects first received positive feedback for response variability, followed

  12. Auditory efferent feedback system deficits precede age-related hearing loss: contralateral suppression of otoacoustic emissions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoxia; Vasilyeva, Olga N; Kim, Sunghee; Jacobson, Michael; Romney, Joshua; Waterman, Marjorie S; Tuttle, David; Frisina, Robert D

    2007-08-10

    The C57BL/6J mouse has been a useful model of presbycusis, as it displays an accelerated age-related peripheral hearing loss. The medial olivocochlear efferent feedback (MOC) system plays a role in suppressing cochlear outer hair cell (OHC) responses, particularly for background noise. Neurons of the MOC system are located in the superior olivary complex, particularly in the dorsomedial periolivary nucleus (DMPO) and in the ventral nucleus of the trapezoid body (VNTB). We previously discovered that the function of the MOC system declines with age prior to OHC degeneration, as measured by contralateral suppression (CS) of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) in humans and CBA mice. The present study aimed to determine the time course of age changes in MOC function in C57s. DPOAE amplitudes and CS of DPOAEs were collected for C57s from 6 to 40 weeks of age. MOC responses were observed at 6 weeks but were gone at middle (15-30 kHz) and high (30-45 kHz) frequencies by 8 weeks. Quantitative stereological analyses of Nissl sections revealed smaller neurons in the DMPO and VNTB of young adult C57s compared with CBAs. These findings suggest that reduced neuron size may underlie part of the noteworthy rapid decline of the C57 efferent system. In conclusion, the C57 mouse has MOC function at 6 weeks, but it declines quickly, preceding the progression of peripheral age-related sensitivity deficits and hearing loss in this mouse strain.

  13. Auditory Display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    volume. The conference's topics include auditory exploration of data via sonification and audification; real time monitoring of multivariate date; sound in immersive interfaces and teleoperation; perceptual issues in auditory display; sound in generalized computer interfaces; technologies supporting...... auditory display creation; data handling for auditory display systems; applications of auditory display....

  14. The Same or Different? A Phenomenological Comparison of Auditory Verbal Hallucinations in Healthy and Psychotic Individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daalman, Kirstin; Boks, Marco P. M.; Diederen, Kelly M. J.; de Weijer, Antoin D.; Blom, Jan Dirk; Kahn, Rene S.; Sommer, Iris E. C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Whereas auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) are most characteristic of schizophrenia, their presence has frequently been described in a continuum, ranging from severely psychotic patients to schizotypal personality disorder patients to otherwise healthy participants. It remains unclear

  15. How do auditory verbal hallucinations in patients differ from those in non-patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larøi, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) are experienced by individuals with various clinical diagnoses, such as psychosis, but also a significant minority of healthy individuals from the general population may experience them. Although much research has been carried out the past few decades, the mechanisms and factors underlying the emergence of AVHs is still poorly understood. One way of clarifying this issue involves comparing AVHs in patient and non-patient populations. In particular, differences between these groups will provide important information concerning the emergence of AVHs. After a general presentation and discussion of the notion of a continuum hypothesis, studies comparing patients with non-patients experiencing AVHs will be reviewed. This will comprise studies examining the phenomenological characteristics of AVHs in addition to neuroimaging and cognitive studies. Although we are beginning to elucidate important differences on a phenomenological level between these two types of AVHs, far too few studies have directly compared patient and non-patient AVHs in terms of underlying cerebral correlates and cognitive mechanisms. Nevertheless, and based on recent research on phenomenological differences, two issues stand out that need to be addressed, namely, the highly negative emotional content of AVHs in patients and the early onset of AVHs in non-patients populations. Suggestions for future research will be discussed.

  16. Eye Movements during Auditory Attention Predict Individual Differences in Dorsal Attention Network Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Rodrigo M.; Fu, Richard Z.; Seemungal, Barry M.; Wise, Richard J. S.; Leech, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The neural mechanisms supporting auditory attention are not fully understood. A dorsal frontoparietal network of brain regions is thought to mediate the spatial orienting of attention across all sensory modalities. Key parts of this network, the frontal eye fields (FEF) and the superior parietal lobes (SPL), contain retinotopic maps and elicit saccades when stimulated. This suggests that their recruitment during auditory attention might reflect crossmodal oculomotor processes; however this has not been confirmed experimentally. Here we investigate whether task-evoked eye movements during an auditory task can predict the magnitude of activity within the dorsal frontoparietal network. A spatial and non-spatial listening task was used with on-line eye-tracking and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). No visual stimuli or cues were used. The auditory task elicited systematic eye movements, with saccade rate and gaze position predicting attentional engagement and the cued sound location, respectively. Activity associated with these separate aspects of evoked eye-movements dissociated between the SPL and FEF. However these observed eye movements could not account for all the activation in the frontoparietal network. Our results suggest that the recruitment of the SPL and FEF during attentive listening reflects, at least partly, overt crossmodal oculomotor processes during non-visual attention. Further work is needed to establish whether the network’s remaining contribution to auditory attention is through covert crossmodal processes, or is directly involved in the manipulation of auditory information. PMID:27242465

  17. Perception of auditory, visual, and egocentric spatial alignment adapts differently to changes in eye position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Qi N; Razavi, Babak; O'Neill, William E; Paige, Gary D

    2010-02-01

    Vision and audition represent the outside world in spatial synergy that is crucial for guiding natural activities. Input conveying eye-in-head position is needed to maintain spatial congruence because the eyes move in the head while the ears remain head-fixed. Recently, we reported that the human perception of auditory space shifts with changes in eye position. In this study, we examined whether this phenomenon is 1) dependent on a visual fixation reference, 2) selective for frequency bands (high-pass and low-pass noise) related to specific auditory spatial channels, 3) matched by a shift in the perceived straight-ahead (PSA), and 4) accompanied by a spatial shift for visual and/or bimodal (visual and auditory) targets. Subjects were tested in a dark echo-attenuated chamber with their heads fixed facing a cylindrical screen, behind which a mobile speaker/LED presented targets across the frontal field. Subjects fixated alternating reference spots (0, +/-20 degrees ) horizontally or vertically while either localizing targets or indicating PSA using a laser pointer. Results showed that the spatial shift induced by ocular eccentricity is 1) preserved for auditory targets without a visual fixation reference, 2) generalized for all frequency bands, and thus all auditory spatial channels, 3) paralleled by a shift in PSA, and 4) restricted to auditory space. Findings are consistent with a set-point control strategy by which eye position governs multimodal spatial alignment. The phenomenon is robust for auditory space and egocentric perception, and highlights the importance of controlling for eye position in the examination of spatial perception and behavior. PMID:19846626

  18. Spatial selective auditory attention in the presence of reverberant energy: individual differences in normal-hearing listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Dorea; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara

    2011-06-01

    Listeners can selectively attend to a desired target by directing attention to known target source features, such as location or pitch. Reverberation, however, reduces the reliability of the cues that allow a target source to be segregated and selected from a sound mixture. Given this, it is likely that reverberant energy interferes with selective auditory attention. Anecdotal reports suggest that the ability to focus spatial auditory attention degrades even with early aging, yet there is little evidence that middle-aged listeners have behavioral deficits on tasks requiring selective auditory attention. The current study was designed to look for individual differences in selective attention ability and to see if any such differences correlate with age. Normal-hearing adults, ranging in age from 18 to 55 years, were asked to report a stream of digits located directly ahead in a simulated rectangular room. Simultaneous, competing masker digit streams were simulated at locations 15° left and right of center. The level of reverberation was varied to alter task difficulty by interfering with localization cues (increasing localization blur). Overall, performance was best in the anechoic condition and worst in the high-reverberation condition. Listeners nearly always reported a digit from one of the three competing streams, showing that reverberation did not render the digits unintelligible. Importantly, inter-subject differences were extremely large. These differences, however, were not significantly correlated with age, memory span, or hearing status. These results show that listeners with audiometrically normal pure tone thresholds differ in their ability to selectively attend to a desired source, a task important in everyday communication. Further work is necessary to determine if these differences arise from differences in peripheral auditory function or in more central function.

  19. The effects of different styles of musical auditory stimulation on cardiac autonomic regulation in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Adriano L; Valenti, Vitor E; Guida, Heraldo L; Campos, Mônica F; Knap, André; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos M; Ferreira, Celso; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The literature investigated the effects of chronic baroque music auditory stimulation on the cardiovascular system. However, it lacks in the literature the acute effects of different styles of music on cardiac autonomic regulation. To evaluate the acute effects of baroque and heavy metal music on heart rate variability (HRV) in women. The study was performed in 21 healthy women between 18 and 30 years old. We excluded persons with previous experience with music instrument and those who had affinity with the song styles. All procedures were performed in the same sound-proof room. We analyzed HRV in the time (standard deviation of normal-to-normal respiratory rate (RR) intervals, root-mean square of differences between adjacent normal RR intervals in a time interval, and the percentage of adjacent RR intervals with a difference of duration greater than 50 ms) and frequency (low frequency [LF], high frequency [HF], and LF/HF ratio) domains. HRV was recorded at rest for 10 min. Subsequently they were exposed to baroque or heavy metal music for 5 min through an earphone. After the first music exposure they remained at rest for more 5 min and them they were exposed again to baroque or heavy metal music. The sequence of songs was randomized for each individual. The power analysis provided a minimal number of 18 subjects. Shapiro-Wilk to verify normality of data and analysis of variance for repeated measures followed by the Bonferroni test for parametric variables and Friedman's followed by the Dunn's post-test for non-parametric distributions. During the analysis of the time-domain indices were not changed. In the frequency-domain analysis, the LF in absolute units was reduced during the heavy metal music stimulation compared to control. Acute exposure to heavy metal music affected the sympathetic activity in healthy women. PMID:23771427

  20. Different mechanisms are responsible for dishabituation of electrophysiological auditory responses to a change in acoustic identity than to a change in stimulus location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smulders, Tom V; Jarvis, Erich D

    2013-11-01

    Repeated exposure to an auditory stimulus leads to habituation of the electrophysiological and immediate-early-gene (IEG) expression response in the auditory system. A novel auditory stimulus reinstates this response in a form of dishabituation. This has been interpreted as the start of new memory formation for this novel stimulus. Changes in the location of an otherwise identical auditory stimulus can also dishabituate the IEG expression response. This has been interpreted as an integration of stimulus identity and stimulus location into a single auditory object, encoded in the firing patterns of the auditory system. In this study, we further tested this hypothesis. Using chronic multi-electrode arrays to record multi-unit activity from the auditory system of awake and behaving zebra finches, we found that habituation occurs to repeated exposure to the same song and dishabituation with a novel song, similar to that described in head-fixed, restrained animals. A large proportion of recording sites also showed dishabituation when the same auditory stimulus was moved to a novel location. However, when the song was randomly moved among 8 interleaved locations, habituation occurred independently of the continuous changes in location. In contrast, when 8 different auditory stimuli were interleaved all from the same location, a separate habituation occurred to each stimulus. This result suggests that neuronal memories of the acoustic identity and spatial location are different, and that allocentric location of a stimulus is not encoded as part of the memory for an auditory object, while its acoustic properties are. We speculate that, instead, the dishabituation that occurs with a change from a stable location of a sound is due to the unexpectedness of the location change, and might be due to different underlying mechanisms than the dishabituation and separate habituations to different acoustic stimuli.

  1. Schizophrenia and borderline personality disorder: similarities and differences in the experience of auditory hallucinations, paranoia, and childhood trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingdon, David G; Ashcroft, Katie; Bhandari, Bharathi; Gleeson, Stefan; Warikoo, Nishchint; Symons, Matthew; Taylor, Lisa; Lucas, Eleanor; Mahendra, Ravi; Ghosh, Soumya; Mason, Anthony; Badrakalimuthu, Raja; Hepworth, Claire; Read, John; Mehta, Raj

    2010-06-01

    This study investigated similarities and differences in the experience of auditory hallucinations, paranoia, and childhood trauma in schizophrenia and borderline personality disorder (BPD). Patients with clinical diagnoses of schizophrenia or BPD were interviewed using the Structured Clinical Interviews for DSM-IV. Axes 1 and 2 and auditory hallucinations, paranoia, and childhood trauma were assessed. A total of 111 patients participated; 59 met criteria for schizophrenia, 33 for BPD, and 19 for both. The groups were similar in their experiences of voices, including the perceived location of them, but they differed in frequency of paranoid delusions. Those with a diagnosis of BPD, including those with schizophrenia comorbidity, reported more childhood trauma, especially emotional abuse. BPD and schizophrenia frequently coexist, and this comorbidity has implications for diagnostic classification and treatment. Levels of reported childhood trauma are especially high in those with a BPD diagnosis, whether they have schizophrenia or not, and this requires assessment and appropriate management.

  2. Auditory Processing Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auditory Processing Disorders Auditory processing disorders (APDs) are referred to by many names: central auditory processing disorders , auditory perceptual disorders , and central auditory disorders . APDs ...

  3. Restoring natural sensory feedback in real-time bidirectional hand prostheses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raspopovic, Stanisa; Capogrosso, Marco; Petrini, Francesco Maria;

    2014-01-01

    to an amputee during the real-time decoding of different grasping tasks to control a dexterous hand prosthesis. This feedback enabled the participant to effectively modulate the grasping force of the prosthesis with no visual or auditory feedback. Three different force levels were distinguished and consistently...

  4. Auditory imagery: empirical findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Timothy L

    2010-03-01

    The empirical literature on auditory imagery is reviewed. Data on (a) imagery for auditory features (pitch, timbre, loudness), (b) imagery for complex nonverbal auditory stimuli (musical contour, melody, harmony, tempo, notational audiation, environmental sounds), (c) imagery for verbal stimuli (speech, text, in dreams, interior monologue), (d) auditory imagery's relationship to perception and memory (detection, encoding, recall, mnemonic properties, phonological loop), and (e) individual differences in auditory imagery (in vividness, musical ability and experience, synesthesia, musical hallucinosis, schizophrenia, amusia) are considered. It is concluded that auditory imagery (a) preserves many structural and temporal properties of auditory stimuli, (b) can facilitate auditory discrimination but interfere with auditory detection, (c) involves many of the same brain areas as auditory perception, (d) is often but not necessarily influenced by subvocalization, (e) involves semantically interpreted information and expectancies, (f) involves depictive components and descriptive components, (g) can function as a mnemonic but is distinct from rehearsal, and (h) is related to musical ability and experience (although the mechanisms of that relationship are not clear). PMID:20192565

  5. Spectrotemporal processing differences between auditory cortical fast-spiking and regular-spiking neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Atencio, Craig A.; Schreiner, Christoph E

    2008-01-01

    Excitatory pyramidal neurons and inhibitory interneurons constitute the main elements of cortical circuitry and have distinctive morphologic and electrophysiological properties. Here, we differentiate them by analyzing the time course of their action potentials (APs) and characterizing their receptive field properties in auditory cortex. Pyramidal neurons have longer APs and discharge as Regular-Spiking Units (RSUs), while basket and chandelier cells, which are inhibitory interneurons, have s...

  6. Perception of Auditory, Visual, and Egocentric Spatial Alignment Adapts Differently to Changes in Eye Position

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Qi N; Razavi, Babak; O'Neill, William E.; Paige, Gary D.

    2009-01-01

    Vision and audition represent the outside world in spatial synergy that is crucial for guiding natural activities. Input conveying eye-in-head position is needed to maintain spatial congruence because the eyes move in the head while the ears remain head-fixed. Recently, we reported that the human perception of auditory space shifts with changes in eye position. In this study, we examined whether this phenomenon is 1) dependent on a visual fixation reference, 2) selective for frequency bands (...

  7. Polarity sensitivity of the electrically stimulated auditory nerve at different cochlear sites

    OpenAIRE

    Undurraga Lucero, Jaime; van Wieringen, Astrid; Carlyon, Robert P.; Macherey, Olivier; Wouters, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Commercially available cochlear implants (CIs) stimulate the auditory nerve (AN) using symmetric biphasic current (BP) pulses. However, recent data have shown that the use of asymmetric pulse shapes could be beneficial in terms of reducing power consumption, increasing dynamic range and limiting channel interactions. In these charge-balanced stimuli, the effectiveness of one phase (one polarity) is reduced by making it longer and lower in amplitude than the other. For the design of novel CI s...

  8. Cognitive Strategy Use as an Index of Developmental Differences in Neural Responses to Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Lau M.; Visser, Ingmar; Crone, Eveline A.; Koolschijn, P. Cédric M. P.; Raijmakers, Maartje E. J.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental differences in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and superior parietal cortex (SPC) activation are associated with differences in how children, adolescents, and adults learn from performance feedback in rule-learning tasks (Crone, Zanolie, Leijenhorst, Westenberg, & Rombouts, 2008). Both…

  9. Knowledge About Sounds-Context-Specific Meaning Differently Activates Cortical Hemispheres, Auditory Cortical Fields, and Layers in House Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, Diana B; Schmidt, H Sabine; Ehret, Günter

    2016-01-01

    Activation of the auditory cortex (AC) by a given sound pattern is plastic, depending, in largely unknown ways, on the physiological state and the behavioral context of the receiving animal and on the receiver's experience with the sounds. Such plasticity can be inferred when house mouse mothers respond maternally to pup ultrasounds right after parturition and naïve females have to learn to respond. Here we use c-FOS immunocytochemistry to quantify highly activated neurons in the AC fields and layers of seven groups of mothers and naïve females who have different knowledge about and are differently motivated to respond to acoustic models of pup ultrasounds of different behavioral significance. Profiles of FOS-positive cells in the AC primary fields (AI, AAF), the ultrasonic field (UF), the secondary field (AII), and the dorsoposterior field (DP) suggest that activation reflects in AI, AAF, and UF the integration of sound properties with animal state-dependent factors, in the higher-order field AII the news value of a given sound in the behavioral context, and in the higher-order field DP the level of maternal motivation and, by left-hemisphere activation advantage, the recognition of the meaning of sounds in the given context. Anesthesia reduced activation in all fields, especially in cortical layers 2/3. Thus, plasticity in the AC is field-specific preparing different output of AC fields in the process of perception, recognition and responding to communication sounds. Further, the activation profiles of the auditory cortical fields suggest the differentiation between brains hormonally primed to know (mothers) and brains which acquired knowledge via implicit learning (naïve females). In this way, auditory cortical activation discriminates between instinctive (mothers) and learned (naïve females) cognition. PMID:27013959

  10. Knowledge about Sounds – Context-Specific Meaning Differently Activates Cortical Hemispheres, Auditory Cortical Fields and Layers in House Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana B. Geissler

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Activation of the auditory cortex (AC by a given sound pattern is plastic, depending, in largely unknown ways, on the physiological state and the behavioral context of the receiving animal and on the receiver's experience with the sounds. Such plasticity can be inferred when house mouse mothers respond maternally to pup ultrasounds right after parturition and naïve females have to learn to respond. Here we use c-FOS immunocytochemistry to quantify highly activated neurons in the AC fields and layers of seven groups of mothers and naïve females who have different knowledge about and are differently motivated to respond to acoustic models of pup ultrasounds of different behavioral significance. Profiles of FOS-positive cells in the AC primary fields (AI, AAF, the ultrasonic field (UF, the secondary field (AII, and the dorsoposterior field (DP suggest that activation reflects in AI, AAF, and UF the integration of sound properties with animal state-dependent factors, in the higher-order field AII the news value of a given sound in the behavioral context, and in the higher-order field DP the level of maternal motivation and, by left-hemisphere activation advantage, the recognition of the meaning of sounds in the given context. Anesthesia reduced activation in all fields, especially in cortical layers 2/3. Thus, plasticity in the AC is field-specific preparing different output of AC fields in the process of perception, recognition and responding to communication sounds. Further, the activation profiles of the auditory cortical fields suggest the differentiation between brains hormonally primed to know (mothers and brains which acquired knowledge via implicit learning (naïve females. In this way, auditory cortical activation discriminates between instinctive (mothers and learned (naïve females cognition.

  11. Knowledge About Sounds-Context-Specific Meaning Differently Activates Cortical Hemispheres, Auditory Cortical Fields, and Layers in House Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, Diana B; Schmidt, H Sabine; Ehret, Günter

    2016-01-01

    Activation of the auditory cortex (AC) by a given sound pattern is plastic, depending, in largely unknown ways, on the physiological state and the behavioral context of the receiving animal and on the receiver's experience with the sounds. Such plasticity can be inferred when house mouse mothers respond maternally to pup ultrasounds right after parturition and naïve females have to learn to respond. Here we use c-FOS immunocytochemistry to quantify highly activated neurons in the AC fields and layers of seven groups of mothers and naïve females who have different knowledge about and are differently motivated to respond to acoustic models of pup ultrasounds of different behavioral significance. Profiles of FOS-positive cells in the AC primary fields (AI, AAF), the ultrasonic field (UF), the secondary field (AII), and the dorsoposterior field (DP) suggest that activation reflects in AI, AAF, and UF the integration of sound properties with animal state-dependent factors, in the higher-order field AII the news value of a given sound in the behavioral context, and in the higher-order field DP the level of maternal motivation and, by left-hemisphere activation advantage, the recognition of the meaning of sounds in the given context. Anesthesia reduced activation in all fields, especially in cortical layers 2/3. Thus, plasticity in the AC is field-specific preparing different output of AC fields in the process of perception, recognition and responding to communication sounds. Further, the activation profiles of the auditory cortical fields suggest the differentiation between brains hormonally primed to know (mothers) and brains which acquired knowledge via implicit learning (naïve females). In this way, auditory cortical activation discriminates between instinctive (mothers) and learned (naïve females) cognition.

  12. Effects of Signal Spectrum Bandwidth on Different PMD Compensation Feedback Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na Young Kim; Duckey Lee; Sangin Kim; Namkyoo Park

    2003-01-01

    We compared efficiencies of different PMD compensation feedback methods against transmission signal bandwidth,including NRZ, RZ, CRZ format under various duty cycles. We found that the critical factor determining the efficiency of PMD compensation is not the modulation format, but the spectral bandwidth of the transmission signal.

  13. Effects of Signal Spectrum Bandwidth on Different PMD Compensation Feedback Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na; Young; Kim; Duckey; Lee; Sangin; Kim; Namkyoo; Park

    2003-01-01

    We compared efficiencies of different PMD compensation feedback methods against transmission signal bandwidth, including NRZ, RZ, CRZ format under various duty cycles. We found that the critical factor determining the efficiency of PMD compensation is not the modulation format, but the spectral bandwidth of the transmission signal.

  14. The Relative Effectiveness of Different Types of Direct Written Corrective Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitchener, John; Knoch, Ute

    2009-01-01

    The effectiveness of different types of written corrective feedback has been investigated over the last twenty years but it is still not possible to make firm conclusions about which options are the most beneficial to ESL learners. This article first provides an overview of the currently available research findings and then presents the results of…

  15. Children with reading disability show brain differences in effective connectivity for visual, but not auditory word comprehension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous literature suggests that those with reading disability (RD have more pronounced deficits during semantic processing in reading as compared to listening comprehension. This discrepancy has been supported by recent neuroimaging studies showing abnormal activity in RD during semantic processing in the visual but not in the auditory modality. Whether effective connectivity between brain regions in RD could also show this pattern of discrepancy has not been investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Children (8- to 14-year-olds were given a semantic task in the visual and auditory modality that required an association judgment as to whether two sequentially presented words were associated. Effective connectivity was investigated using Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data. Bayesian Model Selection (BMS was used separately for each modality to find a winning family of DCM models separately for typically developing (TD and RD children. BMS yielded the same winning family with modulatory effects on bottom-up connections from the input regions to middle temporal gyrus (MTG and inferior frontal gyrus(IFG with inconclusive evidence regarding top-down modulations. Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA was thus conducted across models in this winning family and compared across groups. The bottom-up effect from the fusiform gyrus (FG to MTG rather than the top-down effect from IFG to MTG was stronger in TD compared to RD for the visual modality. The stronger bottom-up influence in TD was only evident for related word pairs but not for unrelated pairs. No group differences were noted in the auditory modality. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study revealed a modality-specific deficit for children with RD in bottom-up effective connectivity from orthographic to semantic processing regions. There were no group differences in connectivity from frontal regions, suggesting that the core deficit in RD is not

  16. THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT CORRECTIVE FEEDBACK METHODS ON THE OUTCOME AND SELF CONFIDENCE OF YOUNG ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Tzetzis

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This experiment investigated the effects of three corrective feedback methods, using different combinations of correction, or error cues and positive feedback for learning two badminton skills with different difficulty (forehand clear - low difficulty, backhand clear - high difficulty. Outcome and self-confidence scores were used as dependent variables. The 48 participants were randomly assigned into four groups. Group A received correction cues and positive feedback. Group B received cues on errors of execution. Group C received positive feedback, correction cues and error cues. Group D was the control group. A pre, post and a retention test was conducted. A three way analysis of variance ANOVA (4 groups X 2 task difficulty X 3 measures with repeated measures on the last factor revealed significant interactions for each depended variable. All the corrective feedback methods groups, increased their outcome scores over time for the easy skill, but only groups A and C for the difficult skill. Groups A and B had significantly better outcome scores than group C and the control group for the easy skill on the retention test. However, for the difficult skill, group C was better than groups A, B and D. The self confidence scores of groups A and C improved over time for the easy skill but not for group B and D. Again, for the difficult skill, only group C improved over time. Finally a regression analysis depicted that the improvement in performance predicted a proportion of the improvement in self confidence for both the easy and the difficult skill. It was concluded that when young athletes are taught skills of different difficulty, different type of instruction, might be more appropriate in order to improve outcome and self confidence. A more integrated approach on teaching will assist coaches or physical education teachers to be more efficient and effective

  17. Exploring cultural differences in feedback processes and perceived instructiveness during clerkships : Replicating a Dutch study in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suhoyo, Yoyo; van Hell, Elisabeth A.; Prihatiningsih, Titi S.; Kuks, Jan B. M.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2014-01-01

    Context: Cultural differences between countries may entail differences in feedback processes. Aims: By replicating a Dutch study in Indonesia, we analysed whether differences in processes influenced the perceived instructiveness of feedback. Methods: Over a two-week period, Indonesian students (n =

  18. Sex differences in concordance rates between auditory event-related potentials and subjective sexual arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Taylor L; Meana, Marta; Snyder, Joel S

    2016-08-01

    Much research indicates men show a greater concordance between subjective and genital sexual arousal than do women. We investigated the relationship between subjective sexual arousal and brain activation in men and women. Subjective sexual arousal and auditory N1 and P3b ERP amplitudes were measured while 38 participants viewed erotic and non-erotic films. Most notably, there was a significant correlation between N1 amplitude and sexual arousal in men; for women, there was a significant correlation between the P3b amplitude and sexual arousal. ERP amplitudes were inversely associated with reported arousal, suggesting that sexual arousal interferes with early tone processing for men, and with later tone processing for women. Lastly, for women, pornography/erotica consumption was negatively correlated with P3b amplitudes, suggesting that women who consume more pornography/erotica may also show greater attention to erotic films. PMID:27125689

  19. Bayesian Modeling of the Dynamics of Phase Modulations and their Application to Auditory Evoked Responses at Different Loudness Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab eMortezapouraghdam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the effect of long-term habituation signatures of auditory selective attention reflected in the instantaneous phase information of the auditory event-related potentials (ERPs at four distinct stimuli levels of 60dB SPL, 70dB SPL, 80dB SPL and 90dB SPL. The analysis is based on the single-trial level. The effect of habituation can be observed in terms of the changes (jitter in the instantaneous phase information of ERPs. In particular, the absence of habituation is correlated with a consistently high phase synchronization over ERP trials.We estimate the changes in phase concentration over trials using a Bayesian approach, in which the phase is modeled as being drawn from a von Mises distribution with a concentration parameter which varies smoothly over trials. The smoothness assumption reflects the fact that habituation is a gradual process.We differentiate between different stimuli based on the relative changes and absolute values of the estimated concentration parameter using the proposed Bayesian model.

  20. Unification of soil feedback patterns under different evaporation conditions to improve soil differentiation over flat area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shanxin; Zhu, A.-Xing; Meng, Lingkui; Burt, James E.; Du, Fei; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Guiming

    2016-07-01

    Detailed and accurate information on the spatial variation of soil types and soil properties are critical components of environmental research and hydrological modeling. Early studies introduced a soil feedback pattern as a promising environmental covariate to predict spatial variation over low-relief areas. However, in practice, local evaporation can have a significant influence on these patterns, making them incomparable at different locations. This study aims to solve this problem by examining the concept of transforming the dynamic patterns of soil feedback from the original time-related space to a new evaporation-related space. A study area in northeastern Illinois with large low-relief farmland was selected to examine the effectiveness of this idea. Images from MODIS in Terra for every April-May period over 12 years (2000-2011) were used to extract the soil feedback patterns. Compared to the original time-related space, the results indicate that the patterns in the new evaporation-related space tend to be more stable and more easily captured from multiple rain events regardless of local evaporation conditions. Random samples selected for soil subgroups from the SSURGO soil map show that patterns in the new space reveal a difference between different soil types. And these differences in patterns are closely related to the difference in the soil structure of the surface layer.

  1. The Sign and Strength of Plant-Soil Feedback for the Invasive Shrub, Lonicera maackii, Varies in Different Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don Cipollini

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Plants alter soil characteristics causing changes in their subsequent growth resulting in positive or negative feedback on both their own fitness and that of other plants. In a greenhouse study, we investigated whether the sign and strength of feedback changed across two distinct soil types, and whether effects were due to shifts in biotic or abiotic soil traits. Using soils from two different locations, we examined growth of the exotic invasive shrub, Lonicera maackii and the related native shrub, Diervilla lonicera, in unconditioned soils and in soils conditioned by previous growth of L. maackii, D. lonicera, and Fraxinus pennsylvanica. In a sandy acidic soil, L. maackii showed positive feedback in unsterilized soils, but its growth decreased and positive feedback became negative with sterilization in this soil. In a loamy circumneutral soil, L. maackii displayed neutral to negative feedback in unsterilized soils, but sterilization significantly increased growth in all conditioning treatments and caused feedback to become strongly negative. Native D. lonicera displayed negative feedback in unsterilized soil of both the sandy and loamy types, but sterilization either eliminated or reversed feedback relationships. Soil conditioning by L. maackii and F. pennsylvanica had very similar feedbacks on L. maackii and D. lonicera. While some abiotic soil traits varied across soil types and were affected by conditioning, soil biota sensitive to sterilization were apparently important mediators of both positive and negative feedback effects.

  2. Distinct patterns of corticogeniculate feedback to different layers of the lateral geniculate nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichida JM

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer M Ichida,1 Julia A Mavity-Hudson,2 Vivien A Casagrande1–3 1Department of Psychology, 2Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, 3Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA Abstract: In primates, feedforward visual pathways from retina to lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN are segregated to different layers. These layers also receive strong reciprocal feedback pathways from cortex. The degree to which feedforward streams in primates are segregated from feedback streams remains unclear. Here, we asked whether corticogeniculate cells that innervate the magnocellular (M, parvocellular (P, and koniocellular (K layers of the LGN in the prosimian primate bush baby (Otolemur garnettii can be distinguished based on either the laminar distribution or morphological characteristics of their axons and synaptic contacts in LGN, or on their cell body position, size, and dendritic distribution in cortex. Corticogeniculate axons and synapses were labeled anterogradely with biotinylated dextran injections in layer 6 of cortex. Corticogeniculate cell bodies were first labeled with fluorescent dextran injections limited to individual M, P, or K LGN layers and then filled with biotinylated Lucifer yellow. Results showed that feedback to the M or P LGN layers arises from cells with dendrites primarily confined to cortical layer 6 and axons restricted to either M or P LGN layers, but not both. Feedback to K LGN layers arises from cells: 1 whose dendrites distribute rather evenly across cortical layers 5 and 6; 2 whose dendrites always extend into layer 4; and 3 whose axons are never confined to K layers but always overlap with either P or M layers. Corticogeniculate axons also showed distributions that were retinotopically precise based on known receptive field sizes of layer 6 cells, and these axons mainly made synapses with glutamatergic projection neurons in the LGN in all layers. Taken together with prior

  3. Implicit learning of predictable sound sequences modulates human brain responses at different levels of the auditory hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise eLecaignard

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Deviant stimuli, violating regularities in a sensory environment, elicit the Mismatch Negativity (MMN, largely described in the Event-Related Potential literature. While it is widely accepted that the MMN reflects more than basic change detection, a comprehensive description of mental processes modulating this response is still lacking. Within the framework of predictive coding, deviance processing is part of an inference process where prediction errors (the mismatch between incoming sensations and predictions established through experience are minimized. In this view, the MMN is a measure of prediction error, which yields specific expectations regarding its modulations by various experimental factors. In particular, it predicts that the MMN should decrease as the occurrence of a deviance becomes more predictable. We conducted a passive oddball EEG study and manipulated the predictability of sound sequences by means of different temporal structures. Importantly, our design allows comparing mismatch responses elicited by predictable and unpredictable violations of a simple repetition rule and therefore departs from previous studies that investigate violations of different time-scale regularities. We observed a decrease of the MMN with predictability and interestingly, a similar effect at earlier latencies, within 70 ms after deviance onset. Following these pre-attentive responses, a reduced P3a was measured in the case of predictable deviants. We conclude that early and late deviance responses reflect prediction errors, triggering belief updating within the auditory hierarchy. Beside, in this passive study, such perceptual inference appears to be modulated by higher-level implicit learning of sequence statistical structures. Our findings argue for a hierarchical model of auditory processing where predictive coding enables implicit extraction of environmental regularities.

  4. Sex-related differences in auditory processing in adolescents with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: A magnetoencephalographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia D. Tesche

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Children exposed to substantial amounts of alcohol in utero display a broad range of morphological and behavioral outcomes, which are collectively referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs. Common to all children on the spectrum are cognitive and behavioral problems that reflect central nervous system dysfunction. Little is known, however, about the potential effects of variables such as sex on alcohol-induced brain damage. The goal of the current research was to utilize magnetoencephalography (MEG to examine the effect of sex on brain dynamics in adolescents and young adults with FASD during the performance of an auditory oddball task. The stimuli were short trains of 1 kHz “standard” tone bursts (80% randomly interleaved with 1.5 kHz “target” tone bursts (10% and “novel” digital sounds (10%. Participants made motor responses to the target tones. Results are reported for 44 individuals (18 males and 26 females ages 12 through 22 years. Nine males and 13 females had a diagnosis of FASD and the remainder were typically-developing age- and sex-matched controls. The main finding was widespread sex-specific differential activation of the frontal, medial and temporal cortex in adolescents with FASD compared to typically developing controls. Significant differences in evoked-response and time–frequency measures of brain dynamics were observed for all stimulus types in the auditory cortex, inferior frontal sulcus and hippocampus. These results underscore the importance of considering the influence of sex when analyzing neurophysiological data in children with FASD.

  5. Auditory pathways: anatomy and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickles, James O

    2015-01-01

    This chapter outlines the anatomy and physiology of the auditory pathways. After a brief analysis of the external, middle ears, and cochlea, the responses of auditory nerve fibers are described. The central nervous system is analyzed in more detail. A scheme is provided to help understand the complex and multiple auditory pathways running through the brainstem. The multiple pathways are based on the need to preserve accurate timing while extracting complex spectral patterns in the auditory input. The auditory nerve fibers branch to give two pathways, a ventral sound-localizing stream, and a dorsal mainly pattern recognition stream, which innervate the different divisions of the cochlear nucleus. The outputs of the two streams, with their two types of analysis, are progressively combined in the inferior colliculus and onwards, to produce the representation of what can be called the "auditory objects" in the external world. The progressive extraction of critical features in the auditory stimulus in the different levels of the central auditory system, from cochlear nucleus to auditory cortex, is described. In addition, the auditory centrifugal system, running from cortex in multiple stages to the organ of Corti of the cochlea, is described.

  6. Visual–auditory spatial processing in auditory cortical neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Bizley, Jennifer K.; King, Andrew J

    2008-01-01

    Neurons responsive to visual stimulation have now been described in the auditory cortex of various species, but their functions are largely unknown. Here we investigate the auditory and visual spatial sensitivity of neurons recorded in 5 different primary and non-primary auditory cortical areas of the ferret. We quantified the spatial tuning of neurons by measuring the responses to stimuli presented across a range of azimuthal positions and calculating the mutual information (MI) between the ...

  7. THE EXISTENCE OF POSITIVE PERIODIC SOLUTIONS IN A LOGISTIC DIFFERENCE MODEL WITH A FEEDBACK CONTROL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘智钢; 陈安平

    2004-01-01

    Consider the following nonautonomous delayed periodic logistic difference model with feedback control term N(k+1)=N(k)exp[r(k)-a1(k)N(k)-a2(k)N(k-τ(k))-c(k)u(k)],Δu(k)=-a(k)u(k)+b(k)N(k-τ(k)), which describes the evolution of a single species. The existence of a positive periodic solution is established by using the method of Mawhin's coincidence degree. This work has important significance in both theory and applications.

  8. Evaluating the effectiveness of an educational and feedback intervention aimed at improving consideration of sex differences in guideline development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.G. Keuken; J.A. Haafkens; J. Mohrs; N.S. Klazinga; P.J.E. Bindels

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effect of an educational and feedback intervention to enhance consideration of sex differences in clinical guideline development. Design Preintervention and postintervention questionnaires in intervention and control groups. Content analysis of intervention guidelines a

  9. Targeting Treatment-Resistant Auditory Verbal Hallucinations in Schizophrenia with fMRI-Based Neurofeedback - Exploring Different Cases of Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, Miriam S; Mathiak, Krystyna A; Bergert, Susanne; Sarkheil, Pegah; Koush, Yury; Alawi, Eliza M; Zvyagintsev, Mikhail; Gaebler, Arnim J; Shergill, Sukhi S; Mathiak, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) are a hallmark of schizophrenia and can significantly impair patients' emotional, social, and occupational functioning. Despite progress in psychopharmacology, over 25% of schizophrenia patients suffer from treatment-resistant hallucinations. In the search for alternative treatment methods, neurofeedback (NF) emerges as a promising therapy tool. NF based on real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI) allows voluntarily change of the activity in a selected brain region - even in patients with schizophrenia. This study explored effects of NF on ongoing AVHs. The selected participants were trained in the self-regulation of activity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), a key monitoring region involved in generation and intensity modulation of AVHs. Using rt-fMRI, three right-handed patients, suffering from schizophrenia and ongoing, treatment-resistant AVHs, learned control over ACC activity on three separate days. The effect of NF training on hallucinations' severity was assessed with the Auditory Vocal Hallucination Rating Scale (AVHRS) and on the affective state - with the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). All patients yielded significant upregulation of the ACC and reported subjective improvement in some aspects of AVHs (AVHRS) such as disturbance and suffering from the voices. In general, mood (PANAS) improved during NF training, though two patients reported worse mood after NF on the third day. ACC and reward system activity during NF learning and specific effects on mood and symptoms varied across the participants. None of them profited from the last training set in the prolonged three-session training. Moreover, individual differences emerged in brain networks activated with NF and in symptom changes, which were related to the patients' symptomatology and disease history. NF based on rt-fMRI seems a promising tool in therapy of AVHs. The patients, who suffered from continuous hallucinations for

  10. Training-induced plasticity of auditory localization in adult mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Kacelnik

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurate auditory localization relies on neural computations based on spatial cues present in the sound waves at each ear. The values of these cues depend on the size, shape, and separation of the two ears and can therefore vary from one individual to another. As with other perceptual skills, the neural circuits involved in spatial hearing are shaped by experience during development and retain some capacity for plasticity in later life. However, the factors that enable and promote plasticity of auditory localization in the adult brain are unknown. Here we show that mature ferrets can rapidly relearn to localize sounds after having their spatial cues altered by reversibly occluding one ear, but only if they are trained to use these cues in a behaviorally relevant task, with greater and more rapid improvement occurring with more frequent training. We also found that auditory adaptation is possible in the absence of vision or error feedback. Finally, we show that this process involves a shift in sensitivity away from the abnormal auditory spatial cues to other cues that are less affected by the earplug. The mature auditory system is therefore capable of adapting to abnormal spatial information by reweighting different localization cues. These results suggest that training should facilitate acclimatization to hearing aids in the hearing impaired.

  11. The Sign and Strength of Plant-Soil Feedback for the Invasive Shrub, Lonicera maackii, Varies in Different Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Don Cipollini; Kelly Schradin

    2012-01-01

    Plants alter soil characteristics causing changes in their subsequent growth resulting in positive or negative feedback on both their own fitness and that of other plants. In a greenhouse study, we investigated whether the sign and strength of feedback changed across two distinct soil types, and whether effects were due to shifts in biotic or abiotic soil traits. Using soils from two different locations, we examined growth of the exotic invasive shrub, Lonicera maackii and the related native ...

  12. Measurements of the linewidth enhancement factor of mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers by different optical feedback techniques

    OpenAIRE

    L. Jumpertz; Michel, F; R. Pawlus; Elsässer, W; Schires, K.; Carras, M.; Grillot, F

    2016-01-01

    Precise knowledge of the linewidth enhancement factor of a semiconductor laser under actual operating conditions is of prime importance since this parameter dictates various phenomena such as linewidth broadening or optical nonlinearities enhancement. The above-threshold linewidth enhancement factor of a mid-infrared quantum cascade laser structure operated at 10∘C is determined experimentally using two different methods based on optical feedback. Both Fabry-Perot and distributed feedback qua...

  13. Adaptation in the auditory system: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    David ePérez-González; Malmierca, Manuel S.

    2014-01-01

    The early stages of the auditory system need to preserve the timing information of sounds in order to extract the basic features of acoustic stimuli. At the same time, different processes of neuronal adaptation occur at several levels to further process the auditory information. For instance, auditory nerve fiber responses already experience adaptation of their firing rates, a type of response that can be found in many other auditory nuclei and may be useful for emphasizing the onset of the s...

  14. Feedback Provision in Mentoring Conversation--Differing Mentor and Student Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korver, Bettina; Tillema, Harm

    2014-01-01

    Diverging perceptions between a mentor and a mentee on the nature and content of feedback given in mentoring conversations may have a profound impact on the mentee's learning from conversation. This study gauges whether approaches to mentoring relate to establishing congruency in perceptions on provided feedback. The aim of this research is to…

  15. Emotional feedback for mobile devices

    CERN Document Server

    Seebode, Julia

    2015-01-01

    This book investigates the functional adequacy as well as the affective impression made by feedback messages on mobile devices. It presents an easily adoptable experimental setup to examine context effects on various feedback messages, and applies it to auditory, tactile and auditory-tactile feedback messages. This approach provides insights into the relationship between the affective impression and functional applicability of these messages as well as an understanding of the influence of unimodal components on the perception of multimodal feedback messages. The developed paradigm can also be extended to investigate other aspects of context and used to investigate feedback messages in modalities other than those presented. The book uses questionnaires implemented on a Smartphone, which can easily be adopted for field studies to broaden the scope even wider. Finally, the book offers guidelines for the design of system feedback.

  16. Contributions of Different Cloud Types to Feedbacks and Rapid Adjustments in CMIP5*

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelinka, Mark D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison; Klein, Stephen A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison; Taylor, Karl E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison; Andrews, Timothy [Met Office Hadley Center, Exeter (United Kingdom); Webb, Mark J. [Met Office Hadley Center, Exeter (United Kingdom); Gregory, Jonathan M. [Univ. of Reading, Exeter (United Kingdom). National Center for Atmospheric Science; Forster, Piers M. [Univ. of Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    When using five climate model simulations of the response to an abrupt quadrupling of CO2, the authors perform the first simultaneous model intercomparison of cloud feedbacks and rapid radiative adjustments with cloud masking effects removed, partitioned among changes in cloud types and gross cloud properties. After CO2 quadrupling, clouds exhibit a rapid reduction in fractional coverage, cloud-top pressure, and optical depth, with each contributing equally to a 1.1 W m-2 net cloud radiative adjustment, primarily from shortwave radiation. Rapid reductions in midlevel clouds and optically thick clouds are important in reducing planetary albedo in every model. As the planet warms, clouds become fewer, higher, and thicker, and global mean net cloud feedback is positive in all but one model and results primarily from increased trapping of longwave radiation. As was true for earlier models, high cloud changes are the largest contributor to intermodel spread in longwave and shortwave cloud feedbacks, but low cloud changes are the largest contributor to the mean and spread in net cloud feedback. The importance of the negative optical depth feedback relative to the amount feedback at high latitudes is even more marked than in earlier models. Furthermore, the authors show that the negative longwave cloud adjustment inferred in previous studies is primarily caused by a 1.3 W m-2 cloud masking of CO2 forcing. Properly accounting for cloud masking increases net cloud feedback by 0.3 W m-2 K-1, whereas accounting for rapid adjustments reduces by 0.14 W m-2 K-1 the ensemble mean net cloud feedback through a combination of smaller positive cloud amount and altitude feedbacks and larger negative optical depth feedbacks.

  17. Clinical Study on Effect of Electro-acupuncture Combined with Different Anesthetics on Auditory-evoked Potential Index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of electro-acupuncture (EA) on auto regressive with exogenous input model (ARX-model) auditory evoked index (AAI) in patients anesthetized with different anesthetics. Methods: Forty-eight adult patients undergoing scheduled surgical operation were enrolled and divided into two groups (24 in each group) according to the anesthetics applied, Group A was anesthetized with propofol sedation and Group B with Isoflurane-epidural anesthesia. Group A was subdivided into three groups of low, middle and high concentration of target effect-site of 1.0 μg/ml, 1.5 μg/ml and 2.0 μg/ml through target controlled infusion (TCI) and Group B into 3 subgroups of minimum alveolar effective concentration of isoflurane (0.4 MAC, 0.6 MAC and 0.8 MAC for B1, B2 and B3 subgroups) respectively, with 8 patients in every subgroup. EA on acupoints of Hegu (LI4) and Neiguan (P6) was applied on all the patients during anesthesia, and the change of AAI at various time points was recorded. Results: In the three subgroups of Group A, levels of AAI were significantly elevated in the first few minutes after EA, and significantly lowered 20 min after EA in subgroup A2. While in the subgroups of Group B, except the elevating in Group B1 1 -2 min after EA, levels of AAI remained unchanged at other time points. Conclusion: Pain response could be reflected by AAI during EA. EA could enhance the sedative effect of propofol in middle concentration, but its effect on isoflurane epidural anesthesia is insignificant.

  18. Just-in-Time or Plenty-of-Time Teaching? Different Electronic Feedback Devices and Their Effect on Student Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jerry Chih-Yuan; Martinez, Brandon; Seli, Helena

    2014-01-01

    This study examines how incorporating different electronic feedback devices (i.e., clickers versus web-based polling) may affect specific types of student engagement (i.e., behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement), whether students' self-efficacy for learning and performance may differ between courses that have integrated clickers and…

  19. Exergaming for elderly: effects of different types of game feedback on performance of a balance task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamoth, Claudine J C; Alingh, Rolinde; Caljouw, Simone R

    2012-01-01

    Balance training to improve postural control in elderly can contribute to the prevention of falls. Video games that require body movements have the potential to improve balance. However, research about the effects of type of visual feedback (i.e. the exergame) on the quality of movement and experienced workout intensity is scarce. In this study twelve healthy older and younger subjects performed anterior-posterior or mediolateral oscillations on a wobble board, in three conditions: no feedback, real-time visual feedback, and real-time visual feedback with a competitive game element. The Elderly moved slower, less accurately and more irregularly than younger people. Both feedback conditions ensured a more controlled movement technique on the wobble-board and increased experienced workout intensity. The participants enjoyed the attention demanding competitive game element, but this game did not improve balance performance more than interacting with a game that incorporated visual feedback. These results show the potential of exergames with visual feedback to enhance postural control. PMID:22954837

  20. Understanding the differing governance of EU emissions trading and renewable: feedback mechanisms and policy entrepreneurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boasson, Elin Lerum; Wettestad, Joergen

    2010-04-15

    This paper presents a comparative study of two central EU climate policies: the revised Emissions Trading System (ETS), and the revised Renewable Energy Directive (RES). Both were originally developed in the early 2000s and revised policies were adopted in December 2008. While the ETS from 2013 on will have a quite centralized and market-streamlined design, the revised RES stands forward as a more decentralized and technology-focused policy. Differing institutional feed-back mechanisms and related roles of policy entrepreneurs can shed considerable light on these policy differences. Due to member states' cautiousness and contrary to the preferences of the Commission, the initial ETS was designed as a rather decentralized and 'politicized' market system, creating a malfunctioning institutional dynamic. In the revision process, the Commission skillfully highlighted this ineffective dynamic to win support for a much more centralized and market-streamlined approach. In the case of RES, national technology-specific support schemes and the strong links between the renewable industry and member states promoted the converse outcome: decentralization and technology development. Members of the European Parliament utilized these mechanisms through policy networking, while the Commission successfully used developments within the global climate regime to induce some degree of centralization. (Author)

  1. Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Alters Auditory-motor Integration For Voice Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weifeng; Chen, Ziyi; Yan, Nan; Jones, Jeffery A.; Guo, Zhiqiang; Huang, Xiyan; Chen, Shaozhen; Liu, Peng; Liu, Hanjun

    2016-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common drug-refractory focal epilepsy in adults. Previous research has shown that patients with TLE exhibit decreased performance in listening to speech sounds and deficits in the cortical processing of auditory information. Whether TLE compromises auditory-motor integration for voice control, however, remains largely unknown. To address this question, event-related potentials (ERPs) and vocal responses to vocal pitch errors (1/2 or 2 semitones upward) heard in auditory feedback were compared across 28 patients with TLE and 28 healthy controls. Patients with TLE produced significantly larger vocal responses but smaller P2 responses than healthy controls. Moreover, patients with TLE exhibited a positive correlation between vocal response magnitude and baseline voice variability and a negative correlation between P2 amplitude and disease duration. Graphical network analyses revealed a disrupted neuronal network for patients with TLE with a significant increase of clustering coefficients and path lengths as compared to healthy controls. These findings provide strong evidence that TLE is associated with an atypical integration of the auditory and motor systems for vocal pitch regulation, and that the functional networks that support the auditory-motor processing of pitch feedback errors differ between patients with TLE and healthy controls. PMID:27356768

  2. Judgments of learning are significantly higher following feedback on relatively good versus relatively poor trials despite no actual learning differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Michael J; Smith, Victoria; Ste-Marie, Diane M

    2016-02-01

    Studies have consistently shown that prospective metacognitive judgments of learning are often inaccurate because humans mistakenly interpret current performance levels as valid indices of learning. These metacognitive discrepancies are strongly related to conditions of practice. Here, we examined how the type of feedback (after good versus poor trials) received during practice and awareness (aware versus unaware) of this manipulation affected judgments of learning and actual learning. After each six-trial block, participants received feedback on their three best trials or three worst trials and half of the participants were made explicitly aware of the type of feedback they received while the other half were unaware. Judgments of learning were made at the end of each six-trial block and before the 24-h retention test. Results indicated no motor performance differences between groups in practice or retention; however, receiving feedback on relatively good compared to relatively poor trials resulted in significantly higher judgments of learning in practice and retention, irrespective of awareness. These results suggest that KR on relatively good versus relatively poor trials can have dissociable effects on judgments of learning in the absence of actual learning differences, even when participants are made aware of their feedback manipulation.

  3. Experiments on feedback control of multiple resistive wall modes comparing different active coil arrays and sensor types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Experiments have been carried out on the EXTRAP T2R reversed-field pinch device to study several important issues related to feedback control of resistive wall modes (RWMs). In the first series of experiments, the effect of side band coupling due to the limited number of coils in the array was investigated. Different feedback schemes have been used in order to overcome the coupling effect such as the mode control scheme, which includes real time spatial FFT to obtain action on individual modes. The unstable RWM spectrum consists of about 16 modes with m=1 and different toroidal mode number n. In recent experiments using the intelligent shell scheme with a full PID controller action and higher feedback gains, complete stabilisation of the modes is achieved. The active array consists of 128 coils at 4 poloidal and 32 toroidal positions. The pulse length is equivalent to 10 wall times, limited by the power supply. Without feedback the discharge pulse ends prematurely after 3-4 wall times due effects associated with the RWM mode growth. With feedback stabilization, plasma rotation and tearing mode rotation is maintained throughout the pulse, thereby avoiding the locked mode phenomenon often observed in RFPs and manifested in an increased local plasma wall interaction. With feedback control the influx from the wall is maintained at a low level throughout the pulse. The first feedback experiments using a sensor array measuring the toroidal field component have been carried out. The critical gain required for suppression has been compared for the radial and toroidal field sensor cases, and found in qualitative agreement with theory. The phase shift of the control field has been varied. Optimal suppression is achieved at the predicted complex feedback gain phase. Mode rotation is induced at other complex gain phases, in agreement with modelling. Previously developed linear models have guided the feedback experiments. Open-loop experiments have been used for

  4. Brain activity is related to individual differences in the number of items stored in auditory short-term memory for pitch: evidence from magnetoencephalography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimault, Stephan; Nolden, Sophie; Lefebvre, Christine; Vachon, François; Hyde, Krista; Peretz, Isabelle; Zatorre, Robert; Robitaille, Nicolas; Jolicoeur, Pierre

    2014-07-01

    We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to examine brain activity related to the maintenance of non-verbal pitch information in auditory short-term memory (ASTM). We focused on brain activity that increased with the number of items effectively held in memory by the participants during the retention interval of an auditory memory task. We used very simple acoustic materials (i.e., pure tones that varied in pitch) that minimized activation from non-ASTM related systems. MEG revealed neural activity in frontal, temporal, and parietal cortices that increased with a greater number of items effectively held in memory by the participants during the maintenance of pitch representations in ASTM. The present results reinforce the functional role of frontal and temporal cortices in the retention of pitch information in ASTM. This is the first MEG study to provide both fine spatial localization and temporal resolution on the neural mechanisms of non-verbal ASTM for pitch in relation to individual differences in the capacity of ASTM. This research contributes to a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms mediating the representation and maintenance of basic non-verbal auditory features in the human brain.

  5. Knowledge about Sounds – Context-Specific Meaning Differently Activates Cortical Hemispheres, Auditory Cortical Fields and Layers in House Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Diana B. Geissler; Sabine H. Schmidt; Günter eEhret

    2016-01-01

    Activation of the auditory cortex (AC) by a given sound pattern is plastic, depending, in largely unknown ways, on the physiological state and the behavioral context of the receiving animal and on the receiver's experience with the sounds. Such plasticity can be inferred when house mouse mothers respond maternally to pup ultrasounds right after parturition and naïve females have to learn to respond. Here we use c-FOS immunocytochemistry to quantify highly activated neurons in the AC fields an...

  6. Knowledge About Sounds—Context-Specific Meaning Differently Activates Cortical Hemispheres, Auditory Cortical Fields, and Layers in House Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Diana B. Geissler; Schmidt, H. Sabine; Ehret, Günter

    2016-01-01

    Activation of the auditory cortex (AC) by a given sound pattern is plastic, depending, in largely unknown ways, on the physiological state and the behavioral context of the receiving animal and on the receiver's experience with the sounds. Such plasticity can be inferred when house mouse mothers respond maternally to pup ultrasounds right after parturition and naïve females have to learn to respond. Here we use c-FOS immunocytochemistry to quantify highly activated neurons in the AC fields an...

  7. An fMRI Study of Local Synchronization in Different Subfrequency Bands during the Continuous Feedback of Finger Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies on motor feedback employ periodical blocked paradigm which does not allow frequency analysis of brain activity. Here, we carried out an fMRI study by using a continuous paradigm, that is, continuous (8 min feedback of finger force. Borrowing an analytic method widely used in resting-state fMRI studies, that is, regional homogeneity (ReHo, we compared the local synchronization in some subfrequency bands between real and sham feedback, and the subbands were defined as Slow-6 (0.0–0.01 Hz, Slow-5 (0.01–0.027 Hz, Slow-4 (0.027–0.073 Hz, Slow-3 (0.073–0.198 Hz, and Slow-2 (0.198–0.25 Hz. Our results revealed that the five subfrequency bands of brain activity contributed to the changes of ReHo between real and sham feedback differently, and, more importantly, the changes in basal ganglia were only manifested in Slow-6, implicating the fact that ReHo in ultraslow band may be associated with the functional significance of BG, that is, motor control. These findings provide novel insights into the neural substrate underlying motor feedback, and properties of the ultraslow band of local synchronization deserve more attention in future explorations.

  8. Measurements of the linewidth enhancement factor of mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers by different optical feedback techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Jumpertz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Precise knowledge of the linewidth enhancement factor of a semiconductor laser under actual operating conditions is of prime importance since this parameter dictates various phenomena such as linewidth broadening or optical nonlinearities enhancement. The above-threshold linewidth enhancement factor of a mid-infrared quantum cascade laser structure operated at 10∘C is determined experimentally using two different methods based on optical feedback. Both Fabry-Perot and distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers based on the same active area design are studied, the former by following the wavelength shift as a function of the feedback strength and the latter by self-mixing interferometry. The results are consistent and unveil a clear pump current dependence of the linewidth enhancement factor, with values ranging from 0.8 to about 3.

  9. Measurements of the linewidth enhancement factor of mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers by different optical feedback techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jumpertz, L., E-mail: louise.jumpertz@telecom-paristech.fr [Université Paris-Saclay, Télécom ParisTech, CNRS LTCI, 46 rue Barrault, F-75013 Paris (France); MirSense, 8 avenue de la Vauve, F-91120 Palaiseau (France); Michel, F.; Pawlus, R.; Elsässer, W. [Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstr. 7, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Schires, K. [Université Paris-Saclay, Télécom ParisTech, CNRS LTCI, 46 rue Barrault, F-75013 Paris (France); Carras, M. [MirSense, 8 avenue de la Vauve, F-91120 Palaiseau (France); Grillot, F. [Université Paris-Saclay, Télécom ParisTech, CNRS LTCI, 46 rue Barrault, F-75013 Paris (France); also with Center for High Technology Materials, University of New-Mexico, 1313 Goddard SE, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Precise knowledge of the linewidth enhancement factor of a semiconductor laser under actual operating conditions is of prime importance since this parameter dictates various phenomena such as linewidth broadening or optical nonlinearities enhancement. The above-threshold linewidth enhancement factor of a mid-infrared quantum cascade laser structure operated at 10{sup ∘}C is determined experimentally using two different methods based on optical feedback. Both Fabry-Perot and distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers based on the same active area design are studied, the former by following the wavelength shift as a function of the feedback strength and the latter by self-mixing interferometry. The results are consistent and unveil a clear pump current dependence of the linewidth enhancement factor, with values ranging from 0.8 to about 3.

  10. Evaluating the effectiveness of an educational and feedback intervention aimed at improving consideration of sex differences in guideline development

    OpenAIRE

    Keuken, D.G.; Haafkens, J.A.; Mohrs, J; Klazinga, N. S.; Bindels, P.J.E.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effect of an educational and feedback intervention to enhance consideration of sex differences in clinical guideline development. Design Preintervention and postintervention questionnaires in intervention and control groups. Content analysis of intervention guidelines and former versions. Setting Guideline consultants, working-group members and guideline documents of two Dutch guideline-developing organisations. Main outcome measures Attitudes of guideline develo...

  11. The Effect of Six Different Corrective Feedback Strategies on Iranian English Language Learners’ IELTS Writing Task 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Vahdani Sanavi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Scholars have long studied the effect of corrective feedback strategies on the writing ability of language learners, but few have formed designs in which more than three feedback strategies have been used. In this research, the ultimate goal was to discover how International English Language Testing System (IELTS- candidates could be helped to perform better in the writing component of the test with the feedback they get. To this end, 186 learners attending IELTS preparation classes in three different English language institutes participated in this quasi-experimental study. A one-way ANOVA was run to discover the significant difference among the six groups. The findings proposed that Iranian English as a Foreign Language (EFL students’ writing ability improved as a result of the employment of writing feedback strategies but that reformulation strategy was the most effective one. Teachers can, thus, benefit from the finding of this research by studying the way they should tackle the learners’ inaccurate productions as far as different writing score band descriptors are concerned.

  12. Application of a model of the auditory primal sketch to cross-linguistic differences in speech rhythm: Implications for the acquisition and recognition of speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Neil P. M.; Lee, Christopher S.

    2002-05-01

    It has long been noted that the world's languages vary considerably in their rhythmic organization. Different languages seem to privilege different phonological units as their basic rhythmic unit, and there is now a large body of evidence that such differences have important consequences for crucial aspects of language acquisition and processing. The most fundamental finding is that the rhythmic structure of a language strongly influences the process of spoken-word recognition. This finding, together with evidence that infants are sensitive from birth to rhythmic differences between languages, and exploit rhythmic cues to segmentation at an earlier developmental stage than other cues prompted the claim that rhythm is the key which allows infants to begin building a lexicon and then go on to acquire syntax. It is therefore of interest to determine how differences in rhythmic organization arise at the acoustic/auditory level. In this paper, it is shown how an auditory model of the primitive representation of sound provides just such an account of rhythmic differences. Its performance is evaluated on a data set of French and English sentences and compared with the results yielded by the phonetic accounts of Frank Ramus and his colleagues and Esther Grabe and her colleagues.

  13. From ear to hand: the role of the auditory-motor loop in pointing to an auditory source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Eric O.; Babayan, Bénédicte M.; Bevilacqua, Frédéric; Noisternig, Markus; Warusfel, Olivier; Roby-Brami, Agnes; Hanneton, Sylvain; Viaud-Delmon, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Studies of the nature of the neural mechanisms involved in goal-directed movements tend to concentrate on the role of vision. We present here an attempt to address the mechanisms whereby an auditory input is transformed into a motor command. The spatial and temporal organization of hand movements were studied in normal human subjects as they pointed toward unseen auditory targets located in a horizontal plane in front of them. Positions and movements of the hand were measured by a six infrared camera tracking system. In one condition, we assessed the role of auditory information about target position in correcting the trajectory of the hand. To accomplish this, the duration of the target presentation was varied. In another condition, subjects received continuous auditory feedback of their hand movement while pointing to the auditory targets. Online auditory control of the direction of pointing movements was assessed by evaluating how subjects reacted to shifts in heard hand position. Localization errors were exacerbated by short duration of target presentation but not modified by auditory feedback of hand position. Long duration of target presentation gave rise to a higher level of accuracy and was accompanied by early automatic head orienting movements consistently related to target direction. These results highlight the efficiency of auditory feedback processing in online motor control and suggest that the auditory system takes advantages of dynamic changes of the acoustic cues due to changes in head orientation in order to process online motor control. How to design an informative acoustic feedback needs to be carefully studied to demonstrate that auditory feedback of the hand could assist the monitoring of movements directed at objects in auditory space. PMID:23626532

  14. Auditory-perceptual learning improves speech motor adaptation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiller, Douglas M; Rochon, Marie-Lyne

    2014-08-01

    Auditory feedback plays an important role in children's speech development by providing the child with information about speech outcomes that is used to learn and fine-tune speech motor plans. The use of auditory feedback in speech motor learning has been extensively studied in adults by examining oral motor responses to manipulations of auditory feedback during speech production. Children are also capable of adapting speech motor patterns to perceived changes in auditory feedback; however, it is not known whether their capacity for motor learning is limited by immature auditory-perceptual abilities. Here, the link between speech perceptual ability and the capacity for motor learning was explored in two groups of 5- to 7-year-old children who underwent a period of auditory perceptual training followed by tests of speech motor adaptation to altered auditory feedback. One group received perceptual training on a speech acoustic property relevant to the motor task while a control group received perceptual training on an irrelevant speech contrast. Learned perceptual improvements led to an enhancement in speech motor adaptation (proportional to the perceptual change) only for the experimental group. The results indicate that children's ability to perceive relevant speech acoustic properties has a direct influence on their capacity for sensory-based speech motor adaptation.

  15. The Effect of Different Types of Corrective Feedback on ESL Student Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitchener, John; Young, Stuart; Cameron, Denise

    2005-01-01

    Debate about the value of providing corrective feedback on L2 writing has been prominent in recent years as a result of Truscott's [Truscott, J. (1996). The case against grammar correction in L2 writing classes. Language Learning, 46, 327-369] claim that it is both ineffective and harmful and should therefore be abandoned. A growing body of…

  16. Exergaming for elderly: : effects of different types of game feedback on performance of a balance task.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamoth, Claude; Alingh, Rolinde; Caljouw, Simone; Wiederhold, B.K.; Riva, G.

    2012-01-01

    Balance training to improve postural control in elderly can contribute to the prevention of falls. Video games that require body movements have the potential to improve balance. However, research about the effects of type of visual feedback (i.e. the exergame) on the quality of movement and experien

  17. Goal orientations and the seeking of different types of feedback information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Onne; Prins, Jelle

    2007-01-01

    Based on the goal orientation model of feedback-seeking behaviour, goal orientations are proposed to influence employees in the type of information they seek from knowledgeable others in the work environment. As hypothesized, a survey conducted among 170 medical residents of a Dutch university hospi

  18. Auditory feedback influences perceived driving speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horswill, Mark S; Plooy, Annaliese M

    2008-01-01

    Reducing the level of internal noise is seen as a goal when designing modern cars. One danger of such a philosophy is that one is systematically attempting to alter one of the cues that can be used by drivers to estimate speed and this could bias speed judgments and driving behaviour. Seven participants were presented with pairs of video-based driving scenes and asked to judge whether the second scene appeared faster or slower than the first (2-alternative forced-choice task using the method of constant stimuli). They either heard in-car noise at the level it occurred in the real world or reduced in volume by 5 dB. The reduction in noise led to participants judging speeds to be significantly slower and this effect was evident for all participants. This finding indicates that, when in-car noise is attenuated, drivers are likely to underestimate their speed, potentially encouraging them to drive faster and placing them at greater risk of crashing.

  19. How Do Batters Use Visual, Auditory, and Tactile Information about the Success of a Baseball Swing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Bat/ball contact produces visual (the ball leaving the bat), auditory (the "crack" of the bat), and tactile (bat vibration) feedback about the success of the swing. We used a batting simulation to investigate how college baseball players use visual, tactile, and auditory feedback. In Experiment 1, swing accuracy (i.e., the lateral separation…

  20. The Difference in the Profile of Working Memory, Auditory Working Memory, and Spatial Working Memory between Drug, Stimulant, and Methadone Abusers and Normal People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Alipour

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was an attempt to examine the difference in the profile of working memory, auditory working memory, and spatial working memory between drug, stimulant, and methadone abusers and normal people. Method: This study was a causal-comparative one with between-group comparison methodology. All the individuals addicted to opiates, stimulants, and methadone who had referred to Khomeini treatment centers of the city from September 2013 to February 2014 constituted the statistical population of the study. The number of 154 abusers (54 drug abusers, 50 stimulant abusers, and 50 methadone abusers and the number of 50 normal participants were chosen as the sample of the study by purposive sampling method. The participants responded to Wechsler Memory Scale—third edition (WMS-III. Results: There was a significant difference between the normal group and drug, stimulant, and methadone abusers in terms of working memory, auditory working memory, and spatial working memory. Conclusion: Drug and stimulant use leads to sustained damage in cognitive processes such as working memory. However, research indicates that these cognitive processes will improve with the passage of time.

  1. Implementation Considerations, Not Topological Differences, Are the Main Determinants of Noise Suppression Properties in Feedback and Incoherent Feedforward Circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Buzi, Gentian; Khammash, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Biological systems use a variety of mechanisms to deal with the uncertain nature of their external and internal environments. Two of the most common motifs employed for this purpose are the incoherent feedforward (IFF) and feedback (FB) topologies. Many theoretical and experimental studies suggest that these circuits play very different roles in providing robustness to uncertainty in the cellular environment. Here, we use a control theoretic approach to analyze two common FB and IFF architect...

  2. Implementation Considerations, Not Topological Differences, Are the Main Determinants of Noise Suppression Properties in Feedback and Incoherent Feedforward Circuits.

    OpenAIRE

    Gentian Buzi; Mustafa Khammash

    2016-01-01

    Biological systems use a variety of mechanisms to deal with the uncertain nature of their external and internal environments. Two of the most common motifs employed for this purpose are the incoherent feedforward (IFF) and feedback (FB) topologies. Many theoretical and experimental studies suggest that these circuits play very different roles in providing robustness to uncertainty in the cellular environment. Here, we use a control theoretic approach to analyze two common FB and IFF architect...

  3. Electrostimulation mapping of comprehension of auditory and visual words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Franck-Emmanuel; Miskin, Krasimir; Durand, Jean-Baptiste; Sacko, Oumar; Réhault, Emilie; Tanova, Rositsa; Démonet, Jean-François

    2015-10-01

    In order to spare functional areas during the removal of brain tumours, electrical stimulation mapping was used in 90 patients (77 in the left hemisphere and 13 in the right; 2754 cortical sites tested). Language functions were studied with a special focus on comprehension of auditory and visual words and the semantic system. In addition to naming, patients were asked to perform pointing tasks from auditory and visual stimuli (using sets of 4 different images controlled for familiarity), and also auditory object (sound recognition) and Token test tasks. Ninety-two auditory comprehension interference sites were observed. We found that the process of auditory comprehension involved a few, fine-grained, sub-centimetre cortical territories. Early stages of speech comprehension seem to relate to two posterior regions in the left superior temporal gyrus. Downstream lexical-semantic speech processing and sound analysis involved 2 pathways, along the anterior part of the left superior temporal gyrus, and posteriorly around the supramarginal and middle temporal gyri. Electrostimulation experimentally dissociated perceptual consciousness attached to speech comprehension. The initial word discrimination process can be considered as an "automatic" stage, the attention feedback not being impaired by stimulation as would be the case at the lexical-semantic stage. Multimodal organization of the superior temporal gyrus was also detected since some neurones could be involved in comprehension of visual material and naming. These findings demonstrate a fine graded, sub-centimetre, cortical representation of speech comprehension processing mainly in the left superior temporal gyrus and are in line with those described in dual stream models of language comprehension processing. PMID:26332785

  4. Electrostimulation mapping of comprehension of auditory and visual words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Franck-Emmanuel; Miskin, Krasimir; Durand, Jean-Baptiste; Sacko, Oumar; Réhault, Emilie; Tanova, Rositsa; Démonet, Jean-François

    2015-10-01

    In order to spare functional areas during the removal of brain tumours, electrical stimulation mapping was used in 90 patients (77 in the left hemisphere and 13 in the right; 2754 cortical sites tested). Language functions were studied with a special focus on comprehension of auditory and visual words and the semantic system. In addition to naming, patients were asked to perform pointing tasks from auditory and visual stimuli (using sets of 4 different images controlled for familiarity), and also auditory object (sound recognition) and Token test tasks. Ninety-two auditory comprehension interference sites were observed. We found that the process of auditory comprehension involved a few, fine-grained, sub-centimetre cortical territories. Early stages of speech comprehension seem to relate to two posterior regions in the left superior temporal gyrus. Downstream lexical-semantic speech processing and sound analysis involved 2 pathways, along the anterior part of the left superior temporal gyrus, and posteriorly around the supramarginal and middle temporal gyri. Electrostimulation experimentally dissociated perceptual consciousness attached to speech comprehension. The initial word discrimination process can be considered as an "automatic" stage, the attention feedback not being impaired by stimulation as would be the case at the lexical-semantic stage. Multimodal organization of the superior temporal gyrus was also detected since some neurones could be involved in comprehension of visual material and naming. These findings demonstrate a fine graded, sub-centimetre, cortical representation of speech comprehension processing mainly in the left superior temporal gyrus and are in line with those described in dual stream models of language comprehension processing.

  5. Auditory Neuropathy - A Case of Auditory Neuropathy after Hyperbilirubinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliheh Mazaher Yazdi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Auditory neuropathy is an hearing disorder in which peripheral hearing is normal, but the eighth nerve and brainstem are abnormal. By clinical definition, patient with this disorder have normal OAE, but exhibit an absent or severely abnormal ABR. Auditory neuropathy was first reported in the late 1970s as different methods could identify discrepancy between absent ABR and present hearing threshold. Speech understanding difficulties are worse than can be predicted from other tests of hearing function. Auditory neuropathy may also affect vestibular function. Case Report: This article presents electrophysiological and behavioral data from a case of auditory neuropathy in a child with normal hearing after bilirubinemia in a 5 years follow-up. Audiological findings demonstrate remarkable changes after multidisciplinary rehabilitation. Conclusion: auditory neuropathy may involve damage to the inner hair cells-specialized sensory cells in the inner ear that transmit information about sound through the nervous system to the brain. Other causes may include faulty connections between the inner hair cells and the nerve leading from the inner ear to the brain or damage to the nerve itself. People with auditory neuropathy have OAEs response but absent ABR and hearing loss threshold that can be permanent, get worse or get better.

  6. Dynamic Evaluation of LCL-type Grid-Connected Inverters with Different Current Feedback Control Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Yang; Li, Zipeng; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    typical current feedback control schemes in LCL grid-connected system are analyzed and compared systematically. Analysis in s-domain take the effect of the digital computation and modulation delay into account. The stability analysis is presented by root locus in the discrete domain, the optimal values......Proportional-resonant (PR) compensator and LCL filter becomes a better choice in grid-connected inverter system with high performance and low costs. However, the resonance phenomenon caused by LCL filter affect the system stability significantly. In this paper, the stability problem of three...

  7. 电脑式微波炉控制面板按键反馈类型的比较研究%A Comparative Study on Feedback Types of Key - press on the Control Panel of Computer- type Microwave Oven

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡绎茜; 葛列众

    2011-01-01

    The research aimed to investigate the optimal feedback type of the key - press on the control panel of computer - type microwave oven by comparing different feedback types of the key - press. The experiment adopted the serial target task and 24 participants were invited. The results showed that, there was no significant difference in operation performance among the following three types: the visual feedback, the auditory feedback and the visual - auditory feedback. However, each of these three feedback types in operation performance was better than that of no feedback type. The data of subjective assessment showed that the visual - auditory feedback was the optimal feedback type.%本实验是对电脑式微波炉控制面板中按键反馈类型的比较研究,其目的是确定较优的按键反馈类型.实验采用了系列目标任务的方法,结果表明:视觉反馈、听觉反馈和视听反馈三种反馈类型的操作绩效之间无明显差异,但均优于无反馈条件下的操作绩效,而被试主观评价的数据表明,视听反馈是三种反馈类型中较好的一种.

  8. Audio Feedback -- Better Feedback?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelkel, Susanne; Mello, Luciane V.

    2014-01-01

    National Student Survey (NSS) results show that many students are dissatisfied with the amount and quality of feedback they get for their work. This study reports on two case studies in which we tried to address these issues by introducing audio feedback to one undergraduate (UG) and one postgraduate (PG) class, respectively. In case study one…

  9. How Do Young Students with Different Profiles of Reading Skill Mastery, Perceived Ability, and Goal Orientation Respond to Holistic Diagnostic Feedback?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eunice Eunhee; Dunlop, Maggie; Park, Gina; van der Boom, Edith H.

    2015-01-01

    One critical issue with cognitive diagnostic assessment (CDA) lies in its lack of research evidence that shows how diagnostic feedback from CDA is interpreted and used by young students. This mixed methods research examined how holistic diagnostic feedback (HDF) is processed by young learners with different profiles of reading skills, goal…

  10. THE EFFECT OF THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF FEEDBACK ON THE VOLLEYBALL TRAINEES’ INTERNAL IMPULSION.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Barzouka

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In physical education there is a two-way relation between acquiring moving skills and the mechanisms ofimpulsion. The goal of the present text was to confirm the effect of this kind of model observation on theinternal impulsion of the participants. Fifty three high school girls of 12-15 years old, separated randomly intolevels, in three teams and practiced in one common intervention programme consisted of 12 practice sessions forthe volleyball skill acquisition (the serve skill – ball reception. The participants of the 1st and the 2ndexperimental teams were receiving as feedback a model observation, while all the three teams were receivingverbal instructions during the intervention programme. At the beginning and the end of the intervention the trainees fulfilled the questionary (Ryan 1982 for the internal impulsion. For the statistic process of the internal impulsion data, the method of fluctuation analysis with 2 factors (3X2 was used. The level of importance wasdefined as p<0.5. The outcome demonstrated that no type of feedback influenced essentially the internal impulsion. There were only tendencies in favor of the second group.

  11. The effect of background music in auditory health persuasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbert, Sarah; Dijkstra, Arie

    2013-01-01

    In auditory health persuasion, threatening information regarding health is communicated by voice only. One relevant context of auditory persuasion is the addition of background music. There are different mechanisms through which background music might influence persuasion, for example through mood (

  12. Radiative feedback and cosmic molecular gas: the role of different radiative sources

    CERN Document Server

    Maio, U; De Lucia, G; Borgani, S

    2016-01-01

    We present results from multifrequency radiative hydrodynamical chemistry simulations addressing primordial star formation and related stellar feedback from various populations of stars, stellar energy distributions (SEDs) and initial mass functions. Spectra for massive stars, intermediate-mass stars and regular solar-like stars are adopted over a grid of 150 frequency bins and consistently coupled with hydrodynamics, heavy-element pollution and non-equilibrium species calculations. Powerful massive population III stars are found to be able to largely ionize H and, subsequently, He and He$^+$, causing an inversion of the equation of state and a boost of the Jeans masses in the early intergalactic medium. Radiative effects on star formation rates are between a factor of a few and 1 dex, depending on the SED. Radiative processes are responsible for gas heating and photoevaporation, although emission from soft SEDs has minor impacts. These findings have implications for cosmic gas preheating, primordial direct-c...

  13. Differences in Speech Recognition Between Children with Attention Deficits and Typically Developed Children Disappear when Exposed to 65 dB of Auditory Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göran B W Söderlund

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common neuropsychiatric condition in the in children is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, affecting approximately 6-9 % of the population. ADHD is distinguished by inattention and hyperactive, impulsive behaviors as well as poor performance in various cognitive tasks often leading to failures at school. Sensory and perceptual dysfunctions have also been noticed. Prior research has mainly focused on limitations in executive functioning where differences are often explained by deficits in pre-frontal cortex activation. Less notice has been given to sensory perception and subcortical functioning in ADHD. Recent research has shown that children with ADHD diagnosis have a deviant auditory brain stem response compared to healthy controls. The aim of the present study was to investigate if the speech recognition threshold differs between attentive and children with ADHD symptoms in two environmental sound conditions, with and without external noise. Previous research has namely shown that children with attention deficits can benefit from white noise exposure during cognitive tasks and here we investigate if noise benefit is present during an auditory perceptual task. For this purpose we used a modified Hagerman’s speech recognition test where children with and without attention deficits performed a binaural speech recognition task to assess the speech recognition threshold in no noise and noise conditions (65 dB. Results showed that the inattentive group displayed a higher speech recognition threshold than typically developed children (TDC and that the difference in speech recognition threshold disappeared when exposed to noise at supra threshold level. From this we conclude that inattention can partly be explained by sensory perceptual limitations that can possibly be ameliorated through noise exposure.

  14. The Effect of Positive and Negative Feedback on Risk-Taking across Different Contexts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabel B Losecaat Vermeer

    Full Text Available Preferences for risky choices have often been shown to be unstable and context-dependent. Though people generally avoid gambles with mixed outcomes, a phenomenon often attributed to loss aversion, contextual factors can impact this dramatically. For example, people typically prefer risky options after a financial loss, while generally choosing safer options after a monetary gain. However, it is unclear what exactly contributes to these preference shifts as a function of prior outcomes, as these gain/loss outcomes are usually confounded with participant performance, and therefore it is unclear whether these effects are driven purely by the monetary gains or losses, or rather by success or failure at the actual task. Here, we experimentally separated the effects of monetary gains/losses from performance success/failure prior to a standard risky choice. Participants performed a task in which they experienced contextual effects: 1 monetary gain or loss based directly on performance, 2 monetary gain or loss that was randomly awarded and was, crucially, independent from performance, and 3 success or failure feedback based on performance, but without any monetary incentive. Immediately following these positive/negative contexts, participants were presented with a gain-loss gamble that they had to decide to either play or pass. We found that risk preferences for identical sets of gambles were biased by positive and negative contexts containing monetary gains and losses, but not by contexts containing performance feedback. This data suggests that the observed framing effects are driven by aversion for monetary losses and not simply by the positive or negative valence of the context, or by potential moods resulting from positive or negative contexts. These results highlight the specific context dependence of risk preferences.

  15. Tarefa N-back auditiva: desempenho entre diferentes grupos etários Auditory N-back task: different age groups performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana De Nardi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Um dos instrumentos mais utilizados internacionalmente para avaliação da Memória de Trabalho (MT é a Tarefa N-back Auditiva. Recursos para avaliação desse sistema são escassos no Brasil. O presente estudo objetiva observar o desempenho da Tarefa N-back Auditiva em indivíduos de diferentes faixas etárias: 27 crianças, 22 pré-adolescentes, 26 adultos e 27 idosos. Os resultados mostram que o grupo etário influencia no desempenho da Tarefa N-back Auditiva. A acurácia foi aumentando na transição da infância para a pré-adolescência e seguiu em crescimento até a adultez. Observou-se um declínio no desempenho de idosos. Os dados da Tarefa N-back Auditiva corrobora a trajetória desenvolvimental, sugerindo que essa tarefa possa ser utilizada no contexto experimental. Pesquisas de normatização contribuirão para melhor compreensão dessa tarefa.One of the most internationally used instruments for evaluation of Working Memory (WM is the Auditory N-Back Task. In Brazil, resources to evaluate this system are scarce. The aim of this study is to investigate the performance of different age subjects in auditory n-back tasks. We divided the 102 subjects in four groups: 27 children, 22 adolescents, 26 young adults and 27 older adults. The results demonstrate an age-related difference in the n-back task performance. The accuracy increased in the transition from childhood to adolescence and kept growing from adolescence to adulthood. We also found a decrease in the performance of aged subjects. The Auditory N-Back Task results are in agreement with WM development trajectory, and so, it demonstrates to be an adjusted instrument to evaluate this system in experimental setting.

  16. Central auditory function of deafness genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willaredt, Marc A; Ebbers, Lena; Nothwang, Hans Gerd

    2014-06-01

    The highly variable benefit of hearing devices is a serious challenge in auditory rehabilitation. Various factors contribute to this phenomenon such as the diversity in ear defects, the different extent of auditory nerve hypoplasia, the age of intervention, and cognitive abilities. Recent analyses indicate that, in addition, central auditory functions of deafness genes have to be considered in this context. Since reduced neuronal activity acts as the common denominator in deafness, it is widely assumed that peripheral deafness influences development and function of the central auditory system in a stereotypical manner. However, functional characterization of transgenic mice with mutated deafness genes demonstrated gene-specific abnormalities in the central auditory system as well. A frequent function of deafness genes in the central auditory system is supported by a genome-wide expression study that revealed significant enrichment of these genes in the transcriptome of the auditory brainstem compared to the entire brain. Here, we will summarize current knowledge of the diverse central auditory functions of deafness genes. We furthermore propose the intimately interwoven gene regulatory networks governing development of the otic placode and the hindbrain as a mechanistic explanation for the widespread expression of these genes beyond the cochlea. We conclude that better knowledge of central auditory dysfunction caused by genetic alterations in deafness genes is required. In combination with improved genetic diagnostics becoming currently available through novel sequencing technologies, this information will likely contribute to better outcome prediction of hearing devices.

  17. Development of auditory-vocal perceptual skills in songbirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa C Miller-Sims

    Full Text Available Songbirds are one of the few groups of animals that learn the sounds used for vocal communication during development. Like humans, songbirds memorize vocal sounds based on auditory experience with vocalizations of adult "tutors", and then use auditory feedback of self-produced vocalizations to gradually match their motor output to the memory of tutor sounds. In humans, investigations of early vocal learning have focused mainly on perceptual skills of infants, whereas studies of songbirds have focused on measures of vocal production. In order to fully exploit songbirds as a model for human speech, understand the neural basis of learned vocal behavior, and investigate links between vocal perception and production, studies of songbirds must examine both behavioral measures of perception and neural measures of discrimination during development. Here we used behavioral and electrophysiological assays of the ability of songbirds to distinguish vocal calls of varying frequencies at different stages of vocal learning. The results show that neural tuning in auditory cortex mirrors behavioral improvements in the ability to make perceptual distinctions of vocal calls as birds are engaged in vocal learning. Thus, separate measures of neural discrimination and behavioral perception yielded highly similar trends during the course of vocal development. The timing of this improvement in the ability to distinguish vocal sounds correlates with our previous work showing substantial refinement of axonal connectivity in cortico-basal ganglia pathways necessary for vocal learning.

  18. Development of auditory-vocal perceptual skills in songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Sims, Vanessa C; Bottjer, Sarah W

    2012-01-01

    Songbirds are one of the few groups of animals that learn the sounds used for vocal communication during development. Like humans, songbirds memorize vocal sounds based on auditory experience with vocalizations of adult "tutors", and then use auditory feedback of self-produced vocalizations to gradually match their motor output to the memory of tutor sounds. In humans, investigations of early vocal learning have focused mainly on perceptual skills of infants, whereas studies of songbirds have focused on measures of vocal production. In order to fully exploit songbirds as a model for human speech, understand the neural basis of learned vocal behavior, and investigate links between vocal perception and production, studies of songbirds must examine both behavioral measures of perception and neural measures of discrimination during development. Here we used behavioral and electrophysiological assays of the ability of songbirds to distinguish vocal calls of varying frequencies at different stages of vocal learning. The results show that neural tuning in auditory cortex mirrors behavioral improvements in the ability to make perceptual distinctions of vocal calls as birds are engaged in vocal learning. Thus, separate measures of neural discrimination and behavioral perception yielded highly similar trends during the course of vocal development. The timing of this improvement in the ability to distinguish vocal sounds correlates with our previous work showing substantial refinement of axonal connectivity in cortico-basal ganglia pathways necessary for vocal learning.

  19. Galactic outflow and diffuse gas properties at z>=1 using different baryonic feedback models

    CERN Document Server

    Barai, Paramita; Murante, Giuseppe; Ragagnin, Antonio; Viel, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    We measure and quantify properties of galactic outflows and diffuse gas at $z \\geq 1$ in cosmological hydrodynamical simulations. Our novel sub-resolution model, MUPPI, implements supernova feedback using fully local gas properties, where the wind velocity and mass loading are not given as input. We find the following trends at $z = 2$ by analysing central galaxies having a stellar mass higher than $10^{9} M_{\\odot}$. The outflow velocity and mass outflow rate ($\\dot{M}_{\\rm out}$) exhibit positive correlations with galaxy mass and with the star formation rate (SFR). However, most of the relations present a large scatter. The outflow mass loading factor ($\\eta$) is between $0.2 - 10$. The comparison Effective model generates a constant outflow velocity, and a negative correlation of $\\eta$ with halo mass. The number fraction of galaxies where outflow is detected decreases at lower redshifts, but remains more than $80 \\%$ over $z = 1 - 5$. High SF activity at $z \\sim 2 - 4$ drives strong outflows, causing the ...

  20. Radiative feedback and cosmic molecular gas: the role of different radiative sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maio, Umberto; Petkova, Margarita; De Lucia, Gabriella; Borgani, Stefano

    2016-08-01

    We present results from multifrequency radiative hydrodynamical chemistry simulations addressing primordial star formation and related stellar feedback from various populations of stars, stellar spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and initial mass functions. Spectra for massive stars, intermediate-mass stars and regular solar-like stars are adopted over a grid of 150 frequency bins and consistently coupled with hydrodynamics, heavy-element pollution and non-equilibrium species calculations. Powerful massive Population III stars are found to be able to largely ionize H and, subsequently, He and He+, causing an inversion of the equation of state and a boost of the Jeans masses in the early intergalactic medium. Radiative effects on star formation rates are between a factor of a few and 1 dex, depending on the SED. Radiative processes are responsible for gas heating and photoevaporation, although emission from soft SEDs has minor impacts. These findings have implications for cosmic gas preheating, primordial direct-collapse black holes, the build-up of `cosmic fossils' such as low-mass dwarf galaxies, the role of active galactic nuclei during reionization, the early formation of extended discs and angular-momentum catastrophe.

  1. The Effect of Augmented Feedback on Foot Pronation During Barre Exercise in Dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, Priscilla M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the use of augmented auditory feedback to reduce foot pronation during barre exercise in dance. The results suggest that augmented feedback can effectively accelerate the correction of foot pronation in dance. (MT)

  2. A vision-free brain-computer interface (BCI) paradigm based on auditory selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do-Won; Cho, Jae-Hyun; Hwang, Han-Jeong; Lim, Jeong-Hwan; Im, Chang-Hwan

    2011-01-01

    Majority of the recently developed brain computer interface (BCI) systems have been using visual stimuli or visual feedbacks. However, the BCI paradigms based on visual perception might not be applicable to severe locked-in patients who have lost their ability to control their eye movement or even their vision. In the present study, we investigated the feasibility of a vision-free BCI paradigm based on auditory selective attention. We used the power difference of auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs) when the participant modulates his/her attention to the target auditory stimulus. The auditory stimuli were constructed as two pure-tone burst trains with different beat frequencies (37 and 43 Hz) which were generated simultaneously from two speakers located at different positions (left and right). Our experimental results showed high classification accuracies (64.67%, 30 commands/min, information transfer rate (ITR) = 1.89 bits/min; 74.00%, 12 commands/min, ITR = 2.08 bits/min; 82.00%, 6 commands/min, ITR = 1.92 bits/min; 84.33%, 3 commands/min, ITR = 1.12 bits/min; without any artifact rejection, inter-trial interval = 6 sec), enough to be used for a binary decision. Based on the suggested paradigm, we implemented a first online ASSR-based BCI system that demonstrated the possibility of materializing a totally vision-free BCI system.

  3. Different strategies underlying uncertain decision making: higher executive performance is associated with enhanced feedback-related negativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kóbor, Andrea; Takács, Ádám; Janacsek, Karolina; Németh, Dezső; Honbolygó, Ferenc; Csépe, Valéria

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of executive functions (EFs) in different strategies underlying risky decision making. Adult participants from a nonclinical sample were assigned to low or high EF groups based on their performance on EF tasks measuring shifting, updating, and inhibition. ERPs were recorded while participants performed the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART). In this task, each balloon pump was associated with either a reward or a balloon pop with unknown probability. The BART behavioral measures did not show between-group differences. However, the feedback-related negativity (FRN) associated with undesirable outcomes was larger in the high EF group than in the low EF group. Since the FRN represents salience prediction error, our results suggest that the high EF group formed internal models that were violated by the outcomes. Thus, we provided ERP evidence for EFs influencing risky decision-making processes. PMID:25224177

  4. Scaling stellar feedback: A study of the physical processes involved in star-forming regions of vastly different sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Eric W.

    2009-09-01

    Regions of recent or ongoing star formation often contain massive stars capable of ionizing the surfaces of nearby molecular clouds. These layers of ionized gas, called H II regions, produce emission lines that serve as beacons of star formation as we look out into distant parts of our Galaxy and the universe. The complex physical processes of star formation are responsible for the chemical and structural evolution of galaxies throughout the history of the universe on many size scales. Light and winds from massive stars heat and compress nearby clouds, acting to simultaneously inhibit and enhance further star formation. To disentangle the importance of competing processes such as photoionization, supernovae, stellar winds, magnetic fields, radiation pressure, I have studied the dominant physical processes in nearby H II regions to determine the relative contribution of each feedback mechanism as a function of star formation intensity. The Orion Nebula is an H II region that is visible to the naked eye. Due to its proximity to the Sun and brightness, it has been studied extensively in all wavelengths. It is dominated by a single O star and offers the least complex environment to compare with models of H II regions. The most complex site of star formation in the local universe is 30 Doradus in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Hundreds of O stars dominated a region thousands of times larger than the Orion Nebula. Together these two examples provide the constraints necessary to quantify stellar feedback on different scales.

  5. The evolution of different forms of sociality : Behavioral mechanisms and eco-evolutionary feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Post, Daniel J; Verbrugge, Rineke; Hemelrijk, Charlotte K

    2015-01-01

    Different forms of sociality have evolved via unique evolutionary trajectories. However, it remains unknown to what extent trajectories of social evolution depend on the specific characteristics of different species. Our approach to studying such trajectories is to use evolutionary case-studies, so

  6. Frequency band-importance functions for auditory and auditory-visual speech recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Ken W.

    2005-04-01

    In many everyday listening environments, speech communication involves the integration of both acoustic and visual speech cues. This is especially true in noisy and reverberant environments where the speech signal is highly degraded, or when the listener has a hearing impairment. Understanding the mechanisms involved in auditory-visual integration is a primary interest of this work. Of particular interest is whether listeners are able to allocate their attention to various frequency regions of the speech signal differently under auditory-visual conditions and auditory-alone conditions. For auditory speech recognition, the most important frequency regions tend to be around 1500-3000 Hz, corresponding roughly to important acoustic cues for place of articulation. The purpose of this study is to determine the most important frequency region under auditory-visual speech conditions. Frequency band-importance functions for auditory and auditory-visual conditions were obtained by having subjects identify speech tokens under conditions where the speech-to-noise ratio of different parts of the speech spectrum is independently and randomly varied on every trial. Point biserial correlations were computed for each separate spectral region and the normalized correlations are interpreted as weights indicating the importance of each region. Relations among frequency-importance functions for auditory and auditory-visual conditions will be discussed.

  7. Feel What You Say: An Auditory Effect on Somatosensory Perception

    OpenAIRE

    François Champoux; Shiller, Douglas M.; Zatorre, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we demonstrate an audiotactile effect in which amplitude modulation of auditory feedback during voiced speech induces a throbbing sensation over the lip and laryngeal regions. Control tasks coupled with the examination of speech acoustic parameters allow us to rule out the possibility that the effect may have been due to cognitive factors or motor compensatory effects. We interpret the effect as reflecting the tight interplay between auditory and tactile modalities durin...

  8. Targeting treatment-resistant auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia with fMRI-based neurofeedback – exploring different cases of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam S. Dyck

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs are a hallmark of schizophrenia and can significantly impair patients’ emotional, social, and occupational functioning. Despite progress in psychopharmacology, over 25% of schizophrenia patients suffer from treatment-resistant hallucinations. In the search for alternative treatment methods, neurofeedback (NF emerges as a promising therapy tool. NF based on real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI allows voluntarily change of the activity in a selected brain region – even in patients with schizophrenia. This study explored effects of NF on ongoing AVHs. The selected participants were trained in the self-regulation of activity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, a key monitoring region involved in generation and intensity modulation of AVHs. Using rt-fMRI, three right-handed patients, suffering from schizophrenia and ongoing, treatment-resistant AVHs, learned control over ACC activity on three separate days. The effect of NF training on hallucinations’ severity was assessed with the Auditory Vocal Hallucination Rating Scale (AVHRS and on the affective state – with the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS.All patients yielded significant up-regulation of the ACC and reported subjective improvement in some aspects of AVHs (AVHRS such as disturbance and suffering from the voices. In general, mood (PANAS improved during NF training, though two patients reported worse mood after NF on the third day. ACC and reward system activity during NF learning and specific effects on mood and symptoms varied across the participants. None of them profited from the last training set in the prolonged 3-session training. Moreover, individual differences emerged in brain networks activated with NF and in symptom changes, which were related to the patients’ symptomatology and disease history.NF based on rt-fMRI seems a promising tool in therapy of AVHs. The patients, who suffered from continuous

  9. Targeting Treatment-Resistant Auditory Verbal Hallucinations in Schizophrenia with fMRI-Based Neurofeedback – Exploring Different Cases of Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, Miriam S.; Mathiak, Krystyna A.; Bergert, Susanne; Sarkheil, Pegah; Koush, Yury; Alawi, Eliza M.; Zvyagintsev, Mikhail; Gaebler, Arnim J.; Shergill, Sukhi S.; Mathiak, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) are a hallmark of schizophrenia and can significantly impair patients’ emotional, social, and occupational functioning. Despite progress in psychopharmacology, over 25% of schizophrenia patients suffer from treatment-resistant hallucinations. In the search for alternative treatment methods, neurofeedback (NF) emerges as a promising therapy tool. NF based on real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI) allows voluntarily change of the activity in a selected brain region – even in patients with schizophrenia. This study explored effects of NF on ongoing AVHs. The selected participants were trained in the self-regulation of activity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), a key monitoring region involved in generation and intensity modulation of AVHs. Using rt-fMRI, three right-handed patients, suffering from schizophrenia and ongoing, treatment-resistant AVHs, learned control over ACC activity on three separate days. The effect of NF training on hallucinations’ severity was assessed with the Auditory Vocal Hallucination Rating Scale (AVHRS) and on the affective state – with the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). All patients yielded significant upregulation of the ACC and reported subjective improvement in some aspects of AVHs (AVHRS) such as disturbance and suffering from the voices. In general, mood (PANAS) improved during NF training, though two patients reported worse mood after NF on the third day. ACC and reward system activity during NF learning and specific effects on mood and symptoms varied across the participants. None of them profited from the last training set in the prolonged three-session training. Moreover, individual differences emerged in brain networks activated with NF and in symptom changes, which were related to the patients’ symptomatology and disease history. NF based on rt-fMRI seems a promising tool in therapy of AVHs. The patients, who suffered from continuous

  10. Congestion phenomenon analysis and delayed-feedback control in a modified coupled map traffic flow model containing the velocity difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ya-Ling; Shi, Zhong-Ke; Cao, Jin-Liang

    2015-06-01

    Based on the coupled map car-following model which was presented by Konishi et al. (1999), a modified coupled map car-following model is proposed. Specifically, the velocity difference between two successive vehicles is included in the model. The stability condition is given for the change of the speed of the preceding vehicle on the base of the control theory. We derive a condition under which the traffic jam never occurs in our model. Furthermore, in order to suppress traffic jams, we use static and dynamic version of decentralized delayed-feedback control for each vehicle, respectively, and provide a systematic procedure for designing the controller. In addition, the controller of each vehicle does not include any other vehicle information in real traffic flows.

  11. Do transformational CEOs always make the difference? The role of TMT feedback seeking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoker, Janka I.; Grutterink, Hanneke; Kolk, Nanja J.

    2012-01-01

    In the present paper, we raise the question whether CEO transformational leadership invariably makes a difference for team performance and change effectiveness. Since in general, CEOs are surrounded by a team of highly influential top managers, we argue that the effectiveness of CEO transformational

  12. Supervisor Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayman, Marilyn J.

    1981-01-01

    Investigated the effectiveness of supervisor feedback in contributing to learning counseling skills. Counselor trainees (N=64) were assigned to supervisor feedback, no supervisor feedback, or control groups for three training sessions. Results indicated counseling skills were learned best by students with no supervisor feedback but self and peer…

  13. The evolution of different forms of sociality : behavioral mechanisms and eco-evolutionary feedback

    OpenAIRE

    van der Post, Daniel J.; Rineke Verbrugge; Hemelrijk, Charlotte K.

    2015-01-01

    This research was funded by the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (http://www.nwo.nl/en): Vici grant NWO-277-80-001 awarded to Rineke Verbrugge (in the project Cognitive systems in interaction: Logical and computational models of higher-order social cognition). Date of Acceptance: 17/12/2014 Different forms of sociality have evolved via unique evolutionary trajectories. However, it remains unknown to what extent trajectories of social evolution depend on the specific charact...

  14. Using feedback analysis to uncover the physical origin of efficacy differences

    OpenAIRE

    Rieger, Vanessa; Dietmüller, Simone; Ponater, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The climate sensitivity parameter has long been assumed to be constant. However, recent studies found that the climate sensitivity parameter varies, not only amongst models for the same forcing, but also within the same model where it may strongly depend on the strength and the type of the applied forcing. The so-called efficacy differences are essential to assess the relative importance of several contributing agents to a total climate impact. Running equilibrium climate change s...

  15. Sex Differences in Gamma Band Functional Connectivity Between the Frontal Lobe and Cortical Areas During an Auditory Oddball Task, as Revealed by Imaginary Coherence Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Toshiro; Okumura, Eiichi; Kodabashi, Atsushi; Takeuchi, Kouzou; Otsubo, Toshiaki; Nakamura, Katsumi; Yatsushiro, Kazutaka; Sekine, Masaki; Kamiya, Shinichiro; Shimooki, Susumu; Tamura, Toshiyo

    2016-01-01

    We studied sex-related differences in gamma oscillation during an auditory oddball task, using magnetoencephalography and electroencephalography assessment of imaginary coherence (IC). We obtained a statistical source map of event-related desynchronization (ERD) / event-related synchronization (ERS), and compared females and males regarding ERD / ERS. Based on the results, we chose respectively seed regions for IC determinations in low (30-50 Hz), mid (50-100 Hz) and high gamma (100-150 Hz) bands. In males, ERD was increased in the left posterior cingulate cortex (CGp) at 500 ms in the low gamma band, and in the right caudal anterior cingulate cortex (cACC) at 125 ms in the mid-gamma band. ERS was increased in the left rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) at 375 ms in the high gamma band. We chose the CGp, cACC and rACC as seeds, and examined IC between the seed and certain target regions using the IC map. IC changes depended on the height of the gamma frequency and the time window in the gamma band. Although IC in the mid and high gamma bands did not show sex-specific differences, IC at 30-50 Hz in males was increased between the left rACC and the frontal, orbitofrontal, inferior temporal and fusiform target regions. Increased IC in males suggested that males may acomplish the task constructively, analysingly, emotionally, and by perfoming analysis, and that information processing was more complicated in the cortico-cortical circuit. On the other hand, females showed few differences in IC. Females planned the task with general attention and economical well-balanced processing, which was explained by the higher overall functional cortical connectivity. CGp, cACC and rACC were involved in sex differences in information processing and were likely related to differences in neuroanatomy, hormones and neurotransmitter systems. PMID:27708745

  16. Auditory Short-Term Memory Activation during Score Reading

    OpenAIRE

    Simoens, Veerle L; Mari Tervaniemi

    2013-01-01

    Performing music on the basis of reading a score requires reading ahead of what is being played in order to anticipate the necessary actions to produce the notes. Score reading thus not only involves the decoding of a visual score and the comparison to the auditory feedback, but also short-term storage of the musical information due to the delay of the auditory feedback during reading ahead. This study investigates the mechanisms of encoding of musical information in short-term memory during ...

  17. Feedback and Incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Poulsen, Anders; Villeval, Marie Claire

    2009-01-01

    This paper experimentally investigates the impact of different pay schemes and relative performance feedback policies on employee effort. We explore three feedback rules: no feedback on relative performance, feedback given halfway through the production period, and continuously updated feedback. We...... use two pay schemes, a piece rate and a tournament. We find that overall feedback does not improve performance. In contrast to the piece-rate pay scheme there is some evidence of positive peer effects in tournaments since the underdogs almost never quit the competition even when lagging significantly...... behind, and front runners do not slack off. But in both pay schemes relative performance feedback reduces the quality of the low performers' work; we refer to this as a "negative quality peer effect"....

  18. Understanding visual-auditory correlation from heterogeneous features for cross-media retrieval

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Cross-media retrieval is an interesting research topic, which seeks to remove the barriers among different modalities. To enable cross-media retrieval, it is needed to find the correlation measures between heterogeneous low-level features and to judge the semantic similarity. This paper presents a novel approach to learn cross-media correlation between visual features and auditory features for image-audio retrieval. A semi-supervised correlation preserving mapping (SSCPM) method is described to construct the isomorphic SSCPM subspace where canonical correlations between the original visual and auditory features are further preserved. Subspace optimization algorithm is proposed to improve the local image cluster and audio cluster quality in an interactive way. A unique relevance feedback strategy is developed to update the knowledge of cross-media correlation by learning from user behaviors, so retrieval performance is enhanced in a progressive manner. Experimental results show that the performance of our approach is effective.

  19. Some Aspects of Speech Production under Controlled Conditions of Oral Anaesthesia and Auditory Masking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardcastle, W. J.

    1975-01-01

    Reports on the effects of oral anaesthesia and auditory masking on various aspects of speech articulation as objectively quantified by electropalatography and sound spectrography. The results show changes in speech production caused by altered tactile and auditory feedback. (Author/TL)

  20. Motor Training: Comparison of Visual and Auditory Coded Proprioceptive Cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Jepson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Self-perception of body posture and movement is achieved through multi-sensory integration, particularly the utilisation of vision, and proprioceptive information derived from muscles and joints. Disruption to these processes can occur following a neurological accident, such as stroke, leading to sensory and physical impairment. Rehabilitation can be helped through use of augmented visual and auditory biofeedback to stimulate neuro-plasticity, but the effective design and application of feedback, particularly in the auditory domain, is non-trivial. Simple auditory feedback was tested by comparing the stepping accuracy of normal subjects when given a visual spatial target (step length and an auditory temporal target (step duration. A baseline measurement of step length and duration was taken using optical motion capture. Subjects (n=20 took 20 ‘training’ steps (baseline ±25% using either an auditory target (950 Hz tone, bell-shaped gain envelope or visual target (spot marked on the floor and were then asked to replicate the target step (length or duration corresponding to training with all feedback removed. Visual cues (mean percentage error=11.5%; SD ± 7.0%; auditory cues (mean percentage error = 12.9%; SD ± 11.8%. Visual cues elicit a high degree of accuracy both in training and follow-up un-cued tasks; despite the novelty of the auditory cues present for subjects, the mean accuracy of subjects approached that for visual cues, and initial results suggest a limited amount of practice using auditory cues can improve performance.

  1. Experiments on feedback control of multiple resistive wall modes comparing different active coil arrays and sensor types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments have been carried out on the EXTRAP T2R reversed-field pinch device to study several important issues related to feedback control of resistive wall modes (RWMs). The feedback system includes a sensor coil array, a feedback controller implementing a feedback law and an active coil array. The issues include 1) effects of sideband harmonics produced by the feedback system, 2) the form of the controller and the feedback law, 3) feedback system stability, 4) selection of the sensor coil configuration and 5) effects of field errors on the feedback system. Side band harmonics are produced by the feedback system because the active saddle coil array consists of discrete coils. The presence of side bands can couple modes thus preventing simultaneous stabilisation of the coupled modes. The side band effect sets requirements for the minimum number of active coils in the array in both the poloidal and toroidal directions. Recent experiments using the intelligent shell concept with proportional-integral-derivative controller action have achieved complete simultaneous stabilisation of all RWMs modes when the requirements are satisfied. In addition to the intelligent shell concept, preliminary experiments have been performed to test the fake rotating shell concept. For this concept, the sensor coil array is shifted in phase relative to the active coil array thus a detected harmonic is induced to rotate by the active coil-produced control field. Under the condition that the phase shift is less than a quarter-wave length of the mode, mode suppression can be achieved. Feedback using a controller incorporating individual mode control has also been tested. This has enabled the first feedback experiments using a sensor array measuring the toroidal field component to be carried out. For this concept, an array consisting of localised toroidal field sensor coils is used. Mode suppression has been successfully accomplished. However pick-up of high order field error harmonics due

  2. Differences between Dyslexic and Non-Dyslexic Children in the Performance of Phonological Visual-Auditory Recognition Tasks: An Eye-Tracking Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimé Tiadi

    Full Text Available The object of this study was to explore further phonological visual-auditory recognition tasks in a group of fifty-six healthy children (mean age: 9.9 ± 0.3 and to compare these data to those recorded in twenty-six age-matched dyslexic children (mean age: 9.8 ± 0.2. Eye movements from both eyes were recorded using an infrared video-oculography system (MobileEBT® e(ye BRAIN. The recognition task was performed under four conditions in which the target object was displayed either with phonologically unrelated objects (baseline condition, or with cohort or rhyme objects (cohort and rhyme conditions, respectively, or both together (rhyme + cohort condition. The percentage of the total time spent on the targets and the latency of the first saccade on the target were measured. Results in healthy children showed that the percentage of the total time spent in the baseline condition was significantly longer than in the other conditions, and that the latency of the first saccade in the cohort condition was significantly longer than in the other conditions; interestingly, the latency decreased significantly with the increasing age of the children. The developmental trend of phonological awareness was also observed in healthy children only. In contrast, we observed that for dyslexic children the total time spent on the target was similar in all four conditions tested, and also that they had similar latency values in both cohort and rhyme conditions. These findings suggest a different sensitivity to the phonological competitors between dyslexic and non-dyslexic children. Also, the eye-tracking technique provides online information about phonological awareness capabilities in children.

  3. Neural cryptography with feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttor, Andreas; Kinzel, Wolfgang; Shacham, Lanir; Kanter, Ido

    2004-04-01

    Neural cryptography is based on a competition between attractive and repulsive stochastic forces. A feedback mechanism is added to neural cryptography which increases the repulsive forces. Using numerical simulations and an analytic approach, the probability of a successful attack is calculated for different model parameters. Scaling laws are derived which show that feedback improves the security of the system. In addition, a network with feedback generates a pseudorandom bit sequence which can be used to encrypt and decrypt a secret message.

  4. Neural cryptography with feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttor, Andreas; Kinzel, Wolfgang; Shacham, Lanir; Kanter, Ido

    2004-04-01

    Neural cryptography is based on a competition between attractive and repulsive stochastic forces. A feedback mechanism is added to neural cryptography which increases the repulsive forces. Using numerical simulations and an analytic approach, the probability of a successful attack is calculated for different model parameters. Scaling laws are derived which show that feedback improves the security of the system. In addition, a network with feedback generates a pseudorandom bit sequence which can be used to encrypt and decrypt a secret message.

  5. Investigating the Role of Auditory and Tactile Modalities in Violin Quality Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollman, Indiana; Fritz, Claudia; Poitevineau, Jacques; McAdams, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The role of auditory and tactile modalities involved in violin playing and evaluation was investigated in an experiment employing a blind violin evaluation task under different conditions: i) normal playing conditions, ii) playing with auditory masking, and iii) playing with vibrotactile masking. Under each condition, 20 violinists evaluated five violins according to criteria related to violin playing and sound characteristics and rated their overall quality and relative preference. Results show that both auditory and vibrotactile feedback are important in the violinists’ evaluations but that their relative importance depends on the violinist, the violin and the type of evaluation (different criteria ratings or preference). In this way, the overall quality ratings were found to be accurately predicted by the rating criteria, which also proved to be perceptually relevant to violinists, but were poorly correlated with the preference ratings; this suggests that the two types of ratings (overall quality vs preference) may stem from different decision-making strategies. Furthermore, the experimental design confirmed that violinists agree more on the importance of criteria in their overall evaluation than on their actual ratings for different violins. In particular, greater agreement was found on the importance of criteria related to the sound of the violin. Nevertheless, this study reveals that there are fundamental differences in the way players interpret and evaluate each criterion, which may explain why correlating physical properties with perceptual properties has been challenging so far in the field of musical acoustics. PMID:25474036

  6. Investigating the role of auditory and tactile modalities in violin quality evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indiana Wollman

    Full Text Available The role of auditory and tactile modalities involved in violin playing and evaluation was investigated in an experiment employing a blind violin evaluation task under different conditions: i normal playing conditions, ii playing with auditory masking, and iii playing with vibrotactile masking. Under each condition, 20 violinists evaluated five violins according to criteria related to violin playing and sound characteristics and rated their overall quality and relative preference. Results show that both auditory and vibrotactile feedback are important in the violinists' evaluations but that their relative importance depends on the violinist, the violin and the type of evaluation (different criteria ratings or preference. In this way, the overall quality ratings were found to be accurately predicted by the rating criteria, which also proved to be perceptually relevant to violinists, but were poorly correlated with the preference ratings; this suggests that the two types of ratings (overall quality vs preference may stem from different decision-making strategies. Furthermore, the experimental design confirmed that violinists agree more on the importance of criteria in their overall evaluation than on their actual ratings for different violins. In particular, greater agreement was found on the importance of criteria related to the sound of the violin. Nevertheless, this study reveals that there are fundamental differences in the way players interpret and evaluate each criterion, which may explain why correlating physical properties with perceptual properties has been challenging so far in the field of musical acoustics.

  7. Role of the auditory system in speech production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, Frank H; Hickok, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reviews evidence regarding the role of auditory perception in shaping speech output. Evidence indicates that speech movements are planned to follow auditory trajectories. This in turn is followed by a description of the Directions Into Velocities of Articulators (DIVA) model, which provides a detailed account of the role of auditory feedback in speech motor development and control. A brief description of the higher-order brain areas involved in speech sequencing (including the pre-supplementary motor area and inferior frontal sulcus) is then provided, followed by a description of the Hierarchical State Feedback Control (HSFC) model, which posits internal error detection and correction processes that can detect and correct speech production errors prior to articulation. The chapter closes with a treatment of promising future directions of research into auditory-motor interactions in speech, including the use of intracranial recording techniques such as electrocorticography in humans, the investigation of the potential roles of various large-scale brain rhythms in speech perception and production, and the development of brain-computer interfaces that use auditory feedback to allow profoundly paralyzed users to learn to produce speech using a speech synthesizer.

  8. Development of kinesthetic-motor and auditory-motor representations in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagerer, Florian A; Clark, Jane E

    2015-07-01

    In two experiments using a center-out task, we investigated kinesthetic-motor and auditory-motor integrations in 5- to 12-year-old children and young adults. In experiment 1, participants moved a pen on a digitizing tablet from a starting position to one of three targets (visuo-motor condition), and then to one of four targets without visual feedback of the movement. In both conditions, we found that with increasing age, the children moved faster and straighter, and became less variable in their feedforward control. Higher control demands for movements toward the contralateral side were reflected in longer movement times and decreased spatial accuracy across all age groups. When feedforward control relies predominantly on kinesthesia, 7- to 10-year-old children were more variable, indicating difficulties in switching between feedforward and feedback control efficiently during that age. An inverse age progression was found for directional endpoint error; larger errors increasing with age likely reflect stronger functional lateralization for the dominant hand. In experiment 2, the same visuo-motor condition was followed by an auditory-motor condition in which participants had to move to acoustic targets (either white band or one-third octave noise). Since in the latter directional cues come exclusively from transcallosally mediated interaural time differences, we hypothesized that auditory-motor representations would show age effects. The results did not show a clear age effect, suggesting that corpus callosum functionality is sufficient in children to allow them to form accurate auditory-motor maps already at a young age.

  9. In search of an auditory engram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Jonathan; Mishkin, Mortimer; Saunders, Richard C.

    2005-01-01

    Monkeys trained preoperatively on a task designed to assess auditory recognition memory were impaired after removal of either the rostral superior temporal gyrus or the medial temporal lobe but were unaffected by lesions of the rhinal cortex. Behavioral analysis indicated that this result occurred because the monkeys did not or could not use long-term auditory recognition, and so depended instead on short-term working memory, which is unaffected by rhinal lesions. The findings suggest that monkeys may be unable to place representations of auditory stimuli into a long-term store and thus question whether the monkey's cerebral memory mechanisms in audition are intrinsically different from those in other sensory modalities. Furthermore, it raises the possibility that language is unique to humans not only because it depends on speech but also because it requires long-term auditory memory. PMID:15967995

  10. Effects of an Auditory Lateralization Training in Children Suspected to Central Auditory Processing Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfi, Yones; Moosavi, Abdollah; Bakhshi, Enayatollah; Sadjedi, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Central auditory processing disorder [(C)APD] refers to a deficit in auditory stimuli processing in nervous system that is not due to higher-order language or cognitive factors. One of the problems in children with (C)APD is spatial difficulties which have been overlooked despite their significance. Localization is an auditory ability to detect sound sources in space and can help to differentiate between the desired speech from other simultaneous sound sources. Aim of this research was investigating effects of an auditory lateralization training on speech perception in presence of noise/competing signals in children suspected to (C)APD. Subjects and Methods In this analytical interventional study, 60 children suspected to (C)APD were selected based on multiple auditory processing assessment subtests. They were randomly divided into two groups: control (mean age 9.07) and training groups (mean age 9.00). Training program consisted of detection and pointing to sound sources delivered with interaural time differences under headphones for 12 formal sessions (6 weeks). Spatial word recognition score (WRS) and monaural selective auditory attention test (mSAAT) were used to follow the auditory lateralization training effects. Results This study showed that in the training group, mSAAT score and spatial WRS in noise (p value≤0.001) improved significantly after the auditory lateralization training. Conclusions We used auditory lateralization training for 6 weeks and showed that auditory lateralization can improve speech understanding in noise significantly. The generalization of this results needs further researches.

  11. Conceptual priming for realistic auditory scenes and for auditory words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Aline; Aramaki, Mitsuko; Besson, Mireille

    2014-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted using both behavioral and Event-Related brain Potentials methods to examine conceptual priming effects for realistic auditory scenes and for auditory words. Prime and target sounds were presented in four stimulus combinations: Sound-Sound, Word-Sound, Sound-Word and Word-Word. Within each combination, targets were conceptually related to the prime, unrelated or ambiguous. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to judge whether the primes and targets fit together (explicit task) and in Experiment 2 they had to decide whether the target was typical or ambiguous (implicit task). In both experiments and in the four stimulus combinations, reaction times and/or error rates were longer/higher and the N400 component was larger to ambiguous targets than to conceptually related targets, thereby pointing to a common conceptual system for processing auditory scenes and linguistic stimuli in both explicit and implicit tasks. However, fine-grained analyses also revealed some differences between experiments and conditions in scalp topography and duration of the priming effects possibly reflecting differences in the integration of perceptual and cognitive attributes of linguistic and nonlinguistic sounds. These results have clear implications for the building-up of virtual environments that need to convey meaning without words. PMID:24378910

  12. Loudspeaker-based room auralization in auditory perception research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholz, Jörg; Favrot, Sylvain Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    , and aided-impaired auditory system in realistic environments and (ii) a framework to evaluate the effect of different room modeling and auralisation methods on auditory perception. The applicability of such environment is demonstrated using different objective room acoustic measures. Different experimental...... results are presented, including measures of distance perception and the effect of early reflections on speech intelligibility....

  13. Distribution of input and output synapses on the central branches of bushcricket and cricket auditory afferent neurones: immunocytochemical evidence for GABA and glutamate in different populations of presynaptic boutons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardt, M; Watson, A H

    1999-01-18

    In order to investigate the synapses on the terminals of primary auditory afferents in the bushcricket and cricket, these were impaled with microelectrodes and after physiological characterisation, injected intracellularly with horseradish peroxidase. The tissue was prepared for electron microscopy, and immunocytochemistry for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate was carried out on ultrathin sections by using a post-embedding immunogold technique. The afferent terminals received many input synapses. Between 60-65% of these were made by processes immunoreactive for GABA and approximately 25% from processes immunoreactive for glutamate. The relative distribution of the different classes of input were analysed from serial section reconstruction of terminal afferent branches. Inputs from GABA and glutamate-immunoreactive processes appeared to be scattered at random over the terminal arborisation of the afferents both with respect to each other and to the architecture of the terminals. They were, however, always found close to the output synapses. The possible roles of presynaptic inhibition in the auditory afferents is discussed in the context of the auditory responses of the animals.

  14. Speech motor learning changes the neural response to both auditory and somatosensory signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takayuki; Coppola, Joshua H.; Ostry, David J.

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper, we present evidence for the idea that speech motor learning is accompanied by changes to the neural coding of both auditory and somatosensory stimuli. Participants in our experiments undergo adaptation to altered auditory feedback, an experimental model of speech motor learning which like visuo-motor adaptation in limb movement, requires that participants change their speech movements and associated somatosensory inputs to correct for systematic real-time changes to auditory feedback. We measure the sensory effects of adaptation by examining changes to auditory and somatosensory event-related responses. We find that adaptation results in progressive changes to speech acoustical outputs that serve to correct for the perturbation. We also observe changes in both auditory and somatosensory event-related responses that are correlated with the magnitude of adaptation. These results indicate that sensory change occurs in conjunction with the processes involved in speech motor adaptation. PMID:27181603

  15. The plastic ear and perceptual relearning in auditory spatial perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlile, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The auditory system of adult listeners has been shown to accommodate to altered spectral cues to sound location which presumably provides the basis for recalibration to changes in the shape of the ear over a life time. Here we review the role of auditory and non-auditory inputs to the perception of sound location and consider a range of recent experiments looking at the role of non-auditory inputs in the process of accommodation to these altered spectral cues. A number of studies have used small ear molds to modify the spectral cues that result in significant degradation in localization performance. Following chronic exposure (10-60 days) performance recovers to some extent and recent work has demonstrated that this occurs for both audio-visual and audio-only regions of space. This begs the questions as to the teacher signal for this remarkable functional plasticity in the adult nervous system. Following a brief review of influence of the motor state in auditory localization, we consider the potential role of auditory-motor learning in the perceptual recalibration of the spectral cues. Several recent studies have considered how multi-modal and sensory-motor feedback might influence accommodation to altered spectral cues produced by ear molds or through virtual auditory space stimulation using non-individualized spectral cues. The work with ear molds demonstrates that a relatively short period of training involving audio-motor feedback (5-10 days) significantly improved both the rate and extent of accommodation to altered spectral cues. This has significant implications not only for the mechanisms by which this complex sensory information is encoded to provide spatial cues but also for adaptive training to altered auditory inputs. The review concludes by considering the implications for rehabilitative training with hearing aids and cochlear prosthesis. PMID:25147497

  16. The plastic ear and perceptual relearning in auditory spatial perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlile, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The auditory system of adult listeners has been shown to accommodate to altered spectral cues to sound location which presumably provides the basis for recalibration to changes in the shape of the ear over a life time. Here we review the role of auditory and non-auditory inputs to the perception of sound location and consider a range of recent experiments looking at the role of non-auditory inputs in the process of accommodation to these altered spectral cues. A number of studies have used small ear molds to modify the spectral cues that result in significant degradation in localization performance. Following chronic exposure (10-60 days) performance recovers to some extent and recent work has demonstrated that this occurs for both audio-visual and audio-only regions of space. This begs the questions as to the teacher signal for this remarkable functional plasticity in the adult nervous system. Following a brief review of influence of the motor state in auditory localization, we consider the potential role of auditory-motor learning in the perceptual recalibration of the spectral cues. Several recent studies have considered how multi-modal and sensory-motor feedback might influence accommodation to altered spectral cues produced by ear molds or through virtual auditory space stimulation using non-individualized spectral cues. The work with ear molds demonstrates that a relatively short period of training involving audio-motor feedback (5-10 days) significantly improved both the rate and extent of accommodation to altered spectral cues. This has significant implications not only for the mechanisms by which this complex sensory information is encoded to provide spatial cues but also for adaptive training to altered auditory inputs. The review concludes by considering the implications for rehabilitative training with hearing aids and cochlear prosthesis.

  17. The plastic ear and perceptual relearning in auditory spatial perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon eCarlile

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The auditory system of adult listeners has been shown to accommodate to altered spectral cues to sound location which presumably provides the basis for recalibration to changes in the shape of the ear over a life time. Here we review the role of auditory and non-auditory inputs to the perception of sound location and consider a range of recent experiments looking at the role of non-auditory inputs in the process of accommodation to these altered spectral cues. A number of studies have used small ear moulds to modify the spectral cues that result in significant degradation in localization performance. Following chronic exposure (10-60 days performance recovers to some extent and recent work has demonstrated that this occurs for both audio-visual and audio-only regions of space. This begs the questions as to the teacher signal for this remarkable functional plasticity in the adult nervous system. Following a brief review of influence of the motor state in auditory localisation, we consider the potential role of auditory-motor learning in the perceptual recalibration of the spectral cues. Several recent studies have considered how multi-modal and sensory-motor feedback might influence accommodation to altered spectral cues produced by ear moulds or through virtual auditory space stimulation using non-individualised spectral cues. The work with ear moulds demonstrates that a relatively short period of training involving sensory-motor feedback (5 – 10 days significantly improved both the rate and extent of accommodation to altered spectral cues. This has significant implications not only for the mechanisms by which this complex sensory information is encoded to provide a spatial code but also for adaptive training to altered auditory inputs. The review concludes by considering the implications for rehabilitative training with hearing aids and cochlear prosthesis.

  18. Subdivisions of the auditory midbrain (n. mesencephalicus lateralis, pars dorsalis in zebra finches using calcium-binding protein immunocytochemistry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Logerot

    Full Text Available The midbrain nucleus mesencephalicus lateralis pars dorsalis (MLd is thought to be the avian homologue of the central nucleus of the mammalian inferior colliculus. As such, it is a major relay in the ascending auditory pathway of all birds and in songbirds mediates the auditory feedback necessary for the learning and maintenance of song. To clarify the organization of MLd, we applied three calcium binding protein antibodies to tissue sections from the brains of adult male and female zebra finches. The staining patterns resulting from the application of parvalbumin, calbindin and calretinin antibodies differed from each other and in different parts of the nucleus. Parvalbumin-like immunoreactivity was distributed throughout the whole nucleus, as defined by the totality of the terminations of brainstem auditory afferents; in other words parvalbumin-like immunoreactivity defines the boundaries of MLd. Staining patterns of parvalbumin, calbindin and calretinin defined two regions of MLd: inner (MLd.I and outer (MLd.O. MLd.O largely surrounds MLd.I and is distinct from the surrounding intercollicular nucleus. Unlike the case in some non-songbirds, however, the two MLd regions do not correspond to the terminal zones of the projections of the brainstem auditory nuclei angularis and laminaris, which have been found to overlap substantially throughout the nucleus in zebra finches.

  19. Targeting Treatment-Resistant Auditory Verbal Hallucinations in Schizophrenia with fMRI-Based Neurofeedback – Exploring Different Cases of Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Dyck, Miriam S.; Mathiak, Krystyna A; Bergert, Susanne; Sarkheil, Pegah; Koush, Yury; Alawi, Eliza M.; Zvyagintsev, Mikhail; Gaebler, Arnim J.; Sukhi S Shergill; Mathiak, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) are a hallmark of schizophrenia and can significantly impair patients' emotional, social, and occupational functioning. Despite progress in psychopharmacology, over 25% of schizophrenia patients suffer from treatment-resistant hallucinations. In the search for alternative treatment methods, neurofeedback (NF) emerges as a promising therapy tool. NF based on real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI) allows voluntarily change of the activity...

  20. Targeting treatment-resistant auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia with fMRI-based neurofeedback – exploring different cases of schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Dyck, Miriam S.; Krystyna Anna Mathiak; Susanne eBergert; Pegah eSarkheil; Yury eKoush; Eliza Maysun Alawi; Mikhail eZvyagintsev; Arnim Johannes Gaebler; Sukhi eShergill; Klaus eMathiak

    2016-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) are a hallmark of schizophrenia and can significantly impair patients’ emotional, social, and occupational functioning. Despite progress in psychopharmacology, over 25% of schizophrenia patients suffer from treatment-resistant hallucinations. In the search for alternative treatment methods, neurofeedback (NF) emerges as a promising therapy tool. NF based on real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI) allows voluntarily change of the activity...

  1. A trade-off between somatosensory and auditory related brain activity during object naming but not reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghier, Mohamed L; Hope, Thomas M H; Prejawa, Susan; Parker Jones, 'Ōiwi; Vitkovitch, Melanie; Price, Cathy J

    2015-03-18

    The parietal operculum, particularly the cytoarchitectonic area OP1 of the secondary somatosensory area (SII), is involved in somatosensory feedback. Using fMRI with 58 human subjects, we investigated task-dependent differences in SII/OP1 activity during three familiar speech production tasks: object naming, reading and repeatedly saying "1-2-3." Bilateral SII/OP1 was significantly suppressed (relative to rest) during object naming, to a lesser extent when repeatedly saying "1-2-3" and not at all during reading. These results cannot be explained by task difficulty but the contrasting difference between naming and reading illustrates how the demands on somatosensory activity change with task, even when motor output (i.e., production of object names) is matched. To investigate what determined SII/OP1 deactivation during object naming, we searched the whole brain for areas where activity increased as that in SII/OP1 decreased. This across subject covariance analysis revealed a region in the right superior temporal sulcus (STS) that lies within the auditory cortex, and is activated by auditory feedback during speech production. The tradeoff between activity in SII/OP1 and STS was not observed during reading, which showed significantly more activation than naming in both SII/OP1 and STS bilaterally. These findings suggest that, although object naming is more error prone than reading, subjects can afford to rely more or less on somatosensory or auditory feedback during naming. In contrast, fast and efficient error-free reading places more consistent demands on both types of feedback, perhaps because of the potential for increased competition between lexical and sublexical codes at the articulatory level.

  2. Auditory Responses of Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watrous, Betty Springer; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Forty infants, 3- to 12-months-old, participated in a study designed to differentiate the auditory response characteristics of normally developing infants in the age ranges 3 - 5 months, 6 - 8 months, and 9 - 12 months. (Author)

  3. The Effect of Performance Feedback on Student Help-Seeking and Learning Strategy Use: Do Clickers Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Debra L.; Meadows, Ken N.; Haffie, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Two studies were performed to investigate the impact of students' clicker performance feedback on their help-seeking behaviour and use of other learning strategies. In study 1, we investigated the relationship between students' clicker performance, self-efficacy, help-seeking behavior, and academic achievement. We found that there was a…

  4. [Central auditory prosthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenarz, T; Lim, H; Joseph, G; Reuter, G; Lenarz, M

    2009-06-01

    Deaf patients with severe sensory hearing loss can benefit from a cochlear implant (CI), which stimulates the auditory nerve fibers. However, patients who do not have an intact auditory nerve cannot benefit from a CI. The majority of these patients are neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) patients who developed neural deafness due to growth or surgical removal of a bilateral acoustic neuroma. The only current solution is the auditory brainstem implant (ABI), which stimulates the surface of the cochlear nucleus in the brainstem. Although the ABI provides improvement in environmental awareness and lip-reading capabilities, only a few NF2 patients have achieved some limited open set speech perception. In the search for alternative procedures our research group in collaboration with Cochlear Ltd. (Australia) developed a human prototype auditory midbrain implant (AMI), which is designed to electrically stimulate the inferior colliculus (IC). The IC has the potential as a new target for an auditory prosthesis as it provides access to neural projections necessary for speech perception as well as a systematic map of spectral information. In this paper the present status of research and development in the field of central auditory prostheses is presented with respect to technology, surgical technique and hearing results as well as the background concepts of ABI and AMI. PMID:19517084

  5. Frequency tuning of individual auditory receptors in female mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapshin, D N; Vorontsov, D D

    2013-08-01

    The acoustic sensory organs in mosquitoes (Johnston organs) have been thoroughly studied; yet, to date, no data are available on the individual tuning properties of the numerous receptors that convert sound-induced vibrations into electrical signals. All previous measurements of frequency tuning in mosquitoes have been based on the acoustically evoked field potentials recorded from the entire Johnston organ. Here, we present evidence that individual receptors have various frequency tunings and that differently tuned receptors are unequally represented within the Johnston organ. We devised a positive feedback stimulation paradigm as a new and effective approach to test individual receptor properties. Alongside the glass microelectrode technique, the positive feedback stimulation paradigm has allowed us to obtain data on receptor tuning in females from three mosquito species: Anopheles messeae, Aedes excrucians and Culex pipiens pipiens. The existence of individually tuned auditory receptors implies that frequency analysis in mosquitoes may be possible.

  6. Musical experience shapes top-down auditory mechanisms: evidence from masking and auditory attention performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strait, Dana L; Kraus, Nina; Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; Ashley, Richard

    2010-03-01

    A growing body of research suggests that cognitive functions, such as attention and memory, drive perception by tuning sensory mechanisms to relevant acoustic features. Long-term musical experience also modulates lower-level auditory function, although the mechanisms by which this occurs remain uncertain. In order to tease apart the mechanisms that drive perceptual enhancements in musicians, we posed the question: do well-developed cognitive abilities fine-tune auditory perception in a top-down fashion? We administered a standardized battery of perceptual and cognitive tests to adult musicians and non-musicians, including tasks either more or less susceptible to cognitive control (e.g., backward versus simultaneous masking) and more or less dependent on auditory or visual processing (e.g., auditory versus visual attention). Outcomes indicate lower perceptual thresholds in musicians specifically for auditory tasks that relate with cognitive abilities, such as backward masking and auditory attention. These enhancements were observed in the absence of group differences for the simultaneous masking and visual attention tasks. Our results suggest that long-term musical practice strengthens cognitive functions and that these functions benefit auditory skills. Musical training bolsters higher-level mechanisms that, when impaired, relate to language and literacy deficits. Thus, musical training may serve to lessen the impact of these deficits by strengthening the corticofugal system for hearing. PMID:20018234

  7. Formativ Feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldahl, Kirsten Kofod

    Denne bog undersøger, hvordan lærere kan anvende feedback til at forbedre undervisningen i klasselokalet. I denne sammenhæng har John Hattie, professor ved Melbourne Universitet, udviklet en model for feedback, hvilken er baseret på synteser af meta-analyser. I 2009 udgav han bogen "Visible...

  8. Proximity effect on hydrodynamic interaction between a sphere and a plane measured by Force Feedback Microscopy at different frequencies

    CERN Document Server

    Carpentier, Simon; Charlaix, Elisabeth; Chevrier, Joel

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we measure the viscous damping $G'',$ and the associated stiffness $G',$ of a liquid flow in sphere-plane geometry in a large frequency range. In this regime, the lubrication approximation is expected to dominate. We first measure the static force applied to the tip. This is made possible thanks to a force feedback method. Adding a sub-nanometer oscillation of the tip, we obtain the dynamic part of the interaction with solely the knowledge of the lever properties in the experimental context using a linear transformation of the amplitude and phase change. Using a Force Feedback Microscope (FFM)we are then able to measure simultaneously the static force, the stiffness and the dissipative part of the interaction in a broad frequency range using a single AFM probe. Similar measurements have been performed by the Surface Force Apparatus with a probe radius hundred times bigger. In this context the FFM can be called nano-SFA.

  9. Proximity effect on hydrodynamic interaction between a sphere and a plane measured by force feedback microscopy at different frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentier, Simon; Rodrigues, Mario S.; Charlaix, Elisabeth; Chevrier, Joël

    2015-07-01

    In this article, we measure the viscous damping G″, and the associated stiffness G', of a liquid flow in sphere-plane geometry over a large frequency range. In this regime, the lubrication approximation is expected to dominate. We first measure the static force applied to the tip. This is made possible thanks to a force feedback method. Adding a sub-nanometer oscillation of the tip, we obtain the dynamic part of the interaction with solely the knowledge of the lever properties in the experimental context using a linear transformation of the amplitude and phase change. Using a Force Feedback Microscope (FFM), we are then able to measure simultaneously the static force, the stiffness, and the dissipative part of the interaction in a broad frequency range using a single AFM probe. Similar measurements have been performed by the Surface Force Apparatus (SFA) with a probe radius hundred times bigger. In this context, the FFM can be called nano-SFA.

  10. The Effect of Performance Feedback on Student Help-Seeking and Learning Strategy Use: Do Clickers Make a Difference?

    OpenAIRE

    Tom Haffie; Ken N. Meadows; Debra L. Dawson

    2010-01-01

    Two studies were performed to investigate the impact of students’ clicker performance feedback on their help-seeking behaviour and use of other learning strategies. In study 1, we investigated the relationship between students’ clicker performance, self-efficacy, help-seeking behavior, and academic achievement. We found that there was a significant positive correlation between their clicker performance and their course grades, and help-seeking behavior was negatively and significantly related...

  11. Feedback and Incentives:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Poulsen, Anders; Villeval, Marie-Claire

    This paper experimentally investigates the impact of different pay and relative performance information policies on employee effort. We explore three information policies: No feedback about relative performance, feedback given halfway through the production period, and continuously updated feedback....... The pay schemes are a piece rate payment scheme and a winner-takes-all tournament. We find that, regardless of the pay scheme used, feedback does not improve performance. There are no significant peer effects in the piece-rate pay scheme. In contrast, in the tournament scheme we find some evidence...... of positive peer effects since the underdogs almost never quit the competition even when lagging significantly behind, and frontrunners do not slack off. Moreover, in both pay schemes information feedback reduces the quality of the low performers' work....

  12. The ironies of vehicle feedback in car design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Guy H; Stanton, Neville A; Young, Mark S

    2006-02-10

    Car drivers show an acute sensitivity towards vehicle feedback, with most normal drivers able to detect 'the difference in vehicle feel of a medium-size saloon car with and without a fairly heavy passenger in the rear seat' (Joy and Hartley 1953-54). The irony is that this level of sensitivity stands in contrast to the significant changes in vehicle 'feel' accompanying modern trends in automotive design, such as drive-by-wire and increased automation. The aim of this paper is to move the debate from the anecdotal to the scientific level. This is achieved by using the Brunel University driving simulator to replicate some of these trends and changes by presenting (or removing) different forms of non-visual vehicle feedback, and measuring resultant driver situational awareness (SA) using a probe-recall method. The findings confirm that vehicle feedback plays a key role in coupling the driver to the dynamics of their environment (Moray 2004), with the role of auditory feedback particularly prominent. As a contrast, drivers in the study also rated their self-perceived levels of SA and a concerning dissociation occurred between the two sets of results. Despite the large changes in vehicle feedback presented in the simulator, and the measured changes in SA, drivers appeared to have little self-awareness of these changes. Most worryingly, drivers demonstrated little awareness of diminished SA. The issues surrounding vehicle feedback are therefore similar to the classic problems and ironies studied in aviation and automation, and highlight the role that ergonomics can also play within the domain of contemporary vehicle design.

  13. Instrument specific brain activation in sensorimotor and auditory representation in musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebel, B; Braun, Ch; Kaza, E; Altenmüller, E; Lotze, M

    2013-07-01

    Musicians show a remarkable ability to interconnect motor patterns and sensory processing in the somatosensory and auditory domains. Many of these processes are specific for the instrument used. We were interested in the cerebral and cerebellar representations of these instrument-specific changes and therefore applied functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in two groups of instrumentalists with different instrumental training for comparable periods (approximately 15 years). The first group (trumpet players) uses tight finger and lip interaction; the second (pianists as control group) uses only the extremities for performance. fMRI tasks were balanced for instructions (piano and trumpet notes), sensory feedback (keypad and trumpet), and hand-lip interaction on the trumpet. During fMRI, both groups switched between different devices (trumpet or keypad) and performance was combined with or without auditory feedback. Playing the trumpet without any tone emission or using the mouthpiece showed an instrument training-specific activation increase in trumpet players. This was evident for the posterior-superior cerebellar hemisphere, the dominant primary sensorimotor cortex, and the left Heschl's gyrus. Additionally, trumpet players showed increased activity in the bilateral Heschl's gyrus during actual trumpet playing, although they showed significantly decreased loudness while playing with the mouthpiece in the scanner compared to pianists. PMID:23454048

  14. Duration reproduction with sensory feedback delay: Differential involvement of perception and action time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie eGanzenmüller

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that voluntary action can attract subsequent, delayed feedback events towards the action, and adaptation to the sensorimotor delay can even reverse motor-sensory temporal-order judgments. However, whether and how sensorimotor delay affects duration reproduction is still unclear. To investigate this, we injected an onset- or offset-delay to the sensory feedback signal from a duration reproduction task. We compared duration reproductions within (visual, auditory modality and across audiovisual modalities with feedback signal onset- and offset-delay manipulations. We found that the reproduced duration was lengthened in both visual and auditory feedback signal onset-delay conditions. The lengthening effect was evident immediately, on the first trial with the onset delay. However, when the onset of the feedback signal was prior to the action, the lengthening effect was diminished. In contrast, a shortening effect was found with feedback signal offset-delay, though the effect was weaker and manifested only in the auditory offset-delay condition. These findings indicate that participants tend to mix the onset of action and the feedback signal more when the feedback is delayed, and they heavily rely on motor-stop signals for the duration reproduction. Furthermore, auditory duration was overestimated compared to visual duration in crossmodal feedback conditions, and the overestimation of auditory duration (or the underestimation of visual duration was independent of the delay manipulation.

  15. Auditory white noise reduces age-related fluctuations in balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J M; Will, O J; McGann, Z; Balasubramaniam, R

    2016-09-01

    Fall prevention technologies have the potential to improve the lives of older adults. Because of the multisensory nature of human balance control, sensory therapies, including some involving tactile and auditory noise, are being explored that might reduce increased balance variability due to typical age-related sensory declines. Auditory white noise has previously been shown to reduce postural sway variability in healthy young adults. In the present experiment, we examined this treatment in young adults and typically aging older adults. We measured postural sway of healthy young adults and adults over the age of 65 years during silence and auditory white noise, with and without vision. Our results show reduced postural sway variability in young and older adults with auditory noise, even in the absence of vision. We show that vision and noise can reduce sway variability for both feedback-based and exploratory balance processes. In addition, we show changes with auditory noise in nonlinear patterns of sway in older adults that reflect what is more typical of young adults, and these changes did not interfere with the typical random walk behavior of sway. Our results suggest that auditory noise might be valuable for therapeutic and rehabilitative purposes in older adults with typical age-related balance variability. PMID:27495013

  16. Auditory sustained field responses to periodic noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keceli Sumru

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Auditory sustained responses have been recently suggested to reflect neural processing of speech sounds in the auditory cortex. As periodic fluctuations below the pitch range are important for speech perception, it is necessary to investigate how low frequency periodic sounds are processed in the human auditory cortex. Auditory sustained responses have been shown to be sensitive to temporal regularity but the relationship between the amplitudes of auditory evoked sustained responses and the repetitive rates of auditory inputs remains elusive. As the temporal and spectral features of sounds enhance different components of sustained responses, previous studies with click trains and vowel stimuli presented diverging results. In order to investigate the effect of repetition rate on cortical responses, we analyzed the auditory sustained fields evoked by periodic and aperiodic noises using magnetoencephalography. Results Sustained fields were elicited by white noise and repeating frozen noise stimuli with repetition rates of 5-, 10-, 50-, 200- and 500 Hz. The sustained field amplitudes were significantly larger for all the periodic stimuli than for white noise. Although the sustained field amplitudes showed a rising and falling pattern within the repetition rate range, the response amplitudes to 5 Hz repetition rate were significantly larger than to 500 Hz. Conclusions The enhanced sustained field responses to periodic noises show that cortical sensitivity to periodic sounds is maintained for a wide range of repetition rates. Persistence of periodicity sensitivity below the pitch range suggests that in addition to processing the fundamental frequency of voice, sustained field generators can also resolve low frequency temporal modulations in speech envelope.

  17. Auditory and Visual Sensations

    CERN Document Server

    Ando, Yoichi

    2010-01-01

    Professor Yoichi Ando, acoustic architectural designer of the Kirishima International Concert Hall in Japan, presents a comprehensive rational-scientific approach to designing performance spaces. His theory is based on systematic psychoacoustical observations of spatial hearing and listener preferences, whose neuronal correlates are observed in the neurophysiology of the human brain. A correlation-based model of neuronal signal processing in the central auditory system is proposed in which temporal sensations (pitch, timbre, loudness, duration) are represented by an internal autocorrelation representation, and spatial sensations (sound location, size, diffuseness related to envelopment) are represented by an internal interaural crosscorrelation function. Together these two internal central auditory representations account for the basic auditory qualities that are relevant for listening to music and speech in indoor performance spaces. Observed psychological and neurophysiological commonalities between auditor...

  18. Coress feedback

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This issue of CORESS feedback highlights yet again the importance of checking medications before administration and of adequate handover. Documentation of important medical data including drug allergies, as failed to happen in the case described below, is vital.

  19. Mirror Visual Feedback Training Improves Intermanual Transfer in a Sport-Specific Task: A Comparison between Different Skill Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Fabian; Pixa, Nils Henrik; Doppelmayr, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Mirror training therapy is a promising tool to initiate neural plasticity and facilitate the recovery process of motor skills after diseases such as stroke or hemiparesis by improving the intermanual transfer of fine motor skills in healthy people as well as in patients. This study evaluated whether these augmented performance improvements by mirror visual feedback (MVF) could be used for learning a sport-specific skill and if the effects are modulated by skill level. A sample of 39 young, healthy, and experienced basketball and handball players and 41 novices performed a stationary basketball dribble task at a mirror box in a standing position and received either MVF or direct feedback. After four training days using only the right hand, performance of both hands improved from pre- to posttest measurements. Only the left hand (untrained) performance of the experienced participants receiving MVF was more pronounced than for the control group. This indicates that intermanual motor transfer can be improved by MVF in a sport-specific task. However, this effect cannot be generalized to motor learning per se since it is modulated by individuals' skill level, a factor that might be considered in mirror therapy research. PMID:27642526

  20. Effects of Caffeine on Auditory Brainstem Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleheh Soleimanian

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Blocking of the adenosine receptor in central nervous system by caffeine can lead to increasing the level of neurotransmitters like glutamate. As the adenosine receptors are present in almost all brain areas like central auditory pathway, it seems caffeine can change conduction in this way. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of caffeine on latency and amplitude of auditory brainstem response(ABR.Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial study 43 normal 18-25 years old male students were participated. The subjects consumed 0, 2 and 3 mg/kg BW caffeine in three different sessions. Auditory brainstem responses were recorded before and 30 minute after caffeine consumption. The results were analyzed by Friedman and Wilcoxone test to assess the effects of caffeine on auditory brainstem response.Results: Compared to control group the latencies of waves III,V and I-V interpeak interval of the cases decreased significantly after 2 and 3mg/kg BW caffeine consumption. Wave I latency significantly decreased after 3mg/kg BW caffeine consumption(p<0.01. Conclusion: Increasing of the glutamate level resulted from the adenosine receptor blocking brings about changes in conduction in the central auditory pathway.

  1. Aggregating Reputation Feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Garcin, Florent; Faltings, Boi; Jurca, Radu

    2009-01-01

    A fundamental task in reputation systems is to aggregate multiple feedback ratings into a single value that can be used to compare the reputation of different entities. Feedback is most commonly aggregated using the arithmetic mean. However, the mean is quite susceptible to outliers and biases, and thus may not be the most informative aggregate of the reports. We consider three criteria to assess the quality of an aggregator: the informativness, the robustness and the strategyproofness, and a...

  2. 40 Hz auditory steady state response to linguistic features of stimuli during auditory hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Jun; Yan, Zheng; Gao, Xiao-rong

    2013-10-01

    The auditory steady state response (ASSR) may reflect activity from different regions of the brain, depending on the modulation frequency used. In general, responses induced by low rates (≤40 Hz) emanate mostly from central structures of the brain, and responses from high rates (≥80 Hz) emanate mostly from the peripheral auditory nerve or brainstem structures. Besides, it was reported that the gamma band ASSR (30-90 Hz) played an important role in working memory, speech understanding and recognition. This paper investigated the 40 Hz ASSR evoked by modulated speech and reversed speech. The speech was Chinese phrase voice, and the noise-like reversed speech was obtained by temporally reversing the speech. Both auditory stimuli were modulated with a frequency of 40 Hz. Ten healthy subjects and 5 patients with hallucination symptom participated in the experiment. Results showed reduction in left auditory cortex response when healthy subjects listened to the reversed speech compared with the speech. In contrast, when the patients who experienced auditory hallucinations listened to the reversed speech, the auditory cortex of left hemispheric responded more actively. The ASSR results were consistent with the behavior results of patients. Therefore, the gamma band ASSR is expected to be helpful for rapid and objective diagnosis of hallucination in clinic. PMID:24142731

  3. Auditory perceptual simulation: Simulating speech rates or accents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peiyun; Christianson, Kiel

    2016-07-01

    When readers engage in Auditory Perceptual Simulation (APS) during silent reading, they mentally simulate characteristics of voices attributed to a particular speaker or a character depicted in the text. Previous research found that auditory perceptual simulation of a faster native English speaker during silent reading led to shorter reading times that auditory perceptual simulation of a slower non-native English speaker. Yet, it was uncertain whether this difference was triggered by the different speech rates of the speakers, or by the difficulty of simulating an unfamiliar accent. The current study investigates this question by comparing faster Indian-English speech and slower American-English speech in the auditory perceptual simulation paradigm. Analyses of reading times of individual words and the full sentence reveal that the auditory perceptual simulation effect again modulated reading rate, and auditory perceptual simulation of the faster Indian-English speech led to faster reading rates compared to auditory perceptual simulation of the slower American-English speech. The comparison between this experiment and the data from Zhou and Christianson (2016) demonstrate further that the "speakers'" speech rates, rather than the difficulty of simulating a non-native accent, is the primary mechanism underlying auditory perceptual simulation effects. PMID:27177077

  4. Auditory perceptual simulation: Simulating speech rates or accents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peiyun; Christianson, Kiel

    2016-07-01

    When readers engage in Auditory Perceptual Simulation (APS) during silent reading, they mentally simulate characteristics of voices attributed to a particular speaker or a character depicted in the text. Previous research found that auditory perceptual simulation of a faster native English speaker during silent reading led to shorter reading times that auditory perceptual simulation of a slower non-native English speaker. Yet, it was uncertain whether this difference was triggered by the different speech rates of the speakers, or by the difficulty of simulating an unfamiliar accent. The current study investigates this question by comparing faster Indian-English speech and slower American-English speech in the auditory perceptual simulation paradigm. Analyses of reading times of individual words and the full sentence reveal that the auditory perceptual simulation effect again modulated reading rate, and auditory perceptual simulation of the faster Indian-English speech led to faster reading rates compared to auditory perceptual simulation of the slower American-English speech. The comparison between this experiment and the data from Zhou and Christianson (2016) demonstrate further that the "speakers'" speech rates, rather than the difficulty of simulating a non-native accent, is the primary mechanism underlying auditory perceptual simulation effects.

  5. Experiments with positive, negative and topical relevance feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Kaptein, R.; Kamps, J.; Li, R; Hiemstra, D.

    2008-01-01

    This document contains a description of experiments for the 2008 Relevance Feedback track. We experiment with different amounts of feedback, including negative relevance feedback. Feedback is implemented using massive weighted query expansion. Parsimonious query expansion using Dirichlet smoothing performs best on this relevance feedback track dataset. Additional blind feedback gives better results, except when the blind feedback set is of the same size as the explicit feedback set. On a numb...

  6. The neglected neglect: auditory neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, Sankalp; Lahoti, Sourabh; Caplan, Louis R

    2013-08-01

    Whereas visual and somatosensory forms of neglect are commonly recognized by clinicians, auditory neglect is often not assessed and therefore neglected. The auditory cortical processing system can be functionally classified into 2 distinct pathways. These 2 distinct functional pathways deal with recognition of sound ("what" pathway) and the directional attributes of the sound ("where" pathway). Lesions of higher auditory pathways produce distinct clinical features. Clinical bedside evaluation of auditory neglect is often difficult because of coexisting neurological deficits and the binaural nature of auditory inputs. In addition, auditory neglect and auditory extinction may show varying degrees of overlap, which makes the assessment even harder. Shielding one ear from the other as well as separating the ear from space is therefore critical for accurate assessment of auditory neglect. This can be achieved by use of specialized auditory tests (dichotic tasks and sound localization tests) for accurate interpretation of deficits. Herein, we have reviewed auditory neglect with an emphasis on the functional anatomy, clinical evaluation, and basic principles of specialized auditory tests.

  7. Human striatum is differentially activated by delayed, omitted, and immediate registering feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Kohrs, Christin; Angenstein, Nicole; Scheich, Henning; Brechmann, André

    2012-01-01

    The temporal contingency of feedback during conversations is an essential requirement of a successful dialog. In the current study, we investigated the effects of delayed and omitted registering feedback on fMRI activation and compared both unexpected conditions to immediate feedback. In the majority of trials of an auditory task, participants received an immediate visual feedback which merely indicated that a button press was registered but not whether the response was correct or not. In a m...

  8. Impact of Educational Level on Performance on Auditory Processing Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Cristina F B; Rabelo, Camila M; Silagi, Marcela L; Mansur, Letícia L; Schochat, Eliane

    2016-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that a higher level of education is associated with better performance on cognitive tests among middle-aged and elderly people. However, the effects of education on auditory processing skills have not yet been evaluated. Previous demonstrations of sensory-cognitive interactions in the aging process indicate the potential importance of this topic. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to investigate the performance of middle-aged and elderly people with different levels of formal education on auditory processing tests. A total of 177 adults with no evidence of cognitive, psychological or neurological conditions took part in the research. The participants completed a series of auditory assessments, including dichotic digit, frequency pattern and speech-in-noise tests. A working memory test was also performed to investigate the extent to which auditory processing and cognitive performance were associated. The results demonstrated positive but weak correlations between years of schooling and performance on all of the tests applied. The factor "years of schooling" was also one of the best predictors of frequency pattern and speech-in-noise test performance. Additionally, performance on the working memory, frequency pattern and dichotic digit tests was also correlated, suggesting that the influence of educational level on auditory processing performance might be associated with the cognitive demand of the auditory processing tests rather than auditory sensory aspects itself. Longitudinal research is required to investigate the causal relationship between educational level and auditory processing skills.

  9. Impact of Educational Level on Performance on Auditory Processing Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Cristina F B; Rabelo, Camila M; Silagi, Marcela L; Mansur, Letícia L; Schochat, Eliane

    2016-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that a higher level of education is associated with better performance on cognitive tests among middle-aged and elderly people. However, the effects of education on auditory processing skills have not yet been evaluated. Previous demonstrations of sensory-cognitive interactions in the aging process indicate the potential importance of this topic. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to investigate the performance of middle-aged and elderly people with different levels of formal education on auditory processing tests. A total of 177 adults with no evidence of cognitive, psychological or neurological conditions took part in the research. The participants completed a series of auditory assessments, including dichotic digit, frequency pattern and speech-in-noise tests. A working memory test was also performed to investigate the extent to which auditory processing and cognitive performance were associated. The results demonstrated positive but weak correlations between years of schooling and performance on all of the tests applied. The factor "years of schooling" was also one of the best predictors of frequency pattern and speech-in-noise test performance. Additionally, performance on the working memory, frequency pattern and dichotic digit tests was also correlated, suggesting that the influence of educational level on auditory processing performance might be associated with the cognitive demand of the auditory processing tests rather than auditory sensory aspects itself. Longitudinal research is required to investigate the causal relationship between educational level and auditory processing skills. PMID:27013958

  10. Temporal auditory processing in elders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzolini, Vanuza Conceição

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the trial of aging all the structures of the organism are modified, generating intercurrences in the quality of the hearing and of the comprehension. The hearing loss that occurs in consequence of this trial occasion a reduction of the communicative function, causing, also, a distance of the social relationship. Objective: Comparing the performance of the temporal auditory processing between elderly individuals with and without hearing loss. Method: The present study is characterized for to be a prospective, transversal and of diagnosis character field work. They were analyzed 21 elders (16 women and 5 men, with ages between 60 to 81 years divided in two groups, a group "without hearing loss"; (n = 13 with normal auditive thresholds or restricted hearing loss to the isolated frequencies and a group "with hearing loss" (n = 8 with neurosensory hearing loss of variable degree between light to moderately severe. Both the groups performed the tests of frequency (PPS and duration (DPS, for evaluate the ability of temporal sequencing, and the test Randon Gap Detection Test (RGDT, for evaluate the temporal resolution ability. Results: It had not difference statistically significant between the groups, evaluated by the tests DPS and RGDT. The ability of temporal sequencing was significantly major in the group without hearing loss, when evaluated by the test PPS in the condition "muttering". This result presented a growing one significant in parallel with the increase of the age group. Conclusion: It had not difference in the temporal auditory processing in the comparison between the groups.

  11. Autosomal recessive hereditary auditory neuropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秋菊; 顾瑞; 曹菊阳

    2003-01-01

    evidence of peripheral neuropathy at the time of this writing. Conclusions: In this study, patients with feature of non- syndromic hereditary auditory neuropathy were identified in three Chinese families.Pedigree analysis indicates autosomal recessive inheritances in the pedigrees. The observed inheritance and clinical audiologic findings are different from those previously described for non-syndromic low-frequency sensorineural hearing loss. This information should facilitate future molecular candidate genes screening for understanding the mechanism of AN.

  12. Auditory-motor learning during speech production in 9-11-year-old children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas M Shiller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hearing ability is essential for normal speech development, however the precise mechanisms linking auditory input and the improvement of speaking ability remain poorly understood. Auditory feedback during speech production is believed to play a critical role by providing the nervous system with information about speech outcomes that is used to learn and subsequently fine-tune speech motor output. Surprisingly, few studies have directly investigated such auditory-motor learning in the speech production of typically developing children. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we manipulated auditory feedback during speech production in a group of 9-11-year old children, as well as in adults. Following a period of speech practice under conditions of altered auditory feedback, compensatory changes in speech production and perception were examined. Consistent with prior studies, the adults exhibited compensatory changes in both their speech motor output and their perceptual representations of speech sound categories. The children exhibited compensatory changes in the motor domain, with a change in speech output that was similar in magnitude to that of the adults, however the children showed no reliable compensatory effect on their perceptual representations. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that 9-11-year-old children, whose speech motor and perceptual abilities are still not fully developed, are nonetheless capable of auditory-feedback-based sensorimotor adaptation, supporting a role for such learning processes in speech motor development. Auditory feedback may play a more limited role, however, in the fine-tuning of children's perceptual representations of speech sound categories.

  13. Influence of Feedback Levels on Polarized Optical Feedback Characteristics in Zeeman-Birefringence Dual Frequency Lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Wei; ZHANG Shu-Lian; ZHOU Lu-Fei; LIU Xiao-Yan; WANG Ming-Ming

    2007-01-01

    The influence of Feedback levels on the intensity and polarization properties of polarized optical feedback in a Zeeman-birefringence dual frequency laser is systematically investigated. By changing the feedback power ratio, different feedback levels are obtained. Three distinct regimes of polarized optical feedback effects are found and defined as regimes Ⅰ, Ⅱand Ⅲ. The feedback level boundaries among the regimes are acquired experimentally. The theoretical analysis is presented to be in good agreement with the experimental results.

  14. Interactions across Multiple Stimulus Dimensions in Primary Auditory Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloas, David C; Zhuo, Ran; Xue, Hongbo; Chambers, Anna R; Kolaczyk, Eric; Polley, Daniel B; Sen, Kamal

    2016-01-01

    Although sensory cortex is thought to be important for the perception of complex objects, its specific role in representing complex stimuli remains unknown. Complex objects are rich in information along multiple stimulus dimensions. The position of cortex in the sensory hierarchy suggests that cortical neurons may integrate across these dimensions to form a more gestalt representation of auditory objects. Yet, studies of cortical neurons typically explore single or few dimensions due to the difficulty of determining optimal stimuli in a high dimensional stimulus space. Evolutionary algorithms (EAs) provide a potentially powerful approach for exploring multidimensional stimulus spaces based on real-time spike feedback, but two important issues arise in their application. First, it is unclear whether it is necessary to characterize cortical responses to multidimensional stimuli or whether it suffices to characterize cortical responses to a single dimension at a time. Second, quantitative methods for analyzing complex multidimensional data from an EA are lacking. Here, we apply a statistical method for nonlinear regression, the generalized additive model (GAM), to address these issues. The GAM quantitatively describes the dependence between neural response and all stimulus dimensions. We find that auditory cortical neurons in mice are sensitive to interactions across dimensions. These interactions are diverse across the population, indicating significant integration across stimulus dimensions in auditory cortex. This result strongly motivates using multidimensional stimuli in auditory cortex. Together, the EA and the GAM provide a novel quantitative paradigm for investigating neural coding of complex multidimensional stimuli in auditory and other sensory cortices.

  15. Interactions across Multiple Stimulus Dimensions in Primary Auditory Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Ran; Xue, Hongbo; Chambers, Anna R.; Kolaczyk, Eric; Polley, Daniel B.

    2016-01-01

    Although sensory cortex is thought to be important for the perception of complex objects, its specific role in representing complex stimuli remains unknown. Complex objects are rich in information along multiple stimulus dimensions. The position of cortex in the sensory hierarchy suggests that cortical neurons may integrate across these dimensions to form a more gestalt representation of auditory objects. Yet, studies of cortical neurons typically explore single or few dimensions due to the difficulty of determining optimal stimuli in a high dimensional stimulus space. Evolutionary algorithms (EAs) provide a potentially powerful approach for exploring multidimensional stimulus spaces based on real-time spike feedback, but two important issues arise in their application. First, it is unclear whether it is necessary to characterize cortical responses to multidimensional stimuli or whether it suffices to characterize cortical responses to a single dimension at a time. Second, quantitative methods for analyzing complex multidimensional data from an EA are lacking. Here, we apply a statistical method for nonlinear regression, the generalized additive model (GAM), to address these issues. The GAM quantitatively describes the dependence between neural response and all stimulus dimensions. We find that auditory cortical neurons in mice are sensitive to interactions across dimensions. These interactions are diverse across the population, indicating significant integration across stimulus dimensions in auditory cortex. This result strongly motivates using multidimensional stimuli in auditory cortex. Together, the EA and the GAM provide a novel quantitative paradigm for investigating neural coding of complex multidimensional stimuli in auditory and other sensory cortices. PMID:27622211

  16. Resizing Auditory Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzfeldt, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Heard through the ears of the Canadian composer and music teacher R. Murray Schafer the ideal auditory community had the shape of a village. Schafer’s work with the World Soundscape Project in the 70s represent an attempt to interpret contemporary environments through musical and auditory...... of sound as an active component in shaping urban environments. As urban conditions spreads globally, new scales, shapes and forms of communities appear and call for new distinctions and models in the study and representation of sonic environments. Particularly so, since urban environments are increasingly...... presents some terminologies for mapping urban environments through its sonic configuration. Such probing into the practices of acoustic territorialisation may direct attention to some of the conflicting and disharmonious interests defining public inclusive domains. The paper investigates the concept...

  17. The Effect of Performance Feedback on Student Help-Seeking and Learning Strategy Use: Do Clickers Make a Difference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Haffie

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Two studies were performed to investigate the impact of students’ clicker performance feedback on their help-seeking behaviour and use of other learning strategies. In study 1, we investigated the relationship between students’ clicker performance, self-efficacy, help-seeking behavior, and academic achievement. We found that there was a significant positive correlation between their clicker performance and their course grades, and help-seeking behavior was negatively and significantly related to clicker and course performance but only for participants with high self-efficacy. In study 2, we expanded our focus to determine if participants modified a number of learning strategies as a result of receiving clicker performance feedback as well as attempting to replicate the clicker-course performance relationship found in study 1. Although participants reported an increase in their use of various learning strategies as a result of using the clickers, changes in learning strategy use was not significantly related to clicker or term test performance. The relationship between clicker and course performance was replicated. The results suggest that clicker-based feedback alone may not be sufficient to lead to a successful change in learning strategy use and that students may need more specific instruction on self-regulation and effective learning strategy use in order to improve their learning.Deux études ont évalué l’impact de la rétroaction sur la performance des étudiants indiquée par télévoteur sur leur comportement de recherche d’aide et sur les autres stratégies d’apprentissage utilisées. Dans la première étude, les chercheurs se sont penchés sur la relation entre la performance indiquée par télévoteur, le sentiment d’auto-efficacité, la recherche d’aide et la réussite scolaire. Nous avons trouvé une corrélation positive significative entre la performance indiquée par télévoteur et les notes de cours. De plus

  18. Extraction of auditory features and elicitation of attributes for the assessment of multi-channel reproduced sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choisel, Sylvain; Wickelmaier, Florian

    2005-01-01

    The identification of relevant auditory attributes is pivotal in sound quality evaluation. Two fundamentally different psychometric methods were employed to uncover perceptually relevant auditory features of multi-channel reproduced sound. In the first method, called Repertory Grid Technique (RGT...

  19. Self-recognition Deficits in Schizophrenia Patients With Auditory Hallucinations : A Meta-analysis of the Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waters, Flavie; Woodward, Todd; Allen, Paul; Aleman, Andre; Sommers, Iris

    2012-01-01

    Theories about auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia suggest that these experiences occur because patients fail to recognize thoughts and mental events as self-generated. Different theoretical models have been proposed about the cognitive mechanisms underlying auditory hallucinations. Regardless

  20. Attention Modulates the Auditory Cortical Processing of Spatial and Category Cues in Naturalistic Auditory Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renvall, Hanna; Staeren, Noël; Barz, Claudia S.; Ley, Anke; Formisano, Elia

    2016-01-01

    This combined fMRI and MEG study investigated brain activations during listening and attending to natural auditory scenes. We first recorded, using in-ear microphones, vocal non-speech sounds, and environmental sounds that were mixed to construct auditory scenes containing two concurrent sound streams. During the brain measurements, subjects attended to one of the streams while spatial acoustic information of the scene was either preserved (stereophonic sounds) or removed (monophonic sounds). Compared to monophonic sounds, stereophonic sounds evoked larger blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI responses in the bilateral posterior superior temporal areas, independent of which stimulus attribute the subject was attending to. This finding is consistent with the functional role of these regions in the (automatic) processing of auditory spatial cues. Additionally, significant differences in the cortical activation patterns depending on the target of attention were observed. Bilateral planum temporale and inferior frontal gyrus were preferentially activated when attending to stereophonic environmental sounds, whereas when subjects attended to stereophonic voice sounds, the BOLD responses were larger at the bilateral middle superior temporal gyrus and sulcus, previously reported to show voice sensitivity. In contrast, the time-resolved MEG responses were stronger for mono- than stereophonic sounds in the bilateral auditory cortices at ~360 ms after the stimulus onset when attending to the voice excerpts within the combined sounds. The observed effects suggest that during the segregation of auditory objects from the auditory background, spatial sound cues together with other relevant temporal and spectral cues are processed in an attention-dependent manner at the cortical locations generally involved in sound recognition. More synchronous neuronal activation during monophonic than stereophonic sound processing, as well as (local) neuronal inhibitory mechanisms in

  1. Analysis of different categories of feedback in two organizational ways in gymnastics Análisis de diferentes categorías del feedback en dos formas organizativas del medio gimnástico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. López Bedoya

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The objetive of this study is to evaluate the relation of two organizational methods of learning and performance of one gymnastic skill and their influence in some categories of feedback. 35 subjets of both sexes, 10 and 12 years old, were tested. The results showed the importance of a continuous and circular organizational method based on mini-circuits, since it promotes both individual and prescriptive feedback, important ingredients for an efficient training.
    KEY WORDS: gymnastics, learning, feedback.

    El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar la posible relación de dos formas organizativas diferentes en el aprendizaje y rendimiento de una habilidad gimnástica y su influencia en diversas categorías del feedback. 35 sujetos de ambos sexos, de 10 a 12 años fueron testeados. Los resultados mostraron la importancia de una forma organizativa continua y circular basada en los mini-circuitos, ya que potencia los tipos de feedbacks individuales y prescriptivos, ingredientes claves para una enseñanza eficaz.

    PALABRAS CLAVE: gimnasia, aprendizaje, feedback.

  2. Investigation into the response of the auditory and acoustic communications systems in the Beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) of the St. Lawrence River Estuary to noise, using vocal classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheifele, Peter Martin

    2003-06-01

    Noise pollution has only recently become recognized as a potential danger to marine mammals in general, and to the Beluga Whale (Delphinapterus leucas) in particular. These small gregarious Odontocetes make extensive use of sound for social communication and pod cohesion. The St. Lawrence River Estuary is habitat to a small, critically endangered population of about 700 Beluga whales who congregate in four different sites in its upper estuary. The population is believed to be threatened by the stress of high-intensity, low frequency noise. One way to determine whether noise is having an effect on an animal's auditory ability might be to observe a natural and repeatable response of the auditory and vocal systems to varying noise levels. This can be accomplished by observing changes in animal vocalizations in response to auditory feedback. A response such as this observed in humans and some animals is known as the Lombard Vocal Response, which represents a reaction of the auditory system directly manifested by changes in vocalization level. In this research this population of Beluga Whales was tested to determine whether a vocalization-as-a-function-of-noise phenomenon existed by using Hidden Markhov "classified" vocalizations as targets for acoustical analyses. Correlation and regression analyses indicated that the phenomenon does exist and results of a human subjects experiment along with results from other animal species known to exhibit the response strongly implicate the Lombard Vocal Response in the Beluga.

  3. Mudança significativa do limiar auditivo em trabalhadores expostos a diferentes níveis de ruído Significant auditory threshold shift among workers exposed to different noise levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Cardoso Oliva

    2011-09-01

    and noise exposure records were selected for this study. The 63 assessments selected were classified according to subjects' noise exposure into three levels: 79 to 84.9 dB(A, 85 to 89.9 dB(A, and 90 to 98.9 dB(A. Occurrences of hearing loss and significant auditory threshold shifts were assessed, in each group. RESULTS: Differences in the mean thresholds were observed in all test frequencies among the different groups. A significant correlation was found between occurrence of noise-induced hearing loss and duration of noise exposure (in years at the present industrial facility (R=0.373; p=0.079. Significant auditory threshold shifts were found in all three levels of noise exposure. CONCLUSION: The findings of the present study suggest the existence of an association between significant auditory threshold shifts in workers and the years of exposure to low risk noise levels.

  4. Selective memory retrieval of auditory what and auditory where involves the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostopoulos, Penelope; Petrides, Michael

    2016-02-16

    There is evidence from the visual, verbal, and tactile memory domains that the midventrolateral prefrontal cortex plays a critical role in the top-down modulation of activity within posterior cortical areas for the selective retrieval of specific aspects of a memorized experience, a functional process often referred to as active controlled retrieval. In the present functional neuroimaging study, we explore the neural bases of active retrieval for auditory nonverbal information, about which almost nothing is known. Human participants were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a task in which they were presented with short melodies from different locations in a simulated virtual acoustic environment within the scanner and were then instructed to retrieve selectively either the particular melody presented or its location. There were significant activity increases specifically within the midventrolateral prefrontal region during the selective retrieval of nonverbal auditory information. During the selective retrieval of information from auditory memory, the right midventrolateral prefrontal region increased its interaction with the auditory temporal region and the inferior parietal lobule in the right hemisphere. These findings provide evidence that the midventrolateral prefrontal cortical region interacts with specific posterior cortical areas in the human cerebral cortex for the selective retrieval of object and location features of an auditory memory experience.

  5. Auditory pitch imagery and its relationship to musical synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecenka, Nadine; Keller, Peter E

    2009-07-01

    Musical ensemble performance requires precise coordination of action. To play in synchrony, ensemble musicians presumably anticipate the sounds that will be produced by their co-performers. These predictions may be based on auditory images in working memory. This study examined the contribution of auditory imagery abilities to sensorimotor synchronization (SMS) in 20 musicians. The acuity of single-tone pitch images was measured by an adjustment method and by adaptive threshold estimation. Different types of finger tapping tasks were administered to assess SMS. Auditory imagery and SMS abilities were found to be positively correlated with one another and with musical experience. PMID:19673794

  6. Auditory and non-auditory effects of noise on health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basner, M.; Babisch, W.; Davis, A.; Brink, M.; Clark, C.; Janssen, S.A.; Stansfeld, S.

    2013-01-01

    Noise is pervasive in everyday life and can cause both auditory and non-auditory health eff ects. Noise-induced hearing loss remains highly prevalent in occupational settings, and is increasingly caused by social noise exposure (eg, through personal music players). Our understanding of molecular mec

  7. Measuring Auditory Selective Attention using Frequency Tagging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari M Bharadwaj

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Frequency tagging of sensory inputs (presenting stimuli that fluctuate periodically at rates to which the cortex can phase lock has been used to study attentional modulation of neural responses to inputs in different sensory modalities. For visual inputs, the visual steady-state response (VSSR at the frequency modulating an attended object is enhanced, while the VSSR to a distracting object is suppressed. In contrast, the effect of attention on the auditory steady-state response (ASSR is inconsistent across studies. However, most auditory studies analyzed results at the sensor level or used only a small number of equivalent current dipoles to fit cortical responses. In addition, most studies of auditory spatial attention used dichotic stimuli (independent signals at the ears rather than more natural, binaural stimuli. Here, we asked whether these methodological choices help explain discrepant results. Listeners attended to one of two competing speech streams, one simulated from the left and one from the right, that were modulated at different frequencies. Using distributed source modeling of magnetoencephalography results, we estimate how spatially directed attention modulates the ASSR in neural regions across the whole brain. Attention enhances the ASSR power at the frequency of the attended stream in the contralateral auditory cortex. The attended-stream modulation frequency also drives phase-locked responses in the left (but not right precentral sulcus (lPCS, a region implicated in control of eye gaze and visual spatial attention. Importantly, this region shows no phase locking to the distracting stream suggesting that the lPCS in engaged in an attention-specific manner. Modeling results that take account of the geometry and phases of the cortical sources phase locked to the two streams (including hemispheric asymmetry of lPCS activity help partly explain why past ASSR studies of auditory spatial attention yield seemingly contradictory

  8. Continuity of visual and auditory rhythms influences sensorimotor coordination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Varlet

    Full Text Available People often coordinate their movement with visual and auditory environmental rhythms. Previous research showed better performances when coordinating with auditory compared to visual stimuli, and with bimodal compared to unimodal stimuli. However, these results have been demonstrated with discrete rhythms and it is possible that such effects depend on the continuity of the stimulus rhythms (i.e., whether they are discrete or continuous. The aim of the current study was to investigate the influence of the continuity of visual and auditory rhythms on sensorimotor coordination. We examined the dynamics of synchronized oscillations of a wrist pendulum with auditory and visual rhythms at different frequencies, which were either unimodal or bimodal and discrete or continuous. Specifically, the stimuli used were a light flash, a fading light, a short tone and a frequency-modulated tone. The results demonstrate that the continuity of the stimulus rhythms strongly influences visual and auditory motor coordination. Participants' movement led continuous stimuli and followed discrete stimuli. Asymmetries between the half-cycles of the movement in term of duration and nonlinearity of the trajectory occurred with slower discrete rhythms. Furthermore, the results show that the differences of performance between visual and auditory modalities depend on the continuity of the stimulus rhythms as indicated by movements closer to the instructed coordination for the auditory modality when coordinating with discrete stimuli. The results also indicate that visual and auditory rhythms are integrated together in order to better coordinate irrespective of their continuity, as indicated by less variable coordination closer to the instructed pattern. Generally, the findings have important implications for understanding how we coordinate our movements with visual and auditory environmental rhythms in everyday life.

  9. Orthographic consistency affects spoken word recognition at different grain-sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Nadya

    2014-01-01

    A number of previous studies found that the consistency of sound-to-spelling mappings (feedback consistency) affects spoken word recognition. In auditory lexical decision experiments, words that can only be spelled one way are recognized faster than words with multiple potential spellings. Previous.......g., lobe) faster than words with consistent rhymes where the vowel has a less typical spelling (e.g., loaf). The present study extends previous literature by showing that auditory word recognition is affected by orthographic regularities at different grain sizes, just like written word recognition...

  10. Predictors of auditory performance in hearing-aid users: The role of cognitive function and auditory lifestyle (A)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Martin David

    2006-01-01

    was correlated with self-report outcome. However, overall the predictive leverage of the various measures was moderate, with single predictors explaining only up to 19 percent of the variance in the auditory-performance measures. a)Now at CNBH, Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University...... no objective benefit can be measured. It has been suggested that lack of agreement between various hearing-aid outcome components can be explained by individual differences in cognitive function and auditory lifestyle. We measured speech identification, self-report outcome, spectral and temporal resolution...... between objective and subjective hearing-aid outcome. Different self-report outcome measures showed a different amount of correlation with objective auditory performance. Cognitive skills were found to play a role in explaining speech performance and spectral and temporal abilities, and auditory lifestyle...

  11. Equal autophonic level curves under different room acoustics conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelegrin Garcia, David; Mendizábal, Oier Fuentes; Brunskog, Jonas;

    2011-01-01

    The indirect auditory feedback from one’s own voice arises from sound reflections at the room boundaries or from sound reinforcement systems. The relative variations of indirect auditory feedback are quantified through room acoustic parameters such as the room gain and the voice support, rather...... than the reverberation time. Fourteen subjects matched the loudness level of their own voice (the autophonic level) to that of a constant and external reference sound, under different synthesized room acoustics conditions. The matching voice levels are used to build a set of equal autophonic level...... curves. These curves give an indication of the amount of variation in voice level induced by the acoustic environment as a consequence of the sidetone compensation or Lombard effect. In the range of typical rooms for speech, the variations in overall voice level that result in a constant autophonic level...

  12. Feedforward and Feedback Control in Apraxia of Speech: Effects of Noise Masking on Vowel Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Edwin; Mailend, Marja-Liisa; Guenther, Frank H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to test two hypotheses about apraxia of speech (AOS) derived from the Directions Into Velocities of Articulators (DIVA) model (Guenther et al., 2006): the feedforward system deficit hypothesis and the feedback system deficit hypothesis. Method: The authors used noise masking to minimize auditory feedback during…

  13. Partial Epilepsy with Auditory Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The clinical characteristics of 53 sporadic (S cases of idiopathic partial epilepsy with auditory features (IPEAF were analyzed and compared to previously reported familial (F cases of autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features (ADPEAF in a study at the University of Bologna, Italy.

  14. Analysis of feedback fluid queues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheinhardt, Werner R.W.

    2001-01-01

    We consider the stationary behaviour of a class of feedback fluid queues. A feedback fluid queue is a natural generalisation of the well-known Markov modulated fluid queue. The essential difference is that the current state of the fluid buffer influences the behaviour of the regulating process. Ther

  15. The Perception of Auditory Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlile, Simon; Leung, Johahn

    2016-01-01

    The growing availability of efficient and relatively inexpensive virtual auditory display technology has provided new research platforms to explore the perception of auditory motion. At the same time, deployment of these technologies in command and control as well as in entertainment roles is generating an increasing need to better understand the complex processes underlying auditory motion perception. This is a particularly challenging processing feat because it involves the rapid deconvolution of the relative change in the locations of sound sources produced by rotational and translations of the head in space (self-motion) to enable the perception of actual source motion. The fact that we perceive our auditory world to be stable despite almost continual movement of the head demonstrates the efficiency and effectiveness of this process. This review examines the acoustical basis of auditory motion perception and a wide range of psychophysical, electrophysiological, and cortical imaging studies that have probed the limits and possible mechanisms underlying this perception. PMID:27094029

  16. Extraction of auditory features and elicitation of attributes for the assessment of multi-channel reproduced sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choisel, Sylvain; Wickelmaier, Florian Maria

    2005-01-01

    The identification of relevant auditory attributes is pivotal in sound quality evaluation. Two fundamentally different psychometric methods were employed to uncover perceptually relevant auditory features of multichannel reproduced sound. In the first method, called Repertory Grid Technique (RGT)...... sufficient consistency, a lattice representation-as frequently used in Formal Concept Analysis (FCA)-can be derived to depict the structure of auditory features...

  17. Left hemispheric dominance during auditory processing in a noisy environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Bernhard

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In daily life, we are exposed to different sound inputs simultaneously. During neural encoding in the auditory pathway, neural activities elicited by these different sounds interact with each other. In the present study, we investigated neural interactions elicited by masker and amplitude-modulated test stimulus in primary and non-primary human auditory cortex during ipsi-lateral and contra-lateral masking by means of magnetoencephalography (MEG. Results We observed significant decrements of auditory evoked responses and a significant inter-hemispheric difference for the N1m response during both ipsi- and contra-lateral masking. Conclusion The decrements of auditory evoked neural activities during simultaneous masking can be explained by neural interactions evoked by masker and test stimulus in peripheral and central auditory systems. The inter-hemispheric differences of N1m decrements during ipsi- and contra-lateral masking reflect a basic hemispheric specialization contributing to the processing of complex auditory stimuli such as speech signals in noisy environments.

  18. A laser feedback interferometer with an oscillating feedback mirror

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhi-Guo; Wang Fei; Xiao Guang-Zong

    2012-01-01

    A method is proposed to solve the problem of direction discrimination for laser feedback interferometers.By vibrating the feedback mirror with a small-amplitude and high-frequency sine wave,laser intensity is modulated accordingly.The modulation amplitude can be extracted using a phase sensitive detector (PSD).When the feedback mirror moves,the PSD output shows a quasi-sine waveform similar to a laser intensity interference fringe but with a phase difference of approximately ±π/2.If the movement direction of the feedback mirror changes,the phase difference sign reverses.Therefore,the laser feedback interferometer offers a potential application in displacement measurement with a resolution of 1/8 wavelength and in-time direction discrimination.Without using optical components such as polarization beam splitters and wave plates,the interferometer is very simple,easy to align,and less costly.

  19. Which Feedback Is More Effective for Pursuing Multiple Goals of Differing Importance? The Interaction Effects of Goal Importance and Performance Feedback Type on Self-Regulation and Task Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunjoo

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how performance feedback type (progress vs. distance) affects Korean college students' self-regulation and task achievement according to relative goal importance in the pursuit of multiple goals. For this study, 146 students participated in a computerised task. The results showed the interaction effects of goal importance and…

  20. Peripheral Auditory Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, J; Hubbard, A; Neely, S; Tubis, A

    1986-01-01

    How weIl can we model experimental observations of the peripheral auditory system'? What theoretical predictions can we make that might be tested'? It was with these questions in mind that we organized the 1985 Mechanics of Hearing Workshop, to bring together auditory researchers to compare models with experimental observations. Tbe workshop forum was inspired by the very successful 1983 Mechanics of Hearing Workshop in Delft [1]. Boston University was chosen as the site of our meeting because of the Boston area's role as a center for hearing research in this country. We made a special effort at this meeting to attract students from around the world, because without students this field will not progress. Financial support for the workshop was provided in part by grant BNS- 8412878 from the National Science Foundation. Modeling is a traditional strategy in science and plays an important role in the scientific method. Models are the bridge between theory and experiment. Tbey test the assumptions made in experim...

  1. Dissecting the functional anatomy of auditory word repetition

    OpenAIRE

    ‘Ōiwi Parker Jones; Green, David W.; Cathy J Price

    2014-01-01

    Auditory word repetition involves many different brain regions, whose functions are still far from fully understood. Here, we use a single, multi-factorial, within-subjects fMRI design to identify those regions, and to functionally distinguish the multiple linguistic and non-linguistic processing areas that are all involved in repeating back heard words. The study compared: (1) auditory to visual inputs; (2) phonological to non-phonological inputs; (3) semantic to non-semantic inputs; and (4...

  2. The Perception of Cooperativeness Without Any Visual or Auditory Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Dong-Seon; Burger, Franziska; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; de la Rosa, Stephan

    2015-12-01

    Perceiving social information such as the cooperativeness of another person is an important part of human interaction. But can people perceive the cooperativeness of others even without any visual or auditory information? In a novel experimental setup, we connected two people with a rope and made them accomplish a point-collecting task together while they could not see or hear each other. We observed a consistently emerging turn-taking behavior in the interactions and installed a confederate in a subsequent experiment who either minimized or maximized this behavior. Participants experienced this only through the haptic force-feedback of the rope and made evaluations about the confederate after each interaction. We found that perception of cooperativeness was significantly affected only by the manipulation of this turn-taking behavior. Gender- and size-related judgments also significantly differed. Our results suggest that people can perceive social information such as the cooperativeness of other people even in situations where possibilities for communication are minimal.

  3. The Perception of Cooperativeness Without Any Visual or Auditory Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Dong-Seon; Burger, Franziska; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; de la Rosa, Stephan

    2015-12-01

    Perceiving social information such as the cooperativeness of another person is an important part of human interaction. But can people perceive the cooperativeness of others even without any visual or auditory information? In a novel experimental setup, we connected two people with a rope and made them accomplish a point-collecting task together while they could not see or hear each other. We observed a consistently emerging turn-taking behavior in the interactions and installed a confederate in a subsequent experiment who either minimized or maximized this behavior. Participants experienced this only through the haptic force-feedback of the rope and made evaluations about the confederate after each interaction. We found that perception of cooperativeness was significantly affected only by the manipulation of this turn-taking behavior. Gender- and size-related judgments also significantly differed. Our results suggest that people can perceive social information such as the cooperativeness of other people even in situations where possibilities for communication are minimal. PMID:27551362

  4. Effect of auditory training on the middle latency response in children with (central) auditory processing disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schochat, E; Musiek, F E; Alonso, R; Ogata, J

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the middle latency response (MLR) characteristics (latency and amplitude) in children with (central) auditory processing disorder [(C)APD], categorized as such by their performance on the central auditory test battery, and the effects of these characteristics after auditory training. Thirty children with (C)APD, 8 to 14 years of age, were tested using the MLR-evoked potential. This group was then enrolled in an 8-week auditory training program and then retested at the completion of the program. A control group of 22 children without (C)APD, composed of relatives and acquaintances of those involved in the research, underwent the same testing at equal time intervals, but were not enrolled in the auditory training program. Before auditory training, MLR results for the (C)APD group exhibited lower C3-A1 and C3-A2 wave amplitudes in comparison to the control group [C3-A1, 0.84 microV (mean), 0.39 (SD--standard deviation) for the (C)APD group and 1.18 microV (mean), 0.65 (SD) for the control group; C3-A2, 0.69 microV (mean), 0.31 (SD) for the (C)APD group and 1.00 microV (mean), 0.46 (SD) for the control group]. After training, the MLR C3-A1 [1.59 microV (mean), 0.82 (SD)] and C3-A2 [1.24 microV (mean), 0.73 (SD)] wave amplitudes of the (C)APD group significantly increased, so that there was no longer a significant difference in MLR amplitude between (C)APD and control groups. These findings suggest progress in the use of electrophysiological measurements for the diagnosis and treatment of (C)APD.

  5. Effect of auditory training on the middle latency response in children with (central auditory processing disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Schochat

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the middle latency response (MLR characteristics (latency and amplitude in children with (central auditory processing disorder [(CAPD], categorized as such by their performance on the central auditory test battery, and the effects of these characteristics after auditory training. Thirty children with (CAPD, 8 to 14 years of age, were tested using the MLR-evoked potential. This group was then enrolled in an 8-week auditory training program and then retested at the completion of the program. A control group of 22 children without (CAPD, composed of relatives and acquaintances of those involved in the research, underwent the same testing at equal time intervals, but were not enrolled in the auditory training program. Before auditory training, MLR results for the (CAPD group exhibited lower C3-A1 and C3-A2 wave amplitudes in comparison to the control group [C3-A1, 0.84 µV (mean, 0.39 (SD - standard deviation for the (CAPD group and 1.18 µV (mean, 0.65 (SD for the control group; C3-A2, 0.69 µV (mean, 0.31 (SD for the (CAPD group and 1.00 µV (mean, 0.46 (SD for the control group]. After training, the MLR C3-A1 [1.59 µV (mean, 0.82 (SD] and C3-A2 [1.24 µV (mean, 0.73 (SD] wave amplitudes of the (CAPD group significantly increased, so that there was no longer a significant difference in MLR amplitude between (CAPD and control groups. These findings suggest progress in the use of electrophysiological measurements for the diagnosis and treatment of (CAPD.

  6. A unique cellular scaling rule in the avian auditory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corfield, Jeremy R; Long, Brendan; Krilow, Justin M; Wylie, Douglas R; Iwaniuk, Andrew N

    2016-06-01

    Although it is clear that neural structures scale with body size, the mechanisms of this relationship are not well understood. Several recent studies have shown that the relationship between neuron numbers and brain (or brain region) size are not only different across mammalian orders, but also across auditory and visual regions within the same brains. Among birds, similar cellular scaling rules have not been examined in any detail. Here, we examine the scaling of auditory structures in birds and show that the scaling rules that have been established in the mammalian auditory pathway do not necessarily apply to birds. In galliforms, neuronal densities decrease with increasing brain size, suggesting that auditory brainstem structures increase in size faster than neurons are added; smaller brains have relatively more neurons than larger brains. The cellular scaling rules that apply to auditory brainstem structures in galliforms are, therefore, different to that found in primate auditory pathway. It is likely that the factors driving this difference are associated with the anatomical specializations required for sound perception in birds, although there is a decoupling of neuron numbers in brain structures and hair cell numbers in the basilar papilla. This study provides significant insight into the allometric scaling of neural structures in birds and improves our understanding of the rules that govern neural scaling across vertebrates. PMID:26002617

  7. Sticks and Stones Will Break My Bones but Failure Feedback May Not Hurt Me: Gender Differences in the Relationship between Achievement Motive, Coping Strategies and Environmental Mastery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ser Hong; Pang, Joyce S.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the processes through which achievement motivation guides the selection of coping strategies which in turn affects environmental mastery post-failure feedback. Seventy-six college students received failure feedback after completing a professional aptitude test. Findings showed that gender moderated the relationship between…

  8. Multi-bunch Feedback Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lonza, M

    2014-01-01

    Coupled-bunch instabilities excited by the interaction of the particle beam with its surroundings can seriously limit the performance of circular particle accelerators. These instabilities can be cured by the use of active feedback systems based on sensors capable of detecting the unwanted beam motion and actuators that apply the feedback correction to the beam. Advances in electronic technology now allow the implementation of feedback loops using programmable digital systems. Besides important advantages in terms of flexibility and reproducibility, digital systems open the way to the use of novel diagnostic tools and additional features. We first introduce coupled-bunch instabilities, analysing the equation of motion of charged particles and the different modes of oscillation of a multi-bunch beam, showing how they can be observed and measured. Different types of feedback systems will then be presented as examples of real implementations that belong to the history of multi-bunch feedback systems. The main co...

  9. Auditory-model-based Feature Extraction Method for Mechanical Faults Diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yungong; ZHANG Jinping; DAI Li; ZHANG Zhanyi; LIU Jie

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that the human auditory system possesses remarkable capabilities to analyze and identify signals. Therefore, it would be significant to build an auditory model based on the mechanism of human auditory systems, which may improve the effects of mechanical signal analysis and enrich the methods of mechanical faults features extraction. However the existing methods are all based on explicit senses of mathematics or physics, and have some shortages on distinguishing different faults, stability, and suppressing the disturbance noise, etc. For the purpose of improving the performances of the work of feature extraction, an auditory model, early auditory(EA) model, is introduced for the first time. This auditory model transforms time domain signal into auditory spectrum via bandpass filtering, nonlinear compressing, and lateral inhibiting by simulating the principle of the human auditory system. The EA model is developed with the Gammatone filterbank as the basilar membrane. According to the characteristics of vibration signals, a method is proposed for determining the parameter of inner hair cells model of EA model. The performance of EA model is evaluated through experiments on four rotor faults, including misalignment, rotor-to-stator rubbing, oil film whirl, and pedestal looseness. The results show that the auditory spectrum, output of EA model, can effectively distinguish different faults with satisfactory stability and has the ability to suppress the disturbance noise. Then, it is feasible to apply auditory model, as a new method, to the feature extraction for mechanical faults diagnosis with effect.

  10. Feedback i den laegelige postgraduate uddannelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubak, Sune Leisgaard Mørck; Ipsen, Merete; Sørensen, Jette Led;

    2008-01-01

    Feedback may be described as a process comprising communication of information and reactions to such communication. It has been defined as specific information about the difference between a trainee's observed performance and a given standard with the intent of achieving performance improvement....... Feedback is essential in medical education and has great implications for the educational climate. It has been shown that a common language regarding the principles of feedback has a sustained effect on quality and frequency of feedback. Further research is needed on feedback and educational climate, and...... on how to motivate trainees to improve future learning through feedback....

  11. Multimodal information Management: Evaluation of Auditory and Haptic Cues for NextGen Communication Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begault, Durand R.; Bittner, Rachel M.; Anderson, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    Auditory communication displays within the NextGen data link system may use multiple synthetic speech messages replacing traditional ATC and company communications. The design of an interface for selecting amongst multiple incoming messages can impact both performance (time to select, audit and release a message) and preference. Two design factors were evaluated: physical pressure-sensitive switches versus flat panel "virtual switches", and the presence or absence of auditory feedback from switch contact. Performance with stimuli using physical switches was 1.2 s faster than virtual switches (2.0 s vs. 3.2 s); auditory feedback provided a 0.54 s performance advantage (2.33 s vs. 2.87 s). There was no interaction between these variables. Preference data were highly correlated with performance.

  12. ICM cooling, AGN feedback and BCG properties of galaxy groups-Five properties where groups differ from clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Bharadwaj, V; Schellenberger, G; Eckmiller, H J; Mittal, R; Israel, H

    2014-01-01

    Using Chandra data for a sample of 26 galaxy groups, we constrained the central cooling times (CCTs) of the ICM and classified the groups as strong cool-core (SCC), weak cool-core (WCC) and non-cool-core (NCC) based on their CCTs. The total radio luminosity of the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) was obtained using radio catalog data and literature, which was compared to the CCT to understand the link between gas cooling and radio output. We determined K-band luminosities of the BCG with 2MASS data, and used it to constrain the masses of the SMBH, which were then compared to the radio output. We also tested for correlations between the BCG luminosity and the overall X-ray luminosity and mass of the group. The observed cool-core/non-cool-core fractions for groups are comparable to those of clusters. However, notable differences are seen. For clusters, all SCCs have a central temperature drop, but for groups, this is not the case as some SCCs have centrally rising temperature profiles. While for the cluster sampl...

  13. Firing-rate resonances in the peripheral auditory system of the cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Florian; Clemens, Jan; Naumov, Victor; Hennig, R Matthias; Schreiber, Susanne

    2015-11-01

    In many communication systems, information is encoded in the temporal pattern of signals. For rhythmic signals that carry information in specific frequency bands, a neuronal system may profit from tuning its inherent filtering properties towards a peak sensitivity in the respective frequency range. The cricket Gryllus bimaculatus evaluates acoustic communication signals of both conspecifics and predators. The song signals of conspecifics exhibit a characteristic pulse pattern that contains only a narrow range of modulation frequencies. We examined individual neurons (AN1, AN2, ON1) in the peripheral auditory system of the cricket for tuning towards specific modulation frequencies by assessing their firing-rate resonance. Acoustic stimuli with a swept-frequency envelope allowed an efficient characterization of the cells' modulation transfer functions. Some of the examined cells exhibited tuned band-pass properties. Using simple computational models, we demonstrate how different, cell-intrinsic or network-based mechanisms such as subthreshold resonances, spike-triggered adaptation, as well as an interplay of excitation and inhibition can account for the experimentally observed firing-rate resonances. Therefore, basic neuronal mechanisms that share negative feedback as a common theme may contribute to selectivity in the peripheral auditory pathway of crickets that is designed towards mate recognition and predator avoidance.

  14. Auditory Signal Processing in Communication: Perception and Performance of Vocal Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Jonathan F.

    2013-01-01

    Learning and maintaining the sounds we use in vocal communication require accurate perception of the sounds we hear performed by others and feedback-dependent imitation of those sounds to produce our own vocalizations. Understanding how the central nervous system integrates auditory and vocal-motor information to enable communication is a fundamental goal of systems neuroscience, and insights into the mechanisms of those processes will profoundly enhance clinical therapies for communication disorders. Gaining the high-resolution insight necessary to define the circuits and cellular mechanisms underlying human vocal communication is presently impractical. Songbirds are the best animal model of human speech, and this review highlights recent insights into the neural basis of auditory perception and feedback-dependent imitation in those animals. Neural correlates of song perception are present in auditory areas, and those correlates are preserved in the auditory responses of downstream neurons that are also active when the bird sings. Initial tests indicate that singing-related activity in those downstream neurons is associated with vocal-motor performance as opposed to the bird simply hearing itself sing. Therefore, action potentials related to auditory perception and action potentials related to vocal performance are co-localized in individual neurons. Conceptual models of song learning involve comparison of vocal commands and the associated auditory feedback to compute an error signal that is used to guide refinement of subsequent song performances, yet the sites of that comparison remain unknown. Convergence of sensory and motor activity onto individual neurons points to a possible mechanism through which auditory and vocal-motor signals may be linked to enable learning and maintenance of the sounds used in vocal communication. PMID:23827717

  15. Temporal factors affecting somatosensory-auditory interactions in speech processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki eIto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Speech perception is known to rely on both auditory and visual information. However, sound specific somatosensory input has been shown also to influence speech perceptual processing (Ito et al., 2009. In the present study we addressed further the relationship between somatosensory information and speech perceptual processing by addressing the hypothesis that the temporal relationship between orofacial movement and sound processing contributes to somatosensory-auditory interaction in speech perception. We examined the changes in event-related potentials in response to multisensory synchronous (simultaneous and asynchronous (90 ms lag and lead somatosensory and auditory stimulation compared to individual unisensory auditory and somatosensory stimulation alone. We used a robotic device to apply facial skin somatosensory deformations that were similar in timing and duration to those experienced in speech production. Following synchronous multisensory stimulation the amplitude of the event-related potential was reliably different from the two unisensory potentials. More importantly, the magnitude of the event-related potential difference varied as a function of the relative timing of the somatosensory-auditory stimulation. Event-related activity change due to stimulus timing was seen between 160-220 ms following somatosensory onset, mostly around the parietal area. The results demonstrate a dynamic modulation of somatosensory-auditory convergence and suggest the contribution of somatosensory information for speech processing process is dependent on the specific temporal order of sensory inputs in speech production.

  16. Auditory Neuropathy: Findings of Behavioral, Physiological and Neurophysiological Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Farhadi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Auditory neuropathy (AN can be diagnosed by abnormal auditory brainstem response (ABR, in the presence of normal cochlear microphonic (CM and otoacoustic emissions (OAEs.The aim of this study was to investigate the ABR and other electrodiagnostic test results of 6 patients suspicious to AN with problems in speech recognition. Materials and Methods: this cross sectional study was conducted on 6 AN patients with different ages evaluated by pure tone audiometry, speech discrimination score (SDS , immittance audiometry. ElectroCochleoGraphy , ABR, middle latency response (MLR, Late latency response (LLR, and OAEs. Results: Behavioral pure tone audiometric tests showed moderate to profound hearing loss. SDS was so poor which is not in accordance with pure tone thresholds. All patients had normal tympanogram but absent acoustic reflexes. CMs and OAEs were within normal limits. There was no contra lateral suppression of OAEs. None of cases had normal ABR or MLR although LLR was recorded in 4. Conclusion: All patients in this study are typical cases of auditory neuropathy. Despite having abnormal input, LLR remains normal that indicates differences in auditory evoked potentials related to required neural synchrony. These findings show that auditory cortex may play a role in regulating presentation of deficient signals along auditory pathways in primary steps.

  17. Functional neuroanatomy of auditory scene analysis in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah L. Golden

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Auditory scene analysis is a demanding computational process that is performed automatically and efficiently by the healthy brain but vulnerable to the neurodegenerative pathology of Alzheimer's disease. Here we assessed the functional neuroanatomy of auditory scene analysis in Alzheimer's disease using the well-known ‘cocktail party effect’ as a model paradigm whereby stored templates for auditory objects (e.g., hearing one's spoken name are used to segregate auditory ‘foreground’ and ‘background’. Patients with typical amnestic Alzheimer's disease (n = 13 and age-matched healthy individuals (n = 17 underwent functional 3T-MRI using a sparse acquisition protocol with passive listening to auditory stimulus conditions comprising the participant's own name interleaved with or superimposed on multi-talker babble, and spectrally rotated (unrecognisable analogues of these conditions. Name identification (conditions containing the participant's own name contrasted with spectrally rotated analogues produced extensive bilateral activation involving superior temporal cortex in both the AD and healthy control groups, with no significant differences between groups. Auditory object segregation (conditions with interleaved name sounds contrasted with superimposed name sounds produced activation of right posterior superior temporal cortex in both groups, again with no differences between groups. However, the cocktail party effect (interaction of own name identification with auditory object segregation processing produced activation of right supramarginal gyrus in the AD group that was significantly enhanced compared with the healthy control group. The findings delineate an altered functional neuroanatomical profile of auditory scene analysis in Alzheimer's disease that may constitute a novel computational signature of this neurodegenerative pathology.

  18. Functional neuroanatomy of auditory scene analysis in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Hannah L; Agustus, Jennifer L; Goll, Johanna C; Downey, Laura E; Mummery, Catherine J; Schott, Jonathan M; Crutch, Sebastian J; Warren, Jason D

    2015-01-01

    Auditory scene analysis is a demanding computational process that is performed automatically and efficiently by the healthy brain but vulnerable to the neurodegenerative pathology of Alzheimer's disease. Here we assessed the functional neuroanatomy of auditory scene analysis in Alzheimer's disease using the well-known 'cocktail party effect' as a model paradigm whereby stored templates for auditory objects (e.g., hearing one's spoken name) are used to segregate auditory 'foreground' and 'background'. Patients with typical amnestic Alzheimer's disease (n = 13) and age-matched healthy individuals (n = 17) underwent functional 3T-MRI using a sparse acquisition protocol with passive listening to auditory stimulus conditions comprising the participant's own name interleaved with or superimposed on multi-talker babble, and spectrally rotated (unrecognisable) analogues of these conditions. Name identification (conditions containing the participant's own name contrasted with spectrally rotated analogues) produced extensive bilateral activation involving superior temporal cortex in both the AD and healthy control groups, with no significant differences between groups. Auditory object segregation (conditions with interleaved name sounds contrasted with superimposed name sounds) produced activation of right posterior superior temporal cortex in both groups, again with no differences between groups. However, the cocktail party effect (interaction of own name identification with auditory object segregation processing) produced activation of right supramarginal gyrus in the AD group that was significantly enhanced compared with the healthy control group. The findings delineate an altered functional neuroanatomical profile of auditory scene analysis in Alzheimer's disease that may constitute a novel computational signature of this neurodegenerative pathology. PMID:26029629

  19. Basic and supplementary sensory feedback in handwriting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy eDanna

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The mastering of handwriting is so essential in our society that it is important to try to find new methods for facilitating its learning and rehabilitation. The ability to control the graphic movements clearly impacts on the quality of the writing. This control allows both the programming of letter formation before movement execution and the online adjustments during execution, thanks to diverse sensory feedback. New technologies improve existing techniques or enable new methods to supply the writer with real-time computer-assisted feedback. The possibilities are numerous and various. Therefore, two main questions arise: 1-What aspect of the movement is concerned and 2- How can we best inform the writer to help them correct their handwriting? In a first step, we report studies on feedback naturally used by the writer. The purpose is to determine which information is carried by each sensory modality, how it is used in handwriting control and how this control changes with practice and learning. In a second step, we report studies on supplementary feedback provided to the writer to help them to better control and learn how to write. We suggest that, depending on their contents, certain sensory modalities will be more appropriate than others to assist handwriting motor control. We emphasize particularly the relevance of auditory modality as online supplementary feedback on handwriting movements. Using real-time supplementary feedback to assist in the handwriting process is probably destined for a brilliant future with the growing availability and rapid development of tablets.

  20. A review on auditory space adaptations to altered head-related cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina eMendonça

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present a review of current literature on adaptations to altered head-related auditory localization cues. Localization cues can be altered through ear blocks, ear molds, electronic hearing devices and altered head-related transfer functions. Three main methods have been used to induce auditory space adaptation: sound exposure, training with feedback, and explicit training. Adaptations induced by training, rather than exposure, are consistently faster. Studies on localization with altered head-related cues have reported poor initial localization, but improved accuracy and discriminability with training. Also, studies that displaced the auditory space by altering cue values reported adaptations in perceived source position to compensate for such displacements. Auditory space adaptations can last for a few months even without further contact with the learned cues. In most studies, localization with the subject’s own unaltered cues remained intact despite the adaptation to a second set of cues. Generalization is observed from trained to untrained sound source positions, but there is mixed evidence regarding cross-frequency generalization. Multiple brain areas might be involved in auditory space adaptation processes, but the auditory cortex may play a critical role. Auditory space plasticity may involve context-dependent cue reweighting.

  1. AN OVERVIEW OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF LOW GAIN FEEDBACK AND LOW-AND-HIGH GAIN FEEDBACK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zongli LIN

    2009-01-01

    Low gain feedback refers to certain families of stabilizing state feedback gains that are parameterized in a scalar and go to zero as the scalar decreases to zero. Low gain feedback was initially proposed to achieve semi-global stabilization of linear systems subject to input saturation. It was then combined with high gain feedback in different ways for solving various control problems. The resulting feedback laws are referred to as low-and-high gain feedback. Since the introduction of low gain feedback in the context of semi-global stabilization of linear systems subject to input saturation,there has been effort to develop alternative methods for low gain design, to characterize key features of low gain feedback, and to explore new applications of the low gain and low-and-high gain feedback.This paper reviews the developments in low gain and low-and-high gain feedback designs.

  2. Auditory short-term memory in the primate auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Brian H; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2016-06-01

    Sounds are fleeting, and assembling the sequence of inputs at the ear into a coherent percept requires auditory memory across various time scales. Auditory short-term memory comprises at least two components: an active ׳working memory' bolstered by rehearsal, and a sensory trace that may be passively retained. Working memory relies on representations recalled from long-term memory, and their rehearsal may require phonological mechanisms unique to humans. The sensory component, passive short-term memory (pSTM), is tractable to study in nonhuman primates, whose brain architecture and behavioral repertoire are comparable to our own. This review discusses recent advances in the behavioral and neurophysiological study of auditory memory with a focus on single-unit recordings from macaque monkeys performing delayed-match-to-sample (DMS) tasks. Monkeys appear to employ pSTM to solve these tasks, as evidenced by the impact of interfering stimuli on memory performance. In several regards, pSTM in monkeys resembles pitch memory in humans, and may engage similar neural mechanisms. Neural correlates of DMS performance have been observed throughout the auditory and prefrontal cortex, defining a network of areas supporting auditory STM with parallels to that supporting visual STM. These correlates include persistent neural firing, or a suppression of firing, during the delay period of the memory task, as well as suppression or (less commonly) enhancement of sensory responses when a sound is repeated as a ׳match' stimulus. Auditory STM is supported by a distributed temporo-frontal network in which sensitivity to stimulus history is an intrinsic feature of auditory processing. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. PMID:26541581

  3. Auditory short-term memory in the primate auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Brian H; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2016-06-01

    Sounds are fleeting, and assembling the sequence of inputs at the ear into a coherent percept requires auditory memory across various time scales. Auditory short-term memory comprises at least two components: an active ׳working memory' bolstered by rehearsal, and a sensory trace that may be passively retained. Working memory relies on representations recalled from long-term memory, and their rehearsal may require phonological mechanisms unique to humans. The sensory component, passive short-term memory (pSTM), is tractable to study in nonhuman primates, whose brain architecture and behavioral repertoire are comparable to our own. This review discusses recent advances in the behavioral and neurophysiological study of auditory memory with a focus on single-unit recordings from macaque monkeys performing delayed-match-to-sample (DMS) tasks. Monkeys appear to employ pSTM to solve these tasks, as evidenced by the impact of interfering stimuli on memory performance. In several regards, pSTM in monkeys resembles pitch memory in humans, and may engage similar neural mechanisms. Neural correlates of DMS performance have been observed throughout the auditory and prefrontal cortex, defining a network of areas supporting auditory STM with parallels to that supporting visual STM. These correlates include persistent neural firing, or a suppression of firing, during the delay period of the memory task, as well as suppression or (less commonly) enhancement of sensory responses when a sound is repeated as a ׳match' stimulus. Auditory STM is supported by a distributed temporo-frontal network in which sensitivity to stimulus history is an intrinsic feature of auditory processing. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory.

  4. Representation of auditory-filter phase characteristics in the cortex of human listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rupp, A.; Sieroka, N.; Gutschalk, A.;

    2008-01-01

    Harmonic tone complexes with component phases, adjusted using a variant of a method proposed by Schroeder, can produce pure-tone masked thresholds differing by >20 dB. This phenomenon has been qualitatively explained by the phase characteristics of the auditory filters on the basilar membrane......, which differently affect the flat envelopes of the Schroeder-phase maskers. We examined the influence of auditory-filter phase characteristics on the neural representation in the auditory cortex by investigating cortical auditory evoked fields ( AEFs). We found that the P1m component exhibited larger...

  5. Feedback, Incentives and Peer Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Poulsen, Anders; Villeval, Marie Claire

    This paper experimentally investigates the impact of different pay and relative performance information policies on employee effort. We explore three information policies: No feedback, feedback given halfway through the production period, and continuously updated feedback about relative performance....... The pay schemes are a piece rate payment scheme and a winner takes-all tournament. We find that the principal should not provide any information on relative  performance, regardless of the pay scheme used, since feedback does not improve performance. Indeed, we do not find evidence of positive peer...... effects in the piece-rate pay scheme. In both pay schemes, interim feedback generates negative quality peer effects on the less able performers. We find however evidence of positive peer effects in the tournament scheme since the underdogs almost never quit the competition even when lagging significantly...

  6. A Typology of Written Corrective Feedback Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Rod

    2009-01-01

    As a basis for a systematic approach to investigating the effects of written corrective feedback, this article presents a typology of the different types available to teachers and researchers. The typology distinguishes two sets of options relating to (1) strategies for providing feedback (for example, direct, indirect, or metalinguistic feedback)…

  7. Diffusion tensor imaging of dolphin brains reveals direct auditory pathway to temporal lobe

    OpenAIRE

    Berns, Gregory S.; Cook, Peter F.; Foxley, Sean; Jbabdi, Saad; Miller, Karla L.; Marino, Lori

    2015-01-01

    The brains of odontocetes (toothed whales) look grossly different from their terrestrial relatives. Because of their adaptation to the aquatic environment and their reliance on echolocation, the odontocetes' auditory system is both unique and crucial to their survival. Yet, scant data exist about the functional organization of the cetacean auditory system. A predominant hypothesis is that the primary auditory cortex lies in the suprasylvian gyrus along the vertex of the hemispheres, with this...

  8. Presentation of dynamically overlapping auditory messages in user interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papp, A.L.

    1997-09-01

    This dissertation describes a methodology and example implementation for the dynamic regulation of temporally overlapping auditory messages in computer-user interfaces. The regulation mechanism exists to schedule numerous overlapping auditory messages in such a way that each individual message remains perceptually distinct from all others. The method is based on the research conducted in the area of auditory scene analysis. While numerous applications have been engineered to present the user with temporally overlapped auditory output, they have generally been designed without any structured method of controlling the perceptual aspects of the sound. The method of scheduling temporally overlapping sounds has been extended to function in an environment where numerous applications can present sound independently of each other. The Centralized Audio Presentation System is a global regulation mechanism that controls all audio output requests made from all currently running applications. The notion of multimodal objects is explored in this system as well. Each audio request that represents a particular message can include numerous auditory representations, such as musical motives and voice. The Presentation System scheduling algorithm selects the best representation according to the current global auditory system state, and presents it to the user within the request constraints of priority and maximum acceptable latency. The perceptual conflicts between temporally overlapping audio messages are examined in depth through the Computational Auditory Scene Synthesizer. At the heart of this system is a heuristic-based auditory scene synthesis scheduling method. Different schedules of overlapped sounds are evaluated and assigned penalty scores. High scores represent presentations that include perceptual conflicts between over-lapping sounds. Low scores indicate fewer and less serious conflicts. A user study was conducted to validate that the perceptual difficulties predicted by

  9. Auditory Processing Disorder in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... free publications Find organizations Related Topics Auditory Neuropathy Autism Spectrum Disorder: Communication Problems in Children Dysphagia Quick ... NIH… Turning Discovery Into Health ® National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders 31 Center Drive, MSC ...

  10. Auditory Processing Disorder (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and school. A positive, realistic attitude and healthy self-esteem in a child with APD can work wonders. And kids with APD can go on to ... Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Auditory Processing Disorder Special ...

  11. AUDITORY REACTION TIME IN BASKETBALL PLAYERS AND HEALTHY CONTROLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghuntla Tejas P.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Reaction is purposeful voluntary response to different stimuli as visual or auditory stimuli. Auditory reaction time is time required to response to auditory stimuli. Quickness of response is very important in games like basketball. This study was conducted to compare auditory reaction time of basketball players and healthy controls. The auditory reaction time was measured by the reaction time instrument in healthy controls and basketball players. Simple reaction time and choice reaction time measured. During the reaction time testing, auditory stimuli were given for three times and minimum reaction time was taken as the final reaction time for that sensory modality of that subject. The results were statistically analyzed and were recorded as mean + standard deviation and student’s unpaired t-test was applied to check the level of significance. The study shows that basketball players have shorter reaction time than healthy controls. As reaction time gives the information how fast a person gives a response to sensory stimuli, it is a good indicator of performance in reactive sports like basketball. Sportsman should be trained to improve their reaction time to improve their performance.

  12. Musical experience, auditory perception and reading-related skills in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Banai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The relationships between auditory processing and reading-related skills remain poorly understood despite intensive research. Here we focus on the potential role of musical experience as a confounding factor. Specifically we ask whether the pattern of correlations between auditory and reading related skills differ between children with different amounts of musical experience. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Third grade children with various degrees of musical experience were tested on a battery of auditory processing and reading related tasks. Very poor auditory thresholds and poor memory skills were abundant only among children with no musical education. In this population, indices of auditory processing (frequency and interval discrimination thresholds were significantly correlated with and accounted for up to 13% of the variance in reading related skills. Among children with more than one year of musical training, auditory processing indices were better, yet reading related skills were not correlated with them. A potential interpretation for the reduction in the correlations might be that auditory and reading-related skills improve at different rates as a function of musical training. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Participants' previous musical training, which is typically ignored in studies assessing the relations between auditory and reading related skills, should be considered. Very poor auditory and memory skills are rare among children with even a short period of musical training, suggesting musical training could have an impact on both. The lack of correlation in the musically trained population suggests that a short period of musical training does not enhance reading related skills of individuals with within-normal auditory processing skills. Further studies are required to determine whether the associations between musical training, auditory processing and memory are indeed causal or whether children with poor auditory and

  13. Understanding balance differences in individuals with multiple sclerosis with mild disability: An investigation of differences in sensory feedback on postural and dynamic balance control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denomme, Luke T.

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease that affects the central nervous system (CNS) and causes a broad range of neurological symptoms. One of the most common symptoms experienced by individuals with MS is poor balance control during standing and walking. The main mechanism underlying impaired balance control in MS appears to result from slowed somatosensory conduction and impaired central integration. The current thesis assessed postural and dynamic control of balance of 'individuals with MS with mild disability' (IwMS). IwMS were compared to 'healthy age-matched individuals' (HAMI) and community-dwelling 'older adults' (OA). The purpose of this thesis was to quantify differences in postural and dynamic control of balance in IwMS to the two populations who display balance control differences across the lifespan and represent two extreme ends of the balance control continuum due to natural aging. IwMS (n = 12, x¯age: 44 +/- 9.4 years), HAMI (n = 12, x¯age: 45 +/- 9.9 years) and community-dwelling OA (n = 12, x¯ age: 68.1 +/- 4.5 years) postural and dynamic balance control were evaluated during a Romberg task as well as a dynamic steering task. The Romberg task required participants to stand with their feet together and hands by their sides for 45 seconds with either their eyes open or closed. The dynamic steering task required participants to walk and change direction along the M-L plane towards a visual goal. Results from these two tasks reveal that IwMS display differences in postural control when compared to HAMI when vision was removed as well as differences in dynamic stability margin during steering situations. During the postural control task IwMS displayed faster A-P and M-L COP velocities when vision was removed and their COP position was closer to their self-selected maximum stability limits compared to HAMI. Assessment of dynamic stability during the steering task revealed that IwMS displayed reduced walking speed and cadence during the

  14. 听觉皮层信号处理%Information processing in auditory cortex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓勤

    2009-01-01

    In contrast to the visual system, the auditory system has longer subcortical pathways and more spiking synapses between the peripheral receptors and the cortex. This unique organization reflects the needs of the auditory system to extract behaviorally relevant information from a complex acoustic environment using strategies different from those used by other sensory systems. The neural representations of acoustic information in auditory cortex include two types of important transformations: the non-isomorphic transformation of acoustic features and the transformation from acoustical to perceptual dimensions. Neural representations in auditory cortex are also modulated by auditory feedback and vocal control signals during speaking or vocalization. The challenges facing auditory neuroscientists and biomedical engineers are to understand neural coding mechanisms in the brain underlying such transformations. I will use recent findings from my laboratory to illustrate how acoustic information is processed in the primate auditory cortex and discuss its implications for neural processing of speech and music in the brain as well as for the design of neural prosthetic devices such as cochlear implants. We have used a combination of neurophysiological techniques and quantitative engineering tools to investigate these problems.%听觉系统和视觉系统的不同之处在于:听觉系统在外周感受器和听皮层间具有更长的皮层下通路和更多的突触联系.该特殊结构反应了听觉系统从复杂听觉环境中提取与行为相关信号的机制与其他感觉系统不同.听皮层神经信号处理包括两种重要的转换机制,声音信号的非同构转换以及从声音感受到知觉层面的转换.听觉皮层神经编码机制同时也受到听觉反馈和语言或发声过程中发声信号的调控.听觉神经科学家和生物医学工程师所面临的挑战便是如何去理解大脑中这些转换的编码机制.我将会用我实验

  15. Feedback as real-time constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering; Qvortrup, Ane

    2014-01-01

    This article offers a re-description of feedback and the significance of time in feedback constructions based on systems theory. It describes feedback as internal, real-time constructions in a learning system. From this perspective, feedback is neither immediate nor delayed, but occurs in the very...... instant it takes place. This article argues for a clear distinction between the timing of communicative events, such as responses that are provided as help for feedback constructions, and the feedback construction itself as an event in a psychic system. Although feedback is described as an internal......, system-relative construction, different teaching environments offer diverse conditions for feedback constructions. The final section of this article explores this idea with the help of examples from both synchronous oral interaction and asynchronous text-based interaction mediated by digital media....

  16. Stroke caused auditory attention deficits in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Maria Ibraim da Freiria Elias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify the auditory selective attention in children with stroke. METHODS: Dichotic tests of binaural separation (non-verbal and consonant-vowel and binaural integration - digits and Staggered Spondaic Words Test (SSW - were applied in 13 children (7 boys, from 7 to 16 years, with unilateral stroke confirmed by neurological examination and neuroimaging. RESULTS: The attention performance showed significant differences in comparison to the control group in both kinds of tests. In the non-verbal test, identifications the ear opposite the lesion in the free recall stage was diminished and, in the following stages, a difficulty in directing attention was detected. In the consonant- vowel test, a modification in perceptual asymmetry and difficulty in focusing in the attended stages was found. In the digits and SSW tests, ipsilateral, contralateral and bilateral deficits were detected, depending on the characteristics of the lesions and demand of the task. CONCLUSION: Stroke caused auditory attention deficits when dealing with simultaneous sources of auditory information.

  17. Hierarchical processing of auditory objects in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhbinder Kumar

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This work examines the computational architecture used by the brain during the analysis of the spectral envelope of sounds, an important acoustic feature for defining auditory objects. Dynamic causal modelling and Bayesian model selection were used to evaluate a family of 16 network models explaining functional magnetic resonance imaging responses in the right temporal lobe during spectral envelope analysis. The models encode different hypotheses about the effective connectivity between Heschl's Gyrus (HG, containing the primary auditory cortex, planum temporale (PT, and superior temporal sulcus (STS, and the modulation of that coupling during spectral envelope analysis. In particular, we aimed to determine whether information processing during spectral envelope analysis takes place in a serial or parallel fashion. The analysis provides strong support for a serial architecture with connections from HG to PT and from PT to STS and an increase of the HG to PT connection during spectral envelope analysis. The work supports a computational model of auditory object processing, based on the abstraction of spectro-temporal "templates" in the PT before further analysis of the abstracted form in anterior temporal lobe areas.

  18. Central auditory masking by an illusory tone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Plack

    Full Text Available Many natural sounds fluctuate over time. The detectability of sounds in a sequence can be reduced by prior stimulation in a process known as forward masking. Forward masking is thought to reflect neural adaptation or neural persistence in the auditory nervous system, but it has been unclear where in the auditory pathway this processing occurs. To address this issue, the present study used a "Huggins pitch" stimulus, the perceptual effects of which depend on central auditory processing. Huggins pitch is an illusory tonal sensation produced when the same noise is presented to the two ears except for a narrow frequency band that is different (decorrelated between the ears. The pitch sensation depends on the combination of the inputs to the two ears, a process that first occurs at the level of the superior olivary complex in the brainstem. Here it is shown that a Huggins pitch stimulus produces more forward masking in the frequency region of the decorrelation than a noise stimulus identical to the Huggins-pitch stimulus except with perfect correlation between the ears. This stimulus has a peripheral neural representation that is identical to that of the Huggins-pitch stimulus. The results show that processing in, or central to, the superior olivary complex can contribute to forward masking in human listeners.

  19. Response recovery in the locust auditory pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtssohn, Sarah; Ronacher, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Temporal resolution and the time courses of recovery from acute adaptation of neurons in the auditory pathway of the grasshopper Locusta migratoria were investigated with a response recovery paradigm. We stimulated with a series of single click and click pair stimuli while performing intracellular recordings from neurons at three processing stages: receptors and first and second order interneurons. The response to the second click was expressed relative to the single click response. This allowed the uncovering of the basic temporal resolution in these neurons. The effect of adaptation increased with processing layer. While neurons in the auditory periphery displayed a steady response recovery after a short initial adaptation, many interneurons showed nonlinear effects: most prominent a long-lasting suppression of the response to the second click in a pair, as well as a gain in response if a click was preceded by a click a few milliseconds before. Our results reveal a distributed temporal filtering of input at an early auditory processing stage. This set of specified filters is very likely homologous across grasshopper species and thus forms the neurophysiological basis for extracting relevant information from a variety of different temporal signals. Interestingly, in terms of spike timing precision neurons at all three processing layers recovered very fast, within 20 ms. Spike waveform analysis of several neuron types did not sufficiently explain the response recovery profiles implemented in these neurons, indicating that temporal resolution in neurons located at several processing layers of the auditory pathway is not necessarily limited by the spike duration and refractory period.

  20. Neural correlates of auditory scale illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriki, Shinya; Numao, Ryousuke; Nemoto, Iku

    2016-09-01

    The auditory illusory perception "scale illusion" occurs when ascending and descending musical scale tones are delivered in a dichotic manner, such that the higher or lower tone at each instant is presented alternately to the right and left ears. Resulting tone sequences have a zigzag pitch in one ear and the reversed (zagzig) pitch in the other ear. Most listeners hear illusory smooth pitch sequences of up-down and down-up streams in the two ears separated in higher and lower halves of the scale. Although many behavioral studies have been conducted, how and where in the brain the illusory percept is formed have not been elucidated. In this study, we conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging using sequential tones that induced scale illusion (ILL) and those that mimicked the percept of scale illusion (PCP), and we compared the activation responses evoked by those stimuli by region-of-interest analysis. We examined the effects of adaptation, i.e., the attenuation of response that occurs when close-frequency sounds are repeated, which might interfere with the changes in activation by the illusion process. Results of the activation difference of the two stimuli, measured at varied tempi of tone presentation, in the superior temporal auditory cortex were not explained by adaptation. Instead, excess activation of the ILL stimulus from the PCP stimulus at moderate tempi (83 and 126 bpm) was significant in the posterior auditory cortex with rightward superiority, while significant prefrontal activation was dominant at the highest tempo (245 bpm). We suggest that the area of the planum temporale posterior to the primary auditory cortex is mainly involved in the illusion formation, and that the illusion-related process is strongly dependent on the rate of tone presentation. PMID:27292114

  1. Midbrain auditory selectivity to natural sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlgemuth, Melville J; Moss, Cynthia F

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated auditory stimulus selectivity in the midbrain superior colliculus (SC) of the echolocating bat, an animal that relies on hearing to guide its orienting behaviors. Multichannel, single-unit recordings were taken across laminae of the midbrain SC of the awake, passively listening big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus. Species-specific frequency-modulated (FM) echolocation sound sequences with dynamic spectrotemporal features served as acoustic stimuli along with artificial sound sequences matched in bandwidth, amplitude, and duration but differing in spectrotemporal structure. Neurons in dorsal sensory regions of the bat SC responded selectively to elements within the FM sound sequences, whereas neurons in ventral sensorimotor regions showed broad response profiles to natural and artificial stimuli. Moreover, a generalized linear model (GLM) constructed on responses in the dorsal SC to artificial linear FM stimuli failed to predict responses to natural sounds and vice versa, but the GLM produced accurate response predictions in ventral SC neurons. This result suggests that auditory selectivity in the dorsal extent of the bat SC arises through nonlinear mechanisms, which extract species-specific sensory information. Importantly, auditory selectivity appeared only in responses to stimuli containing the natural statistics of acoustic signals used by the bat for spatial orientation-sonar vocalizations-offering support for the hypothesis that sensory selectivity enables rapid species-specific orienting behaviors. The results of this study are the first, to our knowledge, to show auditory spectrotemporal selectivity to natural stimuli in SC neurons and serve to inform a more general understanding of mechanisms guiding sensory selectivity for natural, goal-directed orienting behaviors.

  2. Sonic morphology: Aesthetic dimensional auditory spatial awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Martha M.

    The sound and ceramic sculpture installation, " Skirting the Edge: Experiences in Sound & Form," is an integration of art and science demonstrating the concept of sonic morphology. "Sonic morphology" is herein defined as aesthetic three-dimensional auditory spatial awareness. The exhibition explicates my empirical phenomenal observations that sound has a three-dimensional form. Composed of ceramic sculptures that allude to different social and physical situations, coupled with sound compositions that enhance and create a three-dimensional auditory and visual aesthetic experience (see accompanying DVD), the exhibition supports the research question, "What is the relationship between sound and form?" Precisely how people aurally experience three-dimensional space involves an integration of spatial properties, auditory perception, individual history, and cultural mores. People also utilize environmental sound events as a guide in social situations and in remembering their personal history, as well as a guide in moving through space. Aesthetically, sound affects the fascination, meaning, and attention one has within a particular space. Sonic morphology brings art forms such as a movie, video, sound composition, and musical performance into the cognitive scope by generating meaning from the link between the visual and auditory senses. This research examined sonic morphology as an extension of musique concrete, sound as object, originating in Pierre Schaeffer's work in the 1940s. Pointing, as John Cage did, to the corporeal three-dimensional experience of "all sound," I composed works that took their total form only through the perceiver-participant's participation in the exhibition. While contemporary artist Alvin Lucier creates artworks that draw attention to making sound visible, "Skirting the Edge" engages the perceiver-participant visually and aurally, leading to recognition of sonic morphology.

  3. Clinical Observation on Treatment of Auditory Hallucinosis by Electroacupuncture--A Report of 30 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Hong; Li Cheng

    2005-01-01

    @@ Auditory hallucinosis, a kind of hallucinations in sensory disturbance, is very common in psychopathic clinic. Patients with this disorder could hear sounds of different variety or nature in the absence of any appropriate external stimulus. It is especially true in patients with schizophrenia, organic psychonosema,and alcoholic psychonosema. At present, the neuroleptic agents are often used to relieve auditory hallucinosis during treatment of the mental disease,and there is not a therapy that is effective in treating auditory hallucinosis. With electro-acupuncture, the authors have treated 30 cases of auditory hallucinosis with satisfactory results. A report follows.

  4. A Comparative Study of AGN Feedback Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Wurster, James

    2013-01-01

    Modelling AGN feedback in numerical simulations is both technically and theoretically challenging, with numerous approaches having been published in the literature. We present a study of five distinct approaches to modelling AGN feedback within gravitohydrodynamic simulations of major mergers of Milky Way-sized galaxies. To constrain differences to only be between AGN feedback models, all simulations start from the same initial conditions and use the same star formation algorithm. Most AGN feedback algorithms have five key aspects: black hole accretion rate, energy feedback rate and method, particle accretion algorithm, black hole advection algorithm, and black hole merger algorithm. All models follow different accretion histories, with accretion rates that differ by up to three orders of magnitude at any given time. We consider models with either thermal or kinetic feedback, with the associated energy deposited locally around the black hole. Each feedback algorithm modifies the gas properties near the black ...

  5. Frequency-specific modulation of population-level frequency tuning in human auditory cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Larry E

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Under natural circumstances, attention plays an important role in extracting relevant auditory signals from simultaneously present, irrelevant noises. Excitatory and inhibitory neural activity, enhanced by attentional processes, seems to sharpen frequency tuning, contributing to improved auditory performance especially in noisy environments. In the present study, we investigated auditory magnetic fields in humans that were evoked by pure tones embedded in band-eliminated noises during two different stimulus sequencing conditions (constant vs. random under auditory focused attention by means of magnetoencephalography (MEG. Results In total, we used identical auditory stimuli between conditions, but presented them in a different order, thereby manipulating the neural processing and the auditory performance of the listeners. Constant stimulus sequencing blocks were characterized by the simultaneous presentation of pure tones of identical frequency with band-eliminated noises, whereas random sequencing blocks were characterized by the simultaneous presentation of pure tones of random frequencies and band-eliminated noises. We demonstrated that auditory evoked neural responses were larger in the constant sequencing compared to the random sequencing condition, particularly when the simultaneously presented noises contained narrow stop-bands. Conclusion The present study confirmed that population-level frequency tuning in human auditory cortex can be sharpened in a frequency-specific manner. This frequency-specific sharpening may contribute to improved auditory performance during detection and processing of relevant sound inputs characterized by specific frequency distributions in noisy environments.

  6. Psychology of auditory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotto, Andrew; Holt, Lori

    2011-09-01

    Audition is often treated as a 'secondary' sensory system behind vision in the study of cognitive science. In this review, we focus on three seemingly simple perceptual tasks to demonstrate the complexity of perceptual-cognitive processing involved in everyday audition. After providing a short overview of the characteristics of sound and their neural encoding, we present a description of the perceptual task of segregating multiple sound events that are mixed together in the signal reaching the ears. Then, we discuss the ability to localize the sound source in the environment. Finally, we provide some data and theory on how listeners categorize complex sounds, such as speech. In particular, we present research on how listeners weigh multiple acoustic cues in making a categorization decision. One conclusion of this review is that it is time for auditory cognitive science to be developed to match what has been done in vision in order for us to better understand how humans communicate with speech and music. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 479-489 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.123 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26302301

  7. Auditory Sketches: Very Sparse Representations of Sounds Are Still Recognizable.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Isnard

    Full Text Available Sounds in our environment like voices, animal calls or musical instruments are easily recognized by human listeners. Understanding the key features underlying this robust sound recognition is an important question in auditory science. Here, we studied the recognition by human listeners of new classes of sounds: acoustic and auditory sketches, sounds that are severely impoverished but still recognizable. Starting from a time-frequency representation, a sketch is obtained by keeping only sparse elements of the original signal, here, by means of a simple peak-picking algorithm. Two time-frequency representations were compared: a biologically grounded one, the auditory spectrogram, which simulates peripheral auditory filtering, and a simple acoustic spectrogram, based on a Fourier transform. Three degrees of sparsity were also investigated. Listeners were asked to recognize the category to which a sketch sound belongs: singing voices, bird calls, musical instruments, and vehicle engine noises. Results showed that, with the exception of voice sounds, very sparse representations of sounds (10 features, or energy peaks, per second could be recognized above chance. No clear differences could be observed between the acoustic and the auditory sketches. For the voice sounds, however, a completely different pattern of results emerged, with at-chance or even below-chance recognition performances, suggesting that the important features of the voice, whatever they are, were removed by the sketch process. Overall, these perceptual results were well correlated with a model of auditory distances, based on spectro-temporal excitation patterns (STEPs. This study confirms the potential of these new classes of sounds, acoustic and auditory sketches, to study sound recognition.

  8. Auditory Sketches: Very Sparse Representations of Sounds Are Still Recognizable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isnard, Vincent; Taffou, Marine; Viaud-Delmon, Isabelle; Suied, Clara

    2016-01-01

    Sounds in our environment like voices, animal calls or musical instruments are easily recognized by human listeners. Understanding the key features underlying this robust sound recognition is an important question in auditory science. Here, we studied the recognition by human listeners of new classes of sounds: acoustic and auditory sketches, sounds that are severely impoverished but still recognizable. Starting from a time-frequency representation, a sketch is obtained by keeping only sparse elements of the original signal, here, by means of a simple peak-picking algorithm. Two time-frequency representations were compared: a biologically grounded one, the auditory spectrogram, which simulates peripheral auditory filtering, and a simple acoustic spectrogram, based on a Fourier transform. Three degrees of sparsity were also investigated. Listeners were asked to recognize the category to which a sketch sound belongs: singing voices, bird calls, musical instruments, and vehicle engine noises. Results showed that, with the exception of voice sounds, very sparse representations of sounds (10 features, or energy peaks, per second) could be recognized above chance. No clear differences could be observed between the acoustic and the auditory sketches. For the voice sounds, however, a completely different pattern of results emerged, with at-chance or even below-chance recognition performances, suggesting that the important features of the voice, whatever they are, were removed by the sketch process. Overall, these perceptual results were well correlated with a model of auditory distances, based on spectro-temporal excitation patterns (STEPs). This study confirms the potential of these new classes of sounds, acoustic and auditory sketches, to study sound recognition.

  9. Coding of melodic gestalt in human auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Andreas; Herdener, Marcus; Bartels, Andreas

    2013-12-01

    The perception of a melody is invariant to the absolute properties of its constituting notes, but depends on the relation between them-the melody's relative pitch profile. In fact, a melody's "Gestalt" is recognized regardless of the instrument or key used to play it. Pitch processing in general is assumed to occur at the level of the auditory cortex. However, it is unknown whether early auditory regions are able to encode pitch sequences integrated over time (i.e., melodies) and whether the resulting representations are invariant to specific keys. Here, we presented participants different melodies composed of the same 4 harmonic pitches during functional magnetic resonance imaging recordings. Additionally, we played the same melodies transposed in different keys and on different instruments. We found that melodies were invariantly represented by their blood oxygen level-dependent activation patterns in primary and secondary auditory cortices across instruments, and also across keys. Our findings extend common hierarchical models of auditory processing by showing that melodies are encoded independent of absolute pitch and based on their relative pitch profile as early as the primary auditory cortex.

  10. Seeing sounds and hearing colors: an event-related potential study of auditory-visual synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goller, Aviva I; Otten, Leun J; Ward, Jamie

    2009-10-01

    In auditory-visual synesthesia, sounds automatically elicit conscious and reliable visual experiences. It is presently unknown whether this reflects early or late processes in the brain. It is also unknown whether adult audiovisual synesthesia resembles auditory-induced visual illusions that can sometimes occur in the general population or whether it resembles the electrophysiological deflection over occipital sites that has been noted in infancy and has been likened to synesthesia. Electrical brain activity was recorded from adult synesthetes and control participants who were played brief tones and required to monitor for an infrequent auditory target. The synesthetes were instructed to attend either to the auditory or to the visual (i.e., synesthetic) dimension of the tone, whereas the controls attended to the auditory dimension alone. There were clear differences between synesthetes and controls that emerged early (100 msec after tone onset). These differences tended to lie in deflections of the auditory-evoked potential (e.g., the auditory N1, P2, and N2) rather than the presence of an additional posterior deflection. The differences occurred irrespective of what the synesthetes attended to (although attention had a late effect). The results suggest that differences between synesthetes and others occur early in time, and that synesthesia is qualitatively different from similar effects found in infants and certain auditory-induced visual illusions in adults. In addition, we report two novel cases of synesthesia in which colors elicit sounds, and vice versa. PMID:18823243

  11. A hardware model of the auditory periphery to transduce acoustic signals into neural activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi eTateno

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available To improve the performance of cochlear implants, we have integrated a microdevice into a model of the auditory periphery with the goal of creating a microprocessor. We constructed an artificial peripheral auditory system using a hybrid model in which polyvinylidene difluoride was used as a piezoelectric sensor to convert mechanical stimuli into electric signals. To produce frequency selectivity, the slit on a stainless steel base plate was designed such that the local resonance frequency of the membrane over the slit reflected the transfer function. In the acoustic sensor, electric signals were generated based on the piezoelectric effect from local stress in the membrane. The electrodes on the resonating plate produced relatively large electric output signals. The signals were fed into a computer model that mimicked some functions of inner hair cells, inner hair cell–auditory nerve synapses, and auditory nerve fibers. In general, the responses of the model to pure-tone burst and complex stimuli accurately represented the discharge rates of high-spontaneous-rate auditory nerve fibers across a range of frequencies greater than 1 kHz and middle to high sound pressure levels. Thus, the model provides a tool to understand information processing in the peripheral auditory system and a basic design for connecting artificial acoustic sensors to the peripheral auditory nervous system. Finally, we discuss the need for stimulus control with an appropriate model of the auditory periphery based on auditory brainstem responses that were electrically evoked by different temporal pulse patterns with the same pulse number.

  12. Potencial evocado auditivo de longa latência para estímulo de fala apresentado com diferentes transdutores em crianças ouvintes Late auditory evoked potentials to speech stimuli presented with different transducers in hearing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Sampaio Agostinho-Pesse

    2013-01-01

    rate of 1.9 stimuli per second. Whenever present, P1, N1 and P2 components were analyzed as to latency and amplitude. RESULTS: it was found a strong level of agreement between the researcher and the judge. There was no statistically significant difference when comparing the values of latency and amplitude of the P1, N1 and P2 components, when considering gender and ear, as well as the latency of components when considering the types of transducers. However, there was a statistically significant difference for the amplitude of the P1 and N1 components with greater amplitude for the speaker transducer. CONCLUSION: the latency values of the P1, N1 and P2 components and P2 amplitude obtained with insertion phone may be used as normal reference independent of the transducer used for the recording of auditory evoked potentials of long latency.

  13. Neural Correlates of an Auditory Afterimage in Primary Auditory Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Noreña, A. J.; Eggermont, J. J.

    2003-01-01

    The Zwicker tone (ZT) is defined as an auditory negative afterimage, perceived after the presentation of an appropriate inducer. Typically, a notched noise (NN) with a notch width of 1/2 octave induces a ZT with a pitch falling in the frequency range of the notch. The aim of the present study was to find potential neural correlates of the ZT in the primary auditory cortex of ketamine-anesthetized cats. Responses of multiunits were recorded simultaneously with two 8-electrode arrays during 1 s...

  14. Development of an auditory test battery for young children: a pilot study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stollman, M.H.P.; Neijenhuis, C.A.M.; Jansen, S.; Simkens, H.M.F.; Snik, A.F.M.; Broek, P. van den

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the development and results of a pilot study with a recently developed auditory test battery for 4-6-year-old Dutch children. The test battery consisted of a sustained auditory attention (SAA) test, a dichotic words (DW) test, a binaural masking-level difference (BMLD) test, a

  15. Representation of lateralization and tonotopy in primary versus secondary human auditory cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langers, Dave R. M.; Backes, Walter H.; van Dijk, Pim

    2007-01-01

    Functional MRI was performed to investigate differences in the basic functional organization of the primary and secondary auditory cortex regarding preferred stimulus lateratization and frequency. A modified sparse acquisition scheme was used to spatially map the characteristics of the auditory cort

  16. Hierarchical auditory processing directed rostrally along the monkey's supratemporal plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Yukiko; Horwitz, Barry; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2010-09-29

    Connectional anatomical evidence suggests that the auditory core, containing the tonotopic areas A1, R, and RT, constitutes the first stage of auditory cortical processing, with feedforward projections from core outward, first to the surrounding auditory belt and then to the parabelt. Connectional evidence also raises the possibility that the core itself is serially organized, with feedforward projections from A1 to R and with additional projections, although of unknown feed direction, from R to RT. We hypothesized that area RT together with more rostral parts of the supratemporal plane (rSTP) form the anterior extension of a rostrally directed stimulus quality processing stream originating in the auditory core area A1. Here, we analyzed auditory responses of single neurons in three different sectors distributed caudorostrally along the supratemporal plane (STP): sector I, mainly area A1; sector II, mainly area RT; and sector III, principally RTp (the rostrotemporal polar area), including cortex located 3 mm from the temporal tip. Mean onset latency of excitation responses and stimulus selectivity to monkey calls and other sounds, both simple and complex, increased progressively from sector I to III. Also, whereas cells in sector I responded with significantly higher firing rates to the "other" sounds than to monkey calls, those in sectors II and III responded at the same rate to both stimulus types. The pattern of results supports the proposal that the STP contains a rostrally directed, hierarchically organized auditory processing stream, with gradually increasing stimulus selectivity, and that this stream extends from the primary auditory area to the temporal pole. PMID:20881120

  17. The processing of visual and auditory information for reaching movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazebrook, Cheryl M; Welsh, Timothy N; Tremblay, Luc

    2016-09-01

    Presenting target and non-target information in different modalities influences target localization if the non-target is within the spatiotemporal limits of perceptual integration. When using auditory and visual stimuli, the influence of a visual non-target on auditory target localization is greater than the reverse. It is not known, however, whether or how such perceptual effects extend to goal-directed behaviours. To gain insight into how audio-visual stimuli are integrated for motor tasks, the kinematics of reaching movements towards visual or auditory targets with or without a non-target in the other modality were examined. When present, the simultaneously presented non-target could be spatially coincident, to the left, or to the right of the target. Results revealed that auditory non-targets did not influence reaching trajectories towards a visual target, whereas visual non-targets influenced trajectories towards an auditory target. Interestingly, the biases induced by visual non-targets were present early in the trajectory and persisted until movement end. Subsequent experimentation indicated that the magnitude of the biases was equivalent whether participants performed a perceptual or motor task, whereas variability was greater for the motor versus the perceptual tasks. We propose that visually induced trajectory biases were driven by the perceived mislocation of the auditory target, which in turn affected both the movement plan and subsequent control of the movement. Such findings provide further evidence of the dominant role visual information processing plays in encoding spatial locations as well as planning and executing reaching action, even when reaching towards auditory targets. PMID:26253323

  18. Chemical feedbacks in climate sensitivity studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietmüller, Simone; Ponater, Michael; Sausen, Robert

    2013-04-01

    Interactively coupled climate chemistry models extend the number of feedback mechanisms in climate change simulations by allowing a variation of several radiatively actice chemical tracers that are prescribed in conventional climate models. Different perturbation experiments including chemical feedbacks were performed using the chemistry-climate model system EMAC coupled to the mixed layer ocean model MLO. The influence of the chemical feedbacks O3, CH4 and N2O on climate response and climate sensitivity is quantified for a series of CO2-perturbation simulations: Equilibrium climate sensitivity is dampened, if chemical feedbacks are included. In case of a CO2 doubling simulation chemical feedbacks decrease climate sensitivity by -3.6% and in case of a 4*CO2 simulation by -8.1%. Analysis of the chemical feedbacks reveals, that the negative feedback of ozone, mainly the feedback of stratospheric ozone, is responsible for this dampening. The radiative feedbacks of CH4 and N2O are negligible, mainly because the model system does not allow interactive emission feedbacks at the Earth's surface for these gases. The feedback of physical parameters is significantly modified by the presence of chemical feedbacks. In case of the CO2-perturbation experiments the negative stratospheric ozone feedback is accompanied by a negative stratospheric H2O feedback change of the same order of magnitude. So the dampening effect of the direct O3 radiative feedback is enhanced. A non-linearity in the damping is found with increasing CO2 concentrations. Reasons are the nonlinear feedbacks of ozone, temperature, and stratospheric water vapor. Additional 6*CO2 simulations with and without chemical feedbacks included show, that the presence of chemic feedbacks helps to prevent a runaway greenhouse effect, as the O3 distribution can react to the upward shift of the tropopause. Also experiments driven by anthropogenic NOx- and CO-emissions were performed, where chemically active trace gases act

  19. Auditory Hallucinations in Acute Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yair Lampl

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Auditory hallucinations are uncommon phenomena which can be directly caused by acute stroke, mostly described after lesions of the brain stem, very rarely reported after cortical strokes. The purpose of this study is to determine the frequency of this phenomenon. In a cross sectional study, 641 stroke patients were followed in the period between 1996–2000. Each patient underwent comprehensive investigation and follow-up. Four patients were found to have post cortical stroke auditory hallucinations. All of them occurred after an ischemic lesion of the right temporal lobe. After no more than four months, all patients were symptom-free and without therapy. The fact the auditory hallucinations may be of cortical origin must be taken into consideration in the treatment of stroke patients. The phenomenon may be completely reversible after a couple of months.

  20. Functional studies of the human auditory cortex, auditory memory and musical hallucinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives. 1. To determine which areas of the cerebral cortex are activated stimulating the left ear with pure tones, and what type of stimulation occurs (eg. excitatory or inhibitory) in these different areas. 2. To use this information as an initial step to develop a normal functional data base for future studies. 3. To try to determine if there is a biological substrate to the process of recalling previous auditory perceptions and if possible, suggest a locus for auditory memory. Method. Brain perfusion single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) evaluation was conducted: 1-2) Using auditory stimulation with pure tones in 4 volunteers with normal hearing. 3) In a patient with bilateral profound hearing loss who had auditory perception of previous musical experiences; while injected with Tc99m HMPAO while she was having the sensation of hearing a well known melody. Results. Both in the patient with auditory hallucinations and the normal controls -stimulated with pure tones- there was a statistically significant increase in perfusion in Brodmann's area 39, more intense on the right side (right to left p < 0.05). With a lesser intensity there was activation in the adjacent area 40 and there was intense activation also in the executive frontal cortex areas 6, 8, 9, and 10 of Brodmann. There was also activation of area 7 of Brodmann; an audio-visual association area; more marked on the right side in the patient and the normal stimulated controls. In the subcortical structures there was also marked activation in the patient with hallucinations in both lentiform nuclei, thalamus and caudate nuclei also more intense in the right hemisphere, 5, 4.7 and 4.2 S.D. above the mean respectively and 5, 3.3, and 3 S.D. above the normal mean in the left hemisphere respectively. Similar findings were observed in normal controls. Conclusions. After auditory stimulation with pure tones in the left ear of normal female volunteers, there is bilateral activation of area 39

  1. Feedback Frequency in Treatment for Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Edwin; Butalla, Christine E.; Farinella, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the role of feedback frequency in treatment for childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Reducing the frequency of feedback enhances motor learning, and recently, such feedback frequency reductions have been recommended for the treatment of CAS. However, no published studies have explicitly compared different feedback frequencies in…

  2. Visual and auditory perception in preschool children at risk for dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Rosario; Estévez, Adelina; Muñetón, Mercedes; Domínguez, Carolina

    2014-11-01

    Recently, there has been renewed interest in perceptive problems of dyslexics. A polemic research issue in this area has been the nature of the perception deficit. Another issue is the causal role of this deficit in dyslexia. Most studies have been carried out in adult and child literates; consequently, the observed deficits may be the result rather than the cause of dyslexia. This study addresses these issues by examining visual and auditory perception in children at risk for dyslexia. We compared children from preschool with and without risk for dyslexia in auditory and visual temporal order judgment tasks and same-different discrimination tasks. Identical visual and auditory, linguistic and nonlinguistic stimuli were presented in both tasks. The results revealed that the visual as well as the auditory perception of children at risk for dyslexia is impaired. The comparison between groups in auditory and visual perception shows that the achievement of children at risk was lower than children without risk for dyslexia in the temporal tasks. There were no differences between groups in auditory discrimination tasks. The difficulties of children at risk in visual and auditory perceptive processing affected both linguistic and nonlinguistic stimuli. Our conclusions are that children at risk for dyslexia show auditory and visual perceptive deficits for linguistic and nonlinguistic stimuli. The auditory impairment may be explained by temporal processing problems and these problems are more serious for processing language than for processing other auditory stimuli. These visual and auditory perceptive deficits are not the consequence of failing to learn to read, thus, these findings support the theory of temporal processing deficit.

  3. A comparison study on auditory verbal learning ability among four different brain areas after stroke%四个不同脑部位卒中后听觉词语学习能力比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚文苹; 王毅

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析左右丘脑和左右基底节卒中后听觉词语学习能力、记忆和保留能力的差异.方法 选择具有单一病灶的丘脑、基底节卒中患者63例与健康对照组34例、遗忘型轻度认知功能损害(aMCI)患者34例进行听觉词语学习测验评定. 结果 卒中组与健康对照组比较,听觉词语即刻与延迟自由回忆、听觉词语的保留率均有显著下降(P<0.05);听觉再认左丘脑卒中组受损(19.0±3.1)分,aMCI组受损(17.6±3.3)分,而另外3个卒中组保留.听觉词语学习能力左丘脑卒中组为(2.2±2.0)分,右丘脑卒中组为(2.1±1.9)分,与健康对照组(3.6±1.8)分比较,左右丘脑卒中组的听觉词语学习能力下降明显(P<0.05);听觉词语保留能力左丘脑卒中组(2.8±1.7)分,右基底节卒中组(2.7±1.9)分,与健康对照组(1.7±1.4)分比较显著下降(P<0.05). 结论 卒中组患者的自由回忆、学习能力和保留能力下降,以左丘脑下降更明显;左丘脑卒中的听觉记忆损害模式与aMCI组相似,而不同于另外3个卒中组.%Objective To compare the ability of auditory verbal learning,memory and retention between each side of thalamus and basal ganglia after stroke.Methods 63 patients with single lesion in thalamus or basal ganglia after stroke,34 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI)and 34 healthy control subjects received auditory verbal learning test.Results There was an overall decline of immediate and delayed recall,retention ability in patients with single lesion of stroke as compared with the healthy control group(P<0.05).Both the left thalamic stroke group [(19.0± 3.1)scores]and aMCI group[(17.6 ±3.3)scores]showed similar pattern in damaged recognition ability,while this ability still existed in the other three stroke groups.The ability of auditory verbal learning in the left thalamic stroke group[(2.2 ± 2.0)scores]and right thalamic stroke group[(2.1 ± 1.9)scores]were lower than in

  4. Evaluation of Multi-sensory Feedback on the Usability of a Virtual Assembly Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Virtual assembly environment (VAE technology has the great potential for benefiting the manufacturing applications in industry. Usability is an important aspect of the VAE. This paper presents the usability evaluation of a developed multi-sensory VAE. The evaluation is conducted by using its three attributes: (a efficiency of use; (b user satisfaction; and (c reliability. These are addressed by using task completion times (TCTs, questionnaires, and human performance error rates (HPERs, respectively. A peg-in-a-hole and a Sener electronic box assembly task have been used to perform the experiments, using sixteen participants. The outcomes showed that the introduction of 3D auditory and/or visual feedback could improve the usability. They also indicated that the integrated feedback (visual plus auditory offered better usability than either feedback used in isolation. Most participants preferred the integrated feedback to either feedback (visual or auditory or no feedback. The participants’ comments demonstrated that nonrealistic or inappropriate feedback had negative effects on the usability, and easily made them feel frustrated. The possible reasons behind the outcomes are also analysed.

  5. Association between language development and auditory processing disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Nunes Rocha-Muniz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: It is crucial to understand the complex processing of acoustic stimuli along the auditory pathway ;comprehension of this complex processing can facilitate our understanding of the processes that underlie normal and altered human communication. AIM: To investigate the performance and lateralization effects on auditory processing assessment in children with specific language impairment (SLI, relating these findings to those obtained in children with auditory processing disorder (APD and typical development (TD. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective study. Seventy-five children, aged 6-12 years, were separated in three groups: 25 children with SLI, 25 children with APD, and 25 children with TD. All went through the following tests: speech-in-noise test, Dichotic Digit test and Pitch Pattern Sequencing test. RESULTS: The effects of lateralization were observed only in the SLI group, with the left ear presenting much lower scores than those presented to the right ear. The inter-group analysis has shown that in all tests children from APD and SLI groups had significantly poorer performance compared to TD group. Moreover, SLI group presented worse results than APD group. CONCLUSION: This study has shown, in children with SLI, an inefficient processing of essential sound components and an effect of lateralization. These findings may indicate that neural processes (required for auditory processing are different between auditory processing and speech disorders.

  6. Auditory rhythmic cueing in movement rehabilitation: findings and possible mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Rebecca S.

    2014-01-01

    Moving to music is intuitive and spontaneous, and music is widely used to support movement, most commonly during exercise. Auditory cues are increasingly also used in the rehabilitation of disordered movement, by aligning actions to sounds such as a metronome or music. Here, the effect of rhythmic auditory cueing on movement is discussed and representative findings of cued movement rehabilitation are considered for several movement disorders, specifically post-stroke motor impairment, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. There are multiple explanations for the efficacy of cued movement practice. Potentially relevant, non-mutually exclusive mechanisms include the acceleration of learning; qualitatively different motor learning owing to an auditory context; effects of increased temporal skills through rhythmic practices and motivational aspects of musical rhythm. Further considerations of rehabilitation paradigm efficacy focus on specific movement disorders, intervention methods and complexity of the auditory cues. Although clinical interventions using rhythmic auditory cueing do not show consistently positive results, it is argued that internal mechanisms of temporal prediction and tracking are crucial, and further research may inform rehabilitation practice to increase intervention efficacy. PMID:25385780

  7. The auditory attention status in Iranian bilingual and monolingual people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayiere Mansoori

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Bilingualism, as one of the discussing issues of psychology and linguistics, can influence the speech processing. Of several tests for assessing auditory processing, dichotic digit test has been designed to study divided auditory attention. Our study was performed to compare the auditory attention between Iranian bilingual and monolingual young adults. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 60 students including 30 Turkish-Persian bilinguals and 30 Persian monolinguals aged between 18 to 30 years in both genders. Dichotic digit test was performed on young individuals with normal peripheral hearing and right hand preference. Results: No significant correlation was found between the results of dichotic digit test of monolinguals and bilinguals (p=0.195, and also between the results of right and left ears in monolingual (p=0.460 and bilingual (p=0.054 groups. The mean score of women was significantly more than men (p=0.031. Conclusion: There was no significant difference between bilinguals and monolinguals in divided auditory attention; and it seems that acquisition of second language in lower ages has no noticeable effect on this type of auditory attention.

  8. Stability and plasticity of auditory brainstem function across the lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoe, Erika; Krizman, Jennifer; Anderson, Samira; Kraus, Nina

    2015-06-01

    The human auditory brainstem is thought to undergo rapid developmental changes early in life until age ∼2 followed by prolonged stability until aging-related changes emerge. However, earlier work on brainstem development was limited by sparse sampling across the lifespan and/or averaging across children and adults. Using a larger dataset than past investigations, we aimed to trace more subtle variations in auditory brainstem function that occur normally from infancy into the eighth decade of life. To do so, we recorded auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) to a click stimulus and a speech syllable (da) in 586 normal-hearing healthy individuals. Although each set of ABR measures (latency, frequency encoding, response consistency, nonstimulus activity) has a distinct developmental profile, across all measures developmental changes were found to continue well past age 2. In addition to an elongated developmental trajectory and evidence for multiple auditory developmental processes, we revealed a period of overshoot during childhood (5-11 years old) for latency and amplitude measures, when the latencies are earlier and the amplitudes are greater than the adult value. Our data also provide insight into the capacity for experience-dependent auditory plasticity at different stages in life and underscore the importance of using age-specific norms in clinical and experimental applications. PMID:24366906

  9. Effect of background music on auditory-verbal memory performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sona Matloubi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Music exists in all cultures; many scientists are seeking to understand how music effects cognitive development such as comprehension, memory, and reading skills. More recently, a considerable number of neuroscience studies on music have been developed. This study aimed to investigate the effects of null and positive background music in comparison with silence on auditory-verbal memory performance.Methods: Forty young adults (male and female with normal hearing, aged between 18 and 26, participated in this comparative-analysis study. An auditory and speech evaluation was conducted in order to investigate the effects of background music on working memory. Subsequently, the Rey auditory-verbal learning test was performed for three conditions: silence, positive, and null music.Results: The mean score of the Rey auditory-verbal learning test in silence condition was higher than the positive music condition (p=0.003 and the null music condition (p=0.01. The tests results did not reveal any gender differences.Conclusion: It seems that the presence of competitive music (positive and null music and the orientation of auditory attention have negative effects on the performance of verbal working memory. It is possibly owing to the intervention of music with verbal information processing in the brain.

  10. Fault Tolerant Feedback Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, H.

    2001-01-01

    An architecture for fault tolerant feedback controllers based on the Youla parameterization is suggested. It is shown that the Youla parameterization will give a residual vector directly in connection with the fault diagnosis part of the fault tolerant feedback controller. It turns out...... that there is a separation be-tween the feedback controller and the fault tolerant part. The closed loop feedback properties are handled by the nominal feedback controller and the fault tolerant part is handled by the design of the Youla parameter. The design of the fault tolerant part will not affect the design...... of the nominal feedback con-troller....

  11. Auditory presentation and synchronization in Adobe Flash and HTML5/JavaScript Web experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimers, Stian; Stewart, Neil

    2016-09-01

    Substantial recent research has examined the accuracy of presentation durations and response time measurements for visually presented stimuli in Web-based experiments, with a general conclusion that accuracy is acceptable for most kinds of experiments. However, many areas of behavioral research use auditory stimuli instead of, or in addition to, visual stimuli. Much less is known about auditory accuracy using standard Web-based testing procedures. We used a millisecond-accurate Black Box Toolkit to measure the actual durations of auditory stimuli and the synchronization of auditory and visual presentation onsets. We examined the distribution of timings for 100 presentations of auditory and visual stimuli across two computers with difference specs, three commonly used browsers, and code written in either Adobe Flash or JavaScript. We also examined different coding options for attempting to synchronize the auditory and visual onsets. Overall, we found that auditory durations were very consistent, but that the lags between visual and auditory onsets varied substantially across browsers and computer systems.

  12. Auditory presentation and synchronization in Adobe Flash and HTML5/JavaScript Web experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimers, Stian; Stewart, Neil

    2016-09-01

    Substantial recent research has examined the accuracy of presentation durations and response time measurements for visually presented stimuli in Web-based experiments, with a general conclusion that accuracy is acceptable for most kinds of experiments. However, many areas of behavioral research use auditory stimuli instead of, or in addition to, visual stimuli. Much less is known about auditory accuracy using standard Web-based testing procedures. We used a millisecond-accurate Black Box Toolkit to measure the actual durations of auditory stimuli and the synchronization of auditory and visual presentation onsets. We examined the distribution of timings for 100 presentations of auditory and visual stimuli across two computers with difference specs, three commonly used browsers, and code written in either Adobe Flash or JavaScript. We also examined different coding options for attempting to synchronize the auditory and visual onsets. Overall, we found that auditory durations were very consistent, but that the lags between visual and auditory onsets varied substantially across browsers and computer systems. PMID:27421976

  13. Effects of Background Music on Objective and Subjective Performance Measures in an Auditory BCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sijie; Allison, Brendan Z.; Kübler, Andrea; Cichocki, Andrzej; Wang, Xingyu; Jin, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have explored brain computer interface (BCI) systems based on auditory stimuli, which could help patients with visual impairments. Usability and user satisfaction are important considerations in any BCI. Although background music can influence emotion and performance in other task environments, and many users may wish to listen to music while using a BCI, auditory, and other BCIs are typically studied without background music. Some work has explored the possibility of using polyphonic music in auditory BCI systems. However, this approach requires users with good musical skills, and has not been explored in online experiments. Our hypothesis was that an auditory BCI with background music would be preferred by subjects over a similar BCI without background music, without any difference in BCI performance. We introduce a simple paradigm (which does not require musical skill) using percussion instrument sound stimuli and background music, and evaluated it in both offline and online experiments. The result showed that subjects preferred the auditory BCI with background music. Different performance measures did not reveal any significant performance effect when comparing background music vs. no background. Since the addition of background music does not impair BCI performance but is preferred by users, auditory (and perhaps other) BCIs should consider including it. Our study also indicates that auditory BCIs can be effective even if the auditory channel is simultaneously otherwise engaged. PMID:27790111

  14. The auditory and non-auditory brain areas involved in tinnitus. An emergent property of multiple parallel overlapping subnetworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanneste, Sven; De Ridder, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Tinnitus is the perception of a sound in the absence of an external sound source. It is characterized by sensory components such as the perceived loudness, the lateralization, the tinnitus type (pure tone, noise-like) and associated emotional components, such as distress and mood changes. Source localization of quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) data demonstrate the involvement of auditory brain areas as well as several non-auditory brain areas such as the anterior cingulate cortex (dorsal and subgenual), auditory cortex (primary and secondary), dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex, insula, supplementary motor area, orbitofrontal cortex (including the inferior frontal gyrus), parahippocampus, posterior cingulate cortex and the precuneus, in different aspects of tinnitus. Explaining these non-auditory brain areas as constituents of separable subnetworks, each reflecting a specific aspect of the tinnitus percept increases the explanatory power of the non-auditory brain areas involvement in tinnitus. Thus, the unified percept of tinnitus can be considered an emergent property of multiple parallel dynamically changing and partially overlapping subnetworks, each with a specific spontaneous oscillatory pattern and functional connectivity signature. PMID:22586375

  15. Robust speech features representation based on computational auditory model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xugang; JIA Chuan; DANG Jianwu

    2004-01-01

    A speech signal processing and features extracting method based on computational auditory model is proposed. The computational model is based on psychological, physiological knowledge and digital signal processing methods. In each stage of a hearing perception system, there is a corresponding computational model to simulate its function. Based on this model, speech features are extracted. In each stage, the features in different kinds of level are extracted. A further processing for primary auditory spectrum based on lateral inhibition is proposed to extract much more robust speech features. All these features can be regarded as the internal representations of speech stimulation in hearing system. The robust speech recognition experiments are conducted to test the robustness of the features. Results show that the representations based on the proposed computational auditory model are robust representations for speech signals.

  16. Parameter estimation of feedback gain in a stochastic model of renal hemodynamics: differences between spontaneously hypertensive and Sprague-Dawley rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Susanne; Yip, Kay-Pong; Marsh, Donald J;

    2006-01-01

    feedback (TGF), they could also arise from other mechanisms, such as intrinsic instabilities in preglomerular vessels or inputs from neighboring, coupled nephrons. To test this possibility, we applied a parameter estimation procedure to a model of TGF, where a stochastic process was added to represent...... oscillations and chaos to high-dimensional random fluctuations. To fit the data from normotensive rats, the model must introduce only a small variation in the feedback gain, and its estimates of that gain agree well with experimental values. These results support the use of the deterministic model of nephron...... dynamics in normotensive rats. In contrast, the irregular tubular pressure fluctuations in SHR were best described by a model dominated by random parameter fluctuations. The results point to the failure of simple mathematical models of nephron dynamics adequately to describe processes that are important...

  17. Effect of neonatal asphyxia on the impairment of the auditory pathway by recording auditory brainstem responses in newborn piglets: a new experimentation model to study the perinatal hypoxic-ischemic damage on the auditory system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Jose Alvarez

    Full Text Available Hypoxia-ischemia (HI is a major perinatal problem that results in severe damage to the brain impairing the normal development of the auditory system. The purpose of the present study is to study the effect of perinatal asphyxia on the auditory pathway by recording auditory brain responses in a novel animal experimentation model in newborn piglets.Hypoxia-ischemia was induced to 1.3 day-old piglets by clamping 30 minutes both carotid arteries by vascular occluders and lowering the fraction of inspired oxygen. We compared the Auditory Brain Responses (ABRs of newborn piglets exposed to acute hypoxia/ischemia (n = 6 and a control group with no such exposure (n = 10. ABRs were recorded for both ears before the start of the experiment (baseline, after 30 minutes of HI injury, and every 30 minutes during 6 h after the HI injury.Auditory brain responses were altered during the hypoxic-ischemic insult but recovered 30-60 minutes later. Hypoxia/ischemia seemed to induce auditory functional damage by increasing I-V latencies and decreasing wave I, III and V amplitudes, although differences were not significant.The described experimental model of hypoxia-ischemia in newborn piglets may be useful for studying the effect of perinatal asphyxia on the impairment of the auditory pathway.

  18. Auditory streaming of tones of uncertain frequency, level, and duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, An-Chieh; Lutfi, Robert A; Lee, Jungmee

    2015-12-01

    Stimulus uncertainty is known to critically affect auditory masking, but its influence on auditory streaming has been largely ignored. Standard ABA-ABA tone sequences were made increasingly uncertain by increasing the sigma of normal distributions from which the frequency, level, or duration of tones were randomly drawn. Consistent with predictions based on a model of masking by Lutfi, Gilbertson, Chang, and Stamas [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 134, 2160-2170 (2013)], the frequency difference for which A and B tones formed separate streams increased as a linear function of sigma in tone frequency but was much less affected by sigma in tone level or duration.

  19. Feedback delay gradually affects amplitude and valence specificity of the feedback-related negativity (FRN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterburs, Jutta; Kobza, Stefan; Bellebaum, Christian

    2016-02-01

    Processing of performance-related feedback is an essential prerequisite for adaptive behavior. Even though in everyday life feedback is rarely immediate, to date very few studies have investigated whether the feedback-related negativity (FRN), a relative negativity in the ERP approximately 200 to 300 ms after feedback that is sensitive to feedback valence and predictability, is modulated by feedback timing, and findings are inconsistent. The present study investigated effects of gradually increasing feedback delays on feedback processing in the FRN time window. Subjects completed a probabilistic learning task in which feedback was provided after short, intermediate, or long delays. Difference wave-based analyses showed that amplitudes decreased linearly with increasing feedback delay. A distinct pattern was observed for the FRN as defined in the original waveforms, with FRN amplitudes being largest for long and smallest for short delays. This pattern of results is consistent with the notion that the neural systems underlying feedback processing vary depending on feedback timing. The gradually reduced difference wave signal might reflect a gradual shift away from processing in frontostriatal circuits toward medial temporal involvement. To what extent increased signal amplitudes for longer delays in the original waveforms are related to processing in certain brain structures will need to be determined in future studies. PMID:26459164

  20. Feedback on floods in Var, south of France, 15th June 2010 : different societal impacts and responses linked to levels of prevention, organization and information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, K.; Roumagnac, A.

    2010-09-01

    Observing the last dramatical floods in Var in south of France on 15th June 2010, very differents responses and impacts can be identified. 23 death, people missing, more than 50 communities impacted, 700 Millions Euros of damages were to declare after the event. Most of human loss, 12 people, were to deplore in Draguignan in Var were 270 mm of rainfall were registered in the city center. This tragedy reminds all the necessity of prevention, organization and communication. In term of flood disaster, the fact is that physical protection is necessary but inevitably limited. To manage these kinds of crisis, local authorities need to be able to base their policy against flood on prevention, warnings, post-crisis analysis and feedback from former experience. While many damages were observed in Draguignan, the event was different in Hyères, Sainte-Maxime, Cogolin, Grimaud or Toulon who behaved to face it by minimizing the effects, and economic impacts of the flood. The fact is that they had prepared their organization to face flood crisis, they had informed the population of what had to be done, they had given security advices, they had reacted from the vigilance information and kept on being informed during the event to adapt their plans and actions: opening security centers, closing roads before they get flooded, evacuating when necessary. The most relevant example is in Sainte-Maxime where 260 mm of rainfall were registered in the city center, a volume close to the 270 mm registered in Draguignan during the same event. In Sainte-Maxime, no human loss was to deplore, the community was informed, had the information of rainfall intensity and rainfall effects in anticipation and could inform the citizen with the help of the police circulating and communicating in the streets. Getting informed the citizen could elevate and protect their property, evacuate their cars on the hights of the community, and secure themselves and family. Comparing this event with what happened in

  1. ON FEEDBACK CONTROL OF DELAYED CHAOTIC SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽香; 彭海朋; 卢辉斌; 关新平

    2001-01-01

    In this paper two different types of feedback control technique are discussed: the standard feedback control and the time-delay feedback control which have been successfully used in many control systems. In order to understand to what extent the two different types of control technique are useful in delayed chaotic systems, some analytic stabilization conditions for chaos control from the two types of control technique are derived based on Lyapunov stabilization arguments. Similarly, we discuss the tracking problem by applying the time-delay feedback control. Finally, numerical examples are provided.

  2. Cortical oscillations in auditory perception and speech: evidence for two temporal windows in human auditory cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan eLuo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural sounds, including vocal communication sounds, contain critical information at multiple time scales. Two essential temporal modulation rates in speech have been argued to be in the low gamma band (~20-80 ms duration information and the theta band (~150-300 ms, corresponding to segmental and syllabic modulation rates, respectively. On one hypothesis, auditory cortex implements temporal integration using time constants closely related to these values. The neural correlates of a proposed dual temporal window mechanism in human auditory cortex remain poorly understood. We recorded MEG responses from participants listening to non-speech auditory stimuli with different temporal structures, created by concatenating frequency-modulated segments of varied segment durations. We show that these non-speech stimuli with temporal structure matching speech-relevant scales (~25 ms and ~200 ms elicit reliable phase tracking in the corresponding associated oscillatory frequencies (low gamma and theta bands. In contrast, stimuli with non-matching temporal structure do not. Furthermore, the topography of theta band phase tracking shows rightward lateralization while gamma band phase tracking occurs bilaterally. The results support the hypothesis that there exists multi-time resolution processing in cortex on discontinuous scales and provide evidence for an asymmetric organization of temporal analysis (asymmetrical sampling in time, AST. The data argue for a macroscopic-level neural mechanism underlying multi-time resolution processing: the sliding and resetting of intrinsic temporal windows on privileged time scales.

  3. Quantum Feedback Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen, Garry

    2002-01-01

    In Shannon information theory the capacity of a memoryless communication channel cannot be increased by the use of feedback. In quantum information theory the no-cloning theorem means that noiseless copying and feedback of quantum information cannot be achieved. In this paper, quantum feedback is defined as the unlimited use of a noiseless quantum channel from receiver to sender. Given such quantum feedback, it is shown to provide no increase in the entanglement--assisted capacities of a memo...

  4. Rateless feedback codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Koike-Akino, Toshiaki; Orlik, Philip

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a concept called rateless feedback coding. We redesign the existing LT and Raptor codes, by introducing new degree distributions for the case when a few feedback opportunities are available. We show that incorporating feedback to LT codes can significantly decrease both...... the coding overhead and the encoding/decoding complexity. Moreover, we show that, at the price of a slight increase in the coding overhead, linear complexity is achieved with Raptor feedback coding....

  5. Developing sustainable feedback practices

    OpenAIRE

    Carless, D; Salter, D; Yang, M; Lam, J

    2011-01-01

    Feedback is central to the development of student learning, but within the constraints of modularized learning in higher education it is increasingly difficult to handle effectively. This article makes a case for sustainable feedback as a contribution to the reconceptualization of feedback processes. The data derive from the Student Assessment and Feedback Enhancement project, involving in depth semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of award-winning teachers. The findings focus o...

  6. Event-related potentials in response to 3-D auditory stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchigami, Tatsuo; Okubo, Osami; Fujita, Yukihiko; Kohira, Ryutaro; Arakawa, Chikako; Endo, Ayumi; Haruyama, Wakako; Imai, Yuki; Mugishima, Hideo

    2009-09-01

    To evaluate auditory spatial cognitive function, age correlations for event-related potentials (ERPs) in response to auditory stimuli with a Doppler effect were studied in normal children. A sound with a Doppler effect is perceived as a moving audio image. A total of 99 normal subjects (age range, 4-21 years) were tested. In the task-relevant oddball paradigm, P300 and key-press reaction time were elicited using auditory stimuli (1000 Hz fixed and enlarged tones with a Doppler effect). From the age of 4 years, the P300 latency for the enlarged tone with a Doppler effect shortened more rapidly with age than did the P300 latency for tone-pips, and the latencies for the different conditions became similar towards the late teens. The P300 of auditory stimuli with a Doppler effect may be used to evaluate auditory spatial cognitive function in children.

  7. The impact of educational level on performance on auditory processing tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina F.B. Murphy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Research has demonstrated that a higher level of education is associated with better performance on cognitive tests among middle-aged and elderly people. However, the effects of education on auditory processing skills have not yet been evaluated. Previous demonstrations of sensory-cognitive interactions in the aging process indicate the potential importance of this topic. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to investigate the performance of middle-aged and elderly people with different levels of formal education on auditory processing tests. A total of 177 adults with no evidence of cognitive, psychological or neurological conditions took part in the research. The participants completed a series of auditory assessments, including dichotic digit, frequency pattern and speech-in-noise tests. A working memory test was also performed to investigate the extent to which auditory processing and cognitive performance were associated. The results demonstrated positive but weak correlations between years of schooling and performance on all of the tests applied. The factor years of schooling was also one of the best predictors of frequency pattern and speech-in-noise test performance. Additionally, performance on the working memory, frequency pattern and dichotic digit tests was also correlated, suggesting that the influence of educational level on auditory processing performance might be associated with the cognitive demand of the auditory processing tests rather than auditory sensory aspects itself. Longitudinal research is required to investigate the causal relationship between educational level and auditory processing skills.

  8. Effects of multitasking on operator performance using computational and auditory tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasanya, Bankole K

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of multiple cognitive tasks on human performance. Twenty-four students at North Carolina A&T State University participated in the study. The primary task was auditory signal change perception and the secondary task was a computational task. Results showed that participants' performance in a single task was statistically significantly different from their performance in combined tasks: (a) algebra problems (algebra problem primary and auditory perception secondary); (b) auditory perception tasks (auditory perception primary and algebra problems secondary); and (c) mean false-alarm score in auditory perception (auditory detection primary and algebra problems secondary). Using signal detection theory (SDT), participants' performance measured in terms of sensitivity was calculated as -0.54 for combined tasks (algebra problems the primary task) and -0.53 auditory perceptions the primary task. During auditory perception tasks alone, SDT was found to be 2.51. Performance was 83% in a single task compared to 17% when combined tasks. PMID:26886505

  9. Pulsed feedback defers cellular differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe H Levine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental signals induce diverse cellular differentiation programs. In certain systems, cells defer differentiation for extended time periods after the signal appears, proliferating through multiple rounds of cell division before committing to a new fate. How can cells set a deferral time much longer than the cell cycle? Here we study Bacillus subtilis cells that respond to sudden nutrient limitation with multiple rounds of growth and division before differentiating into spores. A well-characterized genetic circuit controls the concentration and phosphorylation of the master regulator Spo0A, which rises to a critical concentration to initiate sporulation. However, it remains unclear how this circuit enables cells to defer sporulation for multiple cell cycles. Using quantitative time-lapse fluorescence microscopy of Spo0A dynamics in individual cells, we observed pulses of Spo0A phosphorylation at a characteristic cell cycle phase. Pulse amplitudes grew systematically and cell-autonomously over multiple cell cycles leading up to sporulation. This pulse growth required a key positive feedback loop involving the sporulation kinases, without which the deferral of sporulation became ultrasensitive to kinase expression. Thus, deferral is controlled by a pulsed positive feedback loop in which kinase expression is activated by pulses of Spo0A phosphorylation. This pulsed positive feedback architecture provides a more robust mechanism for setting deferral times than constitutive kinase expression. Finally, using mathematical modeling, we show how pulsing and time delays together enable "polyphasic" positive feedback, in which different parts of a feedback loop are active at different times. Polyphasic feedback can enable more accurate tuning of long deferral times. Together, these results suggest that Bacillus subtilis uses a pulsed positive feedback loop to implement a "timer" that operates over timescales much longer than a cell cycle.

  10. Preventing Feedback Fizzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    Feedback is certainly about saying or writing helpful, learning-focused comments. But that is only part of it. What happens beforehand? What happens afterward? Feedback that is helpful and learning-focused fits into a context. Before a teacher gives feedback, students need to know the learning target so they have a purpose for using the feedback…

  11. Developing Sustainable Feedback Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carless, David; Salter, Diane; Yang, Min; Lam, Joy

    2011-01-01

    Feedback is central to the development of student learning, but within the constraints of modularized learning in higher education it is increasingly difficult to handle effectively. This article makes a case for sustainable feedback as a contribution to the reconceptualization of feedback processes. The data derive from the Student Assessment and…

  12. Data-Driven User Feedback: An Improved Neurofeedback Strategy considering the Interindividual Variability of EEG Features

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Chang-Hee; Lim, Jeong-Hwan; Lee, Jun-Hak; Kim, Kangsan; Im, Chang-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    It has frequently been reported that some users of conventional neurofeedback systems can experience only a small portion of the total feedback range due to the large interindividual variability of EEG features. In this study, we proposed a data-driven neurofeedback strategy considering the individual variability of electroencephalography (EEG) features to permit users of the neurofeedback system to experience a wider range of auditory or visual feedback without a customization process. The m...

  13. The Auditory Verbal Learning Test (Rey AVLT): An Arabic Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharoni, Varda; Natur, Nazeh

    2014-01-01

    The goals of this study were to adapt the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) into Arabic, to compare recall functioning among age groups (6:0 to 17:11), and to compare gender differences on various memory dimensions (immediate and delayed recall, learning rate, recognition, proactive interferences, and retroactive interferences). This…

  14. Neural Representation of Concurrent Vowels in Macaque Primary Auditory Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Yonatan I; Micheyl, Christophe; Steinschneider, Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    Successful speech perception in real-world environments requires that the auditory system segregate competing voices that overlap in frequency and time into separate streams. Vowels are major constituents of speech and are comprised of frequencies (harmonics) that are integer multiples of a common fundamental frequency (F0). The pitch and identity of a vowel are determined by its F0 and spectral envelope (formant structure), respectively. When two spectrally overlapping vowels differing in F0 are presented concurrently, they can be readily perceived as two separate "auditory objects" with pitches at their respective F0s. A difference in pitch between two simultaneous vowels provides a powerful cue for their segregation, which in turn, facilitates their individual identification. The neural mechanisms underlying the segregation of concurrent vowels based on pitch differences are poorly understood. Here, we examine neural population responses in macaque primary auditory cortex (A1) to single and double concurrent vowels (/a/ and /i/) that differ in F0 such that they are heard as two separate auditory objects with distinct pitches. We find that neural population responses in A1 can resolve, via a rate-place code, lower harmonics of both single and double concurrent vowels. Furthermore, we show that the formant structures, and hence the identities, of single vowels can be reliably recovered from the neural representation of double concurrent vowels. We conclude that A1 contains sufficient spectral information to enable concurrent vowel segregation and identification by downstream cortical areas.

  15. Applications of Feedback Control in Quantum Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, Kurt

    2006-01-01

    We give an introduction to feedback control in quantum systems, as well as an overview of the variety of applications which have been explored to date. This introductory review is aimed primarily at control theorists unfamiliar with quantum mechanics, but should also be useful to quantum physicists interested in applications of feedback control. We explain how feedback in quantum systems differs from that in traditional classical systems, and how in certain cases the results from modern optim...

  16. An analysis of auditory alphabet confusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, M E

    1989-04-01

    The present study, using the nonhierarchical overlapping clustering algorithm MAPCLUS to fit the Shepard-Arabie (1979) ADCLUS model, attempted to derive a set of features that would accurately describe the auditory alphabet confusions present in the data matrices of Conrad (1964) and Hull (1973). Separate nine-cluster solutions accounted for 80% and 89% of the variance in the matrices, respectively. The clusters revealed that the most frequently confused letter names contained common vowels and phonetically similar consonants. Further analyses using INDCLUS, an individual differences extension of the MAPCLUS algorithm and ADCLUS model, indicated that while the patterns of errors in the two matrices were remarkably similar, some differences were also apparent. These differences reflected the differing amounts of background noise present in the two studies. PMID:2710632

  17. A Framework for Teacher Verbal Feedback: Lessons from Chinese Mathematics Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Cao, Yiming; Mok, Ida Ah Chee

    2016-01-01

    Teacher verbal feedback plays an important role in classroom teaching. Different types of feedback can have different effect on students' learning. Praise and blame feedback could provide positive and negative results for learners. The gap was left in considering teachers' attitudes in providing verbal feedback to students. Due to feedback which…

  18. Behavioral semantics of learning and crossmodal processing in auditory cortex: the semantic processor concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheich, Henning; Brechmann, André; Brosch, Michael; Budinger, Eike; Ohl, Frank W; Selezneva, Elena; Stark, Holger; Tischmeyer, Wolfgang; Wetzel, Wolfram

    2011-01-01

    Two phenomena of auditory cortex activity have recently attracted attention, namely that the primary field can show different types of learning-related changes of sound representation and that during learning even this early auditory cortex is under strong multimodal influence. Based on neuronal recordings in animal auditory cortex during instrumental tasks, in this review we put forward the hypothesis that these two phenomena serve to derive the task-specific meaning of sounds by associative learning. To understand the implications of this tenet, it is helpful to realize how a behavioral meaning is usually derived for novel environmental sounds. For this purpose, associations with other sensory, e.g. visual, information are mandatory to develop a connection between a sound and its behaviorally relevant cause and/or the context of sound occurrence. This makes it plausible that in instrumental tasks various non-auditory sensory and procedural contingencies of sound generation become co-represented by neuronal firing in auditory cortex. Information related to reward or to avoidance of discomfort during task learning, that is essentially non-auditory, is also co-represented. The reinforcement influence points to the dopaminergic internal reward system, the local role of which for memory consolidation in auditory cortex is well-established. Thus, during a trial of task performance, the neuronal responses to the sounds are embedded in a sequence of representations of such non-auditory information. The embedded auditory responses show task-related modulations of auditory responses falling into types that correspond to three basic logical classifications that may be performed with a perceptual item, i.e. from simple detection to discrimination, and categorization. This hierarchy of classifications determine the semantic "same-different" relationships among sounds. Different cognitive classifications appear to be a consequence of learning task and lead to a recruitment of

  19. Present and past: Can writing abilities in school children be associated with their auditory discrimination capacities in infancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaadt, Gesa; Männel, Claudia; van der Meer, Elke; Pannekamp, Ann; Oberecker, Regine; Friederici, Angela D

    2015-12-01

    Literacy acquisition is highly associated with auditory processing abilities, such as auditory discrimination. The event-related potential Mismatch Response (MMR) is an indicator for cortical auditory discrimination abilities and it has been found to be reduced in individuals with reading and writing impairments and also in infants at risk for these impairments. The goal of the present study was to analyze the relationship between auditory speech discrimination in infancy and writing abilities at school age within subjects, and to determine when auditory speech discrimination differences, relevant for later writing abilities, start to develop. We analyzed the MMR registered in response to natural syllables in German children with and without writing problems at two points during development, that is, at school age and at infancy, namely at age 1 month and 5 months. We observed MMR related auditory discrimination differences between infants with and without later writing problems, starting to develop at age 5 months-an age when infants begin to establish language-specific phoneme representations. At school age, these children with and without writing problems also showed auditory discrimination differences, reflected in the MMR, confirming a relationship between writing and auditory speech processing skills. Thus, writing problems at school age are, at least, partly grounded in auditory discrimination problems developing already during the first months of life.

  20. Psychophysical Estimates of Frequency Discrimination: More than Just Limitations of Auditory Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Beate Sabisch; Benjamin Weiss; Barry, Johanna G.

    2013-01-01

    Efficient auditory processing is hypothesized to support language and literacy development. However, behavioral tasks used to assess this hypothesis need to be robust to non-auditory specific individual differences. This study compared frequency discrimination abilities in a heterogeneous sample of adults using two different psychoacoustic task designs, referred to here as: 2I_6A_X and 3I_2AFC designs. The role of individual differences in nonverbal IQ (NVIQ), socioeconomic status (SES) and m...

  1. Effectiveness of Corrective Feedback on Writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高砚

    2012-01-01

      This study aims to find out the effectiveness of corrective feedback on ESL writing. By reviewing and analyzing the previous six research studies, the author tries to reveal the most effective way to provide corrective feedback for L2 students and the factors that impact the processing of error feedback. Findings indicated that corrective feedback is helpful for students to improve ESL writing on both accuracy and fluency. Furthermore, correction and direct corrective feedbacks as well as the oral and written meta-linguistic explanation are the most effective ways to help students improving their writing. However, in⁃dividual learner’s difference has influence on processing corrective feedback. At last, limitation of present study and suggestion for future research were made.

  2. Auditory complaints in scuba divers: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evens, Rachel A; Bardsley, Barry; C Manchaiah, Vinaya K

    2012-03-01

    Pre-1970s, diving was seen as a predominantly male working occupation. Since then it has become a popular hobby, with increasing access to SCUBA diving while on holiday. For a leisure activity, diving puts the auditory system at the risk of a wide variety of complaints. However, there is still insufficient consensus on the frequency of these conditions, which ultimately would require more attention from hearing-healthcare professionals. A literature search of epidemiology studies of eight auditory complaints was conducted, using both individual and large-scale diving studies, with some reference to large-scale non-diving populations . A higher incidence was found for middle ear barotrauma, eustachian tube dysfunction, and alternobaric vertigo with a high correlation among females. Comparing these findings with a non-diving population found no statistically significant difference for hearing loss or tinnitus. Increased awareness of health professionals is required, training, and implementation of the Frenzel technique would help resolve the ambiguities of the Valsalva technique underwater. PMID:23448900

  3. Selective attention in an insect auditory neuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, G S

    1988-07-01

    Previous work (Pollack, 1986) showed that an identified auditory neuron of crickets, the omega neuron, selectively encodes the temporal structure of an ipsilateral sound stimulus when a contralateral stimulus is presented simultaneously, even though the contralateral stimulus is clearly encoded when it is presented alone. The present paper investigates the physiological basis for this selective response. The selectivity for the ipsilateral stimulus is a result of the apparent intensity difference of ipsi- and contralateral stimuli, which is imposed by auditory directionality; when simultaneous presentation of stimuli from the 2 sides is mimicked by presenting low- and high-intensity stimuli simultaneously from the ipsilateral side, the neuron responds selectively to the high-intensity stimulus, even though the low-intensity stimulus is effective when it is presented alone. The selective encoding of the more intense (= ipsilateral) stimulus is due to intensity-dependent inhibition, which is superimposed on the cell's excitatory response to sound. Because of the inhibition, the stimulus with lower intensity (i.e., the contralateral stimulus) is rendered subthreshold, while the stimulus with higher intensity (the ipsilateral stimulus) remains above threshold. Consequently, the temporal structure of the low-intensity stimulus is filtered out of the neuron's spike train. The source of the inhibition is not known. It is not a consequence of activation of the omega neuron. Its characteristics are not consistent with those of known inhibitory inputs to the omega neuron.

  4. Psychophysiological responses to auditory change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuen, Lorraine; Sears, David; McAdams, Stephen

    2016-06-01

    A comprehensive characterization of autonomic and somatic responding within the auditory domain is currently lacking. We studied whether simple types of auditory change that occur frequently during music listening could elicit measurable changes in heart rate, skin conductance, respiration rate, and facial motor activity. Participants heard a rhythmically isochronous sequence consisting of a repeated standard tone, followed by a repeated target tone that changed in pitch, timbre, duration, intensity, or tempo, or that deviated momentarily from rhythmic isochrony. Changes in all parameters produced increases in heart rate. Skin conductance response magnitude was affected by changes in timbre, intensity, and tempo. Respiratory rate was sensitive to deviations from isochrony. Our findings suggest that music researchers interpreting physiological responses as emotional indices should consider acoustic factors that may influence physiology in the absence of induced emotions. PMID:26927928

  5. Reality of auditory verbal hallucinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkonen-Korhonen, Minna; Holi, Matti; Therman, Sebastian; Lehtonen, Johannes; Hari, Riitta

    2009-01-01

    Distortion of the sense of reality, actualized in delusions and hallucinations, is the key feature of psychosis but the underlying neuronal correlates remain largely unknown. We studied 11 highly functioning subjects with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder while they rated the reality of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The subjective reality of AVH correlated strongly and specifically with the hallucination-related activation strength of the inferior frontal gyri (IFG), including the Broca's language region. Furthermore, how real the hallucination that subjects experienced was depended on the hallucination-related coupling between the IFG, the ventral striatum, the auditory cortex, the right posterior temporal lobe, and the cingulate cortex. Our findings suggest that the subjective reality of AVH is related to motor mechanisms of speech comprehension, with contributions from sensory and salience-detection-related brain regions as well as circuitries related to self-monitoring and the experience of agency. PMID:19620178

  6. Potenciales evocados auditivos del tallo cerebral en monos rhesus (Macaca mulatta en diferentes etapas fisiológicas en condiciones de cautiverio Brainstem's auditory evoked potentials in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta in different physiologic stages under captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ibáñez-Contreras

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La audición juega un papel importante en el desarrollo de conductas más elaboradas en los organismos a medida en que se asciende en la escala filogenética. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la respuesta de la vía auditiva en la especie Macaca mulatta, en diferentes etapas fisiológicas, a través de los Potenciales Evocados Auditivos del Tallo Cerebral (PEATC. Se utilizaron 30 primates no humanos de la especie Macaca mulatta divididos en dos grupos de 15 machos y 15 hembras. Cada grupo estuvo constituido por 3 machos y 3 hembras: Grupo 1 (0,1-3,1 años; Grupo 2 (3,2-6,1 años; Grupo 3 (6,2-9,1 años; Grupo 4 (9,2-12,1 años y Grupo 5 (12,2-27,1 años. Los PEATC se obtuvieron mediante la estimulación de los oídos con “clicks” de rarefacción a 50 dB de intensidad. La actividad eléctrica cerebral fue recogida por medio de electrodos de disco, colocados en las derivaciones Cz (+, A1, A2 (- y Fz como tierra, según el sistema 10/20 internacional. Se observaron cuatro ondas; debido a que no se encontraron diferencias significativas en t de student por aferencias separadas, se realizó ANOVAs con las aferencias unidas. Se observó que los grupos 1 y 5 presentan diferencias significativas en todas las ondas evaluadas, presentando las latencias más alargadas en relación a los demás grupos. Se concluye que a través de los PEATC es posible conocer los cambios que se generan a partir del desarrollo, maduración y envejecimiento de los monos rhesus.In the phylogenetic scale, audition plays a very important role in the development of elaborated behaviors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the auditive response in the Macaca mulatta species at different physiologic stages, through brainstem's auditory evoked potentials (BAEP. 30 non-human primates Macaca mulatta were allotted into two groups of 15 males and 15 females distributed in five age-dependant groups of 2 males and 2 females as follows: Group 1 (0,1-3,1 year old; Group 2 (3

  7. Modulation of auditory cortex response to pitch variation following training with microtonal melodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatorre, Robert J; Delhommeau, Karine; Zarate, Jean Mary

    2012-01-01

    We tested changes in cortical functional response to auditory patterns in a configural learning paradigm. We trained 10 human listeners to discriminate micromelodies (consisting of smaller pitch intervals than normally used in Western music) and measured covariation in blood oxygenation signal to increasing pitch interval size in order to dissociate global changes in activity from those specifically associated with the stimulus feature that was trained. A psychophysical staircase procedure with feedback was used for training over a 2-week period. Behavioral tests of discrimination ability performed before and after training showed significant learning on the trained stimuli, and generalization to other frequencies and tasks; no learning occurred in an untrained control group. Before training the functional MRI data showed the expected systematic increase in activity in auditory cortices as a function of increasing micromelody pitch interval size. This function became shallower after training, with the maximal change observed in the right posterior auditory cortex. Global decreases in activity in auditory regions, along with global increases in frontal cortices also occurred after training. Individual variation in learning rate was related to the hemodynamic slope to pitch interval size, such that those who had a higher sensitivity to pitch interval variation prior to learning achieved the fastest learning. We conclude that configural auditory learning entails modulation in the response of auditory cortex to the trained stimulus feature. Reduction in blood oxygenation response to increasing pitch interval size suggests that fewer computational resources, and hence lower neural recruitment, is associated with learning, in accord with models of auditory cortex function, and with data from other modalities. PMID:23227019

  8. Modulation of auditory cortex response to pitch variation following training with microtonal melodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Zatorre

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We tested changes in cortical functional response to auditory configural learning by training ten human listeners to discriminate micromelodies (consisting of smaller pitch intervals than normally used in Western music. We measured covariation in blood oxygenation signal to increasing pitch-interval size in order to dissociate global changes in activity from those specifically associated with the stimulus feature of interest. A psychophysical staircase procedure with feedback was used for training over a two-week period. Behavioral tests of discrimination ability performed before and after training showed significant learning on the trained stimuli, and generalization to other frequencies and tasks; no learning occurred in an untrained control group. Before training the functional MRI data showed the expected systematic increase in activity in auditory cortices as a function of increasing micromelody pitch-interval size. This function became shallower after training, with the maximal change observed in the right posterior auditory cortex. Global decreases in activity in auditory regions, along with global increases in frontal cortices also occurred after training. Individual variation in learning rate was related to the hemodynamic slope to pitch-interval size, such that those who had a higher sensitivity to pitch-interval variation prior to learning achieved the fastest learning. We conclude that configural auditory learning entails modulation in the response of auditory cortex specifically to the trained stimulus feature. Reduction in blood oxygenation response to increasing pitch-interval size suggests that fewer computational resources, and hence lower neural recruitment, is associated with learning, in accord with models of auditory cortex function, and with data from other modalities.

  9. Distraction task rather than focal attention modulates gamma activity associated with auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griskova-Bulanova, Inga; Ruksenas, Osvaldas; Dapsys, Kastytis;

    2011-01-01

    To explore the modulation of auditory steady-state response (ASSR) by experimental tasks, differing in attentional focus and arousal level.......To explore the modulation of auditory steady-state response (ASSR) by experimental tasks, differing in attentional focus and arousal level....

  10. Auditory distraction and serial memory

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, D M; Hughes, Rob; Macken, W.J.

    2010-01-01

    One mental activity that is very vulnerable to auditory distraction is serial recall. This review of the contemporary findings relating to serial recall charts the key determinants of distraction. It is evident that there is one form of distraction that is a joint product of the cognitive characteristics of the task and of the obligatory cognitive processing of the sound. For sequences of sound, distraction appears to be an ineluctable product of similarity-of-process, specifically, the seria...

  11. Reality of auditory verbal hallucinations

    OpenAIRE

    Raij TT; Valkonen-Korhonen M; Holi M; Therman S; Lehtonen J; Hari R

    2009-01-01

    Distortion of the sense of reality, actualized in delusions and hallucinations, is the key feature of psychosis but the underlying neuronal correlates remain largely unknown. We studied 11 highly functioning subjects with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder while they rated the reality of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The subjective reality of AVH correlated strongly and specifically with the hallucination-related activation st...

  12. The Impact of Wireless Technology Feedback on Inventory Management at a Dairy Manufacturing Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goomas, David T.

    2012-01-01

    Replacing the method of counting inventory from paper count sheets to that of wireless reliably reduced the elapsed time to complete a daily inventory of the storage cooler in a dairy manufacturing plant. The handheld computers delivered immediate prompts as well as auditory and visual feedback. Reducing the time to complete the daily inventory…

  13. Male great tit song perch selection in response to noise-dependent female feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halfwerk, Wouter; Bot, Sander; Slabbekoorn, Hans

    2012-01-01

    1. Anthropogenic noise can affect intra-pair communication and therefore interfere with reproductive success. However, many animals have various signal strategies to cope with noise, although it is unclear whether they rely on direct auditory feedback from their own perception of noise or signal-to-

  14. Theoretical feasibility of suppressing offensive sports chants by means of delayed feedback of sound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaarden, S.J. van; Balken, J.A. van

    2007-01-01

    A novel approach for disrupting offensive chants at sporting events is proposed, based on attacking synchronization between individuals. Since timing is crucial for coordination between chanters, disruption of timing is expected to be effective against undesired chants. Delayed auditory feedback is

  15. AGN feedback works both ways

    CERN Document Server

    Zinn, Peter-Christian; Norris, Ray P; Dettmar, Ralf-Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Simulations of galaxy growth need to invoke strong negative feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN) to suppress the formation of stars and thus prevent the over-production of very massive systems. While some observations provide evidence for such negative feedback, other studies find either no feedback, or even positive feedback, with increased star formation associated with higher AGN luminosities. Here we report an analysis of several hundred AGN and their host galaxies in the Chandra Deep Field South using X-ray and radio data for sample selection. Combined with archival far infrared data as a reliable tracer of star formation activity in the AGN host galaxies, we find that AGN with pronounced radio jets exhibit a much higher star formation rate than the purely X-ray selected ones, even at the same X-ray luminosities. This difference implies that positive AGN feedback plays an important role, too, and therefore has to be accounted for in all future simulation work. We interpret this to indicate that the...

  16. Auditory sequence analysis and phonological skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grube, Manon; Kumar, Sukhbinder; Cooper, Freya E; Turton, Stuart; Griffiths, Timothy D

    2012-11-01

    This work tests the relationship between auditory and phonological skill in a non-selected cohort of 238 school students (age 11) with the specific hypothesis that sound-sequence analysis would be more relevant to phonological skill than the analysis of basic, single sounds. Auditory processing was assessed across the domains of pitch, time and timbre; a combination of six standard tests of literacy and language ability was used to assess phonological skill. A significant correlation between general auditory and phonological skill was demonstrated, plus a significant, specific correlation between measures of phonological skill and the auditory analysis of short sequences in pitch and time. The data support a limited but significant link between auditory and phonological ability with a specific role for sound-sequence analysis, and provide a possible new focus for auditory training strategies to aid language development in early adolescence. PMID:22951739

  17. Auditory attention: time of day and type of school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Picolini, Mirela Machado

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The sustained auditory attention is crucial for the development of some communication skills and learning. Objective: To evaluate the effect of time of day and type of school attended by children in their ability to sustained auditory attention. Method: We performed a prospective study of 50 volunteer children of both sexes, aged 7 years, with normal hearing, no learning or behavioral problems and no complaints of attention. These participants underwent Ability Test of Sustained Auditory Attention (SAAAT. The performance was evaluated by total score and the decrease of vigilance. Statistical analysis was used to analysis of variance (ANOVA with significance level of 5% (p<0.05. Results: The result set by the normative test for the age group evaluated showed a statistically significant difference for the errors of inattention (p=0.041, p=0.027 and total error score (p=0.033, p=0.024, in different periods assessment and school types, respectively. Conclusion: Children evaluated in the afternoon and the children studying in public schools had a poorer performance on auditory attention sustained.

  18. Background sounds contribute to spectrotemporal plasticity in primary auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moucha, Raluca; Pandya, Pritesh K; Engineer, Navzer D; Rathbun, Daniel L; Kilgard, Michael P

    2005-05-01

    The mammalian auditory system evolved to extract meaningful information from complex acoustic environments. Spectrotemporal selectivity of auditory neurons provides a potential mechanism to represent natural sounds. Experience-dependent plasticity mechanisms can remodel the spectrotemporal selectivity of neurons in primary auditory cortex (A1). Electrical stimulation of the cholinergic nucleus basalis (NB) enables plasticity in A1 that parallels natural learning and is specific to acoustic features associated with NB activity. In this study, we used NB stimulation to explore how cortical networks reorganize after experience with frequency-modulated (FM) sweeps, and how background stimuli contribute to spectrotemporal plasticity in rat auditory cortex. Pairing an 8-4 kHz FM sweep with NB stimulation 300 times per day for 20 days decreased tone thresholds, frequency selectivity, and response latency of A1 neurons in the region of the tonotopic map activated by the sound. In an attempt to modify neuronal response properties across all of A1 the same NB activation was paired in a second group of rats with five downward FM sweeps, each spanning a different octave. No changes in FM selectivity or receptive field (RF) structure were observed when the neural activation was distributed across the cortical surface. However, the addition of unpaired background sweeps of different rates or direction was sufficient to alter RF characteristics across the tonotopic map in a third group of rats. These results extend earlier observations that cortical neurons can develop stimulus specific plasticity and indicate that background conditions can strongly influence cortical plasticity.

  19. Startle auditory stimuli enhance the performance of fast dynamic contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Del-Olmo, Miguel; Río-Rodríguez, Dan; Iglesias-Soler, Eliseo; Acero, Rafael M

    2014-01-01

    Fast reaction times and the ability to develop a high rate of force development (RFD) are crucial for sports performance. However, little is known regarding the relationship between these parameters. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of auditory stimuli of different intensities on the performance of a concentric bench-press exercise. Concentric bench-presses were performed by thirteen trained subjects in response to three different conditions: a visual stimulus (VS); a visual stimulus accompanied by a non-startle auditory stimulus (AS); and a visual stimulus accompanied by a startle auditory stimulus (SS). Peak RFD, peak velocity, onset movement, movement duration and electromyography from pectoralis and tricep muscles were recorded. The SS condition induced an increase in the RFD and peak velocity and a reduction in the movement onset and duration, in comparison with the VS and AS condition. The onset activation of the pectoralis and tricep muscles was shorter for the SS than for the VS and AS conditions. These findings point out to specific enhancement effects of loud auditory stimulation on the rate of force development. This is of relevance since startle stimuli could be used to explore neural adaptations to resistance training.

  20. Tuned with a Tune: Talker Normalization via General Auditory Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, Erika J C; Liu, Ran; Lotto, Andrew J; Holt, Lori L

    2012-01-01

    Voices have unique acoustic signatures, contributing to the acoustic variability listeners must contend with in perceiving speech, and it has long been proposed that listeners normalize speech perception to information extracted from a talker's speech. Initial attempts to explain talker normalization relied on extraction of articulatory referents, but recent studies of context-dependent auditory perception suggest that general auditory referents such as the long-term average spectrum (LTAS) of a talker's speech similarly affect speech perception. The present study aimed to differentiate the contributions of articulatory/linguistic versus auditory referents for context-driven talker normalization effects and, more specifically, to identify the specific constraints under which such contexts impact speech perception. Synthesized sentences manipulated to sound like different talkers influenced categorization of a subsequent speech target only when differences in the sentences' LTAS were in the frequency range of the acoustic cues relevant for the target phonemic contrast. This effect was true both for speech targets preceded by spoken sentence contexts and for targets preceded by non-speech tone sequences that were LTAS-matched to the spoken sentence contexts. Specific LTAS characteristics, rather than perceived talker, predicted the results suggesting that general auditory mechanisms play an important role in effects considered to be instances of perceptual talker normalization. PMID:22737140

  1. Tuned with a tune: Talker normalization via general auditory processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika J C Laing

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Voices have unique acoustic signatures, contributing to the acoustic variability listeners must contend with in perceiving speech, and it has long been proposed that listeners normalize speech perception to information extracted from a talker’s speech. Initial attempts to explain talker normalization relied on extraction of articulatory referents, but recent studies of context-dependent auditory perception suggest that general auditory referents such as the long-term average spectrum (LTAS of a talker’s speech similarly affect speech perception. The present study aimed to differentiate the contributions of articulatory/linguistic versus auditory referents for context-driven talker normalization effects and, more specifically, to identify the specific constraints under which such contexts impact speech perception. Synthesized sentences manipulated to sound like different talkers influenced categorization of a subsequent speech target only when differences in the sentences’ LTAS were in the frequency range of the acoustic cues relevant for the target phonemic contrast. This effect was true both for speech targets preceded by spoken sentence contexts and for targets preceded by nonspeech tone sequences that were LTAS-matched to the spoken sentence contexts. Specific LTAS characteristics, rather than perceived talker, predicted the results suggesting that general auditory mechanisms play an important role in effects considered to be instances of perceptual talker normalization.

  2. Speech distortion measure based on auditory properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Guo; HU Xiulin; ZHANG Yunyu; ZHU Yaoting

    2000-01-01

    The Perceptual Spectrum Distortion (PSD), based on auditory properties of human being, is presented to measure speech distortion. The PSD measure calculates the speech distortion distance by simulating the auditory properties of human being and converting short-time speech power spectrum to auditory perceptual spectrum. Preliminary simulative experiments in comparison with the Itakura measure have been done. The results show that the PSD measure is a perferable speech distortion measure and more consistent with subjective assessment of speech quality.

  3. Auditory stimulation and cardiac autonomic regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Vitor E Valenti; Guida, Heraldo L.; Frizzo, Ana C F; Cardoso, Ana C. V.; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos M; Luiz Carlos de Abreu

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have already demonstrated that auditory stimulation with music influences the cardiovascular system. In this study, we described the relationship between musical auditory stimulation and heart rate variability. Searches were performed with the Medline, SciELO, Lilacs and Cochrane databases using the following keywords: "auditory stimulation", "autonomic nervous system", "music" and "heart rate variability". The selected studies indicated that there is a strong correlation bet...

  4. Mechanisms of Auditory Verbal Hallucination in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Raymond eCho; Wayne eWu

    2013-01-01

    Recent work on the mechanisms underlying auditory verbal hallucination (AVH) has been heavily informed by self-monitoring accounts that postulate defects in an internal monitoring mechanism as the basis of AVH. A more neglected alternative is an account focusing on defects in auditory processing, namely a spontaneous activation account of auditory activity underlying AVH. Science is often aided by putting theories in competition. Accordingly, a discussion that systematically contrasts the two...

  5. Auditory and Visual Sequential Memory of Down Syndrome and Nonretarded Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcell, Michael M.; Armstrong, Virginia

    1982-01-01

    Results of three studies involving Down syndrome students suggested that the auditory-visual recall difference evidenced by nonretarded but not by retarded Ss may have been due to the differential use of information in echoic memory. (Author)

  6. Discrimination of auditory stimuli during isoflurane anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Manuel J; Navas, Jinna A; Greene, Stephen A; Rector, David M

    2008-10-01

    Deep isoflurane anesthesia initiates a burst suppression pattern in which high-amplitude bursts are preceded by periods of nearly silent electroencephalogram. The burst suppression ratio (BSR) is the percentage of suppression (silent electroencephalogram) during the burst suppression pattern and is one parameter used to assess anesthesia depth. We investigated cortical burst activity in rats in response to different auditory stimuli presented during the burst suppression state. We noted a rapid appearance of bursts and a significant decrease in the BSR during stimulation. The BSR changes were distinctive for the different stimuli applied, and the BSR decreased significantly more when stimulated with a voice familiar to the rat as compared with an unfamiliar voice. These results show that the cortex can show differential sensory responses during deep isoflurane anesthesia.

  7. Achilles' ear? Inferior human short-term and recognition memory in the auditory modality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Bigelow

    Full Text Available Studies of the memory capabilities of nonhuman primates have consistently revealed a relative weakness for auditory compared to visual or tactile stimuli: extensive training is required to learn auditory memory tasks, and subjects are only capable of retaining acoustic information for a brief period of time. Whether a parallel deficit exists in human auditory memory remains an outstanding question. In the current study, a short-term memory paradigm was used to test human subjects' retention of simple auditory, visual, and tactile stimuli that were carefully equated in terms of discriminability, stimulus exposure time, and temporal dynamics. Mean accuracy did not differ significantly among sensory modalities at very short retention intervals (1-4 s. However, at longer retention intervals (8-32 s, accuracy for auditory stimuli fell substantially below that observed for visual and tactile stimuli. In the interest of extending the ecological validity of these findings, a second experiment tested recognition memory for complex, naturalistic stimuli that would likely be encountered in everyday life. Subjects were able to identify all stimuli when retention was not required, however, recognition accuracy following a delay period was again inferior for auditory compared to visual and tactile stimuli. Thus, the outcomes of both experiments provide a human parallel to the pattern of results observed in nonhuman primates. The results are interpreted in light of neuropsychological data from nonhuman primates, which suggest a difference in the degree to which auditory, visual, and tactile memory are mediated by the perirhinal and entorhinal cortices.

  8. From Perception to Metacognition: Auditory and Olfactory Functions in Early Blind, Late Blind, and Sighted Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell Kärnekull, Stina; Arshamian, Artin; Nilsson, Mats E.; Larsson, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Although evidence is mixed, studies have shown that blind individuals perform better than sighted at specific auditory, tactile, and chemosensory tasks. However, few studies have assessed blind and sighted individuals across different sensory modalities in the same study. We tested early blind (n = 15), late blind (n = 15), and sighted (n = 30) participants with analogous olfactory and auditory tests in absolute threshold, discrimination, identification, episodic recognition, and metacognitive ability. Although the multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) showed no overall effect of blindness and no interaction with modality, follow-up between-group contrasts indicated a blind-over-sighted advantage in auditory episodic recognition, that was most pronounced in early blind individuals. In contrast to the auditory modality, there was no empirical support for compensatory effects in any of the olfactory tasks. There was no conclusive evidence for group differences in metacognitive ability to predict episodic recognition performance. Taken together, the results showed no evidence of an overall superior performance in blind relative sighted individuals across olfactory and auditory functions, although early blind individuals exceled in episodic auditory recognition memory. This observation may be related to an experience-induced increase in auditory attentional capacity. PMID:27729884

  9. Auditory Training and Its Effects upon the Auditory Discrimination and Reading Readiness of Kindergarten Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Minga Mustard

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effects of a systematic auditory training program on the auditory discrimination ability and reading readiness of 55 white, middle/upper middle class kindergarten students. Following pretesting with the "Wepman Auditory Discrimination Test,""The Clymer-Barrett Prereading Battery," and the…

  10. Effects of Methylphenidate (Ritalin) on Auditory Performance in Children with Attention and Auditory Processing Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillery, Kim L.; Katz, Jack; Keller, Warren D.

    2000-01-01

    A double-blind, placebo-controlled study examined effects of methylphenidate (Ritalin) on auditory processing in 32 children with both attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and central auditory processing (CAP) disorder. Analyses revealed that Ritalin did not have a significant effect on any of the central auditory processing measures, although…

  11. Seeing the song: left auditory structures may track auditory-visual dynamic alignment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia A Mossbridge

    Full Text Available Auditory and visual signals generated by a single source tend to be temporally correlated, such as the synchronous sounds of footsteps and the limb movements of a walker. Continuous tracking and comparison of the dynamics of auditory-visual streams is thus useful for the perceptual binding of information arising from a common source. Although language-related mechanisms have been implicated in the tracking of speech-related auditory-visual signals (e.g., speech sounds and lip movements, it is not well known what sensory mechanisms generally track ongoing auditory-visual synchrony for non-speech signals in a complex auditory-visual environment. To begin to address this question, we used music and visual displays that varied in the dynamics of multiple features (e.g., auditory loudness and pitch; visual luminance, color, size, motion, and organization across multiple time scales. Auditory activity (monitored using auditory steady-state responses, ASSR was selectively reduced in the left hemisphere when the music and dynamic visual displays were temporally misaligned. Importantly, ASSR was not affected when attentional engagement with the music was reduced, or when visual displays presented dynamics clearly dissimilar to the music. These results appear to suggest that left-lateralized auditory mechanisms are sensitive to auditory-visual temporal alignment, but perhaps only when the dynamics of auditory and visual streams are similar. These mechanisms may contribute to correct auditory-visual binding in a busy sensory environment.

  12. Odors Bias Time Perception in Visual and Auditory Modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Zhenzhu; Gao, Tianyu; Chen, Lihan; Wu, Jiashuang

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that emotional states alter our perception of time. However, attention, which is modulated by a number of factors, such as emotional events, also influences time perception. To exclude potential attentional effects associated with emotional events, various types of odors (inducing different levels of emotional arousal) were used to explore whether olfactory events modulated time perception differently in visual and auditory modalities. Participants were shown either a visual dot or heard a continuous tone for 1000 or 4000 ms while they were exposed to odors of jasmine, lavender, or garlic. Participants then reproduced the temporal durations of the preceding visual or auditory stimuli by pressing the spacebar twice. Their reproduced durations were compared to those in the control condition (without odor). The results showed that participants produced significantly longer time intervals in the lavender condition than in the jasmine or garlic conditions. The overall influence of odor on time perception was equivalent for both visual and auditory modalities. The analysis of the interaction effect showed that participants produced longer durations than the actual duration in the short interval condition, but they produced shorter durations in the long interval condition. The effect sizes were larger for the auditory modality than those for the visual modality. Moreover, by comparing performance across the initial and the final blocks of the experiment, we found odor adaptation effects were mainly manifested as longer reproductions for the short time interval later in the adaptation phase, and there was a larger effect size in the auditory modality. In summary, the present results indicate that odors imposed differential impacts on reproduced time durations, and they were constrained by different sensory modalities, valence of the emotional events, and target durations. Biases in time perception could be accounted for by a framework of

  13. Odors bias time perception in visual and auditory modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenzhu eYue

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that emotional states alter our perception of time. However, attention, which is modulated by a number of factors, such as emotional events, also influences time perception. To exclude potential attentional effects associated with emotional events, various types of odors (inducing different levels of emotional arousal were used to explore whether olfactory events modulated time perception differently in visual and auditory modalities. Participants were shown either a visual dot or heard a continuous tone for 1000 ms or 4000 ms while they were exposed to odors of jasmine, lavender, or garlic. Participants then reproduced the temporal durations of the preceding visual or auditory stimuli by pressing the spacebar twice. Their reproduced durations were compared to those in the control condition (without odor. The results showed that participants produced significantly longer time intervals in the lavender condition than in the jasmine or garlic conditions. The overall influence of odor on time perception was equivalent for both visual and auditory modalities. The analysis of the interaction effect showed that participants produced longer durations than the actual duration in the short interval condition, but they produced shorter durations in the long interval condition. The effect sizes were larger for the auditory modality than those for the visual modality. Moreover, by comparing performance across the initial and the final blocks of the experiment, we found odor adaptation effects were mainly manifested as longer reproductions for the short time interval later in the adaptation phase, and there was a larger effect size in the auditory modality. In summary, the present results indicate that odors imposed differential impacts on reproduced time durations, and they were constrained by different sensory modalities, valence of the emotional events, and target durations. Biases in time perception could be accounted for by a

  14. Performance Feedback and Probabilistic Bonus Contingencies among Employees in a Human Service Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Tracy; Dixon, Mark R.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of performance feedback on the behavior of front line supervisory employees at a social service agency. A multiple baseline across three participants was used with three different feedback procedures consisting of verbal feedback, verbal plus individual comparative graphic feedback, and verbal feedback,…

  15. A virtual auditory environment for investigating the auditory signal processing of realistic sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Favrot, Sylvain Emmanuel; Buchholz, Jörg

    2008-01-01

    reverberation. The environment is based on the ODEON room acoustic simulation software to render the acoustical scene. ODEON outputs are processed using a combination of different order Ambisonic techniques to calculate multichannel room impulse responses (mRIR). Auralization is then obtained by the convolution....... Throughout the VAE development, special care was taken in order to achieve a realistic auditory percept and to avoid “artifacts” such as unnatural coloration. The performance of the VAE has been evaluated and optimized on a 29 loudspeaker setup using both objective and subjective measurement techniques....

  16. Opportunistic Relay Selection With Limited Feedback

    KAUST Repository

    Eltayeb, Mohammed E.

    2015-08-01

    Relay selection is a simple technique that achieves spatial diversity in cooperative relay networks. Generally, relay selection algorithms require channel state information (CSI) feedback from all cooperating relays to make a selection decision. This requirement poses two important challenges, which are often neglected in the literature. Firstly, the fed back channel information is usually corrupted by additive noise. Secondly, CSI feedback generates a great deal of feedback overhead (air-time) that could result in significant performance hits. In this paper, we propose a compressive sensing (CS) based relay selection algorithm that reduces the feedback overhead of relay networks under the assumption of noisy feedback channels. The proposed algorithm exploits CS to first obtain the identity of a set of relays with favorable channel conditions. Following that, the CSI of the identified relays is estimated using least squares estimation without any additional feedback. Both single and multiple relay selection cases are considered. After deriving closed-form expressions for the asymptotic end-to-end SNR at the destination and the feedback load for different relaying protocols, we show that CS-based selection drastically reduces the feedback load and achieves a rate close to that obtained by selection algorithms with dedicated error-free feedback. © 1972-2012 IEEE.

  17. Musical Experience, Auditory Perception and Reading-Related Skills in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Banai; Merav Ahissar

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The relationships between auditory processing and reading-related skills remain poorly understood despite intensive research. Here we focus on the potential role of musical experience as a confounding factor. Specifically we ask whether the pattern of correlations between auditory and reading related skills differ between children with different amounts of musical experience. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Third grade children with various degrees of musical experience were teste...

  18. Long-latency auditory evoked potentials with verbal and nonverbal stimuli,

    OpenAIRE

    Sheila Jacques Oppitz; Dayane Domeneghini Didoné; Débora Durigon da Silva; Marjana Gois; Jordana Folgearini; Geise Corrêa Ferreira; Michele Vargas Garcia

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Long-latency auditory evoked potentials represent the cortical activity related to attention, memory, and auditory discrimination skills. Acoustic signal processing occurs differently between verbal and nonverbal stimuli, influencing the latency and amplitude patterns. OBJECTIVE: To describe the latencies of the cortical potentials P1, N1, P2, N2, and P3, as well as P3 amplitude, with different speech stimuli and tone bursts, and to classify them in the presence and...

  19. Auditory Speech Perception Tests in Relation to the Coding Strategy in Cochlear Implant

    OpenAIRE

    Bazon, Aline Cristine; Mantello, Erika Barioni; Gonçales, Alina Sanches; Isaac, Myriam de Lima; Hyppolito, Miguel Angelo; Reis, Ana Cláudia Mirândola Barbosa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction  The objective of the evaluation of auditory perception of cochlear implant users is to determine how the acoustic signal is processed, leading to the recognition and understanding of sound. Objective  To investigate the differences in the process of auditory speech perception in individuals with postlingual hearing loss wearing a cochlear implant, using two different speech coding strategies, and to analyze speech perception and handicap perception in relation to the strategy us...

  20. A rate code for sound azimuth in monkey auditory cortex: implications for human neuroimaging studies

    OpenAIRE

    Werner-Reiss, Uri; Jennifer M Groh

    2008-01-01

    Is sound location represented in the auditory cortex of humans and monkeys? Human neuroimaging experiments have had only mixed success at demonstrating sound location sensitivity in primary auditory cortex. This is in apparent conflict with studies in monkeys and other animals, where single-unit recording studies have found stronger evidence for spatial sensitivity. Does this apparent discrepancy reflect a difference between humans and animals, or does it reflect differences in the sensitivit...

  1. Radiative feedbacks on global precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiative kernel technique is employed to quantify twenty-first century changes to the tropospheric energy budget in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) models in order to better understand changes in global-mean precipitation. The strongest feedbacks on the tropospheric radiative cooling are found to be associated with increases in temperature and water vapor, with the water vapor feedback offsetting a significant portion (∼39%) of the increase in radiative cooling due to higher temperatures. Cloud and surface sensible heat flux feedbacks, though not as large in magnitude as the temperature and water vapor feedbacks, are important contributors to the intermodel difference in the global precipitation response to warming, or hydrological sensitivity. The direct effects of radiative forcing agents on the tropospheric energy budget are also important. Rising CO2 levels reduce tropospheric radiative cooling and hence limit the increase in global rainfall. Additionally, in some of the models, further reductions in radiative cooling occur due to increases in absorbing aerosol, suggesting that differences in aerosol forcing can explain part of the difference in hydrological sensitivity between models.

  2. Coding of auditory space

    OpenAIRE

    Konishi­, Masakazu

    2003-01-01

    Behavioral, anatomical, and physiological approaches can be integrated in the study of sound localization in barn owls. Space representation in owls provides a useful example for discussion of place and ensemble coding. Selectivity for space is broad and ambiguous in low-order neurons. Parallel pathways for binaural cues and for different frequency bands converge on high-order space-specific neurons, which encode space more precisely. An ensemble of broadly tuned place-coding neurons may conv...

  3. RF feedback for KEKB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezura, Eizi; Yoshimoto, Shin-ichi; Akai, Kazunori [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-08-01

    This paper describes the present status of the RF feedback development for the KEK B-Factory (KEKB). A preliminary experiment concerning the RF feedback using a parallel comb-filter was performed through a choke-mode cavity and a klystron. The RF feedback has been tested using the beam of the TRISTAN Main Ring, and has proved to be effective in damping the beam instability. (author)

  4. Auditory processing efficiency deficits in children with developmental language impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Douglas E. H.; Moore, David R.

    2002-12-01

    The ``temporal processing hypothesis'' suggests that individuals with specific language impairments (SLIs) and dyslexia have severe deficits in processing rapidly presented or brief sensory information, both within the auditory and visual domains. This hypothesis has been supported through evidence that language-impaired individuals have excess auditory backward masking. This paper presents an analysis of masking results from several studies in terms of a model of temporal resolution. Results from this modeling suggest that the masking results can be better explained by an ``auditory efficiency'' hypothesis. If impaired or immature listeners have a normal temporal window, but require a higher signal-to-noise level (poor processing efficiency), this hypothesis predicts the observed small deficits in the simultaneous masking task, and the much larger deficits in backward and forward masking tasks amongst those listeners. The difference in performance on these masking tasks is predictable from the compressive nonlinearity of the basilar membrane. The model also correctly predicts that backward masking (i) is more prone to training effects, (ii) has greater inter- and intrasubject variability, and (iii) increases less with masker level than do other masking tasks. These findings provide a new perspective on the mechanisms underlying communication disorders and auditory masking.

  5. Brainstem auditory evoked potential abnormalities in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharat Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus represents a syndrome complex in which multiple organ systems, including the central nervous system, are affected. Aim: The study was conducted to determine the changes in the brainstem auditory evoked potentials in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on 126 diabetic males, aged 35-50 years, and 106 age-matched, healthy male volunteers. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials were recorded and the results were analyzed statistically using student′s unpaired t-test. The data consisted of wave latencies I, II, III, IV, V and interpeak latencies I-III, III-V and I-V, separately for both ears. Results: The latency of wave IV was significantly delayed only in the right ear, while the latency of waves III, V and interpeak latencies III-V, I-V showed a significant delay bilaterally in diabetic males. However, no significant difference was found between diabetic and control subjects as regards to the latency of wave IV unilaterally in the left ear and the latencies of waves I, II and interpeak latency I-III bilaterally. Conclusion: Diabetes patients have an early involvement of central auditory pathway, which can be detected with fair accuracy with auditory evoked potential studies.

  6. Central projections of auditory receptor neurons of crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaizumi, Kazuo; Pollack, Gerald S

    2005-12-19

    We describe the central projections of physiologically characterized auditory receptor neurons of crickets as revealed by confocal microscopy. Receptors tuned to ultrasonic frequencies (similar to those produced by echolocating, insectivorous bats), to a mid-range of frequencies, and a subset of those tuned to low, cricket-like frequencies have similar projections, terminating medially within the auditory neuropile. Quantitative analysis shows that despite the general similarity of these projections they are tonotopic, with receptors tuned to lower frequencies terminating more medially. Another subset of cricket-song-tuned receptors projects more laterally and posteriorly than the other types. Double-fills of receptors and identified interneurons show that the three medially projecting receptor types are anatomically well positioned to provide monosynaptic input to interneurons that relay auditory information to the brain and to interneurons that modify this ascending information. The more laterally and posteriorly branching receptor type may not interact directly with this ascending pathway, but is well positioned to provide direct input to an interneuron that carries auditory information to more posterior ganglia. These results suggest that information about cricket song is segregated into functionally different pathways as early as the level of receptor neurons. Ultrasound-tuned and mid-frequency tuned receptors have approximately twice as many varicosities, which are sites of transmitter release, per receptor as either anatomical type of cricket-song-tuned receptor. This may compensate in part for the numerical under-representation of these receptor types.

  7. Plasticity of Peripheral Auditory Frequency Sensitivity in Emei Music Frog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dian; Cui, Jianguo; Tang, Yezhong

    2012-01-01

    In anurans reproductive behavior is strongly seasonal. During the spring, frogs emerge from hibernation and males vocalize for mating or advertising territories. Female frogs have the ability to evaluate the quality of the males' resources on the basis of these vocalizations. Although studies revealed that central single torus semicircularis neurons in frogs exhibit season plasticity, the plasticity of peripheral auditory sensitivity in frog is unknown. In this study the seasonally plasticity of peripheral auditory sensitivity was test in the Emei music frog Babina daunchina, by comparing thresholds and latencies of auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) evoked by tone pips and clicks in the reproductive and non-reproductive seasons. The results show that both ABR thresholds and latency differ significantly between the reproductive and non-reproductive seasons. The thresholds of tone pip evoked ABRs in the non-reproductive season increased significantly about 10 dB than those in the reproductive season for frequencies from 1 KHz to 6 KHz. ABR latencies to waveform valley values for tone pips for the same frequencies using appropriate threshold stimulus levels are longer than those in the reproductive season for frequencies from 1.5 to 6 KHz range, although from 0.2 to 1.5 KHz range it is shorter in the non-reproductive season. These results demonstrated that peripheral auditory frequency sensitivity exhibits seasonal plasticity changes which may be adaptive to seasonal reproductive behavior in frogs. PMID:23029243

  8. Policy Feedback System (PFS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Policy Feedback System (PFS) is a web application developed by the Office of Disability Policy Management Information (ODPMI) team that gathers empirical data...

  9. Feedback stabilization initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much progress has been made in attaining high confinement regimes in magnetic confinement devices. These operating modes tend to be transient, however, due to the onset of MHD instabilities, and their stabilization is critical for improved performance at steady state. This report describes the Feedback Stabilization Initiative (FSI), a broad-based, multi-institutional effort to develop and implement methods for raising the achievable plasma betas through active MHD feedback stabilization. A key element in this proposed effort is the Feedback Stabilization Experiment (FSX), a medium-sized, national facility that would be specifically dedicated to demonstrating beta improvement in reactor relevant plasmas by using a variety of MHD feedback stabilization schemes

  10. Augmenting Environmental Interaction in Audio Feedback Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seunghun Kim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Audio feedback is defined as a positive feedback of acoustic signals where an audio input and output form a loop, and may be utilized artistically. This article presents new context-based controls over audio feedback, leading to the generation of desired sonic behaviors by enriching the influence of existing acoustic information such as room response and ambient noise. This ecological approach to audio feedback emphasizes mutual sonic interaction between signal processing and the acoustic environment. Mappings from analyses of the received signal to signal-processing parameters are designed to emphasize this specificity as an aesthetic goal. Our feedback system presents four types of mappings: approximate analyses of room reverberation to tempo-scale characteristics, ambient noise to amplitude and two different approximations of resonances to timbre. These mappings are validated computationally and evaluated experimentally in different acoustic conditions.

  11. Feedback Loop Gains and Feedback Behavior (1996)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampmann, Christian Erik

    2012-01-01

    Linking feedback loops and system behavior is part of the foundation of system dynamics, yet the lack of formal tools has so far prevented a systematic application of the concept, except for very simple systems. Having such tools at their disposal would be a great help to analysts in understanding...... large, complicated simulation models. The paper applies tools from graph theory formally linking individual feedback loop strengths to the system eigenvalues. The significance of a link or a loop gain and an eigenvalue can be expressed in the eigenvalue elasticity, i.e., the relative change...... of an eigenvalue resulting from a relative change in the gain. The elasticities of individual links and loops may be found through simple matrix operations on the linearized system. Even though the number of feedback loops can grow rapidly with system size, reaching astronomical proportions even for modest systems...

  12. Modelling the emergence and dynamics of perceptual organisation in auditory streaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mill, Robert W; Bőhm, Tamás M; Bendixen, Alexandra; Winkler, István; Denham, Susan L

    2013-01-01

    Many sound sources can only be recognised from the pattern of sounds they emit, and not from the individual sound events that make up their emission sequences. Auditory scene analysis addresses the difficult task of interpreting the sound world in terms of an unknown number of discrete sound sources (causes) with possibly overlapping signals, and therefore of associating each event with the appropriate source. There are potentially many different ways in which incoming events can be assigned to different causes, which means that the auditory system has to choose between them. This problem has been studied for many years using the auditory streaming paradigm, and recently it has become apparent that instead of making one fixed perceptual decision, given sufficient time, auditory perception switches back and forth between the alternatives-a phenomenon known as perceptual bi- or multi-stability. We propose a new model of auditory scene analysis at the core of which is a process that seeks to discover predictable patterns in the ongoing sound sequence. Representations of predictable fragments are created on the fly, and are maintained, strengthened or weakened on the basis of their predictive success, and conflict with other representations. Auditory perceptual organisation emerges spontaneously from the nature of the competition between these representations. We present detailed comparisons between the model simulations and data from an auditory streaming experiment, and show that the model accounts for many important findings, including: the emergence of, and switching between, alternative organisations; the influence of stimulus parameters on perceptual dominance, switching rate and perceptual phase durations; and the build-up of auditory streaming. The principal contribution of the model is to show that a two-stage process of pattern discovery and competition between incompatible patterns can account for both the contents (perceptual organisations) and the dynamics

  13. Modelling the emergence and dynamics of perceptual organisation in auditory streaming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Mill

    Full Text Available Many sound sources can only be recognised from the pattern of sounds they emit, and not from the individual sound events that make up their emission sequences. Auditory scene analysis addresses the difficult task of interpreting the sound world in terms of an unknown number of discrete sound sources (causes with possibly overlapping signals, and therefore of associating each event with the appropriate source. There are potentially many different ways in which incoming events can be assigned to different causes, which means that the auditory system has to choose between them. This problem has been studied for many years using the auditory streaming paradigm, and recently it has become apparent that instead of making one fixed perceptual decision, given sufficient time, auditory perception switches back and forth between the alternatives-a phenomenon known as perceptual bi- or multi-stability. We propose a new model of auditory scene analysis at the core of which is a process that seeks to discover predictable patterns in the ongoing sound sequence. Representations of predictable fragments are created on the fly, and are maintained, strengthened or weakened on the basis of their predictive success, and conflict with other representations. Auditory perceptual organisation emerges spontaneously from the nature of the competition between these representations. We present detailed comparisons between the model simulations and data from an auditory streaming experiment, and show that the model accounts for many important findings, including: the emergence of, and switching between, alternative organisations; the influence of stimulus parameters on perceptual dominance, switching rate and perceptual phase durations; and the build-up of auditory streaming. The principal contribution of the model is to show that a two-stage process of pattern discovery and competition between incompatible patterns can account for both the contents (perceptual

  14. Auditory hallucinations suppressed by etizolam in a patient with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benazzi, F; Mazzoli, M; Rossi, E

    1993-10-01

    A patient presented with a 15 year history of schizophrenia with auditory hallucinations. Though unresponsive to prolonged trials of neuroleptics, the auditory hallucinations disappeared with etizolam. PMID:7902201

  15. Auditory Association Cortex Lesions Impair Auditory Short-Term Memory in Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Michael; D'Amato, Michael R.; Rodman, Hillary R.; Gross, Charles G.

    1990-01-01

    Monkeys that were trained to perform auditory and visual short-term memory tasks (delayed matching-to-sample) received lesions of the auditory association cortex in the superior temporal gyrus. Although visual memory was completely unaffected by the lesions, auditory memory was severely impaired. Despite this impairment, all monkeys could discriminate sounds closer in frequency than those used in the auditory memory task. This result suggests that the superior temporal cortex plays a role in auditory processing and retention similar to the role the inferior temporal cortex plays in visual processing and retention.

  16. Prediction of auditory and visual p300 brain-computer interface aptitude.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Halder

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs provide a non-muscular communication channel for patients with late-stage motoneuron disease (e.g., amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS or otherwise motor impaired people and are also used for motor rehabilitation in chronic stroke. Differences in the ability to use a BCI vary from person to person and from session to session. A reliable predictor of aptitude would allow for the selection of suitable BCI paradigms. For this reason, we investigated whether P300 BCI aptitude could be predicted from a short experiment with a standard auditory oddball. METHODS: Forty healthy participants performed an electroencephalography (EEG based visual and auditory P300-BCI spelling task in a single session. In addition, prior to each session an auditory oddball was presented. Features extracted from the auditory oddball were analyzed with respect to predictive power for BCI aptitude. RESULTS: Correlation between auditory oddball response and P300 BCI accuracy revealed a strong relationship between accuracy and N2 amplitude and the amplitude of a late ERP component between 400 and 600 ms. Interestingly, the P3 amplitude of the auditory oddball response was not correlated with accuracy. CONCLUSIONS: Event-related potentials recorded during a standard auditory oddball session moderately predict aptitude in an audiory and highly in a visual P300 BCI. The predictor will allow for faster paradigm selection. SIGNIFICANCE: Our method will reduce strain on patients because unsuccessful training may be avoided, provided the results can be generalized to the patient population.

  17. The role of auditory abilities in basic mechanisms of cognition in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo eGrassi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess age-related differences between young and older adults in auditory abilities and to investigate the relationship between auditory abilities and basic mechanisms of cognition in older adults. Although there is a certain consensus that the participant’s sensitivity to the absolute intensity of sounds (such as that measured via pure tone audiometry explains his/her cognitive performance, there is not yet much evidence that the participant’s auditory ability (i.e., the whole supra-threshold processing of sounds explains his/her cognitive performance. Twenty-eight young adults (age < 35, 26 young-old adults (65 ≤ age ≤75 and 28 old-old adults (age > 75 were presented with a set of tasks estimating several auditory abilities (i.e., frequency discrimination, intensity discrimination, duration discrimination, timbre discrimination, gap detection, amplitude modulation detection, and the absolute threshold for a 1 kHz pure tone and the participant’s working memory, cognitive inhibition, and processing speed. Results showed an age-related decline in both auditory and cognitive performance. Moreover, regression analyses showed that a subset of the auditory abilities (i.e., the ability to discriminate frequency, duration, timbre, and the ability to detect amplitude modulation explained a significant part of the variance observed in processing speed in older adults. Overall, the present results highlight the relationship between auditory abilities and basic mechanisms of cognition.

  18. Developmental evaluation of atypical auditory sampling in dyslexia: Functional and structural evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizarazu, Mikel; Lallier, Marie; Molinaro, Nicola; Bourguignon, Mathieu; Paz-Alonso, Pedro M; Lerma-Usabiaga, Garikoitz; Carreiras, Manuel

    2015-12-01

    Whether phonological deficits in developmental dyslexia are associated with impaired neural sampling of auditory information at either syllabic- or phonemic-rates is still under debate. In addition, whereas neuroanatomical alterations in auditory regions have been documented in dyslexic readers, whether and how these structural anomalies are linked to auditory sampling and reading deficits remains poorly understood. In this study, we measured auditory neural synchronization at different frequencies corresponding to relevant phonological spectral components of speech in children and adults with and without dyslexia, using magnetoencephalography. Furthermore, structural MRI was used to estimate cortical thickness of the auditory cortex of participants. Dyslexics showed atypical brain synchronization at both syllabic (slow) and phonemic (fast) rates. Interestingly, while a left hemispheric asymmetry in cortical thickness was functionally related to a stronger left hemispheric lateralization of neural synchronization to stimuli presented at the phonemic rate in skilled readers, the same anatomical index in dyslexics was related to a stronger right hemispheric dominance for neural synchronization to syllabic-rate auditory stimuli. These data suggest that the acoustic sampling deficit in development dyslexia might be linked to an atypical specialization of the auditory cortex to both low and high frequency amplitude modulations.

  19. Developmental evaluation of atypical auditory sampling in dyslexia: Functional and structural evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizarazu, Mikel; Lallier, Marie; Molinaro, Nicola; Bourguignon, Mathieu; Paz-Alonso, Pedro M; Lerma-Usabiaga, Garikoitz; Carreiras, Manuel

    2015-12-01

    Whether phonological deficits in developmental dyslexia are associated with impaired neural sampling of auditory information at either syllabic- or phonemic-rates is still under debate. In addition, whereas neuroanatomical alterations in auditory regions have been documented in dyslexic readers, whether and how these structural anomalies are linked to auditory sampling and reading deficits remains poorly understood. In this study, we measured auditory neural synchronization at different frequencies corresponding to relevant phonological spectral components of speech in children and adults with and without dyslexia, using magnetoencephalography. Furthermore, structural MRI was used to estimate cortical thickness of the auditory cortex of participants. Dyslexics showed atypical brain synchronization at both syllabic (slow) and phonemic (fast) rates. Interestingly, while a left hemispheric asymmetry in cortical thickness was functionally related to a stronger left hemispheric lateralization of neural synchronization to stimuli presented at the phonemic rate in skilled readers, the same anatomical index in dyslexics was related to a stronger right hemispheric dominance for neural synchronization to syllabic-rate auditory stimuli. These data suggest that the acoustic sampling deficit in development dyslexia might be linked to an atypical specialization of the auditory cortex to both low and high frequency amplitude modulations. PMID:26356682

  20. Narrow, duplicated internal auditory canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, T. [Servico de Neurorradiologia, Hospital Garcia de Orta, Avenida Torrado da Silva, 2801-951, Almada (Portugal); Shayestehfar, B. [Department of Radiology, UCLA Oliveview School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States); Lufkin, R. [Department of Radiology, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2003-05-01

    A narrow internal auditory canal (IAC) constitutes a relative contraindication to cochlear implantation because it is associated with aplasia or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve or its cochlear branch. We report an unusual case of a narrow, duplicated IAC, divided by a bony septum into a superior relatively large portion and an inferior stenotic portion, in which we could identify only the facial nerve. This case adds support to the association between a narrow IAC and aplasia or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. The normal facial nerve argues against the hypothesis that the narrow IAC is the result of a primary bony defect which inhibits the growth of the vestibulocochlear nerve. (orig.)

  1. Auditory hallucinations in nonverbal quadriplegics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, J

    1985-11-01

    When a system for communicating with nonverbal, quadriplegic, institutionalized residents was developed, it was discovered that many were experiencing auditory hallucinations. Nine cases are presented in this study. The "voices" described have many similar characteristics, the primary one being that they give authoritarian commands that tell the residents how to behave and to which the residents feel compelled to respond. Both the relationship of this phenomenon to the theoretical work of Julian Jaynes and its effect on the lives of the residents are discussed.

  2. Further Evidence of Auditory Extinction in Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Rebecca Shisler; Basilakos, Alexandra; Love-Myers, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Preliminary research ( Shisler, 2005) suggests that auditory extinction in individuals with aphasia (IWA) may be connected to binding and attention. In this study, the authors expanded on previous findings on auditory extinction to determine the source of extinction deficits in IWA. Method: Seventeen IWA (M[subscript age] = 53.19 years)…

  3. Mapping tonotopy in human auditory cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Pim; Langers, Dave R M; Moore, BCJ; Patterson, RD; Winter, IM; Carlyon, RP; Gockel, HE

    2013-01-01

    Tonotopy is arguably the most prominent organizational principle in the auditory pathway. Nevertheless, the layout of tonotopic maps in humans is still debated. We present neuroimaging data that robustly identify multiple tonotopic maps in the bilateral auditory cortex. In contrast with some earlier

  4. Auditory Processing Disorder and Foreign Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselovska, Ganna

    2015-01-01

    This article aims at exploring various strategies for coping with the auditory processing disorder in the light of foreign language acquisition. The techniques relevant to dealing with the auditory processing disorder can be attributed to environmental and compensatory approaches. The environmental one involves actions directed at creating a…

  5. Temporal asymmetries in auditory coding and perception reflect multi-layered nonlinearities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deneux, Thomas; Kempf, Alexandre; Daret, Aurélie; Ponsot, Emmanuel; Bathellier, Brice

    2016-01-01

    Sound recognition relies not only on spectral cues, but also on temporal cues, as demonstrated by the profound impact of time reversals on perception of common sounds. To address the coding principles underlying such auditory asymmetries, we recorded a large sample of auditory cortex neurons using two-photon calcium imaging in awake mice, while playing sounds ramping up or down in intensity. We observed clear asymmetries in cortical population responses, including stronger cortical activity for up-ramping sounds, which matches perceptual saliency assessments in mice and previous measures in humans. Analysis of cortical activity patterns revealed that auditory cortex implements a map of spatially clustered neuronal ensembles, detecting specific combinations of spectral and intensity modulation features. Comparing different models, we show that cortical responses result from multi-layered nonlinearities, which, contrary to standard receptive field models of auditory cortex function, build divergent representations of sounds with similar spectral content, but different temporal structure. PMID:27580932

  6. Classification of Underwater Target Echoes Based on Auditory Perception Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiukun Li; Xiangxia Meng; Hang Liu; Mingye Liu

    2014-01-01

    In underwater target detection, the bottom reverberation has some of the same properties as the target echo, which has a great impact on the performance. It is essential to study the difference between target echo and reverberation. In this paper, based on the unique advantage of human listening ability on objects distinction, the Gammatone filter is taken as the auditory model. In addition, time-frequency perception features and auditory spectral features are extracted for active sonar target echo and bottom reverberation separation. The features of the experimental data have good concentration characteristics in the same class and have a large amount of differences between different classes, which shows that this method can effectively distinguish between the target echo and reverberation.

  7. The Power of Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattie, John; Timperley, Helen

    2007-01-01

    Feedback is one of the most powerful influences on learning and achievement, but this impact can be either positive or negative. Its power is frequently mentioned in articles about learning and teaching, but surprisingly few recent studies have systematically investigated its meaning. This article provides a conceptual analysis of feedback and…

  8. Feedback og interpersonel kommunikation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dindler, Camilla

    2016-01-01

    Som interpersonel kommunikationsform handler feedback om at observere, mærke og italesætte det, som handler om relationen mellem samtaleparterne mere end om samtaleemnet. Her er fokus på, hvad der siges og hvordan der kommunikeres sammen. Feedback er her ikke en korrigerende tilbagemelding til...

  9. Neural plasticity expressed in central auditory structures with and without tinnitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry E Roberts

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Sensory training therapies for tinnitus are based on the assumption that, notwithstanding neural changes related to tinnitus, auditory training can alter the response properties of neurons in auditory pathways. To address this question, we investigated whether brain changes induced by sensory training in tinnitus sufferers and measured by EEG are similar to those induced in age and hearing loss matched individuals without tinnitus trained on the same auditory task. Auditory training was given using a 5 kHz 40-Hz amplitude-modulated sound that was in the tinnitus frequency region of the tinnitus subjects and enabled extraction of the 40-Hz auditory steady-state response (ASSR and P2 transient response known to localize to primary and nonprimary auditory cortex, respectively. P2 amplitude increased with training equally in participants with tinnitus and in control subjects, suggesting normal remodeling of nonprimary auditory regions in tinnitus. However, training-induced changes in the ASSR differed between the tinnitus and control groups. In controls ASSR phase advanced toward the stimulus waveform by about ten degrees over training, in agreement with previous results obtained in young normal hearing individuals. However, ASSR phase did not change significantly with training in the tinnitus group, although some participants showed phase shifts resembling controls. On the other hand, ASSR amplitude increased with training in the tinnitus group, whereas in controls this response (which is difficult to remodel in young normal hearing subjects did not change with training. These results suggest that neural changes related to tinnitus altered how neural plasticity was expressed in the region of primary but not nonprimary auditory cortex. Auditory training did not reduce tinnitus loudness although a small effect on the tinnitus spectrum was detected.

  10. Students’ perceptions on feedback module in pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Varsha J.; Malhotra, Supriya D.; Rana, Devang A.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Feedback is an integral part of formative assessment though underutilized in medical education. The objective of this study was to review our feedback module through students’ perceptions. Methodology: We have developed a feedback module which is practiced by us for last 10 years for term ending examination that gives collective feedback to the whole class, followed by individual student-teacher interactions. Students were also exposed to 6–7 multiple choice questions (MCQs) based assessment during the course of pharmacology. Immediately after each MCQ test the answer keys is displayed along with an explanation. Two classes of students were requested to give their perceptions about the feedback by responding on Likert scale for the statements in the questionnaire. All the 206 students who volunteered for the study were enrolled in the study. Mann–Whitney test was used to calculate the difference in perceptions. Results: Of 278 students of two classes, 206 responded (74%). Students’ agreement varied from 93% to 98% for 5 items in the questionnaire for the feedback after term ending examinations. Perception of students attending one or more than one feedback session did not differ significantly. For MCQs, tests agreement was 91% to 98% for the 4 items. There was no significant difference between two classes in their perceptions regarding feedback practices (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Students gave a favorable opinion for our feedback module. In the medical colleges with a large number of students, this module is feasible for feedback in formative assessment in the form of written tests. PMID:27500170

  11. Feedback is good or bad? Medical residents’ points of view on feedback in clinical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEILA BAZRAFKAN

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Feedback is very important in education and can help quality in the training process and orient the trainees in clinical contexts. This study aimed to assess the residents’ points of view about feedback in clinical education at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Methods: The sample of this study included 170 medical residents attending medical workshops in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. The residents filled a valid and reliable questionnaire containing 21 items on their perceptions of the feedback they got throughout the workshops. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 14. Results: The study revealed that residents, generally, have a positive perception of feedback in their training. The highest score belonged to the items such as “feedback was applicable to future work”, “feedback corrected my behavior”, “feedback worked as a motivation for education” and “feedback was specific in one subject”. Residents who had a negative feedback experience also increased their efforts to learn. The Surgery residents acquired the highest scores while radiology residents got the lowest. The difference between these groups was statistically significant (P = 0.000. Conclusion: The highest mean score belonged to internal medicine residents. This shows that residents believe that obstetrics & gynecology ward is a ward in which the formative assessment is much more powerful in comparison to the other three major wards. The surgery ward received the lowest score for formative assessment and this shows that the feedback in surgery ward is very low.

  12. Speech perception as complex auditory categorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Lori L.

    2002-05-01

    Despite a long and rich history of categorization research in cognitive psychology, very little work has addressed the issue of complex auditory category formation. This is especially unfortunate because the general underlying cognitive and perceptual mechanisms that guide auditory category formation are of great importance to understanding speech perception. I will discuss a new methodological approach to examining complex auditory category formation that specifically addresses issues relevant to speech perception. This approach utilizes novel nonspeech sound stimuli to gain full experimental control over listeners' history of experience. As such, the course of learning is readily measurable. Results from this methodology indicate that the structure and formation of auditory categories are a function of the statistical input distributions of sound that listeners hear, aspects of the operating characteristics of the auditory system, and characteristics of the perceptual categorization system. These results have important implications for phonetic acquisition and speech perception.

  13. Auditory-Verbal Comprehension Development of 2-5 Year Old Normal Persian Speaking Children in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Yadegari

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Understanding and defining developmental norms of auditory comprehension is a necessity for detecting auditory-verbal comprehension impairments in children. We hereby investigated lexical auditory development of Persian (Farsi speaking children.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, auditory comprehension of four 2-5 year old normal children of adult’s child-directed utterance at available nurseries was observed by researchers primarily to gain a great number of comprehendible words for the children of the same age. The words were classified into nouns, verbs and adjectives. Auditory-verbal comprehension task items were also considered in 2 sections of subordinates and superordinates auditory comprehension. Colored pictures were provided for each item. Thirty 2-5 year old normal children were randomly selected from nurseries all over Tehran. Children were tested by this task and subsequently, mean of their correct response were analyzed. Results: The findings revealed that there is a high positive correlation between auditory-verbal comprehension and age (r=0.804, p=0.001. Comparing children in 3 age groups of 2-3, 3-4 and 4-5 year old, showed that subordinate and superordinate auditory comprehension of the former group is significantly lower (p0.05, while the difference between subordinate and superordinate auditory comprehension was significant in all age groups (p<0.05.Conclusion: Auditory-verbal comprehension develop much faster at lower than older ages and there is no prominent difference between word linguistic classes including nouns, verbs and adjectives. Slower development of superordinate auditory comprehension implies semantic hierarchical evolution of words.

  14. Auditory and visual interhemispheric communication in musicians and non-musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelfle, Rebecca; Grahn, Jessica A

    2013-01-01

    The corpus callosum (CC) is a brain structure composed of axon fibres linking the right and left hemispheres. Musical training is associated with larger midsagittal cross-sectional area of the CC, suggesting that interhemispheric communication may be faster in musicians. Here we compared interhemispheric transmission times (ITTs) for musicians and non-musicians. ITT was measured by comparing simple reaction times to stimuli presented to the same hemisphere that controlled a button-press response (uncrossed reaction time), or to the contralateral hemisphere (crossed reaction time). Both visual and auditory stimuli were tested. We predicted that the crossed-uncrossed difference (CUD) for musicians would be smaller than for non-musicians as a result of faster interhemispheric transfer times. We did not expect a difference in CUDs between the visual and auditory modalities for either musicians or non-musicians, as previous work indicates that interhemispheric transfer may happen through the genu of the CC, which contains motor fibres rather than sensory fibres. There were no significant differences in CUDs between musicians and non-musicians. However, auditory CUDs were significantly smaller than visual CUDs. Although this auditory-visual difference was larger in musicians than non-musicians, the interaction between modality and musical training was not significant. Therefore, although musical training does not significantly affect ITT, the crossing of auditory information between hemispheres appears to be faster than visual information, perhaps because subcortical pathways play a greater role for auditory interhemispheric transfer. PMID:24386382

  15. THE EFFECTS OF SALICYLATE ON AUDITORY EVOKED POTENTIAL AMPLITWDE FROM THE AUDITORY CORTEX AND AUDITORY BRAINSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brian Sawka; SUN Wei

    2014-01-01

    Tinnitus has often been studied using salicylate in animal models as they are capable of inducing tempo-rary hearing loss and tinnitus. Studies have recently observed enhancement of auditory evoked responses of the auditory cortex (AC) post salicylate treatment which is also shown to be related to tinnitus like behavior in rats. The aim of this study was to observe if enhancements of the AC post salicylate treatment are also present at structures in the brainstem. Four male Sprague Dawley rats with AC implanted electrodes were tested for both AC and auditory brainstem response (ABR) recordings pre and post 250 mg/kg intraperitone-al injections of salicylate. The responses were recorded as the peak to trough amplitudes of P1-N1 (AC), ABR wave V, and ABR waveⅡ. AC responses resulted in statistically significant enhancement of ampli-tude at 2 hours post salicylate with 90 dB stimuli tone bursts of 4, 8, 12, and 20 kHz. Wave V of ABR re-sponses at 90 dB resulted in a statistically significant reduction of amplitude 2 hours post salicylate and a mean decrease of amplitude of 31%for 16 kHz. WaveⅡamplitudes at 2 hours post treatment were signifi-cantly reduced for 4, 12, and 20 kHz stimuli at 90 dB SPL. Our results suggest that the enhancement chang-es of the AC related to salicylate induced tinnitus are generated superior to the level of the inferior colliculus and may originate in the AC.

  16. Enhanced Negative Feedback Responses in Remitted Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santesso, Diane L.; Steele, Katherine T.; Bogdan, Ryan; Holmes, Avram J.; Deveney, Christen M.; Meites, Tiffany M.; Pizzagalli, Diego A.

    2011-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by hypersensitivity to negative feedback that might involve frontocingulate dysfunction. MDD subjects exhibit enhanced electrophysiological responses to negative internal (errors) and external (feedback) cues. Whether this dysfunction extends to remitted depressed (RD) subjects with a history of MDD is currently unknown. To address this issue, we examined the feedback-related negativity (FRN) in RD and control subjects using a probabilistic punishment learning task. Despite equivalent behavioral performance, RD subjects showed larger FRNs to negative feedback relative to controls; group differences remained after accounting for residual anxiety and depressive symptoms. The present findings suggest that abnormal responses to negative feedback extend to samples at increased risk for depressive episodes in the absence of current symptoms. PMID:18580576

  17. Auditory cortical processing: Binaural interaction in healthy and ROBO1-deficient subjects

    OpenAIRE

    LamminmÀki, Satu

    2012-01-01

    Two functioning ears provide clear advantages over monaural listening. During natural binaural listening, robust brain-level interaction occurs between the slightly different inputs from the left and the right ear. Binaural interaction requires convergence of inputs from the two ears somewhere in the auditory system, and it therefore relies on midline crossing of auditory pathways, a fundamental property of the mammalian central nervous system. Binaural interaction plays a significant ro...

  18. Exploring the role of auditory analysis in atypical compared to typical language development ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Grube, Manon; Cooper, Freya E.; Kumar, Sukhbinder; Kelly, Tom; Griffiths, Timothy D

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between auditory processing and language skills has been debated for decades. Previous findings have been inconsistent, both in typically developing and impaired subjects, including those with dyslexia or specific language impairment. Whether correlations between auditory and language skills are consistent between different populations has hardly been addressed at all. The present work presents an exploratory approach of testing for patterns of correlations in a range of meas...

  19. The inter-rater reliability of categories of auditory performance-II (CAP)-II

    OpenAIRE

    Gilmour, Louise

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to validate a modified version of the Categories of Auditory Performance (CAP) rating scale, the CAP-II. The CAP is a hierarchy rating scale which assesses a child?s functioning in everyday situations. It covers a range of auditory performance and also takes into consideration different developmental rates of children. Inter-rater reliability was assessed by participants rating benefits young children receive with cochlear implants (CI). Volunteers watched vid...

  20. Developmental segregation in the afferent projections to mammalian auditory hair cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Echteler, S M

    1992-01-01

    The mammalian ear contains two types of auditory receptors, inner and outer hair cells, that lie in close proximity to each other within the sensory epithelium of the cochlea. In adult mammals, these two classes of auditory hair cells are innervated by separate populations of afferent neurons that differ strikingly in their cellular morphology and their pattern of arborization within the cochlea. At present, it is unclear when or how these distinctive patterns of cochlear innervation emerge a...