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Sample records for auditory diseases central

  1. Loss of central auditory processing in a mouse model of Canavan disease.

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    Georg von Jonquieres

    Full Text Available Canavan Disease (CD is a leukodystrophy caused by homozygous null mutations in the gene encoding aspartoacylase (ASPA. ASPA-deficiency is characterized by severe psychomotor retardation, and excessive levels of the ASPA substrate N-acetylaspartate (NAA. ASPA is an oligodendrocyte marker and it is believed that CD has a central etiology. However, ASPA is also expressed by Schwann cells and ASPA-deficiency in the periphery might therefore contribute to the complex CD pathology. In this study, we assessed peripheral and central auditory function in the AspalacZ/lacZ rodent model of CD using auditory brainstem response (ABR. Increased ABR thresholds and the virtual loss of waveform peaks 4 and 5 from AspalacZ/lacZ mice, indicated altered central auditory processing in mutant mice compared with Aspawt/wt controls and altered central auditory processing. Analysis of ABR latencies recorded from AspalacZ/lacZ mice revealed that the speed of nerve conduction was unchanged in the peripheral part of the auditory pathway, and impaired in the CNS. Histological analyses confirmed that ASPA was expressed in oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells of the auditory system. In keeping with our physiological results, the cellular organization of the cochlea, including the organ of Corti, was preserved and the spiral ganglion nerve fibres were normal in ASPA-deficient mice. In contrast, we detected substantial hypomyelination in the central auditory system of AspalacZ/lacZ mice. In summary, our data suggest that the lack of ASPA in the CNS is responsible for the observed hearing deficits, while ASPA-deficiency in the cochlear nerve fibres is tolerated both morphologically and functionally.

  2. Loss of central auditory processing in a mouse model of Canavan disease.

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    von Jonquieres, Georg; Froud, Kristina E; Klugmann, Claudia B; Wong, Ann C Y; Housley, Gary D; Klugmann, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Canavan Disease (CD) is a leukodystrophy caused by homozygous null mutations in the gene encoding aspartoacylase (ASPA). ASPA-deficiency is characterized by severe psychomotor retardation, and excessive levels of the ASPA substrate N-acetylaspartate (NAA). ASPA is an oligodendrocyte marker and it is believed that CD has a central etiology. However, ASPA is also expressed by Schwann cells and ASPA-deficiency in the periphery might therefore contribute to the complex CD pathology. In this study, we assessed peripheral and central auditory function in the AspalacZ/lacZ rodent model of CD using auditory brainstem response (ABR). Increased ABR thresholds and the virtual loss of waveform peaks 4 and 5 from AspalacZ/lacZ mice, indicated altered central auditory processing in mutant mice compared with Aspawt/wt controls and altered central auditory processing. Analysis of ABR latencies recorded from AspalacZ/lacZ mice revealed that the speed of nerve conduction was unchanged in the peripheral part of the auditory pathway, and impaired in the CNS. Histological analyses confirmed that ASPA was expressed in oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells of the auditory system. In keeping with our physiological results, the cellular organization of the cochlea, including the organ of Corti, was preserved and the spiral ganglion nerve fibres were normal in ASPA-deficient mice. In contrast, we detected substantial hypomyelination in the central auditory system of AspalacZ/lacZ mice. In summary, our data suggest that the lack of ASPA in the CNS is responsible for the observed hearing deficits, while ASPA-deficiency in the cochlear nerve fibres is tolerated both morphologically and functionally.

  3. Central auditory masking by an illusory tone.

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    Plack, Christopher J; Oxenham, Andrew J; Kreft, Heather A; Carlyon, Robert P

    2013-01-01

    Many natural sounds fluctuate over time. The detectability of sounds in a sequence can be reduced by prior stimulation in a process known as forward masking. Forward masking is thought to reflect neural adaptation or neural persistence in the auditory nervous system, but it has been unclear where in the auditory pathway this processing occurs. To address this issue, the present study used a "Huggins pitch" stimulus, the perceptual effects of which depend on central auditory processing. Huggins pitch is an illusory tonal sensation produced when the same noise is presented to the two ears except for a narrow frequency band that is different (decorrelated) between the ears. The pitch sensation depends on the combination of the inputs to the two ears, a process that first occurs at the level of the superior olivary complex in the brainstem. Here it is shown that a Huggins pitch stimulus produces more forward masking in the frequency region of the decorrelation than a noise stimulus identical to the Huggins-pitch stimulus except with perfect correlation between the ears. This stimulus has a peripheral neural representation that is identical to that of the Huggins-pitch stimulus. The results show that processing in, or central to, the superior olivary complex can contribute to forward masking in human listeners.

  4. Central auditory masking by an illusory tone.

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    Christopher J Plack

    Full Text Available Many natural sounds fluctuate over time. The detectability of sounds in a sequence can be reduced by prior stimulation in a process known as forward masking. Forward masking is thought to reflect neural adaptation or neural persistence in the auditory nervous system, but it has been unclear where in the auditory pathway this processing occurs. To address this issue, the present study used a "Huggins pitch" stimulus, the perceptual effects of which depend on central auditory processing. Huggins pitch is an illusory tonal sensation produced when the same noise is presented to the two ears except for a narrow frequency band that is different (decorrelated between the ears. The pitch sensation depends on the combination of the inputs to the two ears, a process that first occurs at the level of the superior olivary complex in the brainstem. Here it is shown that a Huggins pitch stimulus produces more forward masking in the frequency region of the decorrelation than a noise stimulus identical to the Huggins-pitch stimulus except with perfect correlation between the ears. This stimulus has a peripheral neural representation that is identical to that of the Huggins-pitch stimulus. The results show that processing in, or central to, the superior olivary complex can contribute to forward masking in human listeners.

  5. Contribution of psychoacoustics and neuroaudiology in revealing correlation of mental disorders with central auditory processing disorders

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    Iliadou, V; Iakovides, S

    2003-01-01

    Background Psychoacoustics is a fascinating developing field concerned with the evaluation of the hearing sensation as an outcome of a sound or speech stimulus. Neuroaudiology with electrophysiologic testing, records the electrical activity of the auditory pathways, extending from the 8th cranial nerve up to the cortical auditory centers as a result of external auditory stimuli. Central Auditory Processing Disorders may co-exist with mental disorders and complicate diagnosis and outcome. Design A MEDLINE search was conducted to search for papers concerning the association between Central Auditory Processing Disorders and mental disorders. The research focused on the diagnostic methods providing the inter-connection of various mental disorders and central auditory deficits. Measurements and Main Results The medline research revealed 564 papers when using the keywords 'auditory deficits' and 'mental disorders'. 79 papers were referring specifically to Central Auditory Processing Disorders in connection with mental disorders. 175 papers were related to Schizophrenia, 126 to learning disabilities, 29 to Parkinson's disease, 88 to dyslexia and 39 to Alzheimer's disease. Assessment of the Central Auditory System is carried out through a great variety of tests that fall into two main categories: psychoacoustic and electrophysiologic testing. Different specialties are involved in the diagnosis and management of Central Auditory Processing Disorders as well as the mental disorders that may co-exist with them. As a result it is essential that they are all aware of the possibilities in diagnostic procedures. Conclusions Considerable evidence exists that mental disorders may correlate with CAPD and this correlation could be revealed through psychoacoustics and neuroaudiology. Mental disorders that relate to Central Auditory Processing Disorders are: Schizophrenia, attention deficit disorders, Alzheimer's disease, learning disabilities, dyslexia, depression, auditory

  6. The Central Auditory Processing Kit[TM]. Book 1: Auditory Memory [and] Book 2: Auditory Discrimination, Auditory Closure, and Auditory Synthesis [and] Book 3: Auditory Figure-Ground, Auditory Cohesion, Auditory Binaural Integration, and Compensatory Strategies.

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    Mokhemar, Mary Ann

    This kit for assessing central auditory processing disorders (CAPD), in children in grades 1 through 8 includes 3 books, 14 full-color cards with picture scenes, and a card depicting a phone key pad, all contained in a sturdy carrying case. The units in each of the three books correspond with auditory skill areas most commonly addressed in…

  7. Auditory Dysfunction in Patients with Cerebrovascular Disease

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    Sadaharu Tabuchi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Auditory dysfunction is a common clinical symptom that can induce profound effects on the quality of life of those affected. Cerebrovascular disease (CVD is the most prevalent neurological disorder today, but it has generally been considered a rare cause of auditory dysfunction. However, a substantial proportion of patients with stroke might have auditory dysfunction that has been underestimated due to difficulties with evaluation. The present study reviews relationships between auditory dysfunction and types of CVD including cerebral infarction, intracerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, cerebrovascular malformation, moyamoya disease, and superficial siderosis. Recent advances in the etiology, anatomy, and strategies to diagnose and treat these conditions are described. The numbers of patients with CVD accompanied by auditory dysfunction will increase as the population ages. Cerebrovascular diseases often include the auditory system, resulting in various types of auditory dysfunctions, such as unilateral or bilateral deafness, cortical deafness, pure word deafness, auditory agnosia, and auditory hallucinations, some of which are subtle and can only be detected by precise psychoacoustic and electrophysiological testing. The contribution of CVD to auditory dysfunction needs to be understood because CVD can be fatal if overlooked.

  8. Development of a central auditory test battery for adults.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neijenhuis, C.A.M.; Stollman, M.H.P.; Snik, A.F.M.; Broek, P. van den

    2001-01-01

    There is little standardized test material in Dutch to document central auditory processing disorders (CAPDs). Therefore, a new central auditory test battery was composed and standardized for use with adult populations and older children. The test battery comprised seven tests (words in noise,

  9. Effects of an Auditory Lateralization Training in Children Suspected to Central Auditory Processing Disorder

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    Lotfi, Yones; Moosavi, Abdollah; Abdollahi, Farzaneh Zamiri; BAKHSHI, Enayatollah; Sadjedi, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Central auditory processing disorder [(C)APD] refers to a deficit in auditory stimuli processing in nervous system that is not due to higher-order language or cognitive factors. One of the problems in children with (C)APD is spatial difficulties which have been overlooked despite their significance. Localization is an auditory ability to detect sound sources in space and can help to differentiate between the desired speech from other simultaneous sound sources. Aim o...

  10. Lateralization, connectivity and plasticity in the human central auditory system

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    Langers, DRM; van Dijk, P; Backes, WH

    2005-01-01

    Although it is known that responses in the auditory cortex are evoked predominantly contralateral to the side of stimulation, the lateralization of responses at lower levels in the human central auditory system has hardly been studied. Furthermore, little is known on the functional interactions

  11. Effect of conductive hearing loss on central auditory function

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    Arash Bayat

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: It has been demonstrated that long-term Conductive Hearing Loss (CHL may influence the precise detection of the temporal features of acoustic signals or Auditory Temporal Processing (ATP. It can be argued that ATP may be the underlying component of many central auditory processing capabilities such as speech comprehension or sound localization. Little is known about the consequences of CHL on temporal aspects of central auditory processing. Objective: This study was designed to assess auditory temporal processing ability in individuals with chronic CHL. Methods: During this analytical cross-sectional study, 52 patients with mild to moderate chronic CHL and 52 normal-hearing listeners (control, aged between 18 and 45 year-old, were recruited. In order to evaluate auditory temporal processing, the Gaps-in-Noise (GIN test was used. The results obtained for each ear were analyzed based on the gap perception threshold and the percentage of correct responses. Results: The average of GIN thresholds was significantly smaller for the control group than for the CHL group for both ears (right: p = 0.004; left: p 0.05. Conclusion: The results suggest reduced auditory temporal processing ability in adults with CHL compared to normal hearing subjects. Therefore, developing a clinical protocol to evaluate auditory temporal processing in this population is recommended.

  12. Auditory processing in patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neijenhuis, C.A.M.; Beynon, A.J.; Snik, A.F.M.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Broek, P. van den

    2003-01-01

    HYPOTHESIS: It is unclear whether Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease, type 1A, causes auditory processing disorders. Therefore, auditory processing abilities were investigated in five CMT1A patients with normal hearing. BACKGROUND: Previous studies have failed to separate peripheral from central

  13. Can Children with (Central) Auditory Processing Disorders Ignore Irrelevant Sounds?

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    Elliott, Emily M.; Bhagat, Shaum P.; Lynn, Sharon D.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of irrelevant sounds on the serial recall performance of visually presented digits in a sample of children diagnosed with (central) auditory processing disorders [(C)APD] and age- and span-matched control groups. The irrelevant sounds used were samples of tones and speech. Memory performance was significantly…

  14. Auditory confrontation naming in Alzheimer's disease.

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    Brandt, Jason; Bakker, Arnold; Maroof, David Aaron

    2010-11-01

    Naming is a fundamental aspect of language and is virtually always assessed with visual confrontation tests. Tests of the ability to name objects by their characteristic sounds would be particularly useful in the assessment of visually impaired patients, and may be particularly sensitive in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We developed an auditory naming task, requiring the identification of the source of environmental sounds (i.e., animal calls, musical instruments, vehicles) and multiple-choice recognition of those not identified. In two separate studies mild-to-moderate AD patients performed more poorly than cognitively normal elderly on the auditory naming task. This task was also more difficult than two versions of a comparable visual naming task, and correlated more highly with Mini-Mental State Exam score. Internal consistency reliability was acceptable, although ROC analysis revealed auditory naming to be slightly less successful than visual confrontation naming in discriminating AD patients from normal participants. Nonetheless, our auditory naming task may prove useful in research and clinical practice, especially with visually impaired patients.

  15. Evaluation of central auditory discrimination abilities in older adults.

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    Claudia eFreigang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study focuses on auditory discrimination abilities in older adults aged 65-89 years. We applied the ‘Leipzig Inventory for Patient Psychoacoustic’ (LIPP, a psychoacoustic test battery specifically designed to identify deficits in central auditory processing. These tests quantify the just noticeable differences (JND for the three basic acoustic parameters (i.e. frequency, intensity, and signal duration. Three different test modes (monaural, dichotic signal/noise [s/n] and interaural were used, stimulus level was 35dB sensation level. The tests are designed as three-alternative forced-choice procedure with a maximum-likelihood procedure estimating p=0,5 correct response value. These procedures have proven to be highly efficient and provide a reliable outcome. The measurements yielded significant age-dependent deteriorations in the ability to discriminate single acoustic features pointing to progressive impairments in central auditory processing. The degree of deterioration was correlated to the different acoustic features and to the test modes. Most prominent, interaural frequency and signal duration discrimination at low test frequencies was elevated which indicates a deterioration of time- and phase-dependent processing at brain stem and cortical levels. LIPP proves to be an effective tool to identify basic pathophysiological mechanisms and the source of a specific impairment in auditory processing of the elderly.

  16. Central auditory processing assessment: a French-speaking battery.

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    Demanez, L; Dony-Closon, B; Lhonneux-Ledoux, E; Demanez, J P

    2003-01-01

    Based on the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) Consensus Statement on central auditory processing and models for their exploration, a battery of audiological tests (Bilan Auditif Central--BAC) has been designed in French. The BAC consists of four types of psycho-acoustic tests: a speech-in-noise test, a dichotic test, a temporal processing test and a binaural interaction test. We briefly describe the rationale of these tests. The BAC is available in digital format. Descriptive statistics were computed on data obtained from 668 subjects divided into 15 age-groups ranging from 5 to 85 years old or over. All subjects had no complaints regarding hearing loss, normal tonal audiometry, and normal intelligence. Tests scores of the speech-in-noise test, the dichotic test and the binaural interaction test showed a normal distribution. Test scores of the temporal processing test did not follow a normal distribution. Effects of maturation and involution were clearly visible for all tests. The low correlation between scores obtained from the four tests pointed to the need for a battery of several tests to assess central auditory processing. We claim that the reported scores represent standard norms for the normal French-speaking population, and believe that the tests will be useful for evaluation of central auditory processing.

  17. The memory systems of children with (central) auditory disorder.

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    Pires, Mayra Monteiro; Mota, Mailce Borges; Pinheiro, Maria Madalena Canina

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate working, declarative, and procedural memory in children with (central) auditory processing disorder who showed poor phonological awareness. Thirty 9- and 10-year-old children participated in the study and were distributed into two groups: a control group consisting of 15 children with typical development, and an experimental group consisting of 15 children with (central) auditory processing disorder who were classified according to three behavioral tests and who showed poor phonological awareness in the CONFIAS test battery. The memory systems were assessed through the adapted tests in the program E-PRIME 2.0. The working memory was assessed by the Working Memory Test Battery for Children (WMTB-C), whereas the declarative memory was assessed by a picture-naming test and the procedural memory was assessed by means of a morphosyntactic processing test. The results showed that, when compared to the control group, children with poor phonological awareness scored lower in the working, declarative, and procedural memory tasks. The results of this study suggest that in children with (central) auditory processing disorder, phonological awareness is associated with the analyzed memory systems.

  18. Diffusion tensor imaging and MR morphometry of the central auditory pathway and auditory cortex in aging.

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    Profant, O; Škoch, A; Balogová, Z; Tintěra, J; Hlinka, J; Syka, J

    2014-02-28

    Age-related hearing loss (presbycusis) is caused mainly by the hypofunction of the inner ear, but recent findings point also toward a central component of presbycusis. We used MR morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with a 3T MR system with the aim to study the state of the central auditory system in a group of elderly subjects (>65years) with mild presbycusis, in a group of elderly subjects with expressed presbycusis and in young controls. Cortical reconstruction, volumetric segmentation and auditory pathway tractography were performed. Three parameters were evaluated by morphometry: the volume of the gray matter, the surface area of the gyrus and the thickness of the cortex. In all experimental groups the surface area and gray matter volume were larger on the left side in Heschl's gyrus and planum temporale and slightly larger in the gyrus frontalis superior, whereas they were larger on the right side in the primary visual cortex. Almost all of the measured parameters were significantly smaller in the elderly subjects in Heschl's gyrus, planum temporale and gyrus frontalis superior. Aging did not change the side asymmetry (laterality) of the gyri. In the central part of the auditory pathway above the inferior colliculus, a trend toward an effect of aging was present in the axial vector of the diffusion (L1) variable of DTI, with increased values observed in elderly subjects. A trend toward a decrease of L1 on the left side, which was more pronounced in the elderly groups, was observed. The effect of hearing loss was present in subjects with expressed presbycusis as a trend toward an increase of the radial vectors (L2L3) in the white matter under Heschl's gyrus. These results suggest that in addition to peripheral changes, changes in the central part of the auditory system in elderly subjects are also present; however, the extent of hearing loss does not play a significant role in the central changes. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd

  19. Wiring of divergent networks in the central auditory system

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    Charles C. Lee

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Divergent axonal projections are found throughout the central auditory system. Here, we evaluate these branched projections in terms of their types, distribution, and putative physiological roles. In general, three patterns of axon collateralization are found: intricate local branching, long-distance collaterals, and branched axons involved in feedback-control loops. Local collaterals in the auditory cortex may be involved in local processing and modulation of neuronal firing, while long-range collaterals are optimized for wide-dissemination of information. Rarely do axons branch to both ascending and descending targets. Branched projections to two or more widely separated nuclei or areas are numerically sparse but widespread. Finally, branching to contralateral targets is evident at multiple levels of the auditory pathway and may enhance binaural computations for sound localization. These patterns of axonal branching are comparable to those observed in other modalities. We conclude that the operations served by branched axons are area- and nucleus-specific and may complement the divergent unbranched projections of local neuronal populations.

  20. [Application of simultaneous auditory evoked potentials and functional magnetic resonance recordings for examination of central auditory system--preliminary results].

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    Milner, Rafał; Rusiniak, Mateusz; Wolak, Tomasz; Piatkowska-Janko, Ewa; Naumczyk, Patrycja; Bogorodzki, Piotr; Senderski, Andrzej; Ganc, Małgorzata; Skarzyński, Henryk

    2011-01-01

    Processing of auditory information in central nervous system bases on the series of quickly occurring neural processes that cannot be separately monitored using only the fMRI registration. Simultaneous recording of the auditory evoked potentials, characterized by good temporal resolution, and the functional magnetic resonance imaging with excellent spatial resolution allows studying higher auditory functions with precision both in time and space. was to implement the simultaneous AEP-fMRI recordings method for the investigation of information processing at different levels of central auditory system. Five healthy volunteers, aged 22-35 years, participated in the experiment. The study was performed using high-field (3T) MR scanner from Siemens and 64-channel electrophysiological system Neuroscan from Compumedics. Auditory evoked potentials generated by acoustic stimuli (standard and deviant tones) were registered using modified odd-ball procedure. Functional magnetic resonance recordings were performed using sparse acquisition paradigm. The results of electrophysiological registrations have been worked out by determining voltage distributions of AEP on skull and modeling their bioelectrical intracerebral generators (dipoles). FMRI activations were determined on the basis of deviant to standard and standard to deviant functional contrasts. Results obtained from electrophysiological studies have been integrated with functional outcomes. Morphology, amplitude, latency and voltage distribution of auditory evoked potentials (P1, N1, P2) to standard stimuli presented during simultaneous AEP-fMRI registrations were very similar to the responses obtained outside scanner room. Significant fMRI activations to standard stimuli were found mainly in the auditory cortex. Activations in these regions corresponded with N1 wave dipoles modeled based on auditory potentials generated by standard tones. Auditory evoked potentials to deviant stimuli were recorded only outside the MRI

  1. Dopaminergic medication alters auditory distractor processing in Parkinson's disease.

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    Georgiev, Dejan; Jahanshahi, Marjan; Dreo, Jurij; Čuš, Anja; Pirtošek, Zvezdan; Repovš, Grega

    2015-03-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) patients show signs of cognitive impairment, such as executive dysfunction, working memory problems and attentional disturbances, even in the early stages of the disease. Though motor symptoms of the disease are often successfully addressed by dopaminergic medication, it still remains unclear, how dopaminergic therapy affects cognitive function. The main objective of this study was to assess the effect of dopaminergic medication on visual and auditory attentional processing. 14 PD patients and 13 matched healthy controls performed a three-stimulus auditory and visual oddball task while their EEG was recorded. The patients performed the task twice, once on- and once off-medication. While the results showed no significant differences between PD patients and controls, they did reveal a significant increase in P3 amplitude on- vs. off-medication specific to processing of auditory distractors and no other stimuli. These results indicate significant effect of dopaminergic therapy on processing of distracting auditory stimuli. With a lack of between group differences the effect could reflect either 1) improved recruitment of attentional resources to auditory distractors; 2) reduced ability for cognitive inhibition of auditory distractors; 3) increased response to distractor stimuli resulting in impaired cognitive performance; or 4) hindered ability to discriminate between auditory distractors and targets. Further studies are needed to differentiate between these possibilities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Threatening auditory hallucinations and Cotard syndrome in Parkinson disease.

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    Factor, Stewart A; Molho, Eric S

    2004-01-01

    Psychotic symptoms are commonly reported in patients with Parkinson disease (PD). In particular, patients experience nonthreatening visual hallucinations that can occur with insight (so called hallucinosis) or without. Auditory hallucinations are uncommon, and schizophrenialike symptoms such as pejorative and threatening auditory hallucinations and delusions that are persecutory, referential, somatic, religious, or grandiose have rarely been reported. The authors present 2 PD patients who experienced threatening auditory hallucinations, without visual hallucinations, and schizophrenialike delusions with detailed description of the clinical phenomenology including 1 patient with Cotard syndrome.

  3. Effects of auditory cues on gait initiation and turning in patients with Parkinson's disease.

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    Gómez-González, J; Martín-Casas, P; Cano-de-la-Cuerda, R

    2016-12-08

    To review the available scientific evidence about the effectiveness of auditory cues during gait initiation and turning in patients with Parkinson's disease. We conducted a literature search in the following databases: Brain, PubMed, Medline, CINAHL, Scopus, Science Direct, Web of Science, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Library Plus, CENTRAL, Trip Database, PEDro, DARE, OTseeker, and Google Scholar. We included all studies published between 2007 and 2016 and evaluating the influence of auditory cues on independent gait initiation and turning in patients with Parkinson's disease. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed with the Jadad scale. We included 13 studies, all of which had a low methodological quality (Jadad scale score≤2). In these studies, high-intensity, high-frequency auditory cues had a positive impact on gait initiation and turning. More specifically, they 1) improved spatiotemporal and kinematic parameters; 2) decreased freezing, turning duration, and falls; and 3) increased gait initiation speed, muscle activation, and gait speed and cadence in patients with Parkinson's disease. We need studies of better methodological quality to establish the Parkinson's disease stage in which auditory cues are most beneficial, as well as to determine the most effective type and frequency of the auditory cue during gait initiation and turning in patients with Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Auditory Processing Disorders (APD): a distinct clinical disorder or not?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellen de Wit

    2015-01-01

    Presentatie CPLOL congres Florence In this systematic review, six electronic databases were searched for peer-reviewed studies using the key words auditory processing, auditory diseases, central [Mesh], and auditory perceptual. Two reviewers independently assessed relevant studies by inclusion

  5. Functional neuroanatomy of auditory scene analysis in Alzheimer's disease.

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    Golden, Hannah L; Agustus, Jennifer L; Goll, Johanna C; Downey, Laura E; Mummery, Catherine J; Schott, Jonathan M; Crutch, Sebastian J; Warren, Jason D

    2015-01-01

    Auditory scene analysis is a demanding computational process that is performed automatically and efficiently by the healthy brain but vulnerable to the neurodegenerative pathology of Alzheimer's disease. Here we assessed the functional neuroanatomy of auditory scene analysis in Alzheimer's disease using the well-known 'cocktail party effect' as a model paradigm whereby stored templates for auditory objects (e.g., hearing one's spoken name) are used to segregate auditory 'foreground' and 'background'. Patients with typical amnestic Alzheimer's disease (n = 13) and age-matched healthy individuals (n = 17) underwent functional 3T-MRI using a sparse acquisition protocol with passive listening to auditory stimulus conditions comprising the participant's own name interleaved with or superimposed on multi-talker babble, and spectrally rotated (unrecognisable) analogues of these conditions. Name identification (conditions containing the participant's own name contrasted with spectrally rotated analogues) produced extensive bilateral activation involving superior temporal cortex in both the AD and healthy control groups, with no significant differences between groups. Auditory object segregation (conditions with interleaved name sounds contrasted with superimposed name sounds) produced activation of right posterior superior temporal cortex in both groups, again with no differences between groups. However, the cocktail party effect (interaction of own name identification with auditory object segregation processing) produced activation of right supramarginal gyrus in the AD group that was significantly enhanced compared with the healthy control group. The findings delineate an altered functional neuroanatomical profile of auditory scene analysis in Alzheimer's disease that may constitute a novel computational signature of this neurodegenerative pathology.

  6. Functional neuroanatomy of auditory scene analysis in Alzheimer's disease

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    Hannah L. Golden

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Auditory scene analysis is a demanding computational process that is performed automatically and efficiently by the healthy brain but vulnerable to the neurodegenerative pathology of Alzheimer's disease. Here we assessed the functional neuroanatomy of auditory scene analysis in Alzheimer's disease using the well-known ‘cocktail party effect’ as a model paradigm whereby stored templates for auditory objects (e.g., hearing one's spoken name are used to segregate auditory ‘foreground’ and ‘background’. Patients with typical amnestic Alzheimer's disease (n = 13 and age-matched healthy individuals (n = 17 underwent functional 3T-MRI using a sparse acquisition protocol with passive listening to auditory stimulus conditions comprising the participant's own name interleaved with or superimposed on multi-talker babble, and spectrally rotated (unrecognisable analogues of these conditions. Name identification (conditions containing the participant's own name contrasted with spectrally rotated analogues produced extensive bilateral activation involving superior temporal cortex in both the AD and healthy control groups, with no significant differences between groups. Auditory object segregation (conditions with interleaved name sounds contrasted with superimposed name sounds produced activation of right posterior superior temporal cortex in both groups, again with no differences between groups. However, the cocktail party effect (interaction of own name identification with auditory object segregation processing produced activation of right supramarginal gyrus in the AD group that was significantly enhanced compared with the healthy control group. The findings delineate an altered functional neuroanatomical profile of auditory scene analysis in Alzheimer's disease that may constitute a novel computational signature of this neurodegenerative pathology.

  7. Effects of sleep deprivation on central auditory processing

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    Liberalesso Paulo Breno

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sleep deprivation is extremely common in contemporary society, and is considered to be a frequent cause of behavioral disorders, mood, alertness, and cognitive performance. Although the impacts of sleep deprivation have been studied extensively in various experimental paradigms, very few studies have addressed the impact of sleep deprivation on central auditory processing (CAP. Therefore, we examined the impact of sleep deprivation on CAP, for which there is sparse information. In the present study, thirty healthy adult volunteers (17 females and 13 males, aged 30.75 ± 7.14 years were subjected to a pure tone audiometry test, a speech recognition threshold test, a speech recognition task, the Staggered Spondaic Word Test (SSWT, and the Random Gap Detection Test (RGDT. Baseline (BSL performance was compared to performance after 24 hours of being sleep deprived (24hSD using the Student’s t test. Results Mean RGDT score was elevated in the 24hSD condition (8.0 ± 2.9 ms relative to the BSL condition for the whole cohort (6.4 ± 2.8 ms; p = 0.0005, for males (p = 0.0066, and for females (p = 0.0208. Sleep deprivation reduced SSWT scores for the whole cohort in both ears [(right: BSL, 98.4 % ± 1.8 % vs. SD, 94.2 % ± 6.3 %. p = 0.0005(left: BSL, 96.7 % ± 3.1 % vs. SD, 92.1 % ± 6.1 %, p  Conclusion Sleep deprivation impairs RGDT and SSWT performance. These findings confirm that sleep deprivation has central effects that may impair performance in other areas of life.

  8. Effects of sleep deprivation on central auditory processing.

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    Liberalesso, Paulo Breno Noronha; D'Andrea, Karlin Fabianne Klagenberg; Cordeiro, Mara L; Zeigelboim, Bianca Simone; Marques, Jair Mendes; Jurkiewicz, Ari Leon

    2012-07-23

    Sleep deprivation is extremely common in contemporary society, and is considered to be a frequent cause of behavioral disorders, mood, alertness, and cognitive performance. Although the impacts of sleep deprivation have been studied extensively in various experimental paradigms, very few studies have addressed the impact of sleep deprivation on central auditory processing (CAP). Therefore, we examined the impact of sleep deprivation on CAP, for which there is sparse information. In the present study, thirty healthy adult volunteers (17 females and 13 males, aged 30.75±7.14 years) were subjected to a pure tone audiometry test, a speech recognition threshold test, a speech recognition task, the Staggered Spondaic Word Test (SSWT), and the Random Gap Detection Test (RGDT). Baseline (BSL) performance was compared to performance after 24 hours of being sleep deprived (24hSD) using the Student's t test. Mean RGDT score was elevated in the 24hSD condition (8.0±2.9 ms) relative to the BSL condition for the whole cohort (6.4±2.8 ms; p=0.0005), for males (p=0.0066), and for females (p=0.0208). Sleep deprivation reduced SSWT scores for the whole cohort in both ears [(right: BSL, 98.4%±1.8% vs. SD, 94.2%±6.3%. p=0.0005)(left: BSL, 96.7%±3.1% vs. SD, 92.1%±6.1%, peffects were evident within both gender subgroups [(right: males, p=0.0080; females, p=0.0143)(left: males, p=0.0076; females: p=0.0010). Sleep deprivation impairs RGDT and SSWT performance. These findings confirm that sleep deprivation has central effects that may impair performance in other areas of life.

  9. Central Auditory Processing Disorders: Is It a Meaningful Construct or a Twentieth Century Unicorn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhi, Alan G.; Beasley, Daniel S.

    1985-01-01

    The article demonstrates how professional and theoretical perspectives (including psycholinguistics, behaviorist, and information processing perspectives) significantly influence the manner in which central auditory processing is viewed, assessed, and remediated. (Author/CL)

  10. Age-dependent changes of calcium related activity in the central auditory pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröschel, Moritz; Hubert, Nikolai; Müller, Susanne; Ernst, Arne; Basta, Dietmar

    2014-10-01

    Age-related hearing loss (ARHL) represents one of the most common chronic health problems that faces an aging population. In the peripheral auditory system, aging is accompanied by functional loss or degeneration of sensory as well as non-sensory tissue. It has been recently described that besides the degeneration of cochlear structures, the central auditory system is also involved in ARHL. Although mechanisms of central presbycusis are not well understood, previous animal studies have reported some signs of central neurodegeneration in the lower auditory pathway. Moreover, changes in neurophysiology are indicated by alterations in synaptic transmission. In particular, neurotransmission and spontaneous neuronal activity appear to be affected in aging animals. Therefore, it was the aim of the present study to determine the neuronal activity within the central auditory pathway in aging mice over their whole lifespan compared to a control group (young adult animals, ~3months of age) using the non-invasive manganese-enhanced MRI technique. MRI signal strength showed a comparable pattern in most investigated auditory brain areas. An increase in activity was particularly pronounced in the middle-aged groups (13 or 18 months), with the largest effect in the dorsal and ventral cochlear nucleus. In higher auditory structures, namely the inferior colliculus, medial geniculate body and auditory cortex, the enhancement was much less expressed; while a decrease was detected in the superior olivary complex. Interestingly, calcium-dependent activity reduced to control levels in the oldest animals (22 months) in the cochlear nucleus and was significantly reduced in higher auditory structures. A similar finding was also found in the hippocampus. The observed changes might be related to central neuroplasticity (including hyperactivity) as well as neurodegenerative mechanisms and represent central nervous correlates of the age-related decline in auditory processing and perception

  11. Differential diagnosis and management of central auditory processing disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chermak, G D; Hall, J W; Musiek, F E

    1999-06-01

    Children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently present difficulties performing tasks that challenge the central auditory nervous system. The relationship between ADHD and central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) is examined from the perspectives of cognitive neuroscience, audiology, and neuropsychology. The accumulating evidence provides a basis for the overlapping clinical profiles yet differentiates CAPD and ADHD as clinically distinct entities. Common and distinctive management strategies are outlined.

  12. On Diagnostic Accuracy in Audiology: Central Site of Lesion and Central Auditory Processing Disorder Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermiglio, Andrew J

    2016-02-01

    In the field of audiology a test protocol (index test) is used to determine the presence or absence of a target condition. The value of an index test rests in its diagnostic accuracy. Results from an index test must be verified through the use of a reference standard. The clinician and researcher should determine the quality and applicability of diagnostic accuracy studies. The Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy (STARD) statement was published in response to the low quality of research conducted across many fields of study. It provides guidelines for the development and interpretation of diagnostic accuracy studies. The primary purpose of this article is to assess the degree to which the main principles of diagnostic accuracy studies are used for the detection of central auditory nervous system lesions and a central auditory processing disorder (CAPD). The secondary purpose is to compare the design of these studies to select key guidelines from the STARD statement. The third purpose of this article is to present an argument against the reassignment of diagnostic accuracy values of a particular index test for one target condition (e.g., a central site of lesion) to a different target condition (e.g., a CAPD). A review of diagnostic accuracy literature on the detection of a central site of lesion reveals the use of a reference standard for the independent verification of the index test results. However, diagnostic accuracy studies involving index tests for the detection of a CAPD show that independent verification of index test results is nonexistent or at best questionable. For a particular index test, while the diagnostic accuracy for detection of a central site of lesion may have been determined appropriately, it is inappropriate to reassign these diagnostic accuracy values to a different diagnostic target such as a CAPD. American Academy of Audiology.

  13. The influence of (central auditory processing disorder in speech sound disorders

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    Tatiane Faria Barrozo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Considering the importance of auditory information for the acquisition and organization of phonological rules, the assessment of (central auditory processing contributes to both the diagnosis and targeting of speech therapy in children with speech sound disorders. OBJECTIVE: To study phonological measures and (central auditory processing of children with speech sound disorder. METHODS: Clinical and experimental study, with 21 subjects with speech sound disorder aged between 7.0 and 9.11 years, divided into two groups according to their (central auditory processing disorder. The assessment comprised tests of phonology, speech inconsistency, and metalinguistic abilities. RESULTS: The group with (central auditory processing disorder demonstrated greater severity of speech sound disorder. The cutoff value obtained for the process density index was the one that best characterized the occurrence of phonological processes for children above 7 years of age. CONCLUSION: The comparison among the tests evaluated between the two groups showed differences in some phonological and metalinguistic abilities. Children with an index value above 0.54 demonstrated strong tendencies towards presenting a (central auditory processing disorder, and this measure was effective to indicate the need for evaluation in children with speech sound disorder.

  14. The utility of visual analogs of central auditory tests in the differential diagnosis of (central) auditory processing disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellis, Teri James; Billiet, Cassie; Ross, Jody

    2011-09-01

    Cacace and McFarland (2005) have suggested that the addition of cross-modal analogs will improve the diagnostic specificity of (C)APD (central auditory processing disorder) by ensuring that deficits observed are due to the auditory nature of the stimulus and not to supra-modal or other confounds. Others (e.g., Musiek et al, 2005) have expressed concern about the use of such analogs in diagnosing (C)APD given the uncertainty as to the degree to which cross-modal measures truly are analogous and emphasize the nonmodularity of the CANs (central auditory nervous system) and its function, which precludes modality specificity of (C)APD. To date, no studies have examined the clinical utility of cross-modal (e.g., visual) analogs of central auditory tests in the differential diagnosis of (C)APD. This study investigated performance of children diagnosed with (C)APD, children diagnosed with ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder), and typically developing children on three diagnostic tests of central auditory function and their corresponding visual analogs. The study sought to determine whether deficits observed in the (C)APD group were restricted to the auditory modality and the degree to which the addition of visual analogs aids in the ability to differentiate among groups. An experimental repeated measures design was employed. Participants consisted of three groups of right-handed children (normal control, n=10; ADHD, n=10; (C)APD, n=7) with normal and symmetrical hearing sensitivity, normal or corrected-to-normal visual acuity, and no family or personal history of disorders unrelated to their primary diagnosis. Participants in Groups 2 and 3 met current diagnostic criteria for ADHD and (C)APD. Visual analogs of three tests in common clinical use for the diagnosis of (C)APD were used (Dichotic Digits [Musiek, 1983]; Frequency Patterns [Pinheiro and Ptacek, 1971]; and Duration Patterns [Pinheiro and Musiek, 1985]). Participants underwent two 1 hr test sessions

  15. Piccolo Promotes Vesicle Replenishment at a Fast Central Auditory Synapse

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    Tanvi Butola

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Piccolo and Bassoon are the two largest cytomatrix of the active zone (CAZ proteins involved in scaffolding and regulating neurotransmitter release at presynaptic active zones (AZs, but have long been discussed as being functionally redundant. We employed genetic manipulation to bring forth and segregate the role of Piccolo from that of Bassoon at central auditory synapses of the cochlear nucleus—the endbulbs of Held. These synapses specialize in high frequency synaptic transmission, ideally poised to reveal even subtle deficits in the regulation of neurotransmitter release upon molecular perturbation. Combining semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, and in vitro and in vivo electrophysiology we first studied signal transmission in Piccolo-deficient mice. Our analysis was not confounded by a cochlear deficit, as a short isoform of Piccolo (“Piccolino” present at the upstream ribbon synapses of cochlear inner hair cells (IHC, is unaffected by the mutation. Disruption of Piccolo increased the abundance of Bassoon at the AZs of endbulbs, while that of RIM1 was reduced and other CAZ proteins remained unaltered. Presynaptic fiber stimulation revealed smaller amplitude of the evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (eEPSC, while eEPSC kinetics as well as miniature EPSCs (mEPSCs remained unchanged. Cumulative analysis of eEPSC trains indicated that the reduced eEPSC amplitude of Piccolo-deficient endbulb synapses is primarily due to a reduced readily releasable pool (RRP of synaptic vesicles (SV, as was corroborated by a reduction of vesicles at the AZ found on an ultrastructural level. Release probability seemed largely unaltered. Recovery from short-term depression was slowed. We then performed a physiological analysis of endbulb synapses from mice which, in addition to Piccolo deficiency, lacked one functional allele of the Bassoon gene. Analysis of the double-mutant endbulbs revealed an increase in release probability

  16. Designing auditory cues for Parkinson's disease gait rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancela, Jorge; Moreno, Eugenio M; Arredondo, Maria T; Bonato, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Recent works have proved that Parkinson's disease (PD) patients can be largely benefit by performing rehabilitation exercises based on audio cueing and music therapy. Specially, gait can benefit from repetitive sessions of exercises using auditory cues. Nevertheless, all the experiments are based on the use of a metronome as auditory stimuli. Within this work, Human-Computer Interaction methodologies have been used to design new cues that could benefit the long-term engagement of PD patients in these repetitive routines. The study has been also extended to commercial music and musical pieces by analyzing features and characteristics that could benefit the engagement of PD patients to rehabilitation tasks.

  17. Functional imaging of the central auditory system using PET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruytjens, L.; Willemsen, A. T. M.; Van Dijk, P.; Wit, H. P.; Albers, F. W. J.

    2006-01-01

    In the last few decades functional neuroimaging tools have emerged to study the function of the human brain in vivo. These techniques have increased the knowledge of how the brain processes stimuli of different sensory modalities, including auditory processing. Positron emission tomography (PET) has

  18. The Relationship between Central Auditory Processing, Language, and Cognition in Children Being Evaluated for Central Auditory Processing Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenneman, Lauren; Cash, Elizabeth; Chermak, Gail D; Guenette, Linda; Masters, Gay; Musiek, Frank E; Brown, Mallory; Ceruti, Julianne; Fitzegerald, Krista; Geissler, Kristin; Gonzalez, Jennifer; Weihing, Jeffrey

    2017-09-01

    Pediatric central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) is frequently comorbid with other childhood disorders. However, few studies have examined the relationship between commonly used CAPD, language, and cognition tests within the same sample. The present study examined the relationship between diagnostic CAPD tests and "gold standard" measures of language and cognitive ability, the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (CELF) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC). A retrospective study. Twenty-seven patients referred for CAPD testing who scored average or better on the CELF and low average or better on the WISC were initially included. Seven children who scored below the CELF and/or WISC inclusion criteria were then added to the dataset for a second analysis, yielding a sample size of 34. Participants were administered a CAPD battery that included at least the following three CAPD tests: Frequency Patterns (FP), Dichotic Digits (DD), and Competing Sentences (CS). In addition, they were administered the CELF and WISC. Relationships between scores on CAPD, language (CELF), and cognition (WISC) tests were examined using correlation analysis. DD and FP showed significant correlations with Full Scale Intelligence Quotient, and the DD left ear and the DD interaural difference measures both showed significant correlations with working memory. However, ∼80% or more of the variance in these CAPD tests was unexplained by language and cognition measures. Language and cognition measures were more strongly correlated with each other than were the CAPD tests with any CELF or WISC scale. Additional correlations with the CAPD tests were revealed when patients who scored in the mild-moderate deficit range on the CELF and/or in the borderline low intellectual functioning range on the WISC were included in the analysis. While both the DD and FP tests showed significant correlations with one or more cognition measures, the majority of the variance in these

  19. Effect of Cognitive and Central Auditory Impairments on Satisfaction of Amplification in Hearing Impaired Older Adults

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    Younes Lotfi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Older adults show many difficulties of speech perception in noisy situations due to peripheral and central auditory impairments, and cognitive dysfunctions. One of the most common rehabilitative procedures for older adults with hearing loss is amplification. However, there is some evidence of dissatisfaction of amplification in older adults. Methods & Materials: We assessed cognitive station, central auditory function, and satisfaction of 19 participants with hearing aids using mini-mental state examination (MMSE, dichotic digits test (DDT, and the satisfaction with amplification in daily life scale respectively. Our cases had moderate sensory hearing loss in both ears. Results: Kruskal-Wallis statistics showed significant correlation between cognitive impairments (MMSE scores and satisfaction of amplification (P0.05. Conclusion: We showed central auditory processing impairments in hearing impaired older adults with cognitive dysfunctions. It is indicated that older adults with hearing loss might have cognitive impairments inducing dissatisfaction of amplification.

  20. The effect of auditory memory load on intensity resolution in individuals with Parkinson's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Kelly C.

    Purpose: The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of auditory memory load on intensity resolution in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) as compared to two groups of listeners without PD. Methods: Nineteen individuals with Parkinson's disease, ten healthy age- and hearing-matched adults, and ten healthy young adults were studied. All listeners participated in two intensity discrimination tasks differing in auditory memory load; a lower memory load, 4IAX task and a higher memory load, ABX task. Intensity discrimination performance was assessed using a bias-free measurement of signal detectability known as d' (d-prime). Listeners further participated in a continuous loudness scaling task where they were instructed to rate the loudness level of each signal intensity using a computerized 150mm visual analogue scale. Results: Group discrimination functions indicated significantly lower intensity discrimination sensitivity (d') across tasks for the individuals with PD, as compared to the older and younger controls. No significant effect of aging on intensity discrimination was observed for either task. All three listeners groups demonstrated significantly lower intensity discrimination sensitivity for the higher auditory memory load, ABX task, compared to the lower auditory memory load, 4IAX task. Furthermore, a significant effect of aging was identified for the loudness scaling condition. The younger controls were found to rate most stimuli along the continuum as significantly louder than the older controls and the individuals with PD. Conclusions: The persons with PD showed evidence of impaired auditory perception for intensity information, as compared to the older and younger controls. The significant effect of aging on loudness perception may indicate peripheral and/or central auditory involvement.

  1. Long latency auditory evoked potentials and central auditory processing in children with reading and writing alterations: Preliminary data

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    Soares, Aparecido José Couto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Presently, it is admitted that individuals with reading and writing alterations may present delay in the development of listening skills, which may interfere in the learning process. The assessment of the listening skills can occur in a behavioral way, through central auditory processing (CAP tests, or by electrophysiological assessment highlighting the long latency auditory evoked potentials (LLAEP. The use of the LLAEP as a means of complementary assessment of individuals with reading and writing alterations can become an important data both for further characterization of the alterations, as for the therapeutic guidance of this population. Objective: Characterize the CAP and the LLAEP in children with reading and writing alterations. Method: Research approved by the Institution's Ethic Commission under nº 305/10. The assessment of CAP and LLAEP was performed in 12 children aged between 8 and 12 years old (average of 10,6 years, with reading and writing alterations confirmed in specific evaluation. Results: The most altered CAP skills were temporal ordination and figure-ground for linguistic sounds. There were found altered results in P300 and in MMN. Conclusion: The individuals with reading and writing alterations performed below the expected on CAP tests. The MMN allowed a better characterization of the auditory function of this population. There was evidence of association between the CAP results and the alteration of the LLAEP.

  2. Auditory Confrontation Naming in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Jason; Bakker, Arnold; Maroof, David Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Naming is a fundamental aspect of language and is virtually always assessed with visual confrontation tests. Tests of the ability to name objects by their characteristic sounds would be particularly useful in the assessment of visually impaired patients, and may be particularly sensitive in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We developed an Auditory Naming Task, requiring the identification of the source of environmental sounds (i.e., animal calls, musical instruments, vehicles) and multiple-choice recognition of those not identified. In two separate studies, mild-to-moderate AD patients performed more poorly than cognitively normal elderly on the Auditory Naming Task. This task was also more difficult than two versions of a comparable Visual Naming Task, and correlated more highly with Mini-Mental State Exam score. Internal consistency reliability was acceptable, although ROC analysis revealed auditory naming to be slightly less successful than visual confrontation naming in discriminating AD patients from normal subjects. Nonetheless, our Auditory Naming Test may prove useful in research and clinical practice, especially with visually-impaired patients. PMID:20981630

  3. A preliminary study on the relationship between central auditory processing and childhood primary headaches in the intercritical phase

    OpenAIRE

    Ciriaco, Antonella; Russo, Angelo; Monzani, Daniele; Genovese, Elisabetta; Benincasa, Paola; Caffo, Ernesto; Pini, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Background Recently, an increasing number of articles have appeared on central auditory processing disorders, but in the literature there is only one study that evaluated the possible correlation between migraine in the critical phase and central auditory processing. The aim of our study was to assess the correlation between auditory processing information and childhood primary headaches in the intercritical phase. Methods This is an observational study. We enrolled 54 patients, 30 with prima...

  4. The correlation between central auditory processing in autistic children and their language processing abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azouz, Hanan Galal; Kozou, Hesham; Khalil, Mona; Abdou, Rania M; Sakr, Mohamed

    2014-12-01

    To study the auditory profile at different levels of the auditory system in children with ASD and to verify the role of (Central) auditory processing disorder as an essential pathology of the autistic disorder or as an associated co-morbidity, and to establish the correlation between CAP findings and the language delay in these cases. The study included 30 children with definite autistic disorder according to DSM-IV-TR criteria and ADI-R among those attending the outpatient neuropsychiatry clinic of Alexandria University Children Hospital at El Shatby. An informed consent was taken from all patients in this part of the study. Confidentiality of the records was maintained. All cases were subjected to complete history taking and examination; special assessment to language skills and evoked potentials were done. The results concluded that (central) auditory processing disorder is an essential pathology of the autistic disorder. Autistic children possess a dysfunctioning or an immature central auditory nervous system at both the brainstem and cortical levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Modality Specificity as a Criterion for Diagnosing Central Auditory Processing Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Dennis J.; Cacace, Anthony T.

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines the case for modality specificity as a criterion for improving the specificity of diagnosing central auditory processing disorders. Demonstrating the modality-specific nature of sensory processing deficits is seen as one way to rule out nonperceptual factors as explanations for observed dysfunction. (Author)

  6. [auditory Processing In Children With Cerebrovascular Disease].

    OpenAIRE

    Elias, Karla Maria Ibrahim da Freiria; Santos, Maria Francisca Colella Dos; Ciasca, Sylvia Maria; Moura-Ribeiro, Maria Valeriana Leme de

    2015-01-01

    cerebrovascular disease (CVD) during childhood is a rare condition; its short, medium and long-term characteristics deserve further investigation. The application of behavioral techniques may improve clinical characterization, thus rendering more efficient therapeutic planning and control. to describe the audiological manifestations in a child with CVD in two distinct moments of clinical follow-up. the child, with a confirmed diagnosis of a single and unilateral episode of CVD, presenting sat...

  7. Central conduction time in auditory brainstem response and ear advantage in dichotic listening across menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xu-Jun; Lau, Chi-Chuen

    2017-01-01

    The ovarian hormones fluctuate during the menstrual cycle in women. Such fluctuation of sex hormones, in particular estrogen, is believed to affect the central conduction time in auditory function as well as the language lateralization in cognitive function. However, findings are inconsistent. The underlying mechanisms are also unclear. This paper examined if there was any relation between the central conduction time and the language lateralization at different times during the menstrual cycle. Twenty young women with normal menstrual cycle were tested four times (5 to 7 days apart) across the menstrual cycle. The test battery included the electrophysiological measurement of auditory evoked response in brainstem and the speech performance in dichotic listening with monosyllables as stimulus pairs. The dichotic listening task was conducted under the non-forced, forced-right and forced-left attention. The central conduction time was defined by the time elapsed between two auditory elicited responses along the auditory pathway. The language lateralization in dichotic listening was expressed in ear advantage, which was the right-ear score minus the left-ear score. The results showed that the effects of test time were significant on both the central conduction time and the ear advantage under the forced-left attention. Overall, the interaural difference in the central conduction time correlates with the ear advantage (non-forced attention) at the beginning of the menstrual cycle. The change in central conduction time between two test times correlates significantly with the change in ear advantage under the non-forced and forced-left attention. Conclusively, the central conduction time depends on the time during the menstrual cycle, which in turn may affect the performance in dichotic listening.

  8. The representation of level and loudness in the central auditory system for unilateral stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behler, Oliver; Uppenkamp, Stefan

    2016-10-01

    Loudness is the perceptual correlate of the physical intensity of a sound. However, loudness judgments depend on a variety of other variables and can vary considerably between individual listeners. While functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been extensively used to characterize the neural representation of physical sound intensity in the human auditory system, only few studies have also investigated brain activity in relation to individual loudness. The physiological correlate of loudness perception is not yet fully understood. The present study systematically explored the interrelation of sound pressure level, ear of entry, individual loudness judgments, and fMRI activation along different stages of the central auditory system and across hemispheres for a group of normal hearing listeners. 4-kHz-bandpass filtered noise stimuli were presented monaurally to each ear at levels from 37 to 97dB SPL. One diotic condition and a silence condition were included as control conditions. The participants completed a categorical loudness scaling procedure with similar stimuli before auditory fMRI was performed. The relationship between brain activity, as inferred from blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) contrasts, and both sound level and loudness estimates were analyzed by means of functional activation maps and linear mixed effects models for various anatomically defined regions of interest in the ascending auditory pathway and in the cortex. Our findings are overall in line with the notion that fMRI activation in several regions within auditory cortex as well as in certain stages of the ascending auditory pathway might be more a direct linear reflection of perceived loudness rather than of sound pressure level. The results indicate distinct functional differences between midbrain and cortical areas as well as between specific regions within auditory cortex, suggesting a systematic hierarchy in terms of lateralization and the representation of level and

  9. Neural Hyperactivity of the Central Auditory System in Response to Peripheral Damage

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    Yi Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is increasingly appreciated that cochlear pathology is accompanied by adaptive responses in the central auditory system. The cause of cochlear pathology varies widely, and it seems that few commonalities can be drawn. In fact, despite intricate internal neuroplasticity and diverse external symptoms, several classical injury models provide a feasible path to locate responses to different peripheral cochlear lesions. In these cases, hair cell damage may lead to considerable hyperactivity in the central auditory pathways, mediated by a reduction in inhibition, which may underlie some clinical symptoms associated with hearing loss, such as tinnitus. Homeostatic plasticity, the most discussed and acknowledged mechanism in recent years, is most likely responsible for excited central activity following cochlear damage.

  10. The influence of (central) auditory processing disorder on the severity of speech-sound disorders in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Nadia; Barrozo, Tatiane Faria; Pagan-Neves, Luciana de Oliveira; Sanches, Seisse Gabriela Gandolfi; Wertzner, Haydée Fiszbein; Carvallo, Renata Mota Mamede

    2016-02-01

    To identify a cutoff value based on the Percentage of Consonants Correct-Revised index that could indicate the likelihood of a child with a speech-sound disorder also having a (central) auditory processing disorder . Language, audiological and (central) auditory processing evaluations were administered. The participants were 27 subjects with speech-sound disorders aged 7 to 10 years and 11 months who were divided into two different groups according to their (central) auditory processing evaluation results. When a (central) auditory processing disorder was present in association with a speech disorder, the children tended to have lower scores on phonological assessments. A greater severity of speech disorder was related to a greater probability of the child having a (central) auditory processing disorder. The use of a cutoff value for the Percentage of Consonants Correct-Revised index successfully distinguished between children with and without a (central) auditory processing disorder. The severity of speech-sound disorder in children was influenced by the presence of (central) auditory processing disorder. The attempt to identify a cutoff value based on a severity index was successful.

  11. The influence of (central auditory processing disorder on the severity of speech-sound disorders in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Vilela

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify a cutoff value based on the Percentage of Consonants Correct-Revised index that could indicate the likelihood of a child with a speech-sound disorder also having a (central auditory processing disorder. METHODS: Language, audiological and (central auditory processing evaluations were administered. The participants were 27 subjects with speech-sound disorders aged 7 to 10 years and 11 months who were divided into two different groups according to their (central auditory processing evaluation results. RESULTS: When a (central auditory processing disorder was present in association with a speech disorder, the children tended to have lower scores on phonological assessments. A greater severity of speech disorder was related to a greater probability of the child having a (central auditory processing disorder. The use of a cutoff value for the Percentage of Consonants Correct-Revised index successfully distinguished between children with and without a (central auditory processing disorder. CONCLUSIONS: The severity of speech-sound disorder in children was influenced by the presence of (central auditory processing disorder. The attempt to identify a cutoff value based on a severity index was successful.

  12. The influence of (central) auditory processing disorder on the severity of speech-sound disorders in children

    OpenAIRE

    Nadia Vilela; Tatiane Faria Barrozo; Luciana de Oliveira Pagan-Neves; Seisse Gabriela Gandolfi Sanches; Haydée Fiszbein Wertzner; Renata Mota Mamede Carvallo

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify a cutoff value based on the Percentage of Consonants Correct-Revised index that could indicate the likelihood of a child with a speech-sound disorder also having a (central) auditory processing disorder . METHODS: Language, audiological and (central) auditory processing evaluations were administered. The participants were 27 subjects with speech-sound disorders aged 7 to 10 years and 11 months who were divided into two different groups according to their (central) audi...

  13. Sensorineural hearing loss amplifies neural coding of envelope information in the central auditory system of chinchillas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Ziwei; Henry, Kenneth S; Heinz, Michael G

    2014-03-01

    People with sensorineural hearing loss often have substantial difficulty understanding speech under challenging listening conditions. Behavioral studies suggest that reduced sensitivity to the temporal structure of sound may be responsible, but underlying neurophysiological pathologies are incompletely understood. Here, we investigate the effects of noise-induced hearing loss on coding of envelope (ENV) structure in the central auditory system of anesthetized chinchillas. ENV coding was evaluated noninvasively using auditory evoked potentials recorded from the scalp surface in response to sinusoidally amplitude modulated tones with carrier frequencies of 1, 2, 4, and 8 kHz and a modulation frequency of 140 Hz. Stimuli were presented in quiet and in three levels of white background noise. The latency of scalp-recorded ENV responses was consistent with generation in the auditory midbrain. Hearing loss amplified neural coding of ENV at carrier frequencies of 2 kHz and above. This result may reflect enhanced ENV coding from the periphery and/or an increase in the gain of central auditory neurons. In contrast to expectations, hearing loss was not associated with a stronger adverse effect of increasing masker intensity on ENV coding. The exaggerated neural representation of ENV information shown here at the level of the auditory midbrain helps to explain previous findings of enhanced sensitivity to amplitude modulation in people with hearing loss under some conditions. Furthermore, amplified ENV coding may potentially contribute to speech perception problems in people with cochlear hearing loss by acting as a distraction from more salient acoustic cues, particularly in fluctuating backgrounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Random Gap Detection Test (RGDT) performance of individuals with central auditory processing disorders from 5 to 25 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Karin Ziliotto; Jutras, Benoît; Acrani, Isabela Olszanski; Pereira, Liliane Desgualdo

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the auditory temporal resolution ability in individuals with central auditory processing disorders, to examine the maturation effect and to investigate the relationship between the performance on a temporal resolution test with the performance on other central auditory tests. Participants were divided in two groups: 131 with Central Auditory Processing Disorder and 94 with normal auditory processing. They had pure-tone air-conduction thresholds no poorer than 15 dB HL bilaterally, normal admittance measures and presence of acoustic reflexes. Also, they were assessed with a central auditory test battery. Participants who failed at least one or more tests were included in the Central Auditory Processing Disorder group and those in the control group obtained normal performance on all tests. Following the auditory processing assessment, the Random Gap Detection Test was administered to the participants. A three-way ANOVA was performed. Correlation analyses were also done between the four Random Gap Detection Test subtests data as well as between Random Gap Detection Test data and the other auditory processing test results. There was a significant difference between the age-group performances in children with and without Central Auditory Processing Disorder. Also, 48% of children with Central Auditory Processing Disorder failed the Random Gap Detection Test and the percentage decreased as a function of age. The highest percentage (86%) was found in the 5-6 year-old children. Furthermore, results revealed a strong significant correlation between the four Random Gap Detection Test subtests. There was a modest correlation between the Random Gap Detection Test results and the dichotic listening tests. No significant correlation was observed between the Random Gap Detection Test data and the results of the other tests in the battery. Random Gap Detection Test should not be administered to children younger than 7 years old because

  15. The role of event-related brain potentials in assessing central auditory processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alain, Claude; Tremblay, Kelly

    2007-01-01

    The perception of complex acoustic signals such as speech and music depends on the interaction between peripheral and central auditory processing. As information travels from the cochlea to primary and associative auditory cortices, the incoming sound is subjected to increasingly more detailed and refined analysis. These various levels of analyses are thought to include low-level automatic processes that detect, discriminate and group sounds that are similar in physical attributes such as frequency, intensity, and location as well as higher-level schema-driven processes that reflect listeners' experience and knowledge of the auditory environment. In this review, we describe studies that have used event-related brain potentials in investigating the processing of complex acoustic signals (e.g., speech, music). In particular, we examine the role of hearing loss on the neural representation of sound and how cognitive factors and learning can help compensate for perceptual difficulties. The notion of auditory scene analysis is used as a conceptual framework for interpreting and studying the perception of sound.

  16. Abnormalities in central auditory maturation in children with language-based learning problems.

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    Gilley, Phillip M; Sharma, Anu; Dorman, Michael; Martin, Kathryn

    2006-09-01

    To examine maturation of the central auditory pathways in children with language-based learning problems (LP). Cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs) recorded from 26 children with LP were compared to CAEPs recorded from 38 typical children. CAEP responses were recorded in response to a speech sound, /uh/, which was presented in a stimulus train with decreasing inter-stimulus intervals (ISIs) of 2000, 1000, 560, and 360 ms. We identified three atypical morphological categories of CAEP responses in the LP group. Category 1 responses revealed delayed P1 latencies and absent N1/P2 components. Category 2 responses revealed typical P1 responses, but delayed N1 and P2 responses. Category 3 responses revealed generally low-amplitude CAEP responses. A fourth sub-group of LP children had normal CAEP responses. Overall, the majority of children with LP had abnormal CAEP responses. These children fell into distinct categories based on the abnormalities in maturational patterns of their CAEP responses. We describe a rate sensitive stimulation paradigm which may be used to identify and categorize LP children who exhibit abnormal patterns of central auditory maturation.

  17. Right cerebral hemisphere and central auditory processing in children with developmental dyslexia.

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    Murphy-Ruiz, Paulina C; Peñaloza-López, Yolanda R; García-Pedroza, Felipe; Poblano, Adrián

    2013-11-01

    We hypothesized that if the right hemisphere auditory processing abilities can be altered in children with developmental dyslexia (DD), we can detect dysfunction using specific tests. We performed an analytical comparative cross-sectional study. We studied 20 right-handed children with DD and 20 healthy right-handed control subjects (CS). Children in both groups were age, gender, and school-grade matched. Focusing on the right hemisphere's contribution, we utilized tests to measure alterations in central auditory processing (CAP), such as determination of frequency patterns; sound duration; music pitch recognition; and identification of environmental sounds. We compared results among the two groups. Children with DD showed lower performance than CS in all CAP subtests, including those that preferentially engaged the cerebral right hemisphere. Our data suggests a significant contribution of the right hemisphere in alterations of CAP in children with DD. Thus, right hemisphere CAP must be considered for examination and rehabilitation of children with DD.

  18. [(Central) Auditory Processing Disorders in Childhood--a Chimera or are Useful Clinical Diagnostic Tests Missing?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiese-Himmel, C

    2008-11-01

    (Central) Auditory Processing Disorders (C)APD are becoming ever more diagnosed in children, though there is no agreement on diagnostic markers (gold standard for (C)APD diagnosis). In Germany, the diagnostics of (C)APD in the paediatric population is based on test measurements including phonological processing rather than on a valid theoretical model to guide clinicians. The evaluation of the clinical significance of central auditory functions as well as the number of the behavioural tests which should be performed are left to the diagnostician. The present study reviewed retrospectively test scores from a health care research database containing 167 children suspected of having a (C)APD. A total of 51 children participated in the study: 39 children identified with monosymptomatic (C)APD (on the basis of commonly used (C)APD tests with scores > or = 2 SDs below the mean on at least 2 tests) and 12 children who did not receive a (C)APD diagnosis (non-(C)APD). A stepwise discriminant analysis was performed with the five phonological measures of the psychological (C)APD-diagnostics in the German language: Nonword repetition by the Mottier-Test; the subtest "Recall of sentences" by the Heidelberger Sprachentwicklungstest for Language Development; "Digit Recall" by the German version of the K-ABC-subtest; "Auditory Closure" and "Sound Blending" by the subtests of the German version of the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities. Next the discriminant function of the model was examined. Performance in the normed tests (K-ABC Digit Recall: T-score 44.2, p = 0.0029; Sentence Recall: T-score 42.4, p = 0.0002; Auditory Closure: T-score 49.9, p = 0.0130; Sound Blending: T-score 47.2 p = 0.0121) and in nonword repetition (Mottier: 15.9 raw scores, p diagnostic instruments.

  19. Diffusion Tensor Imaging of Central Auditory Pathways in Patients with Sensorineural Hearing Loss: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarabichi, Osama; Kozin, Elliott D; Kanumuri, Vivek V; Barber, Samuel; Ghosh, Satra; Sitek, Kevin R; Reinshagen, Katherine; Herrmann, Barbara; Remenschneider, Aaron K; Lee, Daniel J

    2017-11-01

    Objective The radiologic evaluation of patients with hearing loss includes computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to highlight temporal bone and cochlear nerve anatomy. The central auditory pathways are often not studied for routine clinical evaluation. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is an emerging MRI-based modality that can reveal microstructural changes in white matter. In this systematic review, we summarize the value of DTI in the detection of structural changes of the central auditory pathways in patients with sensorineural hearing loss. Data Sources PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane. Review Methods We used the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis statement checklist for study design. All studies that included at least 1 sensorineural hearing loss patient with DTI outcome data were included. Results After inclusion and exclusion criteria were met, 20 articles were analyzed. Patients with bilateral hearing loss comprised 60.8% of all subjects. Patients with unilateral or progressive hearing loss and tinnitus made up the remaining studies. The auditory cortex and inferior colliculus (IC) were the most commonly studied regions using DTI, and most cases were found to have changes in diffusion metrics, such as fractional anisotropy, compared to normal hearing controls. Detectable changes in other auditory regions were reported, but there was a higher degree of variability. Conclusion White matter changes based on DTI metrics can be seen in patients with sensorineural hearing loss, but studies are few in number with modest sample sizes. Further standardization of DTI using a prospective study design with larger sample sizes is needed.

  20. Influence of Acoustic Overstimulation on the Central Auditory System: An Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolak, Tomasz; Cieśla, Katarzyna; Rusiniak, Mateusz; Piłka, Adam; Lewandowska, Monika; Pluta, Agnieszka; Skarżyński, Henryk; Skarżyński, Piotr H

    2016-11-28

    BACKGROUND The goal of the fMRI experiment was to explore the involvement of central auditory structures in pathomechanisms of a behaviorally manifested auditory temporary threshold shift in humans. MATERIAL AND METHODS The material included 18 healthy volunteers with normal hearing. Subjects in the exposure group were presented with 15 min of binaural acoustic overstimulation of narrowband noise (3 kHz central frequency) at 95 dB(A). The control group was not exposed to noise but instead relaxed in silence. Auditory fMRI was performed in 1 session before and 3 sessions after acoustic overstimulation and involved 3.5-4.5 kHz sweeps. RESULTS The outcomes of the study indicate a possible effect of acoustic overstimulation on central processing, with decreased brain responses to auditory stimulation up to 20 min after exposure to noise. The effect can be seen already in the primary auditory cortex. Decreased BOLD signal change can be due to increased excitation thresholds and/or increased spontaneous activity of auditory neurons throughout the auditory system. CONCLUSIONS The trial shows that fMRI can be a valuable tool in acoustic overstimulation studies but has to be used with caution and considered complimentary to audiological measures. Further methodological improvements are needed to distinguish the effects of TTS and neuronal habituation to repetitive stimulation.

  1. Loss of auditory sensitivity from inner hair cell synaptopathy can be centrally compensated in the young but not old brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möhrle, Dorit; Ni, Kun; Varakina, Ksenya; Bing, Dan; Lee, Sze Chim; Zimmermann, Ulrike; Knipper, Marlies; Rüttiger, Lukas

    2016-08-01

    A dramatic shift in societal demographics will lead to rapid growth in the number of older people with hearing deficits. Poorer performance in suprathreshold speech understanding and temporal processing with age has been previously linked with progressing inner hair cell (IHC) synaptopathy that precedes age-dependent elevation of auditory thresholds. We compared central sound responsiveness after acoustic trauma in young, middle-aged, and older rats. We demonstrate that IHC synaptopathy progresses from middle age onward and hearing threshold becomes elevated from old age onward. Interestingly, middle-aged animals could centrally compensate for the loss of auditory fiber activity through an increase in late auditory brainstem responses (late auditory brainstem response wave) linked to shortening of central response latencies. In contrast, old animals failed to restore central responsiveness, which correlated with reduced temporal resolution in responding to amplitude changes. These findings may suggest that cochlear IHC synaptopathy with age does not necessarily induce temporal auditory coding deficits, as long as the capacity to generate neuronal gain maintains normal sound-induced central amplitudes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Reduced Cochlear Output and the Failure to Adapt the Central Auditory Response Causes Tinnitus in Noise Exposed Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Masahiro; Lee, Sze Chim; Zuccotti, Annalisa; Zimmermann, Ulrike; Jaumann, Mirko; Rohbock, Karin; Xiong, Hao; Knipper, Marlies

    2013-01-01

    Tinnitus is proposed to be caused by decreased central input from the cochlea, followed by increased spontaneous and evoked subcortical activity that is interpreted as compensation for increased responsiveness of central auditory circuits. We compared equally noise exposed rats separated into groups with and without tinnitus for differences in brain responsiveness relative to the degree of deafferentation in the periphery. We analyzed (1) the number of CtBP2/RIBEYE-positive particles in ribbon synapses of the inner hair cell (IHC) as a measure for deafferentation; (2) the fine structure of the amplitudes of auditory brainstem responses (ABR) reflecting differences in sound responses following decreased auditory nerve activity and (3) the expression of the activity-regulated gene Arc in the auditory cortex (AC) to identify long-lasting central activity following sensory deprivation. Following moderate trauma, 30% of animals exhibited tinnitus, similar to the tinnitus prevalence among hearing impaired humans. Although both tinnitus and no-tinnitus animals exhibited a reduced ABR wave I amplitude (generated by primary auditory nerve fibers), IHCs ribbon loss and high-frequency hearing impairment was more severe in tinnitus animals, associated with significantly reduced amplitudes of the more centrally generated wave IV and V and less intense staining of Arc mRNA and protein in the AC. The observed severe IHCs ribbon loss, the minimal restoration of ABR wave size, and reduced cortical Arc expression suggest that tinnitus is linked to a failure to adapt central circuits to reduced cochlear input. PMID:23516401

  3. Adverse effects of pesticides on central auditory functions in tobacco growers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, Denise Maria Vaz Romano; Bender Moreira Lacerda, Adriana; Lobato, Diolen; Ribas, Angela; Ziliotto Dias, Karin; Leroux, Tony; Fuente, Adrian

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the effects of exposure to pesticides on the central auditory functions (CAF) of Brazilian tobacco growers. This was a cross-sectional study carried out between 2010 and 2012. Participants were evaluated with two behavioural procedures to investigate CAF, the random gap detection test (RGDT) and the dichotic digit test in Portuguese (DDT). A total of 22 growers exposed to pesticides (study group) and 21 subjects who were not exposed to pesticides (control group) were selected. No significant differences between groups were observed for pure-tone thresholds. A significant association between pesticide exposure and the results for RGDT and DDT was found. Significant differences between pesticide-exposed and nonexposed subjects were found for RGDT frequency average and DDT binaural average, when including age and hearing level as covariates. Age was significantly associated with RGDT frequency average, DDT left ear score, DDT binaural average and DDT right ear advantage. Hearing levels were not significantly associated with any of the test scores. The relative risk of failing the DDT and RGDT for the study group was 1.88 (95% CI: 1.10-3.20) and 1.74 (95% CI: 1.06-2.86), respectively, as compared with the control group. The results showed that tobacco growers exposed to pesticides exhibited signs of central auditory dysfunction characterised by decrements in temporal processing and binaural integration processes/abilities.

  4. Central Auditory Maturation and Behavioral Outcome in Children with Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder who Use Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardon, Garrett; Sharma, Anu

    2013-01-01

    Objective We examined cortical auditory development and behavioral outcomes in children with ANSD fitted with cochlear implants (CI). Design Cortical maturation, measured by P1 cortical auditory evoked potential (CAEP) latency, was regressed against scores on the Infant Toddler Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale (IT-MAIS). Implantation age was also considered in relation to CAEP findings. Study Sample Cross-sectional and longitudinal samples of 24 and 11 children, respectively, with ANSD fitted with CIs. Result P1 CAEP responses were present in all children after implantation, though previous findings suggest that only 50-75% of ANSD children with hearing aids show CAEP responses. P1 CAEP latency was significantly correlated with participants' IT-MAIS scores. Furthermore, more children implanted before age two years showed normal P1 latencies, while those implanted later mainly showed delayed latencies. Longitudinal analysis revealed that most children showed normal or improved cortical maturation after implantation. Conclusion Cochlear implantation resulted in measureable cortical auditory development for all children with ANSD. Children fitted with CIs under age two years were more likely to show age-appropriate CAEP responses within 6 months after implantation, suggesting a possible sensitive period for cortical auditory development in ANSD. That CAEP responses were correlated with behavioral outcome highlights their clinical decision-making utility. PMID:23819618

  5. Central auditory maturation and behavioral outcome in children with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder who use cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardon, Garrett; Sharma, Anu

    2013-09-01

    We examined cortical auditory development and behavioral outcomes in children with ANSD fitted with cochlear implants (CI). Cortical maturation, measured by P1 cortical auditory evoked potential (CAEP) latency, was regressed against scores on the infant toddler meaningful auditory integration scale (IT-MAIS). Implantation age was also considered in relation to CAEP findings. Cross-sectional and longitudinal samples of 24 and 11 children, respectively, with ANSD fitted with CIs. P1 CAEP responses were present in all children after implantation, though previous findings suggest that only 50-75% of ANSD children with hearing aids show CAEP responses. P1 CAEP latency was significantly correlated with participants' IT-MAIS scores. Furthermore, more children implanted before age two years showed normal P1 latencies, while those implanted later mainly showed delayed latencies. Longitudinal analysis revealed that most children showed normal or improved cortical maturation after implantation. Cochlear implantation resulted in measureable cortical auditory development for all children with ANSD. Children fitted with CIs under age two years were more likely to show age-appropriate CAEP responses within six months after implantation, suggesting a possible sensitive period for cortical auditory development in ANSD. That CAEP responses were correlated with behavioral outcome highlights their clinical decision-making utility.

  6. [Manganese enhanced magnetic resonance imaging investigation in the central auditory pathway of the cat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, T; Zeng, R; Wang, X X; Xian, J F

    2016-04-19

    To compare enhancement of the central auditory pathway in cats receiving auditory stimulation between manganese enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) with intraperitoneal manganese injection route and MEMRI with intratympanic manganese injection route, and investigate the optimal method for displaying enhancement of the central auditory pathway. Twenty-seven normal hearing adult cats were randomly divided into three groups, receiving intraperitoneal manganese injection, left intratympanic manganese injection or left intratympanic gadolinium injection respectively.All cats received white noise stimulation of 80 dB in twenty-four hours after injection.Three dimensionally coronal T1-weighted imaging of the cat brain was obtained with an animal dedicated MRI scanner.The signal noise ratios (SNRs) of bilateral cochlear nuclei (CN), dorsal nuclei of the trapezoid bodies (DNTB), caudal colliculi (CC) and auditory cortices (AC) were measured on reconstructed images and compared. Obvious increased SNRs on both sides were shown in intraperitoneal mangasese injection group while left predilection was shown in intratympanic manganese injection group: left CN 45.7±6.0, 37.4±11.9, 23.9±2.7, F=17.694, P=0.000; left DNTB 50.5±11.2, 37.1±11.2, 27.6±7.3, F=11.781, P=0.000; left CC 37.6±3.9, 22.6±3.1, 17.9±0.7, F=111.898, P=0.000; left AC 27.7±2.5, 17.3±2.3, 14.5±1.0, F=105.132, P=0.000; right CN 42.7±8.3, 23.9±3.0, 22.7±2.1, F=41.492, P=0.000; right DNTB 44.1±8.3, 21.9±3.0, 23.9±4.0, F=27.862, P=0.000; right CC 38.0±4.0, 21.9±3.0, 17.6±0.9, F=120.032, P=0.000; right AC 26.7±3.4, 17.1±2.9, 14.9±1.3, F=64.587, P=0.000.Compared with the left intratympanic gadolinium injection group, the intraperitoneal manganese injection group showed higher SNRs in bilateral CN and CC (Pmanganese injection group showed higher SNRs in left CN, AC and bilateral CC.The SNRs of right CN, bilateral DNTB, CC and AC were significantly higher in the intraperitoneal manganese

  7. Results from a National Central Auditory Processing Disorder Service: A Real-World Assessment of Diagnostic Practices and Remediation for Central Auditory Processing Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Sharon; Glyde, Helen; Dillon, Harvey; King, Alison; Gillies, Karin

    2015-11-01

    This article describes the development and evaluation of a national service to diagnose and remediate central auditory processing disorder (CAPD). Data were gathered from 38 participating Australian Hearing centers over an 18-month period from 666 individuals age 6, 0 (years, months) to 24, 8 (median 9, 0). A total of 408 clients were diagnosed with either a spatial processing disorder (n = 130), a verbal memory deficit (n = 174), or a binaural integration deficit (n = 104). A hierarchical test protocol was used so not all children were assessed on all tests in the battery. One hundred fifty clients decided to proceed with deficit-specific training (LiSN & Learn or Memory Booster) and/or be fitted with a frequency modulation system. Families were provided with communication strategies targeted to a child's specific listening difficulties and goals. Outcomes were measured using repeat assessment of the relevant diagnostic test, as well as the Client Oriented Scale of Improvement measure and Listening Inventories for Education teacher questionnaire. Group analyses revealed significant improvements postremediation for all training/management options. Individual posttraining performance and results of outcome measures also are discussed.

  8. Catecholaminergic innervation of central and peripheral auditory circuitry varies with reproductive state in female midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M Forlano

    Full Text Available In seasonal breeding vertebrates, hormone regulation of catecholamines, which include dopamine and noradrenaline, may function, in part, to modulate behavioral responses to conspecific vocalizations. However, natural seasonal changes in catecholamine innervation of auditory nuclei is largely unexplored, especially in the peripheral auditory system, where encoding of social acoustic stimuli is initiated. The plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus, has proven to be an excellent model to explore mechanisms underlying seasonal peripheral auditory plasticity related to reproductive social behavior. Recently, we demonstrated robust catecholaminergic (CA innervation throughout the auditory system in midshipman. Most notably, dopaminergic neurons in the diencephalon have widespread projections to auditory circuitry including direct innervation of the saccule, the main endorgan of hearing, and the cholinergic octavolateralis efferent nucleus (OE which also projects to the inner ear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that gravid, reproductive summer females show differential CA innervation of the auditory system compared to non-reproductive winter females. We utilized quantitative immunofluorescence to measure tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive (TH-ir fiber density throughout central auditory nuclei and the sensory epithelium of the saccule. Reproductive females exhibited greater density of TH-ir innervation in two forebrain areas including the auditory thalamus and greater density of TH-ir on somata and dendrites of the OE. In contrast, non-reproductive females had greater numbers of TH-ir terminals in the saccule and greater TH-ir fiber density in a region of the auditory hindbrain as well as greater numbers of TH-ir neurons in the preoptic area. These data provide evidence that catecholamines may function, in part, to seasonally modulate the sensitivity of the inner ear and, in turn, the appropriate behavioral response to reproductive acoustic

  9. Investigation of a new electrode array technology for a central auditory prosthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Calixto

    Full Text Available Ongoing clinical studies on patients recently implanted with the auditory midbrain implant (AMI into the inferior colliculus (IC for hearing restoration have shown that these patients do not achieve performance levels comparable to cochlear implant patients. The AMI consists of a single-shank array (20 electrodes for stimulation along the tonotopic axis of the IC. Recent findings suggest that one major limitation in AMI performance is the inability to sufficiently activate neurons across the three-dimensional (3-D IC. Unfortunately, there are no currently available 3-D array technologies that can be used for clinical applications. More recently, there has been a new initiative by the European Commission to fund and develop 3-D chronic electrode arrays for science and clinical applications through the NeuroProbes project that can overcome the bulkiness and limited 3-D configurations of currently available array technologies. As part of the NeuroProbes initiative, we investigated whether their new array technology could be potentially used for future AMI patients. Since the NeuroProbes technology had not yet been tested for electrical stimulation in an in vivo animal preparation, we performed experiments in ketamine-anesthetized guinea pigs in which we inserted and stimulated a NeuroProbes array within the IC and recorded the corresponding neural activation within the auditory cortex. We used 2-D arrays for this initial feasibility study since they were already available and were sufficient to access the IC and also demonstrate effective activation of the central auditory system. Based on these encouraging results and the ability to develop customized 3-D arrays with the NeuroProbes technology, we can further investigate different stimulation patterns across the ICC to improve AMI performance.

  10. Auditory post-processing in a passive listening task is deficient in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Stephan; Bluschke, Annet; Dippel, Gabriel; Rupp, André; Weisbrod, Matthias; Thomas, Christine

    2014-01-01

    To investigate whether automatic auditory post-processing is deficient in patients with Alzheimer's disease and is related to sensory gating. Event-related potentials were recorded during a passive listening task to examine the automatic transient storage of auditory information (short click pairs). Patients with Alzheimer's disease were compared to a healthy age-matched control group. A young healthy control group was included to assess effects of physiological aging. A bilateral frontal negativity in combination with deep temporal positivity occurring 500 ms after stimulus offset was reduced in patients with Alzheimer's disease, but was unaffected by physiological aging. Its amplitude correlated with short-term memory capacity, but was independent of sensory gating in healthy elderly controls. Source analysis revealed a dipole pair in the anterior temporal lobes. Results suggest that auditory post-processing is deficient in Alzheimer's disease, but is not typically related to sensory gating. The deficit could neither be explained by physiological aging nor by problems in earlier stages of auditory perception. Correlations with short-term memory capacity and executive control tasks suggested an association with memory encoding and/or overall cognitive control deficits. An auditory late negative wave could represent a marker of auditory working memory encoding deficits in Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Right cerebral hemisphere and central auditory processing in children with developmental dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina C. Murphy-Ruiz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective We hypothesized that if the right hemisphere auditory processing abilities can be altered in children with developmental dyslexia (DD, we can detect dysfunction using specific tests. Method We performed an analytical comparative cross-sectional study. We studied 20 right-handed children with DD and 20 healthy right-handed control subjects (CS. Children in both groups were age, gender, and school-grade matched. Focusing on the right hemisphere’s contribution, we utilized tests to measure alterations in central auditory processing (CAP, such as determination of frequency patterns; sound duration; music pitch recognition; and identification of environmental sounds. We compared results among the two groups. Results Children with DD showed lower performance than CS in all CAP subtests, including those that preferentially engaged the cerebral right hemisphere. Conclusion Our data suggests a significant contribution of the right hemisphere in alterations of CAP in children with DD. Thus, right hemisphere CAP must be considered for examination and rehabilitation of children with DD.

  12. Relationship between central auditory processing and reading skills: preliminary observations in Hebrew speaking children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Mimran, Ravit; Sapir, Shimon

    2008-01-01

    To assess the relationships between central auditory processing (CAP) of sinusoidally modulated speech-like and non-speech acoustic signals and reading skills in shallow (pointed) and deep (unpointed) Hebrew orthographies. Twenty unselected fifth-grade Hebrew speakers performed a rate change detection (RCD) task using the aforementioned acoustic signals. They also performed reading and general ability (IQ) tests. After controlling for general ability, RCD tasks contributed a significant unique variance to the decoding skills. In addition, there was a fairly strong correlation between the score on the RCD with the speech-like stimuli and the unpointed text reading score. CAP abilities may affect reading skills, depending on the nature of orthography (deep vs shallow), at least in the Hebrew language.

  13. Assessment of Functional Hearing in Greek-Speaking Children Diagnosed with Central Auditory Processing Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidiras, Chris; Iliadou, Vasiliki Vivian; Chermak, Gail D; Nimatoudis, Ioannis

    2016-05-01

    Including speech recognition in noise testing in audiological evaluations may reveal functional hearing deficits that may otherwise remain undetected. The current study explored the potential utility of the Speech-in-Babble (SinB) test in the assessment of central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) in young children for whom diagnosis is challenging. A cross-sectional analysis. Forty-one Greek children 4-13 yr of age diagnosed with CAPD and exhibiting listening and academic problems (clinical group) and 20 age-matched controls with no listening or academic problems participated in the study. All participants' auditory processing was assessed using the same tests and instrumentation in a sound-treated room. Two equivalent lists of the SinB test, developed at the Psychoacoustic Laboratory of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, were administered monaurally in a counterbalanced order. SinB consists of lists of 50 phonetically balanced disyllabic words presented in background multitalker babble. Five signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) were used in a fixed order. The children were instructed to repeat the word after each presentation. The SNR at which the child achieved 50% correct word identification served as the dependent variable or outcome measure, with higher SinB scores (measured in SNR dB) corresponding to poorer performance. SinB performance was better (lower SNR) for the normal control group versus the clinical group [F(1,35) = 43.03, p children with CAPD with and without comorbid conditions revealed no significant differences between groups [F(1,38) = 0.149, p > 0.05]. This study offers the first detailed presentation of the performance of Greek children on a Greek language SinB test. The main finding is that SinB scores improved as a function of age in a constant manner as represented by the slope of the linear regression line for both CAPD and control groups. Results suggest that this speech recognition in competition test holds promise for differentiating

  14. The Relationship between Brainstem Temporal Processing and Performance on Tests of Central Auditory Function in Children with Reading Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billiet, Cassandra R.; Bellis, Teri James

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Studies using speech stimuli to elicit electrophysiologic responses have found approximately 30% of children with language-based learning problems demonstrate abnormal brainstem timing. Research is needed regarding how these responses relate to performance on behavioral tests of central auditory function. The purpose of the study was to…

  15. Behavioral Signs of (Central) Auditory Processing Disorder in Children With Nonsyndromic Cleft Lip and/or Palate: A Parental Questionnaire Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoran; McPherson, Bradley; Ma, Lian

    2016-03-01

    Objective Children with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate often have a high prevalence of middle ear dysfunction. However, there are also indications that they may have a higher prevalence of (central) auditory processing disorder. This study used Fisher's Auditory Problems Checklist for caregivers to determine whether children with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate have potentially more auditory processing difficulties compared with craniofacially normal children. Methods Caregivers of 147 school-aged children with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate were recruited for the study. This group was divided into three subgroups: cleft lip, cleft palate, and cleft lip and palate. Caregivers of 60 craniofacially normal children were recruited as a control group. Hearing health tests were conducted to evaluate peripheral hearing. Caregivers of children who passed this assessment battery completed Fisher's Auditory Problems Checklist, which contains 25 questions related to behaviors linked to (central) auditory processing disorder. Results Children with cleft palate showed the lowest scores on the Fisher's Auditory Problems Checklist questionnaire, consistent with a higher index of suspicion for (central) auditory processing disorder. There was a significant difference in the manifestation of (central) auditory processing disorder-linked behaviors between the cleft palate and the control groups. The most common behaviors reported in the nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate group were short attention span and reduced learning motivation, along with hearing difficulties in noise. Conclusion A higher occurrence of (central) auditory processing disorder-linked behaviors were found in children with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate, particularly cleft palate. Auditory processing abilities should not be ignored in children with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate, and it is necessary to consider assessment tests for (central) auditory processing disorder when an

  16. BioMARK as electrophysiological tool for assessing children at risk for (central) auditory processing disorders without reading deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prawin; Singh, Niraj Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Biological Marker of auditory processing (BioMARK) is an electrophysiological test tool widely known as Speech-evoked ABR. Several previous investigations have shown the utility of speech-evoked ABR in the diagnosis of language based processing deficits like learning disability and specific language impairment; however missing from literature is a study that has ruled out the existence of comorbidity of such conditions and carefully delineated the efficacy of speech-evoked ABR in children with children with auditory processing disorders sans reading deficits. Hence, the present study aimed at investigating Speech-evoked ABR in children with auditory processing disorders without reading problems. A total of 336 school going children in the age range of 8-12 years were screened for presence of central auditory processing deficits. Among the 51 children who were identified as at risk, 15 were randomly selected and served as experimental group. The control group comprised of fifteen age matched children. The inter-group comparison was done using MANOVA, which revealed significant prolongations of latencies of waves V and A (p = 0.001) along with marginal reductions in V/A slope (p = 0.052) and amplitude of responses to first formant (p = 0.065). The responses to higher frequencies did not differ between the groups. Speech-evoked ABR are affected in children who are at risk of central auditory processing disorders sans reading deficits which probably indicates the presence of abnormal brainstem encoding of speech signal in this population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Neural plasticity expressed in central auditory structures with and without tinnitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry E Roberts

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Sensory training therapies for tinnitus are based on the assumption that, notwithstanding neural changes related to tinnitus, auditory training can alter the response properties of neurons in auditory pathways. To address this question, we investigated whether brain changes induced by sensory training in tinnitus sufferers and measured by EEG are similar to those induced in age and hearing loss matched individuals without tinnitus trained on the same auditory task. Auditory training was given using a 5 kHz 40-Hz amplitude-modulated sound that was in the tinnitus frequency region of the tinnitus subjects and enabled extraction of the 40-Hz auditory steady-state response (ASSR and P2 transient response known to localize to primary and nonprimary auditory cortex, respectively. P2 amplitude increased with training equally in participants with tinnitus and in control subjects, suggesting normal remodeling of nonprimary auditory regions in tinnitus. However, training-induced changes in the ASSR differed between the tinnitus and control groups. In controls ASSR phase advanced toward the stimulus waveform by about ten degrees over training, in agreement with previous results obtained in young normal hearing individuals. However, ASSR phase did not change significantly with training in the tinnitus group, although some participants showed phase shifts resembling controls. On the other hand, ASSR amplitude increased with training in the tinnitus group, whereas in controls this response (which is difficult to remodel in young normal hearing subjects did not change with training. These results suggest that neural changes related to tinnitus altered how neural plasticity was expressed in the region of primary but not nonprimary auditory cortex. Auditory training did not reduce tinnitus loudness although a small effect on the tinnitus spectrum was detected.

  18. Central blood pressure and chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Yoichi; Kanno, Yoshihiko; Takenaka, Tsuneo

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we focused on the relationship between central blood pressure and chronic kidney diseases (CKD). Wave reflection is a major mechanism that determines central blood pressure in patients with CKD. Recent medical technology advances have enabled non-invasive central blood pressure measurements. Clinical trials have demonstrated that compared with brachial blood pressure, central blood pressure is a stronger risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) and renal diseases. CKD is characterized by a diminished renal autoregulatory ability, an augmented direct transmission of systemic blood pressure to glomeruli, and an increase in proteinuria. Any elevation in central blood pressure accelerates CKD progression. In the kidney, interstitial inflammation induces oxidative stress to handle proteinuria. Oxidative stress facilitates atherogenesis, increases arterial stiffness and central blood pressure, and worsens the CV prognosis in patients with CKD. A vicious cycle exists between CKD and central blood pressure. To stop this cycle, vasodilator antihypertensive drugs and statins can reduce central blood pressure and oxidative stress. Even in early-stage CKD, mineral and bone disorders (MBD) may develop. MBD promotes oxidative stress, arteriosclerosis, and elevated central blood pressure in patients with CKD. Early intervention or prevention seems necessary to maintain vascular health in patients with CKD. PMID:26788468

  19. Vocal responses to perturbations in voice auditory feedback in individuals with Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanjun Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: One of the most common symptoms of speech deficits in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD is significantly reduced vocal loudness and pitch range. The present study investigated whether abnormal vocalizations in individuals with PD are related to sensory processing of voice auditory feedback. Perturbations in loudness or pitch of voice auditory feedback are known to elicit short latency, compensatory responses in voice amplitude or fundamental frequency. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Twelve individuals with Parkinson's disease and 13 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects sustained a vowel sound (/α/ and received unexpected, brief (200 ms perturbations in voice loudness (±3 or 6 dB or pitch (±100 cents auditory feedback. Results showed that, while all subjects produced compensatory responses in their voice amplitude or fundamental frequency, individuals with PD exhibited larger response magnitudes than the control subjects. Furthermore, for loudness-shifted feedback, upward stimuli resulted in shorter response latencies than downward stimuli in the control subjects but not in individuals with PD. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The larger response magnitudes in individuals with PD compared with the control subjects suggest that processing of voice auditory feedback is abnormal in PD. Although the precise mechanisms of the voice feedback processing are unknown, results of this study suggest that abnormal voice control in individuals with PD may be related to dysfunctional mechanisms of error detection or correction in sensory feedback processing.

  20. Paired-Pulse Inhibition in the Auditory Cortex in Parkinson's Disease and Its Dependence on Clinical Characteristics of the Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Lukhanina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to determine the value of the paired-pulse inhibition (PPI in the auditory cortex in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD and analyze its dependence on clinical characteristics of the patients. The central (Cz auditory evoked potentials were recorded in 58 patients with PD and 22 age-matched healthy subjects. PPI of the N1/P2 component was significantly (P<.001 reduced for interstimulus intervals 500, 700, and 900 ms in patients with PD compared to control subjects. The value of PPI correlated negatively with the age of the PD patients (P<.05, age of disease onset (P<.05, body bradykinesia score (P<.01, and positively with the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE cognitive score (P<.01. Negative correlation between value of PPI and the age of the healthy subjects (P<.05 was also observed. Thus, results show that cortical inhibitory processes are deficient in PD patients and that the brain's ability to carry out the postexcitatory inhibition is age-dependent.

  1. Central Hemodynamics for Management of Arteriosclerotic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Junichiro

    2017-08-01

    Arteriosclerosis, particularly aortosclerosis, is the most critical risk factor associated with cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and renal diseases. The pulsatile hemodynamics in the central aorta consists of blood pressure, flow, and stiffness and substantially differs from the peripheral hemodynamics in muscular arteries. Arteriosclerotic changes with age appear earlier in the elastic aorta, and age-dependent increases in central pulse pressure are more marked than those apparent from brachial pressure measurement. Central pressure can be affected by lifestyle habits, metabolic disorders, and endocrine and inflammatory diseases in a manner different from brachial pressure. Central pulse pressure widening due to aortic stiffening increases left ventricular afterload in systole and reduces coronary artery flow in diastole, predisposing aortosclerotic patients to myocardial hypertrophy and ischemia. The widened pulse pressure is also transmitted deep into low-impedance organs such as the brain and kidney, causing microvascular damage responsible for lacunar stroke and albuminuria. In addition, aortic stiffening increases aortic blood flow reversal, which can lead to retrograde embolic stroke and renal function deterioration. Central pressure has been shown to predict cardiovascular events in most previous studies and potentially serves as a surrogate marker for intervention. Quantitative and comprehensive evaluation of central hemodynamics is now available through various noninvasive pressure/flow measurement modalities. This review will focus on the clinical usefulness and mechanistic rationale of central hemodynamic measurements for cardiovascular risk management.

  2. Central Mechanisms and Treatment of Blast Induced Auditory and Vestibular Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    consequences of these injuries likely progresses with age . A comprehensive understanding of the structural and molecular components of the injury...Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT As a consequence of advances in military medical care there...brainstem response, balance disorder, mouse, pathology , auditory cortex, brainstem, cerebellum, neuron 3. Accomplishments o What were the major goals for

  3. The Central Role of Recognition in Auditory Perception: A Neurobiological Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Neil; Wilson, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    The model presents neurobiologically plausible accounts of sound recognition (including absolute pitch), neural plasticity involved in pitch, loudness and location information integration, and streaming and auditory recall. It is proposed that a cortical mechanism for sound identification modulates the spectrotemporal response fields of inferior…

  4. The multi-level impact of chronic intermittent hypoxia on central auditory processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Eddie; Yang, Bin; Du, Lida; Ho, Wai Hong; Lau, Condon; Ke, Ya; Chan, Ying Shing; Yung, Wing Ho; Wu, Ed X

    2017-08-01

    During hypoxia, the tissues do not obtain adequate oxygen. Chronic hypoxia can lead to many health problems. A relatively common cause of chronic hypoxia is sleep apnea. Sleep apnea is a sleep breathing disorder that affects 3-7% of the population. During sleep, the patient's breathing starts and stops. This can lead to hypertension, attention deficits, and hearing disorders. In this study, we apply an established chronic intermittent hypoxemia (CIH) model of sleep apnea to study its impact on auditory processing. Adult rats were reared for seven days during sleeping hours in a gas chamber with oxygen level cycled between 10% and 21% (normal atmosphere) every 90s. During awake hours, the subjects were housed in standard conditions with normal atmosphere. CIH treatment significantly reduces arterial oxygen partial pressure and oxygen saturation during sleeping hours (relative to controls). After treatment, subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with broadband sound stimulation. Responses are observed in major auditory centers in all subjects, including the auditory cortex (AC) and auditory midbrain. fMRI signals from the AC are statistically significantly increased after CIH by 0.13% in the contralateral hemisphere and 0.10% in the ipsilateral hemisphere. In contrast, signals from the lateral lemniscus of the midbrain are significantly reduced by 0.39%. Signals from the neighboring inferior colliculus of the midbrain are relatively unaffected. Chronic hypoxia affects multiple levels of the auditory system and these changes are likely related to hearing disorders associated with sleep apnea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Central Core Disease Associated with Elevated Creatine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A further example of central core disease is described in a patient with various musculoskeletal abnormalities, who survived two episodes of malignant hyperpyrexia. Similar pathology, though less severe, was found in his asymptomatic mother. S. Afr. Med. J., 48, 640 (1974) ...

  6. Central Core Disease Associated with Elevated Creatine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A further example of central core disease is described in a patient with various ... The abnormality was also present in the muscle of his mother, although few fibres were involved in her case. The details of this family have been described previously.'" CASE REPORT .... and the case of congenital myopathy associated with ...

  7. Auditory musical hallucinations associated with extended-release pramipexole in an elderly patient with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Hiroshi; Ueno, Satoshi

    2014-12-01

    Auditory musical hallucinations (AMHs) are rare complex auditory hallucinations in Parkinson's disease (PD) that have been limited previously. The characteristics of AMHs in PD remain uncertain. We describe a 72-year-old woman with PD who presented with AMHs. The AMHs occurred after immediate-release pramipexole was switched to extended-release pramipexole. The AMHs were a quiet piano or often songs on a loud radio or background music over other sounds. The music was unpleasant, but not objectionable, threatening, or ego-syntonic, and it did not interrupt her daily activities. AMHs in PD were non-threatening, and dopaminergic treatment may predispose patients to AMHs or be a unique possible cause of AMHs. The hallucinations can occur after immediate-release pramipexole was switched to extended-release pramipexole.

  8. Performance on Tests of Central Auditory Processing by Individuals Exposed to High-Intensity Blasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Processing and Sound Localization Temporal precision of neural firing is also involved in binaural processing and localization of sound in space. The...posttraumatic stress disorder, Quick- SIN = Quick Speech-In-Noise, SD = standard deviation, SNR = signal-to-noise ratio, SPL = sound pressure level...to assess several important and potentially vulnerable aspects of auditory processing of complex sounds . These functions include the precise cod

  9. Right cerebral hemisphere and central auditory processing in children with developmental dyslexia

    OpenAIRE

    Paulina C. Murphy-Ruiz; Yolanda R. Penaloza-Lopez; Felipe Garcia-Pedroza; Adrian Poblano

    2013-01-01

    Objective We hypothesized that if the right hemisphere auditory processing abilities can be altered in children with developmental dyslexia (DD), we can detect dysfunction using specific tests. Method We performed an analytical comparative cross-sectional study. We studied 20 right-handed children with DD and 20 healthy right-handed control subjects (CS). Children in both groups were age, gender, and school-grade matched. Focusing on the right hemisphere’s contribution, we utilized te...

  10. The Adverse Effects of Heavy Metals with and without Noise Exposure on the Human Peripheral and Central Auditory System: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Josée Castellanos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to some chemicals in the workplace can lead to occupational chemical-induced hearing loss. Attention has mainly focused on the adverse auditory effects of solvents. However, other chemicals such as heavy metals have been also identified as ototoxic agents. The aim of this work was to review the current scientific knowledge about the adverse auditory effects of heavy metal exposure with and without co-exposure to noise in humans. PubMed and Medline were accessed to find suitable articles. A total of 49 articles met the inclusion criteria. Results from the review showed that no evidence about the ototoxic effects in humans of manganese is available. Contradictory results have been found for arsenic, lead and mercury as well as for the possible interaction between heavy metals and noise. All studies found in this review have found that exposure to cadmium and mixtures of heavy metals induce auditory dysfunction. Most of the studies investigating the adverse auditory effects of heavy metals in humans have investigated human populations exposed to lead. Some of these studies suggest peripheral and central auditory dysfunction induced by lead exposure. It is concluded that further evidence from human studies about the adverse auditory effects of heavy metal exposure is still required. Despite this issue, audiologists and other hearing health care professionals should be aware of the possible auditory effects of heavy metals.

  11. The Adverse Effects of Heavy Metals with and without Noise Exposure on the Human Peripheral and Central Auditory System: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Marie-Josée; Fuente, Adrian

    2016-12-09

    Exposure to some chemicals in the workplace can lead to occupational chemical-induced hearing loss. Attention has mainly focused on the adverse auditory effects of solvents. However, other chemicals such as heavy metals have been also identified as ototoxic agents. The aim of this work was to review the current scientific knowledge about the adverse auditory effects of heavy metal exposure with and without co-exposure to noise in humans. PubMed and Medline were accessed to find suitable articles. A total of 49 articles met the inclusion criteria. Results from the review showed that no evidence about the ototoxic effects in humans of manganese is available. Contradictory results have been found for arsenic, lead and mercury as well as for the possible interaction between heavy metals and noise. All studies found in this review have found that exposure to cadmium and mixtures of heavy metals induce auditory dysfunction. Most of the studies investigating the adverse auditory effects of heavy metals in humans have investigated human populations exposed to lead. Some of these studies suggest peripheral and central auditory dysfunction induced by lead exposure. It is concluded that further evidence from human studies about the adverse auditory effects of heavy metal exposure is still required. Despite this issue, audiologists and other hearing health care professionals should be aware of the possible auditory effects of heavy metals.

  12. Integration of auditory and kinesthetic information in motion: alterations in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaté, Magdalena; Llanos, Catalina; Rodríguez, Manuel

    2008-07-01

    The main aim in this work was to study the interaction between auditory and kinesthetic stimuli and its influence on motion control. The study was performed on healthy subjects and patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Thirty-five right-handed volunteers (young, PD, and age-matched healthy participants, and PD-patients) were studied with three different motor tasks (slow cyclic movements, fast cyclic movements, and slow continuous movements) and under the action of kinesthetic stimuli and sounds at different beat rates. The action of kinesthesia was evaluated by comparing real movements with virtual movements (movements imaged but not executed). The fast cyclic task was accelerated by kinesthetic but not by auditory stimuli. The slow cyclic task changed with the beat rate of sounds but not with kinesthetic stimuli. The slow continuous task showed an integrated response to both sensorial modalities. These data show that the influence of the multisensory integration on motion changes with the motor task and that some motor patterns are modulated by the simultaneous action of auditory and kinesthetic information, a cross-modal integration that was different in PD-patients. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Rhythmic auditory-motor facilitation of gait patterns in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, G C; Brown, S H; Rice, R R; Thaut, M H

    1997-01-01

    The effect of rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS) on gait velocity, cadence, stride length, and symmetry was studied in 31 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease, 21 of them on (ON) and 10 off medication (OFF), and 10 healthy elderly subjects. Patients walked under four conditions: (1) their own maximal speed without external rhythm; (2) with the RAS beat frequency matching the baseline cadence; (3) with RAS 10% faster than the baseline cadence; (4) without rhythm to check for carry over from RAS. Gait data were recorded via a computerised foot switch system. The RAS was delivered via a 50 ms square wave tone embedded in instrumental music (Renaissance style) in 2/4 metre prerecorded digitally on a sequencer for variable tempo reproduction. Patients on medication were tested in the morning 60-90 minutes after medication. Patients off medication were tested at the same time of day 24 hours after the last dose. Healthy elderly subjects were tested during the same time of day. Faster RAS produced significant improvement (P < 0.05) in mean gait velocity, cadence, and stride length in all groups. Close synchronisation between rhythm and step frequency in the controls and both Parkinson's disease groups suggest evidence for rhythmic entrainment mechanisms even in the presence of basal ganglia dysfunction. The results are consistent with and extend prior reports of rhythmic auditory facilitation in Parkinson's disease gait when there is mild to moderate impairment, and suggest a technique for gait rehabilitation in Parkinson's disease.

  14. The efficacy of formal auditory training in children with (central auditory processing disorder: behavioral and electrophysiological evaluation A eficácia do treinamento auditivo formal em crianças com transtorno de processamento auditivo (central: avaliação comportamental e eletrofisiológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Alonso

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Long Latency Auditory Evoked Potentials can be used to monitor changes in the Central Auditory Nervous System after Auditory Training. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of Auditory Training in children with (Central Auditory Processing Disorder, comparing behavioral and electrophysiological findings before and after training. MATERIAL AND METHODS: twenty nine individuals between eight and 16 years of age with (Central Auditory Processing Disorder - diagnosed by behavioral tests - were involved in this research. After evaluation with the P300, the subjects were submitted to an Auditory Training program in acoustic booth and, at the end, a new evaluation of (central auditory processing and a new recording of P300. RESULTS: The comparison between the evaluations made before and after the Auditory Training showed that there was a statistically significant difference among P300 latency values and also among behavioral test mean values in evaluation of (central auditory processing. CONCLUSION: P300 appears to be a useful tool to monitor Central Auditory Nervous System changes after Auditory Training, and this program was effective in the rehabilitation of the auditory skills in children with (Central Auditory Processing Disorder.Os Potenciais Evocados Auditivos de Longa Latência podem ser uma ferramenta útil no monitoramento das mudanças ocorridas no Sistema Nervoso Auditivo Central após Treinamento Auditivo. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a eficácia do Treinamento Auditivo em crianças com Transtorno de Processamento Auditivo (Central, comparando as medidas comportamentais e eletrofisiológicas antes e após o treinamento. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Participaram do estudo 29 indivíduos com idades entre oito e 16 anos diagnosticados, por meio de testes comportamentais, com Transtorno de Processamento Auditivo (Central. Após serem submetidos à avaliação do P300, foi realizado com os sujeitos um programa de

  15. [Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutzhard, E

    2010-02-01

    Central nervous system infections and infestations by protozoa and helminths constitute a problem of increasing importance throughout all of central European and northern/western countries. This is partially due to the globalisation of our society, tourists and business people being more frequently exposed to parasitic infection/infestation in tropical countries than in moderate climate countries. On top of that, migrants may import chronic infestations and infections with parasitic pathogens, eventually also--sometimes exclusively--involving the nervous system. Knowledge of epidemiology, initial clinical signs and symptoms, diagnostic procedures as well as specific chemotherapeutic therapies and adjunctive therapeutic strategies is of utmost important in all of these infections and infestations of the nervous systems, be it by protozoa or helminths. This review lists, mainly in the form of tables, all possible infections and infestations of the nervous systems by protozoa and by helminths. Besides differentiating parasitic diseases of the nervous system seen in migrants, tourists etc., it is very important to have in mind that disease-related (e.g. HIV) or iatrogenic immunosuppression has led to the increased occurrence of a wide variety of parasitic infections and infestations of the nervous system (e. g. babesiosis, Chagas disease, Strongyloides stercoralis infestation, toxoplasmosis, etc.).

  16. Central Retinal Vein Occlusion Revealing Coelic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana ZOUBEIDI

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Thrombosis has been widely reported in coeliac disease (CD but central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO is rarely described. Case presentation: A 27-year-old woman presented with acute visual loss and was diagnosed with CRVO. Her protein S and protein C levels were low and CD was diagnosed on the basis of endoscopic, immunological and histological results. A gluten-free diet resulted in favourable evolution. Conclusion: CD should be considered in young patients with thrombosis, especially if in an unusual location. Treatment is based on a gluten-free diet.

  17. Prolonged Walking with a Wearable System Providing Intelligent Auditory Input in People with Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginis, Pieter; Heremans, Elke; Ferrari, Alberto; Dockx, Kim; Canning, Colleen G; Nieuwboer, Alice

    2017-01-01

    Rhythmic auditory cueing is a well-accepted tool for gait rehabilitation in Parkinson's disease (PD), which can now be applied in a performance-adapted fashion due to technological advance. This study investigated the immediate differences on gait during a prolonged, 30 min, walk with performance-adapted (intelligent) auditory cueing and verbal feedback provided by a wearable sensor-based system as alternatives for traditional cueing. Additionally, potential effects on self-perceived fatigue were assessed. Twenty-eight people with PD and 13 age-matched healthy elderly (HE) performed four 30 min walks with a wearable cue and feedback system. In randomized order, participants received: (1) continuous auditory cueing; (2) intelligent cueing (10 metronome beats triggered by a deviating walking rhythm); (3) intelligent feedback (verbal instructions triggered by a deviating walking rhythm); and (4) no external input. Fatigue was self-scored at rest and after walking during each session. The results showed that while HE were able to maintain cadence for 30 min during all conditions, cadence in PD significantly declined without input. With continuous cueing and intelligent feedback people with PD were able to maintain cadence (p = 0.04), although they were more physically fatigued than HE. Furthermore, cadence deviated significantly more in people with PD than in HE without input and particularly with intelligent feedback (both: p = 0.04). In PD, continuous and intelligent cueing induced significantly less deviations of cadence (p = 0.006). Altogether, this suggests that intelligent cueing is a suitable alternative for the continuous mode during prolonged walking in PD, as it induced similar effects on gait without generating levels of fatigue beyond that of HE.

  18. Effects of auditory rhythm and music on gait disturbances in Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidin eAshoori

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Gait abnormalities such as shuffling steps, start hesitation, and freezing are common and often incapacitating symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD and other parkinsonian disorders. Pharmacological and surgical approaches have only limited efficacy in treating these gait disorders. Rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS, such as playing marching music or dance therapy, has been shown to be a safe, inexpensive, and an effective method in improving gait in PD patients. However, RAS that adapts to patients’ movements may be more effective than rigid, fixed-tempo RAS used in most studies. In addition to auditory cueing, immersive virtual reality technologies that utilize interactive computer-generated systems through wearable devices are increasingly used for improving brain-body interaction and sensory-motor integration. Using multisensory cues, these therapies may be particularly suitable for the treatment of parkinsonian freezing and other gait disorders. In this review, we examine the affected neurological circuits underlying gait and temporal processing in PD patients and summarize the current studies demonstrating the effects of RAS on improving these gait deficits.

  19. Effects of Auditory Rhythm and Music on Gait Disturbances in Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashoori, Aidin; Eagleman, David M.; Jankovic, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Gait abnormalities, such as shuffling steps, start hesitation, and freezing, are common and often incapacitating symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and other parkinsonian disorders. Pharmacological and surgical approaches have only limited efficacy in treating these gait disorders. Rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS), such as playing marching music and dance therapy, has been shown to be a safe, inexpensive, and an effective method in improving gait in PD patients. However, RAS that adapts to patients’ movements may be more effective than rigid, fixed-tempo RAS used in most studies. In addition to auditory cueing, immersive virtual reality technologies that utilize interactive computer-generated systems through wearable devices are increasingly used for improving brain–body interaction and sensory–motor integration. Using multisensory cues, these therapies may be particularly suitable for the treatment of parkinsonian freezing and other gait disorders. In this review, we examine the affected neurological circuits underlying gait and temporal processing in PD patients and summarize the current studies demonstrating the effects of RAS on improving these gait deficits. PMID:26617566

  20. Catecholaminergic innervation of central and peripheral auditory circuitry varies with reproductive state in female midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Forlano, Paul M; Ghahramani, Zachary N; Monestime, Camillia M; Kurochkin, Philip; Chernenko, Alena; Milkis, Dmitriy

    2015-01-01

    .... The plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus, has proven to be an excellent model to explore mechanisms underlying seasonal peripheral auditory plasticity related to reproductive social behavior...

  1. Contribution of auditory P300 test to the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Fikriye Tüter; Özkaynak, Sehür Siber; Barçin, Ebru

    2017-12-01

    Abnormalities in auditory P300 test have been observed in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). We aimed to investigate whether or not additional electrophysiological tests assist in making the clinical diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD-MCI), and we evaluated P300 changes in patients with non-demented PD and analyzed the correlation between the cognitive features and P300 changes. Twenty patients with PD who had been diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI group) according to the Movement Disorder Society (MDS) 2012 PD-MCI level II criteria, 21 patients with PD without cognitive impairment (PD-Normal group), and 20 control subjects (control group) who were neurologically normal were examined by the standard auditory oddball paradigm. The N100, P200, N200, and P300 latencies and N100-P200, P200-N200, and N200-P300 amplitudes were measured and analyzed. P300 latencies recorded from Fz, Cz, and Pz and N200 latency recorded from Fz were significantly longer in the PD-MCI group than in the PD-Normal and the control group (respectively p P300 amplitude recorded from Fz was significantly lower in PD-MCI group than those in the other groups (p = 0.038). While P300 was obtained in all patients in the PD-Normal and the control group, it was lost in 35% of PD-MCI patients. The results show that P300 provides a diagnostic tool for detecting PDMCI. We suggest that P300 prolongation and loss of P300 potential could be used as supportive parameter in the diagnosis of PD-MCI.

  2. Rituximab use in pediatric central demyelinating disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beres, Shannon J; Graves, Jennifer; Waubant, Emmanuelle

    2014-07-01

    Rituximab is a B-cell therapy used off-label to reduce relapses in adult demyelinating diseases. There is limited knowledge of its clinical use in pediatric neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis. Demyelinating diseases in children can have high morbidity, and B-cell therapies hold promise for those with a severe course. Our study investigates the clinical experience of safety and efficacy with rituximab in children with demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system. This is a retrospective case series of 11 patients with pediatric neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis who received at least one rituximab infusion at the Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Clinic, University of California, San Francisco. Each patient was infused up to 1000 mg twice 2 weeks apart. Patients were monitored prospectively, and relapse events, laboratories, and adverse reactions were recorded. Eight children with neuromyelitis optica, two with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and one with secondary-progressive multiple sclerosis received rituximab treatment. The median number of cycles was 3. Most patients (82%, n = 9) experienced reduction of relapses after initiating rituximab. There were no serious infections. Infusion reactions were reported in three patients and managed successfully in subsequent infusions with increased pretreatment (dexamethasone and diphenhydramine) and use of slower infusion rates. Rituximab was not discontinued in any child because of side effects; two switched treatment therapy after 4.5 and 11 months because of relapses. The use of rituximab in our pediatric neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis cohort was overall safe and effective. Larger studies should confirm our observations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) tests in a school-age hearing screening programme - analysis of 76,429 children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarzynski, Piotr H; Wlodarczyk, Andrzej W; Kochanek, Krzysztof; Pilka, Adam; Jedrzejczak, Wiktor W; Olszewski, Lukasz; Bruski, Lukasz; Niedzielski, Artur; Skarzynski, Henryk

    2015-01-01

    Hearing disorders among school-age children are a current concern. Continuing studies have been performed in Poland since 2008, and on 2 December 2011 the EU Council adopted Conclusions on the Early Detection and Treatment of Communication Disorders in Children, Including the Use of e-Health Tools and innovative Solutions. The discussion now focuses not only on the efficacy of hearing screening programmes in schoolchildren, but what should be its general aim and what tests it should include? This paper makes the case that it is important to include central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) tests. One such test is the dichotic digits test (DDT). The aim of the presented study was to evaluate the usefulness of the DDT in detecting central hearing disorders in school-age children. During hearing screening programmes conducted in Poland in 2008-2010, exactly 235,664 children (7-12-years-old) were screened in 9,325 schools. Of this number, 7,642 were examined using the DDT test for CAPD. Screening programmes were conducted using the Sense Examination Platform. With the cut-off criterion set at the 5th percentile, results for the DDT applied in a divided attention mode were 11.4% positive for 7-year-olds and 11.3% for 12-year-olds. In the focused attention mode, the comparable result for 12-year-olds was 9.7%. There was a clear right ear advantage. In children with positive DDT results, a higher incidence of other disorders, such as dyslexia, was observed. A test for CAPD should be included in the hearing screening of school-age children. The results of this study form the basis for developing Polish standards in this area.

  4. Cardiovascular Disease in Central and East Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Kozela

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD contributes greatly to inequalities in health in Europe. The CVD death rate in Ukraine (the highest is seven fold higher than in France (the lowest. There is also a striking difference in CVD mortality between European Union (EU members before the enlargement in 2004 and Central and East European (CEE countries that joined the EU in 2004 and non-EU countries. The difference in CVD mortality between West and East Europe grew during the 1970s and 1980s when rates declined in the West and either remained the same or rose in the CEE countries. Political reforms at the beginning of the 1990s, which were followed by great socio-economic changes coincided with further diversification in CVD mortality in CEE countries. Diverse trends in CVD mortality were followed by larger gaps in life expectancy between West and East Europe and within the CEE.Rapid development of high technology treatment procedures, which followed the economic recovery of the CEE countries, would have only limited influence on the overall control of CVD. Exposure to classic risk factors might largely explain the longitudinal trend in falling CVD mortality in some countries, but it is unlikely that it could explain rapid changes in the others. Still, large potential to control the disease lies in developing effective preventive policies with targets to lower exposure to the classic CVD risk factors. The recent history of CVD in CEE countries makes the “alcohol hypothesis” less convincing as an explanation for CVD mortality trends and differences between East and West Europe. The hypothesis that dynamic changes in CVD mortality in CEE countries are triggered and explained largely by psychosocial factors is attractive. However, if confirmed, transforming such knowledge into a practical health policy would be a great challenge.

  5. Auditory Display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    volume. The conference's topics include auditory exploration of data via sonification and audification; real time monitoring of multivariate date; sound in immersive interfaces and teleoperation; perceptual issues in auditory display; sound in generalized computer interfaces; technologies supporting...... auditory display creation; data handling for auditory display systems; applications of auditory display....

  6. Verbal Auditory Cueing of Improvisational Dance: A Proposed Method for Training Agency in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batson, Glenna; Hugenschmidt, Christina E; Soriano, Christina T

    2016-01-01

    Dance is a non-pharmacological intervention that helps maintain functional independence and quality of life in people with Parkinson's disease (PPD). Results from controlled studies on group-delivered dance for people with mild-to-moderate stage Parkinson's have shown statistically and clinically significant improvements in gait, balance, and psychosocial factors. Tested interventions include non-partnered dance forms (ballet and modern dance) and partnered (tango). In all of these dance forms, specific movement patterns initially are learned through repetition and performed in time-to-music. Once the basic steps are mastered, students may be encouraged to improvise on the learned steps as they perform them in rhythm with the music. Here, we summarize a method of teaching improvisational dance that advances previous reported benefits of dance for people with Parkinson's disease (PD). The method relies primarily on improvisational verbal auditory cueing with less emphasis on directed movement instruction. This method builds on the idea that daily living requires flexible, adaptive responses to real-life challenges. In PD, movement disorders not only limit mobility but also impair spontaneity of thought and action. Dance improvisation demands open and immediate interpretation of verbally delivered movement cues, potentially fostering the formation of spontaneous movement strategies. Here, we present an introduction to a proposed method, detailing its methodological specifics, and pointing to future directions. The viewpoint advances an embodied cognitive approach that has eco-validity in helping PPD meet the changing demands of daily living.

  7. Central dot sign in entities other than Caroli disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadi, T.; Itai, Yuji [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Clinical Medicine; Minami, Manabu

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe central dot sign (tiny dots with strong contrast enhancement of the portal vein within dilated hepatic bile ducts on computed tomography) in entities other than Caroli disease, especially in peribiliary cysts with or without autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease. Computed tomography in 74 cases of peribiliary cysts and 134 cases of other liver diseases and states possibly showing central dot sign were retrospectively reviewed to examine the central dot sign. In three cases of peribiliary cysts, some part of the liver showed strongly enhanced portal radicles surrounded completely or partially by low-attenuation, enlarged peribiliary cysts, presenting ``central dot sign`` on contrast-enhanced computed tomography. We suggest that in addition to Caroli disease, some other entities and diseases of the liver may demonstrate central dot sign and this sign should not be considered a specific finding of Caroli disease. (author)

  8. Normal Hearing Ability but Impaired Auditory Selective Attention Associated with Prediction of Response to Donepezil in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouchi, Yoshitaka; Meguro, Kenichi; Akanuma, Kyoko; Kato, Yuriko; Yamaguchi, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Background. Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients have a poor response to the voices of caregivers. After administration of donepezil, caregivers often find that patients respond more frequently, whereas they had previously pretended to be “deaf.” We investigated whether auditory selective attention is associated with response to donepezil. Methods. The subjects were40 AD patients, 20 elderly healthy controls (HCs), and 15 young HCs. Pure tone audiometry was conducted and an original Auditory Selective Attention (ASA) test was performed with a MoCA vigilance test. Reassessment of the AD group was performed after donepezil treatment for 3 months. Results. Hearing level of the AD group was the same as that of the elderly HC group. However, ASA test scores decreased in the AD group and were correlated with the vigilance test scores. Donepezil responders (MMSE 3+) also showed improvement on the ASA test. At baseline, the responders had higher vigilance and lower ASA test scores. Conclusion. Contrary to the common view, AD patients had a similar level of hearing ability to healthy elderly. Auditory attention was impaired in AD patients, which suggests that unnecessary sounds should be avoided in nursing homes. Auditory selective attention is associated with response to donepezil in AD. PMID:26161001

  9. The effects of two different auditory stimuli on functional arm movement in persons with Parkinson's disease: a dual-task paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hui-Ing; Hwang, Wen-Juh; Lin, Keh-Chung

    2009-03-01

    To examine, in a dual-task paradigm, the effect of auditory stimuli on people with Parkinson's disease. A counterbalanced repeated-measures design. A motor control laboratory in a university setting. Twenty individuals with Parkinson's disease. EXPERIMENTAL CONDITIONS: Each participant did two experiments (marching music experiment and weather forecast experiment). In each experiment, the participant performed an upper extremity functional task as the primary task and listened to an auditory stimulus (marching music or weather forecast) as the concurrent task. Each experiment had three conditions: listening to the auditory stimulus, ignoring the auditory stimulus and no auditory stimulus. Kinematic variables of arm movement, including movement time, peak velocity, deceleration time and number of movement units. We found that performances of the participants were similar across the three conditions for the marching music experiment, but were significantly different for the weather forecast experiment. The comparison of condition effects between the two experiments indicated that the effect of weather forecast was (marginally) significantly greater than that of marching music. The results suggest that the type of auditory stimulus is important to the degree of interference with upper extremity performance in people with Parkinson's disease. Auditory stimuli that require semantic processing (e.g. weather forecast) may distract attention from the primary task, and thus cause a decline in performance.

  10. Central skeletal sarcoidosis mimicking metastatic disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talmi, Danit; Smith, Stacy; Mulligan, Michael E. [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2008-08-15

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease that histologically typically shows non-caseating granulomas. The most common radiologic finding is hilar and mediastinal adenopathy. Patients with widely disseminated disease may show involvement of the peripheral appendicular skeleton in 1-13% of such cases. A primary skeletal presentation without other manifestations typical of the disease is rare. We present a case of sarcoidosis in a middle-aged Caucasian man in whom the disease presented with widespread lytic lesions in the axial skeleton and long bones, mimicking metastatic disease. There was no involvement of the peripheral skeleton, skin or lungs. (orig.)

  11. Measurement of normal auditory ossicles by high-resolusion CT with application of normal criteria to disease cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, Jyoko

    1988-09-01

    The purposes of this study were to define criteria for the normal position of ossicles and to apply them in patients with rhinolaryngologically or pathologically confirmed diseases. Ossicles were measured on high-resolution CT images of 300 middle ears, including 241 normal ears and 59 diseased ears, in a total of 203 subjects. Angles A, B, and C to the baseline between the most lateral margins of bilateral internal auditory canals, and distance ratio b/a were defined as measurement items. Normal angles A, B, and C and distance ratio b/a ranged from 19 deg to 59 deg, 101 deg to 145 deg, 51 deg to 89 deg, and 0.49 to 0.51, respectively. Based on these criteria, all of these items were within the normal range in 30/34 (88.2 %) ears for otitis media and mastoiditis. One or more items showed far abnormal values (standard deviation; more than 3) in 5/7 (71.4 %) ears for cholesteatoma and 4/4 (100 %) ears for external ear anomaly. These normal measurements may aid in evaluating the position of auditory ossicles especially in the case of cholesteatoma and auditory ossicle abnormality. (Namekawa, K.).

  12. The influence of aging on the number of neurons and levels of non-phosporylated neurofilament proteins in the central auditory system of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana eBurianová

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, an unbiased stereological method was used to determine the number of all neurons in Nissl stained sections of the inferior colliculus (IC, medial geniculate body (MGB and auditory cortex (AC in rats (strains Long Evans and Fischer 344 and their changes with aging. In addition, using the optical fractionator and western blot technique, we also evaluated the number of SMI-32-immunoreactive(-ir neurons and levels of non-phosphorylated neurofilament proteins in the IC, MGB, AC, and visual cortex (VC of young and old rats of the two strains. The SMI-32 positive neuronal population comprises about 10% of all neurons in the rat IC, MGB and AC and represents a prevalent population of large neurons with highly myelinated and projecting processes. In both Long Evans and Fischer 344 rats, the total number of neurons in the IC was roughly similar to that in the AC. With aging, we found a rather mild and statistically non-significant decline in the total number of neurons in all three analyzed auditory regions in both rat strains. In contrast to this, the absolute number of SMI-32-ir neurons in both Long Evans and Fischer 344 rats significantly decreased with aging in all the examined structures. The western blot technique also revealed a significant age-related decline in the levels of non-phosphorylated neurofilaments in the auditory brain structures, 30-35%. Our results demonstrate that presbycusis in rats is not likely to be primarily associated with changes in the total number of neurons. On the other hand, the pronounced age-related decline in the number of neurons containing non-phosphorylated neurofilaments as well as their protein levels in the central auditory system may contribute to age-related deterioration of hearing function.

  13. Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test scores can be predicted from whole brain MRI in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Elaheh; Hallikainen, Ilona; Hänninen, Tuomo; Tohka, Jussi

    2017-01-01

    Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) is a powerful neuropsychological tool for testing episodic memory, which is widely used for the cognitive assessment in dementia and pre-dementia conditions. Several studies have shown that an impairment in RAVLT scores reflect well the underlying pathology caused by Alzheimer's disease (AD), thus making RAVLT an effective early marker to detect AD in persons with memory complaints. We investigated the association between RAVLT scores (RAVLT Immediate and RAVLT Percent Forgetting) and the structural brain atrophy caused by AD. The aim was to comprehensively study to what extent the RAVLT scores are predictable based on structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data using machine learning approaches as well as to find the most important brain regions for the estimation of RAVLT scores. For this, we built a predictive model to estimate RAVLT scores from gray matter density via elastic net penalized linear regression model. The proposed approach provided highly significant cross-validated correlation between the estimated and observed RAVLT Immediate (R = 0.50) and RAVLT Percent Forgetting (R = 0.43) in a dataset consisting of 806 AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or healthy subjects. In addition, the selected machine learning method provided more accurate estimates of RAVLT scores than the relevance vector regression used earlier for the estimation of RAVLT based on MRI data. The top predictors were medial temporal lobe structures and amygdala for the estimation of RAVLT Immediate and angular gyrus, hippocampus and amygdala for the estimation of RAVLT Percent Forgetting. Further, the conversion of MCI subjects to AD in 3-years could be predicted based on either observed or estimated RAVLT scores with an accuracy comparable to MRI-based biomarkers.

  14. Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test scores can be predicted from whole brain MRI in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaheh Moradi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT is a powerful neuropsychological tool for testing episodic memory, which is widely used for the cognitive assessment in dementia and pre-dementia conditions. Several studies have shown that an impairment in RAVLT scores reflect well the underlying pathology caused by Alzheimer's disease (AD, thus making RAVLT an effective early marker to detect AD in persons with memory complaints. We investigated the association between RAVLT scores (RAVLT Immediate and RAVLT Percent Forgetting and the structural brain atrophy caused by AD. The aim was to comprehensively study to what extent the RAVLT scores are predictable based on structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI data using machine learning approaches as well as to find the most important brain regions for the estimation of RAVLT scores. For this, we built a predictive model to estimate RAVLT scores from gray matter density via elastic net penalized linear regression model. The proposed approach provided highly significant cross-validated correlation between the estimated and observed RAVLT Immediate (R = 0.50 and RAVLT Percent Forgetting (R = 0.43 in a dataset consisting of 806 AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI or healthy subjects. In addition, the selected machine learning method provided more accurate estimates of RAVLT scores than the relevance vector regression used earlier for the estimation of RAVLT based on MRI data. The top predictors were medial temporal lobe structures and amygdala for the estimation of RAVLT Immediate and angular gyrus, hippocampus and amygdala for the estimation of RAVLT Percent Forgetting. Further, the conversion of MCI subjects to AD in 3-years could be predicted based on either observed or estimated RAVLT scores with an accuracy comparable to MRI-based biomarkers.

  15. Evaluation of brain stem auditory evoked potentials in stable patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Prem

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Though there are few studies addressing brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, subclinical BAEP abnormalities in stable COPD patients have not been studied. The present study aimed to evaluate the BAEP abnormalities in this study group. Materials and Methods : In the present study, 80 male subjects were included: COPD group comprised 40 smokers with stable COPD with no clinical neuropathy; 40 age-matched healthy volunteers served as the control group. Latencies of BAEP waves I, II, III, IV, and V, together with interpeak latencies (IPLs of I-III, I-V, and III-V, and amplitudes of waves I-Ia and V-Va were studied in both the groups to compare the BAEP abnormalities in COPD group; the latter were correlated with patient characteristics and Mini-Mental Status Examination Questionnaire (MMSEQ scores to seek any significant correlation. Results: Twenty-six (65% of the 40 COPD patients had BAEP abnormalities. We observed significantly prolonged latencies of waves I, III, V over left ear and waves III, IV, V over right ear; increased IPLs of I-V, III-V over left ear and of I-III, I-V, III-V over right side. Amplitudes of waves I-Ia and V-Va were decreased bilaterally. Over left ear, the latencies of wave I and III were significantly correlated with FEV 1 ; and amplitude of wave I-Ia, with smoking pack years. A weak positive correlation between amplitude of wave I-Ia and duration of illness; and a weak negative correlation between amplitude of wave V-Va and MMSEQ scores were seen over right side. Conclusions : We observed significant subclinical BAEP abnormalities on electrophysiological evaluation in studied stable COPD male patients having mild-to-moderate airflow obstruction.

  16. A Model of Electrically Stimulated Auditory Nerve Fiber Responses with Peripheral and Central Sites of Spike Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joshi, Suyash Narendra; Dau, Torsten; Epp, Bastian

    2017-01-01

    A computational model of cat auditory nerve fiber (ANF) responses to electrical stimulation is presented. The model assumes that (1) there exist at least two sites of spike generation along the ANF and (2) both an anodic (positive) and a cathodic (negative) charge in isolation can evoke a spike. ...

  17. [Central congenital hypothyroidism due to Graves' disease in the mother

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liebrand, C.A.; Mol, A.C. de; Kempers, M.J.E.; Noordam, C.

    2006-01-01

    Two male twins were born at a gestational age of 30 weeks. Five days after delivery, the mother was diagnosed with Graves' disease. The thyroid function in the neonates was therefore evaluated, which led to the detection of central congenital hypothyroidism (central CHT), even though the neonatal

  18. Focal central white matter lesions in Alexander disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreau, Pauline; Prust, Morgan J; Crane, Jeremy; Loewenstein, Johanna; Kadom, Nadja; Vanderver, Adeline

    2011-11-01

    Alexander disease is a neurodegenerative disorder of the central white matter caused by dominant mutations in GFAP, the gene encoding glial fibrillary acidic protein. Magnetic resonance imaging pattern recognition studies have established characteristic radiologic phenotypes for this disorder. In some cases, however, genetically confirmed cases do not express these features, and several reports have identified "atypical" radiologic findings in Alexander disease patients. Here, the authors report 3 genetically confirmed Alexander disease cases with focal central white matter lesions that, upon longitudinal clinical and radiologic evaluation, appear to reflect an atypical Alexander disease magnetic resonance imaging phenotype and not another pathophysiologic process such as encephalitis, infarction, or neoplasm.

  19. Auditory Integration Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Jafari

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Auditory integration training (AIT is a hearing enhancement training process for sensory input anomalies found in individuals with autism, attention deficit hyperactive disorder, dyslexia, hyperactivity, learning disability, language impairments, pervasive developmental disorder, central auditory processing disorder, attention deficit disorder, depressin, and hyperacute hearing. AIT, recently introduced in the United States, and has received much notice of late following the release of The Sound of a Moracle, by Annabel Stehli. In her book, Mrs. Stehli describes before and after auditory integration training experiences with her daughter, who was diagnosed at age four as having autism.

  20. Review: Auditory Integration Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Ja'fari

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Auditory integration training (AIT is a hearing enhancement training process for sensory input anomalies found in individuals with autism, attention deficit hyperactive disorder, dyslexia, hyperactivity, learning disability, language impairments, pervasive developmental disorder, central auditory processing disorder, attention deficit disorder, depression, and hyper acute hearing. AIT, recently introduced in the United States, and has received much notice of late following the release of the sound of a miracle, by Annabel Stehli. In her book, Mrs. Stehli describes before and after auditory integration training experiences with her daughter, who was diagnosed at age four as having autism.

  1. Symmetry matched auditory cues improve gait steadiness in most people with Parkinson's disease but not in healthy older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Matthew A D; Dean, Roger T; Beijer, Tim R; Canning, Colleen G; Smith, Stuart T; Menant, Jasmine C; Lord, Stephen R

    2015-01-01

    Unsteady gait and falls are major problems for people with Parkinson's disease (PD). Symmetric auditory cues at altered cadences have been used to improve walking speed or step length. However, few people are exactly symmetric in terms of morphology or movement patterns and effects of symmetric cueing on gait steadiness are inconclusive. To investigate if matching auditory cue a/symmetry to an individual's intrinsic symmetry or asymmetry affects gait steadiness, gait symmetry, and comfort to cues, in people with PD, healthy age-matched controls (HAM) and young. Thirty participants; 10 with PD, 11 HAM (66 years), and 9 young (30 years), completed five baseline walks (no cues) and twenty-five cued walks at habitual cadence but different a/symmetries. Outcomes included; gait steadiness (step time variability and smoothness by harmonic ratios), walking speed, symmetry, comfort, and cue lag times. Without cues, PD participants had slower and less steady gait than HAM or young. Gait symmetry was distinct from gait steadiness, and unaffected by cue symmetry or a diagnosis of PD, but associated with aging. All participants maintained preferred gait symmetry and lag times independent of cue symmetry. When cues were matched to the individual's habitual gait symmetry and cadence: Gait steadiness improved in the PD group, but deteriorated in the HAM controls, and was unchanged in the young. Gait outcomes worsened for the two PD participants who reported discomfort to cued walking and had high New Freezing of Gait scores. It cannot be assumed all individuals benefit equally from auditory cues. Symmetry matched auditory cues compensated for unsteady gait in most people with PD, but interfered with gait steadiness in older people without basal ganglia deficits.

  2. Current situation of Chagas disease in Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ponce

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease in Central America is known since 1913 when the first human case was reported in El Salvador. The other Central American countries reported their first cases between 1933 and 1967. On October 1997 was launched the Central American Initiative for Chagas Disease Control (IPCA. The objectives of this sub-regional Initiative are: (1 the elimination of Rhodnius prolixus in Central America; (2 the reduction of the domiciliary infestation of Triatoma dimidiata; and (3 the elimination of the transfusion transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi. Significant advancements being close to the elimination of R. prolixus in Central America and the control of the transfusion transmission has been a transcendent achievement for the sub-region. The main challenges that the IPCA will have in the close future are: developing effective strategies for control and surveillance of T. dimidiata; and surveillance of other emerging triatominae species like R. pallescens, T. nitida, and T. ryckmani.

  3. Age-Associated Reduction of Asymmetry in Human Central Auditory Function: A 1H-Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianming Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of age on hemispheric asymmetry in the auditory cortex after pure tone stimulation. Ten young and 8 older healthy volunteers took part in this study. Two-dimensional multivoxel 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy scans were performed before and after stimulation. The ratios of N-acetylaspartate (NAA, glutamate/glutamine (Glx, and γ-amino butyric acid (GABA to creatine (Cr were determined and compared between the two groups. The distribution of metabolites between the left and right auditory cortex was also determined. Before stimulation, left and right side NAA/Cr and right side GABA/Cr were significantly lower, whereas right side Glx/Cr was significantly higher in the older group compared with the young group. After stimulation, left and right side NAA/Cr and GABA/Cr were significantly lower, whereas left side Glx/Cr was significantly higher in the older group compared with the young group. There was obvious asymmetry in right side Glx/Cr and left side GABA/Cr after stimulation in young group, but not in older group. In summary, there is marked hemispheric asymmetry in auditory cortical metabolites following pure tone stimulation in young, but not older adults. This reduced asymmetry in older adults may at least in part underlie the speech perception difficulties/presbycusis experienced by aging adults.

  4. Auditory pathways: anatomy and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickles, James O

    2015-01-01

    This chapter outlines the anatomy and physiology of the auditory pathways. After a brief analysis of the external, middle ears, and cochlea, the responses of auditory nerve fibers are described. The central nervous system is analyzed in more detail. A scheme is provided to help understand the complex and multiple auditory pathways running through the brainstem. The multiple pathways are based on the need to preserve accurate timing while extracting complex spectral patterns in the auditory input. The auditory nerve fibers branch to give two pathways, a ventral sound-localizing stream, and a dorsal mainly pattern recognition stream, which innervate the different divisions of the cochlear nucleus. The outputs of the two streams, with their two types of analysis, are progressively combined in the inferior colliculus and onwards, to produce the representation of what can be called the "auditory objects" in the external world. The progressive extraction of critical features in the auditory stimulus in the different levels of the central auditory system, from cochlear nucleus to auditory cortex, is described. In addition, the auditory centrifugal system, running from cortex in multiple stages to the organ of Corti of the cochlea, is described. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of long-term non-traumatic noise exposure on the adult central auditory system. Hearing problems without hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggermont, Jos J

    2017-09-01

    It is known that hearing loss induces plastic changes in the brain, causing loudness recruitment and hyperacusis, increased spontaneous firing rates and neural synchrony, reorganizations of the cortical tonotopic maps, and tinnitus. Much less in known about the central effects of exposure to sounds that cause a temporary hearing loss, affect the ribbon synapses in the inner hair cells, and cause a loss of high-threshold auditory nerve fibers. In contrast there is a wealth of information about central effects of long-duration sound exposures at levels ≤80 dB SPL that do not even cause a temporary hearing loss. The central effects for these moderate level exposures described in this review include changes in central gain, increased spontaneous firing rates and neural synchrony, and reorganization of the cortical tonotopic map. A putative mechanism is outlined, and the effect of the acoustic environment during the recovery process is illustrated. Parallels are drawn with hearing problems in humans with long-duration exposures to occupational noise but with clinical normal hearing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Quantifying stimulus-response rehabilitation protocols by auditory feedback in Parkinson's disease gait pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Gustavo; Atehortúa, Angélica; Iregui, Marcela; García-Arteaga, Juan D.; Romero, Eduardo

    2017-11-01

    External auditory cues stimulate motor related areas of the brain, activating motor ways parallel to the basal ganglia circuits and providing a temporary pattern for gait. In effect, patients may re-learn motor skills mediated by compensatory neuroplasticity mechanisms. However, long term functional gains are dependent on the nature of the pathology, follow-up is usually limited and reinforcement by healthcare professionals is crucial. Aiming to cope with these challenges, several researches and device implementations provide auditory or visual stimulation to improve Parkinsonian gait pattern, inside and outside clinical scenarios. The current work presents a semiautomated strategy for spatio-temporal feature extraction to study the relations between auditory temporal stimulation and spatiotemporal gait response. A protocol for auditory stimulation was built to evaluate the integrability of the strategy in the clinic practice. The method was evaluated in transversal measurement with an exploratory group of people with Parkinson's (n = 12 in stage 1, 2 and 3) and control subjects (n =6). The result showed a strong linear relation between auditory stimulation and cadence response in control subjects (R=0.98 +/-0.008) and PD subject in stage 2 (R=0.95 +/-0.03) and stage 3 (R=0.89 +/-0.05). Normalized step length showed a variable response between low and high gait velocity (0.2> R >0.97). The correlation between normalized mean velocity and stimulus was strong in all PD stage 2 (R>0.96) PD stage 3 (R>0.84) and controls (R>0.91) for all experimental conditions. Among participants, the largest variation from baseline was found in PD subject in stage 3 (53.61 +/-39.2 step/min, 0.12 +/- 0.06 in step length and 0.33 +/- 0.16 in mean velocity). In this group these values were higher than the own baseline. These variations are related with direct effect of metronome frequency on cadence and velocity. The variation of step length involves different regulation strategies and

  7. Avaliação de dois testes auditivos centrais em idosos sem queixas Assessment of two central auditory tests in elderly patients without hearing complaints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Sanches Gonçales

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Na população idosa, distúrbios da inteligibilidade de fala podem ter causas periféricas ou centrais. A assimetria em testes dicóticos verbais aumenta com a idade e reflete falha na transferência inter-hemisférica e nas funções cognitivas. OBJETIVO: Investigar o desempenho de idosos, sem queixas auditivas, em dois testes de processamento auditivo. FORMA DO ESTUDO: Clínico prospectivo. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram avaliados 22 voluntários, com idades entre 55 e 75 anos, com limiares auditivos máximos de 40 dB NA até 4000Hz, índice de reconhecimento de fala acima de 80% e audição simétrica bilateralmente. Aplicaram-se testes de fala com ruído e dicótico de dissílabos alternados (SSW. A análise dos dados comparou gênero, orelhas e grupos etários. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença entre os gêneros para nenhum dos testes. A orelha esquerda teve desempenho inferior à orelha direita na condição competitiva do teste SSW. Os participantes com idade acima de 65 anos apresentaram desempenho pior em ambos os testes quando comparados com indivíduos de 55 a 64 anos. CONCLUSÃO: O desempenho dos testes auditivos centrais piora com a idade. A introdução de testes dicóticos na bateria de avaliação auditiva de idosos pode contribuir para a identificação precoce de processos degenerativos característicos do envelhecimento.Speech understanding disorders in the elderly may be due to peripheral or central auditory dysfunctions. Asymmetry of results in dichotic testing increases with age, and may reflect on a lack of inter-hemisphere transmission and cognitive decline. AIM: To investigate auditory processing of aged people with no hearing complaints. STUDY DESIGN: clinical prospective. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-two voluntary individuals, aged between 55 and 75 years, were evaluated. They reported no hearing complaints and had maximal auditory thresholds of 40 dB HL until 4 KHz, 80% of minimal speech recognition scores and peripheral

  8. Pattern of skin diseases among Central African refugees in Chad

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Fawzi Ismael; Abdel-Hady El-Gilany

    2015-01-01

    Aim: to describe the pattern of skin diseases among refugees attending the dermatology clinic in refugee camps in southern Chad. Methods: A descriptive clinic-based cross-sectional study was done in two refugee camps of people from Republic of Central Africa in Southern Chad. Diagnosis of skin diseases was done through clinical examination by a single dermatologist along with the help of hand lens provided with illumination. Lack of investigations and other skin diagnostic tools prevented fur...

  9. [Central arterial pressure in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gel'tser, B I; Brodskaia, T A

    2008-01-01

    To study central (aortic) arterial pressure (CAP) and aortic stiffness in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) of different severity. Non-invasive arteriography with Tensio Climo TL1 arteriograph (TensioMed, Hungary) was made to measure aortic stiffness and systolic pressure (SAP) in 54 COPD patients and 25 healthy controls. The difference between the central and peripheral SAP (delta SAP) and central/ peripheral pressure correspondence index (CI) were estimated. Indirect arteriography has found that patients with moderate and severe COPD have stable elevated central SAP which is close to brachial SAP while in healthy controls the difference between central and peripheral SAP is 10.2 +/- 2.1 mmHg. With progression of COPD severity, deltaSAP diminishes while CI rises showing growing disproportion between central and peripheral blood pressure. In severe COPD physiological difference between them disappears. In COPD increased CAP is associated with impaired mechanical properties of the arterial bed and myocardial contractility proved by significant links between CAP and left ventricular ejection fraction index and key parameters of arterial stiffness. Aortic CAP, delta SAP and CI are additional informative criteria of COPD severity and high cardiovascular risk as shown by their close correlation with hypoxemia, severity and duration of the disease.

  10. Central Blood Pressure and Chronic Kidney Disease Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie L. Cohen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension, diabetes, and proteinuria are well-recognized risk factors for progressive kidney function loss. However, despite excellent antihypertensive and antidiabetic drug therapies, which also often lower urinary protein excretion, there remains a significant reservoir of patients with chronic kidney disease who are at high risk for progression to end-stage kidney disease. This has led to the search for less traditional cardiovascular risk factors that will help stratify patients at risk for more rapid kidney disease progression. Among these are noninvasive estimates of vascular structure and function. Arterial stiffness, manifested by the pulse wave velocity in the aorta, has been established in a number of studies as a significant risk factor for kidney disease progression and cardiovascular endpoints. Much less well studied in chronic kidney disease are measures of central arterial pressures. In this paper we cover the physiology behind the generation of the central pulse wave contour and the studies available using these approaches and conclude with some speculations on the rationale for why measurements of central pressure may be informative for the study of chronic kidney disease progression.

  11. Auditory agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slevc, L Robert; Shell, Alison R

    2015-01-01

    Auditory agnosia refers to impairments in sound perception and identification despite intact hearing, cognitive functioning, and language abilities (reading, writing, and speaking). Auditory agnosia can be general, affecting all types of sound perception, or can be (relatively) specific to a particular domain. Verbal auditory agnosia (also known as (pure) word deafness) refers to deficits specific to speech processing, environmental sound agnosia refers to difficulties confined to non-speech environmental sounds, and amusia refers to deficits confined to music. These deficits can be apperceptive, affecting basic perceptual processes, or associative, affecting the relation of a perceived auditory object to its meaning. This chapter discusses what is known about the behavioral symptoms and lesion correlates of these different types of auditory agnosia (focusing especially on verbal auditory agnosia), evidence for the role of a rapid temporal processing deficit in some aspects of auditory agnosia, and the few attempts to treat the perceptual deficits associated with auditory agnosia. A clear picture of auditory agnosia has been slow to emerge, hampered by the considerable heterogeneity in behavioral deficits, associated brain damage, and variable assessments across cases. Despite this lack of clarity, these striking deficits in complex sound processing continue to inform our understanding of auditory perception and cognition. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Regional Disease Vector Ecology Profile: South Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    Central Asia). Specially formulated larviciding oils can be used to control insecticide- resistant larvae. Pathogens, such as Bacillus thuringiensis ...106 7. Hymenoptera (ants, bees and wasps...gastrointestinal pathogens. Bacteria and viruses causing diarrheal disease include: Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, Bacillus cereus, Vibrio

  13. sexually transmitted diseases at queen elizabeth central hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-12-12

    Dec 12, 2000 ... Objectives: To re-assess attendance at the sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) clinic in relation to age, sex and seasonal variation over a three-year period, and to determine the pattern of STD syndromes presenting at the STDs clinic, Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital,. Blantyre, Malawi. Design: A ...

  14. Auditory and Visual Sensations

    CERN Document Server

    Ando, Yoichi

    2010-01-01

    Professor Yoichi Ando, acoustic architectural designer of the Kirishima International Concert Hall in Japan, presents a comprehensive rational-scientific approach to designing performance spaces. His theory is based on systematic psychoacoustical observations of spatial hearing and listener preferences, whose neuronal correlates are observed in the neurophysiology of the human brain. A correlation-based model of neuronal signal processing in the central auditory system is proposed in which temporal sensations (pitch, timbre, loudness, duration) are represented by an internal autocorrelation representation, and spatial sensations (sound location, size, diffuseness related to envelopment) are represented by an internal interaural crosscorrelation function. Together these two internal central auditory representations account for the basic auditory qualities that are relevant for listening to music and speech in indoor performance spaces. Observed psychological and neurophysiological commonalities between auditor...

  15. Children with chronic lung diseases have cognitive dysfunction as assessed by event-related potential (auditory P300) and Stanford-Binet IQ (SB-IV) test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Terez Boshra; Abd Elmonaem, Mahmoud Tarek; Khalil, Lobna Hamed; Goda, Mona Hamdy; Sanyelbhaa, Hossam; Ramzy, Mourad Alfy

    2016-10-01

    Chronic lung disease (CLD) in children represents a heterogeneous group of many clinico-pathological entities with risk of adverse impact of chronic or intermittent hypoxia. So far, few researchers have investigated the cognitive function in these children, and the role of auditory P300 in the assessment of their cognitive function has not been investigated yet. This study was designed to assess the cognitive functions among schoolchildren with different chronic pulmonary diseases using both auditory P300 and Stanford-Binet test. This cross-sectional study included 40 school-aged children who were suffering from chronic chest troubles other than asthma and 30 healthy children of similar age, gender and socioeconomic state as a control group. All subjects were evaluated through clinical examination, radiological evaluation and spirometry. Audiological evaluation included (basic otological examination, pure-tone, speech audiometry and immittancemetry). Cognitive function was assessed by auditory P300 and psychological evaluation using Stanford-Binet test (4th edition). Children with chronic lung diseases had significantly lower anthropometric measures compared to healthy controls. They had statistically significant lower IQ scores and delayed P300 latencies denoting lower cognitive abilities. Cognitive dysfunction correlated to severity of disease. P300 latencies were prolonged among hypoxic patients. Cognitive deficits in children with different chronic lung diseases were best detected using both Stanford-Binet test and auditory P300. P300 is an easy objective tool. P300 is affected early with hypoxia and could alarm subtle cognitive dysfunction.

  16. Central motor conduction in human chronic Chagas' disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Segura

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available The possible involvement of spinal alpha motor neurons, dorsal root ganglia and sensory fibers in human chronic Chagas' disease was previously demonstrated. More recently neuropsychological and sensory evoked potentials studies suggest the existence of central nervous system abnormalities in these patients. We assessed the state of central motor pathways in 46 patients with chronic Chagas' disease and 30 healthy volunteers by means of percutaneous cortical and spinal electrical stimulation. No significative slowness in pyramidal tracts (PT conduction was found when comparing both groups. Neither any individual patient exhibited abnormally delayed PT conduction values beyond the upper normal limit of the healthy volunteers. These results suggest that, in contrast with other neural systems, the large myelinated PT fibers are usually spared in human chronic Chagas' disease.

  17. Central Venous Disease in Hemodialysis Patients: An Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modabber, Milad, E-mail: mmodabber@gmail.com [McMaster University, Michael G. DeGroote School of Medicine (Canada); Kundu, Sanjoy [Scarborough Hospital and Scarborough Vascular Ultrasound, The Vein Institute of Toronto (Canada)

    2013-08-01

    Central venous occlusive disease (CVD) is a common concern among the hemodialysis patient population, with the potential to cause significant morbidity. Endovascular management of CVD, comprising percutaneous balloon angioplasty and bare-metal stenting, has been established as a safe alternative to open surgical treatment. However, these available treatments have poor long-term patency, requiring close surveillance and multiple repeat interventions. Recently, covered stents have been proposed and their efficacy assessed for the treatment of recalcitrant central venous stenosis and obstruction. Moreover, newly proposed algorithms for the surgical management of CVD warrant consideration. Here, we seek to provide an updated review of the current literature on the various treatment modalities for CVD.

  18. Owner reported diseases of working equids in central Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, A P; Christley, R M; Bell, C E; Gebreab, F; Tefera, G; Reed, K; Trawford, A; Pinchbeck, G L

    2017-07-01

    Working horses, donkeys and mules suffer from numerous diseases and clinical problems. However, there is little information on what owners perceive as important health concerns in their working animals. To identify and prioritise with owners the diseases and other health concerns in working equids in central Ethiopia using participatory methodologies. Participatory situation analysis (PSA). The study was conducted with carthorse- and donkey-owners in 16 sites in central Ethiopia. Multiple participatory methodologies were utilised, including ranking, matrices and focus group discussions. Owners' perceptions on frequency, importance, morbidity and mortality of volunteered diseases and the clinical signs that owners attributed to each disease were obtained; information regarding the impact of these diseases and health concerns was also sought. A total of 40 separate disease and health problems were volunteered by carthorse- and donkey-owners. Horse-owners volunteered a musculoskeletal syndrome (with the local name 'bird', clinical signs suggest possible disease pathologies including equine exertional rhabdomyolysis), colic and epizootic lymphangitis most frequently, whereas donkey-owners volunteered sarcoids, nasal discharge and wounds to occur most frequently. One problem (coughing) was volunteered frequently by both horse- and donkey-owners. Owners demonstrated knowledge of differing manifestations and severity of these problems, which resulted in differing impacts on the working ability of the animal. Although many of the diseases and clinical signs had been previously reported, this study also identified some previously unreported priorities such as rabies in donkeys, an unidentified musculoskeletal syndrome in horses and respiratory signs in both horses and donkeys. The information gathered during this participatory study with owners may be used to inform future veterinary and educational programme interventions, as well as identify future research priorities.

  19. Auditory object cognition in dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goll, Johanna C.; Kim, Lois G.; Hailstone, Julia C.; Lehmann, Manja; Buckley, Aisling; Crutch, Sebastian J.; Warren, Jason D.

    2011-01-01

    The cognition of nonverbal sounds in dementia has been relatively little explored. Here we undertook a systematic study of nonverbal sound processing in patient groups with canonical dementia syndromes comprising clinically diagnosed typical amnestic Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 21), progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA; n = 5), logopenic progressive aphasia (LPA; n = 7) and aphasia in association with a progranulin gene mutation (GAA; n = 1), and in healthy age-matched controls (n = 20). Based on a cognitive framework treating complex sounds as ‘auditory objects’, we designed a novel neuropsychological battery to probe auditory object cognition at early perceptual (sub-object), object representational (apperceptive) and semantic levels. All patients had assessments of peripheral hearing and general neuropsychological functions in addition to the experimental auditory battery. While a number of aspects of auditory object analysis were impaired across patient groups and were influenced by general executive (working memory) capacity, certain auditory deficits had some specificity for particular dementia syndromes. Patients with AD had a disproportionate deficit of auditory apperception but preserved timbre processing. Patients with PNFA had salient deficits of timbre and auditory semantic processing, but intact auditory size and apperceptive processing. Patients with LPA had a generalised auditory deficit that was influenced by working memory function. In contrast, the patient with GAA showed substantial preservation of auditory function, but a mild deficit of pitch direction processing and a more severe deficit of auditory apperception. The findings provide evidence for separable stages of auditory object analysis and separable profiles of impaired auditory object cognition in different dementia syndromes. PMID:21689671

  20. White Matter Integrity Dissociates Verbal Memory and Auditory Attention Span in Emerging Adults with Congenital Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, Ryan C; King, Tricia Z; Burns, Thomas G; Drossner, David M; Mahle, William T

    2015-01-01

    White matter disruptions have been identified in individuals with congenital heart disease (CHD). However, no specific theory-driven relationships between microstructural white matter disruptions and cognition have been established in CHD. We conducted a two-part study. First, we identified significant differences in fractional anisotropy (FA) of emerging adults with CHD using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS). TBSS analyses between 22 participants with CHD and 18 demographically similar controls identified five regions of normal appearing white matter with significantly lower FA in CHD, and two higher. Next, two regions of lower FA in CHD were selected to examine theory-driven differential relationships with cognition: voxels along the left uncinate fasciculus (UF; a tract theorized to contribute to verbal memory) and voxels along the right middle cerebellar peduncle (MCP; a tract previously linked to attention). In CHD, a significant positive correlation between UF FA and memory was found, r(20)=.42, p=.049 (uncorrected). There was no correlation between UF and auditory attention span. A positive correlation between MCP FA and auditory attention span was found, r(20)=.47, p=.027 (uncorrected). There was no correlation between MCP and memory. In controls, no significant relationships were identified. These results are consistent with previous literature demonstrating lower FA in younger CHD samples, and provide novel evidence for disrupted white matter integrity in emerging adults with CHD. Furthermore, a correlational double dissociation established distinct white matter circuitry (UF and MCP) and differential cognitive correlates (memory and attention span, respectively) in young adults with CHD.

  1. Breast cancer by stage of disease at diagnosis, central Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owora, Arthur H; Wendelboe, Aaron; Thompson, David; Campbell, Janis

    2010-10-01

    We describe factors associated with an initial diagnosis of stage IV breast cancer to identify segments of Oklahoma's population that need earlier screening. We obtained data from the Central Oklahoma chapter of Susan G. Komen for the Cure and from the Oklahoma Central Cancer Registry. All analyses were cross-sectional and ecologic. The distributions of breast cancer stage at diagnosis for ten central Oklahoma counties were analyzed with respect to age group, race/ethnicity, insurance status, family income, and the percent of women who reported [not] receiving a mammogram in the previous twelve months. The percentage of African American women diagnosed with stage IV disease (7.8%) was nearly double that in white (4.2%) and other races (4.1%; p < 0.01). After controlling for confounding variables, the proportion of women diagnosed with breast cancer at stage IV was still higher among African American than among white females (p < 0.01) and females aged 65+ years (p = 0.02). The availability of breast cancer screening services should be increased among African American women in central Oklahoma.

  2. Verbal Auditory Cueing of Improvisational Dance: A Proposed Method for Training Agency in Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batson, Glenna; Hugenschmidt, Christina E.; Soriano, Christina T.

    2016-01-01

    Dance is a non-pharmacological intervention that helps maintain functional independence and quality of life in people with Parkinson’s disease (PPD). Results from controlled studies on group-delivered dance for people with mild-to-moderate stage Parkinson’s have shown statistically and clinically significant improvements in gait, balance, and psychosocial factors. Tested interventions include non-partnered dance forms (ballet and modern dance) and partnered (tango). In all of these dance forms, specific movement patterns initially are learned through repetition and performed in time-to-music. Once the basic steps are mastered, students may be encouraged to improvise on the learned steps as they perform them in rhythm with the music. Here, we summarize a method of teaching improvisational dance that advances previous reported benefits of dance for people with Parkinson’s disease (PD). The method relies primarily on improvisational verbal auditory cueing with less emphasis on directed movement instruction. This method builds on the idea that daily living requires flexible, adaptive responses to real-life challenges. In PD, movement disorders not only limit mobility but also impair spontaneity of thought and action. Dance improvisation demands open and immediate interpretation of verbally delivered movement cues, potentially fostering the formation of spontaneous movement strategies. Here, we present an introduction to a proposed method, detailing its methodological specifics, and pointing to future directions. The viewpoint advances an embodied cognitive approach that has eco-validity in helping PPD meet the changing demands of daily living. PMID:26925029

  3. Central auditory processing disorder (CAPD tests in a school-age hearing screening programme – analysis of 76,429 children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr H. Skarzynski

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction and objective[/b]. Hearing disorders among school-age children are a current concern. Continuing studies have been performed in Poland since 2008, and on 2 December 2011 the EU Council adopted Conclusions on the Early Detection and Treatment of Communication Disorders in Children, Including the Use of e-Health Tools and innovative Solutions. The discussion now focuses not only on the efficacy of hearing screening programmes in schoolchildren, but what should be its general aim and what tests it should include? This paper makes the case that it is important to include central auditory processing disorder (CAPD tests. One such test is the dichotic digits test (DDT. The aim of the presented study was to evaluate the usefulness of the DDT in detecting central hearing disorders in school-age children. [b]Materials and methods[/b]. During hearing screening programmes conducted in Poland in 2008–2010, exactly 235,664 children (7–12-years-old were screened in 9,325 schools. Of this number, 7,642 were examined using the DDT test for CAPD. Screening programmes were conducted using the Sense Examination Platform. [b]Results.[/b] With the cut-off criterion set at the 5th percentile, results for the DDT applied in a divided attention mode were 11.4% positive for 7-year-olds and 11.3% for 12-year-olds. In the focused attention mode, the comparable result for 12-year-olds was 9.7%. There was a clear right ear advantage. In children with positive DDT results, a higher incidence of other disorders, such as dyslexia, was observed. [b]Conclusions[/b]. A test for CAPD should be included in the hearing screening of school-age children. The results of this study form the basis for developing Polish standards in this area.

  4. Pattern of skin diseases among Central African refugees in Chad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Fawzi Ismael

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to describe the pattern of skin diseases among refugees attending the dermatology clinic in refugee camps in southern Chad. Methods: A descriptive clinic-based cross-sectional study was done in two refugee camps of people from Republic of Central Africa in Southern Chad. Diagnosis of skin diseases was done through clinical examination by a single dermatologist along with the help of hand lens provided with illumination. Lack of investigations and other skin diagnostic tools prevented further confirmation of diagnosis. Data was manually analyzed and diagnosis was presented as number and percent using the ICD -10 of the World Health Organization. Results: A total of 366 dermatologic diseases were diagnosed in 361 patients. Certain infectious and parasitic diseases and dermatitis/ eczema were the commonest diagnostic categories (39.9% and 22.45; respectively followed by disorders of skin appendices (15% and infections of skin and subcutaneous tissues (13.1%. Tinea barbae /capitis, ringworm and impetigo are the commonest recorded infections (11.5%, 10.1% and 7.9%; respectively. Miliaria and acne vulgaris were the most frequent disorders of skin appendages. Conclusions: Infectious skin diseases are common among refugees. There are urgent needs for health education and promotion of personal hygiene with adequate sanitation as well as availability of diagnostic tests [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(4.000: 324-328

  5. A randomised controlled trial evaluating the effect of an individual auditory cueing device on freezing and gait speed in people with Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynch Deirdre

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurological disorder resulting from a degeneration of dopamine producing cells in the substantia nigra. Clinical symptoms typically affect gait pattern and motor performance. Evidence suggests that the use of individual auditory cueing devices may be used effectively for the management of gait and freezing in people with Parkinson's disease. The primary aim of the randomised controlled trial is to evaluate the effect of an individual auditory cueing device on freezing and gait speed in people with Parkinson's disease. Methods A prospective multi-centre randomised cross over design trial will be conducted. Forty-seven subjects will be randomised into either Group A or Group B, each with a control and intervention phase. Baseline measurements will be recorded using the Freezing of Gait Questionnaire as the primary outcome measure and 3 secondary outcome measures, the 10 m Walk Test, Timed "Up & Go" Test and the Modified Falls Efficacy Scale. Assessments are taken 3-times over a 3-week period. A follow-up assessment will be completed after three months. A secondary aim of the study is to evaluate the impact of such a device on the quality of life of people with Parkinson's disease using a qualitative methodology. Conclusion The Apple iPod-Shuffle™ and similar devices provide a cost effective and an innovative platform for integration of individual auditory cueing devices into clinical, social and home environments and are shown to have immediate effect on gait, with improvements in walking speed, stride length and freezing. It is evident that individual auditory cueing devices are of benefit to people with Parkinson's disease and the aim of this randomised controlled trial is to maximise the benefits by allowing the individual to use devices in both a clinical and social setting, with minimal disruption to their daily routine. Trial registration The protocol for this study is registered

  6. Identificação dos fatores de risco para o transtorno do processamento auditivo (central em pré-escolares Identification of risk factors for the (central auditory processing disorder in preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Musskopf da Luz

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: identificar os fatores de risco para o Transtorno do Processamento Auditivo (Central TPA(C em 79 pré-escolares. MÉTODOS: aplicou-se um questionário para 79 pais , de crianças que cursavam a pré-escola ou o primeiro ano do ensino fundamental, das redes municipal, estadual e particular de Porto Alegre. O questionário continha questões referentes ao desenvolvimento infantil. RESULTADOS: a pesquisa mostra como principais resultados a ocorrência do uso de chupeta (73,4%; do tempo de aleitamento materno (36%; da realização dos exames audiológicos (17,8%; do tempo em frente a televisão (59%; e da quantidade de repetições de instruções (54%; Em relação aos testes de correlação o estudo mostrou a utilização da chupeta (p=0,006 e maior ocorrência de otites (p=0,007 por meninas. As crianças mais velhas realizavam leitura espontânea (p=0,007 e recontavam histórias ordenadamente (p=0,035. CONCLUSÃO: Identificou-se as variáveis: maior número de irmãos (p=0,005, maior solicitação de repetições (pPURPOSE: to identify the risk factors for (Central Auditory Processing Disorder in a group of 79 preschool children. METHODS: we applied a questionnaire to 79 parents or guardians of children attending preschool or first year of elementary school of the municipal, state and private schools in Porto Alegre. The questionnaire contained questions related to child development. RESULTS: the research shows as the main results the use of a pacifier use (73.4%; the duration of breastfeeding (36%; the conduction of audiological testing (17.8%; the time watching TV (59%; and the number of repetitions of instructions (54%; For the correlation tests the study showed the pacifier use (p=0.006 and the higher incidence of otitis (p=0.007 by girls. Older children performed spontaneous reading (p=0.007 and retold stories neatly (p=0.035. CONCLUSION: the risk factors for (Central Auditory Processing Disorder were identified, being the

  7. Insomnia in central neurologic diseases--occurrence and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, Geert; Jennum, Poul; Riemann, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    antidepressants may be an effective treatment for insomnia in stroke and Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Melatonin and light treatment can stabilize the sleep-wake circadian rhythm and shorten sleep latency in dementias and PD. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) can be effective in treating insomnia symptoms......The objective of this review is to highlight the impact of insomnia in central neurological disorders by providing information on its prevalence and give recommendations for diagnosis and treatment. Insomnia in neurological disorders is a frequent, but underestimated symptom. Its occurrence may...... the cause of insomnia must be clearly identified. First line treatment aims at the underlying neurologic disease. The few high quality treatment studies show that short term treatment with hypnotics may be recommended in most disorders after having ruled out high risk for adverse effects. Sedating...

  8. Verbal auditory cueing of improvisational dance: A proposed method for training agency in Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenna eBatson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Dance is a non-pharmacological intervention that helps maintain functional independence and quality of life in people with Parkinson’s disease (PPD. Results from controlled studies on group-delivered dance for people with mild-to-moderate stage Parkinson’s have shown statistically and clinically significant improvements in gait, balance, and psychosocial factors. Tested interventions include non-partnered dance forms (ballet and modern dance and partnered (tango. In all of these dance forms, specific movement patterns initially are learned through repetition and performed in time to music. Once the basic steps are mastered, students may be encouraged to improvise on the learned steps as they perform them in rhythm with the music. Here, we summarize a method of teaching improvisational dance that advances previous reported benefits of dance for people with PD. The method relies primarily on improvisational verbal auditory cueing (VAC with less emphasis on directed movement instruction. This method builds on the idea that daily living requires flexible, adaptive responses to real-life challenges. In PD, movement disorders not only limit mobility, but also impair spontaneity of thought and action. Dance improvisation trains spontaneity of thought, fostering open and immediate interpretation of verbally delivered movement cues. Here we present an introduction to a proposed method, detailing its methodological specifics, and pointing to future directions. The viewpoint advances an embodied cognitive approach that has eco-validity in helping PPD meet the changing demands of daily living.

  9. Quantitative Electromyographic Analysis of Reaction Time to External Auditory Stimuli in Drug-Naïve Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do-Young Kwon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD is still based on clinical rating scales by clinicians. Reaction time (RT is the time interval between a specific stimulus and the start of muscle response. The aim of this study was to identify the characteristics of RT responses in PD patients using electromyography (EMG and to elucidate the relationship between RT and clinical features of PD. The EMG activity of 31 PD patients was recorded during isometric muscle contraction. RT was defined as the time latency between an auditory beep and responsive EMG activity. PD patients demonstrated significant delays in both initiation and termination of muscle contraction compared with controls. Cardinal motor symptoms of PD were closely correlated with RT. RT was longer in more-affected side and in more-advanced PD stages. Frontal cognitive function, which is indicative of motor programming and movement regulation and perseveration, was also closely related with RT. In conclusion, greater RT is the characteristic motor features of PD and it could be used as a sensitive tool for motor function assessment in PD patients. Further investigations are required to clarify the clinical impact of the RT on the activity of daily living of patients with PD.

  10. Biologically-variable rhythmic auditory cues are superior to isochronous cues in fostering natural gait variability in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotov, D G; Bayard, S; Cochen de Cock, V; Geny, C; Driss, V; Garrigue, G; Bardy, B; Dalla Bella, S

    2017-01-01

    Rhythmic auditory cueing improves certain gait symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). Cues are typically stimuli or beats with a fixed inter-beat interval. We show that isochronous cueing has an unwanted side-effect in that it exacerbates one of the motor symptoms characteristic of advanced PD. Whereas the parameters of the stride cycle of healthy walkers and early patients possess a persistent correlation in time, or long-range correlation (LRC), isochronous cueing renders stride-to-stride variability random. Random stride cycle variability is also associated with reduced gait stability and lack of flexibility. To investigate how to prevent patients from acquiring a random stride cycle pattern, we tested rhythmic cueing which mimics the properties of variability found in healthy gait (biological variability). PD patients (n=19) and age-matched healthy participants (n=19) walked with three rhythmic cueing stimuli: isochronous, with random variability, and with biological variability (LRC). Synchronization was not instructed. The persistent correlation in gait was preserved only with stimuli with biological variability, equally for patients and controls (p'scycle. Notably, the individual's tendency to synchronize steps with beats determined the amount of negative effects of isochronous and random cues (p'sgait dynamics during cueing. The beneficial effects of biological variability provide useful guidelines for improving existing cueing treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Cerebrospinal fluid interleukin-6 in central nervous system inflammatory diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Wullschleger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interleukin (IL-6 is recognised as an important cytokine involved in inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (CNS. OBJECTIVE: To perform a large retrospective study designed to test cerebrospinal fluid (CSF IL-6 levels in the context of neurological diseases, and evaluate its usefulness as a biomarker to help discriminate multiple sclerosis (MS from other inflammatory neurological diseases (OIND. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed 374 CSF samples for IL-6 using a quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Groups tested were composed of demyelinating diseases of the CNS (DD, n = 117, including relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS, n = 65, primary progressive MS (PPMS, n = 11, clinically isolated syndrome (CIS, n = 11, optic neuritis (ON, n = 30; idiopathic transverse myelitis (ITM, n = 10; other inflammatory neurological diseases (OIND, n = 35; and non-inflammatory neurological diseases (NIND, n = 212. Differences between groups were analysed using Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U-test. RESULTS: CSF IL-6 levels exceeded the positivity cut-off of 10 pg/ml in 18 (51.4% of the 35 OIND samples, but in only three (3.9% of the 76 MS samples collected. CSF IL-6 was negative for all NIND samples tested (0/212. IL-6 cut-off of 10 pg/ml offers 96% sensitivity to exclude MS. CONCLUSION: CSF IL-6 may help to differentiate MS from its major differential diagnosis group, OIND.

  12. Information processing at a central synapse suggests a noise filter in the auditory pathway of the noctuid moth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyan, G S; Fullard, J H

    1988-12-01

    1. The central projections of the A1 afferent were confirmed via intracellular recording and staining with Lucifer Yellow in the pterothoracic ganglion of the noctuid moths, Agrotis infusa and Apamea amputatrix (Fig. 1). Simultaneous recordings of the A1 afferent in the tympanal nerve (extracellularly) and in the pterothoracic ganglion (intracellularly) confirm the identity of the stained receptor as being the A1 cell. 2. The major postsynaptic arborizations of interneurone 501 in the pterothoracic ganglion were also demonstrated via intracellular recording and staining (Fig. 2). Simultaneous recordings of the A1 afferent (extracellularly) and neurone 501 (intracellularly) revealed that each A1 spike evokes a constant short latency EPSP in the interneurone (Fig. 2Bi). Neurone 501 receives only monaural input from the A1 afferent on its soma side as demonstrated by electrical stimulation of each afferent nerve (Fig. 2Bii). EPSPs evoked in neurone 501 by high frequency (100 Hz) electrical stimulation of the afferent nerve did not decrement (Fig. 2Biii). These data are consistent with a monosynaptic input to neurone 501 from the A1 afferent. 3. The response of neurone 501 to a sound stimulus presented at an intensity near the upper limit of its linear response range (30 ms, 16 kHz, 80 dB SPL) was a plateau-like depolarization, with tonic spiking activity which continued beyond the end of the tone. The instantaneous spike frequency of the response was as high as 800 Hz, and was maintained at above 600 Hz for the duration of the tone (Fig. 3). 4. The relationship between the instantaneous spike frequency in the A1 afferent and that recorded simultaneously in neurone 501 is linear over the entire range of A1 spike frequencies evoked by white noise sound stimuli (Fig. 4). Similarly, the relationship between instantaneous spike frequency in the A1 afferent and the mean depolarization evoked in neurone 501 is also linear for all A1 spike frequencies tested (Fig. 5). No

  13. Auditory brain-stem response, CT and MR imaging in a family with classical type Pelizaeus-Merzbacher Disease

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    Shiomi, M.; Ookuni, H.; Sugita, T.

    1987-05-01

    A family in which 5 males in successive generations were clinically suspected to be affected with the classical X-linked recessive form of Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) is presented. Two brothers and their maternal uncle were examined by one of the authors (MS). In two brothers, aged 3 years and 2 years, the disease became obvious within a month after birth with nystagmus and head tremor. Head control and sitting were achieved at the age of 18 months at which time they began to speak. They could not stand nor walk without support. They had dysmetria, weakness and hyper-reflexia of lower extremities, and mild mental retardation. Their maternal uncle, aged 37 years, showed psychomotor retardation from birth and subsequently developed spastic paraplegia. He had been able to walk with crutches until adolescence. He had dysmetria, scanning speech, athetoid posture of fingers and significant intellectual deficits. Auditory brainstem response in both brothers revealed well defined waves I and II, low amplitude wave III and an absence of all subsequent components. CT demonstrated mild cerebral atrophy in the elder brother and was normal in the younger brother, but in their uncle, CT showed atrophy of the brainstem, cerebellum and cerebrum, and low density of the white matter of the centrum semiovale. MRI was performed in both brothers. Although the brainstem, the internal capsule and the thalamus were myelinated, the myelination in the subcortical white matter was restricted to periventricular regions on IR sequence scans. On SE sequence, the subcortical white matter was imaged as a brighter area than the cerebral cortex. These results demonstrate that the degree of myelination in these patients was roughly equal to that of 3-to 6-month old infants.

  14. Auditory- and Vestibular-Evoked Potentials Correlate with Motor and Non-Motor Features of Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalash, Ali Soliman; Hassan, Dalia Mohamed; Elrassas, Hanan Hani; Salama, Mohamed Mosaad; Méndez-Hernández, Edna; Salas-Pacheco, José M.; Arias-Carrión, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    Degeneration of several brainstem nuclei has been long related to motor and non-motor symptoms (NMSs) of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Nevertheless, due to technical issues, there are only a few studies that correlate that association. Brainstem auditory-evoked potential (BAEP) and vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) responses represent a valuable tool for brainstem assessment. Here, we investigated the abnormalities of BAEPs, ocular VEMPs (oVEMPs), and cervical VEMPs (cVEMPs) in patients with PD and its correlation to the motor and NMSs. Fifteen patients diagnosed as idiopathic PD were evaluated by Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale and its subscores, Hoehn and Yahr scale, Schwab and England scale, and Non-Motor Symptoms Scale. PD patients underwent pure-tone, speech audiometry, tympanometry, BAEP, oVEMPs, and cVEMPs, and compared to 15 age-matched control subjects. PD subjects showed abnormal BAEP wave morphology, prolonged absolute latencies of wave V and I–V interpeak latencies. Absent responses were the marked abnormality seen in oVEMP. Prolonged latencies with reduced amplitudes were seen in cVEMP responses. Rigidity and bradykinesia were correlated to the BAEP and cVEMP responses contralateral to the clinically more affected side. Contralateral and ipsilateral cVEMPs were significantly correlated to sleep (p = 0.03 and 0.001), perception (p = 0.03), memory/cognition (p = 0.025), and urinary scores (p = 0.03). The oVEMP responses showed significant correlations to cardiovascular (p = 0.01) and sexual dysfunctions (p = 0.013). PD is associated with BAEP and VEMP abnormalities that are correlated to the motor and some non-motor clinical characteristics. These abnormalities could be considered as potential electrophysiological biomarkers for brainstem dysfunction and its associated motor and non-motor features. PMID:28289399

  15. Smoking Related Diseases: The Central Role of Monoamine Oxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marie Launay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is a major risk factor of morbidity and mortality. It is well established that monoamine oxidase (MAO activity is decreased in smokers. Serotonin (5-HT, a major substrate for MAO that circulates as a reserve pool stored in platelets, is a marker of platelet activation. We recently reported that smoking durably modifies the platelet 5-HT/MAO system by inducing a demethylation of the MAO gene promoter resulting in high MAO protein concentration persisting more than ten years after quitting smoking. The present data enlarges the results to another MAO substrate, norepinephrine (NE, further confirming the central role of MAO in tobacco use-induced diseases. Thus, MAO could be a readily accessible and helpful marker in the risk evaluation of smoking-related diseases, from cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases to depression, anxiety and cancer. The present review implements the new finding of epigenetic regulation of MAO and suggests that smoking-induced MAO demethylation can be considered as a hallmark of smoking-related cancers similarly to other aberrant DNA methylations.

  16. Epidemiological survey on esca disease in Umbria, central Italy

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    M. Quaglia

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Esca is a grapevine disease occurring in all vine-growing areas, including Italy. Multiple fungi that have been associated with esca spread by releasing aerial spores that infect pruning cuts and wounds. The aim of the study was to determine the occurrence of the most common fungi associated with esca in Umbria (central Italy and to fi nd under what weather conditions they release their spores. Disease incidence was also determined in the summers of 2006 and 2007 on ten grapevine cultivars (Cabernet Sauvignon, Grechetto, Sangiovese, Trebbiano toscano, Pinot bianco, Trebbiano spoletino, Ciliegiolo, Montepulciano, Chardonnay and Merlot growing together in the same vineyard. Visual inspection of the vines showed that all cultivars were susceptible to esca, but that esca incidence differed in intensity between cultivars. In both years, esca incidence was higher with Cabernet Sauvignon, Sangiovese and Trebbiano toscano, and lower with Montepulciano and Merlot. Disease incidence went up in summer. Phaeomoniella chlamydospora was isolated from vine samples showing dark wood streaking, and Fomitiporia mediterranea from samples with white rot, confi rming that these fungi are involved in esca. Spores of P. chlamydospora were trapped from March to December 2007. Spore release was affected by weather parameters (rain and temperature.

  17. Smoking Related Diseases: The Central Role of Monoamine Oxidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendu, Francine; Peoc’h, Katell; Berlin, Ivan; Thomas, Daniel; Launay, Jean-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Smoking is a major risk factor of morbidity and mortality. It is well established that monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity is decreased in smokers. Serotonin (5-HT), a major substrate for MAO that circulates as a reserve pool stored in platelets, is a marker of platelet activation. We recently reported that smoking durably modifies the platelet 5-HT/MAO system by inducing a demethylation of the MAO gene promoter resulting in high MAO protein concentration persisting more than ten years after quitting smoking. The present data enlarges the results to another MAO substrate, norepinephrine (NE), further confirming the central role of MAO in tobacco use-induced diseases. Thus, MAO could be a readily accessible and helpful marker in the risk evaluation of smoking-related diseases, from cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases to depression, anxiety and cancer. The present review implements the new finding of epigenetic regulation of MAO and suggests that smoking-induced MAO demethylation can be considered as a hallmark of smoking-related cancers similarly to other aberrant DNA methylations. PMID:21318020

  18. The Use of Auditory Event-Related Potentials in Alzheimer's Disease Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Vecchio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Event-related potentials (ERPs are important clinical and research instruments in neuropsychiatry, particularly due to their strategic role for the investigation of brain function. These techniques are often underutilized in the evaluation of neurological and psychiatric disorders, but ERPs are noninvasive instruments that directly reflect cortical neuronal activity. Previous studies using the P300, P3a, and MMN components of the ERP to study dementing illness are reviewed. The results suggest that particularly the P300 brain potential is sensitive to Alzheimer's disease processes during its early stages, and that easily performed stimulus discrimination tasks are the clinically most useful. Finally, these data suggest that the P300 ERP can aid in the diagnosis of dementia and may help in the assessment of early Alzheimer's disease.

  19. Auditory involvement in Behcet's disease: relationship with demographic, clinical, and therapeutic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sota, Jurgen; Vitale, Antonio; Orlando, Ida; Lopalco, Giuseppe; Franceschini, Rossella; Fabiani, Claudia; Galeazzi, Mauro; Emmi, Giacomo; Gentileschi, Stefano; Iannone, Florenzo; Frediani, Bruno; Cantarini, Luca

    2017-02-01

    The study objective was to evaluate the occurrence of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in patients with Behcet's disease (BD), looking at potential correlations with specific demographic, clinical, and therapeutic features. Forty-four consecutive patients (15 males, 29 females) fulfilling the International Study Group (ISG) and/or the International Criteria for Behçet's Disease (ICBD) were enrolled. The endpoints of the study consisted in identifying a deflection of at least 25 dB on pure-tone audiometry and performing statistical analysis to evaluate demographic, clinical, or therapeutic differences between patients with and without SNHL. Our patients showed a mean age ± SD of 45.43 ± 14.05 years; a mean age at disease onset ± SD of 31.54 ± 15.53 years; a disease duration ± SD of 13.89 ± 9.15 years. SNHL was highlighted in 28 (63 %) patients representing the fourth most frequent clinical manifestation in our group of patients. Otologic involvement was significantly more frequent among subjects fulfilling ISG criteria than in patients fulfilling ICBD criteria (p = 0.04). Regarding correlations with BD manifestations, SNHL was significantly associated with cutaneous plus articular involvement (p = 0.013). Conversely, detached analysis of articular and skin manifestations led to no significant differences (p = 0.085 and p = 0.067). No further significant correlations were found between SNHL and BD clinical features or previous or concomitant treatments. Hearing loss was the fourth most common clinical feature in our patients and probably represents an underrated aspect of BD. Hearing impairment was significantly associated with cutaneous plus articular involvement, suggesting the importance of an otologic evaluation in such patients.

  20. Regenerative Therapies for Central Nervous System Diseases: a Biomaterials Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Roger Y; Fuehrmann, Tobias; Mitrousis, Nikolaos; Shoichet, Molly S

    2014-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) has a limited capacity to spontaneously regenerate following traumatic injury or disease, requiring innovative strategies to promote tissue and functional repair. Tissue regeneration strategies, such as cell and/or drug delivery, have demonstrated promising results in experimental animal models, but have been difficult to translate clinically. The efficacy of cell therapy, which involves stem cell transplantation into the CNS to replace damaged tissue, has been limited due to low cell survival and integration upon transplantation, while delivery of therapeutic molecules to the CNS using conventional methods, such as oral and intravenous administration, have been limited by diffusion across the blood–brain/spinal cord-barrier. The use of biomaterials to promote graft survival and integration as well as localized and sustained delivery of biologics to CNS injury sites is actively being pursued. This review will highlight recent advances using biomaterials as cell- and drug-delivery vehicles for CNS repair. PMID:24002187

  1. Investigation of Marek's disease virus from chickens in central Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeke, Berhan; Jenberie, Shiferaw; Tesfaye, Biruk; Ayelet, Gelagay; Yami, Martha; Lamien, Charles Euloge; Gelaye, Esayas

    2017-02-01

    Marek's disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative and neuropathic disease of domestic chickens and less commonly, turkeys and quails, caused by a highly contagious, cell-associated, oncogenic herpesvirus. In Ethiopia, MD is believed to be introduced with importation of exotic and crossbred to improve the poultry production and has been reported to be a potential threat to the poultry sector both in backyard and commercial farming systems. This study was aimed at isolation and molecular analysis of MD virus isolates circulating in chicken population in the central part of Ethiopia where commercial farms are populated. From September 2013 to January 2014, clinical and post-mortem examination were conducted on diseased chickens suspected of MD virus infection. Representative spleen and feather follicle samples were collected following sterile procedure, and infectious virus isolation was performed using primary chicken fibroblast cell culture. Cell culture inoculated with suspension of pathological samples developed characteristic MD virus cytopathic effect of rounding of the cells and small plaques. Further analysis of the virus was conducted by conventional PCR amplifying the ICP4 gene fragment from eleven tissue samples using MD virus specific primers. PCR products were further sequenced and analyzed. Nucleotide sequence similarity search of the local isolates resulted a high degree of sequence similarity with Gallid Herpes virus type 2 strain (Marek's disease virus type 1, JN034558). To our knowledge, the present study is the first report conducted on virus isolation and molecular characterization of MD virus isolates circulated in Ethiopia. Eleven ICP4-like gene fragment (318 bp) sequences generated in the present study were uploaded in the public database (KU842366-76). Further research on virus isolation, genetic characterization, and infection dynamics is recommended targeting chickens of all age groups reared in different agro-ecological zones under different

  2. Optic and auditory pathway dysfunction in demyelinating neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopp, M; Leese, R J; Martin-Lamb, D; Rajabally, Y A

    2014-07-01

    The involvement of optic and auditory pathways has rarely been studied in demyelinating polyneuropathies. We here aimed to study this further in a cohort of patients with acquired and gentic demyelinating neuropathy. We studied eight patients with hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP), six with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A), ten with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) and seven with antimyelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) neuropathy using visual evoked potentials and brainstem auditory evoked potentials. Optic pathway dysfunction was detected in 6/7 anti-MAG neuropathy patients, about half of those with CIDP and HNPP, but only in 1/6 patients with CMT1A. Peripheral auditory nerve dysfunction appeared common in all groups except HNPP. Brainstem involvement was exceptional in all groups. We conclude optic nerve involvement may be frequent in all demyelinating polyneuropathies, particularly anti-MAG neuropathy, except in CMT1A. Peripheral auditory nerves may be spared in HNPP possibly due to absence of local compression. Evidence for central brainstem pathology appeared infrequent in all four studied neuropathies. This study suggests that acquired and genetic demyelinating polyneuropathies may be associated with optic and auditory nerve involvement, which may contribute to neurological disability, and require greater awareness. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The Effect of Dopaminergic Medication on Beat-Based Auditory Timing in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Cameron

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD adversely affects timing abilities. Beat-based timing is a mechanism that times events relative to a regular interval, such as the ‘beat’ in musical rhythm, and is impaired in PD. It is unknown if dopaminergic medication influences beat-based timing in PD. Here we tested beat-based timing over two sessions in participants with PD (OFF then ON dopaminergic medication, and unmedicated control participants. People with PD and control participants completed two tasks. The first was a discrimination task in which participants compared two rhythms and determined whether they were the same or different. Rhythms either had a beat structure (metric simple rhythms, or did not (metric complex rhythms, as in previous studies. Discrimination accuracy was analyzed to test for the effects of beat structure, as well as differences between participants with PD and controls, and effects of medication (PD group only. The second task was the Beat Alignment Test (BAT, in which participants listened to music with regular tones superimposed, and responded as to whether the tones were ‘on’ or ‘off’ the beat of the music. Accuracy was analyzed to test for differences between participants with PD and controls, and for an effect of medication in patients.Both patients and controls discriminated metric simple rhythms better than metric complex rhythms. Controls also improved at the discrimination task in the second vs. first session, whereas people with PD did not. For participants with PD, the difference in performance between metric simple and metric complex rhythms was greater (sensitivity to changes in simple rhythms increased and sensitivity to changes in complex rhythms decreased when ON vs. OFF medication. Performance also worsened with disease severity. For the Beat Alignment Test, no group differences or effects of medication were found. Overall, these findings suggest that timing is impaired in PD, and that dopaminergic

  4. Citation classics in central nervous system inflammatory demyelinating disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jee-Eun; Park, Kang M; Kim, Yerim; Yoon, Dae Y; Bae, Jong S

    2017-06-01

    To identify and analyze the characteristics of the most influential articles about central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory demyelinating disease. The Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Science database and the 2014 Journal Citation Reports Science Edition were used to retrieve the top 100 cited articles on CNS inflammatory demyelinating disease. The citation numbers, journals, years of publication, authorships, article types, subjects and main issues were analyzed. For neuromyelitis optica (NMO), articles that were cited more than 100 times were regarded as a citation classic and described separately. The top 100 cited articles were published between 1972 and 2011 in 13 journals. The highest number of articles (n = 24) was published in Brain, followed by The New England Journal of Medicine (n = 21). The average number of citations was 664 (range 330-3,897), and 64% of the articles were from the United States and the United Kingdom. The majority of the top 100 cited articles were related to multiple sclerosis (n = 87), and only a few articles reported on other topics such as NMO (n = 9), acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (n = 2) and optic neuritis (n = 2). Among the top 100 cited articles, 77% were original articles. Forty-one citation classics were found for NMO. Our study provides a historical perspective on the research progress on CNS inflammatory demyelinating disease and may serve as a guide for important advances and trends in the field for associated researchers.

  5. Current status of auditory aging and anti-aging research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Qingwei; Ma, Cheng; Zhang, Ruxin; Yu, Zhuowei

    2014-01-01

    The development of presbycusis, or age-related hearing loss, is determined by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The auditory periphery exhibits a progressive bilateral, symmetrical reduction of auditory sensitivity to sound from high to low frequencies. The central auditory nervous system shows symptoms of decline in age-related cognitive abilities, including difficulties in speech discrimination and reduced central auditory processing, ultimately resulting in auditory perceptual abnormalities. The pathophysiological mechanisms of presbycusis include excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation, aging and oxidative stress-induced DNA damage that results in apoptosis in the auditory pathway. However, the originating signals that trigger these mechanisms remain unclear. For instance, it is still unknown whether insulin is involved in auditory aging. Auditory aging has preclinical lesions, which manifest as asymptomatic loss of periphery auditory nerves and changes in the plasticity of the central auditory nervous system. Currently, the diagnosis of preclinical, reversible lesions depends on the detection of auditory impairment by functional imaging, and the identification of physiological and molecular biological markers. However, despite recent improvements in the application of these markers, they remain under-utilized in clinical practice. The application of antisenescent approaches to the prevention of auditory aging has produced inconsistent results. Future research will focus on the identification of markers for the diagnosis of preclinical auditory aging and the development of effective interventions. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  6. Central projection of auditory receptors in the prothoracic ganglion of the buschcricket Psorodonotus illyricus (tettigoniidae): computer-aided analysis of the end branch pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebendt, R; Friedel, J; Kalmring, K

    1994-01-01

    The projection patterns of morphologically and functionally identified auditory and auditory-vibratory receptor cells of receptor organs (the crista acustica and the intermediate organ) in the foreleg of the tettigoniid Psorodonotus illyricus, were investigated with combined recording and staining techniques, and subsequent histological examination and morphometric measurements. With the application of a computer program (AutoCAD), three-dimensional reconstructions of the axon end branches of receptor cells within the neuropile of the anterior Ring Tract (aRT) were made, in order to determine, the entire shape of each, the pattern and density of the end branches, and the positions of the target areas within the auditory neuropile. Clear differences for different functional types of receptors were found.

  7. Idiopathic inflammatory-demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovira Canellas, A. [Vall d' Hebron University Hospital, Magnetic Resonance Unit (I.D.I.), Department of Radiology, Barcelona (Spain); Rovira Gols, A. [Parc Tauli University Institute - UAB, UDIAT, Diagnostic Centre, Sabadell (Spain); Rio Izquierdo, J.; Tintore Subirana, M.; Montalban Gairin, X. [Vall d' Hebron University Hospital, Neuroimmunology Unit, Department of Neurology, Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-05-15

    Idiopathic inflammatory-demyelinating diseases (IIDDs) include a broad spectrum of central nervous system disorders that can usually be differentiated on the basis of clinical, imaging, laboratory and pathological findings. However, there can be a considerable overlap between at least some of these disorders, leading to misdiagnoses or diagnostic uncertainty. The relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive forms of multiple sclerosis (MS) are the most common IIDDs. Other MS phenotypes include those with a progressive course from onset (primary progressive and progressive relapsing) or with a benign course continuing for years after onset (benign MS). Uncommon forms of IIDDs can be classified clinically into: (1) fulminant or acute IIDDs, such as the Marburg variant of MS, Balo's concentric sclerosis, Schilder's disease, and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis; (2) monosymptomatic IIDDs, such as those involving the spinal cord (transverse myelitis), optic nerve (optic neuritis) or brainstem and cerebellum; and (3) IIDDs with a restricted topographical distribution, including Devic's neuromyelitis optica, recurrent optic neuritis and relapsing transverse myelitis. Other forms of IIDD, which are classified clinically and radiologically as pseudotumoral, can have different forms of presentation and clinical courses. Although some of these uncommon IIDDs are variants of MS, others probably correspond to different entities. MR imaging of the brain and spine is the imaging technique of choice for diagnosing these disorders, and together with the clinical and laboratory findings can accurately classify them. Precise classification of these disorders may have relevant prognostic and treatment implications, and might be helpful in distinguishing them from tumoral or infectious lesions, avoiding unnecessary aggressive diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. (orig.)

  8. [Assessment of the efficiency of the auditory training in children with dyslalia and auditory processing disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włodarczyk, Elżbieta; Szkiełkowska, Agata; Skarżyński, Henryk; Piłka, Adam

    2011-01-01

    To assess effectiveness of the auditory training in children with dyslalia and central auditory processing disorders. Material consisted of 50 children aged 7-9-years-old. Children with articulation disorders stayed under long-term speech therapy care in the Auditory and Phoniatrics Clinic. All children were examined by a laryngologist and a phoniatrician. Assessment included tonal and impedance audiometry and speech therapists' and psychologist's consultations. Additionally, a set of electrophysiological examinations was performed - registration of N2, P2, N2, P2, P300 waves and psychoacoustic test of central auditory functions: FPT - frequency pattern test. Next children took part in the regular auditory training and attended speech therapy. Speech assessment followed treatment and therapy, again psychoacoustic tests were performed and P300 cortical potentials were recorded. After that statistical analyses were performed. Analyses revealed that application of auditory training in patients with dyslalia and other central auditory disorders is very efficient. Auditory training may be a very efficient therapy supporting speech therapy in children suffering from dyslalia coexisting with articulation and central auditory disorders and in children with educational problems of audiogenic origin. Copyright © 2011 Polish Otolaryngology Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner (Poland). All rights reserved.

  9. Altered brain network centrality in depressed Parkinson's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yuting; Huang, Peiyu; Li, Dan; Cen, Zhidong; Wang, Bo; Gao, Jixiang; Xuan, Min; Yu, Hualiang; Zhang, Minming; Luo, Wei

    2015-11-01

    Depression is a relatively common and serious nonmotor symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD), which reduces the quality of patients' life. Although disturbances in some related brain networks have been reported, the pathophysiology of depression in PD is still unclear. Here, we aim to investigate whole-brain functional connectivity patterns in depressed PD patients. We recruited 17 PD patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder, 17 PD patients without depression, and 17 healthy control subjects. Resting-state functional MRI and eigenvector centrality mapping were used to identify functional connectivity alterations among these groups. Results showed that depressed PD patients had decreased functional connectivity in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and right superior temporal gyrus and increased functional connectivity in the right posterior cingulate cortex, compared to nondepressed patients. In addition, there was a significant negative correlation between functional connectivity and depression scores in the posterior cingulate cortex. This study suggests that functional connectivity changes in certain nodes of brain networks might contribute to depression in patients with PD. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  10. [Symptoms and diagnosis of auditory processing disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keilmann, A; Läßig, A K; Nospes, S

    2013-08-01

    The definition of an auditory processing disorder (APD) is based on impairments of auditory functions. APDs are disturbances in processes central to hearing that cannot be explained by comorbidities such as attention deficit or language comprehension disorders. Symptoms include difficulties in differentiation and identification of changes in time, structure, frequency and intensity of sounds; problems with sound localization and lateralization, as well as poor speech comprehension in adverse listening environments and dichotic situations. According to the German definition of APD (as opposed to central auditory processing disorder, CAPD), peripheral hearing loss or cognitive impairment also exclude APD. The diagnostic methodology comprises auditory function tests and the required diagnosis of exclusion. APD is diagnosed if a patient's performance is two standard deviations below the normal mean in at least two areas of auditory processing. The treatment approach for an APD depends on the patient's particular deficits. Training, compensatory strategies and improvement of the listening conditions can all be effective.

  11. A Case of Neuro-Behcet's Disease Presenting with Central Neurogenic Hyperventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhachroum, Ayham M; Saeed, Saba; Kaur, Jaspreet; Shams, Tanzila; DeGeorgia, Michael A

    2016-03-11

    Behcet's disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder usually characterized by the triad of oral ulcers, genital ulcers, and uveitis. Central to the pathogenesis of Behcet's disease is an autoimmune vasculitis. Neurological involvement, so called "Neuro-Behcet's disease", occurs in 10-20% of patients, usually from a meningoencephalitis or venous thrombosis. We report the case of a 46-year-old patient with Neuro-Behcet's disease who presented with central neurogenic hyperventilation as a result of brainstem involvement from venulitis. To the best of our knowledge, central neurogenic hyperventilation has not previously been described in a patient with Neuro-Behcet's disease.

  12. Small vessel disease and cognitive impairment : The relevance of central network connections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijmer, Yael D.; Fotiadis, Panagiotis; Piantoni, Giovanni; Boulouis, Gregoire; Kelly, Kathleen E.; Gurol, Mahmut E.; Leemans, Alexander; O'Sullivan, Michael J.; Greenberg, Steven M.; Viswanathan, Anand

    2016-01-01

    Central brain network connections greatly contribute to overall network efficiency. Here we examined whether small vessel disease (SVD) related white matter alterations in central brain network connections have a greater impact on executive functioning than alterations in non-central brain network

  13. Central hemodynamics are associated with cardiovascular disease and albuminuria in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theilade, Simone; Hansen, Tine W; Rossing, Peter

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We sought to investigate associations between central hemodynamic parameters (estimated from radial pulse wave analyses (PWAs)), cardiovascular disease (CVD), and albuminuria in type 1 diabetes. METHODS: We conducted an observational study of 636 type 1 diabetes patients. Central...... hemodynamics were measured by PWA as central aortic systolic pressure (CASP), central aortic pulse pressure (CPP), central aortic diastolic pressure (CADP), and subendocardial viability ratio (SEVR). CVD included revascularization, myocardial infarction, peripheral arterial disease, and stroke. Albuminuria...... models, increased CASP and CPP and decreased CADP and SEVR were associated with presence of CVD (n = 132; P ≤ 0.02) and presence of albuminuria (n = 335; P

  14. Central Obesity and Disease Risk in Japanese Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-08

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Heart Diseases; Atherosclerosis; Hypertension; Obesity; Diabetes Mellitus, Non-insulin Dependent; Hyperinsulinism; Insulin Resistance; Coronary Arteriosclerosis; Diabetes Mellitus; Metabolic Syndrome X

  15. The Role of Glia in the Peripheral and Central Auditory System Following Noise Overexposure: Contribution of TNF-α and IL-1β to the Pathogenesis of Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Santamaría, Verónica; Alvarado, Juan Carlos; Melgar-Rojas, Pedro; Gabaldón-Ull, María C.; Miller, Josef M.; Juiz, José M.

    2017-01-01

    Repeated noise exposure induces inflammation and cellular adaptations in the peripheral and central auditory system resulting in pathophysiology of hearing loss. In this study, we analyzed the mechanisms by which noise-induced inflammatory-related events in the cochlea activate glial-mediated cellular responses in the cochlear nucleus (CN), the first relay station of the auditory pathway. The auditory function, glial activation, modifications in gene expression and protein levels of inflammatory mediators and ultrastructural changes in glial-neuronal interactions were assessed in rats exposed to broadband noise (0.5–32 kHz, 118 dB SPL) for 4 h/day during 4 consecutive days to induce long-lasting hearing damage. Noise-exposed rats developed a permanent threshold shift which was associated with hair cell loss and reactive glia. Noise-induced microglial activation peaked in the cochlea between 1 and 10D post-lesion; their activation in the CN was more prolonged reaching maximum levels at 30D post-exposure. RT-PCR analyses of inflammatory-related genes expression in the cochlea demonstrated significant increases in the mRNA expression levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, inducible nitric oxide synthase, intercellular adhesion molecule and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 at 1 and 10D post-exposure. In noise-exposed cochleae, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) were upregulated by reactive microglia, fibrocytes, and neurons at all time points examined. In the CN, however, neurons were the sole source of these cytokines. These observations suggest that noise exposure causes peripheral and central inflammatory reactions in which TNF-α and IL-1β are implicated in regulating the initiation and progression of noise-induced hearing loss. PMID:28280462

  16. [Auditory fatigue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjuán Juaristi, Julio; Sanjuán Martínez-Conde, Mar

    2015-01-01

    Given the relevance of possible hearing losses due to sound overloads and the short list of references of objective procedures for their study, we provide a technique that gives precise data about the audiometric profile and recruitment factor. Our objectives were to determine peripheral fatigue, through the cochlear microphonic response to sound pressure overload stimuli, as well as to measure recovery time, establishing parameters for differentiation with regard to current psychoacoustic and clinical studies. We used specific instruments for the study of cochlear microphonic response, plus a function generator that provided us with stimuli of different intensities and harmonic components. In Wistar rats, we first measured the normal microphonic response and then the effect of auditory fatigue on it. Using a 60dB pure tone acoustic stimulation, we obtained a microphonic response at 20dB. We then caused fatigue with 100dB of the same frequency, reaching a loss of approximately 11dB after 15minutes; after that, the deterioration slowed and did not exceed 15dB. By means of complex random tone maskers or white noise, no fatigue was caused to the sensory receptors, not even at levels of 100dB and over an hour of overstimulation. No fatigue was observed in terms of sensory receptors. Deterioration of peripheral perception through intense overstimulation may be due to biochemical changes of desensitisation due to exhaustion. Auditory fatigue in subjective clinical trials presumably affects supracochlear sections. The auditory fatigue tests found are not in line with those obtained subjectively in clinical and psychoacoustic trials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Patología Cérvico-Facial. All rights reserved.

  17. Helminths and helminthoses in Central Europe: diseases caused by nematodes (roundworms).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Herbert; Aspöck, Horst

    2014-10-01

    The third part of the overview "Helminths and helminthoses in Central Europe" deals with the medically relevant nematodes (roundworms) and nematode-caused diseases occurring in Central Europe. The paper comprises data on the biology of the parasites and their ways of transmission, describes the symptomatology of the diseases, summarizes the possibilities of diagnosis and refers to the prophylactic means.

  18. Auditory Hallucination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MohammadReza Rajabi

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Auditory Hallucination or Paracusia is a form of hallucination that involves perceiving sounds without auditory stimulus. A common is hearing one or more talking voices which is associated with psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia or mania. Hallucination, itself, is the most common feature of perceiving the wrong stimulus or to the better word perception of the absence stimulus. Here we will discuss four definitions of hallucinations:1.Perceiving of a stimulus without the presence of any subject; 2. hallucination proper which are the wrong perceptions that are not the falsification of real perception, Although manifest as a new subject and happen along with and synchronously with a real perception;3. hallucination is an out-of-body perception which has no accordance with a real subjectIn a stricter sense, hallucinations are defined as perceptions in a conscious and awake state in the absence of external stimuli which have qualities of real perception, in that they are vivid, substantial, and located in external objective space. We are going to discuss it in details here.

  19. The Effects of Acoustic White Noise on the Rat Central Auditory System During the Fetal and Critical Neonatal Periods: A Stereological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Mohammad Saied; Namavar, Mohammad Reza; Tamadon, Amin; Bahmani, Raziyeh; Jafarzadeh Shirazi, Mohammad Reza; Khazali, Homayoun; Dargahi, Leila; Pandamooz, Sareh; Mohammad-Rezazadeh, Farzad; Rashidi, Fatemeh Sadat

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of long-term, moderate level noise exposure during crucial periods of rat infants on stereological parameters of medial geniculate body (MGB) and auditory cortex. Twenty-four male offspring of 12 pregnant rats were divided into four groups: fetal-to-critical period group, which were exposed to noise from the last 10 days of fetal life till postnatal day (PND) 29; fetal period group that exposed to noise during the last 10 days of fetal life; critical period group, exposed to noise from PND 15 till PND 29, and control group. White noise at 90 dB for 2 h per day was used. Variance for variables was performed using Proc GLM followed by mean comparison by Duncan's multiple range test. Numerical density of neurons in MGB of fetal-to-critical period group was lower than control group. Similar results were seen in numerical density of neurons in layers IV and VI of auditory cortex. Furthermore, no significant difference was observed in the volume of auditory cortex among groups, and only MGB volume in fetal-to-critical period group was higher than other groups. Estimated total number of neurons in MGB was not significantly different among groups. It seems necessary to prevent long-term moderate level noise exposure during fetal-to-critical neonatal period.

  20. Ecohealth Interventions for Chagas Disease Prevention in Central ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Chagas disease is a important vector-borne disease that constitutes a significant burden of illness among the poor in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). More than 10 million people in the region are infected by the parasite Trypanosoma Cruzi. About one third will develop the chronic phase of the disease, leading to ...

  1. Exposures to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone above USA standards are associated with auditory brainstem dysmorphology and abnormal auditory brainstem evoked potentials in healthy young dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; González-González, Luis O; Kulesza, Randy J; Fech, Tatiana M; Pérez-Guillé, Gabriela; Luna, Miguel Angel Jiménez-Bravo; Soriano-Rosales, Rosa Eugenia; Solorio, Edelmira; Miramontes-Higuera, José de Jesús; Gómez-Maqueo Chew, Aline; Bernal-Morúa, Alexia F; Mukherjee, Partha S; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Mills, Paul C; Wilson, Wayne J; Pérez-Guillé, Beatriz; D'Angiulli, Amedeo

    2017-10-01

    Delayed central conduction times in the auditory brainstem have been observed in Mexico City (MC) healthy children exposed to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and ozone (O 3 ) above the current United States Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA) standards. MC children have α synuclein brainstem accumulation and medial superior olivary complex (MSO) dysmorphology. The present study used a dog model to investigate the potential effects of air pollution on the function and morphology of the auditory brainstem. Twenty-four dogs living in clean air v MC, average age 37.1 ± 26.3 months, underwent brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) measurements. Eight dogs (4 MC, 4 Controls) were analysed for auditory brainstem morphology and histopathology. MC dogs showed ventral cochlear nuclei hypotrophy and MSO dysmorphology with a significant decrease in cell body size, decreased neuronal packing density with regions in the nucleus devoid of neurons and marked gliosis. MC dogs showed significant delayed BAEP absolute wave I, III and V latencies compared to controls. MC dogs show auditory nuclei dysmorphology and BAEPs consistent with an alteration of the generator sites of the auditory brainstem response waveform. This study puts forward the usefulness of BAEPs to study auditory brainstem neurodegenerative changes associated with air pollution in dogs. Recognition of the role of non-invasive BAEPs in urban dogs is warranted to elucidate novel neurodegenerative pathways link to air pollution and a promising early diagnostic strategy for Alzheimer's Disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Auditory threshold for white noise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrat, R; Thillier, J L; Durivault, J

    1975-01-01

    The liminal auditory threshold for white noise and for coloured noise was determined from a statistical survey of a group of 21 young people with normal hearing. The normal auditory threshold for white noise with a spectrum covering the whole of the auditory field is between -- 0.57 dB +/- 8.78. The normal auditory threshold for bands of filtered white noise (coloured noise with a central frequency corresponding to the pure frequencies usually employed in tonal audiometry) describes a typical curve which, instead of being homothetic to the usual tonal curves, sinks to low frequencies and then rises. The peak of this curve is replaced by a broad plateau ranging from 750 to 6000 Hz and contained in the concavity of the liminal tonal curves. The ear is therefore less sensitive but, at limited acoustic pressure, white noise first impinges with the same discrimination upon the whole of the conversational zone of the auditory field. Discovery of the audiometric threshold for white noise constitutes a synthetic method of measuring acuteness of hearing which considerably reduces the amount of manipulation required.

  3. The clinical utility of the auditory P300 latency subcomponent event-related potential in preclinical diagnosis of patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Aaron S; Bani-Fatemi, Ali; De Luca, Vincenzo

    2014-04-01

    The present meta-analysis investigated the clinical utility of the auditory P300 latency event-related potential in differentiating patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and unaffected controls. Effect size estimates were computed from mean P300 latency measurements at midline electrodes between patients and unaffected controls using the random effects restricted maximum likelihood model. The effects of clinical and ERP/EEG methological variables were assessed in a moderator analysis. P300 latency was found to be significantly prolonged in patients with AD (and MCI) compared to unaffected controls. Shortened P300 latencies were observed when comparing patients with MCI to patients with AD. Clinically relevant differences in P300 latency effect sizes were associated with mean age, interstimulus interval, stimulus difference, target frequency, reference electrode, and sampling rate. The meta-analytic findings provide robust statistical evidence for the use of the auditory P300 latency subcomponent as a biological marker of prodromal AD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Kashin-Beck disease and drinking water in Central Tibet

    OpenAIRE

    La Grange, M.; Mathieu, F.; Begaux, F.; Suetens, C.; Durand, M.-Cl.

    2001-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey was carried out in order to study the relationship between Kashin-Beck disease and drinking water. The average volume of the water containers was larger in families unaffected by the disease. Organic material was measured by ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy. The UV absorbency was significantly lower in drinking water of unaffected families. Thus, the organic material in drinking water may play a role in the pathogenesis of Kashin-Beck disease.

  5. Ecohealth Interventions for Chagas Disease Prevention in Central ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will test the insect control program in selected border areas in the three countries where T. dimidiata is highly prevalent - Copan (Honduras), Chiquimula (Guatemala) and Santa Ana (El Salvador) - with a view ... Violence chez les jeunes, crime organisé et insécurité publique (Amérique centrale, Haïti, Mexique).

  6. The Impact of Control of Diarrhoeal Diseases at Kamuzu Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    h98S. ~ONTHS. CLINICAL DIAGNOSIS of 1,700 CHILDREN. ORT CORNER. KAMUZU CENTRAL HOSPITAL OUTPATIENT DEPARTMENT. LILONGWE, MALAWI JULY 1, 1984 - JULY 1, 1985. * (Mdren'olith measles 'are usuallyadmit- ted diiectly to the pediatric meas~es ward to tlvoid con- tag eon in ORT corner. OTHER.

  7. Ecohealth Interventions for Chagas Disease Prevention in Central ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Extrants. Rapports. Intervenciones en ECOSALUD para la prevención de la enfermedad de Chagas en América Central : informe final correspondiente al periodo del 1 de marzo 2011 al 31 de marzo 2014. Matériels de formation. Manuales (para publicar por PNUD y el de JICA Nicaragua, El Salvador con PRESANCA) ...

  8. Central Nervous System Involvement in Gaucher’s Disease: Radiological Demonstration Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Öztürkmen Akay

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Gaucher’s disease is most common sphyngolipid storage disease.Central nervous system involvement is very rare and imaging findings ofthis involvement is not specific.In this case report, we described computed tomographic and magneticresonance findings of cerebral involvement verified with cerebrospinal fluidexamination in a patient with Gaucher’s disease.

  9. Childhood acquired heart diseases in Jos, north central Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Only one case each of endomyocardial fibrosis (EMF) and Kawasaki Disease were seen during the period. Conclusions: The majority of childhood acquired heart diseases in our environment are still of infectious aeitology, with RHD remaining the most frequent, particularly in older children. Community-based screening ...

  10. Tackling Chagas disease in Central America | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-06-07

    Jun 7, 2012 ... ... the native species soon return. Early symptoms of Chagas tend to be relatively minor — fever, aches and pains, and localized swelling — and many people will not realize they have acquired a serious disease. Years later, the disease can cause chronic and even fatal heart and gastrointestinal problems.

  11. Inflammatory demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höftberger, Romana; Lassmann, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Inflammatory demyelinating diseases are a heterogeneous group of disorders, which occur against the background of an acute or chronic inflammatory process. The pathologic hallmark of multiple sclerosis (MS) is the presence of focal demyelinated lesions with partial axonal preservation and reactive astrogliosis. Demyelinated plaques are present in the white as well as gray matter, such as the cerebral or cerebellar cortex and brainstem nuclei. Activity of the disease process is reflected by the presence of lesions with ongoing myelin destruction. Axonal and neuronal destruction in the lesions is a major substrate for permanent neurologic deficit in MS patients. The MS pathology is qualitatively similar in different disease stages, such as relapsing remitting MS or secondary or primary progressive MS, but the prevalence of different lesion types differs quantitatively. Acute MS and Balo's type of concentric sclerosis appear to be variants of classic MS. In contrast, neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and spectrum disorders (NMOSD) are inflammatory diseases with primary injury of astrocytes, mediated by aquaporin-4 antibodies. Finally, we discuss the histopathology of other inflammatory demyelinating diseases such as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated demyelination. Knowledge of the heterogenous immunopathology in demyelinating diseases is important, to understand the clinical presentation and disease course and to find the optimal treatment for an individual patient. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Central nervous system uptake of intranasal glutathione in Parkinson's disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Laurie K Mischley; Kevin E Conley; Eric G Shankland; Terrance J Kavanagh; Michael E Rosenfeld; John E Duda; Collin C White; Timothy K Wilbur; Prysilla U De La Torre; Jeannie M Padowski

    2016-01-01

      Glutathione (GSH) is depleted early in the course of Parkinson's disease (PD), and deficiency has been shown to perpetuate oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, impaired autophagy, and cell death...

  13. Olfactory Pathology in Central Nervous System Demyelinating Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuca, Gabriele C; Joseph, Albert; George, Jithin; Yates, Richard L; Hamard, Marie; Hofer, Monika; Esiri, Margaret M

    2015-09-01

    Olfactory dysfunction is common in multiple sclerosis (MS). Olfactory bulb and tract pathology in MS and other demyelinating diseases remain unexplored. A human autopsy cohort of pathologically confirmed cases encompassing the spectrum of demyelinating disease (MS; n = 17), neuromyelitis optica [(NMO); n = 3] and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis [(ADEM); n = 7] was compared to neuroinflammatory [herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSE); n = 3], neurodegenerative [Alzheimer's disease (AD); n = 4] and non-neurologic (n = 8) controls. For each case, olfactory bulbs and/or tracts were stained for myelin, axons and inflammation. Inferior frontal cortex and hippocampus were stained for myelin in a subset of MS and ADEM cases. Olfactory bulb/tract demyelination was frequent in all demyelinating diseases [MS 12/17 (70.6%); ADEM 3/7 (42.9%); NMO 2/3 (66.7%)] but was absent in HSE, AD and non-neurologic controls. Inflammation was greater in the demyelinating diseases compared to non-neurologic controls. Olfactory bulb/tract axonal loss was most severe in MS where it correlated significantly with the extent of demyelination (r = 0.610, P = 0.009) and parenchymal inflammation (r = 0.681, P = 0.003). The extent of olfactory bulb/tract demyelination correlated with that found in the adjacent inferior frontal cortex but not hippocampus. We provide unequivocal evidence that olfactory bulb/tract demyelination is frequent, can occur early and is highly inflammatory, and is specific to demyelinating disease. © 2014 International Society of Neuropathology.

  14. Spatial pattern of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes in North Central Nigeria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yiltawe Simwal Wungak; Olayinka O Ishola; Babasola O Olugasa; David D Lazarus; David O Ehizibolo; Hussaini G Ularamu

    2017-01-01

    Aim: This study aimed to determine the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotypes circulating, the prevalence of FMDV serotypes, and the spatial distribution of FMDV among sedentary and pastoral cattle herds in the North-Central Nigeria...

  15. A Case of Neuro-Behcet’s Disease Presenting with Central Neurogenic Hyperventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhachroum, Ayham M.; Saeed, Saba; Kaur, Jaspreet; Shams, Tanzila; De Georgia, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Female, 46 Final Diagnosis: Central hyperventilation Symptoms: Hyperventilation Medication: — Clinical Procedure: None Specialty: Neurology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Behcet’s disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder usually characterized by the triad of oral ulcers, genital ulcers, and uveitis. Central to the pathogenesis of Behcet’s disease is an autoimmune vasculitis. Neurological involvement, so called “Neuro-Behcet’s disease”, occurs in 10–20% of patients, usually from a meningoencephalitis or venous thrombosis. Case Report: We report the case of a 46-year-old patient with Neuro-Behcet’s disease who presented with central neurogenic hyperventilation as a result of brainstem involvement from venulitis. Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, central neurogenic hyperventilation has not previously been described in a patient with Neuro-Behcet’s disease. PMID:26965646

  16. The Central Nervous System Involvement in Fabry Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Burlina MD, PhD

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fabry disease (FD is an X-linked, lysosomal storage disorder caused by a mutation in the alpha galactosidase (GLA gene leading to a deficiency in α-galactosidase A enzyme (α-Gal A activity, which in turn results in accumulation of glycosphingolipids in different cells. The 2 major clinical phenotypes are the classic severe phenotype and the milder, later onset phenotype. In severe affected males with little or no α-Gal A activity, the onset of acroparesthesias, hypohidrosis, angiokeratomas, and corneal dystrophy is typically observed in childhood or adolescence. With advancing age, progressive multisystem microvasculopathic disease culminates in renal failure, cardiomyopathy, and/or cerebrovascular disease. Patients with later onset have residual enzyme activity and lack of vascular endothelial glycolipid accumulations; thus, they do not present with the early manifestations of the classic phenotype and typically present cardiac or renal disease in the fourth to seventh decade. Although the pathogenesis of cerebral vasculopathy in FD is poorly understood, it can be hypothesized that white matter changes may reflect the pathophysiology of the disease.

  17. Insomnia in central neurologic diseases--occurrence and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, Geert; Jennum, Poul; Riemann, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    be a direct consequence of the disease itself or may be secondary to pain, depression, other sleep disorders or the effects of medications. Insomnia can have a significant impact on the patient's cognitive and physical function and may be associated with psychological distress and depression. Diagnosis...... antidepressants may be an effective treatment for insomnia in stroke and Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Melatonin and light treatment can stabilize the sleep-wake circadian rhythm and shorten sleep latency in dementias and PD. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) can be effective in treating insomnia symptoms...

  18. Network Analysis of Functional Brain Connectivity Driven by Gamma-Band Auditory Steady-State Response in Auditory Hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Jun; Zhou, Dan; Lin, Ke; Gao, Xiaorong

    The auditory steady-state response (ASSR) may reflect activity from different regions of the brain. Particularly, it was reported that the gamma-band ASSR plays an important role in working memory, speech understanding, and recognition. Traditionally, the ASSR has been determined by power spectral density analysis, which cannot detect the exact overall distributed properties of the ASSR. Functional network analysis has recently been applied in electroencephalography studies. Previous studies on resting or working state found a small-world organization of the brain network. Some researchers have studied dysfunctional networks caused by diseases. The present study investigates the brain connection networks of schizophrenia patients with auditory hallucinations during an ASSR task. A directed transfer function is utilized to estimate the brain connectivity patterns. Moreover, the structures of brain networks are analyzed by converting the connectivity matrices into graphs. It is found that for normal subjects, network connections are mainly distributed at the central and frontal-temporal regions. This indicates that the central regions act as transmission hubs of information under ASSR stimulation. For patients, network connections seem unordered. The finding that the path length was larger in patients compared to that in normal subjects under most thresholds provides insight into the structures of connectivity patterns. The results suggest that there are more synchronous oscillations that cover a long distance on the cortex but a less efficient network for patients with auditory hallucinations.

  19. Pattern of thyroid diseases in central Sudan: Nuclear medicine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thyroid scintigraphy using Tc-99m pertechnetate is a frequently performed procedure in routine nuclear medicine practice in addition to thyroid hormonal assay by radioimmunoassay (RIA). There is no clear description of thyroid diseases pattern in Sudan using nuclear medicine as a diagnostic tool. The aim of this ...

  20. Central hypogonadotropic hypogonadism: genetic complexity of a complex disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Marco; Moriondo, Valeria; Vighi, Eleonora; Pignatti, Elisa; Simoni, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    Central hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH) is an emerging pathological condition frequently associated with overweight, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and midline defects. The genetic mechanisms involve mutations in at least twenty-four genes regulating GnRH neuronal migration, secretion, and activity. So far, the mechanisms underlying CHH, both in prepubertal and in adulthood onset forms, remain unknown in most of the cases. Indeed, all detected gene variants may explain a small proportion of the affected patients (43%), indicating that other genes or epigenetic mechanisms are involved in the onset of CHH. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on genetic background of CHH, organizing the large amount of data present in the literature in a clear and concise manner, to produce a useful guide available for researchers and clinicians.

  1. Central Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism: Genetic Complexity of a Complex Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Marino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Central hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH is an emerging pathological condition frequently associated with overweight, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and midline defects. The genetic mechanisms involve mutations in at least twenty-four genes regulating GnRH neuronal migration, secretion, and activity. So far, the mechanisms underlying CHH, both in prepubertal and in adulthood onset forms, remain unknown in most of the cases. Indeed, all detected gene variants may explain a small proportion of the affected patients (43%, indicating that other genes or epigenetic mechanisms are involved in the onset of CHH. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on genetic background of CHH, organizing the large amount of data present in the literature in a clear and concise manner, to produce a useful guide available for researchers and clinicians.

  2. Central Nervous System (CNS Disease Triggering Takotsubo Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Finsterer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Takotsubo syndrome (TTS is usually triggered by psychological or physical stress. One of the many physical sources of stress are central nervous system (CNS disorders. CNS disorders most frequently triggering TTS include subarachnoid bleeding, epilepsy, ischemic stroke, migraine, and intracerebral bleeding. More rare CNS-triggers of TTS include posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, encephalitis, or traumatic brain or spinal cord injury. TTS triggered by any of the CNS disorders needs to be recognized since adequate treatment of TTS may improve the general outcome from the CNS disorder as well. Neurologists need to be aware of TTS as a complication of specific CNS disorders but TTS may be triggered also by CNS disorders so far not recognised as causes of TTS.

  3. Diagnostic value of NMO-IgG in demyelinating diseases of central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-min XU

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aquaporin 4 (AQP4 plays an important role in the maintenance of transmembrane water transfer, blood-brain barrier (BBB integrity and homeostasis of central nervous system, and its highly specific autoantibody NMO-IgG has been used as a specific biomarker of neuromyelitis optica. However, in recent years, several studies have found that the positive rate in patients with neuromyelitis optica is not 100%, and it even can be detected in some other demyelinating diseases of central nervous system. This paper aims to make a review of the diagnostic value of NMO-IgG in demyelinating diseases of central nervous system, in order to deepen the understanding of this antibody and guide the clinical diagnosis and differential diagnosis on demyelinating diseases of central nervous system. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2016.09.006

  4. Biomarkers of Alzheimer's Disease: from Central Nervous System to Periphery?

    OpenAIRE

    Enrico Mossello; Elena Ballini; Anna Maria Mello; Francesca Tarantini; David Simoni; Samuele Baldasseroni; Niccolò Marchionni

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is the most frequent form of dementia and represents one of the main causes of disability among older subjects. Up to now, the diagnosis of AD has been made according to clinical criteria. However, the use of such criteria does not allow an early diagnosis, as pathological alterations may be apparent many years before the clear-cut clinical picture. An early diagnosis is even more valuable to develop new treatments, potentially interfering with the pathogenetic proces...

  5. Spatial prediction of wheat Septoria leaf blotch (Septoria tritici) disease severity in central Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakie, Tewodros; Kumar, Sunil; Senay, Gabriel; Takele, Abera; Lencho, Alemu

    2016-01-01

    A number of studies have reported the presence of wheat septoria leaf blotch (Septoria tritici; SLB) disease in Ethiopia. However, the environmental factors associated with SLB disease, and areas under risk of SLB disease, have not been studied. Here, we tested the hypothesis that environmental variables can adequately explain observed SLB disease severity levels in West Shewa, Central Ethiopia. Specifically, we identified 50 environmental variables and assessed their relationships with SLB disease severity. Geographically referenced disease severity data were obtained from the field, and linear regression and Boosted Regression Trees (BRT) modeling approaches were used for developing spatial models. Moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) derived vegetation indices and land surface temperature (LST) variables highly influenced SLB model predictions. Soil and topographic variables did not sufficiently explain observed SLB disease severity variation in this study. Our results show that wheat growing areas in Central Ethiopia, including highly productive districts, are at risk of SLB disease. The study demonstrates the integration of field data with modeling approaches such as BRT for predicting the spatial patterns of severity of a pathogenic wheat disease in Central Ethiopia. Our results can aid Ethiopia's wheat disease monitoring efforts, while our methods can be replicated for testing related hypotheses elsewhere.

  6. Biomarkers of Alzheimer's Disease: From Central Nervous System to Periphery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Mossello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's Disease (AD is the most frequent form of dementia and represents one of the main causes of disability among older subjects. Up to now, the diagnosis of AD has been made according to clinical criteria. However, the use of such criteria does not allow an early diagnosis, as pathological alterations may be apparent many years before the clear-cut clinical picture. An early diagnosis is even more valuable to develop new treatments, potentially interfering with the pathogenetic process. During the last decade, several neuroimaging and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF parameters have been introduced to allow an early and accurate detection of AD patients, and, recently, they have been included among research criteria for AD diagnosis. However, their use in clinical practice suffers from limitations both in accuracy and availability. The increasing amount of knowledge about peripheral biomarkers will possibly allow the future identification of reliable and easily available diagnostic tests.

  7. Maple Syrup Urine Disease in a Central Indiana Hereford Herd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark E. Robarge

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD and further cases were identified in herd mates of a small Hereford herd in Indiana based on history, clinical signs, microscopic lesions, and biochemical and genetic testing. This aminoacidopathy has been diagnosed in polled Shorthorn, polled Hereford, and Hereford cattle in Australia, Uruguay, Argentina, and Canada and is the result of a mutation of the branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex. The Indiana index calf case was confirmed by showing the classic accumulation of ketoacids in liver that results from a defect in the E1-alpha subunit (248 C/T haplotype in the mitochondrial branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex. The presence of the mutation was confirmed in the index case, the dam, and four related herd mates that represent the first confirmed cases of bovine MSUD mutation in United States cattle.

  8. Possible Link Between Chronic Periodontal Disease and Central Nervous System Pathologies

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez Chan DDS, MSc, PhD, Karol

    2015-01-01

    Systemic infection and/or inflammation has been related with an increased risk of brain abscesses, cerebrovascular disease, cognitive impairment and other pathological states of the brain. Therefore, it is plausible, that a chronic infection and inflammation disease, such as periodontitis, may affect the central nervous system (CNS). Chronic periodontal disease is a condition that causes breakdown of the supporting tissues of the teeth, alveolar bone and soft tissues. Chronic periodontitis is...

  9. BDNF in Lower Brain Parts Modifies Auditory Fiber Activity to Gain Fidelity but Increases the Risk for Generation of Central Noise After Injury

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chumak, Tetyana; Rüttiger, L.; Lee, S.Ch.; Campanelli, D.; Zuccotti, A.; Singer, W.; Popelář, Jiří; Gutsche, K.; Geisler, H.S.; Schraven, S.P.; Jaumann, M.; Panford-Walsh, R.; Hu, J.; Schimmang, T.; Zimmermann, U.; Syka, Josef; Knipper, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 8 (2016), s. 5607-5627 ISSN 0893-7648 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : BDNF * central hyperactivity * high-spontaneous rate Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 6.190, year: 2016

  10. Hearing loss in Pompe disease revisited: results from a study of 24 children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Capelle, Carine I; Goedegebure, Andre; Homans, Nienke C; Hoeve, Hans L J; Reuser, Arnold J; van der Ploeg, Ans T

    2010-10-01

    Little information is available regarding the auditory function in Pompe patients. Hearing loss has been reported in classic infantile patients, but it is still unknown whether central nervous system involvement interferes with auditory function and whether enzyme replacement therapy can improve hearing. Auditory function has not been studied in children with milder forms of the disease. We analyzed repetitive auditory brainstem response measurements and pure tone audiometry in 24 children with Pompe disease. Only 1 of 13 patients with milder phenotypes showed recurrent conductive hearing loss, while 10 out of 11 classic infantile patients had sensorineural hearing defects. These patients also had a high prevalence of conductive hearing loss. Five patients showed evidence of mild retrocochlear pathology, suggestive of glycogen accumulation in the central nervous system. Hearing loss persisted during therapy in all patients. The results emphasize the need for careful monitoring of auditory function in classic infantile Pompe patients, and for early implementation of hearing aids to protect speech and language development.

  11. Speech Evoked Auditory Brainstem Response in Stuttering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Tahaei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Auditory processing deficits have been hypothesized as an underlying mechanism for stuttering. Previous studies have demonstrated abnormal responses in subjects with persistent developmental stuttering (PDS at the higher level of the central auditory system using speech stimuli. Recently, the potential usefulness of speech evoked auditory brainstem responses in central auditory processing disorders has been emphasized. The current study used the speech evoked ABR to investigate the hypothesis that subjects with PDS have specific auditory perceptual dysfunction. Objectives. To determine whether brainstem responses to speech stimuli differ between PDS subjects and normal fluent speakers. Methods. Twenty-five subjects with PDS participated in this study. The speech-ABRs were elicited by the 5-formant synthesized syllable/da/, with duration of 40 ms. Results. There were significant group differences for the onset and offset transient peaks. Subjects with PDS had longer latencies for the onset and offset peaks relative to the control group. Conclusions. Subjects with PDS showed a deficient neural timing in the early stages of the auditory pathway consistent with temporal processing deficits and their abnormal timing may underlie to their disfluency.

  12. A European Perspective on Auditory Processing Disorder-Current Knowledge and Future Research Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliadou, Vasiliki (Vivian); Ptok, Martin; Grech, Helen; Pedersen, Ellen Raben; Brechmann, André; Deggouj, Naïma; Kiese-Himmel, Christiane; Śliwińska-Kowalska, Mariola; Nickisch, Andreas; Demanez, Laurent; Veuillet, Evelyne; Thai-Van, Hung; Sirimanna, Tony; Callimachou, Marina; Santarelli, Rosamaria; Kuske, Sandra; Barajas, Jose; Hedjever, Mladen; Konukseven, Ozlem; Veraguth, Dorothy; Stokkereit Mattsson, Tone; Martins, Jorge Humberto; Bamiou, Doris-Eva

    2017-01-01

    Current notions of “hearing impairment,” as reflected in clinical audiological practice, do not acknowledge the needs of individuals who have normal hearing pure tone sensitivity but who experience auditory processing difficulties in everyday life that are indexed by reduced performance in other more sophisticated audiometric tests such as speech audiometry in noise or complex non-speech sound perception. This disorder, defined as “Auditory Processing Disorder” (APD) or “Central Auditory Processing Disorder” is classified in the current tenth version of the International Classification of diseases as H93.25 and in the forthcoming beta eleventh version. APDs may have detrimental effects on the affected individual, with low esteem, anxiety, and depression, and symptoms may remain into adulthood. These disorders may interfere with learning per se and with communication, social, emotional, and academic-work aspects of life. The objective of the present paper is to define a baseline European APD consensus formulated by experienced clinicians and researchers in this specific field of human auditory science. A secondary aim is to identify issues that future research needs to address in order to further clarify the nature of APD and thus assist in optimum diagnosis and evidence-based management. This European consensus presents the main symptoms, conditions, and specific medical history elements that should lead to auditory processing evaluation. Consensus on definition of the disorder, optimum diagnostic pathway, and appropriate management are highlighted alongside a perspective on future research focus.

  13. A European Perspective on Auditory Processing Disorder-Current Knowledge and Future Research Focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliki (Vivian Iliadou

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Current notions of “hearing impairment,” as reflected in clinical audiological practice, do not acknowledge the needs of individuals who have normal hearing pure tone sensitivity but who experience auditory processing difficulties in everyday life that are indexed by reduced performance in other more sophisticated audiometric tests such as speech audiometry in noise or complex non-speech sound perception. This disorder, defined as “Auditory Processing Disorder” (APD or “Central Auditory Processing Disorder” is classified in the current tenth version of the International Classification of diseases as H93.25 and in the forthcoming beta eleventh version. APDs may have detrimental effects on the affected individual, with low esteem, anxiety, and depression, and symptoms may remain into adulthood. These disorders may interfere with learning per se and with communication, social, emotional, and academic-work aspects of life. The objective of the present paper is to define a baseline European APD consensus formulated by experienced clinicians and researchers in this specific field of human auditory science. A secondary aim is to identify issues that future research needs to address in order to further clarify the nature of APD and thus assist in optimum diagnosis and evidence-based management. This European consensus presents the main symptoms, conditions, and specific medical history elements that should lead to auditory processing evaluation. Consensus on definition of the disorder, optimum diagnostic pathway, and appropriate management are highlighted alongside a perspective on future research focus.

  14. Involvement of central airways in vibroacoustic disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, José Reis; Monteiro, Miguel B; Tavares, Fernanda; Serrano, Isabel; Monteiro, Emanuel; Mendes, Carla P; Alves-Pereira, Mariana; Branco, Nuno A A Castelo

    2006-01-01

    Vibroacoustic disease (VAD) is the whole-body pathology caused by excessive exposure to LFN. For the past 25 years, it has been know that low frequency noise (LFN, < 500 Hz, including infrasound) targets the respiratory system. In LFN-exposed rodents, the morphological changes of respiratory tract tissue partially explained some respiratory symptoms reported by VAD patients. However, many questions remain unanswered. Recently, some volunteer VAD patients underwent bronchoscopy in order to ascertain possible damage that could be associated with their respiratory complaints. Fourteen fully-informed and volunteer VAD patients were submitted to bronchoscopy, and biopsies were removed for analysis. All patients exhibited small submucosal vascular-like lesions near the spurs, consisting of increased collagen and elastin fibres. Histology disclosed cilliary abnormalities, basal membrane hyperplasia, and thickening of vessel walls. In five patients, collagen bundles appeared degenerative and disrupted. No inflammatory process was ever identified, and no differences were seen between smokers and non-smokers. Data is in accordance with what was observed in LFN-exposed animal models and also in 8 VAD patients who developed lung tumours. Collagen disruption and degeneration was also observed in electron microscopy images of the respiratory tract of LFN-exposed rodents. Thickened blood and lymphatic vessel walls have been consistently seen in images of VAD patients and of LFN-exposed rodents. During bronchoscopy performed by other reasons, this sort of structural aspects is not frequently seen. Taken together, it is strongly suggested that these findings could be VAD-specific.

  15. Effect of omega-3 on auditory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vida Rahimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Omega-3 fatty acid have structural and biological roles in the body 's various systems . Numerous studies have tried to research about it. Auditory system is affected a s well. The aim of this article was to review the researches about the effect of omega-3 on auditory system.Methods: We searched Medline , Google Scholar, PubMed, Cochrane Library and SID search engines with the "auditory" and "omega-3" keywords and read textbooks about this subject between 19 70 and 20 13.Conclusion: Both excess and deficient amounts of dietary omega-3 fatty acid can cause harmful effects on fetal and infant growth and development of brain and central nervous system esspesially auditory system. It is important to determine the adequate dosage of omega-3.

  16. Involvement of central airways in vibroacoustic disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Reis Ferreira

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Vibroacoustic disease (VAD is the whole-body pathology caused by excessive exposure to LFN. For the past 25 years, it has been know that low frequency noise (LFN, <500 Hz, including infrasound targets the respiratory system. In LFN-exposed rodents, the morphological changes of respiratory tract tissue partially explained some respiratory symptoms reported by VAD patients. However, many questions remain unanswered. Recently, some volunteer VAD patients underwent bronchoscopy in order to ascertain possible damage that could be associated with their respiratory complaints. Methods. Fourteen fully-informed and volunteer VAD patients were submitted to bronchoscopy, and biopsies were removed for analysis. Results. All patients exhibited small submucosal vascular-like lesions near the spurs, consisting of increased collagen and elastin fibres. Histology disclosed cilliary abnormalities, basal membrane hyperplasia, and thickening of vessel walls. In five patients, collagen bundles appeared degenerative and disrupted. No inflammatory process was ever identified, and no differences were seen between smokers and non-smokers. Discussion. Data is in accordance with what was observed in LFN-exposed animal models and also in 8 VAD patients who developed lung tumours. Collagen disruption and degeneration was also observed in electron microscopy images of the respiratory tract of LFN-exposed rodents. Thickened blood and lymphatic vessel walls have been consistently seen in images of VAD patients and of LFN-exposed rodents. During bronchoscopy performed by other reasons, this sort of structural aspects is not frequently seen. Taken together, it is strongly suggested that these findings could be VAD-specific. Resumo: Nos últimos vinte cinco anos constatou-se que o aparelho respiratório constitui um alvo do ruído de baixa frequência (RFB <500Hz, incluindo infra-sons. Denomina-se doença vibroacústica (VAD a patologia sistémica causada pela

  17. Identifying gene-disease associations using centrality on a literature mined gene-interaction network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgür, Arzucan; Vu, Thuy; Erkan, Günes; Radev, Dragomir R

    2008-07-01

    Understanding the role of genetics in diseases is one of the most important aims of the biological sciences. The completion of the Human Genome Project has led to a rapid increase in the number of publications in this area. However, the coverage of curated databases that provide information manually extracted from the literature is limited. Another challenge is that determining disease-related genes requires laborious experiments. Therefore, predicting good candidate genes before experimental analysis will save time and effort. We introduce an automatic approach based on text mining and network analysis to predict gene-disease associations. We collected an initial set of known disease-related genes and built an interaction network by automatic literature mining based on dependency parsing and support vector machines. Our hypothesis is that the central genes in this disease-specific network are likely to be related to the disease. We used the degree, eigenvector, betweenness and closeness centrality metrics to rank the genes in the network. The proposed approach can be used to extract known and to infer unknown gene-disease associations. We evaluated the approach for prostate cancer. Eigenvector and degree centrality achieved high accuracy. A total of 95% of the top 20 genes ranked by these methods are confirmed to be related to prostate cancer. On the other hand, betweenness and closeness centrality predicted more genes whose relation to the disease is currently unknown and are candidates for experimental study. A web-based system for browsing the disease-specific gene-interaction networks is available at: http://gin.ncibi.org.

  18. Effects of Caffeine on Auditory Brainstem Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleheh Soleimanian

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Blocking of the adenosine receptor in central nervous system by caffeine can lead to increasing the level of neurotransmitters like glutamate. As the adenosine receptors are present in almost all brain areas like central auditory pathway, it seems caffeine can change conduction in this way. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of caffeine on latency and amplitude of auditory brainstem response(ABR.Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial study 43 normal 18-25 years old male students were participated. The subjects consumed 0, 2 and 3 mg/kg BW caffeine in three different sessions. Auditory brainstem responses were recorded before and 30 minute after caffeine consumption. The results were analyzed by Friedman and Wilcoxone test to assess the effects of caffeine on auditory brainstem response.Results: Compared to control group the latencies of waves III,V and I-V interpeak interval of the cases decreased significantly after 2 and 3mg/kg BW caffeine consumption. Wave I latency significantly decreased after 3mg/kg BW caffeine consumption(p<0.01. Conclusion: Increasing of the glutamate level resulted from the adenosine receptor blocking brings about changes in conduction in the central auditory pathway.

  19. Neutron activation analysis of the central nervous system tissues in neurological diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasui, Masayuki; Ota, Kiichiro [Wakayama Medical Coll. (Japan); Sasajima, Kazuhisa

    1994-07-01

    As the diseases due to excessive metals in living bodies and the metals of their causes, Minamata disease due to Hg, itai-itai disease due to Cd, dialysis brain disease due to Al, hemochromatosis due to Fe, Wilson disease due to Cu and so on have been known. Also as the neural diseases, in which the possibility that metals take part in them is presumed, there are amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, Parkinsonism dementia and so on. In order to know the causes of the diseases due to excessive metals in living bodies and neurological diseases, the authors have measured Cu, Ca, Al, Mn, Zn and Fe in central nervous system tissues by activation analysis nondestructive method. The cases investigated were 4 cases of hepatocerebral diseases, 6 cases of ALS, 4 cases of Parkinson disease, 4 cases of Parkinsonism dementia, 4 cases of multiple sclerosis and 5 cases without CNS disease for the control. The method of measurement is described. The results for respective diseases are reported. Cu and Fe are in the relation of mirror images, and Cu formed Cu-superoxide dismutase (SOD) similarly to Zn and Mn as SOD carrier metals, and protects living bodies and CNS from oxidative stress. (K.I.).

  20. The central biobank and virtual biobank of BIOMARKAPD: a resource for studies on neurodegenerative diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babette eReijs

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBiobanks are important resources for biomarker discovery and assay development. Biomarkers for Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Disease (BIOMARKAPD is a European multicenter study, funded by the EU Joint Programme - Neurodegenerative Disease Research (JPND, that aims to improve the clinical use of body fluid markers for the diagnosis and prognosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD and Parkinson’s disease (PD. The objective was to standardize the assessment of existing assays and to validate novel fluid biomarkers for AD and PD. To support the validation of novel biomarkers and assays, a central and a virtual biobank for body fluids and associated data from subjects with neurodegenerative diseases have been established. In the central biobank, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and blood samples were collected according to the BIOMARKAPD standardized preanalytical procedures (SOP and stored at Integrated BioBank of Luxembourg (IBBL. The virtual biobank provides an overview of available CSF, plasma, serum, and DNA samples at each site. Currently, at the central biobank of BIOMARKAPD samples are available from over 400 subjects with normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment (MCI, AD, frontotemporal dementia (FTD, vascular dementia (VaD, multiple system atrophy (MSA, progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP, PD, PD with dementia, and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB. The virtual biobank contains information on over 8600 subjects with varying diagnoses from 21 local biobanks. A website has been launched to enable sample requests from the central biobank and virtual biobank.

  1. Late auditory event-related evoked potential (P300) in Down's syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    César, Carla Patrícia Hernandez Alves Ribeiro; Caovilla, Heloisa Helena; Munhoz, Mário Sérgio Lei; Ganança, Maurício Malavasi

    2010-01-01

    Down syndrome is caused by a trisomy of chromosome 21 and is associated with central auditory processing deficit, learning disability and, probably, early-onset Alzheimer's disease. To evaluate the latencies and amplitudes of evoked late auditory potential related to P300 events and their changes in young adults with Down's syndrome. Prospective case study. P300 test latency and amplitudes were evaluated in 17 individuals with Down's syndrome and 34 healthy individuals. RESULTS The P300 latency (N1, P2, N2 and P3) was longer and the N2-P3 amplitude was lower in individuals with Down syndrome when compared to those in the control group. In young adults with Down syndrome, N1, P2, N2 and P3 latencies of late auditory evoked potential related to P300 events were prolonged, and N2 - P3 amplitudes were significantly reduced, suggesting integration impairment between the auditory association area and cortical and subcortical areas of the central nervous system.

  2. A Coumarin-Based Fluorescent Probe as a Central Nervous System Disease Biomarker

    OpenAIRE

    Yap, Ann-Chee; Mahamad, Ummi; Lim, Shen-Yang; Kim, Hae-Jo; Choo, Yeun-Mun

    2014-01-01

    Homocysteine and methylmalonic acid are important biomarkers for diseases associated with an impaired central nervous system (CNS). A new chemoassay utilizing coumarin-based fluorescent probe 1 to detect the levels of homocysteine is successfully implemented using Parkinson's disease (PD) patients' blood serum. In addition, a rapid identification of homocysteine and methylmalonic acid levels in blood serum of PD patients was also performed using the liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC...

  3. Acute auditory agnosia as the presenting hearing disorder in MELAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miceli, Gabriele; Conti, Guido; Cianfoni, Alessandro; Di Giacopo, Raffaella; Zampetti, Patrizia; Servidei, Serenella

    2008-12-01

    MELAS is commonly associated with peripheral hearing loss. Auditory agnosia is a rare cortical auditory impairment, usually due to bilateral temporal damage. We document, for the first time, auditory agnosia as the presenting hearing disorder in MELAS. A young woman with MELAS (A3243G mtDNA mutation) suffered from acute cortical hearing damage following a single stroke-like episode, in the absence of previous hearing deficits. Audiometric testing showed marked central hearing impairment and very mild sensorineural hearing loss. MRI documented bilateral, acute lesions to superior temporal regions. Neuropsychological tests demonstrated auditory agnosia without aphasia. Our data and a review of published reports show that cortical auditory disorders are relatively frequent in MELAS, probably due to the strikingly high incidence of bilateral and symmetric damage following stroke-like episodes. Acute auditory agnosia can be the presenting hearing deficit in MELAS and, conversely, MELAS should be suspected in young adults with sudden hearing loss.

  4. Durability of central venous catheters. A randomized trial in children with malignant diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, S W; Jungersen, D; Hole, P

    1996-01-01

    In a prospective randomized study the durability of tunnelled and non-tunnelled central venous catheters was investigated in children with malignant diseases. Twenty children were included in the study but four (two in each group) had to be excluded; three because the entry criteria turned out......, respectively. In conclusion cuffed, tunnelled central venous catheters are less prone to displacement than traditional percutaneous central venous catheters when used in children with malignant diseases....... not to be fulfilled and one because of lack of data. The median duration of the tunnelled catheters was 224 days with a range of 25-846 days which was significantly longer than that of conventional catheters (39.5 days, range 9-228 days). In addition six of eight conventional catheters were accidentally removed...

  5. Marek's disease in local chicken strains of Ethiopia reared under confined management regime in central Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duguma, R.; Yami, A.; Dana, N.; Hassen, H.H.; Esatu, W.

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence, clinical and pathological manifestations and extent of mortality due to Marek’s disease (MD) was investigated from November 2003 to January 2004 among indigenous chickens of Ethiopia reared under confined management at the Debre Zeit Agricultural Research Center, central Ethiopia.

  6. Cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis in infectious and noninfectious central nervous system disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baunbæk Egelund, Gertrud; Ertner, Gideon; Langholz Kristensen, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis is the most important tool for assessing central nervous system (CNS) disease. An elevated CSF leukocyte count rarely provides the final diagnosis, but is almost always an indicator of inflammation within the CNS.The present study investigated the variety...

  7. Epilepsy and other central nervous system diseases in atypical autism: a case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Rich, Bente; Isager, Torben

    2011-01-01

    There is an increased but variable risk of epilepsy in autism spectrum disorders. The objective of this study is to compare the prevalence and types of epilepsy and other central nervous system (CNS) diseases in a clinical sample of 89 individuals diagnosed as children with atypical autism (AA...... epilepsy diagnosis against 11 (4.3%) in the comparison group (P ...

  8. From DNA to RNA to disease and back: the 'central dogma' of regulatory disease variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranger, Barbara E; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T

    2006-06-01

    Much of the focus of human disease genetics is directed towards identifying nucleotide variants that contribute to disease phenotypes. This is a complex problem, often involving contributions from multiple loci and their interactions, as well as effects due to environmental factors. Although some diseases with a genetic basis are caused by nucleotide changes that alter an amino acid sequence, in other cases, disease risk is associated with altered gene regulation. This paper focuses on how studies of gene expression variation might complement disease studies and provide crucial links between genotype and phenotype.

  9. From DNA to RNA to disease and back: The 'central dogma' of regulatory disease variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stranger Barbara E

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Much of the focus of human disease genetics is directed towards identifying nucleotide variants that contribute to disease phenotypes. This is a complex problem, often involving contributions from multiple loci and their interactions, as well as effects due to environmental factors. Although some diseases with a genetic basis are caused by nucleotide changes that alter an amino acid sequence, in other cases, disease risk is associated with altered gene regulation. This paper focuses on how studies of gene expression variation might complement disease studies and provide crucial links between genotype and phenotype.

  10. Vitamin D in multiple sclerosis and central nervous system demyelinating disease--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Jodie M; Costello, Fiona E

    2015-06-01

    The role of vitamin D as both a risk factor and a disease modifier in multiple sclerosis (MS) has a storied history with ongoing accumulation of supportive convergent evidence from animal data, clinical studies and trials, and biomarkers of disease. A detailed review of the published literature ranging from in vivo immune studies to human clinical studies of epidemiology, physiology, immunology, clinical, and radiological markers was undertaken. There is compelling evidence that vitamin D is not only a risk factor for central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating disease (namely MS) but also seems to modify both the inflammatory and neurodegenerative elements of the disease, with large-scale treatment trials underway. The authors also address questions of interest that remain unanswered. Vitamin D is an important contributor and modifiable risk factor in CNS demyelinating disease. Further work will determine whether it is also neuroprotective and if such benefits will apply to other inflammatory and degenerative neurological diseases.

  11. Glial cell contributions to auditory brainstem development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina S Cramer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Glial cells, previously thought to have generally supporting roles in the central nervous system, are emerging as essential contributors to multiple aspects of neuronal circuit function and development. This review focuses on the contributions of glial cells to the development of specialized auditory pathways in the brainstem. These pathways display specialized synapses and an unusually high degree of precision in circuitry that enables sound source localization. The development of these pathways thus requires highly coordinated molecular and cellular mechanisms. Several classes of glial cells, including astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and microglia, have now been explored in these circuits in both avian and mammalian brainstems. Distinct populations of astrocytes are found over the course of auditory brainstem maturation. Early appearing astrocytes are associated with spatial compartments in the avian auditory brainstem. Factors from late appearing astrocytes promote synaptogenesis and dendritic maturation, and astrocytes remain integral parts of specialized auditory synapses. Oligodendrocytes play a unique role in both birds and mammals in highly regulated myelination essential for proper timing to decipher interaural cues. Microglia arise early in brainstem development and may contribute to maturation of auditory pathways. Together these studies demonstrate the importance of non-neuronal cells in the assembly of specialized auditory brainstem circuits.

  12. Investigating bottom-up auditory attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Merve Kaya

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Bottom-up attention is a sensory-driven selection mechanism that directs perception towards a subset of the stimulus that is considered salient, or attention-grabbing. Most studies of bottom-up auditory attention have adapted frameworks similar to visual attention models whereby local or global contrast is a central concept in defining salient elements in a scene. In the current study, we take a more fundamental approach to modeling auditory attention; providing the first examination of the space of auditory saliency spanning pitch, intensity and timbre; and shedding light on complex interactions among these features. Informed by psychoacoustic results, we develop a computational model of auditory saliency implementing a novel attentional framework, guided by processes hypothesized to take place in the auditory pathway. In particular, the model tests the hypothesis that perception tracks the evolution of sound events in a multidimensional feature space, and flags any deviation from background statistics as salient. Predictions from the model corroborate the relationship between bottom-up auditory attention and statistical inference, and argues for a potential role of predictive coding as mechanism for saliency detection in acoustic scenes.

  13. [Relationship between prevalent features of central obesity and clustering of cardiometabolic diseases among Chinese elder people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yong; Zhang, Mei; Li, Yi-chong; Li, Xiao-yan; Wang, Li-min; Zhao, Wen-hua

    2013-09-01

    To study the relationship between prevalence of central obesity and clustering of cardiometabolic diseases among Chinese elder people over 60 years old. A complex multistage stratified sampling survey on chronic diseases was conducted in 162 surveillance points, 31 provinces, China in 2010 by China CDC. The survey included face-to-face interview, physical measurement (body height, weight, waist circumference (WC) and blood pressure) and laboratory test (blood sugar, blood lipid and hemoglobin A1C), to collect the information about the prevalence of the risk factors as smoking, drinking, diet and physical activities and the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia. The survey selected 19 966 subjects who were over 60 years old. Central obesity was defined as WC ≥ 85 cm in males or ≥ 80 cm in females. The prevalence of central obesity among the elder people over 60 years old in different districts and populations was calculated; and the proportion of cardiometabolic diseases in groups of different WC was then analyzed. The prevalence of central obesity among elderly population over 60 years old was 48.6% (95%CI:46.1%-51.2%), including 39.7% (95%CI:37.2%-42.2%) males and 57.3% (95%CI:54.5%-60.1%) females. The proportion of females was higher than that of males (χ(2) = 474.63, P elderly men. There was no significant association among females. The higher the family income, the higher the prevalence of central obesity. The prevalence of central obesity was 59.2% in urban area, which was much higher than that in rural area (43.5%) (χ(2) = 50.06, P elderly men with WC between 85 and 89 cm, and separately 24.0% (95%CI:21.2%-26.8%), 78.2% (95%CI:75.6%-80.8%) and 64.0% (95%CI:60.3%-67.6%) among elderly men with WC ≥ 90 cm; which were both higher than those among elderly men with WC elderly women with WC between 80 and 84 cm, and separately 31.7% (95%CI:28.9%-34.4%) , 81.0% (95%CI:78.5%-83.5%) and 61.8% (95%CI:58.9%-64.8%) among elderly women with WC

  14. BAER - brainstem auditory evoked response

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... auditory potentials; Brainstem auditory evoked potentials; Evoked response audiometry; Auditory brainstem response; ABR; BAEP ... Normal results vary. Results will depend on the person and the instruments used to perform the test.

  15. Auditory Processing Disorder (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... role. Auditory cohesion problems: This is when higher-level listening tasks are difficult. Auditory cohesion skills — drawing inferences from conversations, understanding riddles, or comprehending verbal math problems — require heightened auditory processing and language levels. ...

  16. Auditory Processing In Children With Cerebrovascular Disease [processamento Auditivo Em Criança Com Doença Cerebrovascular

    OpenAIRE

    Elias K.M.I. da F.; dos Santos M.F.C.; Ciasca S.M.; de Moura-Ribeiro M.V.L.

    2007-01-01

    Background: cerebrovascular disease (CVD) during childhood is a rare condition; its short medium and long-term characteristics deserve further investigation. The application of behavioral techniques may improve clinical characterization, thus rendering more efficient therapeutic and control. Aim: to describe the audiological manifestations in a child with CVD in two distinct moments of clinical follow-up. Method: the child, with a confirmed diagnosis of a single and unilateral episode of CVD,...

  17. Transhepatic Central Venous Catheters in Pediatric Patients With Congenital Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boe, Brian A; Zampi, Jeffrey D; Yu, Sunkyung; Donohue, Janet E; Aiyagari, Ranjit

    2015-10-01

    Patients with congenital heart disease may have limited venous access routes as a result of multiple central venous catheters, surgical interventions, and catheterization procedures. Unconventional venous access includes transhepatic central venous catheter. We evaluated transhepatic central venous catheter placed in patients with congenital heart disease and risk factors associated with complications and outcomes. Demographic, procedural, and complication data were retrospectively collected on all patients who underwent transhepatic central venous catheter placement at our center over the past 10 years. This study was completed in a tertiary congenital heart center. A total of 92 transhepatic central venous catheters were placed in 54 patients (63% male patients). The median age and weight of the patient population was 5.7 months and 5.5 kg, respectively. Placement of a transhepatic central venous catheter. Successful catheter placement occurred in 96% of cases with median procedure time of 54 minutes with a procedural complication rate of 14%. A total of 86 complications occurred in 54 catheters placed during 2,166 catheter-days (39.7 complications per 1,000 catheter-days). Individual complication rates per 1,000 catheter-days included catheter dysfunction (14.8), dislodgement (8.8), systemic infection (5.1), thrombosis (4.2), local infection (3.7), and bleeding (3.2). Two complications contributed to patient deaths. Factors associated with developing complications included polyurethane central venous catheters (p = 0.03) and catheter duration at least 21 days (p = 0.004). The overall mortality in this population was 50% with median length of hospitalization of 49 days (interquartile range, 33-97). Transhepatic central venous catheters represent a viable option for patients with limited access. Polyurethane catheters and catheter duration at least 21 days are associated with increased transhepatic central venous catheter complications. Although complication

  18. The prevalence of rheumatic diseases in central Greece: a population survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koutroumpas Athanasios

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rheumatic diseases are a major health and financial burden for societies. The prevalence of rheumatic diseases may change over time, and therefore, we sought to estimate the prevalence of rheumatic diseases in an adult population of central Greece. Methods In this prospective cross-sectional population survey, a random sample of adult population was drawn from poll catalogues of a region in central Greece. A postal questionnaire was sent to 3,528 people for the presence of any rheumatic disease. All positive cases were further confirmed by clinical examination using the American College of Rheumatoloy criteria. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess risk factors for rheumatic diseases. Results The response rate was 48.3% (1,705 answers. Four hundred and twenty individuals (24.6% had a rheumatic disease. The prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis was 0.58% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.32-0.87, of psoriatic arthritis was 0.35% (95% CI, 0.33-1.13, of ankylosing spondylitis was 0.29% (95% CI, 0.28-0.94, of primary Sjögren's syndrome was 0.23% (95% CI, 0.22-0.75 and of systemic lupus erythematosus was 0.11% (95% CI, 0.11-0.37. One individual had systemic sclerosis (prevalence, 0.058%, 1 individual had dermatomyositis (prevalence, 0.058%; 95% CI, 0.05-0.18, 2 individuals had vasculitis (prevalence 0.11%; 95% CI, 0.11-0.37, 81 individuals had gout (prevalence, 4.75%; 95% CI, 4.41-5.13, and 304 individuals had osteoarthritis (OA (prevalence 17.82%; 95% CI, 16.50-19.34. Gout was associated with male gender, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension, and OA was associated with age, female gender, and hypertension. Conclusions Rheumatic diseases are common in central Greece, affecting nearly a quarter of adult population. OA and gout are the most common joint disorders.

  19. The application values of cerebrospinal fluid cytological examination by slide centrifugation for diagnosis of central nervous system infectious diseases

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    LIU Ting-ting

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available According to the analysis of cerebrospnial fluid (CSF cytological examination (by slide centrifugation results of 15 940 central nervous system infectious cases, this cytologic examination method shows definite diagnostic values as follows: 1 better etiological diagnostic value for central nervous system infectious diseases, such as purulent, viral, tuberculous, fungus and parasitic encephalitis meningitis and meningoencephalitis; 2 better differential diagnostic value for acute infectious toxic encephalopathy, meningeal carcinomatosis and central nervous system non-infectious diseases such as tumorous, leukemic and hemorrhagic meningoencephalitis and encephalopathy; 3 better clinical value for severity monitoring and prognostic judgement of central nervous system infectious diseases.

  20. Resizing Auditory Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzfeldt, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Heard through the ears of the Canadian composer and music teacher R. Murray Schafer the ideal auditory community had the shape of a village. Schafer’s work with the World Soundscape Project in the 70s represent an attempt to interpret contemporary environments through musical and auditory...

  1. Epochal neuroinflammatory role of high mobility group box 1 in central nervous system diseases

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    Seidu A. Richard

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The central nervous system (CNS is enriched with a developed reaction reserve dubbed “neuroinflammation”, which facilitates it to cope with pathogens, toxins, traumata and degeneration. Inflammation is a significant biological activity in reaction to injury, infection, and trauma agonized by cells or tissues. A positive inflammatory reaction mechanism removes attacking pathogens, initiating wound healing and angiogenesis. The High Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1 protein is abundant and ubiquitous nuclear proteins that bind to DNA, nucleosome and other multi-protein complexes in a dynamic and reversible fashion to regulate DNA processing in the context of chromatin. Complex genetic and physiological variations as well as environmental factors that drive emergence of chromosomal instability, development of unscheduled cell death, skewed differentiation, and altered metabolism are central to the pathogenesis of human diseases and disorders. HMGB1 protein, senses and coordinates the cellular stress response and plays a critical role not only inside of the cell as a DNA chaperone, chromosome guardian, autophagy sustainer, and protector from apoptotic cell death, but also outside the cell as the prototypic damage associated molecular pattern molecule (DAMP. This DAMP, in conjunction with other factors such as cytokine, chemokine, and growth factor activity, orchestrating the inflammatory and immune response. All of these characteristics make HMGB1 a critical molecular target in multiple human diseases including infectious diseases, ischemia, immune disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, metabolic disorders, and cancer. With regards to these various disease condition above, our review focus on the role of HMGB1 and CNS Diseases.

  2. EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL REHABILITATION INTEGRATED WITH RHYTHMIC AUDITORY STIMULATION ON SPATIO-TEMPORAL AND KINEMATIC PARAMETERS OF GAIT IN PARKINSON’S DISEASE

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    Massimiliano Pau

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Movement rehabilitation by means of physical therapy represents an essential tool in the management of gait disturbances induced by Parkinson’s disease (PD. In this context, the use of Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation (RAS has been proven useful in improving several spatio-temporal parameters, but concerning its effect on gait patterns scarce information is available from a kinematic viewpoint. In this study we used three-dimensional gait analysis based on optoelectronic stereophotogrammetry to investigate the effects of 5 weeks of intensive rehabilitation, which included gait training integrated with RAS on 26 individuals affected by PD (age 70.4±11.1, Hoehn & Yahr 1-3. Gait kinematics was assessed before and at the end of the rehabilitation period and after a three-month follow-up, using concise measures (Gait Profile Score and Gait Variable Score, GPS and GVS, respectively, which are able to describe the deviation from a physiologic gait pattern. The results confirm the effectiveness of gait training assisted by RAS in increasing speed and stride length, in regularizing cadence and correctly reweighting swing/stance phase duration. Moreover, an overall improvement of gait quality was observed, as demonstrated by the significant reduction of the GPS value, which was created mainly through significant decreases in the GVS score associated with the hip flexion-extension movement. Future research should focus on investigating kinematic details to better understand the mechanisms underlying gait disturbances in people with PD and the effects of RAS, with the aim of finding new or improving current rehabilitative treatments.

  3. Local Nitric Oxide Production in Viral and Autoimmune Diseases of the Central Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, D. Craig; Tsuyoshi Ohnishi, S.; Kean, Rhonda; Numagami, Yoshihiro; Dietzschold, Bernhard; Koprowski, Hilary

    1995-06-01

    Because of the short half-life of NO, previous studies implicating NO in central nervous system pathology during infection had to rely on the demonstration of elevated levels of NO synthase mRNA or enzyme expression or NO metabolites such as nitrate and nitrite in the infected brain. To more definitively investigate the potential causative role of NO in lesions of the central nervous system in animals infected with neurotropic viruses or suffering from experimental allergic encephalitis, we have determined directly the levels of NO present in the central nervous system of such animals. Using spin trapping of NO and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, we confirm here that copious amounts of NO (up to 30-fold more than control) are elaborated in the brains of rats infected with rabies virus or borna disease virus, as well as in the spinal cords of rats that had received myelin basic protein-specific T cells.

  4. Periodontal disease awareness among pregnant women in the central and eastern regions of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asa'ad, Farah A; Rahman, Ghousia; Al Mahmoud, Noura; Al Shamasi, Ebtehaj; Al Khuwaileidi, Abrar

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge and awareness regarding periodontal disease and its effects on pregnancy among pregnant women in the central and eastern regions of Saudi Arabia. In this cross-sectional survey, self-administered, structured questionnaires were distributed to 300 pregnant women who were chosen randomly from attendees of maternity health care centers in the central and eastern regions of Saudi Arabia. The questions were developed from literature reviews of articles. The questionnaire addressed personal and sociodemographic variables, periodontal health awareness, and knowledge of pregnant women. The questionnaire was translated into Arabic and was pretested during the pilot study on a random sample of 50 pregnant women. Data were analyzed by χ(2) -tests, with the level of significance set at P pregnant women attending maternal health care centers in the central and eastern regions of Saudi Arabia. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. Sensitivity and specificity of auditory steady-state response testing

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    Camila Maia Rabelo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The ASSR test is an electrophysiological test that evaluates, among other aspects, neural synchrony, based on the frequency or amplitude modulation of tones. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of auditory steady-state response testing in detecting lesions and dysfunctions of the central auditory nervous system. METHODS: Seventy volunteers were divided into three groups: those with normal hearing; those with mesial temporal sclerosis; and those with central auditory processing disorder. All subjects underwent auditory steady-state response testing of both ears at 500 Hz and 2000 Hz (frequency modulation, 46 Hz. The difference between auditory steady-state response-estimated thresholds and behavioral thresholds (audiometric evaluation was calculated. RESULTS: Estimated thresholds were significantly higher in the mesial temporal sclerosis group than in the normal and central auditory processing disorder groups. In addition, the difference between auditory steady-state response-estimated and behavioral thresholds was greatest in the mesial temporal sclerosis group when compared to the normal group than in the central auditory processing disorder group compared to the normal group. DISCUSSION: Research focusing on central auditory nervous system (CANS lesions has shown that individuals with CANS lesions present a greater difference between ASSR-estimated thresholds and actual behavioral thresholds; ASSR-estimated thresholds being significantly worse than behavioral thresholds in subjects with CANS insults. This is most likely because the disorder prevents the transmission of the sound stimulus from being in phase with the received stimulus, resulting in asynchronous transmitter release. Another possible cause of the greater difference between the ASSR-estimated thresholds and the behavioral thresholds is impaired temporal resolution. CONCLUSIONS: The overall sensitivity of auditory steady

  6. Selective Heart Rate Reduction With Ivabradine Increases Central Blood Pressure in Stable Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimoldi, Stefano F; Messerli, Franz H; Cerny, David; Gloekler, Steffen; Traupe, Tobias; Laurent, Stéphane; Seiler, Christian

    2016-06-01

    Heart rate (HR) lowering by β-blockade was shown to be beneficial after myocardial infarction. In contrast, HR lowering with ivabradine was found to confer no benefits in 2 prospective randomized trials in patients with coronary artery disease. We hypothesized that this inefficacy could be in part related to ivabradine's effect on central (aortic) pressure. Our study included 46 patients with chronic stable coronary artery disease who were randomly allocated to placebo (n=23) or ivabradine (n=23) in a single-blinded fashion for 6 months. Concomitant baseline medication was continued unchanged throughout the study except for β-blockers, which were stopped during the study period. Central blood pressure and stroke volume were measured directly by left heart catheterization at baseline and after 6 months. For the determination of resting HR at baseline and at follow-up, 24-hour ECG monitoring was performed. Patients on ivabradine showed an increase of 11 mm Hg in central systolic pressure from 129±22 mm Hg to 140±26 mm Hg (P=0.02) and in stroke volume by 86±21.8 to 107.2±30.0 mL (P=0.002). In the placebo group, central systolic pressure and stroke volume remained unchanged. Estimates of myocardial oxygen consumption (HR×systolic pressure and time-tension index) remained unchanged with ivabradine.The decrease in HR from baseline to follow-up correlated with the concomitant increase in central systolic pressure (r=-0.41, P=0.009) and in stroke volume (r=-0.61, Pcoronary artery disease patients. CLINICAL TRIALSURL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier NCT01039389. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Bilateral congenital lumbar hernias in a patient with central core disease--A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazier, Joanna; Mah, Jean K; Nikolic, Ana; Wei, Xing-Chang; Samedi, Veronica; Fajardo, Carlos; Brindle, Mary; Perrier, Renee; Thomas, Mary Ann

    2016-01-01

    Congenital lumbar hernias are rare malformations caused by defects in the development of the posterior abdominal wall. A known association exists with lumbocostovertebral syndrome; however other associated anomalies, including one case with arthrogryposis, have been previously reported. We present an infant girl with bilateral congenital lumbar hernias, multiple joint contractures, decreased muscle bulk and symptoms of malignant hyperthermia. Molecular testing revealed an R4861C mutation in the ryanodine receptor 1 (RYR1) gene, known to be associated with central core disease. This is the first reported case of the co-occurrence of congenital lumbar hernias and central core disease. We hypothesize that ryanodine receptor 1 mutations may interrupt muscle differentiation and development. Further, this case suggests an expansion of the ryanodine receptor 1-related myopathy phenotype to include congenital lumbar hernias. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Central regulation of pain in patients with joint disease and approaches to therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filatova, E S; Erdes, Sh F; Filatova, E G

    2016-01-01

    The paper reviews investigations studies that have demonstrated that chronic pain syndrome is mixed in rheumatic diseases. The nervous system is involved in its pathogenesis with different frequency and different mechanisms. Under the influence of afferent pain impulses from damaged joints, there are changes in the excitability of spinal cord neurons, which is called central sensitization (CS). A number of patients have enhanced CS and clinical manifestations as neuropathic sensitive phenomena. The mixed model of the development of chronic pain in joint diseases and its presence along with nociceptive (inflammatory) and neuropathic pain components may explain the discrepancy between joint inflammatory and structural changes and pain intensity, the presence of distant pain and sensitive disorders in the areas outside the joint, and sometimes the efficiency of anti-inflammatory therapy. The presence of the neuropathic pain component serves as a rationale for combined therapy by adding centrally acting drugs, such as anticonvulsants.

  9. Auditory-motor learning influences auditory memory for music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel M; Palmer, Caroline

    2012-05-01

    In two experiments, we investigated how auditory-motor learning influences performers' memory for music. Skilled pianists learned novel melodies in four conditions: auditory only (listening), motor only (performing without sound), strongly coupled auditory-motor (normal performance), and weakly coupled auditory-motor (performing along with auditory recordings). Pianists' recognition of the learned melodies was better following auditory-only or auditory-motor (weakly coupled and strongly coupled) learning than following motor-only learning, and better following strongly coupled auditory-motor learning than following auditory-only learning. Auditory and motor imagery abilities modulated the learning effects: Pianists with high auditory imagery scores had better recognition following motor-only learning, suggesting that auditory imagery compensated for missing auditory feedback at the learning stage. Experiment 2 replicated the findings of Experiment 1 with melodies that contained greater variation in acoustic features. Melodies that were slower and less variable in tempo and intensity were remembered better following weakly coupled auditory-motor learning. These findings suggest that motor learning can aid performers' auditory recognition of music beyond auditory learning alone, and that motor learning is influenced by individual abilities in mental imagery and by variation in acoustic features.

  10. COELIAC DISEASE IN CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA: time for a concerted approach to its epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrukh, Affifa; Mayberry, John Francis

    2015-01-01

    Central and South America offer an opportunity to resolve some of the current controversies that surround the epidemiology of celiac disease. Through a concerted action which brings together clinicians, researchers and patients there is an opportunity to establish robust data sets which will allow detailed analysis of environmental and genetic factors. In this review available data from the continent together with data from Spain and Italy are drawn together to give a current picture in the hope that it will stimulate further research.

  11. Central nervous system uptake of intranasal glutathione in Parkinson?s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Mischley, Laurie K; Conley, Kevin E.; Shankland, Eric G.; Kavanagh, Terrance J.; Rosenfeld, Michael E.; Duda, John E; White, Collin C.; Wilbur, Timothy K; De La Torre, Prysilla U; Padowski, Jeannie M.

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione (GSH) is depleted early in the course of Parkinson?s disease (PD), and deficiency has been shown to perpetuate oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, impaired autophagy, and cell death. GSH repletion has been proposed as a therapeutic intervention. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether intranasally administered reduced GSH, (in)GSH, is capable of augmenting central nervous system GSH concentrations, as determined by magnetic resonance spectroscopy in 15 partici...

  12. Cells, Biomarkers, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Evidence for Peripheral Involvement in a Central Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Naval Health Research Center Cells, Biomarkers and Post -traumatic Stress Disorder: Evidence for Peripheral Involvement in A Central Disease ...factor- 1; TBI, traumatic brain injury; TNF, tumor necrosis factor. Naval Health Research Center, San Diego, California, USA Abstract Post -traumatic...microglia in comparison with those with spleens (Ajmo et al. 2008). After an ischemic stroke was induced, the rats with spleens showed more CNS tissue

  13. Gestational trophoblastic disease: does central nervous system chemoprophylaxis have a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, A M; Siddiqui, N; Coleman, R E; Hancock, B W

    1999-01-01

    In the UK there are standardized surveillance procedures for gestational trophoblastic disease. However, there are differences in practice between the two treatment centres in terms of definition of persistent gestational trophoblastic disease, prognostic risk assessment and chemotherapeutic regimens. The role of prophylactic chemotherapy for cerebral micrometastatic disease in persistent gestational trophoblastic disease is unclear. We have analysed the outcome of 69 patients with lung metastases who elsewhere might have received prophylactic intrathecal chemotherapy. Of the 69 patients, 67 received intravenous chemotherapy only. The other two patients had cerebral metastases at presentation. One patient who received only intravenous chemotherapy subsequently developed a cerebral metastasis, but this patient's initial treatment was compromised by non-compliance. This experience supports our current policy of not treating patients with pulmonary metastases, without clinical evidence of central nervous system (CNS) involvement, with prophylactic intrathecal therapy. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10098770

  14. Febrile ulceronecrotic Mucha-Habermann disease with central nervous system vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosman, Ilana S; Liang, Ling-Chih; Patil, Sushama; Bayliss, Susan J; White, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    Febrile ulceronecrotic Mucha-Habermann disease (FUMHD) is a severe variant of pityriasis lichenoides et varioliformis acuta (PLEVA). We report a case of FUMHD in an 11-year-old boy who subsequently developed neurologic symptoms and was found to have necrotizing vasculitis on brain biopsy. Over 5 years of follow-up, he had one biopsy-proven recurrence of his skin lesions and continued rehabilitation and treatment for residual neurologic complications. This case provides histological evidence of central nervous system vasculitis associated with FUMHD. Our patient's disease was eventually controlled with cyclophosphamide. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. A coumarin-based fluorescent probe as a central nervous system disease biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Ann-Chee; Mahamad, Ummi Affah; Lim, Shen-Yang; Kim, Hae-Jo; Choo, Yeun-Mun

    2014-11-10

    Homocysteine and methylmalonic acid are important biomarkers for diseases associated with an impaired central nervous system (CNS). A new chemoassay utilizing coumarin-based fluorescent probe 1 to detect the levels of homocysteine is successfully implemented using Parkinson's disease (PD) patients' blood serum. In addition, a rapid identification of homocysteine and methylmalonic acid levels in blood serum of PD patients was also performed using the liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The results obtained from both analyses were in agreement. The new chemoassay utilizing coumarin-based fluorescent probe 1 offers a cost- and time-effective method to identify the biomarkers in CNS patients.

  16. A Coumarin-Based Fluorescent Probe as a Central Nervous System Disease Biomarker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Chee Yap

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Homocysteine and methylmalonic acid are important biomarkers for diseases associated with an impaired central nervous system (CNS. A new chemoassay utilizing coumarin-based fluorescent probe 1 to detect the levels of homocysteine is successfully implemented using Parkinson’s disease (PD patients’ blood serum. In addition, a rapid identification of homocysteine and methylmalonic acid levels in blood serum of PD patients was also performed using the liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS. The results obtained from both analyses were in agreement. The new chemoassay utilizing coumarin-based fluorescent probe 1 offers a cost- and time-effective method to identify the biomarkers in CNS patients.

  17. Congenital Tonic Pupils Associated With Congenital Central Hypoventilation Syndrome and Hirschsprung Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Viraj J; Ling, Joseph J; Martinez, Elizabeth G; Reddy, Anvesh C; Donahue, Sean P

    2016-12-01

    Autonomic dysfunction can be associated with pupillary abnormalities. We describe a rare association of tonic pupils, congenital central hypoventilation syndrome, and Hirschsprung disease in a newborn with a mutation in the PHOX2B gene, a key regulator of neural crest cells. Hirschsprung disease is characterized by the congenital absence of neural crest-derived intrinsic ganglion cells. Tonic pupils may result from an abnormality of the ciliary ganglion, another structure of neural crest origin. The close association of these conditions in this child suggests a common abnormality in neural crest migration and differentiation.

  18. Tangier disease: central nervous system impairment in a case of syringomyelia-like syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrini, V; Pinna, V; Milone, F F

    1990-09-01

    A neuroradiological investigation of the central nervous system (CNS) in a case of Tangier disease presenting as a syringomyelia-like syndrome is reported. No syringomyelinic cavities were found. However, MRI showed cervical spinal cord atrophy and scattered foci of greater density with T2 weighted images in the white matter of the frontal, parietal and occipital lobes. Cerebral and cervical spinal cord involvement in the course of Tangier disease is now shown for the first time. The authors postulate that the MRI detected alterations are related to the underlying illness.

  19. Tinnitus alters resting state functional connectivity (RSFC in human auditory and non-auditory brain regions as measured by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS.

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    Juan San Juan

    Full Text Available Tinnitus, or phantom sound perception, leads to increased spontaneous neural firing rates and enhanced synchrony in central auditory circuits in animal models. These putative physiologic correlates of tinnitus to date have not been well translated in the brain of the human tinnitus sufferer. Using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS we recently showed that tinnitus in humans leads to maintained hemodynamic activity in auditory and adjacent, non-auditory cortices. Here we used fNIRS technology to investigate changes in resting state functional connectivity between human auditory and non-auditory brain regions in normal-hearing, bilateral subjective tinnitus and controls before and after auditory stimulation. Hemodynamic activity was monitored over the region of interest (primary auditory cortex and non-region of interest (adjacent non-auditory cortices and functional brain connectivity was measured during a 60-second baseline/period of silence before and after a passive auditory challenge consisting of alternating pure tones (750 and 8000Hz, broadband noise and silence. Functional connectivity was measured between all channel-pairs. Prior to stimulation, connectivity of the region of interest to the temporal and fronto-temporal region was decreased in tinnitus participants compared to controls. Overall, connectivity in tinnitus was differentially altered as compared to controls following sound stimulation. Enhanced connectivity was seen in both auditory and non-auditory regions in the tinnitus brain, while controls showed a decrease in connectivity following sound stimulation. In tinnitus, the strength of connectivity was increased between auditory cortex and fronto-temporal, fronto-parietal, temporal, occipito-temporal and occipital cortices. Together these data suggest that central auditory and non-auditory brain regions are modified in tinnitus and that resting functional connectivity measured by fNIRS technology may contribute to

  20. Tinnitus alters resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) in human auditory and non-auditory brain regions as measured by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Juan, Juan; Hu, Xiao-Su; Issa, Mohamad; Bisconti, Silvia; Kovelman, Ioulia; Kileny, Paul; Basura, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    Tinnitus, or phantom sound perception, leads to increased spontaneous neural firing rates and enhanced synchrony in central auditory circuits in animal models. These putative physiologic correlates of tinnitus to date have not been well translated in the brain of the human tinnitus sufferer. Using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) we recently showed that tinnitus in humans leads to maintained hemodynamic activity in auditory and adjacent, non-auditory cortices. Here we used fNIRS technology to investigate changes in resting state functional connectivity between human auditory and non-auditory brain regions in normal-hearing, bilateral subjective tinnitus and controls before and after auditory stimulation. Hemodynamic activity was monitored over the region of interest (primary auditory cortex) and non-region of interest (adjacent non-auditory cortices) and functional brain connectivity was measured during a 60-second baseline/period of silence before and after a passive auditory challenge consisting of alternating pure tones (750 and 8000Hz), broadband noise and silence. Functional connectivity was measured between all channel-pairs. Prior to stimulation, connectivity of the region of interest to the temporal and fronto-temporal region was decreased in tinnitus participants compared to controls. Overall, connectivity in tinnitus was differentially altered as compared to controls following sound stimulation. Enhanced connectivity was seen in both auditory and non-auditory regions in the tinnitus brain, while controls showed a decrease in connectivity following sound stimulation. In tinnitus, the strength of connectivity was increased between auditory cortex and fronto-temporal, fronto-parietal, temporal, occipito-temporal and occipital cortices. Together these data suggest that central auditory and non-auditory brain regions are modified in tinnitus and that resting functional connectivity measured by fNIRS technology may contribute to conscious phantom

  1. Central and peripheral circadian clocks and their role in Alzheimer's disease

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    Ruchi Chauhan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Molecular and cellular oscillations constitute an internal clock that tracks the time of day and permits organisms to optimize their behaviour and metabolism to suit the daily demands they face. The workings of this internal clock become impaired with age. In this review, we discuss whether such age-related impairments in the circadian clock interact with age-related neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease. Findings from mouse and fly models of Alzheimer's disease have accelerated our understanding of the interaction between neurodegeneration and circadian biology. These models show that neurodegeneration likely impairs circadian rhythms either by damaging the central clock or by blocking its communication with other brain areas and with peripheral tissues. The consequent sleep and metabolic deficits could enhance the susceptibility of the brain to further degenerative processes. Thus, circadian dysfunction might be both a cause and an effect of neurodegeneration. We also discuss the primary role of light in the entrainment of the central clock and describe important, alternative time signals, such as food, that play a role in entraining central and peripheral circadian clocks. Finally, we propose how these recent insights could inform efforts to develop novel therapeutic approaches to re-entrain arrhythmic individuals with neurodegenerative disease.

  2. Neuro-Coagulopathy: Blood Coagulation Factors in Central Nervous System Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Ciro; Virtuoso, Assunta; Maggio, Nicola; Papa, Michele

    2017-10-12

    Blood coagulation factors and other proteins, with modulatory effects or modulated by the coagulation cascade have been reported to affect the pathophysiology of the central nervous system (CNS). The protease-activated receptors (PARs) pathway can be considered the central hub of this regulatory network, mainly through thrombin or activated protein C (aPC). These proteins, in fact, showed peculiar properties, being able to interfere with synaptic homeostasis other than coagulation itself. These specific functions modulate neuronal networks, acting both on resident (neurons, astrocytes, and microglia) as well as circulating immune system cells and the extracellular matrix. The pleiotropy of these effects is produced through different receptors, expressed in various cell types, in a dose- and time-dependent pattern. We reviewed how these pathways may be involved in neurodegenerative diseases (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases), multiple sclerosis, ischemic stroke and post-ischemic epilepsy, CNS cancer, addiction, and mental health. These data open up a new path for the potential therapeutic use of the agonist/antagonist of these proteins in the management of several central nervous system diseases.

  3. Central Pain Processing in Early-Stage Parkinson's Disease: A Laser Pain fMRI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Petschow

    Full Text Available Pain is a common non-motor symptom in Parkinson's disease. As dopaminergic dysfunction is suggested to affect intrinsic nociceptive processing, this study was designed to characterize laser-induced pain processing in early-stage Parkinson's disease patients in the dopaminergic OFF state, using a multimodal experimental approach at behavioral, autonomic, imaging levels.13 right-handed early-stage Parkinson's disease patients without cognitive or sensory impairment were investigated OFF medication, along with 13 age-matched healthy control subjects. Measurements included warmth perception thresholds, heat pain thresholds, and central pain processing with event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (erfMRI during laser-induced pain stimulation at lower (E = 440 mJ and higher (E = 640 mJ target energies. Additionally, electrodermal activity was characterized during delivery of 60 randomized pain stimuli ranging from 440 mJ to 640 mJ, along with evaluation of subjective pain ratings on a visual analogue scale.No significant differences in warmth perception thresholds, heat pain thresholds, electrodermal activity and subjective pain ratings were found between Parkinson's disease patients and controls, and erfMRI revealed a generally comparable activation pattern induced by laser-pain stimuli in brain areas belonging to the central pain matrix. However, relatively reduced deactivation was found in Parkinson's disease patients in posterior regions of the default mode network, notably the precuneus and the posterior cingulate cortex.Our data during pain processing extend previous findings suggesting default mode network dysfunction in Parkinson's disease. On the other hand, they argue against a genuine pain-specific processing abnormality in early-stage Parkinson's disease. Future studies are now required using similar multimodal experimental designs to examine pain processing in more advanced stages of Parkinson's disease.

  4. Survey of Barley and Wheat Diseases in the Central Highlands of Eritrea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H. Yahyaoui

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Annual surveys of barley and wheat diseases were conducted in Eritrea from 2000 to 2002. The surveys covered six zones of the central highlands where barley and wheat are grown. The main diseases of barley were netform net blotch, spot-form net blotch, leaf rust and scald. Other, less important diseases were loose smut, covered smut, barley stripe and septoria leaf blotch. Wheat was mainly affected by yellow rust and leaf rust. Loose smut, septoria leaf spot and tan spot diseases were less prevalent. The average incidence of these diseases varied according to the zone. Among barley diseases, net blotch incidence was high in four of the six zones surveyed. Leaf rust occurred at medium incidence in five zones. Loose smut was more severe in the southern highland plains, while covered smut was more common in the south-eastern highland terraces. For wheat, yellow rust incidence was high in two zones. Areas with a high incidence of yellow rust were not necessarily those with a high incidence of leaf rust. Leaf rust was important in the south-eastern and western highland terraces and in the western highland plains. The number of diseases found in the same field varied from 2 to 5. The south eastern highland terraces, the western highland terraces and the northern highland terraces had the highest proportions of individual barley fields with three or more diseases.

  5. Auditory based neuropsychology in neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, Knut

    2008-04-01

    In this article, an account is given on the author's experience with auditory based neuropsychology in a clinical, neurosurgical setting. The patients that were included in the studies are patients with traumatic or vascular brain lesions, patients undergoing brain surgery to alleviate symptoms of Parkinson's disease, or patients harbouring an intracranial arachnoid cyst affecting the temporal or the frontal lobe. The aims of these investigations were to collect information about the location of cognitive processes in the human brain, or to disclose dyscognition in patients with an arachnoid cyst. All the patients were tested with the DL technique. In addition, the cyst patients were subjected to a number of non-auditory, standard neuropsychological tests, such as Benton Visual Retention Test, Street Gestalt Test, Stroop Test and Trails Test A and B. The neuropsychological tests revealed that arachnoid cysts in general cause dyscognition that also includes auditory processes, and more importantly, that these cognition deficits normalise after surgical removal of the cyst. These observations constitute strong evidence in favour of surgical decompression.

  6. Auditory brainstem implant program development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Marc S; Wilkinson, Eric P

    2017-08-01

    Auditory brainstem implants (ABIs), which have previously been used to restore auditory perception to deaf patients with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2), are now being utilized in other situations, including treatment of congenitally deaf children with cochlear malformations or cochlear nerve deficiencies. Concurrent with this expansion of indications, the number of centers placing and expressing interest in placing ABIs has proliferated. Because ABI placement involves posterior fossa craniotomy in order to access the site of implantation on the cochlear nucleus complex of the brainstem and is not without significant risk, we aim to highlight issues important in developing and maintaining successful ABI programs that would be in the best interests of patients. Especially with pediatric patients, the ultimate benefits of implantation will be known only after years of growth and development. These benefits have yet to be fully elucidated and continue to be an area of controversy. The limited number of publications in this area were reviewed. Review of the current literature was performed. Disease processes, risk/benefit analyses, degrees of evidence, and U.S. Food and Drug Administration approvals differ among various categories of patients in whom auditory brainstem implantation could be considered for use. We suggest sets of criteria necessary for the development of successful and sustaining ABI programs, including programs for NF2 patients, postlingually deafened adult nonneurofibromatosis type 2 patients, and congenitally deaf pediatric patients. Laryngoscope, 127:1909-1915, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  7. Design and Implementation of the Hepatorenal Fibrocystic Disease Core Center Clinical Database: A Centralized Resource for Characterizing Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease and Other Hepatorenal Fibrocystic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Guay-Woodford

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD and other hepatorenal fibrocystic diseases (HRFD are relatively rare recessive disorders that constitute an important set of childhood nephropathies. Little is known about fundamental pathogenesis, and advances toward clinical trials will require well-characterized patient cohorts and the development of predictive and prognostic biomarkers. Such studies in rare diseases require greater collaboration than the efforts in common diseases where large patient repositories can be built at a single site. For the HRFD, clinical and translational research studies would be well served by centralized case accrual that coordinates collection of clinical data, biospecimens (DNA and tissues, and genetic information. As a part of the NIH-funded Hepatorenal Fibrocystic Disease Core Center, we have established a web-accessible portal to enroll patients with ARPKD and other HRFD and compile baseline and longitudinal clinical information in a REDCap-based clinical database. This central database is structured to collect clinical data from patients throughout the Americas (North, Central, and South. By using informatic analyses, we have defined the first data-driven estimates of ARPKD-related neonatal mortality, as well as the incidence and prevalence of this disease. These data indicate that while ARPKD is a rare disorder, there are hundreds of patients potentially available for deep clinical phenotyping in the United States alone. The centralization and sharing of clinical information and biomaterials from ARPKD and other HRFD patients hold the potential to accelerate progress in understanding disease pathways. Once the database is mature, the well-characterized patient cohorts will provide an important resource for developing clinical trials to evaluate new targeted therapeutic interventions in this spectrum of disorders.

  8. HIV/AIDS and auditory function in adults: the need for intensified ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reviews published research on auditory function in HIV-infected adults, while also highlighting the need for intensified research on this topic in Africa. It begins with an introduction to the effects of HIV disease and treatment on the auditory system, and so highlights the need to put auditory function in adults with ...

  9. Syringomyelia in demyelinating disease of the central nervous system: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Dejan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Syringomyelia is a cavitary extension inside the spinal cord which can be either symptomatic or congenitally-idiopathic. Syringomyelia during the course of the disease in patients presenting with clinically definite multiple sclerosis was described earlier. Syringomyelia in patients presenting with a clinically isolated syndrome suggestive of multiple sclerosis is unusual. Case Outline. We present two patients presenting with demy-elinating disease of the central nervous system with syringomyelia in the cervical and thoracic spinal cord. We did not find classical clinical signs of syringomyelia in our patients, but we disclosed syringomyelia incidentally during magnetic resonance exploration. Magnetic resonance exploration using the gadolinium contrast revealed the signs of active demyelinating lesions in the spinal cord in one patient but not in the other. Conclusion. Syringomyelia in demyelinating disease of the central nervous system opens the question whether it is a coincidental finding or a part of clinical features of the disease. Differentiation of the significance of syringomyelia finding in these patients plays a role in the choice of treatment concept in such patients.

  10. Weighted brain networks in disease: centrality and entropy in HIV and aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jewell B.; Brier, Matthew R.; Ortega, Mario; Benzinger, Tammie L.; Ances, Beau M.

    2014-01-01

    Graph theory models can produce simple, biologically informative metrics of the topology of resting-state functional connectivity (FC) networks. However, typical graph theory approaches model FC relationships between regions (nodes) as unweighted edges, complicating their interpretability in studies of disease or aging. We extended existing techniques and constructed fully-connected weighted graphs for groups of age-matched HIV positive (n=67) and HIV negative (n=77) individuals. We compared test-retest reliability of weighted vs. unweighted metrics in an independent study of healthy individuals (n=22) and found weighted measures to be more stable. We quantified two measures of node centrality (closeness centrality and eigenvector centrality) to capture the relative importance of individual nodes. We also quantified one measure of graph entropy (diversity) to measure the variability in connection strength (edge weights) at each node. HIV was primarily associated with differences in measures of centrality, and age was primarily associated with differences in diversity. HIV and age were associated with divergent measures when evaluated at the whole-graph level, within individual functional networks, and at the level of individual nodes. Graph models may allow us to distinguish previously indistinguishable effects related to HIV and age on FC. PMID:25034343

  11. Weighted brain networks in disease: centrality and entropy in human immunodeficiency virus and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jewell B; Brier, Matthew R; Ortega, Mario; Benzinger, Tammie L; Ances, Beau M

    2015-01-01

    Graph theory models can produce simple, biologically informative metrics of the topology of resting-state functional connectivity (FC) networks. However, typical graph theory approaches model FC relationships between regions (nodes) as unweighted edges, complicating their interpretability in studies of disease or aging. We extended existing techniques and constructed fully connected weighted graphs for groups of age-matched human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive (n = 67) and HIV negative (n = 77) individuals. We compared test-retest reliability of weighted versus unweighted metrics in an independent study of healthy individuals (n = 22) and found weighted measures to be more stable. We quantified 2 measures of node centrality (closeness centrality and eigenvector centrality) to capture the relative importance of individual nodes. We also quantified 1 measure of graph entropy (diversity) to measure the variability in connection strength (edge weights) at each node. HIV was primarily associated with differences in measures of centrality, and age was primarily associated with differences in diversity. HIV and age were associated with divergent measures when evaluated at the whole graph level, within individual functional networks, and at the level of individual nodes. Graph models may allow us to distinguish previously indistinguishable effects related to HIV and age on FC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Aktiverende Undervisning i auditorier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parus, Judith

    Workshop om erfaringer og brug af aktiverende metoder i undervisning i auditorier og på store hold. Hvilke metoder har fungeret godt og hvilke dårligt ? Hvilke overvejelser skal man gøre sig.......Workshop om erfaringer og brug af aktiverende metoder i undervisning i auditorier og på store hold. Hvilke metoder har fungeret godt og hvilke dårligt ? Hvilke overvejelser skal man gøre sig....

  13. Auditory Spatial Layout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wightman, Frederic L.; Jenison, Rick

    1995-01-01

    All auditory sensory information is packaged in a pair of acoustical pressure waveforms, one at each ear. While there is obvious structure in these waveforms, that structure (temporal and spectral patterns) bears no simple relationship to the structure of the environmental objects that produced them. The properties of auditory objects and their layout in space must be derived completely from higher level processing of the peripheral input. This chapter begins with a discussion of the peculiarities of acoustical stimuli and how they are received by the human auditory system. A distinction is made between the ambient sound field and the effective stimulus to differentiate the perceptual distinctions among various simple classes of sound sources (ambient field) from the known perceptual consequences of the linear transformations of the sound wave from source to receiver (effective stimulus). Next, the definition of an auditory object is dealt with, specifically the question of how the various components of a sound stream become segregated into distinct auditory objects. The remainder of the chapter focuses on issues related to the spatial layout of auditory objects, both stationary and moving.

  14. Prevalence of canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis disease in dogs of central Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira Ana Luísa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors concerning Dirofilaria immitis infection in dogs from Figueira da Foz, located in the central region of Portugal. In the period between November 2009 and January 2011, 304 blood samples were obtained from dogs over 1 year of age, with no previous history of heartworm prevention or diagnosis. Every blood sample was analyzed using varied laboratory techniques (direct microscopic evaluation of a fresh blood sample, the modified Knott technique, and the ELISA antigen detection test – IDEXX Snapp®. In the samples in which microfilaremia was detected, a histochemical technique using acid phosphatase staining was applied to identify the species of microfilariae. A total prevalence of 27.3% (83 out of 304 was found. We also found that 73.5% of all positive cases (61 out of 83 were microfilaremic, and 26.5% were occult infections (22 out of 83. By means of a histochemical technique Dirofilaria immitis was identified in 96.7% of microfilaremic samples. A multivariate model allowed us to identify the following risk factors for the presence of heartworm disease: age between 4 and 9 years, dogs living in a rural environment, large breed dogs, and living outdoors. This study shows for the first time the high prevalence of heartworm disease in a central area of Portugal and emphasizes the importance of systematic screening for this disease, as well as the need to prevent it in dogs in this area.

  15. Prevalence of canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) disease in dogs of central Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Ana Luísa; Vieira, Maria João; Oliveira, João Manuel; Simões, Ana Rita; Diez-Baños, Pablo; Gestal, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors concerning Dirofilaria immitis infection in dogs from Figueira da Foz, located in the central region of Portugal. In the period between November 2009 and January 2011, 304 blood samples were obtained from dogs over 1 year of age, with no previous history of heartworm prevention or diagnosis. Every blood sample was analyzed using varied laboratory techniques (direct microscopic evaluation of a fresh blood sample, the modified Knott technique, and the ELISA antigen detection test – IDEXX Snapp®). In the samples in which microfilaremia was detected, a histochemical technique using acid phosphatase staining was applied to identify the species of microfilariae. A total prevalence of 27.3% (83 out of 304) was found. We also found that 73.5% of all positive cases (61 out of 83) were microfilaremic, and 26.5% were occult infections (22 out of 83). By means of a histochemical technique Dirofilaria immitis was identified in 96.7% of microfilaremic samples. A multivariate model allowed us to identify the following risk factors for the presence of heartworm disease: age between 4 and 9 years, dogs living in a rural environment, large breed dogs, and living outdoors. This study shows for the first time the high prevalence of heartworm disease in a central area of Portugal and emphasizes the importance of systematic screening for this disease, as well as the need to prevent it in dogs in this area. PMID:24534524

  16. Reduced auditory segmentation potentials in first-episode schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffman, Brian A; Haigh, Sarah M; Murphy, Timothy K; Leiter-Mcbeth, Justin; Salisbury, Dean F

    2017-10-22

    Auditory scene analysis (ASA) dysfunction is likely an important component of the symptomatology of schizophrenia. Auditory object segmentation, the grouping of sequential acoustic elements into temporally-distinct auditory objects, can be assessed with electroencephalography through measurement of the auditory segmentation potential (ASP). Further, N2 responses to the initial and final elements of auditory objects are enhanced relative to medial elements, which may indicate auditory object edge detection (initiation and termination). Both ASP and N2 modulation are impaired in long-term schizophrenia. To determine whether these deficits are present early in disease course, we compared ASP and N2 modulation between individuals at their first episode of psychosis within the schizophrenia spectrum (FE, N=20) and matched healthy controls (N=24). The ASP was reduced by >40% in FE; however, N2 modulation was not statistically different from HC. This suggests that auditory segmentation (ASP) deficits exist at this early stage of schizophrenia, but auditory edge detection (N2 modulation) is relatively intact. In a subset of subjects for whom structural MRIs were available (N=14 per group), ASP sources were localized to midcingulate cortex (MCC) and temporal auditory cortex. Neurophysiological activity in FE was reduced in MCC, an area linked to aberrant perceptual organization, negative symptoms, and cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia, but not temporal auditory cortex. This study supports the validity of the ASP for measurement of auditory object segmentation and suggests that the ASP may be useful as an early index of schizophrenia-related MCC dysfunction. Further, ASP deficits may serve as a viable biomarker of disease presence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Central presbycusis: an emerging view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, George A

    2012-07-01

    Age-related dysfunction of the central auditory system (central presbycusis) is common but rarely looked for by those who provide aural rehabilitation. Patients who complain of difficulty hearing in noise--the key symptom of central presbycusis--are generally disadvantaged with conventional rehabilitation. This symptom should be documented with commercially available speech-in-noise tests, which use materials that are uncomplicated to administer. Those patients who perform poorly on such tests should have a customized rehabilitation program aimed at optimizing their remaining communication abilities. Otolaryngologists who provide auditory rehabilitation may wish to consider expanding their practices to meet the communication needs of older patients with central presbycusis. Central presbycusis is an emerging area for basic and clinical research in auditory neurotology, particularly in the relation of cognitive dysfunction to impaired auditory processing.

  18. Human auditory evoked potentials. I - Evaluation of components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picton, T. W.; Hillyard, S. A.; Krausz, H. I.; Galambos, R.

    1974-01-01

    Fifteen distinct components can be identified in the scalp recorded average evoked potential to an abrupt auditory stimulus. The early components occurring in the first 8 msec after a stimulus represent the activation of the cochlea and the auditory nuclei of the brainstem. The middle latency components occurring between 8 and 50 msec after the stimulus probably represent activation of both auditory thalamus and cortex but can be seriously contaminated by concurrent scalp muscle reflex potentials. The longer latency components occurring between 50 and 300 msec after the stimulus are maximally recorded over fronto-central scalp regions and seem to represent widespread activation of frontal cortex.

  19. COELIAC DISEASE IN CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA: time for a concerted approach to its epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Affifa FARRUKH

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Central and South America offer an opportunity to resolve some of the current controversies that surround the epidemiology of celiac disease. Through a concerted action which brings together clinicians, researchers and patients there is an opportunity to establish robust data sets which will allow detailed analysis of environmental and genetic factors. In this review available data from the continent together with data from Spain and Italy are drawn together to give a current picture in the hope that it will stimulate further research.

  20. Noncoding RNA regulation of dopamine signaling in diseases of the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Carrick

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dopaminergic neurotransmission mediates a majority of the vital central nervous system functions. Disruption of these synaptic events provokes a multitude of neurological pathologies, including Parkinson’s, schizophrenia, depression and addiction. Growing evidence supports a key role for noncoding RNA (ncRNA regulation in the synapse. This review will discuss the role of both short and long ncRNAs in dopamine signaling, including bioinformatic examination of the pathways they target. Specifically, we focus on the contribution of ncRNAs to dopaminergic dysfunction in neurodegenerative as well as psychiatric disease.

  1. Auditory responsive naming versus visual confrontation naming in dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kimberly M; Finney, Glen R; Meador, Kimford J; Loring, David W

    2010-01-01

    Dysnomia is typically assessed during neuropsychological evaluation through visual confrontation naming. Responsive naming to description, however, has been shown to have a more distributed representation in both fMRI and cortical stimulation studies. While naming deficits are common in dementia, the relative sensitivity of visual confrontation versus auditory responsive naming has not been directly investigated. The current study compared visual confrontation naming and auditory responsive naming in a dementia sample of mixed etiologies to examine patterns of performance across these naming tasks. A total of 50 patients with dementia of various etiologies were administered visual confrontation naming and auditory responsive naming tasks using stimuli that were matched in overall word frequency. Patients performed significantly worse on auditory responsive naming than visual confrontation naming. Additionally, patients with mixed Alzheimer's disease/vascular dementia performed more poorly on auditory responsive naming than did patients with probable Alzheimer's disease, although no group differences were seen on the visual confrontation naming task. Auditory responsive naming correlated with a larger number of neuropsychological tests of executive function than did visual confrontation naming. Auditory responsive naming appears to be more sensitive to effects of increased of lesion burden compared to visual confrontation naming. We believe that this reflects more widespread topographical distribution of auditory naming sites within the temporal lobe, but may also reflect the contributions of working memory and cognitive flexibility to performance.

  2. Serum Neuroinflammatory Disease-Induced Central Nervous System Proteins Predict Clinical Onset of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itay Raphael

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need in multiple sclerosis (MS patients to develop biomarkers and laboratory tests to improve early diagnosis, predict clinical relapses, and optimize treatment responses. In healthy individuals, the transport of proteins across the blood–brain barrier (BBB is tightly regulated, whereas, in MS, central nervous system (CNS inflammation results in damage to neuronal tissues, disruption of BBB integrity, and potential release of neuroinflammatory disease-induced CNS proteins (NDICPs into CSF and serum. Therefore, changes in serum NDICP abundance could serve as biomarkers of MS. Here, we sought to determine if changes in serum NDICPs are detectable prior to clinical onset of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE and, therefore, enable prediction of disease onset. Importantly, we show in longitudinal serum specimens from individual mice with EAE that pre-onset expression waves of synapsin-2, glutamine synthetase, enolase-2, and synaptotagmin-1 enable the prediction of clinical disease with high sensitivity and specificity. Moreover, we observed differences in serum NDICPs between active and passive immunization in EAE, suggesting hitherto not appreciated differences for disease induction mechanisms. Our studies provide the first evidence for enabling the prediction of clinical disease using serum NDICPs. The results provide proof-of-concept for the development of high-confidence serum NDICP expression waves and protein biomarker candidates for MS.

  3. Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and aging on auditory function in the rat: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, M W; Abel, E L; Kaltenbach, J A; Overbeck, G W

    1996-02-01

    This study investigated select aspects of peripheral and central auditory dysfunction, as well as the pathological effects of aging, In an animal model of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). Pregnant rats consumed liquid alcohol diets containing 0, 17.5, or 35% ethanol-derived calories, from gestation day 7 to parturition. A fourth group was untreated. Offspring of these mothers were tested for auditory and neurological function, using the auditory brainstem response at 6, 12, and 18 months of age. Some animals in the alcohol-exposed groups showed a peripheral auditory disorder in the form of congenital sensorineural hearing loss. This was correlated with punctate lesions and malformed stereocilia on the auditory sensory receptor cells of the inner ear. Alcohol-exposed animals also showed a central auditory processing disorder characterized by prolonged transmission of neural potentials along the brainstem portion of the auditory pathway. Animals in the highest dose group also showed an augmentation in the age-related deterioration of auditory acuity. Thus, increased peripheral and central auditory dysfunctions and pathological deterioration of auditory function in old age may be sequelae of FAS. Such morbidities have important implications for the long-term clinical assessment and management of FAS patients.

  4. Functional Characterization of C-terminal Ryanodine Receptor 1 Variants Associated with Central Core Disease or Malignant Hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Remai; Schiemann, Anja H; Langton, Elaine; Bulger, Terasa; Pollock, Neil; Bjorksten, Andrew; Gillies, Robyn; Hutchinson, David; Roxburgh, Richard; Stowell, Kathryn M

    2017-01-01

    Central core disease and malignant hyperthermia are human disorders of skeletal muscle resulting from aberrant Ca2+ handling. Most malignant hyperthermia and central core disease cases are associated with amino acid changes in the type 1 ryanodine receptor (RyR1), the skeletal muscle Ca2+-release channel. Malignant hyperthermia exhibits a gain-of-function phenotype, and central core disease results from loss of channel function. For a variant to be classified as pathogenic, functional studies must demonstrate a correlation with the pathophysiology of malignant hyperthermia or central core disease. We assessed the pathogenicity of four C-terminal variants of the ryanodine receptor using functional analysis. The variants were identified in families affected by either malignant hyperthermia or central core disease. Four variants were introduced separately into human cDNA encoding the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor. Following transient expression in HEK-293T cells, functional studies were carried out using calcium release assays in response to an agonist. Two previously characterized variants and wild-type skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor were used as controls. The p.Met4640Ile variant associated with central core disease showed no difference in calcium release compared to wild-type. The p.Val4849Ile variant associated with malignant hyperthermia was more sensitive to agonist than wild-type but did not reach statistical significance and two variants (p.Phe4857Ser and p.Asp4918Asn) associated with central core disease were completely inactive. The p.Val4849Ile variant should be considered a risk factor for malignant hyperthermia, while the p.Phe4857Ser and p.Asp4918Asn variants should be classified as pathogenic for central core disease.

  5. Auditory hallucinations induced by trazodone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiotsuki, Ippei; Terao, Takeshi; Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Hatano, Koji

    2014-01-01

    A 26-year-old female outpatient presenting with a depressive state suffered from auditory hallucinations at night. Her auditory hallucinations did not respond to blonanserin or paliperidone, but partially responded to risperidone. In view of the possibility that her auditory hallucinations began after starting trazodone, trazodone was discontinued, leading to a complete resolution of her auditory hallucinations. Furthermore, even after risperidone was decreased and discontinued, her auditory hallucinations did not recur. These findings suggest that trazodone may induce auditory hallucinations in some susceptible patients. PMID:24700048

  6. Clinical study on the value of combining neuropsychological tests with auditory event-related potential P300 for cognitive assessment in elderly patients with cerebral small vessel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-ling ZHAO

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the value of combining neuropsychological tests with auditory event-related potential (ERP P300 for cognitive assessment in elderly patients with cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD.  Methods A total of 183 elderly patients with cSVD were enrolled in this study. They were divided into 3 groups according to brain MRI: lacunar infarct (LACI group (N = 62, white matter hyperintensity (WMH group (N = 60 and LACI + WMH group (N = 61. A total of 50 brain MRI normal persons were selected as control group. Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA, Chinese version was used to evaluate the cognitive function, and the amplitude and latency of P300 were measured in each group.  Results Compared with control group, the MoCA total score in LACI, WMH and LACI + WMH groups were significantly lower (P = 0.042, 0.015, 0.000, and the score in LACI + WMH group was significantly lower than that in LACI and WMH groups (P = 0.001, 0.042. In the eight cognitive domains of MoCA scale, the visual space and executive function (P = 0.006, 0.041, 0.035, delayed memory (P = 0.006, 0.012, 0.048, language (P = 0.001, 0.032, 0.047 and calculation (P = 0.009, 0.001, 0.003 in LACI + WMH group were significantly lower than those in control, LACI and WMH groups. The delayed memory in LACI group was significantly lower than that in control group (P = 0.037. The delayed memory (P = 0.005 and language (P = 0.047 in WMH group were significantly lower than those in control group. Compared with control group, the amplitudes of P300 (P = 0.025, 0.033, 0.000 in LACI, WMH and LACI + WMH groups were significantly decreased, and the latencies (P = 0.018, 0.000, 0.000 were significantly prolonged. The amplitude of P300 in LACI + WMH group was significantly lower than that in LACI and WMH groups (P = 0.041, 0.018, and the latency was significantly prolonged (P = 0.000, 0.022.  Conclusions Elderly patients of cSVD all suffer from different degrees of cognitive impairment

  7. Peripheral and Central Mechanisms of Fatigue in Inflammatory and Non-Inflammatory Rheumatic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staud, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Fatigue is a common symptom in a large number of medical and psychological disorders including many rheumatologic illnesses. A frequent question for health care providers is related to whether reported fatigue is “in the mind” or “in the body” i.e. central or peripheral. If fatigue occurs at rest without any exertion this suggests psychological or central origins. If patients relate their fatigue mostly to physical activities including exercise then their symptoms can be considered peripheral. However, most fatiguing syndromes seem to depend on both peripheral and central mechanisms. Sometimes muscle biopsy with histochemistry may be necessary for the appropriate tissue diagnosis whereas serological tests generally provide little reliable information about the origin of muscle fatigue. Muscle function and peripheral fatigue can be quantified by contractile force and action potential measurements whereas validated questionnaires are frequently used for assessment of mental fatigue. Fatigue is a hallmark of many rheumatologic conditions including fibromyalgia, myalgic encephalitis/chronic fatigue syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus, Sjogren’s syndrome and ankylosing spondylitis. Whereas many studies have focused on disease activity as a correlate to these patients’ fatigue it has become apparent that other factors including negative affect and pain are some of the most powerful predictors for fatigue. Conversely sleep problems, including insomnia seem to be less important for fatigue. There are several effective treatment strategies available for fatigued patients with rheumatologic disorders including pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies PMID:22802155

  8. Glucocerebrosidase L444P mutation confers genetic risk for Parkinson's disease in central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youpei; Liu, Ling; Xiong, Jing; Zhang, Xiaowei; Chen, Zhenzhen; Yu, Lan; Chen, Chunnuan; Huang, Jinsha; Zhang, Zhentao; Mohmed, Asrah A; Lin, Zhicheng; Xiong, Nian; Wang, Tao

    2012-12-10

    Mutations of the glucocerebrosidase (GBA) gene have reportedly been associated with Parkinson disease (PD) in various ethnic populations such as Singaporean, Japanese, Formosan, Canadian, American, Portuguese, Greek, Brazilian, British, Italian, Ashkenazi Jewish, southern and southwestern Chinese. The purpose of this study is to determine in central China whether or not the reported GBA mutations remain associated with PD. In this project, we conducted a controlled study in a cohort of 208 central Chinese PD patients and 298 controls for three known GBA mutations (L444P, N370S and R120W). Our data reveals a significantly higher frequency of L444P mutation in GBA gene of PD cases (3.4%) compared with the controls (0.3%) (P = 0.007, OR = 10.34, 95% CI = 1.26 - 84.71). Specifically, the frequency of L444P mutation was higher in the late onset PD (LOPD) cases compared with that in control subjects. The N370S and R120W mutations were detected in neither the PD group nor the control subjects. Our observations demonstrated that the GBA L444P mutation confers genetic risk for PD, especially LOPD, among the population in the central China area.

  9. Glucocerebrosidase L444P mutation confers genetic risk for Parkinson’s disease in central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Mutations of the glucocerebrosidase (GBA) gene have reportedly been associated with Parkinson disease (PD) in various ethnic populations such as Singaporean, Japanese, Formosan, Canadian, American, Portuguese, Greek, Brazilian, British, Italian, Ashkenazi Jewish, southern and southwestern Chinese. The purpose of this study is to determine in central China whether or not the reported GBA mutations remain associated with PD. Methods In this project, we conducted a controlled study in a cohort of 208 central Chinese PD patients and 298 controls for three known GBA mutations (L444P, N370S and R120W). Results Our data reveals a significantly higher frequency of L444P mutation in GBA gene of PD cases (3.4%) compared with the controls (0.3%) (P = 0.007, OR = 10.34, 95% CI = 1.26 - 84.71). Specifically, the frequency of L444P mutation was higher in the late onset PD (LOPD) cases compared with that in control subjects. The N370S and R120W mutations were detected in neither the PD group nor the control subjects. Conclusions Our observations demonstrated that the GBA L444P mutation confers genetic risk for PD, especially LOPD, among the population in the central China area. PMID:23227814

  10. Integration of auditory and visual speech information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, M.; Smeele, P.M.T.; Kuhl, P.K.

    1998-01-01

    The integration of auditory and visual speech is observed when modes specify different places of articulation. Influences of auditory variation on integration were examined using consonant identifi-cation, plus quality and similarity ratings. Auditory identification predicted auditory-visual

  11. Anterior Hypopituitarism is Rare and Autoimmune Disease is Common in Adults with Idiopathic Central Diabetes Insipidus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    Objective: Central diabetes insipidus is a rare clinical condition with a heterogenous aetiology. Up to 40% of cases are classified as idiopathic, though many of these are thought to have an autoimmune basis. Published data has suggested that anterior hypopituitarism is common in childhood onset idiopathic diabetes insipidus. We aimed to assess the incidence of anterior hypopituitarism in a cohort of adult patients with idiopathic diabetes insipidus. Design and Patients: We performed a retrospective review of the databases of two pituitary investigation units. This identified 39 patients with idiopathic diabetes insipidus. All had undergone MRI scanning and dynamic pituitary testing (either insulin tolerance testing or GHRH\\/arginine and short synacthen testing) to assess anterior pituitary function. Results: One patient had partial growth hormone deficiency; no other anterior pituitary hormonal deficits were found. 33% had at least one autoimmune disease in addition to central diabetes insipidus. Conclusions: Our data suggest that anterior hypopituitarism is rare in adult idiopathic diabetes insipidus. Routine screening of these patients for anterior hypopituitarism may not therefore be indicated. The significant prevalence of autoimmune disease in this cohort supports the hypothesis that idiopathic diabetes insipidus may have an autoimmune aetiology.

  12. Working Memory in Children With Neurocognitive Effects From Sickle Cell Disease: Contributions of the Central Executive and Processing Speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kelsey E; Schatz, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Children with sickle cell disease (SCD) are at risk for working memory deficits due to multiple disease processes. We assessed working memory abilities and related functions in 32 school-age children with SCD and 85 matched comparison children using Baddeley's working memory model as a framework. Children with SCD performed worse than controls for working memory, central executive function, and processing/rehearsal speed. Central executive function was found to mediate the relationship between SCD status and working memory, but processing speed did not. Cognitive remediation strategies that focus on central executive processes may be important for remediating working memory deficits in SCD.

  13. Peripheral vs. central sex steroid hormones in experimental Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon eMcArthur

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The nigrostriatal dopaminergic (NSDA pathway degenerates in Parkinson’s disease (PD, which occurs with approximately twice the incidence in men than women. Studies of the influence of systemic estrogens in females suggest sex hormones contribute to these differences. In this review we analyse the evidence revealing great complexity in the response of the healthy and injured NSDA system to hormonal influences, and emphasize the importance of centrally generated estrogens. At physiological levels, circulating estrogen (in females or estrogen precursors (testosterone in males, aromatised to estrogen centrally have negligible effects on dopaminergic neurone survival in experimental PD, but can modify striatal dopamine levels via actions on the activity or adaptive responses of surviving cells. However, these effects are sexually dimorphic. In females, estradiol promotes adaptive responses in the partially injured NSDA pathway, preserving striatal dopamine, whereas in males gonadal steroids and exogenous estradiol have a negligible or even suppressive effect, effectively exacerbating dopamine loss. On balance, the different effects of gonadal factors in males and females contribute to sex differences in experimental PD. Fundamental sex differences in brain organization, including the sexually dimorphic networks regulating NSDA activity are likely to underpin these responses. In contrast, estrogen generated locally appears to preserve striatal dopamine in both sexes. The available data therefore highlight the need to understand the biological basis of sex-specific responses of the NSDA system to peripheral hormones, so as to realise the potential for sex-specific, hormone-based therapies in PD. Furthermore, they suggest that targeting central steroid generation could be equally effective in preserving striatal dopamine in both sexes. Clarification of the relative roles of peripheral and central sex steroid hormones is thus an important challenge for

  14. Effect of aerial insecticide spraying on West Nile virus disease--north-central Texas, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruktanonchai, Duke J; Stonecipher, Shelley; Lindsey, Nicole; McAllister, Janet; Pillai, Satish K; Horiuchi, Kalanthe; Delorey, Mark; Biggerstaff, Brad J; Sidwa, Tom; Zoretic, James; Nasci, Roger; Fischer, Marc; Hills, Susan L

    2014-08-01

    During 2012, four north-central Texas counties experienced high West Nile virus (WNV) disease incidence. Aerial insecticide spraying was conducted in two counties. To evaluate the effect of spraying on WNV disease, we calculated incidence rate ratios (IRRs) in treated and untreated areas by comparing incidence before and after spraying; for unsprayed areas, before and after periods were defined by using dates from a corresponding sprayed area. In treated areas, WNV neuroinvasive disease incidence before and after spraying was 7.31/100,000 persons and 0.28/100,000 persons, respectively; the IRR was 26.42 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 12.42-56.20). In untreated areas, the before and after incidence was 4.80/100,000 persons and 0.45/100,000 persons, respectively; the IRR was 10.57 (95% CI: 6.11-18.28). The ratio of IRRs was 2.50 (95% CI: 0.98-6.35). Disease incidence decreased in both areas, but the relative change was greater in aerial-sprayed areas. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  15. Valve repair improves central sleep apnea in heart failure patients with valvular heart diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Hidetoshi; Takahashi, Masafumi; Yaegashi, Hironobu; Eda, Seiichiro; Kitahara, Hiroto; Tsunemoto, Hideo; Kamikozawa, Mamoru; Koyama, Jun; Yamazaki, Kyohei; Ikeda, Uichi

    2009-11-01

    Recent studies suggest that treatment of heart failure (HF) could improve cardiac function and sleep apnea syndrome (SAS), but it is unknown how cardiac surgery may affect SAS in HF patients. Relationships between HF with valvular heart diseases and 2 types of SAS (obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and central sleep apnea (CSA)) were examined. The effects of valve repair surgery on OSA and CSA was also investigated. Polysomnography, echocardiography and right cardiac catheterization were used to study 150 severe HF patients with mitral valvular and/or aortic valvular diseases. Significant associations between SAS and age, gender, body mass index, or hypertension were observed. The value of the CSA-apnea index (AI) was significantly correlated with pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) and mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP). These associations were not identified for OSA-AI. Valve repair surgery was used to treat 74 patients with severe SAS. The treatment led to a significant improvement in PCWP and mean PAP, and CSA-AI, but not in OSA-AI. These findings suggest close associations between CSA and cardiac function in HF patients with valvular heart diseases. Furthermore, improvement of cardiac function with valvular surgery reduces the severity of CSA in HF patients with valvular heart diseases.

  16. The safety of ultrasound guided central venous cannulation in patients with liver disease

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    Shweta A Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Central venous cannulation (CVC is frequently required during the management of patients with liver disease with deranged conventional coagulation parameters (CCP. Since CVC is known to be associated with vascular complications, it is standard practice to transfuse Fresh-Frozen Plasma or platelets to correct CCP. These CCP may not reflect true coagulopathy in liver disease. Additionally CVC when performed under ultrasound guidance (USG-CVC in itself reduces the incidence of complications. Aim: To assess the safety of USG-CVC and to evaluate the incidence of complications among liver disease patients with coagulopathy. Setting and Design: An audit of all USG-CVCs was performed among adult patients with liver disease in a tertiary care center. Materials and Methods: Data was collected for all the adult patients (18-60 years of either gender suffering from liver disease who had required USG-CVC. Univariate and multivariate regression analysis was done to identify possible risk factors for complications. Results: The mean age of the patients was 42.1 ± 11.6 years. Mean international normalized ratio was 2.17 ± 1.16 whereas median platelet count was 149.5 (range, 12-683 × 10 9 /L. No major vascular or non-vascular complications were recorded in our patients. Overall incidence of minor vascular complications was 18.6%, of which 13% had significant ooze, 10.3% had hematoma formation and 4.7% had both hematoma and ooze. Arterial puncture and multiple attempts were independent risk factors for superficial hematoma formation whereas low platelet count and presence of ascites were independent risk factors for significant oozing. Conclusion: Ultrasound guidance -CVC in liver disease patients with deranged coagulation is a safe and highly successful modality.

  17. Octave effect in auditory attention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tobias Borra; Huib Versnel; Chantal Kemner; A. John van Opstal; Raymond van Ee

    2013-01-01

    ... tones. Current auditory models explain this phenomenon by a simple bandpass attention filter. Here, we demonstrate that auditory attention involves multiple pass-bands around octave-related frequencies above and below the cued tone...

  18. Age-related decrease in the mitochondrial sirtuin deacetylase Sirt3 expression associated with ROS accumulation in the auditory cortex of the mimetic aging rat model.

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    Lingling Zeng

    Full Text Available Age-related dysfunction of the central auditory system, also known as central presbycusis, can affect speech perception and sound localization. Understanding the pathogenesis of central presbycusis will help to develop novel approaches to prevent or treat this disease. In this study, the mechanisms of central presbycusis were investigated using a mimetic aging rat model induced by chronic injection of D-galactose (D-Gal. We showed that malondialdehyde (MDA levels were increased and manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2 activity was reduced in the auditory cortex in natural aging and D-Gal-induced mimetic aging rats. Furthermore, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA 4834 bp deletion, abnormal ultrastructure and cell apoptosis in the auditory cortex were also found in natural aging and D-Gal mimetic aging rats. Sirt3, a mitochondrial NAD+-dependent deacetylase, has been shown to play a crucial role in controlling cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS homeostasis. However, the role of Sirt3 in the pathogenesis of age-related central auditory cortex deterioration is still unclear. Here, we showed that decreased Sirt3 expression might be associated with increased SOD2 acetylation, which negatively regulates SOD2 activity. Oxidative stress accumulation was likely the result of low SOD2 activity and a decline in ROS clearance. Our findings indicate that Sirt3 might play an essential role, via the mediation of SOD2, in central presbycusis and that manipulation of Sirt3 expression might provide a new approach to combat aging and oxidative stress-related diseases.

  19. The Prevalence of Chagas Heart Disease in a Central Bolivian Community Endemic for Trypanosoma Cruzi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Jessica E.; Lozano Beltran, Daniel F.; Torrico, Faustino; Gilman, Robert H.; Bern, Caryn

    2015-01-01

    Background Though the incidence of new Trypanosoma cruzi infections has decreased significantly in endemic regions in the Americas, medical professionals continue to encounter a high burden of resulting Chagas disease among infected adults. The current prevalence of Chagas heart disease in a community setting is not known; nor is it known how recent insecticide vector control measures may have impacted the progression of cardiac disease in an infected population. Objectives and Methods Nested within a community serosurvey in rural and periurban communities in central Bolivia, we performed a cross-sectional cardiac substudy to evaluate adults for historical, clinical, and electrocardiographic evidence of cardiac disease. All adults between the ages of 20 and 60 years old with T. cruzi infection and those with a clinical history, physical exam, or ECG consistent with cardiac abnormalities were also scheduled for echocardiography. Results and conclusions Of the 604 cardiac substudy participants with definitive serology results, 183 were seropositive for infection with T. cruzi (30.3%). Participants who were seropositive for T. cruzi infection were more likely to have conduction system defects (1.6% versus 0 for complete right bundle branch block and 10.4% versus 1.9% for any bundle branch block; p=0.008 and p<0.001, respectively). However, there was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of bradycardia among seropositive versus seronegative participants. Echocardiogram findings were not consistent with a high burden of Chagas cardiomyopathy: valvulopathies were the most common abnormality, and few participants were found to have low ejection fraction or left ventricular dilatation. No participants had significant heart failure. Though almost one third of adults in the community were seropositive for T. cruzi infection, few had evidence of Chagas heart disease. PMID:26407509

  20. Psychiatric disorders in children with demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakpoor, Julia; Goldacre, Raph; Schmierer, Klaus; Giovannoni, Gavin; Waubant, Emmanuelle; Goldacre, Michael J

    2017-07-01

    The profile of psychiatric disorders associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) may differ in children. We aimed to assess the risk of psychiatric disorders in children with MS and other demyelinating diseases, and vice versa. We analyzed linked English Hospital Episode Statistics, and mortality data, 1999-2011. Cohorts were constructed of children admitted with MS and other central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating diseases. We searched for any subsequent episode of care with psychiatric disorders in these cohorts and compared to a reference cohort. Children with CNS demyelinating diseases had an increased rate of psychotic disorders (rate ratio (RR) = 5.77 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.48-11.41)); anxiety, stress-related, and somatoform disorders (RR = 2.38 (1.39-3.81)); intellectual disability (RR = 6.56 (3.66-10.84)); and other behavioral disorders (RR = 8.99 (5.13-14.62)). In analysis of the pediatric MS cohort as the exposure, there were elevated rates of psychotic disorders (RR = 10.76 (2.93-27.63)), mood disorders (RR = 2.57 (1.03-5.31)), and intellectual disability (RR = 6.08 (1.25-17.80)). In reverse analyses, there were elevated rates of a recorded hospital episode with CNS demyelinating disease after a previous recorded episode with anxiety, stress-related, and somatoform disorders; attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); autism; intellectual disability; and other behavioral disorders. This analysis of a national diagnostic database provides strong evidence for an association between pediatric CNS demyelinating diseases and psychiatric disorders, and highlights a need for early involvement of mental health professionals.

  1. The prevalence of Behçet's disease in a city in Central Anatolia in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çölgeçen, Emine; Özyurt, Kemal; Ferahbaş, Ayten; Borlu, Murat; Kulluk, Pınar; Öztürk, Ahmet; Öner, Ayşe Öztürk; Gün, İskender; Aşçıoğlu, Özcan

    2015-03-01

    The prevalence of Behçet's disease (BD) is much higher in countries along the ancient Silk Route, extending from Japan to Mediterranean countries including Turkey, than in northern Europe and the USA. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of BD in Kayseri, a city in Central Anatolia in Turkey. This study investigated cross-sectional prevalences of BD in individuals aged >10 years in Kayseri, Turkey, in two stages. The first stage aimed to identify individuals with recurrent oral ulcers (ROUs) through home visits, and the second stage aimed to further examine those with ROUs for the presence of other BD-related manifestations under hospital conditions. The study was conducted using the criteria defined by the International Study Group for Behçet's Disease. The sample size was determined to be 4697 with an expected sampling error of 5.5 per 10,000, with a 95% confidence interval. A standard questionnaire was administered to a total of 5218 individuals. A history of ROU was recorded in 470 (9.0%) of the 5218 residents, and a previous diagnosis of BD was recorded in nine individuals. The prevalence rate of BD was estimated as 17 cases per 10,000 population in Kayseri, Turkey. The present study contributes towards estimations of prevalences of BD in Turkey and towards raising public awareness about the disease. It also supports previous studies that have reported the world's highest prevalences of BD in Turkey. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  2. [Optimization of registry of deaths from chronic kidney disease in agricultural communities in Central America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escamilla-Cejudo, José Antonio; Báez, Jorge Lara; Peña, Rodolfo; Luna, Patricia Lorena Ruiz; Ordunez, Pedro

    2016-11-01

    Several Central American countries are seeing continued growth in the number of deaths from chronic kidney disease of nontraditional causes (CKDnT) among farm workers and there is underreporting. This report presents the results of a consensus process coordinated by the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization (PAHO/WHO), the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the Latin American Society of Nephrology and Hypertension (SLANH). This consensus seeks to increase the probability of detecting and recording deaths from these causes. There has been recognition of the negative impact of the lack of a standardized instrument and the lack of training in the medical profession for adequate registration of the cause or causes of death. As a result of the consensus, the following has been proposed: temporarily use a code from the Codes for Special Purposes in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10); continue to promote use of the WHO international standardized instrument for recording causes and preceding events related to death; increase training of physicians responsible for filling out death certificates; take action to increase the coverage and quality of information on mortality; and create a decision tree to facilitate selection of CKDnT as a specific cause of death, while presenting the role that different regional and subregional mechanisms in the Region of the Americas should play in order to improve CKD and CKDnT mortality records.

  3. Cushing disease revealed by bilateral atypical central serous chorioretinopathy: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovansili, Iama; Belange, Georeges; Affortit, Aude

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of a patient with Cushing disease revealed by bilateral central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR). We present the clinical history, physical findings, laboratory results, and imaging studies of a 53-year-old Chinese woman with a Cushing disease revealed by bilateral CSCR. The association with CSCR and the pertinent literature are reviewed. A 53-year-old patient initially presented to the Department of Ophthalmology with a 4-week history of decreased vision in the left eye. Standard ophthalmologic examination and fluorescein angiography established the diagnosis of bilateral CSCR. Systemic clinical signs and biochemical analysis indicated hypercortisolism. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pituitary gland showed a left-side lesion compatible with a microadenoma. The diagnosis of Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-dependent Cushing syndrome secondary to a pituitary microadenoma was selected. Endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery was performed and the pituitary adenoma was successfully removed. The histology confirmed the presence of ACTH-immunopositive pituitary adenoma. Early postoperative morning cortisol levels indicated early remission. At 6 weeks postoperatively, the patient's morning cortisol remains undetectable, and serous retinal detachments had regressed. CSCR is an uncommon manifestation of endogenous Cushing syndrome. It can be the first presentation of hypercortisolism caused by Cushing disease. CSCR should be considered when assessing patients with Cushing syndrome complaining of visual disorders. On the other hand, it is useful in patients with an atypical form of CSCR to exclude Cushing's syndrome.

  4. Central nervous system manifestation and CT findings of Fabry's disease. Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyonaga, Kazutaka; Nishihira, Takeo (Okinawa Central Hospital (Japan))

    1983-11-01

    A case of Fabry's disease with central nervous system dysfunction is reported. This 27-year-old man had recurrent episodes of pains in the extremities when he was a child. Spontaneous clinical remission occured around puberty. He had been well until age 22 when he experienced transient weakness of the left arm. The following year he developed transient blindness of the right eye. Then, he developed weakness in the extremities, dysphagia, dysarthria, and was brought to the hospital in unconscious state. Several members of his family are affected with the same disease presenting leg pains, kidney disease and angiokeratoma. Physical examination disclosed an optic atrophy, pseudobulbar palsy with spastic weakness in the all extremities and multiple angiokeratoma in the flank, buttocks and thighs. Abnormal laboratory findings included leukocytosis, increased ESR and strongly positive CRP. Biopsy of the skin disclosed dilated capilaries with numerous vacuoles in the cytoplasm of the epithelial cells. Thin-layer chromatography of the urine sediment showed a marked increase in ceramide trihexoside. Leukocyte alphagalactosidase level was abnormally low. CT scan showed diffuse cerebral atrophy and multiple low density areas in the thalamus, ventral pons and centrum semiovale. The CT findings and possible mechanism of the response to predonisolone were also discussed.

  5. Lyme disease and the detection of Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies in Ixodes ricinus ticks from central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Pascucci

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Province of Pesaro-Urbino, situated in the Marche Region of central Italy, can be considered to be an area at risk for Lyme disease because of its ecological features. Field data are not yet available although the disease is known to be present in neighbouring areas. During a field study lasting twelve months, ticks were collected from the vegetation, from wild cervids and also from humans who reported a tick bite at the local hospital. All ticks were identified and Ixodes ricinus specimens were tested using three different polymerase chain reaction tests for the detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl. To identify the genospecies of B. burgdorferi sl, a fragment of the 5S-23S ribosomal rRNA intergenic spacer of the positive samples was amplified and then sequenced. Sequencing of the 5S-23S intergenic spacer led to the identification of two different genospecies, namely: B. burgdorferi sensu stricto and B. lusitaniae, both of which are involved in cases of human infection. Findings on the host-tick relationships and on the genospecies involved in the cycle of borreliosis confirm the suitable conditions for Lyme disease in the study area. The results concur with previous findings reported in the Mediterranean region.

  6. Effectiveness of low-dose pregabalin in three patients with Lewy body disease and central neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukai, Katsuyuki; Fujishiro, Hiroshige; Ozaki, Norio

    2017-03-01

    Many patients with Lewy body disease complain of pain, and their pain may be associated with this disease. Recently, pain has become a focus of attention in Parkinson's disease, but there is little information regarding pain in patients who have dementia with Lewy bodies. We used pregabalin to treat three Lewy body disease patients with chronic pain that may have been related to degeneration of central neurons. All three patients responded well to pregabalin at 25-50 mg/day. To our knowledge, there have been no previous reports of pregabalin showing efficacy for central neuropathic pain in Parkinson's disease or Lewy body disease. © 2016 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2016 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  7. Mother-daughter correlation of central obesity and other noncommunicable disease risk factors: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Zahra; Hosseinpanah, Farhad; Barzin, Maryam; Safarkhani, Maryam; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the mother-daughter correlation for central obesity and other noncommunicable disease risk factors. The authors used metabolic and anthropometric data from the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, enrolling 1041 mother-daughter pairs for the current study. Three age strata were defined: 3 to 9 years for childhood (146 mother-daughter pairs), 10 to 17 years for adolescence (395 mother-daughter pairs), and 18 to 25 years for early adulthood (500 mother-daughter pairs). Familial associations for central obesity and other noncommunicable disease risk factors were assessed. The prevalence of central obesity was 44.7% in mothers and 11.2% in daughters (6.2% in the 3-9, 19.2% in the 10-17, and 6.4% in the 18-25 years groups). Mothers with central obesity were more likely than nonobese mothers to have daughters with central obesity (10.5% and 1.7%, respectively; P = .0001). Central obesity indices among daughters were positively correlated with those of their mothers in all 3 age strata. Correlations for other noncommunicable disease risk factors were analyzed before and after adjusting the risk factor levels for mothers' and daughters' waist circumferences (WCs) within each group to determine whether risk factor correlations were, in part, a result of the central obesity correlations. After the non-communicable disease risk factor levels of participants were adjusted for their WCs, the mother-daughter correlations remained significant. The consistent association of central obesity between mothers and daughters may indicate the key role that could be played by the mother in the primary prevention of central obesity, particularly in high-risk families. © 2012 APJPH.

  8. The neurobiology of sound-specific auditory plasticity: a core neural circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Ying; Zhang, Yonghai; Yan, Jun

    2009-09-01

    Auditory learning or experience induces large-scale neural plasticity in not only the auditory cortex but also in the auditory thalamus and midbrain. Such plasticity is guided by acquired sound (sound-specific auditory plasticity). The mechanisms involved in this process have been studied from various approaches and support the presence of a core neural circuit consisting of a subcortico-cortico-subcortical tonotopic loop supplemented by neuromodulatory (e.g., cholinergic) inputs. This circuit has three key functions essential for establishing large-scale and sound-specific plasticity in the auditory cortex, auditory thalamus and auditory midbrain. They include the presence of sound information for guiding the plasticity, the communication between the cortex, thalamus and midbrain for coordinating the plastic changes and the adjustment of the circuit status for augmenting the plasticity. This review begins with an overview of sound-specific auditory plasticity in the central auditory system. It then introduces the core neural circuit which plays an essential role in inducing sound-specific auditory plasticity. Finally, the core neural circuit and its relationship to auditory learning and experience are discussed.

  9. Central cholinergic dysfunction could be associated with oropharyngeal dysphagia in early Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Duck; Koo, Jung Hoi; Song, Sun Hong; Jo, Kwang Deog; Lee, Moon Kyu; Jang, Wooyoung

    2015-11-01

    Dysphagia is an important issue in the prognosis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Although several studies have reported that oropharyngeal dysphagia may be associated with cognitive dysfunction, the exact relationship between cortical function and swallowing function in PD patients is unclear. Therefore, we investigated the association between an electrophysiological marker of central cholinergic function, which reflected cognitive function, and swallowing function, as measured by videofluoroscopic studies (VFSS). We enrolled 29 early PD patients. Using the Swallowing Disturbance Questionnaire (SDQ), we divided the enrolled patients into two groups: PD with dysphagia and PD without dysphagia. The videofluoroscopic dysphagia scale (VDS) was applied to explore the nature of the dysphagia. To assess central cholinergic dysfunction, short latency afferent inhibition (SAI) was evaluated. We analyzed the relationship between central cholinergic dysfunction and oropharyngeal dysphagia and investigated the characteristics of the dysphagia. The SAI values were significantly different between the two groups. The comparison of each VFSS component between the PD with dysphagia group and the PD without dysphagia group showed statistical significance for most of the oral phase components and for a single pharyngeal phase component. The total score on the VDS was higher in the PD with dysphagia group than in the PD without dysphagia group. The Mini-Mental State Examination and SAI values showed significant correlations with the total score of the oral phase components. According to binary logistic regression analysis, SAI value independently contributed to the presence of dysphagia in PD patients. Our findings suggest that cholinergic dysfunction is associated with dysphagia in early PD and that an abnormal SAI value is a good biomarker for predicting the risk of dysphagia in PD patients.

  10. Idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: retrospective analysis of 9095 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Felice, K M; Novotna, M; Enders, F T; Faubion, W A; Tremaine, W J; Kantarci, O H; Raffals, L E

    2015-01-01

    Anti-TNFα biologics induce and maintain remission in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Also, they have been reported to induce or unmask idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (IIDD). To determine if anti-TNFα biologics increased the risk of IIDD in a large cohort of patients with IBD. We retrospectively identified adult patients referred to the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN for management of IBD from a five state capture area (Minnesota, Wisconsin, North Dakota, South Dakota and Iowa) between 1996 and 2010. IIDDs were identified in both Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) patients with and without anti-TNFα exposure using the 2010 McDonald MRI criteria. The risk of IIDDs in patients with and without anti-TNFα exposure was estimated for IBD; CD and UC groups separately. A total of 9095 patients with IBD were identified (4342 CD and 4753 UC). Four patients with CD with exposure to anti-TNFα agents (4/2054) and five patients with CD without anti-TNFα exposure (5/2288) developed a confirmed IIDD. One patient with UC with exposure to anti-TNFα agents (1/1371) and five patients with UC without anti-TNFα agents developed a confirmed IIDD (5/3382). The per cent of IIDDs in patients with and without anti-TNFα exposure was; IBD: 0.15% and 0.18% (RR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.28-2.42; P = 0.729); CD: 0.19% and 0.22% (RR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.24-3.31; P = 0.863); UC: 0.07% and 0.15% (RR = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.06-4.22; P = 0.510). Anti-TNFα biologics do not appear to impact the risk of developing clinical idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating disease in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. A case of Erdheim Chester disease with central nervous system involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Patil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Erdheim Chester disease (ECD is a rare non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis, commonly involving the musculoskeletal system. Other tissue can also be involved, including the central nervous system with wide spectrum of clinical features, at times being nonspecific. This can cause diagnostic dilemmas with delay in diagnosis and initiation of therapy. Here we describe a 63-year-old man who had presented with ataxia and behavioral changes, bony pains, weight loss, and fatigue. His computed tomography (CT, 99Tc scintigraphy and histopathological features on bone biopsy were consistent with ECD. Thus, ECD should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients presenting with bony pain and nonspecific features of multiorgan involvement.

  12. A framework for integrating heterogeneous clinical data for a disease area into a central data warehouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmen, Christian; Ganzinger, Matthias; Kohl, Christian D; Firnkorn, Daniel; Knaup-Gregori, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Structured collection of clinical facts is a common approach in clinical research. Especially in the analysis of rare diseases it is often necessary to aggregate study data from several sites in order to achieve a statistically significant cohort size. In this paper we describe a framework how to approach an integration of heterogeneous clinical data into a central register. This enables site-spanning queries for the occurrence of specific clinical facts and thus supports clinical research. The framework consists of three sequential steps, starting from a formal data harmonization process, to the data transformation methods and finally the integration into a proper data warehouse. We implemented reusable software templates that are based on our best practices in several projects in integrating heterogeneous clinical data. Our methods potentially increase the efficiency and quality for future data integration projects by reducing the implementation effort as well as the project management effort by usage of our approaches as a guideline.

  13. IgG-index predicts neurological morbidity in patients with infectious central nervous system diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deisenhammer Florian

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prognosis assessment of patients with infectious and neoplastic disorders of the central nervous system (CNS may still pose a challenge. In this retrospective cross-sectional study the prognostic value of basic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF parameters in patients with bacterial meningitis, viral meningoencephalitis and leptomeningeal metastases were evaluated. Methods White blood cell count, CSF/serum glucose ratio, protein, CSF/serum albumin quotient and Immunoglobulin indices for IgG, IgA and IgM were analyzed in 90 patients with bacterial meningitis, 117 patients with viral meningoencephalitis and 36 patients with leptomeningeal metastases in a total of 480 CSF samples. Results In the initial spinal tap, the IgG-index was the only independent predictor for unfavorable outcome (GOS Conclusion The present study suggests that in infectious CNS diseases an elevated IgG-Index might be an additional marker for the early identification of patients at risk for neurological morbidity.

  14. From fish to man: understanding endogenous remyelination in central nervous system demyelinating diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois-Dalcq, Monique; Williams, Anna; Stadelmann, Christine; Stankoff, Bruno; Zalc, Bernard; Lubetzki, Catherine

    2008-07-01

    In the central nervous system (CNS) of man, evolutionary pressure has preserved some capability for remyelination while axonal regeneration is very limited. In contrast, two efficient programmes of regeneration exist in the adult fish CNS, neurite regrowth and remyelination. The rapidity of CNS remyelination is critical since it not only restores fast conduction of nerve impulses but also maintains axon integrity. If myelin repair fails, axons degenerate, leading to increased disability. In the human CNS demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis (MS), remyelination often takes place in the midst of inflammation. Here, we discuss recent studies that address the innate repair capabilities of the axon-glia unit from fish to man. We propose that expansion of this research field will help find ways to maintain or enhance spontaneous remyelination in man.

  15. On the Central Role of Brain Connectivity in Neurodegenerative Disease Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser eIturria Medina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Increased brain connectivity, in all its variants, is often considered an evolutionary advantage by mediating complex sensorimotor function and higher cognitive faculties. Interaction among components at all spatial scales, including genes, proteins, neurons, local neuronal circuits and macroscopic brain regions, are indispensable for such vital functions. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that, from the microscopic to the macroscopic levels, such connections might also be a conduit for in intra-brain disease spreading. For instance, cell-to-cell misfolded proteins transmission and neuronal toxicity are prominent connectivity-mediated factors in aging and neurodegeneration. This article offers an overview of connectivity dysfunctions associated with neurodegeneration, with a specific focus on how these may be central to both normal aging and the neuropathologic degenerative progression.

  16. Central neuraxial blockade for splenectomy in myeloproliferative disease: A word of caution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S N Myatra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe management of portal vein thrombosis (PVT in a patient with myeloproliferative disease after splenectomy. This case posed a unique therapeutic challenge in maintaining a fine balance between life-saving thrombolysis and the risk of neuraxial complications due to bleeding. The incidence of PVT after splenectomy in patients with myeloproliferative disorders is high (40%. Anaesthesiologists should be aware of this and avoid central neuraxial blockade in such cases. If post-operative emergency thrombolysis is required in a patient having an epidural catheter in situ, it should be done under close monitoring, weighing the risks and benefits. Fibrinogen levels should be monitored to evaluate the presence of residual thrombolytic effects and to time the catheter removal.

  17. Paradoxical protective effect of central obesity in patients with suspected stable coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechlioulis, Aris; Vakalis, Konstantinos; Naka, Katerina K; Bourantas, Christos V; Papamichael, Nikolaos D; Kotsia, Anna; Tzimas, Thomas; Pappas, Konstantinos; Katsouras, Christos S; Michalis, Lampros K

    2013-03-01

    Increased body mass index (BMI) has been paradoxically inversely associated with the presence of angiographic coronary artery disease (CAD). Central obesity measures, considered to be more appropriate for assessing obesity-related cardiovascular risk, have been little studied in relation to the presence of CAD. The aim was to investigate the association of central obesity with the presence of angiographic CAD as well as the prognostic significance of obesity measures in CAD prediction when added to other cardiovascular risk factors. Patients with suspected stable CAD (n = 403, age 61 ± 10 years, 302 males) referred for diagnostic coronary angiography with documented anthropometric data were enrolled. Significant angiographic CAD was found in 51% of patients. Both BMI (OR = 0.64 per 1 SD increase, P = 0.001) and waist circumference (WC) (OR = 0.54 per 1 SD increase, P cardiovascular risk factors. In subgroup analysis, BMI and WC were significantly inversely associated with the presence of CAD in males, non diabetics, patients >60 years old and patients with Framingham risk score (FRS) >20% (P obesity were independently associated with a reduced prevalence of angiographic CAD, lending further credence to the existence of the 'obesity paradox'. Obesity measures may further improve risk discrimination for the presence of CAD when added in an established risk score such as FRS. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  18. [The pathological TDP-43 protein expression in the central nervous system of motor neuron disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingwei; Liu, Jia; Wang, Luning; Gui, Qiuping

    2015-01-01

    To understand pathological TDP-43 features in the central nervous systems of patients with clinically and autopsy confirmed motor neuron disease (MND). The clinical and histopathological features of 4 cases with MND confirmed by autopsy were summarized; anti-ubiquitin (Ub) and anti-TDP-43 immunohistochemical staining were carried out on tissue of brains and spinal cords from 4 cases with MND and 3 control cases without history of neurological disorders. These 4 cases presented with typical clinical and histologic features of MND. Ub-positive inclusions were observed in brain and spinal cord from 3 cases with the Ub-positive inclusions of skein- round- and lewy body- like structures. Strong TDP-43 pathological staining in brain and spinal cord was identified in 2 cases with MND presented as neuronal and glial cytoplasmic inclusions with various shapes. The TDP-43 positive inclusions were widely distributed in the motor cortex of brain and the anterior horn of spinal cord. TDP-43 weak staining in the spinal cord tissue was observed in 1 case with MND. No Ub- and TDP-43 positive inclusions were found in 3 control cases. There is widespread pathological TDP-43 expression in the central nervous system of MND. TDP-43 positive inclusions in MND have relatively high specificity. It is worth further study on their formation mechanism.

  19. Pharmacological prion protein silencing accelerates central nervous system autoimmune disease via T cell receptor signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Nessler, Stefan; Hemmer, Bernhard; Eagar, Todd N; Kane, Lawrence P; Leliveld, S Rutger; Müller-Schiffmann, Andreas; Gocke, Anne R; Lovett-Racke, Amy; Ben, Li-Hong; Hussain, Rehana Z; Breil, Andreas; Elliott, Jeffrey L; Puttaparthi, Krishna; Cravens, Petra D; Singh, Mahendra P; Petsch, Benjamin; Stitz, Lothar; Racke, Michael K; Korth, Carsten; Stüve, Olaf

    2010-02-01

    The primary biological function of the endogenous cellular prion protein has remained unclear. We investigated its biological function in the generation of cellular immune responses using cellular prion protein gene-specific small interfering ribonucleic acid in vivo and in vitro. Our results were confirmed by blocking cellular prion protein with monovalent antibodies and by using cellular prion protein-deficient and -transgenic mice. In vivo prion protein gene-small interfering ribonucleic acid treatment effects were of limited duration, restricted to secondary lymphoid organs and resulted in a 70% reduction of cellular prion protein expression in leukocytes. Disruption of cellular prion protein signalling augmented antigen-specific activation and proliferation, and enhanced T cell receptor signalling, resulting in zeta-chain-associated protein-70 phosphorylation and nuclear factor of activated T cells/activator protein 1 transcriptional activity. In vivo prion protein gene-small interfering ribonucleic acid treatment promoted T cell differentiation towards pro-inflammatory phenotypes and increased survival of antigen-specific T cells. Cellular prion protein silencing with small interfering ribonucleic acid also resulted in the worsening of actively induced and adoptively transferred experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Finally, treatment of myelin basic protein(1-11) T cell receptor transgenic mice with prion protein gene-small interfering ribonucleic acid resulted in spontaneous experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Thus, central nervous system autoimmune disease was modulated at all stages of disease: the generation of the T cell effector response, the elicitation of T effector function and the perpetuation of cellular immune responses. Our findings indicate that cellular prion protein regulates T cell receptor-mediated T cell activation, differentiation and survival. Defects in autoimmunity are restricted to the immune system and not the central

  20. Incidental auditory category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabay, Yafit; Dick, Frederic K; Zevin, Jason D; Holt, Lori L

    2015-08-01

    Very little is known about how auditory categories are learned incidentally, without instructions to search for category-diagnostic dimensions, overt category decisions, or experimenter-provided feedback. This is an important gap because learning in the natural environment does not arise from explicit feedback and there is evidence that the learning systems engaged by traditional tasks are distinct from those recruited by incidental category learning. We examined incidental auditory category learning with a novel paradigm, the Systematic Multimodal Associations Reaction Time (SMART) task, in which participants rapidly detect and report the appearance of a visual target in 1 of 4 possible screen locations. Although the overt task is rapid visual detection, a brief sequence of sounds precedes each visual target. These sounds are drawn from 1 of 4 distinct sound categories that predict the location of the upcoming visual target. These many-to-one auditory-to-visuomotor correspondences support incidental auditory category learning. Participants incidentally learn categories of complex acoustic exemplars and generalize this learning to novel exemplars and tasks. Further, learning is facilitated when category exemplar variability is more tightly coupled to the visuomotor associations than when the same stimulus variability is experienced across trials. We relate these findings to phonetic category learning. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Modelling auditory attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Emine Merve; Elhilali, Mounya

    2017-02-19

    Sounds in everyday life seldom appear in isolation. Both humans and machines are constantly flooded with a cacophony of sounds that need to be sorted through and scoured for relevant information-a phenomenon referred to as the 'cocktail party problem'. A key component in parsing acoustic scenes is the role of attention, which mediates perception and behaviour by focusing both sensory and cognitive resources on pertinent information in the stimulus space. The current article provides a review of modelling studies of auditory attention. The review highlights how the term attention refers to a multitude of behavioural and cognitive processes that can shape sensory processing. Attention can be modulated by 'bottom-up' sensory-driven factors, as well as 'top-down' task-specific goals, expectations and learned schemas. Essentially, it acts as a selection process or processes that focus both sensory and cognitive resources on the most relevant events in the soundscape; with relevance being dictated by the stimulus itself (e.g. a loud explosion) or by a task at hand (e.g. listen to announcements in a busy airport). Recent computational models of auditory attention provide key insights into its role in facilitating perception in cluttered auditory scenes.This article is part of the themed issue 'Auditory and visual scene analysis'. © 2017 The Authors.

  2. Auditory Channel Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Philip H.; Suiter, Patricia A.

    This teacher's guide contains a list of general auditory problem areas where students have the following problems: (a) inability to find or identify source of sound; (b) difficulty in discriminating sounds of words and letters; (c) difficulty with reproducing pitch, rhythm, and melody; (d) difficulty in selecting important from unimportant sounds;…

  3. [Central information portal on rare diseases : Implementation of quality- and needs-oriented information management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litzkendorf, Svenja; Pauer, Frédéric; Zeidler, Jan; Göbel, Jens; Storf, Holger; Graf von der Schulenburg, J-Matthias

    2017-05-01

    central information portal on rare diseases (ZIPSE) has been conceptualized and implemented that allows patients, relatives and health care professionals to access quality-assured information. For this purpose, quality criteria have been developed specifically for rare diseases. At the same time, the information basis should take into account the specific needs of those interested. The needs of patients and relatives regarding online-based information are analyzed. Based on this, we examined to what extent the information basis, which is available according to the ZIPSE quality criteria, can cover these needs. If necessary, measures have to be developed to ensure quality- as well as needs-oriented information management. Qualitative interviews with patients and relatives were conducted, which were then evaluated using content analysis. Subsequently, a quantitative evaluation of the information on rare diseases in the portal was made. The research addresses how many websites do not fulfil the quality criteria, from which group of provider these websites originate and which criteria are not fulfilled. This is followed by a comparison of the quantitative and qualitative results. When looking for information on the Internet, the websites of self-help groups represent a significant source. These are perceived as very trustworthy and in the later course of the disease, offer detailed information on important information areas. Information websites from self-help groups, however, often do not meet quality requirements. Therefore, a transparent representation is made regarding the quality of the ZIPSE information pages. Pages that are not quality-assured can be actively requested, but will be clearly identified.

  4. Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome associated with Hirschsprung's Disease: case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Lazari Sandoval

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To report the case of a newborn with recurrent episodes of apnea, diagnosed with Congenital Central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS associated with Hirschsprung's disease (HD, configuring Haddad syndrome. Case description: Third child born at full-term to a non-consanguineous couple through normal delivery without complications, with appropriate weight and length for gestational age. Soon after birth he started to show bradypnea, bradycardia and cyanosis, being submitted to tracheal intubation and started empiric antibiotic therapy for suspected early neonatal sepsis. During hospitalization in the NICU, he showed difficulty to undergo extubation due to episodes of desaturation during sleep and wakefulness. He had recurrent episodes of hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, metabolic acidosis, abdominal distension, leukocytosis, increase in C-reactive protein levels, with negative blood cultures and suspected inborn error of metabolism. At 2 months of age he was diagnosed with long-segment Hirschsprung's disease and was submitted to segment resection and colostomy through Hartmann's procedure. A genetic research was performed by polymerase chain reaction for CCHS screening, which showed the mutated allele of PHOX2B gene, confirming the diagnosis. Comments: This is a rare genetic, autosomal dominant disease, caused by mutation in PHOX2B gene, located in chromosome band 4p12, which results in autonomic nervous system dysfunction. CCHS can also occur with Hirschsprung's disease and tumors derived from the neural crest. There is a correlation between phenotype and genotype, as well as high intrafamilial phenotypic variability. In the neonatal period it can simulate cases of sepsis and inborn errors of metabolism.

  5. A systematic review of electrophysiological outcomes following auditory training in school-age children with auditory processing deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Wayne J; Arnott, Wendy; Henning, Caroline

    2013-11-01

    To systematically review the peer-reviewed literature on electrophysiological outcomes following auditory training (AT) in school-age children with (central) auditory processing disorder ([C]APD). A systematic review. Searches of 16 electronic databases yielded four studies involving school-aged children whose auditory processing deficits had been confirmed in a manner consistent with ASHA (2005) and AAA (2010) and compared to a treated and/or an untreated control group before and after AT. A further three studies were identified with one lacking a control group and two measuring auditory processing in a manner not consistent with ASHA (2005) and AAA (2010). There is limited evidence that AT leads to measurable electrophysiological changes in children with auditory processing deficits. The evidence base is too small and weak to provide clear guidance on the use of electrophysiological outcomes as a measure of AT outcomes in children with auditory processing problems. The currently limited data can only be used to suggest that click-evoked AMLR and tone-burst evoked auditory P300 might be more likely to detect such outcomes in children diagnosed with (C)APD, and that speech-evoked ALLR might be more likely to detect phonological processing changes in children without a specific diagnosis of (C)APD.

  6. Auditory Neuroimaging with fMRI and PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talavage, Thomas M.; Gonzalez-Castillo, Javier; Scott, Sophie K.

    2013-01-01

    For much of the past 30 years, investigations of auditory perception and language have been enhanced or even driven by the use of functional neuroimaging techniques that specialize in localization of central responses. Beginning with investigations using positron emission tomography (PET) and gradually shifting primarily to usage of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), auditory neuroimaging has greatly advanced our understanding of the organization and response properties of brain regions critical to the perception of and communication with the acoustic world in which we live. As the complexity of the questions being addressed has increased, the techniques, experiments and analyses applied have also become more nuanced and specialized. A brief review of the history of these investigations sets the stage for an overview and analysis of how these neuroimaging modalities are becoming ever more effective tools for understanding the auditory brain. We conclude with a brief discussion of open methodological issues as well as potential clinical applications for auditory neuroimaging. PMID:24076424

  7. Listening to another sense: somatosensory integration in the auditory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Calvin; Stefanescu, Roxana A; Martel, David T; Shore, Susan E

    2015-07-01

    Conventionally, sensory systems are viewed as separate entities, each with its own physiological process serving a different purpose. However, many functions require integrative inputs from multiple sensory systems and sensory intersection and convergence occur throughout the central nervous system. The neural processes for hearing perception undergo significant modulation by the two other major sensory systems, vision and somatosensation. This synthesis occurs at every level of the ascending auditory pathway: the cochlear nucleus, inferior colliculus, medial geniculate body and the auditory cortex. In this review, we explore the process of multisensory integration from (1) anatomical (inputs and connections), (2) physiological (cellular responses), (3) functional and (4) pathological aspects. We focus on the convergence between auditory and somatosensory inputs in each ascending auditory station. This review highlights the intricacy of sensory processing and offers a multisensory perspective regarding the understanding of sensory disorders.

  8. Writing Tasks and Immediate Auditory Memory in Peruvian Schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Ventura-León

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is determine the relationship between a group of writing tasks and the immediate auditory memory, as well as to establish differences according to sex and level of study. Two hundred and three schoolchildren of fifth and sixth of elementary education from Lima (Peru participated, they were selected by a non-probabilistic sample. The Immediate Auditory Memory Test and the Battery for Evaluation of Writing Processes (known in Spanish as PROESC were used. Central tendency measures were used for descriptive analysis. We employed the Mann-Whitney U test, Spearman Rho test and probability of superiority as effect size measurement for the inferential analysis. The results indicated a moderate direct and significant correlation between writing tasks and immediate auditory memory in general way and low correlations between dimensions. Finally, it showed that the differences in immediate auditory memory and writing tasks according to sex and level of study does not have practical significance.

  9. A STUDY OF SPECTRUM OF BENIGN BREAST DISEASE IN A TERTIARY CARE INSTITUTE OF CENTRAL INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The presence of a lump in the breast is a great cause of anxiety and apprehension, to the female patients. This may be accrued to the increasing public awareness of breast cancer which is presently the most common female malignancy worldwide. The aim of th is study was to determine the frequency of benign breast diseases (BBD amongst patients in tertiary care institute of central India. MATERIAL AND METHOD: It was a cohort study. In this study all patients visiting the surgical OPD clinic with breast proble ms were included. This study was conducted at Chirayu Medical College and Hospital Bhopal over a period of four years starting from November 2010 to November 2014. All patients with definite symptoms and sign of malignancy or those who on evaluation were d iagnosed as carcinoma of breast were excluded from this study. RESULTS: A total of 112 patients were included in the study. About 54.4% (61/112 patients belonged to 3rd decade of life followed by 21.4% (24/112 from 4th decade (age between: 31 – 40 years . The most common benign breast disease, seen in 33.9% (38/112 of patients was fibro adenoma followed by fibrocystic disease seen in about 19.6% (22/112 patients. Breast abscess was seen in 20/112(17.8% and Mastalgia was present in 15/112 (13.3% patien ts. CONCLUSION: In females of reproductive age group Benign Breast Diseases (BBD are common problems. Fibro adenoma is the commonest of all benign breast disease mostly seen in 2nd and 3rd decade of life. Fibrocystic disease of the breast is the next comm on BBD whose incidence increases with increasing age. Routine mammographic screening of high risk groups aimed at early detection of these premalignant lesions is therefore indicated. A biopsy with histological diagnosis of all breast lumps is also recomme nded as this will aid in the detection of premalignant lesions particularly in low resource settings

  10. Functional properties of human auditory cortical fields

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    David L Woods

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available While auditory cortex in non-human primates has been subdivided into multiple functionally-specialized auditory cortical fields (ACFs, the boundaries and functional specialization of human ACFs have not been defined. In the current study, we evaluated whether a widely accepted primate model of auditory cortex could explain regional tuning properties of fMRI activations on the cortical surface to attended and nonattended tones of different frequency, location, and intensity. The limits of auditory cortex were defined by voxels that showed significant activations to nonattended sounds. Three centrally-located fields with mirror-symmetric tonotopic organization were identified and assigned to the three core fields of the primate model while surrounding activations were assigned to belt fields following procedures similar to those used in macaque fMRI studies. The functional properties of core, medial belt, and lateral belt field groups were then analyzed. Field groups were distinguished by tonotopic organization, frequency selectivity, intensity sensitivity, contralaterality, binaural enhancement, attentional modulation, and hemispheric asymmetry. In general, core fields showed greater sensitivity to sound properties than did belt fields, while belt fields showed greater attentional modulation than core fields. Significant distinctions in intensity sensitivity and contralaterality were seen between adjacent core fields A1 and R, while multiple differences in tuning properties were evident at boundaries between adjacent core and belt fields. The reliable differences in functional properties between fields and field groups suggest that the basic primate pattern of auditory cortex organization is preserved in humans. A comparison of the sizes of functionally-defined ACFs in humans and macaques reveals a significant relative expansion in human lateral belt fields implicated in the processing of speech.

  11. Mode-locking neurodynamics predict human auditory brainstem responses to musical intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerud, Karl D; Almonte, Felix V; Kim, Ji Chul; Large, Edward W

    2014-02-01

    The auditory nervous system is highly nonlinear. Some nonlinear responses arise through active processes in the cochlea, while others may arise in neural populations of the cochlear nucleus, inferior colliculus and higher auditory areas. In humans, auditory brainstem recordings reveal nonlinear population responses to combinations of pure tones, and to musical intervals composed of complex tones. Yet the biophysical origin of central auditory nonlinearities, their signal processing properties, and their relationship to auditory perception remain largely unknown. Both stimulus components and nonlinear resonances are well represented in auditory brainstem nuclei due to neural phase-locking. Recently mode-locking, a generalization of phase-locking that implies an intrinsically nonlinear processing of sound, has been observed in mammalian auditory brainstem nuclei. Here we show that a canonical model of mode-locked neural oscillation predicts the complex nonlinear population responses to musical intervals that have been observed in the human brainstem. The model makes predictions about auditory signal processing and perception that are different from traditional delay-based models, and may provide insight into the nature of auditory population responses. We anticipate that the application of dynamical systems analysis will provide the starting point for generic models of auditory population dynamics, and lead to a deeper understanding of nonlinear auditory signal processing possibly arising in excitatory-inhibitory networks of the central auditory nervous system. This approach has the potential to link neural dynamics with the perception of pitch, music, and speech, and lead to dynamical models of auditory system development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Expanding Role of T Cells in Human Autoimmune Diseases of the Central Nervous System

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    Deepti Pilli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is being increasingly recognized that a dysregulation of the immune system plays a vital role in neurological disorders and shapes the treatment of the disease. Aberrant T cell responses, in particular, are key in driving autoimmunity and have been traditionally associated with multiple sclerosis. Yet, it is evident that there are other neurological diseases in which autoreactive T cells have an active role in pathogenesis. In this review, we report on the recent progress in profiling and assessing the functionality of autoreactive T cells in central nervous system (CNS autoimmune disorders that are currently postulated to be primarily T cell driven. We also explore the autoreactive T cell response in a recently emerging group of syndromes characterized by autoantibodies against neuronal cell-surface proteins. Common methodology implemented in T cell biology is further considered as it is an important determinant in their detection and characterization. An improved understanding of the contribution of autoreactive T cells expands our knowledge of the autoimmune response in CNS disorders and can offer novel methods of therapeutic intervention.

  13. Neuromyelitis optica (NMO)--an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari, N; Owens, T; Frøkiaer, J; Stenager, E; Lillevang, S T; Kyvik, K O

    2011-06-01

    In the past 10 years, neuromyelitis optica (NMO) has evolved from Devic's categorical clinical description into a broader disease spectrum. Serum IgG antibodies have been identified in NMO patients with the water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) as their main target antigen. AQP4 antibodies/NMO-IgG have been shown to be a highly specific and moderately sensitive serum biomarker for NMO. The immunopathology of NMO lesions supports that anti-AQP4 antibodies/NMO-IgG are involved in the pathogenesis of NMO. In vitro studies have demonstrated that human NMO-IgG induce necrosis and impair glutamate transport in astrocytes. Certain ethnic groups, notably of Asian and African origin, seem to be more susceptible to NMO than others. The genetic background for these putative differences is not known, a weak human leucocyte antigen association has been identified. AQP4 gene variants could represent a genetic susceptibility factor for different clinical phenotypes within the NMO spectrum. Experimental models have been described including a double-transgenic myelin-specific B- and T-cell mouse. NMO-like disease has been induced with passive transfer of human anti-AQP4 antibodies to the plasma of mice with pre-established experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis or by intrathecal administration to naive mice. NMO may be characterized as a channelopathy of the central nervous system with autoimmune characteristics. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Central insulin dysregulation and energy dyshomeostasis in two mouse models of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Ramon; Tran, An; Ishimwe, Egide; Denner, Larry; Dave, Nikhil; Oddo, Salvatore; Dineley, Kelly T

    2017-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder worldwide. While the causes of AD are not known, several risk factors have been identified. Among these, type two diabetes (T2D), a chronic metabolic disease, is one of the most prevalent risk factors for AD. Insulin resistance, which is associated with T2D, is defined as diminished or absent insulin signaling and is reflected by peripheral blood hyperglycemia and impaired glucose clearance. In this study, we used complementary approaches to probe for peripheral insulin resistance, central nervous system (CNS) insulin sensitivity and energy homeostasis in Tg2576 and 3xTg-AD mice, two widely used animal models of AD. We report that CNS insulin signaling abnormalities are evident months before peripheral insulin resistance. In addition, we find that brain energy metabolism is differentially altered in both mouse models, with 3xTg-AD mice showing more extensive changes. Collectively, our data suggest that early AD may reflect engagement of different signaling networks that influence CNS metabolism, which in turn may alter peripheral insulin signaling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Genetic diseases: congenital central hypoventilation, Rett, and Prader-Willi syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, Jorge

    2012-07-01

    The present review summarizes current knowledge on three rare genetic disorders of respiratory control, congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS), Rett syndrome (RTT), and Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). CCHS is characterized by lack of ventilatory chemosensitivity caused by PHOX2B gene abnormalities consisting mainly of alanine expansions. RTT is associated with episodes of tachypneic and irregular breathing intermixed with breathholds and apneas and is caused by mutations in the X-linked MECP2 gene encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein. PWS manifests as sleep-disordered breathing with apneas and episodes of hypoventilation and is caused by the loss of a group of paternally inherited genes on chromosome 15. CCHS is the most specific disorder of respiratory control, whereas the breathing disorders in RTT and PWS are components of a more general developmental disorder. The main clinical features of these three disorders are reviewed with special emphasis on the associated brain abnormalities. In all three syndromes, disease-causing genetic defects have been identified, allowing the development of genetically engineered mouse models. New directions for future therapies based on these models or, in some cases, on clinical experience are delineated. Studies of CCHS, RTT, and PWS extend our knowledge of the molecular and cellular aspects of respiratory rhythm generation and suggest possible pharmacological approaches to respiratory control disorders. This knowledge is relevant for the clinical management of many respiratory disorders that are far more prevalent than the rare diseases discussed here. 2012 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 2:2037-2061, 2012.

  16. Activation of auditory white matter tracts as revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging

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    Tae, Woo Suk [Kangwon National University, Neuroscience Research Institute, School of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Yakunina, Natalia; Nam, Eui-Cheol [Kangwon National University, Neuroscience Research Institute, School of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kangwon National University, Department of Otolaryngology, School of Medicine, Chuncheon, Kangwon-do (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Su [Kangwon National University Hospital, Department of Otolaryngology, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sam Soo [Kangwon National University, Neuroscience Research Institute, School of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kangwon National University, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    The ability of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to detect activation in brain white matter (WM) is controversial. In particular, studies on the functional activation of WM tracts in the central auditory system are scarce. We utilized fMRI to assess and characterize the entire auditory WM pathway under robust experimental conditions involving the acquisition of a large number of functional volumes, the application of broadband auditory stimuli of high intensity, and the use of sparse temporal sampling to avoid scanner noise effects and increase signal-to-noise ratio. Nineteen healthy volunteers were subjected to broadband white noise in a block paradigm; each run had four sound-on/off alternations and was repeated nine times for each subject. Sparse sampling (TR = 8 s) was used. In addition to traditional gray matter (GM) auditory center activation, WM activation was detected in the isthmus and midbody of the corpus callosum (CC), tapetum, auditory radiation, lateral lemniscus, and decussation of the superior cerebellar peduncles. At the individual level, 13 of 19 subjects (68 %) had CC activation. Callosal WM exhibited a temporal delay of approximately 8 s in response to the stimulation compared with GM. These findings suggest that direct evaluation of the entire functional network of the central auditory system may be possible using fMRI, which may aid in understanding the neurophysiological basis of the central auditory system and in developing treatment strategies for various central auditory disorders. (orig.)

  17. Auditory Temporal-Organization Abilities in School-Age Children with Peripheral Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koravand, Amineh; Jutras, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The objective was to assess auditory sequential organization (ASO) ability in children with and without hearing loss. Method: Forty children 9 to 12 years old participated in the study: 12 with sensory hearing loss (HL), 12 with central auditory processing disorder (CAPD), and 16 with normal hearing. They performed an ASO task in which…

  18. High-density EEG characterization of brain responses to auditory rhythmic stimuli during wakefulness and NREM sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustenberger, Caroline; Patel, Yogi A; Alagapan, Sankaraleengam; Page, Jessica M; Price, Betsy; Boyle, Michael R; Fröhlich, Flavio

    2017-12-06

    Auditory rhythmic sensory stimulation modulates brain oscillations by increasing phase-locking to the temporal structure of the stimuli and by increasing the power of specific frequency bands, resulting in Auditory Steady State Responses (ASSR). The ASSR is altered in different diseases of the central nervous system such as schizophrenia. However, in order to use the ASSR as biological markers for disease states, it needs to be understood how different vigilance states and underlying brain activity affect the ASSR. Here, we compared the effects of auditory rhythmic stimuli on EEG brain activity during wake and NREM sleep, investigated the influence of the presence of dominant sleep rhythms on the ASSR, and delineated the topographical distribution of these modulations. Participants (14 healthy males, 20-33 years) completed on the same day a 60 min nap session and two 30 min wakefulness sessions (before and after the nap). During these sessions, amplitude modulated (AM) white noise auditory stimuli at different frequencies were applied. High-density EEG was continuously recorded and time-frequency analyses were performed to assess ASSR during wakefulness and NREM periods. Our analysis revealed that depending on the electrode location, stimulation frequency applied and window/frequencies analysed the ASSR was significantly modulated by sleep pressure (before and after sleep), vigilance state (wake vs. NREM sleep), and the presence of slow wave activity and sleep spindles. Furthermore, AM stimuli increased spindle activity during NREM sleep but not during wakefulness. Thus, (1) electrode location, sleep history, vigilance state and ongoing brain activity needs to be carefully considered when investigating ASSR and (2) auditory rhythmic stimuli during sleep might represent a powerful tool to boost sleep spindles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. GEODATA: Information System Based on Geospatial for Early Warning Tracking and Analysis Agricultural Plant Diseases in Central Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, S. Y. J.; Agus, Y. H.; Dewi, C.; Simanjuntak, B. H.; Hartomo, K. D.

    2017-03-01

    The Government of Indonesia is currently faced with the problems of food, especially rice. It needs in large numbers that have to import from neighboring countries. Actually, the Indonesian government has the ability to produce rice to meet national needs but is still faced with the problem of pest attack rice annually increasing extent. One of the factors is that geographically Indonesia located on the migration path of world rice insect pests (called BPH or Brown Planthoppers) (Nilaparvata lugens Stal.) It leads endemic status annually. One proposed strategy to be applied is to use an early warning system based on a specific region of the main pest population. The proposed information system called GEODATA. GEODATA is Geospatial Outbreak of Disease Tracking and Analysis. The system works using a library ESSA (Exponential Smoothing - Spatial Autocorrelation) developed in previous studies in Satya Wacana Christian University. GEODATA built to meet the qualifications required surveillance device by BMKG (Indonesian Agency of Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics’ Central Java Provinces), BPTPH (Indonesian Agency of Plant Protection and Horticulture) Central Java Provinces, BKP-KP District Boyolali, Central Java, (Indonesian Agency of Food Security and Agriculture Field Supervisor, District Boyolali, Central Java Provinces) and farmer groups. GIS GEODATA meets the needs of surveillance devices that include: (1) mapping of the disease, (2) analysis of the dynamics of the disease, and (3) prediction of attacks / disease outbreaks in a particular region. GIS GEODATA is currently under implementation in the laboratory field observations of plant pest in Central Java province, Indonesia.

  20. Anatomy and Physiology of the Auditory Tracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad hosein Hekmat Ara

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Hearing is one of the excel sense of human being. Sound waves travel through the medium of air and enter the ear canal and then hit the tympanic membrane. Middle ear transfer almost 60-80% of this mechanical energy to the inner ear by means of “impedance matching”. Then, the sound energy changes to traveling wave and is transferred based on its specific frequency and stimulates organ of corti. Receptors in this organ and their synapses transform mechanical waves to the neural waves and transfer them to the brain. The central nervous system tract of conducting the auditory signals in the auditory cortex will be explained here briefly.

  1. Central and peripheral nervous system immune-mediated demyelinating disease after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanou, M I; Bischof, F

    2017-06-15

    We aimed to evaluate clinical and diagnostic features of central and peripheral immune-mediated demyelinating disease (CPID) in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (aHSCT) recipients. CPID refers to the late-onset, immune-mediated neurological complications following aHSCT, when other frequent differential diagnoses have been ruled out, and when symptoms and signs of systemic GvHD manifestations are absent. Case records at the University of Tuebingen, between 2001 and 2015, were screened to identify patients with CPID after aHSCT. Seven patients who developed CPID after aHSCT were identified. The average time interval from aHSCT until onset of CPID was 2.6 (±2.8) years (mean±SD). The most prevalent manifestations of CPID were optic neuritis and/or myelitis and polyneuropathy. Cerebrospinal fluid analyses involved elevated protein concentration and lymphocytic pleocytosis, while oligoclonal bands in CSF, but not in serum, were detected in 28% of cases. Aquaporin-4-antibodies were consistently absent. MRI studies showed features suggestive of demyelination processes, with cerebral and/or spinal cord white-matter involvement, and features compatible with cerebral vasculitis. Corticosteroids, Immunoglobulins, Cyclophosphamide, Rituximab and Interferon beta-1a showed marginal treatment responses, whereas plasma exchange resulted in marked clinical improvement in two treated patients. A chronic disease-course with persisting neurological deficits was prevalent. CPID may comprise a rare complication of aHSCT, which manifests as optic neuritis and/or myelitis and is accompanied by sensorimotor polyneuropathy. A concomitant systemic manifestation of GvHD is not mandatory for CPID diagnosis. Usually, CPID exhibits a chronic, persisting disease course. Thus, clinical awareness is required, as early diagnosis and aggressive treatment may be prognostically advantageous. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. THE POLYPEPTIDE STIMULATOR APPLICATION IN COMPLEX TREATMENT OF COGNITIVE DISORDERS IN CHILDREN WITH DISEASES OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Nemkova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the review of studies on the polypeptide nootropic neurometabolic stimulator in a complex correction of cognitive impairment in children with diseases of the central nervous system are given in the article. It is shown that cognitive-modulating effect is the leading feature of the drug, and in a combination with nootropic, neurotrophic, neuroprotective, reparative and anticonvulsive effects, as well as antioxidant, anti-stress and metabolic actions, which determines its high therapeutic efficacy in a complex correction of cognitive impairment in various central nervous system diseases in children.

  3. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials with the use of acoustic clicks and complex verbal sounds in young adults with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouni, Sophia N; Giannopoulos, Sotirios; Ziavra, Nausika; Koutsojannis, Constantinos

    2013-01-01

    Acoustic signals are transmitted through the external and middle ear mechanically to the cochlea where they are transduced into electrical impulse for further transmission via the auditory nerve. The auditory nerve encodes the acoustic sounds that are conveyed to the auditory brainstem. Multiple brainstem nuclei, the cochlea, the midbrain, the thalamus, and the cortex constitute the central auditory system. In clinical practice, auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) to simple stimuli such as click or tones are widely used. Recently, complex stimuli or complex auditory brain responses (cABRs), such as monosyllabic speech stimuli and music, are being used as a tool to study the brainstem processing of speech sounds. We have used the classic 'click' as well as, for the first time, the artificial successive complex stimuli 'ba', which constitutes the Greek word 'baba' corresponding to the English 'daddy'. Twenty young adults institutionally diagnosed as dyslexic (10 subjects) or light dyslexic (10 subjects) comprised the diseased group. Twenty sex-, age-, education-, hearing sensitivity-, and IQ-matched normal subjects comprised the control group. Measurements included the absolute latencies of waves I through V, the interpeak latencies elicited by the classical acoustic click, the negative peak latencies of A and C waves, as well as the interpeak latencies of A-C elicited by the verbal stimulus 'baba' created on a digital speech synthesizer. The absolute peak latencies of waves I, III, and V in response to monoaural rarefaction clicks as well as the interpeak latencies I-III, III-V, and I-V in the dyslexic subjects, although increased in comparison with normal subjects, did not reach the level of a significant difference (pdyslexia according to dyslexia tests, no significant delays were found in peak latencies A and C and interpeak latencies A-C in comparison with the control group. Acoustic representation of a speech sound and, in particular, the disyllabic word 'baba

  4. The Association of Glucose Metabolism and Eigenvector Centrality in Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaanse, Sofie M; Wink, Alle Meije; Tijms, Betty M; Ossenkoppele, Rik; Verfaillie, Sander C J; Lammertsma, Adriaan A; Boellaard, Ronald; Scheltens, Philip; van Berckel, Bart N M; Barkhof, Frederik

    2016-02-01

    Both fluorine-18-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose ([(18)F]FDG) positron emission tomography, examining glucose metabolism, and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI), using covarying blood oxygen levels, can be used to explore neuronal dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Both measures are reported to identify similar brain regions affected in AD patients. The spatial overlap and association of [(18)F]FDG with rs-fMRI in AD patients and controls were examined to investigate whether these two measures are associated, and if so, to what extent. For 24 AD patients and 18 controls, [(18)F]FDG and rs-fMRI data were available. [(18)F]FDG standardized uptake value ratios (SUVr), with cerebellar gray matter (GM) as reference tissue, were calculated. Eigenvector centrality (EC) mapping was used to spatially analyze the functional brain network. Group differences were calculated for [(18)F]FDG and eigenvector centrality mapping (ECM) values in four cortical regions (occipital, parietal, frontal, and temporal) and across voxels, with age, gender, and GM as covariates. Correlation of [(18)F]FDG with ECM was calculated within groups. Both lowered [(18)F]FDG SUVr and EC values were seen in the parietal and occipital cortex of AD patients. However, [(18)F]FDG yielded more robust and widespread brain areas affected in AD patients; hypometabolism was also observed in the temporal cortex and regions within frontal brain areas. Poor spatial overlap of both measures was observed. No associations were found between local [(18)F]FDG SUVr and ECM. In conclusion, agreement of [(18)F]FDG and ECM in AD patients seems moderate at best. [(18)F]FDG was most accurate in distinguishing AD patients from controls.

  5. Several anthropometric predictors of cardiovascular disease in central Slovakian adults: socioeconomic and educational differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hujova, Z; Rostakova, K

    2013-01-01

    Slovak inhabitants are considered at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of the study was to describe the social and educational differences in relation to anthropometric CVD risk factors among central Slovakian adults. The study population consisted of 100 probands from the central Slovakian region of Orava (50 males and 50 females). According to their social background they were classified as those with high (15 %), average (71 %) or low socioeconomic status (14 %). According to their education they were classified as those having completed only primary education (15 %) secondary education graduates (69 %) or university graduates (16 %). Anthropometric measurements, including weight, height, waist and hip circumference, triceps and subscapular skinfold were used to calculate body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and percentage body fat. Measured blood pressure (BP) was used to classify for hypertension. The probands with high socioeconomic status show the highest means of body fat percentage (24.53 ± 3.11 %) and blood pressure (with 53 % prevalence of hypertension and 60 % of stress); the population with low socioeconomic status had the highest prevalence of cigarette smoking (57.1 %), physical inactivity (64.3 %) and CVD family history (78.6 %). The highest means of BMI (25.48 ± 3.26 kg/m2) were determined in participants with university education (they also show the highest stress rate at 46.7 %). The population with primary education show the highest means of WHR (0.89 ± 0.13) and sBP (138.44 ± 19.64 mmHg), and the highest prevalence of hypertension (56.3 %), physical inactivity (62.5 %) and CVD family history (81.3 %). The results of the study should lead to improving the prevention of CVD risk predictors, especially in adults with low socioeconomic status and primary education (Tab. 3, Ref. 29).

  6. Central pain processing in "drug-naïve" pain-free patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessitore, Alessandro; Russo, Antonio; De Micco, Rosa; Fratello, Michele; Caiazzo, Giuseppina; Giordano, Alfonso; Cirillo, Mario; Tedeschi, Gioacchino; Esposito, Fabrizio

    2018-02-01

    Despite its clinical relevance, the pathophysiology of pain in Parkinson's disease (PD) is still largely unknown, and both central and peripheral mechanisms have been invoked. To investigate whether central pain processing is altered in "drug-naive" pain-free PD (dnPD) patients. Using event-related functional MRI (fMRI), functional response to forearm heat stimulation (FHS) at two different intensities (41°C and 53°C) was investigated in 20 pain-free dnPD patients, compared with 18 healthy controls (HCs). Secondary analyses were performed to evaluate associations between BOLD signal changes and PD clinical features and behavioral responses. During low-innocuous FHS (41°C), no activation differences were found between dnPD patients and HCs. During high-noxious FHS (53°C) a significantly increased activation in the left somatosensory cortex, left cerebellum, and right low pons was observed in dnPD patients compared to HCs. In the latter experimental condition, fMRI BOLD signal changes in the right low pons (p < .0001; R = -0.8) and in the cerebellum (p = .004; R = -0.7) were negatively correlated with pain intensity ratings only in dnPD patients. No statistically significant difference in experimental pain perception was detected between dnPD patients and HCs. Our findings suggest that a functional remodulation of pain processing pathways occurs even in the absence of clinically overt pain symptoms in dnPD patients. These mechanisms may eventually become dysfunctional over time, contributing to the emergence of pain symptoms in more advanced PD stages. The comprehension of pain-related mechanisms may improve the clinical approach and therapeutic management of this disabling nonmotor symptom. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. [Hearing loss and Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhos, David; Villeuneuve, Alexandre; Kim, Soo; Hammoudi, Karim; Hommet, Caroline

    2015-06-01

    Recent studies suggest that subjects with hearing loss are more likely to develop Alzheimer's disease. Hearing loss can be consecutive to presbycusis and/or to central auditory dysfunction. Standard audiometric measures (pure tone and speech intelligibility) allow the diagnosis of presbycusis. However, to demonstrate central auditory dysfunction, specific audiometric tests are needed such as noisy and/or dichotic tests. Actually, no consensus exists to investigate hearing loss in people with Alzheimer's disease though hearing loss may be an early manifestation of Alzheimer's disease. Until now, investigations and clinical procedure related to the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease ignored the hearing ability of the patient. However, the major part of care management and investigations implies the patient's communication ability with the caregivers. Hearing loss may be one of the most unrecognized deficit in subjects with Alzheimer's disease. Auditory rehabilitation could benefit to the patient in order to lessen cognitive decline, but this must be investigated during longitudinal studies in order to clearly demonstrate their efficiency.

  8. Auditory Reserve and the Legacy of Auditory Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Skoe, Erika; Kraus, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Musical training during childhood has been linked to more robust encoding of sound later in life. We take this as evidence for an auditory reserve: a mechanism by which individuals capitalize on earlier life experiences to promote auditory processing. We assert that early auditory experiences guide how the reserve develops and is maintained over the lifetime. Experiences that occur after childhood, or which are limited in nature, are theorized to affect the reserve, although their influence o...

  9. Neural Correlates of Auditory Processing, Learning and Memory Formation in Songbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinaud, R.; Terleph, T. A.; Wynne, R. D.; Tremere, L. A.

    Songbirds have emerged as powerful experimental models for the study of auditory processing of complex natural communication signals. Intact hearing is necessary for several behaviors in developing and adult animals including vocal learning, territorial defense, mate selection and individual recognition. These behaviors are thought to require the processing, discrimination and memorization of songs. Although much is known about the brain circuits that participate in sensorimotor (auditory-vocal) integration, especially the ``song-control" system, less is known about the anatomical and functional organization of central auditory pathways. Here we discuss findings associated with a telencephalic auditory area known as the caudomedial nidopallium (NCM). NCM has attracted significant interest as it exhibits functional properties that may support higher order auditory functions such as stimulus discrimination and the formation of auditory memories. NCM neurons are vigorously dr iven by auditory stimuli. Interestingly, these responses are selective to conspecific, relative to heterospecific songs and artificial stimuli. In addition, forms of experience-dependent plasticity occur in NCM and are song-specific. Finally, recent experiments employing high-throughput quantitative proteomics suggest that complex protein regulatory pathways are engaged in NCM as a result of auditory experience. These molecular cascades are likely central to experience-associated plasticity of NCM circuitry and may be part of a network of calcium-driven molecular events that support the formation of auditory memory traces.

  10. Clinical Application of the P1 Cortical Auditory Evoked Potential Biomarker in Children with Sensorineural Hearing Loss and Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Julia Dee; Cardon, Garrett; Sharma, Anu

    2011-05-01

    The P1 component of the cortical auditory evoked potential (CAEP) shows clearly documented age-related decreases in latency and changes in morphology in normal hearing children, providing a biomarker for development of the auditory cortical pathways in humans. In hearing-impaired children, auditory deprivation may affect the normal age-related changes in central auditory maturation. Appropriate early intervention with amplification and/or electrical stimulation can provide the necessary stimulation needed to drive progress in central auditory maturation and auditory skill development, however objective measures are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of these treatments in infants and young children. We describe three pediatric cases, where we explored the clinical utility of the P1 as an objective biomarker of auditory cortical development after early intervention. We assessed development of P1 CAEP latency and morphology in two children with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) who received intervention with hearing aids (case 1) and cochlear implants (case 2) and a child with Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder (ANSD) (case 3). Overall, we find that the P1 CAEP serves as useful tool for assessing the effectiveness of early intervention treatment and clinical management of pediatric hearing- impaired patients.

  11. Early hominin auditory capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quam, Rolf; Martínez, Ignacio; Rosa, Manuel; Bonmatí, Alejandro; Lorenzo, Carlos; de Ruiter, Darryl J; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo; Conde Valverde, Mercedes; Jarabo, Pilar; Menter, Colin G; Thackeray, J Francis; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2015-09-01

    Studies of sensory capacities in past life forms have offered new insights into their adaptations and lifeways. Audition is particularly amenable to study in fossils because it is strongly related to physical properties that can be approached through their skeletal structures. We have studied the anatomy of the outer and middle ear in the early hominin taxa Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus and estimated their auditory capacities. Compared with chimpanzees, the early hominin taxa are derived toward modern humans in their slightly shorter and wider external auditory canal, smaller tympanic membrane, and lower malleus/incus lever ratio, but they remain primitive in the small size of their stapes footplate. Compared with chimpanzees, both early hominin taxa show a heightened sensitivity to frequencies between 1.5 and 3.5 kHz and an occupied band of maximum sensitivity that is shifted toward slightly higher frequencies. The results have implications for sensory ecology and communication, and suggest that the early hominin auditory pattern may have facilitated an increased emphasis on short-range vocal communication in open habitats.

  12. Early hominin auditory capacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quam, Rolf; Martínez, Ignacio; Rosa, Manuel; Bonmatí, Alejandro; Lorenzo, Carlos; de Ruiter, Darryl J.; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo; Conde Valverde, Mercedes; Jarabo, Pilar; Menter, Colin G.; Thackeray, J. Francis; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2015-01-01

    Studies of sensory capacities in past life forms have offered new insights into their adaptations and lifeways. Audition is particularly amenable to study in fossils because it is strongly related to physical properties that can be approached through their skeletal structures. We have studied the anatomy of the outer and middle ear in the early hominin taxa Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus and estimated their auditory capacities. Compared with chimpanzees, the early hominin taxa are derived toward modern humans in their slightly shorter and wider external auditory canal, smaller tympanic membrane, and lower malleus/incus lever ratio, but they remain primitive in the small size of their stapes footplate. Compared with chimpanzees, both early hominin taxa show a heightened sensitivity to frequencies between 1.5 and 3.5 kHz and an occupied band of maximum sensitivity that is shifted toward slightly higher frequencies. The results have implications for sensory ecology and communication, and suggest that the early hominin auditory pattern may have facilitated an increased emphasis on short-range vocal communication in open habitats. PMID:26601261

  13. Quality of life in patients with skin diseases in central Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfotouh MA

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Mostafa A Abolfotouh,1 Mohammad S Al-Khowailed,1 Wijdan E Suliman,1 Deema A Al-Turaif,1 Eman Al-Bluwi,2 Hassan S Al-Kahtani21King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, King Saud Bin-Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, 2Dermatology Department, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: Previous national and international studies of quality of life (QoL in patients with skin diseases have revealed different levels of QoL impairment. The aims of this study were to assess QoL in patients with skin diseases in central Saudi Arabia using the newly validated Skindex-16 instrument and to determine the association between QoL in patients with skin disease, sociodemographic data, and disease characteristics.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 283 adult patients who visited the outpatient dermatology clinics of King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, over 3 months. The patients were interviewed using a pretested Arabic version of the Skindex-16 to measure the effect of skin disorders on their QoL during the previous 7 days. Patient characteristics, medical history, and clinical findings were collected. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to relate the demographic and clinical characteristics to the percentage mean QoL score, and P # 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.Results: QoL was good in 69% of the respondents, with a total percent mean score of 31.80 ± 20.16. The emotional domain was the most affected (mean percentage score 44.27 ± 27.06, followed by symptoms (31.45 ± 28.40 and functioning (14.61 ± 22.75. After adjustment for potential confounders, poorer QoL was significantly associated with female gender (P = 0.03, older age (P = 0.003, rural origin (P = 0.03, positive family history of the same lesion(s (P = 0.01, shorter duration of ≤ 6 months (P = 0.02, generalized spread (P ≤ 0.02, and lack of isotretinoin treatment (P = 0.02.Conclusion: The

  14. Repetitive pertussis toxin promotes development of regulatory T cells and prevents central nervous system autoimmune disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin S Weber

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial and viral infections have long been implicated in pathogenesis and progression of multiple sclerosis (MS. Incidence and severity of its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE can be enhanced by concomitant administration of pertussis toxin (PTx, the major virulence factor of Bordetella pertussis. Its adjuvant effect at the time of immunization with myelin antigen is attributed to an unspecific activation and facilitated migration of immune cells across the blood brain barrier into the central nervous system (CNS. In order to evaluate whether recurring exposure to bacterial antigen may have a differential effect on development of CNS autoimmunity, we repetitively administered PTx prior to immunization. Mice weekly injected with PTx were largely protected from subsequent EAE induction which was reflected by a decreased proliferation and pro-inflammatory differentiation of myelin-reactive T cells. Splenocytes isolated from EAE-resistant mice predominantly produced IL-10 upon re-stimulation with PTx, while non-specific immune responses were unchanged. Longitudinal analyses revealed that repetitive exposure of mice to PTx gradually elevated serum levels for TGF-β and IL-10 which was associated with an expansion of peripheral CD4(+CD25(+FoxP3(+ regulatory T cells (Treg. Increased frequency of Treg persisted upon immunization and thereafter. Collectively, these data suggest a scenario in which repetitive PTx treatment protects mice from development of CNS autoimmune disease through upregulation of regulatory cytokines and expansion of CD4(+CD25(+FoxP3(+ Treg. Besides its therapeutic implication, this finding suggests that encounter of the immune system with microbial products may not only be part of CNS autoimmune disease pathogenesis but also of its regulation.

  15. Interaction between Tat and Drugs of Abuse during HIV-1 Infection and Central Nervous System Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maubert, Monique E; Pirrone, Vanessa; Rivera, Nina T; Wigdahl, Brian; Nonnemacher, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    In many individuals, drug abuse is intimately linked with HIV-1 infection. In addition to being associated with one-third of all HIV-1 infections in the United States, drug abuse also plays a role in disease progression and severity in HIV-1-infected patients, including adverse effects on the central nervous system (CNS). Specific systems within the brain are known to be damaged in HIV-1-infected individuals and this damage is similar to that observed in drug abuse. Even in the era of anti-retroviral therapy (ART), CNS pathogenesis occurs with HIV-1 infection, with a broad range of cognitive impairment observed, collectively referred to as HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). A number of HIV-1 proteins (Tat, gp120, Nef, Vpr) have been implicated in the etiology of pathogenesis and disease as a result of the biologic activity of the extracellular form of each of the proteins in a number of tissues, including the CNS, even in ART-suppressed patients. In this review, we have made Tat the center of attention for a number of reasons. First, it has been shown to be synthesized and secreted by HIV-1-infected cells in the CNS, despite the most effective suppression therapies available to date. Second, Tat has been shown to alter the functions of several host factors, disrupting the molecular and biochemical balance of numerous pathways contributing to cellular toxicity, dysfunction, and death. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of ART suppression with regard to controlling the genesis and progression of neurocognitive impairment are currently under debate in the field and are yet to be fully determined. In this review, we discuss the individual and concerted contributions of HIV-1 Tat, drug abuse, and ART with respect to damage in the CNS, and how these factors contribute to the development of HAND in HIV-1-infected patients.

  16. Clinical and Laboratory Findings That Differentiate Herpes Simplex Virus Central Nervous System Disease from Enteroviral Meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layli Sanaee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It can be difficult for clinicians to distinguish between the relatively benign enteroviral (EnV meningitis and potentially lethal herpes simplex virus (HSV central nervous system (CNS disease. Very limited evidence currently exists to guide them. Objective. This study sought to identify clinical features and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF findings associated with HSV CNS disease. Methods. Given that PCR testing often is not immediately available, this chart review study sought to identify clinical and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF findings associated with HSV meningitis over a 6-year period. In cases where PCR was not performed, HSV and EnV were assigned based on clinical criteria. Results. We enrolled 166 consecutive patients: 40 HSV and 126 EnV patients. HSV patients had a mean 40.4 versus 31.3 years for EnV, p=0.005, seizures 21.1% versus 1.6% for EnV, p<0.001, altered mental status 46.2% versus 3.2% for EnV, p<0.001, or neurological deficits 44.7% versus 3.9% for EnV, p<0.001. CSF neutrophils were lower in HSV (median 3.0% versus 9.5%, p=0.0002; median lymphocytes (87.0% versus 67.0%, p=0.0004 and protein (0.9 g/L versus 0.6 g/L, p=0.0005 were elevated. Conclusion. Our study found that HSV patients were older and more likely to have seizure, altered mental status, or neurological deficits than patients with benign EnV meningitis. HSV cases had lower CSF neutrophils, higher lymphocytes, and higher protein levels.

  17. Central Nervous System Disease, Education, and Race Impact Radiation Refusal in Pediatric Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Chirayu G; Stavas, Mark; Perkins, Stephanie; Shinohara, Eric T

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the determinants of radiation therapy refusal in pediatric cancer, we used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry to identify 24,421 patients who met the eligibility criteria, diagnosed between 1974 and 2012. Patients had any stage of cancer, were aged 0 to 19, and received radiation therapy or refused radiation therapy when it was recommended. One hundred twenty-eight patients (0.52%) refused radiation therapy when it was recommended. Thirty-two percent of patients who refused radiation therapy ultimately died from their cancer, at a median of 7 months after diagnosis (95% confidence interval, 3-11 mo), as compared with 29.0% of patients who did not refuse radiation therapy died from their cancer, at a median of 17 months after diagnosis (95% confidence interval, 17-18 mo). On multivariable analysis, central nervous system (CNS) site, education, and race were associated with radiation refusal. The odds ratio for radiation refusal for patients with CNS disease was 1.62 (P=0.009) as compared with patients without CNS disease. For patients living in a county with ≥10% residents having less than ninth grade education, the odds ratio for radiation refusal was 1.71 (P=0.008) as compared with patients living in a county with education. Asian, Pacific Islander, Alaska Native, and American Indian races had an odds ratio of 2.12 (P=0.002) for radiation refusal as compared with black or white race. Although the radiation refusal rate in the pediatric cancer population is low, we show that CNS site, education level, and race are associated with a significant difference in radiation refusal.

  18. Spatial pattern of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes in North Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiltawe Simwal Wungak

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed to determine the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV serotypes circulating, the prevalence of FMDV serotypes, and the spatial distribution of FMDV among sedentary and pastoral cattle herds in the North-Central Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken, during which a total of 155 sera that tested positive for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD 3ABC non-structural protein antibodies were selected and screened for FMD structural protein serotypes, A, O, SAT 1, and SAT 2 using a solid-phase competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Epithelial tissue specimens were collected during outbreak investigations which were tested for FMD using an antigen capture ELISA for serotype A, O, SAT 1, and SAT 2. Results: An overall serotype-specific prevalence of 79.35 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 72.4-85.18 was recorded for serotype O, 65.2% (95% CI: 57.41-72.3 for serotype A, 52.9% (95% CI: 45.03-60.67 for SAT-2, and 33.55% (95% CI: 26.45-41.26 for SAT-1. Evidence of exposure to multiple FMDV serotypes showed that 12.26% of the sera samples had antibodies against four serotypes circulating, 30.97% had antibodies against three serotypes circulating, 22.58% had antibodies against two serotypes, and 17% showed exposure to only one serotype. Clinical specimens (epithelial tissue collected during outbreak investigations showed that serotype O has the highest proportion of 50% with serotype A - 25%; SAT 2 - 20.8%; and SAT 1 - 4.1%. Conclusion: The study detected diffuse and co-circulation of serotypes A, O, SAT1, and SAT2 within the study area, and hence the need for the appropriately matched multivalent vaccine is strongly advocated for FMD control in Nigeria.

  19. Interaction between Tat and Drugs of Abuse during HIV-1 Infection and Central Nervous System Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique E Maubert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In many individuals, drug abuse is intimately linked with HIV-1 infection. In addition to being associated with one-third of all HIV-1 infections in the United States, drug abuse also plays a role in disease progression and severity in HIV-1-infected patients, including adverse effects on the central nervous system (CNS. Specific systems within the brain are known to be damaged in HIV-1-infected individuals and this damage is similar to that observed in drug abuse. Even in the era of anti-retroviral therapy (ART, CNS pathogenesis occurs with HIV-1 infection, with a broad range of cognitive impairment observed, collectively referred to as HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND. A number of HIV-1 proteins (Tat, gp120, Nef, Vpr have been implicated in the etiology of pathogenesis and disease as a result of the biologic activity of the extracellular form of each of the proteins in a number of tissues, including the CNS, even in ART-suppressed patients. In this review, we have made Tat the center of attention for a number of reasons. First, it has been shown to be synthesized and secreted by HIV-1-infected cells in the CNS, despite the most effective suppression therapies available to date. Second, Tat has been shown to alter the functions of several host factors, disrupting the molecular and biochemical balance of numerous pathways contributing to cellular toxicity, dysfunction, and death. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of ART suppression with regard to controlling the genesis and progression of neurocognitive impairment are currently under debate in the field and are yet to be fully determined. In this review, we discuss the individual and concerted contributions of HIV-1 Tat, drug abuse, and ART with respect to damage in the CNS, and how these factors contribute to the development of HAND in HIV-1-infected patients.

  20. EBV driven natural killer cell disease of the central nervous system presenting as subacute cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Francesca M; Flavin, Richard; Chen, Daphne; Loftus, Teresa; Looby, Seamus; McCarthy, Allan; de Gascun, Cillian; Jaffe, Elaine S; Nor, Nurul; Javadpour, Mohsen; McCabe, Dominick

    2017-11-01

    Brain biopsy in patients presenting with subacute encephalopathyis never straightforward and only undertaken when a 'treatable condition' is a realistic possibility. This 63 year old right handed, immunocompetent Caucasian woman presented with an 8 month history of rapidly progressive right-sided hearing impairment, a 4 month history of intermittent headaches, tinnitus, 'dizziness', dysphagia, nausea and vomiting, with the subsequent evolution of progressive gait ataxia and a subacute global encephalopathy. The possibility of CJD was raised. Brain biopsy was carried out. Western blot for prion protein was negative. She died 9 days later and autopsy brain examination confirmed widespread subacute infarction due to an EBV positive atypical NK/T-cell infiltrate with positivity for CD3, CD56, granzyme B, perforin and EBER with absence of CD4, CD5 and CD8 expression. Molecular studies for T-cell clonality were attempted but failed due to insufficient DNA quality. Serology was consistent with past EBV infection (EBV VCA and EBNA IgG Positive). There was no evidence of disease outside the CNS. Primary central nervous system NK/T-cell lymphoma is extremely rare. The rare reported cases all present with a discrete intracranial mass, unlike the diffuse infiltrative pattern in this case. Whilst the diffuse interstitial pattern is reminiscent of chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV) seen in other organ systems such as the liver and bone marrow, the clinical presentation and epidemiologic profile are not typical for CAEBV.

  1. EBV driven natural killer cell disease of the central nervous system presenting as subacute cognitive decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca M. Brett

    2017-11-01

    This 63 year old right handed, immunocompetent Caucasian woman presented with an 8 month history of rapidly progressive right-sided hearing impairment, a 4 month history of intermittent headaches, tinnitus, ‘dizziness’, dysphagia, nausea and vomiting, with the subsequent evolution of progressive gait ataxia and a subacute global encephalopathy. The possibility of CJD was raised. Brain biopsy was carried out. Western blot for prion protein was negative. She died 9 days later and autopsy brain examination confirmed widespread subacute infarction due to an EBV positive atypical NK/T-cell infiltrate with positivity for CD3, CD56, granzyme B, perforin and EBER with absence of CD4, CD5 and CD8 expression. Molecular studies for T-cell clonality were attempted but failed due to insufficient DNA quality. Serology was consistent with past EBV infection (EBV VCA and EBNA IgG Positive. There was no evidence of disease outside the CNS. Primary central nervous system NK/T-cell lymphoma is extremely rare. The rare reported cases all present with a discrete intracranial mass, unlike the diffuse infiltrative pattern in this case. Whilst the diffuse interstitial pattern is reminiscent of chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV seen in other organ systems such as the liver and bone marrow, the clinical presentation and epidemiologic profile are not typical for CAEBV.

  2. Central CRF system perturbation in an Alzheimer's disease knockin mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qinxi; Zheng, Hui; Justice, Nicholas John

    2012-11-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is often accompanied by changes in mood as well as increases in circulating cortisol levels, suggesting that regulation of the stress responsive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is disturbed. Here, we show that amyloid precursor protein (APP) is endogenously expressed in important limbic, hypothalamic, and midbrain nuclei that regulate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Furthermore, in a knockin mouse model of AD that expresses familial AD (FAD) mutations of both APP with humanized amyloid beta (hAβ), and presenilin 1 (PS1), in their endogenous patterns (APP/hAβ/PS1 animals), corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) levels are increased in key stress-related nuclei, resting corticosteroid levels are elevated, and animals display increased anxiety-related behavior. Endocrine and behavioral phenotypes can be normalized by loss of 1 copy of CRF receptor type-1 (Crfr1), consistent with a perturbation of central CRF signaling in APP/hAβ/PS1 animals. However, reductions in anxiety and corticosteroid levels conferred by heterozygosity of CRF receptor type-1 do not improve a deficit in working memory observed in APP/hAβ/PS1 mice, suggesting that perturbations of the CRF system are not the primary cause of decreased cognitive performance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Embolic Foreign Material in the Central Nervous System of Pediatric Autopsy Patients With Instrumented Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, Matthew; Lechpammer, Mirna; Paulson, Vera; Prabhu, Sanjay; Marshall, Audrey C; Juraszek, Amy L; Padera, Robert F; Bundock, Elizabeth A; Vargas, Sara O; Folkerth, Rebecca D

    2017-07-01

    Upon detection of foreign-body embolization to the central nervous system (CNS) following a specific invasive cardiovascular procedure in 1 autopsied child, we undertook a quality assurance analysis to determine whether other patients had had similar events. Autopsies of all infants and children with history of cardiac catheterization, heart surgery on cardiopulmonary bypass, and/or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation over a 5-year period at a single tertiary care institution were reviewed for light-microscopic evidence of foreign material. Of the 24 patients meeting clinical criteria (13 females, 11 males; ages 6 days to 20 years, median age 7.5 months), 8 (33%) had foreign embolic material to the CNS. The material was associated with a cellular inflammatory reaction in all cases, with a subset associated with infarcts. No embolic foreign material was detected in 14 age-matched patients without history of cardiovascular procedures. Particles acquired from ex vivo manipulation of a catheter type utilized in at least 1 of the affected patients demonstrated similar histologic characteristics. We conclude that, in addition to recognized risks of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage in congenital cardiopulmonary disease, potential brain insult exists in the form of instrumentation-related foreign emboli to the cerebral vasculature. Cardiac catheters are a potential source of foreign embolic material. © 2017 American Association of Neuropathologists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Chronic disease prevention research in Central Asia, the Urals, Siberia and Mongolia - past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Malcolm A; Aitmurzaeva, Gulmira; Arsykulov, Zhetkergen A; Bozgunchiev, Maratbek; Dikanbayeva, Saule Alkeeva; Igisinov, Gulnara; Igisinov, Nurbek; Igisinov, Saginbek; Karzhaubayeva, Sholpan; Oyunchimeg, Dondov; Oyunsuren, Tsendsuren; Soipova, Mashhura; Tumubaatar, T

    2009-01-01

    Central Asia, the Urals, Siberia and Mongolia cover an immense section of Asia and although relatively sparsely populated the total inhabitants number well in excess of 100 million. Furthermore, there is an increasing tendency for urbanization of the populations, which in many cases are growing. The ethnic make-up is diverse, with various degrees of admixture of Russians to the Turkish, Mongolian and other indigenous peoples of the region, and there is evidence of major variation in the burden of different cancers among the groups, although oesophageal and gastric neoplasias are relatively prevalent in common. Clearly there is a need for cooperation for cancer and other chronic disease prevention and the presence of Russian as a shared language of science, commerce and industry means that there should be no major communication difficulties. However, collaborative efforts at present are limited and the research output is low, even in the non-English literature. Here we focus on published work from the individual countries, as assessed by PubMed searches using the country name with cancer, cardiovascular, metabolic syndrome and diabetes as search terms, with an especial focus on epidemiology, environmental carcinogenicity and screening. One major aim is to identify active groups with an interest in participation in a regional meeting and collaborative research, so that a coordinated approach to granting agencies can be made to fund such a collective endeavour.

  5. Is altered central pain processing related to disease stage in chronic pancreatitis patients with pain? An exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwense, S.A.W.; Olesen, S.S.; Drewes, A.M.; Frokjaer, J.B.; Goor, H. van; Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The most dominant feature in chronic pancreatitis is intense abdominal pain. Changes in spinal and/or supraspinal central nervous system pain processing due to visceral nociceptive input play an important role in this pain. How altered pain processing is related to disease stage still

  6. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and the astrocyte intermediate filament system in diseases of the central nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hol, Elly M.; Pekny, Milos

    Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is the hallmark intermediate filament (IF; also known as nanofilament) protein in astrocytes, a main type of glial cells in the central nervous system (CNS). Astrocytes have a range of control and homeostatic functions in health and disease. Astrocytes assume a

  7. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and the astrocyte intermediate filament system in diseases of the central nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hol, E.M.; Pekny, M.

    2015-01-01

    Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is the hallmark intermediate filament (IF; also known as nanofilament) protein in astrocytes, a main type of glial cells in the central nervous system (CNS). Astrocytes have a range of control and homeostatic functions in health and disease. Astrocytes assume a

  8. Economic evaluation of a diabetes disease management programme with a central role for the diabetes nurse specialist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steuten, Lotte Maria Gertruda; Bruijsten, M.W.A.M.; Vrijhoef, H.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: In the region of Maastricht, The Netherlands, a disease management programme (DMP) for patients with diabetes mellitus was implemented. The programme aims to improve quality of care within existing budgets. To achieve this, diabetes nurse specialists (DNSs) were given a central role

  9. Patient with Macular Disease, Good Visual Acuity, and Central Visual Field Disruption and Significant Difficulties with Activities of Daily Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Donald C.; Schuchard, Ronald A.; Walker, Joseph P.; Raskauskas, Paul A.

    2008-01-01

    It is generally appreciated that patients with macular disease frequently experience reduced visual acuity. It is not as widely appreciated that they often have significant central visual field disruption, which, by itself, can cause significant problems with activities of daily living, such as reading and driving, even when they maintain good…

  10. Abnormal synchrony and effective connectivity in patients with schizophrenia and auditory hallucinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de la Iglesia-Vaya

    2014-01-01

    These data indicate that an anomalous process of neural connectivity exists when patients with AH process emotional auditory stimuli. Additionally, a central role is suggested for the cerebellum in processing emotional stimuli in patients with persistent AH.

  11. Neuronal connectivity and interactions between the auditory and limbic systems. Effects of noise and tinnitus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kraus, Kari Suzanne; Canlon, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Acoustic experience such as sound, noise, or absence of sound induces structural or functional changes in the central auditory system but can also affect limbic regions such as the amygdala and hippocampus...

  12. Changes in brainstem auditory evoked potentials among North Indian females with Type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Baweja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is a complex metabolic disorder whose detrimental effects on various organ systems, including the nervous system are well known. Aim: This study was conducted to determine the changes in the brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 116 females with type 2 diabetes and 100 age matched, healthy female volunteers were selected. The brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP were recorded with RMS EMG EP Marc-II Channel machine. The measures included latencies of waves I, II, III, IV, V and Interpeak latencies (IPL I-III, III-V and I-V separately for both ears. Data was analysed statistically with SPSS software v13.0. Results: It was found that IPL I-III was significantly delayed (P = 0.028 only in the right ear, while the latency of wave V and IPL I-V showed a significant delay bilaterally (P values for right ear being 0.021 and 0.0381 respectively while those for left ear being 0.028 and 0.016 respectively, in diabetic females. However, no significant difference (P > 0.05 was found between diabetic and control subjects as regards to the latencies of waves I, II, III, IV and IPL III-V bilaterally and IPL I-III unilaterally in the left ear. Also, none of the BAEP latencies were significantly correlated with either the duration of disease or with fasting blood glucose levels in diabetics. Conclusions: Therefore, it could be concluded that diabetes patients have an early involvement of central auditory pathway, which can be detected quite accurately with the help of auditory evoked potential studies.

  13. Synthetic lethal screening in the mammalian central nervous system identifies Gpx6 as a modulator of Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shema, Reut; Kulicke, Ruth; Cowley, Glenn S; Stein, Rachael; Root, David E; Heiman, Myriam

    2015-01-06

    Huntington's disease, the most common inherited neurodegenerative disease, is characterized by a dramatic loss of deep-layer cortical and striatal neurons, as well as morbidity in midlife. Human genetic studies led to the identification of the causative gene, huntingtin. Recent genomic advances have also led to the identification of hundreds of potential interacting partners for huntingtin protein and many hypotheses as to the molecular mechanisms whereby mutant huntingtin leads to cellular dysfunction and death. However, the multitude of possible interacting partners and cellular pathways affected by mutant huntingtin has complicated efforts to understand the etiology of this disease, and to date no curative therapeutic exists. To address the general problem of identifying the disease-phenotype contributing genes from a large number of correlative studies, here we develop a synthetic lethal screening methodology for the mammalian central nervous system, called SLIC, for synthetic lethal in the central nervous system. Applying SLIC to the study of Huntington's disease, we identify the age-regulated glutathione peroxidase 6 (Gpx6) gene as a modulator of mutant huntingtin toxicity and show that overexpression of Gpx6 can dramatically alleviate both behavioral and molecular phenotypes associated with a mouse model of Huntington's disease. SLIC can, in principle, be used in the study of any neurodegenerative disease for which a mouse model exists, promising to reveal modulators of neurodegenerative disease in an unbiased fashion, akin to screens in simpler model organisms.

  14. Auditory Perceptual Abilities Are Associated with Specific Auditory Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Zaltz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The extent to which auditory experience can shape general auditory perceptual abilities is still under constant debate. Some studies show that specific auditory expertise may have a general effect on auditory perceptual abilities, while others show a more limited influence, exhibited only in a relatively narrow range associated with the area of expertise. The current study addresses this issue by examining experience-dependent enhancement in perceptual abilities in the auditory domain. Three experiments were performed. In the first experiment, 12 pop and rock musicians and 15 non-musicians were tested in frequency discrimination (DLF, intensity discrimination, spectrum discrimination (DLS, and time discrimination (DLT. Results showed significant superiority of the musician group only for the DLF and DLT tasks, illuminating enhanced perceptual skills in the key features of pop music, in which miniscule changes in amplitude and spectrum are not critical to performance. The next two experiments attempted to differentiate between generalization and specificity in the influence of auditory experience, by comparing subgroups of specialists. First, seven guitar players and eight percussionists were tested in the DLF and DLT tasks that were found superior for musicians. Results showed superior abilities on the DLF task for guitar players, though no difference between the groups in DLT, demonstrating some dependency of auditory learning on the specific area of expertise. Subsequently, a third experiment was conducted, testing a possible influence of vowel density in native language on auditory perceptual abilities. Ten native speakers of German (a language characterized by a dense vowel system of 14 vowels, and 10 native speakers of Hebrew (characterized by a sparse vowel system of five vowels, were tested in a formant discrimination task. This is the linguistic equivalent of a DLS task. Results showed that German speakers had superior formant

  15. Presentation of dynamically overlapping auditory messages in user interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papp, III, Albert Louis [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1997-09-01

    This dissertation describes a methodology and example implementation for the dynamic regulation of temporally overlapping auditory messages in computer-user interfaces. The regulation mechanism exists to schedule numerous overlapping auditory messages in such a way that each individual message remains perceptually distinct from all others. The method is based on the research conducted in the area of auditory scene analysis. While numerous applications have been engineered to present the user with temporally overlapped auditory output, they have generally been designed without any structured method of controlling the perceptual aspects of the sound. The method of scheduling temporally overlapping sounds has been extended to function in an environment where numerous applications can present sound independently of each other. The Centralized Audio Presentation System is a global regulation mechanism that controls all audio output requests made from all currently running applications. The notion of multimodal objects is explored in this system as well. Each audio request that represents a particular message can include numerous auditory representations, such as musical motives and voice. The Presentation System scheduling algorithm selects the best representation according to the current global auditory system state, and presents it to the user within the request constraints of priority and maximum acceptable latency. The perceptual conflicts between temporally overlapping audio messages are examined in depth through the Computational Auditory Scene Synthesizer. At the heart of this system is a heuristic-based auditory scene synthesis scheduling method. Different schedules of overlapped sounds are evaluated and assigned penalty scores. High scores represent presentations that include perceptual conflicts between over-lapping sounds. Low scores indicate fewer and less serious conflicts. A user study was conducted to validate that the perceptual difficulties predicted by

  16. Anatomical and Functional Organization of Inhibitory Circuits in the Songbird Auditory Forebrain

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Jin Kwon; Tremere, Liisa A.; Ryave, Michael J.; Vuong, Victor C.; Pinaud, Raphael

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies on the anatomical and functional organization of GABAergic networks in central auditory circuits of the zebra finch have highlighted the strong impact of inhibitory mechanisms on both the central encoding and processing of acoustic information in a vocal learning species. Most of this work has focused on the caudomedial nidopallium (NCM), a forebrain area postulated to be the songbird analogue of the mammalian auditory association cortex. NCM houses neurons with selective respo...

  17. The impact of visual gaze direction on auditory object tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomper, Ulrich; Chait, Maria

    2017-07-05

    Subjective experience suggests that we are able to direct our auditory attention independent of our visual gaze, e.g when shadowing a nearby conversation at a cocktail party. But what are the consequences at the behavioural and neural level? While numerous studies have investigated both auditory attention and visual gaze independently, little is known about their interaction during selective listening. In the present EEG study, we manipulated visual gaze independently of auditory attention while participants detected targets presented from one of three loudspeakers. We observed increased response times when gaze was directed away from the locus of auditory attention. Further, we found an increase in occipital alpha-band power contralateral to the direction of gaze, indicative of a suppression of distracting input. Finally, this condition also led to stronger central theta-band power, which correlated with the observed effect in response times, indicative of differences in top-down processing. Our data suggest that a misalignment between gaze and auditory attention both reduce behavioural performance and modulate underlying neural processes. The involvement of central theta-band and occipital alpha-band effects are in line with compensatory neural mechanisms such as increased cognitive control and the suppression of task irrelevant inputs.

  18. The function of BDNF in the adult auditory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Wibke; Panford-Walsh, Rama; Knipper, Marlies

    2014-01-01

    The inner ear of vertebrates is specialized to perceive sound, gravity and movements. Each of the specialized sensory organs within the cochlea (sound) and vestibular system (gravity, head movements) transmits information to specific areas of the brain. During development, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) orchestrates the survival and outgrowth of afferent fibers connecting the vestibular organ and those regions in the cochlea that map information for low frequency sound to central auditory nuclei and higher-auditory centers. The role of BDNF in the mature inner ear is less understood. This is mainly due to the fact that constitutive BDNF mutant mice are postnatally lethal. Only in the last few years has the improved technology of performing conditional cell specific deletion of BDNF in vivo allowed the study of the function of BDNF in the mature developed organ. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the expression pattern and function of BDNF in the peripheral and central auditory system from just prior to the first auditory experience onwards. A special focus will be put on the differential mechanisms in which BDNF drives refinement of auditory circuitries during the onset of sensory experience and in the adult brain. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'BDNF Regulation of Synaptic Structure, Function, and Plasticity'. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Auditory evoked potentials in children and adolescents with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Letícia; Rosa, Rafael F M; Zen, Paulo R G; Sleifer, Pricila

    2018-01-01

    Down syndrome, or trisomy 21, is the most common genetic alteration in humans. The syndrome presents with several features, including hearing loss and changes in the central nervous system, which may affect language development in children and lead to school difficulties. The present study aimed to investigate group differences in the central auditory system by long-latency auditory evoked potentials and cognitive potential. An assessment of 23 children and adolescents with Down syndrome was performed, and a control group composed of 43 children and adolescents without genetic and/or neurological changes was used for comparison. All children underwent evaluation with pure tone and vocal audiometry, acoustic immitance measures, long-latency auditory evoked potentials, and cognitive potential. Longer latencies of the waves were found in the Down syndrome group than the control group, without significant differences in amplitude, suggesting that individuals with Down syndrome have difficulty in discrimination and auditory memory. It is, therefore, important to stimulate and monitor these children in order to enable adequate development and improve their life quality. We also emphasize the importance of the application of auditory evoked potentials in clinical practice, in order to contribute to the early diagnosis of hearing alterations and the development of more research in this area. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Auditory Discrimination and Auditory Sensory Behaviours in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Catherine R. G.; Happe, Francesca; Baird, Gillian; Simonoff, Emily; Marsden, Anita J. S.; Tregay, Jenifer; Phillips, Rebecca J.; Goswami, Usha; Thomson, Jennifer M.; Charman, Tony

    2009-01-01

    It has been hypothesised that auditory processing may be enhanced in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We tested auditory discrimination ability in 72 adolescents with ASD (39 childhood autism; 33 other ASD) and 57 IQ and age-matched controls, assessing their capacity for successful discrimination of the frequency, intensity and duration…

  1. Auditory and non-auditory effects of noise on health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basner, M.; Babisch, W.; Davis, A.; Brink, M.; Clark, C.; Janssen, S.A.; Stansfeld, S.

    2013-01-01

    Noise is pervasive in everyday life and can cause both auditory and non-auditory health eff ects. Noise-induced hearing loss remains highly prevalent in occupational settings, and is increasingly caused by social noise exposure (eg, through personal music players). Our understanding of molecular

  2. Reactivity to Novel Autoantigens in Patients with Coexisting Central Nervous System Demyelinating Disease and Autoimmune Thyroid Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Greer, Judith M; Broadley, Simon; Pender, Michael P

    2017-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest a definite and unique link between CNS demyelinating diseases and autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD). The aim of the current study was to systematically compare the clinical and laboratory features of patients with coexistent AITD and CNS demyelinating disease with those of patients with just CNS demyelinating disease. Forty-four patients with coexisting CNS demyelinating disease and AITD were identified and their clinical and radiological features were record...

  3. Primary angiitis of the central nervous system presenting with subacute and fatal course of disease: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Börnke Christian

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary angiitis of the central nervous system is an idiopathic disorder characterized by vasculitis within the dural confines. The clinical presentation shows a wide variation and the course and the duration of disease are heterogeneous. This rare but treatable disease provides a diagnostic challenge owing to the lack of pathognomonic tests and the necessity of a histological confirmation. Case presentation A 28-year-old patient presenting with headache and fluctuating signs of encephalopathy was treated on the assumption of viral meningoencephalitis. The course of the disease led to his death 10 days after hospital admission. Postmortem examination revealed primary angiitis of the central nervous system. Conclusion Primary angiitis of the central nervous system should always be taken into consideration when suspected infectious inflammation of the central nervous system does not respond to treatment adequately. In order to confirm the diagnosis with the consequence of a modified therapy angiography and combined leptomeningeal and brain biopsy should be considered immediately.

  4. Pure word deafness. (Auditory verbal agnosia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoumaker, R D; Ajax, E T; Schenkenberg, T

    1977-04-01

    The selective inability to comprehend the spoken word, in the absence of aphasia or defective or defective hearing, is defined as pure word deafness (auditory verbal agnosia). Reported cases of this rare disorder have suggested the site of involvement to be strategically placed, interrupting fibers from left and right primary auditory receptive areas which project to Wernicke's are in the dominant hemisphere. Our patient is a 44-year-old male who suffered from an uncertain illness complicated by fever, jaundice and generalized seizures seven years previously. Following an apparent convulsion, the patient was noted to be unable to understand spoken language without loss of ability to recognize and respond to sounds or marked impairment of speech or reading. The evidence suggested bilateral cerebral hemisphere disease more marked on the right. The abrupt onset without progression is consistent with a vascular or ischemic etiology. Conclusions about the nature of the lesion and areas involved must await further studies and ultimately tissue examination.

  5. Prevalence of coeliac disease in the adult population of central Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roka, Violeta; Potamianos, Spyros P; Kapsoritakis, Andreas N; Yiannaki, Efthalia E; Koukoulis, George N; Stefanidis, Ioannis; Koukoulis, George K; Germenis, Anastasios E

    2007-11-01

    Recent studies from several countries have shown that coeliac disease (CD) is increasingly being diagnosed in adults, as the availability of new, accurate serologic tests has made screening in the general population possible. No data exist regarding the prevalence of CD in Greece. The aim of this study was the implementation of a serologic screening procedure for CD in the adult general population of Thessaly, an area of central Greece, using a novel diagnostic algorithm. The study included 2230 participants (1226 women, 1004 men, median age 46 years, range 18-80 years), selected by systematic random sampling, from the adult general population of Thessaly. All the serum samples were tested for total immunoglobulin A (IgA)-serum levels, to exclude IgA deficiency. Samples with total IgA within the normal range were tested for IgA antibodies against native human-tissue transglutaminase (anti-tTG); samples that were anti-tTG positive were tested for IgA antiendomysial antibodies (EmA). Samples from participants with selective IgA deficiency were examined for IgG antigliadin antibodies. Participants who were EmA-positive or antigliadin antibody-positive were referred for intestinal biopsy and human leucocyte antigen (HLA) typing. No participant with selective IgA deficiency was detected. Four individuals tested positive for EmA, all of whom were biopsy-proven coeliacs. Therefore, the CD prevalence in this general population sample is 1 : 558 or 1.8 per 1000 (SE 0.13). The four new patients with abnormal histology (two men, two women) were aged between 18 and 35 years. Two of them were considered to be asymptomatic and two presented with a subclinical course. All four had the heterodimer HLA-DQ2. This first serological screening study for CD in Greece has demonstrated that CD prevalence in Thessaly is among the lowest reported in Europe.

  6. Central serous chorioretinopathy secondary to corticosteroids in patients with atopic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketti, Peter A; Unkle, David W; Cleri, Dennis J; Prenner, Jonathan L; Coluccielo, Michael; Ricketti, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) is of unknown etiology and is the most common cause of retinopathy after age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and retinal vein occlusion. Vision loss results from fluid leakage and serous detachment in the macula. Five percent of patients develop chronic CSCR. It is predominantly found in middle-aged men (age-adjusted rates per 100,000: 9.9 for men and 1.7 for women) and is usually unilateral and reversible. Three-quarters of CSCR patients resolve within 3 months but 45% have recurrences, usually with only minor visual acuity changes. Risk factors include type A personality, emotional stress, elevated catecholamines, hypertension, pregnancy, organ transplantation, increased levels of endogenous cortisol, psychopharmacologic medication, use of phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors, obstructive sleep apnea, Helicobacter pylori infection, or treatment with corticosteroids. Five percent of patients develop chronic disease as a result of subretinal fibrin formation within the blister. CSCR is often bilateral, multifocal, and recurrent, and may be associated with subretinal fibrin formation within the blister. Permanent loss of vision may result from subretinal fibrin-fibrosis with scarring of the macula. Corticosteroid-associated CSCR occurs bilaterally in 20% of patients. Steroid-associated therapy may begin days to years after therapy with any form of drug delivery. We present three atopic patients who presented at various times after oral, inhaled, intranasal, and topical corticosteroid therapy. One patient developed CSCR after three separate types of administration of corticosteroids, which, to our knowledge, has not been observed in the literature.

  7. The epidemiological aspects of congenital heart disease in central and southern district of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Amel-Shahbaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital heart disease (CHD is a major health problem and its prevalence is different around the world. The aim of study was determination of the epidemiological aspects of CHD in central and southern district of Iran. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive and analytical study, 3714 medical records were evaluated from March 21, 2001 to December 18, 2011. Medical records of inpatients from angiography and outpatients in the Heart Clinic of Afshar hospital (a referral hospital in center and south of Iran were the source of information. Types of CHD and demographic data including age, sex and residential location are collected. The data were analyzed by SPSS (version 17 software. Chi-square and Fisher′s exact tests were used to compare variables between groups. Results: At the study, the mean age of the patients at diagnosis time was 8.8 ± 11.6 year (at the range of one day to 76 years with median of 4 years. The percentage of females and males was 54.2 (n: 2014 and 43.8 (n: 1627, respectively. The chi-square test showed that there was significant difference in frequency of CHDs between females and males (P value < 0.0001. Ventricular septal defect (VSD was found to be the most frequent of CHDs (27%. Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA (16.8%, atrial septal defect (ASD (15.8%, pulmonary stenosis (PS (11% and Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF (8.9% were more prevalent in CHDs after VSD. Conclusions: The frequency of CHDs in female was more than male and VSD, PDA, ASD, PS, and TOF were most common in CHDs, respectively.

  8. Partial Epilepsy with Auditory Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The clinical characteristics of 53 sporadic (S cases of idiopathic partial epilepsy with auditory features (IPEAF were analyzed and compared to previously reported familial (F cases of autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features (ADPEAF in a study at the University of Bologna, Italy.

  9. Left auditory cortex gamma synchronization and auditory hallucination symptoms in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenton Martha E

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oscillatory electroencephalogram (EEG abnormalities may reflect neural circuit dysfunction in neuropsychiatric disorders. Previously we have found positive correlations between the phase synchronization of beta and gamma oscillations and hallucination symptoms in schizophrenia patients. These findings suggest that the propensity for hallucinations is associated with an increased tendency for neural circuits in sensory cortex to enter states of oscillatory synchrony. Here we tested this hypothesis by examining whether the 40 Hz auditory steady-state response (ASSR generated in the left primary auditory cortex is positively correlated with auditory hallucination symptoms in schizophrenia. We also examined whether the 40 Hz ASSR deficit in schizophrenia was associated with cross-frequency interactions. Sixteen healthy control subjects (HC and 18 chronic schizophrenia patients (SZ listened to 40 Hz binaural click trains. The EEG was recorded from 60 electrodes and average-referenced offline. A 5-dipole model was fit from the HC grand average ASSR, with 2 pairs of superior temporal dipoles and a deep midline dipole. Time-frequency decomposition was performed on the scalp EEG and source data. Results Phase locking factor (PLF and evoked power were reduced in SZ at fronto-central electrodes, replicating prior findings. PLF was reduced in SZ for non-homologous right and left hemisphere sources. Left hemisphere source PLF in SZ was positively correlated with auditory hallucination symptoms, and was modulated by delta phase. Furthermore, the correlations between source evoked power and PLF found in HC was reduced in SZ for the LH sources. Conclusion These findings suggest that differential neural circuit abnormalities may be present in the left and right auditory cortices in schizophrenia. In addition, they provide further support for the hypothesis that hallucinations are related to cortical hyperexcitability, which is manifested by

  10. α-Lipoic acid, functional fatty acid, as a novel therapeutic alternative for central nervous system diseases: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifar, Fatemeh; Khalili, Mohammad; Khaledyan, Habib; Amiri Moghadam, Shirin; Izadi, Azimeh; Azimi, Amirreza; Shakouri, Seied Kazem

    2017-11-29

    α-lipoic acid (ALA) is a natural antioxidant which acts as a cofactor of bioenergetic mitochondrial enzymes. Along with its mitochondrial action, ALA and its reduced form have many biological functions resulting in a wide variety of actions such as anti-inflammation and antioxidant protection, scavenging reactive oxygen species, regenerating other antioxidant agents, such as vitamins C and E, and cytosolic glutathione, chelating the transitional metal ions (e.g. iron and copper), and modulating the signal transduction of nuclear factor. By selecting papers from PubMed, Science Direct, EBSCO, and databases, this review discusses the biochemical properties of LA, its mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, and its possible therapeutic role in central nervous system diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Multiple sclerosis, stroke, and spinal cord injury. ALA as an antioxidant and anti-inflammation agent has therapeutical effects on central nervous system diseases, especially multiple sclerosis and PD. ALA can be considered as a potentially useful treatment in central nervous disorders.

  11. The Perception of Auditory Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Johahn

    2016-01-01

    The growing availability of efficient and relatively inexpensive virtual auditory display technology has provided new research platforms to explore the perception of auditory motion. At the same time, deployment of these technologies in command and control as well as in entertainment roles is generating an increasing need to better understand the complex processes underlying auditory motion perception. This is a particularly challenging processing feat because it involves the rapid deconvolution of the relative change in the locations of sound sources produced by rotational and translations of the head in space (self-motion) to enable the perception of actual source motion. The fact that we perceive our auditory world to be stable despite almost continual movement of the head demonstrates the efficiency and effectiveness of this process. This review examines the acoustical basis of auditory motion perception and a wide range of psychophysical, electrophysiological, and cortical imaging studies that have probed the limits and possible mechanisms underlying this perception. PMID:27094029

  12. NASA Models of Space Radiation Induced Cancer, Circulatory Disease, and Central Nervous System Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Chappell, Lori J.; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.

    2013-01-01

    The risks of late effects from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE) are potentially a limitation to long-term space travel. The late effects of highest concern have significant lethality including cancer, effects to the central nervous system (CNS), and circulatory diseases (CD). For cancer and CD the use of age and gender specific models with uncertainty assessments based on human epidemiology data for low LET radiation combined with relative biological effectiveness factors (RBEs) and dose- and dose-rate reduction effectiveness factors (DDREF) to extrapolate these results to space radiation exposures is considered the current "state-of-the-art". The revised NASA Space Risk Model (NSRM-2014) is based on recent radio-epidemiology data for cancer and CD, however a key feature of the NSRM-2014 is the formulation of particle fluence and track structure based radiation quality factors for solid cancer and leukemia risk estimates, which are distinct from the ICRP quality factors, and shown to lead to smaller uncertainties in risk estimates. Many persons exposed to radiation on earth as well as astronauts are life-time never-smokers, which is estimated to significantly modify radiation cancer and CD risk estimates. A key feature of the NASA radiation protection model is the classification of radiation workers by smoking history in setting dose limits. Possible qualitative differences between GCR and low LET radiation increase uncertainties and are not included in previous risk estimates. Two important qualitative differences are emerging from research studies. The first is the increased lethality of tumors observed in animal models compared to low LET radiation or background tumors. The second are Non- Targeted Effects (NTE), which include bystander effects and genomic instability, which has been observed in cell and animal models of cancer risks. NTE's could lead to significant changes in RBE and DDREF estimates for GCR particles, and the potential

  13. Peripheral Auditory Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, J; Hubbard, A; Neely, S; Tubis, A

    1986-01-01

    How weIl can we model experimental observations of the peripheral auditory system'? What theoretical predictions can we make that might be tested'? It was with these questions in mind that we organized the 1985 Mechanics of Hearing Workshop, to bring together auditory researchers to compare models with experimental observations. Tbe workshop forum was inspired by the very successful 1983 Mechanics of Hearing Workshop in Delft [1]. Boston University was chosen as the site of our meeting because of the Boston area's role as a center for hearing research in this country. We made a special effort at this meeting to attract students from around the world, because without students this field will not progress. Financial support for the workshop was provided in part by grant BNS- 8412878 from the National Science Foundation. Modeling is a traditional strategy in science and plays an important role in the scientific method. Models are the bridge between theory and experiment. Tbey test the assumptions made in experim...

  14. Data on medicinal plants used in Central America to manage diabetes and its sequelae (skin conditions, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, urinary problems and vision loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Giovannini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The data described in this article is related to the review article “Medicinal plants used in the traditional management of diabetes and its sequelae in Central America: a review” (Giovannini et al., 2016 [1]. We searched publications on the useful plants of Central America in databases and journals by using selected relevant keywords. We then extracted reported uses of medicinal plants within the disease categories: diabetes mellitus, kidney disease, urinary problems, skin diseases and infections, cardiovascular disease, sexual dysfunction, vision loss, and nerve damage. The following countries were included in our definition of Central America: Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama. Data were compiled in a bespoke Access database. Plant names from the published sources were validated against The Plant List (TPL, (The Plant List, 2013 [2] and accepted names and synonyms were extracted. In total, the database includes 607 plant names obtained from the published sources which correspond to 537 plant taxa, 9271 synonyms and 1055 use reports.

  15. Cortical Maturation and Behavioral Outcomes in Children with Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anu; Cardon, Garrett; Martin, Kathryn; Roland, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Objective Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder (ANSD) affects nearly 10% of patients with sensorineural hearing loss. While many studies report abnormalities at the level of the cochlea, auditory nerve and brainstem in children with ANSD, much less is known about their cortical development. We examined central auditory maturation in 21 children with ANSD. Design Morphology, latency and amplitude of the P1 Cortical Auditory Evoked Potential (CAEP) were used to assess auditory cortical maturation. Children’s scores on a measure of auditory skill development (IT-MAIS) were correlated with CAEPs. Study Sample Participants were 21 children with ANSD. All were hearing aid users. Results Children with ANSD exhibited differences in central auditory maturation. Overall, two-thirds of children revealed present P1 CAEP responses. Of these, approximately one third (38%) showed normal P1 response morphology, latency and amplitude, while another third (33%) showed delayed P1 response latencies and significantly smaller amplitudes. The remaining children (29%) revealed abnormal or absent P1 responses. Overall, P1 responses were significantly correlated with auditory skill development. Conclusions Our results suggest that P1 CAEP responses may be: (i) a useful indicator of the extent to which neural dys-synchrony disrupts cortical development, (ii) a good predictor of behavioral outcome in children with ANSD. PMID:21265637

  16. Auditory beat stimulation and its effects on cognition and mood states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila eChaieb

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Auditory beat stimulation may be a promising new tool for the manipulation of cognitive processes and the modulation of mood-states. Here we aim to review the literature examining the most current applications of auditory beat stimulation and its targets. We give a brief overview of research on auditory steady-state responses and its relationship to auditory beat stimulation. We have summarized relevant studies investigating the neurophysiological changes related to auditory beat stimulation and how they impact upon the design of appropriate stimulation protocols. Focusing on binaural beat stimulation, we then discuss the role of monaural and binaural beat frequencies in cognition and mood-states, in addition to their efficacy in targeting disease symptoms. We aim to highlight important points concerning stimulation parameters and try to address why there are often contradictory findings with regard to the outcomes of auditory beat stimulation.

  17. Auditory brainstem responses in term newborns with hyperbilirubinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Jubran Chapchap

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate auditory brainstem responses in term newbornswith hyperbilirubinemia. Methods: Seventy-one newborns, 35 withaggravated physiological neonatal jaundice (group I, 24 with ABOblood incompatibility (group II and 12 not suffering from jaundice orany other disease were submitted to auditory brainstem responses.Statistical analysis of variance was performed to evaluate waveformreproducibility, absolute and interwave latencies, and Pearsoncoefficient was used to evaluate the association between the level ofserum bilirubin and abnormalities in the auditory brainstem responses.Results: According to the criteria assumed in the present paperwaveform alterations were more frequently found in group II than inthe control group (p = 0.023. No significant differences were observedbetween groups I and II (p = 0.083 or between control group andgroup I (p = 0.166. Wave I latency at 80 dBHL for good reproducibilityresponses and III-V interwave latency at 40 dBHL for poor reproducibilityresponses of newborns with hyperbilirubinemia showed significantfindings in relation to the control group (0.008 and 0.004 respectively.There was positive, weak (9% association between serum indirectbilirubin levels and auditory brainstem responses only when the twogroups were analyzed together. Conclusions: Neonatalhyperbilirubinemia changed the conduction of auditory stimulus interm newborns with jaundice caused by ABO blood incompatibility.There was poor positive association between plasma levels of bilirubinand abnormalities in auditory brainstem responses.

  18. Auditory event related potentials in children with peripheral hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koravand, Amineh; Jutras, Benoît; Lassonde, Maryse

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the neurophysiological responses in children with hearing loss. Cortical auditory evoked potentials and Mismatch Negativity (MMN) Responses were recorded in 40 children, 9-12 years old: 12 with hearing loss, 12 with central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) and 16 with normal hearing. Passive oddball paradigms were used with nonverbal and verbal stimuli. For P1, no significant group differences were observed. A significant reduction in N2 amplitude with all stimuli was observed in the group of children with hearing loss compared to the results of those with normal hearing. N2 results did not reveal any significant differences between the group of children with hearing loss and the children with CAPD. MMN amplitude indicated a trend toward larger MMN amplitude among the group of children with hearing loss compared to the value of those of children with CAPD. Abnormal N2 characteristics could be a manifestation of a specific signature in children with hearing loss. This cortical response could be considered as a neurophysiologic marker of central auditory processing deficits in these children. Results suggest maturational delays and/or deficits in central auditory processing in children with hearing loss. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Serosurvey Reveals Exposure to West Nile Virus in Asymptomatic Horse Populations in Central Spain Prior to Recent Disease Foci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad-Cobo, A; Llorente, F; Barbero, M Del Carmen; Cruz-López, F; Forés, P; Jiménez-Clavero, M Á

    2017-10-01

    West Nile fever/encephalitis (WNF) is an infectious disease affecting horses, birds and humans, with a cycle involving birds as natural reservoirs and mosquitoes as transmission vectors. It is a notifiable disease, re-emerging in Europe. In Spain, it first appeared in horses in the south (Andalusia) in 2010, where outbreaks occur every year since. However, in 2014, an outbreak was declared in horses in central Spain, approximately 200 km away from the closest foci in Andalusia. Before that, evidence of West Nile virus (WNV) circulation in central Spain had been obtained only from wildlife, but never in horses. The purpose of this work was to perform a serosurvey to retrospectively detect West Nile virus infections in asymptomatic horses in central Spain from 2011 to 2013, that is before the occurrence of the first outbreaks in the area. For that, serum samples from 369 horses, collected between September 2011 and November 2013 in central Spain, were analysed by ELISA (blocking and IgM) and confirmed by virus neutralization, proving its specificity using parallel titration with another flavivirus (Usutu virus). As a result, 10 of 369 horse serum samples analysed gave positive results by competitive ELISA, 5 of which were confirmed as positive to WNV by virus neutralization (seropositivity rate: 1.35%). One of these WNV seropositive samples was IgM-positive. Chronologically, the first positive samples, including the IgM-positive, corresponded to sera collected in 2012 in Madrid province. From these results, we concluded that WNV circulated in asymptomatic equine populations of central Spain at least since 2012, before the first disease outbreak reported in this area. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Biosurveillance in Central Asia: Successes and Challenges of Tick-Borne Disease Research in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, John; Yeh, Kenneth B; Dasgupta, Debanjana; Shapieva, Zhanna; Omasheva, Gulnara; Deryabin, Pavel; Nurmakhanov, Talgat; Ayazbayev, Timur; Andryushchenko, Alexei; Zhunushov, Asankadyr; Hewson, Roger; Farris, Christina M; Richards, Allen L

    2016-01-01

    Central Asia is a vast geographic region that includes five former Soviet Union republics: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. The region has a unique infectious disease burden, and a history that includes Silk Road trade routes and networks that were part of the anti-plague and biowarfare programs in the former Soviet Union. Post-Soviet Union biosurveillance research in this unique area of the world has met with several challenges, including lack of funding and resources to independently conduct hypothesis driven, peer-review quality research. Strides have been made, however, to increase scientific engagement and capability. Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan are examples of countries where biosurveillance research has been successfully conducted, particularly with respect to especially dangerous pathogens. In this review, we describe in detail the successes, challenges, and opportunities of conducting biosurveillance in Central Asia as exemplified by our recent research activities on ticks and tick-borne diseases in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

  1. Biosurveillance in Central Asia: Successes and Challenges of Tick-Borne Disease Research in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John eHay

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Central Asia is a vast geographic region that includes five former Soviet Union republics: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. The region has a unique infectious disease burden, and a history that includes Silk Road trade routes and networks that were part of the anti-plague and biowarfare programs in the former Soviet Union. Post Soviet Union biosurveillance research in this unique area of the world has met with several challenges, including lack of funding and resources to independently conduct hypothesis driven, peer-review quality research. Strides have been made, however, to increase scientific engagement and capability. Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan are examples of countries where biosurveillance research has been successfully conducted, particularly with respect to especially dangerous pathogens. In this review we describe in detail the successes, challenges and opportunities of conducting biosurveillance in Central Asia as exemplified by our recent research activities on ticks and tick-borne diseases in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

  2. Is altered central pain processing related to disease stage in chronic pancreatitis patients with pain? An exploratory study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan A W Bouwense

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The most dominant feature in chronic pancreatitis is intense abdominal pain. Changes in spinal and/or supraspinal central nervous system pain processing due to visceral nociceptive input play an important role in this pain. How altered pain processing is related to disease stage still needs study. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sixty chronic pancreatitis patients were compared to 15 healthy controls. Two subgroups of pancreatitis patients were defined based on the M-ANNHEIM severity index of chronic pancreatitis; i.e. moderate and severe. Pain detection and tolerance thresholds for pressure and electric stimuli were measured in six selected dermatomes (C5, T4, T10, L1, L4 and T10BACK. In addition, the conditioned pain modulation response to cold pressor task was determined. These measures were compared between the healthy controls and chronic pancreatitis patients. Severe pancreatitis patients showed lower pain thresholds than moderate pancreatitis patients or healthy volunteers. Healthy controls showed a significantly larger conditioned pain modulation response compared to all chronic pancreatitis patients taken together. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study confirms that chronic pancreatitis patients show signs of altered central processing of nociception compared to healthy controls. The study further suggests that these changes, i.e. central sensitization, may be influenced by disease stage. These findings underline the need to take altered central pain processing into account when managing the pain of chronic pancreatitis.

  3. Is Altered Central Pain Processing Related to Disease Stage in Chronic Pancreatitis Patients with Pain? An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwense, Stefan A. W.; Olesen, Søren S.; Drewes, Asbjørn M.; Frøkjær, Jens B.; van Goor, Harry; Wilder-Smith, Oliver H. G.

    2013-01-01

    Background The most dominant feature in chronic pancreatitis is intense abdominal pain. Changes in spinal and/or supraspinal central nervous system pain processing due to visceral nociceptive input play an important role in this pain. How altered pain processing is related to disease stage still needs study. Methodology/Principal Findings Sixty chronic pancreatitis patients were compared to 15 healthy controls. Two subgroups of pancreatitis patients were defined based on the M-ANNHEIM severity index of chronic pancreatitis; i.e. moderate and severe. Pain detection and tolerance thresholds for pressure and electric stimuli were measured in six selected dermatomes (C5, T4, T10, L1, L4 and T10BACK). In addition, the conditioned pain modulation response to cold pressor task was determined. These measures were compared between the healthy controls and chronic pancreatitis patients. Severe pancreatitis patients showed lower pain thresholds than moderate pancreatitis patients or healthy volunteers. Healthy controls showed a significantly larger conditioned pain modulation response compared to all chronic pancreatitis patients taken together. Conclusions/Significance The present study confirms that chronic pancreatitis patients show signs of altered central processing of nociception compared to healthy controls. The study further suggests that these changes, i.e. central sensitization, may be influenced by disease stage. These findings underline the need to take altered central pain processing into account when managing the pain of chronic pancreatitis. PMID:23405154

  4. Main diseases of pejerrey (Odontesthes bonariensis in central Argentina Principais enfermidades do peixe-rei (Odontesthes bonariensis registradas na Argentina Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mancini

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Argentina's central region includes an important area covered by shallow pampean lakes and dams. In these environments, fishing of pejerrey Odontesthes bonariensis Valenciennes, 1835 (Pisces, Atherinopsidae, the most important fresh-water fish of the country, is a relevant social activity and also a considerable economic resource. The main diseases found in this species were studied from 1992 to 2003 in the provinces of Córdoba, La Rioja and Santa Fe (30º and 35º S, 61º and 67º W. Most cases were registered in high temperature months. Lernaea sp and Aeromonas hydrophila were the etiological agents most frequently found. The trophic characteristics of the aquatic environments enhanced disease processes and caused massive death of O. bonariensis, due to complex hydrochemical interactions.A região central de Argentina possui uma importante superfície coberta por represas e lagunas pampianas. Nestes ambientes, a pesca do peixe-rei Odontesthes bonariensis Valenciennes, 1835 (Pisces, Atherinopsidae, peixe de água doce mais importante do país, é uma atividade social relevante e de significado valor econômico. Estudaram-se as principais enfermidades que afetaram esta espécie de peixe no período de 1992-2003, nas províncias de Córdoba, La Rioja e Santa Fe (30 e 35ºS, 61 e 67ºW. A maior quantidade de casos foi registrada nos meses de temperaturas elevadas. Lernaea sp e Aeromonas hydrophila foram os agentes etiológicos mais importantes. As características tróficas particulares dos ambientes aquáticos estudados foram importantes por potenciarem alguns casos, mas em outros a causa da mortandade dos peixes esteve relacionada a complexas interações hidroquímicas.

  5. Silent articulation modulates auditory and audiovisual speech perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Marc; Troille, Emilie; Ménard, Lucie; Cathiard, Marie-Agnès; Gracco, Vincent

    2013-06-01

    The concept of an internal forward model that internally simulates the sensory consequences of an action is a central idea in speech motor control. Consistent with this hypothesis, silent articulation has been shown to modulate activity of the auditory cortex and to improve the auditory identification of concordant speech sounds, when embedded in white noise. In the present study, we replicated and extended this behavioral finding by showing that silently articulating a syllable in synchrony with the presentation of a concordant auditory and/or visually ambiguous speech stimulus improves its identification. Our results further demonstrate that, even in the case of perfect perceptual identification, concurrent mouthing of a syllable speeds up the perceptual processing of a concordant speech stimulus. These results reflect multisensory-motor interactions during speech perception and provide new behavioral arguments for internally generated sensory predictions during silent speech production.

  6. Auditory hallucinations treated by radio headphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feder, R

    1982-09-01

    A young man with chronic auditory hallucinations was treated according to the principle that increasing external auditory stimulation decreases the likelihood of auditory hallucinations. Listening to a radio through stereo headphones in conditions of low auditory stimulation eliminated the patient's hallucinations.

  7. Gestational trophoblastic disease: does central nervous system chemoprophylaxis have a role?

    OpenAIRE

    Gillespie, A.M.; Siddiqui, N; Coleman, R E; Hancock, B.W.

    1999-01-01

    In the UK there are standardized surveillance procedures for gestational trophoblastic disease. However, there are differences in practice between the two treatment centres in terms of definition of persistent gestational trophoblastic disease, prognostic risk assessment and chemotherapeutic regimens. The role of prophylactic chemotherapy for cerebral micrometastatic disease in persistent gestational trophoblastic disease is unclear. We have analysed the outcome of 69 patients with lung metas...

  8. Reliability among central readers in the evaluation of endoscopic findings from patients with Crohn's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khanna, Reena; Zou, Guangyong; D'Haens, Geert; Rutgeerts, Paul; McDonald, J. W. D.; Daperno, Marco; Feagan, Brian G.; Sandborn, William J.; Dubcenco, Elena; Stitt, Larry; Vandervoort, Margaret K.; Donner, Allan; Luo, Allison; Levesque, Barrett G.

    2016-01-01

    The Crohn's Disease Endoscopic Index of Severity (CDEIS) and Simple Endoscopic Score for Crohn's Disease (SES-CD) are commonly used to assess Crohn's disease (CD) activity; however, neither instrument has been fully validated. We assessed intra-rater and inter-rater reliability of these indices.

  9. Age at implantation and auditory memory in cochlear implanted children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikic, B; Miric, D; Nikolic-Mikic, M; Ostojic, S; Asanovic, M

    2014-05-01

    Early cochlear implantation, before the age of 3 years, provides the best outcome regarding listening, speech, cognition an memory due to maximal central nervous system plasticity. Intensive postoperative training improves not only auditory performance and language, but affects auditory memory as well. The aim of this study was to discover if the age at implantation affects auditory memory function in cochlear implanted children. A total of 50 cochlear implanted children aged 4 to 8 years were enrolled in this study: early implanted (1-3y) n = 27 and late implanted (4-6y) n = 23. Two types of memory tests were used: Immediate Verbal Memory Test and Forward and Backward Digit Span Test. Early implanted children performed better on both verbal and numeric tasks of auditory memory. The difference was statistically significant, especially on the complex tasks. Early cochlear implantation, before the age of 3 years, significantly improve auditory memory and contribute to better cognitive and education outcomes.

  10. Labyrinthine artery aneurysm as an internal auditory canal mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Rodney C; Konia, Thomas; Brunberg, James

    2014-08-01

    We present the first case report of a labyrinthine artery aneurysm masquerading as an internal auditory canal tumor. A 72-year-old woman presented with sudden onset right facial paralysis, facial pain, hearing loss, and vertigo. She demonstrated dense right-sided facial paralysis involving all branches of the facial nerve, left beating horizontal nystagmus, and anacusis of the right ear. Magnetic resonance imaging with contrast demonstrated a 6 × 7 mm peripherally enhancing lesion with lack of central uptake filling the right internal auditory canal. The patient elected to proceed with translabyrinthine approach to the internal auditory canal for definitive resection of the mass as well as to decompress the neural structures of the internal auditory canal in an attempt to recover neural function, particularly of the facial nerve. Intraoperatively, the internal auditory canal mass was resected with minimal difficulty, with intraoperative dissection notable for brisk bleeding at the medial base of the tumor just as the tumor was dissected off its medial fibrous attachments. Final pathology of the resected mass revealed a blood vessel with mucinous degeneration of the medial layer of the vessel wall, with immunohistochemical staining confirming the presence and structure of aneurysmal blood vessel.

  11. Investigation of auditory dysfunction in Leber hereditary optic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu-Wai-Man, Patrick; Elliott, Clive; Griffiths, Philip G; Johnson, Ian J; Chinnery, Patrick F

    2008-09-01

    To investigate the possibility of auditory dysfunction in patients with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). We prospectively recruited 10 affected patients from the north-east of England harbouring one of the three primary mitochondrial LHON mutations (3460G>A n = 3, 11778G>A n = 5 and 14484T>C n = 2). A detailed auditory history was taken and they were asked to complete a validated hearing questionnaire. Each patient then underwent a comprehensive topographic neuroauditory assessment to evaluate both middle- and inner-ear functions and the integrity of the brainstem auditory pathways. We found no evidence of cochlear nerve dysfunction or abnormalities of the central brainstem auditory pathways in our LHON cohort and five patients had completely normal hearing tests. The remainder had mild conductive hearing loss from childhood ear infections and/or high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss from previous noise injury. Although further studies are required to confirm our findings, auditory dysfunction as a result of a primary LHON mutation is probably uncommon.

  12. Auditory short-term memory in the primate auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Brian H; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2016-06-01

    Sounds are fleeting, and assembling the sequence of inputs at the ear into a coherent percept requires auditory memory across various time scales. Auditory short-term memory comprises at least two components: an active ׳working memory' bolstered by rehearsal, and a sensory trace that may be passively retained. Working memory relies on representations recalled from long-term memory, and their rehearsal may require phonological mechanisms unique to humans. The sensory component, passive short-term memory (pSTM), is tractable to study in nonhuman primates, whose brain architecture and behavioral repertoire are comparable to our own. This review discusses recent advances in the behavioral and neurophysiological study of auditory memory with a focus on single-unit recordings from macaque monkeys performing delayed-match-to-sample (DMS) tasks. Monkeys appear to employ pSTM to solve these tasks, as evidenced by the impact of interfering stimuli on memory performance. In several regards, pSTM in monkeys resembles pitch memory in humans, and may engage similar neural mechanisms. Neural correlates of DMS performance have been observed throughout the auditory and prefrontal cortex, defining a network of areas supporting auditory STM with parallels to that supporting visual STM. These correlates include persistent neural firing, or a suppression of firing, during the delay period of the memory task, as well as suppression or (less commonly) enhancement of sensory responses when a sound is repeated as a ׳match' stimulus. Auditory STM is supported by a distributed temporo-frontal network in which sensitivity to stimulus history is an intrinsic feature of auditory processing. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Auditory-olfactory synesthesia coexisting with auditory-visual synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Thomas E; Sandramouli, Soupramanien

    2012-09-01

    Synesthesia is an unusual condition in which stimulation of one sensory modality causes an experience in another sensory modality or when a sensation in one sensory modality causes another sensation within the same modality. We describe a previously unreported association of auditory-olfactory synesthesia coexisting with auditory-visual synesthesia. Given that many types of synesthesias involve vision, it is important that the clinician provide these patients with the necessary information and support that is available.

  14. Reactivity to Novel Autoantigens in Patients with Coexisting Central Nervous System Demyelinating Disease and Autoimmune Thyroid Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Judith M; Broadley, Simon; Pender, Michael P

    2017-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest a definite and unique link between CNS demyelinating diseases and autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD). The aim of the current study was to systematically compare the clinical and laboratory features of patients with coexistent AITD and CNS demyelinating disease with those of patients with just CNS demyelinating disease. Forty-four patients with coexisting CNS demyelinating disease and AITD were identified and their clinical and radiological features were recorded. Blood and DNA were collected and tested for HLA type and for the response of T cells and antibodies to a variety of antigens. Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) without AITD and healthy individuals were included as controls. Patients with coexisting AITD and CNS demyelinating disease were almost exclusively female (43/44) and had prominent spinal cord involvement as the main neurological finding. The HLA molecules carried by individuals with CNS demyelinating disease and AITD differed from both other MS patients and healthy individuals. Furthermore, patients with both CNS disease and AITD showed less T cell reactivity than patients with MS alone to myelin proteolipid protein, but, compared to other groups, showed elevated levels of T cell reactivity to the calcitonin gene-related peptide, which is present in both the CNS and the thyroid, and elevated levels of T cell and antibody to the leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 4 (LGR4), a molecule that is expressed in the brainstem and spinal cord, and which is a homolog of the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor. We suggest that reactivity of autoreactive immune cells in these patients against antigens present in both the thyroid and the spinal cord is a potential mechanism underlying the pattern of lesion development in the CNS in patients with coexisting AITD and MS and might indicate a novel mechanism of disease pathogenesis in these patients.

  15. Auditory Processing Training in Learning Disability

    OpenAIRE

    Nívea Franklin Chaves Martins; Hipólito Virgílio Magalhães Jr

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this case report was to promote a reflection about the importance of speech-therapy for stimulation a person with learning disability associated to language and auditory processing disorders. Data analysis considered the auditory abilities deficits identified in the first auditory processing test, held on April 30,2002 compared with the new auditory processing test done on May 13,2003,after one year of therapy directed to acoustic stimulation of auditory abilities disorders,in acco...

  16. Invasion of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) into central Africa: what consequences for emerging diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoagouni, Carine; Kamgang, Basile; Nakouné, Emmanuel; Paupy, Chistophe; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2015-03-31

    Aedes albopictus, a mosquito native to Asia, has invaded all five continents during the past three decades. It was reported in central Africa in the 2000s, first in Cameroon, and, since then, has colonised almost all countries of the region. The species, originally considered a secondary vector of dengue viruses, has been showed to play a major role in transmission of chikungunya virus in numerous countries, including in the central African region. We review the current spread of Ae. albopictus in central Africa, its larval ecology and its impact on indigenous species such as Ae. aegypti. We explore the potential of Ae. albopictus to affect the epidemiology of emerging or re-emerging arboviruses and discuss the conventional means for its control, while emphasizing the importance of data on its susceptibility to insecticides to cope with potential outbreaks.

  17. The oral health status of patients with renal disease in central India: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Vidhatri; Saxena, Vrinda; Bhambhal, Ajay; Tiwari, Utkarsh; Singh, Aishwarya; Goud, Siddana

    2013-12-01

    To compare prevalence of caries and periodontal disease amongst patients on renal dialysis with healthy individuals. A case-control study was conducted amongst 30 cases and 30 controls. Patients who were diagnosed with renal disease were included as cases and systemically healthy individuals as controls. Patients' perceptions of oral health were recorded using structured questionnaires. The WHO proforma (1997) was used to record the periodontal condition, caries status and the treatment need of each group. The number of people affected by periodontal disease (bleeding and calculus) was significantly higher amongst people with renal disease compared with controls (p periodontal disease amongst patients with renal disease as compared with healthy individuals. © 2013 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  18. A High Explanatory Power Model of Foot and Mouth Disease Spread in Central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    America. North America, Central America, Western Europe, Australia, and New Zealand are free of FMD. 4 Figure 2. Conjectured Status of FMD...animal, and biomedical sciences, Massey university, Palmerston North, New Zealand . Retrieved from www.interspreadplus.com/info.asp Steven, R. (2010...millions of animals. Susceptible animals include cattle, water buffalo, sheep , goats, pigs, antelope, deer, hedgehogs, elephants, llama, alpaca and

  19. [Infestation status Aedes albopictus and related mosquito-borne infectious disease risk in central urban area in Shanghai].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Q; Xiong, C L; Zhou, Y B; Cao, H; Jiang, Q W

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate Aedes albopictus infestation status in the central urban area of Shanghai, and analyze the related epidemic risk of mosquito-borne infectious disease. Consecutive mosquito surveillance was conducted in the green lands and residential areas in the central urban area of Shanghai during 2012-2014, the Aedes albopictus density and its seasonal fluctuation were observed; the sequence of Aedes albopictus in Shanghai was aligned with that in other epidemic area abroad, and the susceptibility of Aedes albopictus to mosquito-borne virus and endemic risk were analyzed. No Aedes aegypti was found in the central urban area of Shanghai. As predominant species in both the residential area and the green lands, the proportion of Aedes albopictus in the residential area was significantly higher than that in the green lands(78.53% vs. 19.99%, χ(2) =15 525.168, PAedes albopictus in Shanghai and Aedes albopictus in Africa was quite far. No Aedes aegypti was found in Shanghai and its surrounding areas, while Aedes albopictus infestation in the central urban area of Shanghai was serious. Strict measures should be taken to reduce the Aedes albopictus density for the effective control Zika virus spread.

  20. Auditory function in Duane's retraction syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, A; Chernoff, G; MacRae, D; Orton, R B; Cadera, W

    1990-01-15

    We obtained audiograms and auditory brainstem responses from 44 patients with Duane's retraction syndrome to assess the incidence and nature of hearing deficit. Of 44 patients, seven (15.9%) had evidence of hearing impairment. Three (6.8%) subjects had a temporary conductive hearing loss because of middle ear fluid, and another patient had hearing loss from Crouzon's disease. The remaining three (6.8%) patients demonstrated sensorineural hearing deficit. This hearing impairment was attributed to a cochlear lesion and not to a pontine lesion. We believe that the frequency of sensorineural hearing loss in these patients warrants hearing screening programs similar to those used for infants in neonatal intensive care units.

  1. Increased incidence of peptic ulcer disease in central serous chorioretinopathy patients: a population-based retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, San-Ni; Lian, Iebin; Chen, Yi-Chiao; Ho, Jau-Der

    2015-02-01

    To investigate peptic ulcer disease and other possible risk factors in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSR) using a population-based database. In this population-based retrospective cohort study, longitudinal data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database were analyzed. The study cohort comprised 835 patients with CSR and the control cohort comprised 4175 patients without CSR from January 2000 to December 2009. Conditional logistic regression was applied to examine the association of peptic ulcer disease and other possible risk factors for CSR, and stratified Cox regression models were applied to examine whether patients with CSR have an increased chance of peptic ulcer disease and hypertension development. The identifiable risk factors for CSR included peptic ulcer disease (adjusted odd ratio: 1.39, P = 0.001) and higher monthly income (adjusted odd ratio: 1.30, P = 0.006). Patients with CSR also had a significantly higher chance of developing peptic ulcer disease after the diagnosis of CSR (adjusted odd ratio: 1.43, P = 0.009). Peptic ulcer disease and higher monthly income are independent risk factors for CSR. Whereas, patients with CSR also had increased risk for peptic ulcer development.

  2. A central role for TOR signalling in a yeast model for juvenile CLN3 disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Bond

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Yeasts provide an excellent genetically tractable eukaryotic system for investigating the function of genes in their biological context, and are especially relevant for those conserved genes that cause disease. We study the role of btn1, the orthologue of a human gene that underlies an early onset neurodegenerative disease (juvenile CLN3 disease, neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCLs or Batten disease in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. A global screen for genetic interactions with btn1 highlighted a conserved key signalling hub in which multiple components functionally relate to this conserved disease gene. This signalling hub includes two major mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK cascades, and centers on the Tor kinase complexes TORC1 and TORC2. We confirmed that yeast cells modelling CLN3 disease exhibit features consistent with dysfunction in the TORC pathways, and showed that modulating TORC function leads to a comprehensive rescue of defects in this yeast disease model. The same pathways may be novel targets in the development of therapies for the NCLs and related diseases.

  3. Electrolytes profile of sickle-cell disease patients visiting the Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results are in support of the theory of red blood cell membrane dysfunction in sickle-cell disease with cation leakage across the cell membrane especially of K+ from the intercellular into the extracellular space. Keywords: Sickle-cell disease, electrolytes, potassium, chloride, sodium, bicarbonate, Nigeria International ...

  4. Central nervous system infectious diseases mimicking multiple sclerosis: recognizing distinguishable features using MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Jose da Rocha

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The current diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis (MS confirm the relevant role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, supporting the possibility of characterizing the dissemination in space (DIS and the dissemination in time (DIT in a single scan. To maintain the specificity of these criteria, it is necessary to determine whether T2/FLAIR visible lesions and the gadolinium enhancement can be attributed to diseases that mimic MS. Several diseases are included in the MS differential diagnosis list, including diseases with exacerbation, remitting periods and numerous treatable infectious diseases, which can mimic the MRI features of MS. We discuss the most relevant imaging features in several infectious diseases that resemble MS and examine the primary spatial distributions of lesions and the gadolinium enhancement patterns related to MS. Recognizing imaging "red flags" can be useful for the proper diagnostic evaluation of suspected cases of MS, facilitating the correct differential diagnosis by assessing the combined clinical, laboratory and MR imaging information.

  5. [Application of Brain-Boy Universal Professional in preliminary assessment of auditory processing disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowska, Joanna; Łobaczuk-Sitnik, Anna; Kosztyła-Hojna, Bożena

    2017-09-29

    Increasing numbers of hearing pathology is auditory processing disorders. Auditory Processing Disorders (APD) are defined as difficulty in using auditory information to communicate and learn in the presence of normal peripheral hearing. It may be recognized as a problem with understanding of speech in noise and perception disorder of distorted speech. APD may accompany to articulation disorders, language problems and difficulties in reading and writing. The diagnosis of auditory processing disorders causes many difficulties primarily due to the lack of common testing procedures, precise criteria for qualification to the group of norm and pathology. The Brain-Boy Universal Professional (BUP) is one of diagnostics tools. It enables to assess the higher auditory functions. The aim of the study was preliminary assessment of hearing difficulties that may suggest the occurrence of auditory processing disorders in children. The questionnaire of hearing difficulties and BUP was used. Study includes 20 participants 2nd grade students of elementary school. The examination of the basic central functions was carried out with BUP. The parents and teacher complete the questionnaire to evaluate the hearing problems. Studies carried out indicate that the 40% schoolchild have hearing difficulties. The high percentage of deficits in auditory functions was confirmed with research results of medical device and the questionnaire for teacher. On the basis of the studies conducted may establish that the Warnke Method can serve as preliminary assessment of hearing difficulties that may suggest the occurrence of auditory processing disorders in children.

  6. Household risk factors associated to infestation of Triatoma dimidiata, the Chagas disease vector in Central Region of Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Ruiz, César A; Guevara, Roger; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate risk factors facilitating the colonization of dwellings by Triatoma dimidiata in the central region of the state of Veracruz. We applied socioeconomic questionnaires and entomologic surveys in three localities (Chavarrillo, Soyacuautla and Arroyo Agrio) in central Veracruz involving 115 households. We found that the main risk factors were the predominance of unplastered walls and particularly those made of light weight aggregate concrete blocks and wood. At Chavarrillo, houses usually have unplastered walls, whereas in Soyocuautla walls are commonly manufactured with wood. In Arroyo Agrio, the phenomenon was seasonal, and bugs were commonly found in the dry season, particularly in relatively new houses, less than 20 years old. These results help to improve the surveillance capacity for this vector and the control strategies to reduce the transmission of Chagas disease in the state of Veracruz and other sites where this species is present.

  7. Potencial evocado cognitivo e desordem de processamento auditivo em crianças com distúrbios de leitura e escrita Cognitive evoked potentials and central auditory processing in children with reading and writing disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislaine Richter Minhoto Wiemes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available As dificuldades na aprendizagem escolar muitas vezes podem ser causadas por uma alteração do Processamento Auditivo - PA. OBJETIVO: Identificar se acima da média dos valores de latência do P300, num grupo de indivíduos com Distúrbio de Leitura e Escrita, também seriam encontradas alterações no teste Staggered Spondaic Word - SSW e no teste de Fala no Ruído que sugerissem Desordem do Processamento Auditivo - DPA. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Estudo de coorte transversal. Foram avaliados 21 indivíduos com distúrbio de leitura e escrita, idade entre 7 e 14 anos. RESULTADOS: Todos apresentaram resultados normais no exame otorrinolaringológico, na avaliação audiológica e Potencial Evocado Auditivo de Tronco Encefálico. Fazendo-se a média aritmética de todos os valores de latência do P300 obtidos, chegou-se à média de 334,25 ms, sendo divididos em dois grupos: grupo "A", com média da latência acima de 335 ms, e "B", com latência abaixo de 335 ms. Nos indivíduos do grupo "A", foram realizados os testes SSW e Fala no Ruído. CONCLUSÃO:O presente estudo pode concluir que foram encontradas alterações nos testes de fala dicótica (SSW e de Fala no Ruído no grupo de indivíduos com Distúrbio da Escrita e Leitura com valores de latência do P300 acima de 335 ms, sugerindo DPA.Learning disorders are often magnified by auditory processing disorders (APD. OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to verify whether individuals with reading and writing disorders and P300 latencies above the average also present altered Staggered Spondaic Word (SSW and speech-in-noise test results suggestive of APD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a cross-sectional cohort study. Twenty-one individuals with reading and writing disorders aged between 7 and 14 years were enrolled. RESULTS: All subjects had normal findings on ENT examination, audiological tests, and brainstem auditory evoked potentials. The average P300 latency (334,25 ms of all patients was picked as a cutoff

  8. Synaptic plasticity in the auditory system: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friauf, Eckhard; Fischer, Alexander U; Fuhr, Martin F

    2015-07-01

    Synaptic transmission via chemical synapses is dynamic, i.e., the strength of postsynaptic responses may change considerably in response to repeated synaptic activation. Synaptic strength is increased during facilitation, augmentation and potentiation, whereas a decrease in synaptic strength is characteristic for depression and attenuation. This review attempts to discuss the literature on short-term and long-term synaptic plasticity in the auditory brainstem of mammals and birds. One hallmark of the auditory system, particularly the inner ear and lower brainstem stations, is information transfer through neurons that fire action potentials at very high frequency, thereby activating synapses >500 times per second. Some auditory synapses display morphological specializations of the presynaptic terminals, e.g., calyceal extensions, whereas other auditory synapses do not. The review focuses on short-term depression and short-term facilitation, i.e., plastic changes with durations in the millisecond range. Other types of short-term synaptic plasticity, e.g., posttetanic potentiation and depolarization-induced suppression of excitation, will be discussed much more briefly. The same holds true for subtypes of long-term plasticity, like prolonged depolarizations and spike-time-dependent plasticity. We also address forms of plasticity in the auditory brainstem that do not comprise synaptic plasticity in a strict sense, namely short-term suppression, paired tone facilitation, short-term adaptation, synaptic adaptation and neural adaptation. Finally, we perform a meta-analysis of 61 studies in which short-term depression (STD) in the auditory system is opposed to short-term depression at non-auditory synapses in order to compare high-frequency neurons with those that fire action potentials at a lower rate. This meta-analysis reveals considerably less STD in most auditory synapses than in non-auditory ones, enabling reliable, failure-free synaptic transmission even at

  9. Auditory evoked potentials in patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, A M; Grady, C L; Pikus, A

    1987-06-01

    Dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT) disrupts the function of the central auditory nervous system as a result of temporal lobe pathology. Auditory brain stem response (ABR) and middle latency responses (MLR) were studied in a group of patients with DAT to determine whether a correlate of dementia existed in these electrophysiological potentials. Comparison of absolute and interwave latencies on ABR, and absolute latency and amplitude of the MLR in patients with DAT and normal aged controls showed no significant differences between groups for any measure. Further, no relationship with degree of dementia or temporal lobe involvement, as assessed through dichotic speech recognition studies, and auditory evoked potentials could be demonstrated. It was concluded that the temporal lobe atrophy and hypometabolism seen in DAT is not generally sufficient to disrupt the generating of ABR and MLR potentials; however, slow cortical and cognitive evoked potentials may be more sensitive to central auditory nervous system impairment in DAT.

  10. Hippocampal P3-Like Auditory Event-Related Potentials are Disrupted in a Rat Model of Cholinergic Degeneration in Alzheimer's Disease: Reversal by Donepezil Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Bettina; Mørk, Arne; Kristiansen, Uffe

    2014-01-01

    to several psychiatric and neurological diseases, e.g., Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, only a very limited number of rodent studies have addressed the back-translational validity of the P3-like ERPs as suitable markers of cognition. Thus, the potential of rodent P3-like ERPs to predict pro...... intracerebroventricular infusion of 1.25 μg SAP or PBS (sham lesion) and recording electrodes were implanted in hippocampal CA1. Relative to sham-lesioned rats, SAP-lesioned rats had significantly reduced amplitude of P3-like ERPs. P3 amplitude was significantly increased in SAP-treated rats following pre-treatment...... with 1 mg/kg donepezil. Infusion of SAP reduced the hippocampal choline acetyltransferase activity by 75%. Behaviorally defined cognitive performance was comparable between treatment groups. The present study suggests that AD-like deficits in P3-like ERPs may be mimicked by the basal forebrain...

  11. The Central Role of the Gut Microbiota in Chronic Inflammatory Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Marcantonio Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The commensal microbiota is in constant interaction with the immune system, teaching immune cells to respond to antigens. Studies in mice have demonstrated that manipulation of the intestinal microbiota alters host immune cell homeostasis. Additionally, metagenomic-sequencing analysis has revealed alterations in intestinal microbiota in patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease, asthma, and obesity. Perturbations in the microbiota composition result in a deficient immune response and impaired tolerance to commensal microorganisms. Due to altered microbiota composition which is associated to some inflammatory diseases, several strategies, such as the administration of probiotics, diet, and antibiotic usage, have been utilized to prevent or ameliorate chronic inflammatory diseases. The purpose of this review is to present and discuss recent evidence showing that the gut microbiota controls immune system function and onset, development, and resolution of some common inflammatory diseases.

  12. Transient “deafness” accompanies auditory development during metamorphosis from tadpole to frog

    OpenAIRE

    Boatright-Horowitz, Seth S.; Simmons, Andrea Megela

    1997-01-01

    During metamorphosis, ranid frogs shift from a purely aquatic to a partly terrestrial lifestyle. The central auditory system undergoes functional and neuroanatomical reorganization in parallel with the development of new sound conduction pathways adapted for the detection of airborne sounds. Neural responses to sounds can be recorded from the auditory midbrain of tadpoles shortly after hatching, with higher rates of synchronous neural activity and lower sharpness of tuning than observed in po...

  13. Central nervous system infectious diseases mimicking multiple sclerosis: recognizing distinguishable features using MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Jose da Rocha; Ingrid Aguiar Littig; Renato Hoffmann Nunes; Charles Peter Tilbery

    2013-01-01

    The current diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis (MS) confirm the relevant role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), supporting the possibility of characterizing the dissemination in space (DIS) and the dissemination in time (DIT) in a single scan. To maintain the specificity of these criteria, it is necessary to determine whether T2/FLAIR visible lesions and the gadolinium enhancement can be attributed to diseases that mimic MS. Several diseases are included in the MS differential diag...

  14. Brain network alterations in Alzheimer's disease measured by Eigenvector centrality in fMRI are related to cognition and CSF biomarkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binnewijzend, M.A.A.; Adriaanse, S.M.; van der Flier, W.M.; Teunissen, C.E.; de Munck, J.C.; Stam, C.J.; Scheltens, P.; van Berckel, B.N.M.; Barkhof, F.; Wink, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Recent imaging studies have demonstrated functional brain network changes in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Eigenvector centrality (EC) is a graph analytical measure that identifies prominent regions in the brain network hierarchy and detects localized differences between patient

  15. Central and peripheral nervous system immune mediated demyelinating disease after allogeneic hemopoietic stem cell transplantation for hematologic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delios, Anna Maria; Rosenblum, Marc; Jakubowski, Ann A; DeAngelis, Lisa M

    2012-11-01

    Immune mediated demyelinating disease (IMDD) after allogeneic hemopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) is rare and its etiology unclear. In this retrospective study, we identified patients who underwent HSCT between January 1992 and December 2010 and had IMDD post transplant. A total of 1,484 patients received HSCT and 7 (0.5 %) suffered from IMDD; five were men, and the median age was 54 years (range, 29-64 years). HSCT treated acute myeloid leukemia (n = 5), myelodysplastic syndrome (n = 1), and Waldenström macroglobulinemia (n = 1). All received an HLA matched donor graft, related (6), unrelated (1); from the bone marrow (1), peripheral blood stem cell (6); and T-cell depleted, ex vivo (6) or in vivo (1). The median time from transplant to neurologic symptoms was 120 days (range, 60-390 days). Three had acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis (ADEM), three acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculopathy (AIDP) and one autonomic neuropathy. Four of six patients tested had hemopoietic mixed chimerism prior to neurologic symptoms and low CD4(+) T-cell counts, median 76 (15-500 cells/μL). Two patients had simultaneous systemic graft versus host disease (GVHD). Two patients with ADEM had a spinal cord or brain biopsy which revealed demyelination. No patients had a viral etiology identified in the cerebrospinal fluid. Patients were treated with IV immunoglobulin, high dose steroids and/or rituximab. Five patients had a significant recovery. Response to immune modulators suggests an immune-based etiology. The incidence of de novo autoimmune disease after HSCT for hematological diseases is rare and may be difficult to differentiate from GVHD.

  16. Cholesteatoma associated with squamous cell carcinoma of the external auditory canal: Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olfa Ben Gamra

    2015-11-01

    Conclusion: SCC of the external auditory canal can mimic cholesteatoma. A precise diagnosis of the disease is important to predict the treatment outcome. Optimal management relies on early surgery and postoperative radiotherapy, thus offering the greatest chance of cure.

  17. Auditory evoked blink reflex in peripheral facial paresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayta, Semih; Sohtaoğlu, Melis; Uludüz, Derya; Uygunoğlu, Uğur; Tütüncü, Melih; Akalin, Mehmet Ali; Kiziltan, Meral E

    2015-02-01

    The auditory blink reflex (ABR) is a teleceptive reflex consisting of an early brief muscle contraction of the orbicularis oculi in response to sound stimuli. Constriction of the orbicularis oculi in response to auditory stimulation is accepted as a part of the startle reaction. The blink reflex and ABR might share a final common pathway, consisting of facial nerve nuclei and the facial nerve and may have common premotor neurons. In this study, the authors evaluated the value of the ABR in patients with peripheral facial palsy (PFP), cross-checking the results with commonly used blink reflex changes. In total, 83 subjects with PFP and 34 age-matched healthy volunteers were included. Auditory blink reflex was elicited in all control subjects and in 36 PFP cases on the paralytic sides (43.3%), whereas it was asymmetric in 30.1% of the patients. Auditory blink reflex positivity was significantly lower in PFP cases with increasing severity. Blink reflex results were largely correlated with ABR positivity. Auditory blink reflex is a useful readily elicited and sensitive test in PFP cases, providing parallel results to blink reflex and being affected by disease severity.

  18. Neural dynamics of phonological processing in the dorsal auditory stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebenthal, Einat; Sabri, Merav; Beardsley, Scott A; Mangalathu-Arumana, Jain; Desai, Anjali

    2013-09-25

    Neuroanatomical models hypothesize a role for the dorsal auditory pathway in phonological processing as a feedforward efferent system (Davis and Johnsrude, 2007; Rauschecker and Scott, 2009; Hickok et al., 2011). But the functional organization of the pathway, in terms of time course of interactions between auditory, somatosensory, and motor regions, and the hemispheric lateralization pattern is largely unknown. Here, ambiguous duplex syllables, with elements presented dichotically at varying interaural asynchronies, were used to parametrically modulate phonological processing and associated neural activity in the human dorsal auditory stream. Subjects performed syllable and chirp identification tasks, while event-related potentials and functional magnetic resonance images were concurrently collected. Joint independent component analysis was applied to fuse the neuroimaging data and study the neural dynamics of brain regions involved in phonological processing with high spatiotemporal resolution. Results revealed a highly interactive neural network associated with phonological processing, composed of functional fields in posterior temporal gyrus (pSTG), inferior parietal lobule (IPL), and ventral central sulcus (vCS) that were engaged early and almost simultaneously (at 80-100 ms), consistent with a direct influence of articulatory somatomotor areas on phonemic perception. Left hemispheric lateralization was observed 250 ms earlier in IPL and vCS than pSTG, suggesting that functional specialization of somatomotor (and not auditory) areas determined lateralization in the dorsal auditory pathway. The temporal dynamics of the dorsal auditory pathway described here offer a new understanding of its functional organization and demonstrate that temporal information is essential to resolve neural circuits underlying complex behaviors.

  19. Central obesity and survival in subjects with coronary artery disease: a systematic review of the literature and collaborative analysis with individual subject data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho, Thais; Goel, Kashish; Corrêa de Sá, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association of central (waist circumference [WC] and waist-hip ratio [WHR]) and total obesity (body mass index [BMI]) measures with mortality in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients.......The aim of this study was to examine the association of central (waist circumference [WC] and waist-hip ratio [WHR]) and total obesity (body mass index [BMI]) measures with mortality in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients....

  20. Hereditary retinal eye diseases in childhood and youth affecting the central retina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin M Nentwich

    2013-01-01

    Classic examinations for patients suffering from hereditary retinal dystrophies of the central retina are funduscopy - also using red-free light - visual-field tests, electrophysiologic tests as electro-retinogram [ERG] and multifocal ERG and tests evaluating color vision. Recently, new imaging modalities have been introduced into the clinical practice. The significance of these new methods such as high-resolution spectral-domain optic coherence tomography [SD-OCT] and fundus autofluorescence will be discussed as well as "next generation sequencing" as a new method for the analysis of genetic mutations in a larger number of patients.

  1. Functional abnormality of the auditory brainstem in high-risk late preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ze D; Ping, Li L; Wilkinson, Andrew R

    2012-05-01

    To examine whether late preterm infants with perinatal problems are at risk of brainstem auditory impairment. 68 high-risk late preterm infants (gestation 33-36 weeks) with perinatal problems or conditions were studied at term using maximum length sequence brainstem auditory evoked response. The controls were 41 normal term infants and 37 low-risk late preterm infants. Compared with normal term infants, the high-risk late preterm infants demonstrated a significant abnormal increase in MLS BAER variables that mainly reflect more central function of the brainstem auditory pathway, including wave V latency, III-V and I-V interpeak intervals, and III-V/I-III interval ratio. The abnormalities were more significant at higher than at lower click rates. The slopes of MLS BAER-rate function for these variables were increased. Compared with low-risk late preterm infants, the high-risk infants showed similar, though slightly less significant, abnormalities, mainly a significant increase in III-V and I-V intervals. Maximum length sequence brainstem auditory evoked response components that mainly reflect central function of the auditory brainstem were abnormal at term in high-risk late preterm infants. More central regions of the auditory brainstem are impaired in high-risk late preterm infants, which is mainly caused by associated perinatal problems or conditions. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Three-dimensional gadolinium-enhanced MR venography to evaluate central venous steno-occlusive disease in hemodialysis patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, K.; Jiang, H.; Zhai, R.Y.; Wang, J.F.; Wei, B.J. [Department of Radiology, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Huang, Q., E-mail: hq0713@163.com [Department of Radiology, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China)

    2012-06-15

    Aim: To determine the agreement and diagnostic accuracy of three-dimensional gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance venography (3D-Gd-MRV) in central venous steno-occlusive disease (CVSD) in haemodialysis patients. Materials and methods: Fourteen consecutive haemodialysis patients underwent interventional procedures to evaluate or treat CVSD. 3D-Gd-MRV was performed before the procedures and the results were compared with digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Results: DSA showed >50% stenosis in all 14 patients, 13 of whom were diagnosed correctly using 3D-Gd-MRV. Moderate stenosis was missed at 3D-Gd-MRV in one case whereby the indwelling dialysis central venous catheter may have caused an artefact on the images and hindered the accuracy of the result. The sensitivity of 3D-Gd-MRV in revealing stenosis was 93% (13/14). No complications caused by contrast agent toxicity occurred in any patient. Conclusion: 3D-Gd-MRV employing a non-breath-hold technique is highly sensitive in the diagnosis of CVSD and may be an alternative technique to DSA for the visualization of central veins.

  3. Survey of root rot diseases of sugar bett in Central Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karadimos Dimitros A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An extensive survey was conducted during the summer and autumn of 2004 in sugar beet fields in the area of Larissa, Thessaly region, with plants showing symptoms of root rot diseases. The aim of the monitoring was to identify the causal agents of root rot diseases. In total, 76 sugar beet fields were surveyed and 5-10 diseased roots were examined from each field. Isolations, carried out on PDA, showed that two main fungal pathogens causing root rot were Rhizoctonia solani and Phytophthora cryptogea. The former was isolated in 46% of the fields and the latter in 38% of the fields. In addition, Rhizopus stolonifer, Fusarium spp., Scerotium rolfsii and Rhizoctonia violacea were isolated in 14%, 7%, 4% and 1% of the fields respectively. In most of the surveyed fields only one pathogen species was isolated and only in a few of them more than one fungal species was identified.

  4. Central melanocortins and the regulation of weight during acute and chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, D L; Cone, R D

    2001-01-01

    Recent advances in our understanding of the regulation of body weight, appetite, and metabolic rate have highlighted the role of the adipose-derived hormone leptin and its receptor as fundamental modulators of these processes. Investigations of the neural targets for leptin action--as well as characterization of the agouti obesity syndrome--have, in turn, led to the discovery of fundamental neural pathways involved in the central regulation of energy homeostasis. In particular, the central melanocortin system has been shown to regulate appetite and metabolic rate in rodents; mutations in this system have been demonstrated to result in obesity in humans. Overall, the melanocortin system appears to function as a bidirectional rheostat in the regulation of energy intake and expenditure in rodents and potentially in humans. The first section of this chapter will focus on the development of our understanding of melanocortin physiology in the context of obesity. In particular, recent data regarding the interplay between melanocortin and neuropeptide Y (NPY) signaling at a cellular level will be discussed. The following section will discuss the hypothesis that melanocortin signaling plays a role in pathological weight loss and hypermetabolism observed in murine cachexia models. The potential role of this system in integrating a variety of anorexic and cachexic signals, as well as the potential for its pharmacological manipulation in the treatment of human cachexia, will be discussed.

  5. Lack of differential pattern in central adiposity and metabolic syndrome in Barrett's esophagus and gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, L A; Ryan, A M; Pidgeon, G; Ravi, N; Reynolds, J V

    2010-07-01

    Obesity is an established risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma, although the mechanism is unclear. A pathway from reflux to inflammation through metaplasia is the dominant hypothesis, and an added role relating to visceral adiposity and the metabolic syndrome has been mooted in Barrett's esophagus (BE) patients. Whether BE differs from gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in obesity and metabolic syndrome profiles is unclear, and this was the focus of this study. Patients with proven BE or GERD were randomly selected from the unit data registry and invited to attend for metabolic syndrome screening, anthropometry studies including segmental body composition analysis, and laboratory tests including fasting lipids, insulin, and C-reactive protein. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. One hundred and eighteen BE patients and 113 age- and sex-matched GERD controls were studied. The incidence of obesity (body mass index >30 kg/m(2)) was 36% and 38%, respectively, with the pattern of fat deposition predominantly central and an estimated trunk fat mass of 13 and 14 kg, respectively. Using the NCEP criteria, metabolic syndrome was significantly more common in the BE cohort (30% vs 20%, P metabolic syndrome are common in both Barrett's and GERD cohorts, but not significantly different, suggesting that central obesity and the metabolic syndrome does not per se impact on the development of BE in a reflux population. In BE, the importance of obesity and the metabolic syndrome in disease progression merits further study.

  6. Chronic Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in Mountaintop Mining Areas of Central Appalachian States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esch, Laura; Hendryx, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if chronic cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality rates are higher among residents of mountaintop mining (MTM) areas compared to mining and nonmining areas, and to examine the association between greater levels of MTM surface mining and CVD mortality. Methods: Age-adjusted chronic CVD mortality rates from 1999 to 2006 for…

  7. Lack of differential pattern in central adiposity and metabolic syndrome in Barrett's esophagus and gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Healy, L A

    2012-02-01

    Obesity is an established risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma, although the mechanism is unclear. A pathway from reflux to inflammation through metaplasia is the dominant hypothesis, and an added role relating to visceral adiposity and the metabolic syndrome has been mooted in Barrett\\'s esophagus (BE) patients. Whether BE differs from gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in obesity and metabolic syndrome profiles is unclear, and this was the focus of this study. Patients with proven BE or GERD were randomly selected from the unit data registry and invited to attend for metabolic syndrome screening, anthropometry studies including segmental body composition analysis, and laboratory tests including fasting lipids, insulin, and C-reactive protein. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. One hundred and eighteen BE patients and 113 age- and sex-matched GERD controls were studied. The incidence of obesity (body mass index >30 kg\\/m(2)) was 36% and 38%, respectively, with the pattern of fat deposition predominantly central and an estimated trunk fat mass of 13 and 14 kg, respectively. Using the NCEP criteria, metabolic syndrome was significantly more common in the BE cohort (30% vs 20%, P < 0.05), but there was no significant difference using IDF criteria (42% vs 37%, P= 0.340). Central obesity and the metabolic syndrome are common in both Barrett\\'s and GERD cohorts, but not significantly different, suggesting that central obesity and the metabolic syndrome does not per se impact on the development of BE in a reflux population. In BE, the importance of obesity and the metabolic syndrome in disease progression merits further study.

  8. Diagnostic value of color doppler ultrasonography in detecting stenosis and occlusion of central veins in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rad, Masoud Pezeshki; Kazemzadeh, Gholam Hosain; Ziaee, Masood; Azarkar, Ghodsieh

    2015-03-01

    Venography is an invasive diagnostic test that uses contrast material that provides a picture of the condition of the veins. But, complications, including adverse effects on the kidney, do occur. On the other hand, with the current technological development, application of ultrasound in the diagnosis of obstructive diseases of the veins is gaining popularity, being non-invasive, easy to perform and cost-effective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of Doppler sonography in the diagnosis of central vein stenosis. In this descriptive-analytical study, 41 hemodialysis patients who had been referred for 50 upper limb venographies to the radiology department of Imam Reza (AS) were included. Patients with chronic kidney disease with a history of catheterization of the vein, jugular or subclavian, and who had established fistulas or synthetic vascular grafts were targeted. Central venous ultrasound was performed on both sides to evaluate stenosis or occlusion. Venography was performed by the radiologist the next day or the day before hemodialysis. Data on demographic characteristics, findings of clinical examination and findings of ultrasound as well as venography were recorded by using the SPSS software, Chi-square test and Spearman correlation, and Kappa agreement was calculated for sensitivity, specificity and predictive values. Twenty-three (56%) patients were male subjects and 18 patients (44%) were female. Twenty-three (56%) patients of the study population were aged 60 years. The overall sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value and negative predictive value of Doppler sonography in the proximal veins in hemodialysis patients compared with venography were, respectively, 80.9%, 79.3%, 73.9% and 85.1%. Color Doppler sonography, as a non-invasive method, could be a good alternative for venography in the assessment of the upper limb with central vein stenosis and occlusion.

  9. Diagnostic value of color doppler ultrasonography in detecting stenosis and occlusion of central veins in patients with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Pezeshki Rad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Venography is an invasive diagnostic test that uses contrast material that provides a picture of the condition of the veins. But, complications, including adverse effects on the kidney, do occur. On the other hand, with the current technological development, application of ultrasound in the diagnosis of obstructive diseases of the veins is gaining popularity, being non-invasive, easy to perform and cost-effective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of Doppler sonography in the diagnosis of central vein stenosis. In this descriptive-analytical study, 41 hemodialysis patients who had been referred for 50 upper limb venographies to the radiology department of Imam Reza (AS were included. Patients with chronic kidney disease with a history of catheterization of the vein, jugular or subclavian, and who had established fistulas or synthetic vascular grafts were targeted. Central venous ultrasound was performed on both sides to evaluate stenosis or occlusion. Venography was performed by the radiologist the next day or the day before hemodialysis. Data on demographic characteristics, findings of clinical examination and findings of ultrasound as well as venography were recorded by using the SPSS software, Chi-square test and Spearman correlation, and Kappa agreement was calculated for sensitivity, specificity and predictive values. Twenty-three (56% patients were male subjects and 18 patients (44% were female. Twenty-three (56% patients of the study population were aged 60 years. The overall sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value and negative predictive value of Doppler sonography in the proximal veins in hemodialysis patients compared with venography were, respectively, 80.9%, 79.3%, 73.9% and 85.1%. Color Doppler sonography, as a non-invasive method, could be a good alternative for venography in the assessment of the upper limb with central vein stenosis and occlusion.

  10. Prevalence of noncommunicable diseases in Zimbabwe: results from analysis of data from the National Central Registry and Urban Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mufunda, Jacob; Chatora, Rufaro; Ndambakuwa, Yustina; Nyarango, Peter; Chifamba, Jephat; Kosia, Andrew; Sparks, Harvey V

    2006-01-01

    The disease burden from noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in Africa is rapidly increasing based on projections from a limited number of reports. In the absence of national health surveys in Zimbabwe, all data nationally generated between 1990 and 1997 were analyzed. From 1990 to 1997, prevalence rates (expressed per 100,000 people) of hypertension increased from 1000 to 4000, rates of diabetes increased from 150 to 550, and rates of cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) increased from 5 to 15. The case fatality rate (CFR) for CVA decreased substantially during the period of study, implying improved case management of the disease, while the CFR for most other diseases did not change significantly throughout the study period. The observation of increased prevalence of some NCDs during the study period was corroborated by findings from a blood pressure survey subsequently conducted in an urban environment of Zimbabwe, which revealed a hypertension (blood pressure > or =140/90 mm Hg) prevalence of 35% in women and 24% in men. In spite of the limitations of the centrally generated hospital-based data, its analysis is still valuable. Countries are therefore encouraged to utilize this easily accessible resource for policy formulation and resource mobilization.

  11. Prevalence of musculoskeletal diseases in Guatemala, Central America: the COPCORD study of 2 populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obregón-Ponce, Ariel; Iraheta, Isa; García-Ferrer, Helga; Mejia, Bayardo; García-Kutzbach, Abraham

    2012-06-01

    Guatemala is a multiethnic, multilingual, and multicultural country. We have evaluated 2 different ethnic groups from (1) San Juan Sacatepéquez County (SJSC), a rural population (30% illiterate), with 65% from Kaqchiquel ethnic group; and (2) Zone 5 of Guatemala City (Z5GC), an urban population (6.6% illiterate), with 95.5% mestizos. This study aimed to measure simultaneously the prevalence of rheumatic diseases in these 2 Guatemalan populations, both located in the State of Guatemala. A convenience sample of 4000 inhabitants 15 years and older was selected in each group. The Core Community Oriented Program for Control of Rheumatic Diseases Questionnaire was used in this survey. Phase 1 was for screening (identification of study subjects), phase 2 was for obtaining information from subjects with musculoskeletal complaints, and phase 3 was for rheumatologic diagnostic purposes. Phases 1 and 2 were performed by 6 interviewers. Phase 3 was completed by 4 rheumatologists. In phase I, 8000 subjects were identified in both groups. In phase II, 949 subjects reported musculoskeletal complaints: 371 (39%) in Z5GC and 578 (61%) in SJSC. In phase III, 419 patients were clinically evaluated: 141 (34%) in Z5GC and 278 (66%) in SJSC. The most prevalent musculoskeletal diseases were (1) osteoarthritis, (2) soft tissue rheumatism, (3) rheumatoid arthritis, (4) low back pain, and (5) arthralgias of unknown etiology. Osteoarthritis and soft tissue rheumatism were significantly more common in the rural population. The most prevalent musculoskeletal diseases in Guatemala seem to be similar to those in most previous Community Oriented Program for Control of Rheumatic Diseases studies. Most subjects were still working. Further studies examining medical care received and impact on function can now be of interest.

  12. Weight gain and increased central obesity in the early phase of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikdahl, Magdalena; Carlsson, Maine; Linder, Jan; Forsgren, Lars; Håglin, Lena

    2014-12-01

    Weight loss is strongly associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) and impacts symptoms and disease progression. The aim of this study was to describe changes in body composition and to explore how body weight (BW), relates to disease progression and medication in the early phase of PD. Participants in a prospective community-based case-control study of PD were followed-up three years after initial diagnosis. Anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS) measurements were used together with Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), a 24-h recall (24-HR) and a 3-day food registration (3-DFR) to complete the evaluation of nutritional status. Disease severity was assessed using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor score (UPDRS III), and the Hoehn and Yahr rating. The PD patients' BW gained 1.62 kg (±4.60, P = 0.009), an increase that significantly correlated with fat mass (FM) (r = 0.74), waist size (r = 0.65), waist/height ratio (r = 0.64), and total skin fold (r = 0.77). Linear regression showed an association between change in BW and physical activity level (PAL) (B = -8.554; P = 0.025) confirmed by the multiple linear regression. Linear regression also revealed an association between change in FM and MMSE (B = 0.654; P = 0.027). In early PD, weight gain was revealed over three years accompanied by an increase in FM and waist circumference. An inverse relation was revealed between change in BW and PAL. The MMSE, UPDRS III, and Hoehn and Yahr rating were unchanged. Medication and swallowing difficulties were not associated with change in BW. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  13. Devices and Procedures for Auditory Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Daniel

    1986-01-01

    The article summarizes information on assistive devices (hearing aids, cochlear implants, tactile aids, visual aids) and rehabilitation procedures (auditory training, speechreading, cued speech, and speech production) to aid the auditory learning of the hearing impaired.(DB)

  14. Auditory adaptation improves tactile frequency perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crommett, L.E.; Pérez Bellido, A.; Yau, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Our ability to process temporal frequency information by touch underlies our capacity to perceive and discriminate surface textures. Auditory signals, which also provide extensive temporal frequency information, can systematically alter the perception of vibrations on the hand. How auditory signals

  15. Central Dog-ma Disease Detectives: A Molecular Biology Inquiry Activity for Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, T. K.; Yuh, P.; Black, F.

    2010-12-01

    The Minority Access to Research Careers (MARC) and Minority Biomedical Research Support (MBRS) are programs at the University of California at Santa Cruz designed to support minority undergraduate students majoring in the sciences. Each summer MARC/MBRS sponsors a Summer Institute that involves week long "rotations" with different faculty mentors. In 2008, the Center for Adaptive Optics (CfAO) Professional Development Program (PDP) was responsible for overseeing one week of the Summer Institute, and designed it to be a Biomedical Short Course. As part of this short course, we designed a four-hour activity in which students collected their own data and explored relationships between the basic biomolecules DNA, RNA, and protein. The goal was to have the students use experimental data to support their explanation of the "Central Dogma" of molecular biology. Here we describe details of our activity and provide a post-teaching reflection on its success.

  16. Auditory learning: a developmental method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yilu; Weng, Juyang; Hwang, Wey-Shiuan

    2005-05-01

    Motivated by the human autonomous development process from infancy to adulthood, we have built a robot that develops its cognitive and behavioral skills through real-time interactions with the environment. We call such a robot a developmental robot. In this paper, we present the theory and the architecture to implement a developmental robot and discuss the related techniques that address an array of challenging technical issues. As an application, experimental results on a real robot, self-organizing, autonomous, incremental learner (SAIL), are presented with emphasis on its audition perception and audition-related action generation. In particular, the SAIL robot conducts the auditory learning from unsegmented and unlabeled speech streams without any prior knowledge about the auditory signals, such as the designated language or the phoneme models. Neither available before learning starts are the actions that the robot is expected to perform. SAIL learns the auditory commands and the desired actions from physical contacts with the environment including the trainers.

  17. Auditory presentation of experimental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunney, David; Morrison, Robert C.

    1990-08-01

    Our research group has been working for several years on the development of auditory alternatives to visual graphs, primarily in order to give blind science students and scientists access to instrumental measurements. In the course of this work we have tried several modes for auditory presentation of data: synthetic speech, tones of varying pitch, complex waveforms, electronic music, and various non-musical sounds. Our most successful translation of data into sound has been presentation of infrared spectra as musical patterns. We have found that if the stick spectra of two compounds are visibly different, their musical patterns will be audibly different. Other possibilities for auditory presentation of data are also described, among them listening to Fourier transforms of spectra, and encoding data in complex waveforms (including synthetic speech).

  18. Context effects on auditory distraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sufen; Sussman, Elyse S.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to test the hypothesis that sound context modulates the magnitude of auditory distraction, indexed by behavioral and electrophysiological measures. Participants were asked to identify tone duration, while irrelevant changes occurred in tone frequency, tone intensity, and harmonic structure. Frequency deviants were randomly intermixed with standards (Uni-Condition), with intensity deviants (Bi-Condition), and with both intensity and complex deviants (Tri-Condition). Only in the Tri-Condition did the auditory distraction effect reflect the magnitude difference among the frequency and intensity deviants. The mixture of the different types of deviants in the Tri-Condition modulated the perceived level of distraction, demonstrating that the sound context can modulate the effect of deviance level on processing irrelevant acoustic changes in the environment. These findings thus indicate that perceptual contrast plays a role in change detection processes that leads to auditory distraction. PMID:23886958

  19. Auditory Hallucinations in Acute Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yair Lampl

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Auditory hallucinations are uncommon phenomena which can be directly caused by acute stroke, mostly described after lesions of the brain stem, very rarely reported after cortical strokes. The purpose of this study is to determine the frequency of this phenomenon. In a cross sectional study, 641 stroke patients were followed in the period between 1996–2000. Each patient underwent comprehensive investigation and follow-up. Four patients were found to have post cortical stroke auditory hallucinations. All of them occurred after an ischemic lesion of the right temporal lobe. After no more than four months, all patients were symptom-free and without therapy. The fact the auditory hallucinations may be of cortical origin must be taken into consideration in the treatment of stroke patients. The phenomenon may be completely reversible after a couple of months.

  20. Octave effect in auditory attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borra, Tobias; Versnel, Huib; Kemner, Chantal; van Opstal, A John; van Ee, Raymond

    2013-09-17

    After hearing a tone, the human auditory system becomes more sensitive to similar tones than to other tones. Current auditory models explain this phenomenon by a simple bandpass attention filter. Here, we demonstrate that auditory attention involves multiple pass-bands around octave-related frequencies above and below the cued tone. Intriguingly, this "octave effect" not only occurs for physically presented tones, but even persists for the missing fundamental in complex tones, and for imagined tones. Our results suggest neural interactions combining octave-related frequencies, likely located in nonprimary cortical regions. We speculate that this connectivity scheme evolved from exposure to natural vibrations containing octave-related spectral peaks, e.g., as produced by vocal cords.

  1. Exposure to electromagnetic fields and the risk of disease in the central nervous system in employees at Danish electric companies; Udsaettelse for elektromagnetiske felter og risiko for sygdomme i det centrale nervesystem blandt ansatte ved danske elselskaber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansen, Christoffer

    2002-07-01

    Introduction: Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields has been associated with neurological diseases, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, senile dementia, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Material and method: I studied the incidence of disease in the central nervous system in 30,631 persons employed at Danish electric companies between 1900 and 1993. I linked the cohort to the nationwide, population-based Danish National Register of Patients and compared the number of cases of these diseases found between 1978 and 1993 with the corresponding rates in the general population. In addition, I fit the data on utility workers to a multiplicative Poisson regression model in relation to estimated levels of exposure to 50 Hz electromagnetic fields. Results: Overall, there was an increase in the risk of senile dementia and motor neuron diseases combined. The incidence of Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and other diseases of the central nervous system were essentially unrelated to exposure to electromagnetic fields. A decreased risk of epilepsy compared with the general population probably reflects a healthy worker effects; I observed an increased risk of epilepsy based on internal comparisons. Discussion: The increased risk of senile dementia and motor-neuron diseases may be associated with above average levels of exposure to electromagnetic fields. (au)

  2. Endemic infectious diseases in pregnant women in central African Gabon: Epidemiology and Evaluation of new Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Capan Melser, Mesküre

    2015-01-01

    Malaria is one of the most important infectious diseases with high morbidity rates particularly in young children and in pregnant women in Sub-Saharan Africa. Intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) is an effective way to reduce morbidity of malaria in pregnancy and to reduce neonatal morbidity. Sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP) is the recommended drug for IPTp in sub-Saharan Africa. Because of increasing resistance against SP there is a need to develop alternative drugs to replac...

  3. Central syntropic effects elicited by trigeminal proprioceptive equilibrium in Alzheimer’s disease: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Cicco Vincenzo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The presented patient, affected by Alzheimer’s disease, underwent neuropsychological evaluation and functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation under occlusal proprioceptive un-balance and re-balance conditions. Saccadic and pupillometric video-oculographic examinations were performed in order to detect connected trigeminal proprioceptive motor patterns able to interfere with reticular formation cerebellum functions linked to visual and procedural processes prematurely altered in Alzheimer’s disease. Case presentation A 66-year-old Caucasian man, affected by Alzheimer’s disease and with a neuropsychological evaluation issued by the Alzheimer’s Evaluation Unit, underwent an electromyographic investigation of the masseter muscles in order to assess their functional balance. The patient showed a bilateral lack of all inferior molars. The extreme myoelectric asymmetry in dental occlusion suggested the rebalancing of masseter muscular functions through concurrent transcutaneous stimulation of the trigeminal nerve supramandibular and submandibular motor branches. The above-mentioned method allows detection of symmetric craniomandibular muscular relation that can be kept constant through the use of a cusp bite modeled on the inferior dental arch, called orthotic-syntropic bite. A few days later, the patient underwent a new neuropsychological investigation, together with a functional magnetic resonance imaging study, and saccadic, pupillometric video-oculographic examinations in occlusal un-balance and re-balance conditions. Conclusions Comparative data analysis has shown that a re-balanced occlusal condition can improve a patient’s cognitive-attentive functions. Moreover, the saccadic and pupillometric video-oculographic investigations have proven useful both in analyzing reticulo-cerebellar subcortical systems, prematurely altered in Alzheimer’s disease, and in implementing neurological evaluations.

  4. Redirecting N-acetylaspartate metabolism in the central nervous system normalizes myelination and rescues Canavan disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessler, Dominic J; Li, Danning; Xu, Hongxia; Su, Qin; Sanmiguel, Julio; Tuncer, Serafettin; Moore, Constance; King, Jean; Matalon, Reuben; Gao, Guangping

    2017-02-09

    Canavan disease (CD) is a debilitating and lethal leukodystrophy caused by mutations in the aspartoacylase (ASPA) gene and the resulting defect in N-acetylaspartate (NAA) metabolism in the CNS and peripheral tissues. Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) has the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier and widely transduce the CNS. We developed a rAAV-based and optimized gene replacement therapy, which achieves early, complete, and sustained rescue of the lethal disease phenotype in CD mice. Our treatment results in a super-mouse phenotype, increasing motor performance of treated CD mice beyond that of WT control mice. We demonstrate that this rescue is oligodendrocyte independent, and that gene correction in astrocytes is sufficient, suggesting that the establishment of an astrocyte-based alternative metabolic sink for NAA is a key mechanism for efficacious disease rescue and the super-mouse phenotype. Importantly, the use of clinically translatable high-field imaging tools enables the noninvasive monitoring and prediction of therapeutic outcomes for CD and might enable further investigation of NAA-related cognitive function.

  5. Critical role of somatostatin receptor 2 in the vulnerability of the central noradrenergic system: new aspects on Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ádori, Csaba; Glück, Laura; Barde, Swapnali; Yoshitake, Takashi; Kovacs, Gabor G; Mulder, Jan; Maglóczky, Zsófia; Havas, László; Bölcskei, Kata; Mitsios, Nicholas; Uhlén, Mathias; Szolcsányi, János; Kehr, Jan; Rönnbäck, Annica; Schwartz, Thue; Rehfeld, Jens F; Harkany, Tibor; Palkovits, Miklós; Schulz, Stefan; Hökfelt, Tomas

    2015-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease and other age-related neurodegenerative disorders are associated with deterioration of the noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC), a probable trigger for mood and memory dysfunction. LC noradrenergic neurons exhibit particularly high levels of somatostatin binding sites. This is noteworthy since cortical and hypothalamic somatostatin content is reduced in neurodegenerative pathologies. Yet a possible role of a somatostatin signal deficit in the maintenance of noradrenergic projections remains unknown. Here, we deployed tissue microarrays, immunohistochemistry, quantitative morphometry and mRNA profiling in a cohort of Alzheimer's and age-matched control brains in combination with genetic models of somatostatin receptor deficiency to establish causality between defunct somatostatin signalling and noradrenergic neurodegeneration. In Alzheimer's disease, we found significantly reduced somatostatin protein expression in the temporal cortex, with aberrant clustering and bulging of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive afferents. As such, somatostatin receptor 2 (SSTR2) mRNA was highly expressed in the human LC, with its levels significantly decreasing from Braak stages III/IV and onwards, i.e., a process preceding advanced Alzheimer's pathology. The loss of SSTR2 transcripts in the LC neurons appeared selective, since tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine β-hydroxylase, galanin or galanin receptor 3 mRNAs remained unchanged. We modeled these pathogenic changes in Sstr2(-/-) mice and, unlike in Sstr1(-/-) or Sstr4(-/-) genotypes, they showed selective, global and progressive degeneration of their central noradrenergic projections. However, neuronal perikarya in the LC were found intact until late adulthood (<8 months) in Sstr2(-/-) mice. In contrast, the noradrenergic neurons in the superior cervical ganglion lacked SSTR2 and, as expected, the sympathetic innervation of the head region did not show any signs of degeneration. Our results indicate that SSTR2

  6. [Pathophysiology of auditory and speech perception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauman, René

    2009-05-20

    Auditory perception or hearing can be defined as the interpretation of sensory evidence, produced by the ears in response to sound, in terms of the events that caused the sound. We do not hear a window but we may hear a window closing. We do not hear a dog but we may hear a dog barking. And we do not hear a person but we may hear a person talking. Hearing impairment can result in anxiety or stress in everyday life. Pure-tone hearing loss (or threshold shift) is a measure of hearing impairment. Aging and excessive noise are the main causes of hearing impairment. Speech perception is another concept. The difference with the former is best illustrated by the disabled individual declaring "I can hear that someone is talking to me, but I don't understand what she says". Being unable to understand easily and clearly significant others, especially in understanding speech in a noisy environment, can give rise to considerable psychosocial and professional consequences (disability). Presbycusis is the decline in hearing sensitivity caused by the aging process at different levels of the auditory system. However, it is difficult to isolate age effects from other contributors to age-related hearing loss such as noise damage, genetic susceptibility, inflammatory otologic disorders, and ototoxic agents. Therefore, presbycusis and age-related hearing loss are often used synonymously. In this report pathophysiology is mostly described with regard to presbycusis, and the main peripheral types of presbycusis (sensory or Corti organ-related, strial, and neural) are summarized. An original experimental model of strial presbycusis, based on chronic application of furosemide at the round window, is further described. Central presbycusis is mainly determined by degeneration secondary to peripheral impairment (concept of deafferentation). Central auditory changes typically affect speed of processing and result in poorer speech understanding in noise or with rapid or degraded speech. Last

  7. Temporal Organization of Sound Information in Auditory Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Song

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Memory is a constructive and organizational process. Instead of being stored with all the fine details, external information is reorganized and structured at certain spatiotemporal scales. It is well acknowledged that time plays a central role in audition by segmenting sound inputs into temporal chunks of appropriate length. However, it remains largely unknown whether critical temporal structures exist to mediate sound representation in auditory memory. To address the issue, here we designed an auditory memory transferring study, by combining a previously developed unsupervised white noise memory paradigm with a reversed sound manipulation method. Specifically, we systematically measured the memory transferring from a random white noise sound to its locally temporal reversed version on various temporal scales in seven experiments. We demonstrate a U-shape memory-transferring pattern with the minimum value around temporal scale of 200 ms. Furthermore, neither auditory perceptual similarity nor physical similarity as a function of the manipulating temporal scale can account for the memory-transferring results. Our results suggest that sounds are not stored with all the fine spectrotemporal details but are organized and structured at discrete temporal chunks in long-term auditory memory representation.

  8. Temporal Organization of Sound Information in Auditory Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kun; Luo, Huan

    2017-01-01

    Memory is a constructive and organizational process. Instead of being stored with all the fine details, external information is reorganized and structured at certain spatiotemporal scales. It is well acknowledged that time plays a central role in audition by segmenting sound inputs into temporal chunks of appropriate length. However, it remains largely unknown whether critical temporal structures exist to mediate sound representation in auditory memory. To address the issue, here we designed an auditory memory transferring study, by combining a previously developed unsupervised white noise memory paradigm with a reversed sound manipulation method. Specifically, we systematically measured the memory transferring from a random white noise sound to its locally temporal reversed version on various temporal scales in seven experiments. We demonstrate a U-shape memory-transferring pattern with the minimum value around temporal scale of 200 ms. Furthermore, neither auditory perceptual similarity nor physical similarity as a function of the manipulating temporal scale can account for the memory-transferring results. Our results suggest that sounds are not stored with all the fine spectrotemporal details but are organized and structured at discrete temporal chunks in long-term auditory memory representation. PMID:28674512

  9. Plasticity of peripheral auditory frequency sensitivity in Emei music frog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dian; Cui, Jianguo; Tang, Yezhong

    2012-01-01

    In anurans reproductive behavior is strongly seasonal. During the spring, frogs emerge from hibernation and males vocalize for mating or advertising territories. Female frogs have the ability to evaluate the quality of the males' resources on the basis of these vocalizations. Although studies revealed that central single torus semicircularis neurons in frogs exhibit season plasticity, the plasticity of peripheral auditory sensitivity in frog is unknown. In this study the seasonally plasticity of peripheral auditory sensitivity was test in the Emei music frog Babina daunchina, by comparing thresholds and latencies of auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) evoked by tone pips and clicks in the reproductive and non-reproductive seasons. The results show that both ABR thresholds and latency differ significantly between the reproductive and non-reproductive seasons. The thresholds of tone pip evoked ABRs in the non-reproductive season increased significantly about 10 dB than those in the reproductive season for frequencies from 1 KHz to 6 KHz. ABR latencies to waveform valley values for tone pips for the same frequencies using appropriate threshold stimulus levels are longer than those in the reproductive season for frequencies from 1.5 to 6 KHz range, although from 0.2 to 1.5 KHz range it is shorter in the non-reproductive season. These results demonstrated that peripheral auditory frequency sensitivity exhibits seasonal plasticity changes which may be adaptive to seasonal reproductive behavior in frogs.

  10. Cortical development and neuroplasticity in Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder.

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    Sharma, Anu; Cardon, Garrett

    2015-12-01

    Cortical development is dependent to a large extent on stimulus-driven input. Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder (ANSD) is a recently described form of hearing impairment where neural dys-synchrony is the predominant characteristic. Children with ANSD provide a unique platform to examine the effects of asynchronous and degraded afferent stimulation on cortical auditory neuroplasticity and behavioral processing of sound. In this review, we describe patterns of auditory cortical maturation in children with ANSD. The disruption of cortical maturation that leads to these various patterns includes high levels of intra-individual cortical variability and deficits in cortical phase synchronization of oscillatory neural responses. These neurodevelopmental changes, which are constrained by sensitive periods for central auditory maturation, are correlated with behavioral outcomes for children with ANSD. Overall, we hypothesize that patterns of cortical development in children with ANSD appear to be markers of the severity of the underlying neural dys-synchrony, providing prognostic indicators of success of clinical intervention with amplification and/or electrical stimulation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled . Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Plasticity of peripheral auditory frequency sensitivity in Emei music frog.

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    Dian Zhang

    Full Text Available In anurans reproductive behavior is strongly seasonal. During the spring, frogs emerge from hibernation and males vocalize for mating or advertising territories. Female frogs have the ability to evaluate the quality of the males' resources on the basis of these vocalizations. Although studies revealed that central single torus semicircularis neurons in frogs exhibit season plasticity, the plasticity of peripheral auditory sensitivity in frog is unknown. In this study the seasonally plasticity of peripheral auditory sensitivity was test in the Emei music frog Babina daunchina, by comparing thresholds and latencies of auditory brainstem responses (ABRs evoked by tone pips and clicks in the reproductive and non-reproductive seasons. The results show that both ABR thresholds and latency differ significantly between the reproductive and non-reproductive seasons. The thresholds of tone pip evoked ABRs in the non-reproductive season increased significantly about 10 dB than those in the reproductive season for frequencies from 1 KHz to 6 KHz. ABR latencies to waveform valley values for tone pips for the same frequencies using appropriate threshold stimulus levels are longer than those in the reproductive season for frequencies from 1.5 to 6 KHz range, although from 0.2 to 1.5 KHz range it is shorter in the non-reproductive season. These results demonstrated that peripheral auditory frequency sensitivity exhibits seasonal plasticity changes which may be adaptive to seasonal reproductive behavior in frogs.

  12. Economic losses due to important diseases of bovines in central India

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    Dhananjay Singh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To analyze the factors associated with morbidity and mortality rates as well as to evaluate economic losses due to important diseases of bovines, viz. mastitis, HS and surra in Purvanchal Region of Uttar Pradesh. Materials and Methods: A sample of 300 livestock owners were selected from each of five divisions of Purvanchal region of the state of Uttar Pradesh using multistage stratified sampling with simple random sampling without replacement at village level. The morbidity, mortality and case fatality rates due to different diseases were determined using standard statistical indices. Association between cattle morbidity and mortality rates and different factors was calculated by χ2 Test. The total economic loss due to diseases in bovines was worked out as sum of mortality loss, loss in milk yield and cost of treatment of affected animals. Results: The overall morbidity rates of mastitis, HS and surra in cattle and buffaloes were 15.5%, 7.1% and 5.3%, respectively. The mortality and case fatality due to HS was found higher in the young calves as compared to the adults in case of both buffaloes and cattle. Mortality and case fatality due to surra was greater in the adult animals as compared to the younger ones in case of both buffaloes and cattle. Total losses due to mastitis per lactation in ND cow, CB cow and buffalo were INR 868.34, INR 1, 314.10 and INR 1, 272.36, respectively. Total losses due to HS per animal in ND cows, CB cows and buffaloes were INR 2, 355.78, INR 3, 228.52 and INR 4, 262.57, respectively. Total losses due to surra per animal in ND cow, CB cow and buffalo were INR 3, 328.18, INR 6, 193 and INR 9, 872.33, respectively. Conclusion: The study thus revealed significant losses due to diseases in large ruminants on. There is thus ample scope for preventive measures to control the disease bovines.

  13. The central role of AMP-kinase and energy homeostasis impairment in Alzheimer's disease: a multifactor network analysis.

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    Laura Caberlotto

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia worldwide, affecting the elderly population. It is characterized by the hallmark pathology of amyloid-β deposition, neurofibrillary tangle formation, and extensive neuronal degeneration in the brain. Wealth of data related to Alzheimer's disease has been generated to date, nevertheless, the molecular mechanism underlying the etiology and pathophysiology of the disease is still unknown. Here we described a method for the combined analysis of multiple types of genome-wide data aimed at revealing convergent evidence interest that would not be captured by a standard molecular approach. Lists of Alzheimer-related genes (seed genes were obtained from different sets of data on gene expression, SNPs, and molecular targets of drugs. Network analysis was applied for identifying the regions of the human protein-protein interaction network showing a significant enrichment in seed genes, and ultimately, in genes associated to Alzheimer's disease, due to the cumulative effect of different combinations of the starting data sets. The functional properties of these enriched modules were characterized, effectively considering the role of both Alzheimer-related seed genes and genes that closely interact with them. This approach allowed us to present evidence in favor of one of the competing theories about AD underlying processes, specifically evidence supporting a predominant role of metabolism-associated biological process terms, including autophagy, insulin and fatty acid metabolic processes in Alzheimer, with a focus on AMP-activated protein kinase. This central regulator of cellular energy homeostasis regulates a series of brain functions altered in Alzheimer's disease and could link genetic perturbation with neuronal transmission and energy regulation, representing a potential candidate to be targeted by therapy.

  14. Chemokines Referee Inflammation within the Central Nervous System during Infection and Disease

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    Douglas M. Durrant

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The discovery that chemokines and their receptors are expressed by a variety of cell types within the normal adult central nervous system (CNS has led to an expansion of their repertoire as molecular interfaces between the immune and nervous systems. Thus, CNS chemokines are now divided into those molecules that regulate inflammatory cell migration into the CNS and those that initiate CNS repair from inflammation-mediated tissue damage. Work in our laboratory throughout the past decade has sought to elucidate how chemokines coordinate leukocyte entry and interactions at CNS endothelial barriers, under both homeostatic and inflammatory conditions, and how they promote repair within the CNS parenchyma. These studies have identified several chemokines, including CXCL12 and CXCL10, as critical regulators of leukocyte migration from perivascular locations. CXCL12 additionally plays an essential role in promoting remyelination of injured white matter. In both scenarios we have shown that chemokines serve as molecular links between inflammatory mediators and other effector molecules involved in neuroprotective processes.

  15. Morphological Spectrum of Orbitoocular Diseases in a Tertiary Health Centre in Keffi, North Central Nigeria

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    Ifeyinwa Mary Onwubuya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this study was to carry out a retrospective clinicopathological analysis of the ocular lesions requiring biopsy seen in the Department of Histopathology, Federal Medical Centre (FMC, Keffi, in North Central Nigeria. Materials and Method. A retrospective review of the clinicopathologic profile of orbitoocular lesions diagnosed at the FMC, Keffi, was done. Clinical and pathological data were obtained from the patients’ clinical records and original biopsy reports, respectively. Results. Sixty-six cases of orbitoocular lesions were reviewed for this study. Of the 54 cases investigated, 28 were HIV negative while 26 were HIV positive (37.1% of all cases. There were 30 cases of Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia (OSSN with a male-to-female ratio of 0.9 : 1. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC was the most frequent OSSN with 17 cases. The mean age of cases of SCC is 37.1 ± 7.6 SD (years. The mean age of carcinoma in situ is 35.8 ± 11.4 years. Conclusion. There was no significant difference in the sex distribution of patients with OSSN. It is probable that a diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma may be encountered in about a year after diagnosis of a carcinoma in situ especially if the in situ carcinoma is left untreated or improperly treated.

  16. Effects of vowel auditory training on concurrent speech segregation in hearing impaired children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebi, Hossein; Moossavi, Abdollah; Lotfi, Yones; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat

    2015-01-01

    This clinical trial investigated the ability of concurrent speech segregation in hearing impaired children. The auditory behavioral responses and auditory late responses (ALRs) were compared between test and control groups prior to vowel auditory training and after 3 and 6 months of vowel auditory training to find the effects of bottom-up training on concurrent speech segregation in hearing impaired children. Auditory behavioral responses for 5 vowels and ALRs for double synthetic vowels, with special physical properties, were recorded in a timetable in 30 hearing impaired children (test group = 15 and control group = 15). Identification score and reaction time data showed that the test group was approximately proficient for some vowels (P training. N1-P2 amplitude indexing of the vowel change detection and reflecting central auditory speech representation without active client participation has been increased in the test group (P training-related improvements in concurrent speech segregation. This information provided evidence for bottom-up training based on F0, its differences in auditory scene analysis, and neural underpinnings. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Contralateral white noise attenuates 40-Hz auditory steady-state fields but not N100m in auditory evoked fields.

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    Kawase, Tetsuaki; Maki, Atsuko; Kanno, Akitake; Nakasato, Nobukazu; Sato, Mika; Kobayashi, Toshimitsu

    2012-01-16

    The different response characteristics of the different auditory cortical responses under conventional central masking conditions were examined by comparing the effects of contralateral white noise on the cortical component of 40-Hz auditory steady state fields (ASSFs) and the N100 m component in auditory evoked fields (AEFs) for tone bursts using a helmet-shaped magnetoencephalography system in 8 healthy volunteers (7 males, mean age 32.6 years). The ASSFs were elicited by monaural 1000 Hz amplitude modulation tones at 80 dB SPL, with the amplitude modulated at 39 Hz. The AEFs were elicited by monaural 1000 Hz tone bursts of 60 ms duration (rise and fall times of 10 ms, plateau time of 40 ms) at 80 dB SPL. The results indicated that continuous white noise at 70 dB SPL presented to the contralateral ear did not suppress the N100 m response in either hemisphere, but significantly reduced the amplitude of the 40-Hz ASSF in both hemispheres with asymmetry in that suppression of the 40-Hz ASSF was greater in the right hemisphere. Different effects of contralateral white noise on these two responses may reflect different functional auditory processes in the cortices. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Recovery of the commercial sponges in the central and southeastern Aegean Sea (NE Mediterranean after an outbreak of sponge disease

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    J. CASTRITSI-CATHARIOS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and biometry of commercial sponges (Porifera in coastal areas of the central and southeastern Aegean Sea was investigated to estimate the recovery progress of the populations eight years after the first appearance of sponge disease. Signs of the disease were detected only in 1.6% of the harvested sponges. Multivariate analysis on the percentage abundance of sponges showed two distinct groups among the sixteen fishing grounds studied: the eight deep (50-110 m and the eight shallow ones (<40 m. The group from the deep depths consisted of Spongia officinalis adriatica, S. agaricina and S. zimocca. The infralittoral zone was characterized by the presence of Hippospongia communis, S. officinalis adriatica and S. officinalis mollissima. These bath sponges showed an enhanced abundance in the eastern Cretan Sea (S. Aegean Sea. In addition, their dimensions, particularly height, increased with increasing depth. It is indicated that the hydrographic conditions prevailing in the eastern Cretan Sea affected the repopulating processes of sponge banks. In each species, the biometric characteristics of the experimental specimens were similar to those of the sponges found in the market and harvested at respective depths prior to the appearance of sponge disease.

  19. Auditory Processing Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... APD is common in older adults, particularly when hearing loss is present. It is likely that many processes and problems contribute to APD in children. In adults, neurological disorders such as stroke, tumors, degenerative disease (such as ...

  20. Early auditory enrichment with music enhances auditory discrimination learning and alters NR2B protein expression in rat auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinghong; Yu, Liping; Cai, Rui; Zhang, Jiping; Sun, Xinde

    2009-01-03

    Previous studies have shown that the functional development of auditory system is substantially influenced by the structure of environmental acoustic inputs in early life. In our present study, we investigated the effects of early auditory enrichment with music on rat auditory discrimination learning. We found that early auditory enrichment with music from postnatal day (PND) 14 enhanced learning ability in auditory signal-detection task and in sound duration-discrimination task. In parallel, a significant increase was noted in NMDA receptor subunit NR2B protein expression in the auditory cortex. Furthermore, we found that auditory enrichment with music starting from PND 28 or 56 did not influence NR2B expression in the auditory cortex. No difference was found in the NR2B expression in the inferior colliculus (IC) between music-exposed and normal rats, regardless of when the auditory enrichment with music was initiated. Our findings suggest that early auditory enrichment with music influences NMDA-mediated neural plasticity, which results in enhanced auditory discrimination learning.

  1. The role of transposable elements in health and diseases of the central nervous system.

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    Reilly, Matthew T; Faulkner, Geoffrey J; Dubnau, Joshua; Ponomarev, Igor; Gage, Fred H

    2013-11-06

    First discovered in maize by Barbara McClintock in the 1940s, transposable elements (TEs) are DNA sequences that in some cases have the ability to move along chromosomes or "transpose" in the genome. This revolutionary finding was initially met with resistance by the scientific community and viewed by some as heretical. A large body of knowledge has accumulated over the last 60 years on the biology of TEs. Indeed, it is now known that TEs can generate genomic instability and reconfigure gene expression networks both in the germline and somatic cells. This review highlights recent findings on the role of TEs in health and diseases of the CNS, which were presented at the 2013 Society for Neuroscience meeting. The work of the speakers in this symposium shows that TEs are expressed and active in the brain, challenging the dogma that neuronal genomes are static and revealing that they are susceptible to somatic genomic alterations. These new findings on TE expression and function in the CNS have major implications for understanding the neuroplasticity of the brain, which could hypothetically have a role in shaping individual behavior and contribute to vulnerability to disease.

  2. Electrophysiological correlates of predictive coding of auditory location in the perception of natural audiovisual events

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    Jeroen eStekelenburg

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In many natural audiovisual events (e.g., a clap of the two hands, the visual signal precedes the sound and thus allows observers to predict when, where, and which sound will occur. Previous studies have already reported that there are distinct neural correlates of temporal (when versus phonetic/semantic (which content on audiovisual integration. Here we examined the effect of visual prediction of auditory location (where in audiovisual biological motion stimuli by varying the spatial congruency between the auditory and visual part of the audiovisual stimulus. Visual stimuli were presented centrally, whereas auditory stimuli were presented either centrally or at 90° azimuth. Typical subadditive amplitude reductions (AV – V < A were found for the auditory N1 and P2 for spatially congruent and incongruent conditions. The new finding is that the N1 suppression was larger for spatially congruent stimuli. A very early audiovisual interaction was also found at 30-50 ms in the spatially congruent condition, while no effect of congruency was found on the suppression of the P2. This indicates that visual prediction of auditory location can be coded very early in auditory processing.

  3. Turning down the noise: the benefit of musical training on the aging auditory brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alain, Claude; Zendel, Benjamin Rich; Hutka, Stefanie; Bidelman, Gavin M

    2014-02-01

    Age-related decline in hearing abilities is a ubiquitous part of aging, and commonly impacts speech understanding, especially when there are competing sound sources. While such age effects are partially due to changes within the cochlea, difficulties typically exist beyond measurable hearing loss, suggesting that central brain processes, as opposed to simple peripheral mechanisms (e.g., hearing sensitivity), play a critical role in governing hearing abilities late into life. Current training regimens aimed to improve central auditory processing abilities have experienced limited success in promoting listening benefits. Interestingly, recent studies suggest that in young adults, musical training positively modifies neural mechanisms, providing robust, long-lasting improvements to hearing abilities as well as to non-auditory tasks that engage cognitive control. These results offer the encouraging possibility that musical training might be used to counteract age-related changes in auditory cognition commonly observed in older adults. Here, we reviewed studies that have examined the effects of age and musical experience on auditory cognition with an emphasis on auditory scene analysis. We infer that musical training may offer potential benefits to complex listening and might be utilized as a means to delay or even attenuate declines in auditory perception and cognition that often emerge later in life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Dopamine D₂-agonist rotigotine effects on cortical excitability and central cholinergic transmission in Alzheimer's disease patients.

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    Martorana, Alessandro; Di Lorenzo, Francesco; Esposito, Zaira; Lo Giudice, Temistocle; Bernardi, Giorgio; Caltagirone, Carlo; Koch, Giacomo

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine is a neurotransmitter involved in several brain functions ranging from emotions control, movement organization to memory formation. It is also involved in the regulation of mechanisms of synaptic plasticity. However, its role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis is still puzzling. Several recent line of research instead indicates a clear role for dopamine in both amyloid β formation as well as in cognitive decline progression. In particular it has been shown that dopamine D₂-like receptors (namely D₃ and D₂) could be mostly responsible for dopamine dysfunction in AD. Here we aimed to study the effects of the dopamine agonist Rotigotine on cortical excitability and on central cholinergic transmission in cases of AD. Rotigotine is a dopamine agonist with a pharmacological profile with high affinity for D₃ and D₂ receptors. We used paired pulse protocols assessing short intracortical inhibition (SICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF) to asses cortical excitability over the primary motor cortex and Short Latency Afferent Inhibition (SLAI) protocols, to verify the effects of the drug on central cholinergic transmission in a group of AD patients compared to age-matched controls. We observed that rotigotine induces unexpected changes in both cortical excitability (increased) and central cholinergic transmission (restored) of AD patients. These unexpected effects might depend on the dopamine D₂-like receptors dysfunction previously described in AD brains. The current findings could indicate that future strategies aimed to ameliorate symptoms of the related AD cognitive decline could also involve some dopaminergic drugs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Auditory Hallucinations Nomenclature and Classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Jan Dirk; Sommer, Iris E. C.

    Introduction: The literature on the possible neurobiologic correlates of auditory hallucinations is expanding rapidly. For an adequate understanding and linking of this emerging knowledge, a clear and uniform nomenclature is a prerequisite. The primary purpose of the present article is to provide an

  6. Auditory Risk of Air Rifles

    Science.gov (United States)