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Sample records for auditory canal presenting

  1. A Case of Dysplastic Nevus of the External Auditory Canal Presenting with Conductive Hearing Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Chang Woo; Oh, So Jung; Rho, Young-Soo; Cho, Seong Jin; Koh, Eun Seok

    2009-01-01

    A nevus which is a benign melanocytic neoplasm rarely occurs within the external auditory canal (EAC). A dysplastic nevus presents atypical features both clinically and histologically, and is important as a potential precursor for melanoma. We present a case of a 33-year-old female patient with a dysplastic nevus in her EAC. Physical examination revealed a protruding mass arising from the posterior wall of the left cartilaginous EAC. The mass showed clinically characteristic findings of a mel...

  2. A case of dysplastic nevus of the external auditory canal presenting with conductive hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang Woo; Oh, So Jung; Rho, Young-Soo; Cho, Seong Jin; Koh, Eun Seok

    2009-12-31

    A nevus which is a benign melanocytic neoplasm rarely occurs within the external auditory canal (EAC). A dysplastic nevus presents atypical features both clinically and histologically, and is important as a potential precursor for melanoma. We present a case of a 33-year-old female patient with a dysplastic nevus in her EAC. Physical examination revealed a protruding mass arising from the posterior wall of the left cartilaginous EAC. The mass showed clinically characteristic findings of a melanocytic nevus. The patient underwent excisional biopsy via a transcanal approach under local anesthesia. Histopathological examination revealed an intradermal nevus with atypical melanocytes without pleomorphism. There was no evidence of recurrence two years after surgical excision.

  3. Posttraumatic Temporal Bone Meningocele Presenting as a Cystic Mass in the External Auditory Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alijani, Babak; Bagheri, Hamid Reza; Chabok, Shahrokh Yousefzadeh; Behzadnia, Hamid; Dehghani, Siavash

    2016-07-01

    Temporal bone meningoencephalic herniation may occur in head trauma. It is a rare condition with potentially dangerous complications. Several different routes for temporal bone meningoencephalocele have been proposed. An11-year-old boy with history of head trauma initially presented with a 9-months history of progressive right-sided hearing loss and facial weakness. The other complaint was formation of a cystic mass in the right external auditory canal. The patient underwent surgery via a mini middle cranial fossa craniotomy associated with a transmastoid approach. Although presenting symptoms can be subtle, early suspicion and confirmatory imaging aid in establishing the diagnosis. The combination of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging will help in proper preoperative diagnosis. The operation includes transmastoid, middle cranial fossa repair, or combination of both. The multilayer closure of bony defect is very important to avoid cerebrospinal fluid leak. Clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and surgical approaches for posttraumatic meningoencephaloceles arising in the head and neck region are briefly discussed.

  4. Benign Temporomandibular Joint Lesions Presenting as Masses in the External Auditory Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ryan A; Jackler, Robert K; Corrales, C Eduardo

    2017-04-01

    Describe benign lesions arising from the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) that presented as masses in the external auditory canal (EAC). Retrospective case series of two academic medical centers. Six patients with lesions emanating from the TMJ that presented as EAC masses. Lesions included pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS), nodular fasciitis, foramen of Huschke herniation with salivary fistula, fibroepithelial polyp, superficial angiomyxoma, and giant cell tumor (GCT). Surgical resection. Tumor control, TMJ function, and hearing. All patients presented with hearing loss, TMJ pain, and otalgia. Three patients with EAC occluding masses developed entrapment cholesteatoma between the mass and tympanic membrane. Following surgical resection, four patients were free of disease. The patient with PVNS has a stable remnant at 3 years follow up and the patient with giant cell tumor is under active surveillance. Hearing improved in three patients, remained stable in one patient, and worsened in two patients. All had resolution of their TMJ and ear pain. EAC masses of uncertain origin should be imaged preoperatively to exclude lesions best not biopsied (e.g., encephalocele, facial nerve schwannoma, paraganglioma). In the differential of EAC masses, lesions emanating from the TMJ need to be considered, especially for those based anteriorly. Understanding the extent of TMJ involvement is crucial for surgical planning which optimizes outcome. Goals for therapy are to control the underlying disease process, restore patency of the EAC, improve hearing, and preserve function of TMJ.

  5. Intradermal melanocytic nevus of the external auditory canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Renato V; Brandão, Fabiano H; Aquino, José E P; Carvalho, Maria R M S; Giancoli, Suzana M; Younes, Eduado A P

    2005-01-01

    Intradermal nevi are common benign pigmented skin tumors. Their occurrence within the external auditory canal is uncommon. The clinical and pathologic features of an intradermal nevus arising within the external auditory canal are presented, and the literature reviewed.

  6. Rare Presentation of Giant Cell Tumor in the Internal Auditory Canal: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jada, Ajit S; Shrivastava, Raj K; Mannan, Abul; Kobets, Andrew; Manolidis, Spiros

    2015-07-01

    Giant cell tumor (GCT) is a benign but locally aggressive bone tumor that usually involves the end of long bones. It is a relatively common neoplasm in patients, constituting 5 to 10% of all benign bone tumors. Approximately 2% of GCTs occur in the craniofacial skeleton with a predilection for the ethmoid, sphenoid, and temporal bones. The skull base location is unique and not commonly described. Hearing loss, headache, tinnitus, and subcutaneous masses are the most commonly reported symptoms in GCTs of the skull base. In this case report we present the first description of a GCT within the internal auditory canal causing cranial neuropathy and review the recent pertinent literature.

  7. Labyrinthine artery aneurysm as an internal auditory canal mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Rodney C; Konia, Thomas; Brunberg, James

    2014-08-01

    We present the first case report of a labyrinthine artery aneurysm masquerading as an internal auditory canal tumor. A 72-year-old woman presented with sudden onset right facial paralysis, facial pain, hearing loss, and vertigo. She demonstrated dense right-sided facial paralysis involving all branches of the facial nerve, left beating horizontal nystagmus, and anacusis of the right ear. Magnetic resonance imaging with contrast demonstrated a 6 × 7 mm peripherally enhancing lesion with lack of central uptake filling the right internal auditory canal. The patient elected to proceed with translabyrinthine approach to the internal auditory canal for definitive resection of the mass as well as to decompress the neural structures of the internal auditory canal in an attempt to recover neural function, particularly of the facial nerve. Intraoperatively, the internal auditory canal mass was resected with minimal difficulty, with intraoperative dissection notable for brisk bleeding at the medial base of the tumor just as the tumor was dissected off its medial fibrous attachments. Final pathology of the resected mass revealed a blood vessel with mucinous degeneration of the medial layer of the vessel wall, with immunohistochemical staining confirming the presence and structure of aneurysmal blood vessel.

  8. Cancer of the external auditory canal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyrop, Mette; Grøntved, Aksel

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcome of surgery for cancer of the external auditory canal and relate this to the Pittsburgh staging system used both on squamous cell carcinoma and non-squamous cell carcinoma. DESIGN: Retrospective case series of all patients who had surgery between 1979 and 2000. M...

  9. Lesions in the external auditory canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyank S Chatra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The external auditory canal is an S- shaped osseo-cartilaginous structure that extends from the auricle to the tympanic membrane. Congenital, inflammatory, neoplastic, and traumatic lesions can affect the EAC. High-resolution CT is well suited for the evaluation of the temporal bone, which has a complex anatomy with multiple small structures. In this study, we describe the various lesions affecting the EAC.

  10. Microbiology of normal external auditory canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroman, D W; Roland, P S; Dohar, J; Burt, W

    2001-11-01

    To isolate and characterize bacteria and fungi from the healthy ear and to obtain susceptibility profiles on each bacterial isolate. Prospective. Specimens were collected from the external canals and cerumen of healthy subjects. Species-level identification was obtained by combining phenotypic and genotypic data. End-point minimal inhibitory concentration testing was performed using National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards recommended methods. One hundred sixty-four subjects were cultured. Seventeen canal and 16 cerumen specimens showed no growth. One hundred forty-eight cerumen specimens yielded 314 organisms, including 23 fungi. One hundred forty-seven canal specimens yielded 310 organisms, including 7 fungi. Of 291 bacteria isolated from cerumen, 99% were Gram-positive. Of 302 bacteria isolated from the canal, 96% were Gram-positive. Staphylococci were 63% of both the cerumen bacteria and the canal bacteria. Coryneforms represented 22% of the bacteria in cerumen and 19% in the canal. Turicellaotitidis was the primary coryneform isolated from both the canal and the cerumen. Streptococci-like bacteria were 10% from the cerumen, 7% from the canal. In both cerumen and canal, Alloiococcusotitis was more than 95% of the streptococci-like bacteria. Fifteen gram-negative organisms were isolated from the canal and cerumen, including four Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. The percentages of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates that had high-level resistance (> or =8 microg/mL) were as follows: to neomycin, 28% from cerumen and 11% from the canal; to oxacillin, 28% from cerumen and 25% from the canal; and to ofloxacin, 15% from cerumen and 19% from the canal. Turcellaotitidis and A. otitidis were present with a much higher frequency than previously described, lending evidence that they be considered normal otic flora. Corynebacterium auris, previously reported only in children, was isolated from normal adults.

  11. Prevalence of Internal Auditory Canal Diverticulum and Its Association with Hearing Loss and Otosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pippin, K J; Muelleman, T J; Hill, J; Leever, J; Staecker, H; Ledbetter, L N

    2017-11-01

    Focal low-attenuation outpouching or diverticulum at the anterolateral internal auditory canal is an uncommon finding on CT of the temporal bone. This finding has been described as cavitary otosclerosis in small case reports and histology series. The purpose of this study was to establish the prevalence of internal auditory canal diverticulum and its association with classic imaging findings of otosclerosis and/or hearing loss. Temporal bone CT scans of 807 patients, obtained between January 2013 and January 2016, were retrospectively reviewed to identify internal auditory canal diverticula and/or classic imaging findings of otosclerosis. Clinical evaluations for hearing loss were reviewed for patients with internal auditory canal diverticula and/or otosclerosis. Internal auditory canal diverticula were found in 43 patients (5%); classic otosclerosis, in 39 patients (5%); and both findings, in 7 patients (1%). Most temporal bones with only findings of internal auditory canal diverticula (91%) demonstrated hearing loss, with 63% of this group demonstrating sensorineural hearing loss. The hearing loss classification distribution was significantly different (P < .01) from that in the classic otosclerosis group and in the group with both diverticula and otosclerosis. Internal auditory canal diverticula are not uncommon on CT examinations of the temporal bone and most commonly occur without classic imaging findings of otosclerosis. These lesions are associated with sensorineural hearing loss, and referral for hearing evaluation may be appropriate when present. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  12. Pneumocystis jirovecii infection of the external auditory canal : case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    primaquine, atovaquone and pentamidine isethionate.1,3 Although there is usually resolution of symptoms after medical therapy, surgical excision of lesions in the external auditory canal may be clinically indicated. Disseminated pneumocystosis, like ...

  13. CT findings of the osteoma of the external auditory canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ha Young; Song, Chang Joon; Yoon, Chung Dae; Park, Mi Hyun; Shin, Byung Seok [Chungnam National University, School of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-15

    We wanted to report the CT image findings of the osteoma of the external auditory canal. Temporal bone CT scanning was performed on eight patients (4 males and 4 females aged between 8 and 41 years) with pathologically proven osteoma of the external auditory canal after operation, and the findings of the CT scanning were retrospectively reviewed. Not only did we analyze the size, shape, distribution and location of the osteomas, we also analyzed the relationship between the lesion and the tympanosqumaous or tympanomastoid suture line, and the changes seen on the CT scan images for the patients who were able to undergo follow-up. All the lesions of the osteoma of the external auditory canal were unilateral, solitary, pedunculated bony masses. In five patients, the osteomas occurred on the left side and for the other three patients, the osteomas occurred on the right side. The average size of the osteoma was 0.6 cm with the smallest being 0.5 cm and the largest being 1.2 cm. Each of the lesions was located at the osteochondral junction in the terminal part of the osseous external ear canal. The stalk of the osteoma of the external auditory canal was found to have occurred in the anteroinferior wall in five cases (63%), in the anterosuperior wall (the tympanosqumaous suture line) in two cases (25%), and in the anterior wall in one case. The osteoma of the external auditory canal was a compact form in five cases and it was a cancellous form in three cases. One case of the cancellous form was changed into a compact form 35 months later due to the advanced ossification. Osteoma of the external auditory canal developed in a unilateral and solitary fashion. The characteristic image findings show that it is attached to the external auditory canal by its stalk. Unlike our common knowledge about its occurrence, osteoma mostly occurred in the tympanic wall, and this is regardless of the tympanosquamous or tympanomastoid suture line.

  14. Ectopic external auditory canal and ossicular formation in the oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Supakul, Nucharin [Indiana University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Department of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Radiology, Bangkok (Thailand); Kralik, Stephen F. [Indiana University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Ho, Chang Y. [Indiana University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Riley Children' s Hospital, MRI Department, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Ear abnormalities in oculo-auricular-vertebral spectrum commonly present with varying degrees of external and middle ear atresias, usually in the expected locations of the temporal bone and associated soft tissues, without ectopia of the external auditory canal. We present the unique imaging of a 4-year-old girl with right hemifacial microsomia and ectopic location of an atretic external auditory canal, terminating in a hypoplastic temporomandibular joint containing bony structures with the appearance of auditory ossicles. This finding suggests an early embryological dysfunction involving Meckel's cartilage of the first branchial arch. (orig.)

  15. Adult-onset juvenile xanthogranuloma of the external auditory canal: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hur, Joon Ho; Kim, Jae Kyun; Seo, Gi Young; Choi, Woo Sun; Byun, Jun Soo; Lee, Woong Jae; Lee, Tae Jin [Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Chung-Ang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Na Ra [Dept. of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) is a benign, spontaneously regressing lesion that usually occurs during the first year of life, but may also occur in adulthood. Although the most common presentation of JXG is the cutaneous lesion, it can also manifest in various visceral organs. JXG of the external auditory canal is extremely rare, and there have been only a few reports of those cases in the English literature. In this study, we present a case of pathologically proven JXG that occurred in the external auditory canal with a symptomatic clinical presentation.

  16. Auditory presentation of experimental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunney, David; Morrison, Robert C.

    1990-08-01

    Our research group has been working for several years on the development of auditory alternatives to visual graphs, primarily in order to give blind science students and scientists access to instrumental measurements. In the course of this work we have tried several modes for auditory presentation of data: synthetic speech, tones of varying pitch, complex waveforms, electronic music, and various non-musical sounds. Our most successful translation of data into sound has been presentation of infrared spectra as musical patterns. We have found that if the stick spectra of two compounds are visibly different, their musical patterns will be audibly different. Other possibilities for auditory presentation of data are also described, among them listening to Fourier transforms of spectra, and encoding data in complex waveforms (including synthetic speech).

  17. External auditory canal stenosis due to the use of powdered boric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dündar, Riza; Soy, Fatih Kemal; Kulduk, Erkan; Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Cingi, Cemal

    2014-09-01

    Acquired stenosis of the external auditory canal (EAC) may occur because of chronic external otitis, recurrent chronic catarrhal otitis media associated with tympanic membrane perforation, chronic dermatitis, tumors, and trauma. Stenosis occurs generally at the one-third bone part of the external auditory canal. In this article, we present 3 cases of acquired EAC stenosis due to the previous powdered boric acid application. Besides the presentation of surgical intervetions in these cases, we want to notify the physicians not to use or carefully use powdered boric acid because of the complication of EAC stenosis.

  18. Pneumocystis jirovecii infection of the external auditory canal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pneumocystis jirovecii is well known to cause interstitial plasma cell pneumonia in immunocompromised patients. It has been implicated as a rare cause of infections in other anatomical sites.¹ We report a rare case of P. jirovecii infection of the external auditory canal. This was the first manifestation of a previously unknown ...

  19. External Auditory Canal Stenosis After Traumatic Auricular Amputation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong Chung, J.E.; Chussi, D.C; Heerbeek, N. van

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The auricles are easily injured or amputated in case of head trauma. Inadequate treatment of the external auditory canal (EAC) after auricular injury is often seen and can lead to significant complications of the EAC. CASE REPORT: The authors report 4 cases of auricular injury or

  20. Cutaneous Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the External Auditory Canal: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ke Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma (cNEC is rarely seen in the external ear. In this paper, we newly describe a patient with cNEC in his right external auditory canal, followed by a further discussion on the clinical features, diagnosis, and treatments of cNEC of the external ear. A review of the literature showed that cNEC of the external auditory canal generally presents as asymptomatic and that pathology yields the most confirmative diagnosis. A wide resection with adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy is recommended. The overall prognosis of this condition is poor.

  1. Internal auditory canal meningocele-perilabyrinthine/translabyrinthine fistula: Case report and imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truesdale, Carl M; Peterson, Ryan B; Hudgins, Patricia A; Vivas, Esther X

    2016-08-01

    The case of a 17-year-old patient with progressive unilateral sensorineural hearing loss and temporal bone malformations concerning for internal auditory canal meningocele with translabyrinthine/perilabyrinthine cerebrospinal fluid fistula is presented with associated computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. As the second reported case of an unruptured internal auditory canal meningocele with translabyrinthine/perilabyrinthine fistula, the case presents several clinically relevant points for otologists, neurotologists, and neuroradiologists. Although rare, it is an additional entity to consider as a cause of unilateral sensorineural hearing loss and may pose a risk for developing meningitis and possible "gushing" of cerebrospinal fluid should surgical intervention be attempted. Laryngoscope, 126:1931-1934, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  2. Huschke's anterior external auditory canal foramen: art before medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirsig, Wolfgang; Mudry, Albert

    2015-03-01

    During the Renaissance, several anatomic details were described with a degree of exactness, which would stand the test of time. One example is the foramen in the anteroinferior wall of the external auditory canal, eponymously named after the German anatomist, Emil Huschke, who described it in 1844. However, the first clearly medical observation of this foramen was published by the French physician Jean Riolan the Younger in 1648. After a short excursion into some paleopathologic findings of this foramen in skulls of the Early Bronze Age and of pre-Columbian Peruvian populations, this article follows the traces of the early medical descriptions and depictions of the foramen up until the 19th century. They are connected with the names of Duverney (1683), Cassebohm (1734), Lincke (1837), Huschke (1844); Humphry (1858), von Troeltsch (1860), and especially Buerkner (1878). Surprisingly, the earliest exact depiction of the foramen in the auditory canal of a skull was found in the oil painting Saint Jerome in his study by the Flemish artist Marinus Claeszon van Reymerswaele. He depicted the foramen in the period between 1521 and 1541, a hundred years before Riolan the Younger.

  3. Xanthogranuloma of the External Auditory Canal Mimicking a Benign Tumor: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Yoshihama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Exostosis, osteoma, and adenoma are the most commonly encountered benign lesions in the external auditory canal. Herein, we report a case of the mass arising from the external auditory canal in a 24-year-old Japanese man. CT revealed the soft tissue mass without bony erosion, and MRI revealed that the mass showed a homogenous, iso signal intensity on a both T1- and T2-weighted image, suggesting that the mass is a benign tumor such as adenoma. Pathological examination showed that the specimen demonstrated xanthogranuloma in the external auditory canal. Although xanthogranuloma of the external auditory canal is extremely rare, otolaryngologists should recognize this condition during the inspection of the external auditory canal.

  4. Split thickness skin grafts in four cases of medial meatal fibrosis of the external auditory canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Andreia; Leonardo, Abílio; e Rodrigues, Manuel Rodrigues; Lopes, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Medial meatal fibrosis is a rare condition in which the medial portion of the external auditory canal is obliterated with fibrous tissue. We selected 4 cases of patients with medial meatal fibrosis with a history of recurrent otorrhea who underwent surgery during the years of 2012 and 2013, presenting the surgical results here. Physical examination showed an obliterated external auditory canal and conductive hypoacusis. All cases were solved using a split thickness skin graft from the thigh. The surgical principles that appear to correlate with a favorable outcome are the removal of all fibrous tissue and unhealthy skin, a wide canaloplasty and the use of a split thickness skin graft. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Patología Cérvico-Facial. All rights reserved.

  5. First Branchial Cleft Fistula Associated with External Auditory Canal Stenosis and Middle Ear Cholesteatoma

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    shahin abdollahi fakhim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: First branchial cleft anomalies manifest with duplication of the external auditory canal.   Case Report: This report features a rare case of microtia and congenital middle ear and canal cholesteatoma with first branchial fistula. External auditory canal stenosis was complicated by middle ear and external canal cholesteatoma, but branchial fistula, opening in the zygomatic root and a sinus in the helical root, may explain this feature. A canal wall down mastoidectomy with canaloplasty and wide meatoplasty was performed. The branchial cleft was excised through parotidectomy and facial nerve dissection.   Conclusion:  It should be considered that canal stenosis in such cases can induce cholesteatoma formation in the auditory canal and middle ear.

  6. Branchial cleft anomaly of external auditory canal: a case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 15 year old male with a first branchial cleft anomaly seen at the Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital Sokoto is presented. He had recurrent preauricular swelling, which was continuous with three fistulous openings in the left external auditory meatus confirmed by sinogram. It may be mistaken for chronic ...

  7. Cholesteatoma associated with squamous cell carcinoma of the external auditory canal: Case report and literature review

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    Olfa Ben Gamra

    2015-11-01

    Conclusion: SCC of the external auditory canal can mimic cholesteatoma. A precise diagnosis of the disease is important to predict the treatment outcome. Optimal management relies on early surgery and postoperative radiotherapy, thus offering the greatest chance of cure.

  8. Isolated Myxoma in the External Auditory Canal of a 10-Year-Old Girl.

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    Lee, Dong Hee; Jeong, Su Hee; Kim, Hojong; Shin, Eunhye

    2015-12-01

    Myxoma is a benign connective tissue tumor that is most commonly found in the heart. Because myxoma of the external ear is extremely rare, its diagnosis may be easily delayed or it may be misdiagnosed as another disease. Moreover, because it can be a part of Carney complex (autosomal dominant syndrome), its correct diagnosis is very important. We experienced a 10-year-old girl who had a mass on the posterior surface of the tragus at the entrance of the left ear canal. Fine-needle aspiration revealed mucoid content of the cystic mass, but its cytology did not confirm the diagnosis. The whole mass was surgically removed, and the diagnosis was confirmed as myxoma with a stellate spindle cell proliferation in the hypocellular matrix. Thorough examination failed to determine any presentation of Carney complex, and her final diagnosis was isolated myxoma of the external auditory canal. This is the first reported study regarding myxoma of the external auditory canal in the Korean literature.

  9. A Narrow Internal Auditory Canal with Duplication in a Patient with Congenital Sensorineural Hearing Loss

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    Baik, Hye Won; Yu, Hye On; Kim, Kyung Soo; Kim, Gi Hyeon [Chung-Ang University Hospital, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-15

    A narrow internal auditory canal (IAC) with duplication is a rare anomaly of the temporal bone. It is associated with congenital sensorineural hearing loss. Aplasia or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve may cause the hearing loss. We present an unusual case of an isolated narrow IAC with duplication that was detected by a CT scan. In this case, the IAC was divided by a bony septum into an empty stenotic inferoposterior portion and a large anterosuperior portion containing the facial nerve that was clearly delineated on MRI.

  10. Nontumorous enlargement of the internal auditory canal. A risk factor for sensorineural hearing loss? A high resolution CT-study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stimmer, H.; Rummeny, E.J. [Technical University Munich, Klinikum rechts der Isar (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Niedermeyer, H.P. [Technical University Munich, Klinikum rechts der Isar (Germany). ENT-Clinic; Kehl, V. [Technical University Munich, Klinikum rechts der Isar (Germany). Inst. for Medical Statistics and Epidemiology

    2015-06-15

    First aim of the study was to define normal shape and diameter of the internal auditory canal (IAC). In the second part the clinical relevance of IAC-enlargement was analyzed, considering also lesions of the subtle structures at the fundus of the internal auditory canal. 440 high resolution CT-scans of the temporal bone were used for retrospective analysis of the internal auditory canal and its fundus region. The mean value of the IAC diameter in axial and coronal plane was determined. In 20 of 440 patients IAC enlargement was found. In the group with pronounced enlargement (3fold SD) nearly all patients suffered from hearing impairment. In some of them we found structural abnormalities near the IAC fundus in the CSF/perilymph border zone. A new CT-based definition of normal shape and diameter of the internal auditory canal is presented. There is some evidence that a pathologic transmission of CSF-pressure in case of IAC-enlargement and/or abnormal fistulous communications could play an important role in the pathophysiology of hearing loss.

  11. Surgical Procedures for External Auditory Canal Carcinoma and the Preservation of Postoperative Hearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Hoshikawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma of the external auditory canal (EAC is an unusual head and neck malignancy. The pathophysiology of these tumors is different from other skin lesions because of their anatomical and functional characteristics. Early-stage carcinoma of the EAC can be generally cured by surgical treatment, and reconstruction of the EAC with a tympanoplasty can help to retain hearing, thus improving the patients’ quality of life. In this study, we present two cases of early-stage carcinoma of the EAC treated by canal reconstruction using skin grafts after lateral temporal bone resection. A rolled-up skin graft with a temporal muscle flap was useful for keeping the form and maintaining the postoperative hearing. An adequate size of the skin graft and blood supply to the graft bed are important for achieving a successful operation.

  12. External auditory canal atresia of probable congenital origin in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, K; Piaia, T; Bertolini, G; De Lorenzi, D

    2007-04-01

    A nine-month-old Labrador retriever was referred to the Clinica Veterinaria Privata San Marco because of frequent headshaking and downward turning of the right ear. Clinical examination revealed that there was no external acoustic meatus in the right ear. Computed tomography confirmed that the vertical part of the right auditory canal ended blindly, providing a diagnosis of external auditory canal atresia. Cytological examination and culture of fluid from the canal and the bulla revealed only aseptic cerumen; for this reason, it was assumed that the dog was probably affected by a congenital developmental deformity of the external auditory canal. Reconstructive surgery was performed using a "pull-through" technique. Four months after surgery the cosmetic and functional results were satisfactory.

  13. Ceruminous Adenoma of the External Auditory Canal: A Case Report with Imaging and Pathologic Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Psillas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ceruminous adenomas are benign tumors that are rare in humans and present with a nonspecific symptomatology. The treatment of choice is surgical excision. We present an 87-year-old woman who presented with a reddish, tender, round, soft mass of the outer third of the inferior wall of the left external auditory canal, discharging a yellowish fluid upon pressure. Coincidentally, due to her poor general condition, this patient also showed symptoms consistent with chronic otitis media, parotitis, and cervical lymphadenopathy, such as otorrhea, through a ruptured tympanic membrane and swelling of the parotid gland and cervical lymph nodes. The external auditory canal lesion was surgically excised under general anesthesia, utilizing a transmeatal approach. The pathological diagnosis was ceruminous gland adenoma. The tumor was made of tubular and cystic structures and embedded in a fibrous, focally hyalinized stroma. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of two distinct cell populations. The luminal cells expressed keratin 7, while peripheral (basal cells expressed keratins 5/6, S100 protein, and p63. The apocrine gland-related antigen GCDFP-15 was focally expressed by tumor cells. The postoperative course was uneventful and at the 2-year follow-up no recurrence of the ceruminous adenoma was noted.

  14. Hearing loss and enlarged internal auditory canal in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Saturnino; Domínguez, M Jesús; Cervera, Javier; Suárez, Alicia; Bueno, Antonio; Bartolomé, Margarita; López, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Among the temporal bone abnormalities that can be found in the etiological study of paediatric sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) by imaging techniques, those related to the internal auditory canal (IAC) are the least frequent. The most prevalent of these abnormalities that is associated with SNHL is stenotic IAC due to its association with cochlear nerve deficiencies. Less frequent and less concomitant with SNHL is the finding of an enlarged IAC (>8mm). Retrospective and descriptive review of clinical associations, imaging, audiological patterns and treatment of 9 children with hearing loss and enlarged IAC in the period 1999 to 2012. Two groups of patients are described. The first, without association with vestibulocochlear dysplasias, consisted of: 2 patients with SNHL without other temporal bone or systemic abnormalities, one with bilateral mixed HL from chromosome 18q deletion, one with a genetic X-linked DFN3 hearing loss, one with unilateral hearing loss in neurofibromatosis type 2 with bilateral acoustic neuroma, and one with unilateral hearing loss with cochlear nerve deficiency. The second group, with association with vestibulocochlear dysplasias, was comprised of: one patient with moderate bilateral mixed hearing loss in branchio-oto-renal syndrome, one with profound unilateral SNHL with recurrent meningitis, and another with profound bilateral SNHL with congenital hypothyroidism. The presence of an enlarged IAC in children can be found in different clinical and audiological settings with relevancies that can range from life-threatening situations, such as recurrent meningitis, to isolated hearing loss with no other associations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  15. Complete occipitalization of the atlas with bilateral external auditory canal atresia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolenšek, Janez; Cvetko, Erika; Snoj, Žiga; Meznaric, Marija

    2017-02-18

    Fusion of the atlas with the occipital bone is a rare congenital dysplasia known as occipitalization of the atlas, occipitocervical synostosis, assimilation of the atlas, or atlanto-occipital fusion. It is a component of the paraxial mesodermal maldevelopment and commonly associated with other dysplasias of the craniovertebral junction. External auditory canal atresia or external aural atresia is a rare congenital absence of the external auditory canal. It occurs as the consequence of the maldevelopment of the first pharyngeal cleft due to defects of cranial neural crest cells migration and/or differentiation. It is commonly associated with the dysplasias of the structures derived from the first and second pharyngeal arches including microtia. We present the coexistence of the occipitalization of the atlas and congenital aural atresia, an uncommon combination of the paraxial mesodermal maldevelopment, and defects of cranial neural crest cells. The association is most probably syndromic as minimal diagnostic criteria for the oculoariculovertebral spectrum are fulfilled. From the clinical point of view, it is important to be aware that patients with microtia must obtain also appropriate diagnostic imaging studies of the craniovetebral junction due to eventual concomitant occipitalization of the atlas and frequently associated C1-C2 instability.

  16. External auditory canal and middle ear cholesteatoma and osteonecrosis in bisphosphonate-treated osteoporosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, A-L; Vestergaard, P; Eiken, P

    2014-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Long-term treatment with bisphosphonates against osteoporosis may cause atypical femur fractures and osteonecrosis of the jaw. Eight cases of bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the external auditory canal area are published. Based on Danish national registers, we report a time......- and dose-dependent increased risk of cholesteatoma in osteoporosis patients treated with bisphosphonates. INTRODUCTION: In the recent years, there has been a focus on possible rare side effects of bisphosphonates (BPs). Eight cases of BP-associated osteonecrosis of the external auditory canal have been...... reported in the world literature. Our aim was to describe the incidence of external auditory canal and middle ear diseases in Danish patients exposed to BPs in the treatment of osteoporosis. METHODS: This register-based nationwide cohort study was conducted on the Danish population of approximately 5...

  17. Expanded transcanal transpromontorial approach to the internal auditory canal: Pilot clinical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presutti, Livio; Alicandri-Ciufelli, Matteo; Bonali, Marco; Rubini, Alessia; Pavesi, Giacomo; Feletti, Alberto; Masotto, Barbara; Anschuetz, Lukas; Marchioni, Daniele

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to describe and evaluate the feasibility of an expanded transcanal transpromontorial approach, developed from the exclusive endoscopic transcanal transpromontorial approach. Retrospective case series. Retrospective chart review of 10 patients operated by an expanded transcanal transpromontorial approach in two tertiary referral centers (University Hospital of Modena, Italy and University Hospital of Verona, Italy). Data from charts and video documentation were collected and analyzed. Between April 2015 and January 2016, 10 patients underwent an expanded transcanal transpromontorial approach for vestibular schwannoma Koos stage I or II and were enrolled in the study. The size of the tumors ranged from 7 to 19 mm in maximum diameter. A gross total resection was achieved in all cases. One subject experienced postoperative cerebrospinal fluid otorhinorrhea and three subjects experienced temporary postoperative facial weakness, all of which completely resolved. The mean follow-up was 5 months. The expanded transcanal transpromontorial approach allowed bimanual dissection using a microscopic technique for the treatment of pathologies of the internal auditory canal and cerebellopontine angle. This novel approach resulted in minimal morbidity and comparable facial nerve preservation rates to the traditional approaches to the internal auditory canal. The expanded transpromontorial approach to the internal auditory canal holds promise for addressing pathology in this region of the temporal bone from the external auditory canal. 4. Laryngoscope, 127:2608-2614, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  18. Maxillofacial trauma patterns associated with external auditory canal fractures: Cone beam computed tomography analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ibrahim K; Sansare, Kaustubh; Karjodkar, Freny R; Salve, Prashant; Vanga, Kavita; Pawar, Ajinkya M

    2017-08-01

    There is a paucity of literature on external auditory canal (EAC) fractures secondary to maxillofacial trauma, with most of the literature on EAC fractures consisting of isolated case reports. To the authors' best knowledge, this is the first study to use cone beam computed tomography to evaluate the EAC region. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of external auditory canal (EAC) fracture following maxillofacial trauma and to evaluate the association between EAC fracture and other maxillofacial fractures and the region of trauma. One hundred patients were prospectively evaluated over 6 months from February to August 2016. The patients were referred for CBCT regarding temporomandibular joint or condylar fractures following maxillofacial trauma. Two observers (both experienced radiologists) assessed the EAC and associated fractures in the maxillofacial region. External auditory canal (EAC) fracture was confirmed in 32% of the patients. Of the EAC fractures, 68.75% and 31.25% were associated with mandibular fractures and non-mandibular fractures, respectively. Of the EAC fractures, 68.75% were single fractures and 31.25% of patients had multiple comminuted fractures. Significant association was observed on cross-tabulation of the fractured region and region of trauma with the presence of EAC fracture using chi-square test. External auditory canal (EAC) fracture is associated with maxillofacial fractures with increased incidence in mandibular fractures compared to non-mandibular fractures. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Air and Bone Conduction Frequency-specific Auditory Brainstem Response in Children with Agenesis of the External Auditory Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleifer, Pricila; Didoné, Dayane Domeneghini; Keppeler, Ísis Bicca; Bueno, Claudine Devicari; Riesgo, Rudimar Dos Santos

    2017-10-01

    Introduction  The tone-evoked auditory brainstem responses (tone-ABR) enable the differential diagnosis in the evaluation of children until 12 months of age, including those with external and/or middle ear malformations. The use of auditory stimuli with frequency specificity by air and bone conduction allows characterization of hearing profile. Objective  The objective of our study was to compare the results obtained in tone-ABR by air and bone conduction in children until 12 months, with agenesis of the external auditory canal. Method  The study was cross-sectional, observational, individual, and contemporary. We conducted the research with tone-ABR by air and bone conduction in the frequencies of 500 Hz and 2000 Hz in 32 children, 23 boys, from one to 12 months old, with agenesis of the external auditory canal. Results  The tone-ABR thresholds were significantly elevated for air conduction in the frequencies of 500 Hz and 2000 Hz, while the thresholds of bone conduction had normal values in both ears. We found no statistically significant difference between genders and ears for most of the comparisons. Conclusion  The thresholds obtained by bone conduction did not alter the thresholds in children with conductive hearing loss. However, the conductive hearing loss alter all thresholds by air conduction. The tone-ABR by bone conduction is an important tool for assessing cochlear integrity in children with agenesis of the external auditory canal under 12 months.

  20. Nevo melânico intradérmico do meato auditivo externo Intradermal melanocytic nevus of the external auditory canal

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    Renato V. Alves

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Muito comuns, os nevos intradérmicos constituem um tumor cutâneo pigmentado benigno. Seu aparecimento no meato auditivo externo é inabitual. Os aspectos clínicos e histopatológicos dos nevos intradérmicos dentro do meato auditivo externo são apresentados e a literatura é revisada.Intradermal nevi are common benign pigmented skin tumors. Their occurrence within the external auditory canal is uncommon. The clinical and pathologic features of an intradermal nevus arising within the external auditory canal are presented, and the literature reviewed.

  1. Morphometric analysis of the internal auditory canal by computed tomography imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Sergio Ricardo; Ajzen, Sergio; D Ippolito, Giuseppe; Alonso, Luis; Isotani, Sadao; Lederman, Henrique

    2012-06-01

    Many clinical and experimental studies have been done to analyze the anatomical and functional aspects of the internal auditory canal (IAC) in human beings since there are great inter-individual variability and structural variations that may occur regarding the other adjacent structures. The purpose of this study was to characterize the morphology of the internal auditory canal (IAC) during development using high resolution computed tomography (CT) and to analyze its dimensions, which will be determined by measuring the nearby areas and structures using a system of digital image processing. CT images of the IAC of 110 normal subjects aged 1 to 92 years (mean age, 46.5 years) of both genders were reviewed to determine the shape, area, opening width (OW), longitudinal length (LL), vertical diameter (VD) and distance from the vestibular aqueduct. The shapes observed in children and adults were funnel-shaped (74% and 58.3%, respectively), cylindrical (22% and 30.9%, respectively) and bud-shaped (4% and 10.8%, respectively). The measurements by CT in children were: area= 50.30 mm(2), OW = 7.53 mm, length = 11.17 mm, VD = 4.82 mm and the distance between the IAC and the vestibular aqueduct (VA) = 12.63 mm. In adults, the measurements were: area = 44.64 mm(2), OW = 7.10 mm, length = 9.84 mm, VD = 4.47 mm and the distance between IAC and VA = 11.17 mm. CT images showed that the IAC has different shapes and when the measurements obtained for children were compared with those of adults, the parameters that presented statistically significant differences in either gender were length and diameter.

  2. Spontaneous temporomandibular joint herniation into the external auditory canal through a patent foramen of Huschke: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyeong Hwa Ryu, M.D.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Temporomandibular joint herniation (TMJ can be caused by inflammation, trauma, tumor, or otologic procedures. However, spontaneous TMJ herniation can also occur as a result of a congenital bony defect in the external auditory canal (EAC, known as the patent foramen of Huschke (PFH, and occurs in 0.4% of the population. Herein, the authors present a case of spontaneous TMJ herniation through the PFH with clicking tinnitus. The patient underwent the surgical repair of bony defect in the EAC with placement of titanium mesh, and the symptom disappeared after surgery. They also review the relevant literature regarding this disease and discuss its embryologic development and clinical significance.

  3. Primary Pleomorphic Adenoma of the External Auditory Canal: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chizu Saito

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Pleomorphic adenoma (PA is a benign tumour that mainly arises from salivary glands, and PA of the external auditory canal (EAC is very rare. The objective of this study was to clarify the clinical presentation and treatment of PA of the EAC. Method. The authors present a case of PA arising from the EAC together with a literature review. Results. A 40-year-old man complained of hearing loss and foreign-body sensation of the right ear. Clinical and radiological examinations revealed a well-defined tumour limited to the EAC, with no connection to the parotid gland. Preoperative fine-needle aspiration cytology findings were characteristic of PA. The tumour was removed en bloc with the overlying skin. Conclusion. PA of the EAC is very rare, and methods to rule out malignancy before treatment are lacking. Thus, long-term follow-up is necessary, because malignant tumours are common in the EAC and PA has malignant potential.

  4. Acute auditory agnosia as the presenting hearing disorder in MELAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miceli, Gabriele; Conti, Guido; Cianfoni, Alessandro; Di Giacopo, Raffaella; Zampetti, Patrizia; Servidei, Serenella

    2008-12-01

    MELAS is commonly associated with peripheral hearing loss. Auditory agnosia is a rare cortical auditory impairment, usually due to bilateral temporal damage. We document, for the first time, auditory agnosia as the presenting hearing disorder in MELAS. A young woman with MELAS (A3243G mtDNA mutation) suffered from acute cortical hearing damage following a single stroke-like episode, in the absence of previous hearing deficits. Audiometric testing showed marked central hearing impairment and very mild sensorineural hearing loss. MRI documented bilateral, acute lesions to superior temporal regions. Neuropsychological tests demonstrated auditory agnosia without aphasia. Our data and a review of published reports show that cortical auditory disorders are relatively frequent in MELAS, probably due to the strikingly high incidence of bilateral and symmetric damage following stroke-like episodes. Acute auditory agnosia can be the presenting hearing deficit in MELAS and, conversely, MELAS should be suspected in young adults with sudden hearing loss.

  5. The cochlear nerve canal and internal auditory canal in children with normal cochlea but cochlear nerve deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Fei; Li, Jianhong; Xian, Junfang; Wang, Zhenchang [Dept. of Radiology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical Univ., Beijing (China)], e-mail: cjr.wzhch@vip.163.com; Mo, Lingyan [Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical Univ., Beijing (China)

    2013-04-15

    Background: There is an increasing frequency of requests for cochlear implantation (CI) in deaf children and more detailed image information is necessary for selecting appropriate candidates. Cochlear nerve deficiency (CND) is a contraindication to CI. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used to evaluate the integrity of the cochlear nerve. The abnormalities of the cochlear nerve canal (CNC) and internal auditory canal (IAC) have been reported to be associated with CND. Purpose: To correlate CNC manifestation, size, and IAC diameter on high-resolution CT (HRCT) with CND diagnosed by MRI in children. Material and Methods: HRCT images from 35 sensorineurally deaf children who had normal cochlea but bilateral or unilateral CND diagnosed by MRI were studied retrospectively. The CNC and IAC manifestation and size were assessed and correlated with CND. Results: CND was diagnosed by MRI in 54/70 ears (77.1%). Thirty-two ears had an absent cochlear nerve (59.3%), while 22 ears had a small cochlear nerve (40.7%). The CNC diameter was <1.5 mm in 36 ears (66.7%). The CNC diameter ranged between 1.5 and 2.0 mm in seven ears (13.0%) and was >2.0 mm in 11 ears (20.4%). The IAC diameter was <3.0 mm in 25 ears (46.3%) and >3.0 mm in 29 ears (53.7%). Conclusion: The hypoplastic CNC might be more highly indicative of CND than that of a narrow IAC.

  6. Clinical and histological characteristics of melanocytic nevus in external auditory canals and auricles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hye Jin; Kim, Yun Tae; Choo, Oak-Sung; Park, Keehyun; Park, Hun Yi; Choung, Yun-Hoon

    2013-11-01

    Nevi, which consist of nevus cells arising from external auditory canals (EACs) and auricles, are rare and their characteristics are not thoroughly understood. The purpose of this study was to analyze the clinicopathological characteristics of melanocytic nevus (MN) in EACs and auricles. Medical records were reviewed in 35 cases with junctional, compound and intradermal nevi treated in Ajou University Hospital, Korea between 2001 and 2011. Patient demographic, location, shape, and diameter of nevi, and pathologic results were analyzed according to the location, EACs (23 cases) and auricles (12 cases). Female predominance was noted in both EAC (60.9 %, 14 cases) and auricular (75 %, 9 cases) nevi. The mean age of EAC nevi (37.1 years) was younger than that of auricular nevi (42.2 years). The chief complaint was a symptomless mass in both groups, mostly in dome-like gross appearances. The mean diameter of EAC and auricular nevi was 9.6 (3-16) mm and 12.2 (3-25) mm, respectively. Histological findings chiefly presented intradermal nevi in EACs (78.3 %) and auricles (83.3 %) which showed preference to older patients, in contrast to the compound type. All nevi including five cases with skin grafts were completely excised without any recurrence within the follow-up period (average 5.3 months). A possible dysplastic nevus was detected in only one case. All MNs in EACs or auricles reveal similar characteristics. Early and complete excision is recommended to avoid skin graft, functional problems, and the risk of malignant melanoma.

  7. Exclusive endoscopic transcanal transpromontorial approach: a new perspective for internal auditory canal vestibular schwannoma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchioni, Daniele; Alicandri-Ciufelli, Matteo; Rubini, Alessia; Masotto, Babara; Pavesi, Giacomo; Presutti, Livio

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to describe the first case series in which an exclusive endoscopic transcanal transpromontorial approach (EETTA) was used to treat small vestibular schwannomas (VSs) and meningiomas of the internal auditory canal (IAC). METHODS The authors performed a retrospective review of patients who had undergone surgery using an EETTA to the IAC at 2 university tertiary care referral centers during the period from November 2011 to January 2015. RESULTS Ten patients underwent surgery via an EETTA for the treatment of VS in the IAC at the University Hospital of Modena or the University Hospital of Verona. The patients had Koos Grade I or II tumors and American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery (AAO-HNS) Class D hearing status preoperatively. Gross-total resection was achieved in all patients. No major complications such as cerebrospinal fluid leakage or hemorrhage were reported. In 7 of 10 (70%) patients, facial nerve function was normal immediately after surgery (Rough Grading System [RGS] Grade I). Two patients presented with a transitory facial palsy immediately after surgery (RGS Grade II-III) but experienced complete recovery during the follow-up period. The mean follow-up was 10 months. CONCLUSIONS The EETTA proved to be successful for the removal of VS or meningioma involving the cochlea, fundus, and IAC, with possible lower complication rates and less invasive procedures than those for traditional microscopic approaches. The potential for the extensive and routine use of this approach in lateral and posterior skull base surgery will depend on the development of technology and surgical refinements and on the diffusion of skull base endoscopic skills among the otolaryngological and neurosurgical communities.

  8. Improving resident familiarity with the translabyrinthine approach to the internal auditory canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedmon, Matthew M; O'Connell, Brendan P; Adams, Austin S; Wanna, George B; Haynes, David S

    To increase otolaryngology resident experience with drilling and dissection of the internal auditory canal (IAC) via a translabyrinthine approach. Pilot study involving temporal bone education and drilling with completion of pre- and post-drilling surveys. Participants observed an educational presentation on IAC anatomy and drilling, followed by manipulation of IAC nerves using a prosected cadaveric temporal bone. Participants then drilled the IAC and identified nerves using temporal bones with previously drilled mastoidectomies and labyrinthectomies. Pre- and post-drilling 5-point Likert-based surveys were completed. 7 participants were included in this study ranging in experience from PGY1 through PGY 5. The median number of times the IAC had been drilled previously was 0. Participants reported statistically significantly improved familiarity with the translabyrinthine approach after the session with median scores increasing from 2 to 3 (p=0.02), and a near-significant increase in familiarity with IAC anatomy with median scores increasing from 3 to 4 (p=0.06). Prior to the session, 71% of participants either disagreed or strongly disagreed that they had an idea of what the procedure would be like in a real operating room, whereas after the session 0% reported disagreement. 100% of participants were very satisfied with the overall experience. An educational session and temporal bone drilling experience using prosected bones significantly increased the reported familiarity with the translabyrinthine approach. Experiences such as this may enhance resident exposure to advanced lateral skull base approaches in a safe environment, and increase comprehension of the complex anatomic relationships of the IAC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Presentation of dynamically overlapping auditory messages in user interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papp, III, Albert Louis [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1997-09-01

    This dissertation describes a methodology and example implementation for the dynamic regulation of temporally overlapping auditory messages in computer-user interfaces. The regulation mechanism exists to schedule numerous overlapping auditory messages in such a way that each individual message remains perceptually distinct from all others. The method is based on the research conducted in the area of auditory scene analysis. While numerous applications have been engineered to present the user with temporally overlapped auditory output, they have generally been designed without any structured method of controlling the perceptual aspects of the sound. The method of scheduling temporally overlapping sounds has been extended to function in an environment where numerous applications can present sound independently of each other. The Centralized Audio Presentation System is a global regulation mechanism that controls all audio output requests made from all currently running applications. The notion of multimodal objects is explored in this system as well. Each audio request that represents a particular message can include numerous auditory representations, such as musical motives and voice. The Presentation System scheduling algorithm selects the best representation according to the current global auditory system state, and presents it to the user within the request constraints of priority and maximum acceptable latency. The perceptual conflicts between temporally overlapping audio messages are examined in depth through the Computational Auditory Scene Synthesizer. At the heart of this system is a heuristic-based auditory scene synthesis scheduling method. Different schedules of overlapped sounds are evaluated and assigned penalty scores. High scores represent presentations that include perceptual conflicts between over-lapping sounds. Low scores indicate fewer and less serious conflicts. A user study was conducted to validate that the perceptual difficulties predicted by

  10. Development of a method for estimating oesophageal temperature by multi-locational temperature measurement inside the external auditory canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakada, Hirofumi; Horie, Seichi; Kawanami, Shoko; Inoue, Jinro; Iijima, Yoshinori; Sato, Kiyoharu; Abe, Takeshi

    2017-09-01

    We aimed to develop a practical method to estimate oesophageal temperature by measuring multi-locational auditory canal temperatures. This method can be applied to prevent heatstroke by simultaneously and continuously monitoring the core temperatures of people working under hot environments. We asked 11 healthy male volunteers to exercise, generating 80 W for 45 min in a climatic chamber set at 24, 32 and 40 °C, at 50% relative humidity. We also exposed the participants to radiation at 32 °C. We continuously measured temperatures at the oesophagus, rectum and three different locations along the external auditory canal. We developed equations for estimating oesophageal temperatures from auditory canal temperatures and compared their fitness and errors. The rectal temperature increased or decreased faster than oesophageal temperature at the start or end of exercise in all conditions. Estimated temperature showed good similarity with oesophageal temperature, and the square of the correlation coefficient of the best fitting model reached 0.904. We observed intermediate values between rectal and oesophageal temperatures during the rest phase. Even under the condition with radiation, estimated oesophageal temperature demonstrated concordant movement with oesophageal temperature at around 0.1 °C overestimation. Our method measured temperatures at three different locations along the external auditory canal. We confirmed that the approach can credibly estimate the oesophageal temperature from 24 to 40 °C for people performing exercise in the same place in a windless environment.

  11. Pediatric extratemporal epilepsy presenting with a complex auditory aura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Dave F; Boop, Frederick A; McGregor, Amy L; Perkins, F Frederick; Brewer, Vickie R; Wheless, James W

    2008-06-01

    Ear plugging (placing fingers in or covering the ears) is a clinical seizure semiology that has been described as a response to an unformed, auditory hallucination localized to the superior temporal neocortex. The localizing value of ear plugging in more complex auditory hallucinations may have more involved circuitry. We report on one child, whose aura was a more complex auditory phenomenon, consisting of a door opening and closing, getting louder as the ictus persisted. This child presented, at four years of age, with brief episodes of ear plugging followed by an acute emotional change that persisted until surgical resection of a left mesial frontal lesion at 11 years of age. Scalp video-EEG, magnetic resource imaging, magnetoencephalography, and invasive video-EEG monitoring were carried out. The scalp EEG changes always started after clinical onset. These were not localizing, and encompassed a wide field over the bi-frontal head regions, the left side predominant over the right. Intracranial video-EEG monitoring with subdural electrodes over both frontal and temporal regions localized the seizure-onset to the left mesial frontal lesion. The patient has remained seizure-free since the resection on June 28, 2006, approximately one and a half years ago. Ear plugging in response to simple auditory auras localize to the superior temporal gyrus. If the patient has more complex, formed auditory auras, not only may the secondary auditory areas in the temporal lobe be involved, but one has to entertain the possibility of ictal-onset from the frontal cortex.

  12. Congenital aural atresia: bone-anchored hearing aid vs. external auditory canal reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhabel, Sarah; Arcand, Pierre; Saliba, Issam

    2012-02-01

    To compare the audiologic outcome and feasibility of bone-anchored hearing aid (BAHA) and external auditory canal reconstruction (EACR) surgeries in pediatric patients presenting a congenital aural atresia (CAA). A retrospective chart review of 40 patients operated in our tertiary pediatric care center between 2002 and 2010 was performed. 20 patients underwent EACR, whereas another 20 patients were implanted with a BAHA device. Air conduction (AC), bone conduction (BC), pure tone average (PTA) and speech discrimination score (SDS) were compared preoperatively, and hearing gain (HG) postoperatively at 6 and at 12 months at frequencies of 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 Hz. Operative time, complications and associated microtia were documented as well. EACR patients were graded retrospectively upon Jahrsdoerfer's classification. Preoperative AC were significantly different between groups, at 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz but not at 4000 Hz. BAHA group compared postoperatively to EACR group showed significantly a superior HG of 46.9 ± 7.0 dB (paided air thresholds from the EACR group revealed an audiologic status similar to those of the BAHA group patients, at 6 months and one year postoperatively. Both groups had a similar evolution of their BC, as well as of the incidence of complications. We report one case of transient facial paralysis in the EACR group. Total operative time is significantly lower (pBAHA implantation (56 ± 21 min) than for EACR surgery (216 ± 174 min). No preoperative or postoperative correlation (Pearson correlation test; p>0.05) was found between patient's Jahrsdoerfer's score and their audiologic outcome. HG does not seem to be influenced by the presence of microtia. EACR, although constituting an attractive option, does not give acceptable results alone. It can however, when combined to conventional air conduction hearing aids, provide excellent audiologic outcomes comparable to BAHA. BAHA implantation is a reliable, safe and efficient therapeutic option

  13. Diagnosis and treatment of cavernous hemangioma of the internal auditory canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei Dong; Huang, Qi; Li, Xi Ye; Chen, Hong Sai; Wang, Zhao Yan; Wu, Hao

    2016-03-01

    Cavernous hemangioma of the internal auditory canal (IAC) is an extremely rare type of tumor, and only 50 cases have been reported in the literature prior to this study. The aim in this study was to describe the symptomatology, radiological features, and surgical outcomes for patients with cavernous hemangioma of the IAC and to discuss the diagnostic criteria and treatment strategy for the disease. The study included 6 patients with cavernous hemangioma of the IAC. All patients presented with sensorineural hearing loss and tinnitus, and 2 also suffered from vertigo. Five patients reported a history of facial symptoms with hemispasm or palsy: 3 had progressive facial weakness, 1 had a hemispasm, and 1 had a history of recovery from sudden facial paresis. All patients underwent CT and MRI to rule out intracanalicular vestibular schwannomas and facial nerve neuromas. Five patients had their tumors surgically removed, while 1 patient, who did not have facial problems, was followed up with a wait-and-scan approach. All patients had a presurgical diagnosis of cavernous hemangioma of the IAC, which was confirmed pathologically in the 5 patients who underwent surgical removal of the tumor. The translabyrinthine approach was used to remove the tumor in 4 patients, while the middle cranial fossa approach was used in the 1 patient who still had functional hearing. Tumors adhered to cranial nerves VII and/or VIII and were difficult to dissect from nerve sheaths during surgeries. Complete hearing loss occurred in all 5 patients. In 3 patients, the facial nerve could not be separated from the tumor, and primary end-to-end anastomosis was performed. Intact facial nerve preservation was achieved in 2 patients. Patients were followed up for at least 1 year after treatment, and MRI showed no evidence of tumor regrowth. All patients experienced some level of recovery in facial nerve function. Cavernous hemangioma of the IAC can be diagnosed preoperatively through analysis of clinical

  14. The influence of presentation method on auditory length perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkwood, Brent Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Humans are capable of hearing the lengths of wooden rods dropped onto hard floors. In an attempt to understand the influence of the stimulus presentation method for testing this kind of everyday listening task, listener performance was compared for three presentation methods in an auditory length...

  15. A Guyon's canal ganglion presenting as occupational overuse syndrome: A case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chan, Jeffrey C Y

    2008-01-01

    Occupational overuse syndrome (OOS) can present as Guyon\\'s canal syndrome in computer keyboard users. We report a case of Guyon\\'s canal syndrome caused by a ganglion in a computer user that was misdiagnosed as OOS.

  16. Retrolabyrinthine Meatotomy as Part of Retrosigmoid Approach to Expose the Whole Internal Auditory Canal: Rationale, Technique, and Outcome in Hearing Preservation Surgery for Vestibular Schwannoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, Antonio; Zanoletti, Elisabetta; Denaro, Luca; Martini, Alessandro; Avella, Domenico d'

    2018-01-01

    Vestibular schwannoma extending to the fundus of the internal auditory canal is currently considered an unfavorable condition for hearing preservation surgery via a retrosigmoid approach because the lateral end of the canal is hard to view directly during microsurgery. To present an improved retrolabyrinthine meatotomy (RLM) technique that enables the full length of the cochlear and facial nerves to be inspected up to their orifices on the fundus. Long-term results are briefly reported. A consecutive series of 100 cases with various degrees of fundus involvement underwent surgery via a retrosigmoid approach and RLM. The follow-up ranged from 4 to 14 yr. Outcomes on hearing and facial nerve function were recorded, and preoperative MRI findings of the tumor on the fundus were correlated with the surgical findings and the long-term radicality of the tumor resection. Residual tumor on the fundus was identified in 3 cases, all belonging to the group with tumors adhering to the fundus. The functional results were in line with the best reported outcomes of this surgery. RLM via a retrosigmoid approach seemed adequate for the purposes of hearing preservation surgery and enabled the full course of the facial and cochlear nerves through the internal auditory canal to be exposed to direct view. Tumors adhering to the vestibular quadrant of the fundus were more difficult to remove, and there were a few cases of local residual tumor.

  17. Simulating cartilage conduction sound to estimate the sound pressure level in the external auditory canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimokura, Ryota; Hosoi, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Tadashi; Iwakura, Takashi; Yamanaka, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    When the aural cartilage is made to vibrate it generates sound directly into the external auditory canal which can be clearly heard. Although the concept of cartilage conduction can be applied to various speech communication and music industrial devices (e.g. smartphones, music players and hearing aids), the conductive performance of such devices has not yet been defined because the calibration methods are different from those currently used for air and bone conduction. Thus, the aim of this study was to simulate the cartilage conduction sound (CCS) using a head and torso simulator (HATS) and a model of aural cartilage (polyurethane resin pipe) and compare the results with experimental ones. Using the HATS, we found the simulated CCS at frequencies above 2 kHz corresponded to the average measured CCS from seven subjects. Using a model of skull bone and aural cartilage, we found that the simulated CCS at frequencies lower than 1.5 kHz agreed with the measured CCS. Therefore, a combination of these two methods can be used to estimate the CCS with high accuracy.

  18. High-dose-rate brachytherapy of rhabdomyosarcoma limited to the external auditory canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Martin T; Voros, Laszlo; Cohen, Gil'ad N; Lanning, Ryan M; Ganly, Ian; O'Suoji, Chibuzo C; Wolden, Suzanne L

    To report on the single-catheter high-dose-rate brachytherapy treatment of a 21-month-old girl child with an embryonal, botryoid-type, rhabdomyosarcoma limited to the external auditory canal (EAC). A 2.4-mm diameter catheter was inserted into the right EAC and placed against the tympanic membrane. A computed tomography simulation scan was acquired. A brachytherapy treatment plan, in which 21 Gy in seven fractions was prescribed to a 1-mm depth along the distal 2 cm of the catheter, was generated. Treatments were delivered under anesthesia without complication. A dosimetric comparison between this plan and an intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plan was then conducted. A clinical target volume (CTV), which encompassed a 1-mm margin along the distal 2 cm of the catheter, was delineated for both plans. Given positioning uncertainty under image guidance, a planning target volume (PTV = CTV + 3-mm margin) was defined for the IMRT plan. The IMRT plan was optimized for maximal CTV coverage but subsequently normalized to the same CTV volume receiving 100% of the prescription dose (V100) of the brachytherapy plan. The IMRT plan was normalized to the brachytherapy CTV V100 of 82.0%. The PTV V100 of this plan was 34.1%. The PTV exhibited dosimetric undercoverage within the middle ear and toward the external ear. Mean cochlea doses for the IMRT and brachytherapy plans were 26.7% and 10.5% of prescription, respectively. For rhabdomyosarcomas limited to the EAC, a standard brachytherapy catheter can deliver a highly conformal radiation plan that can spare the nearby cochlea from excess radiation. Copyright © 2016 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. An unusual presentation of all the mandibular anterior teeth with two root canals - A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiku A

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A rare case of two root canals in all mandibular anterior teeth is presented. The patient initially reported for the treatment of mandibular right central and lateral incisors. However, radiographic evaluation revealed variant root canal and apical foramen patterns.

  20. Sound lateralization ability of patients with bilateral microtia and atresia after bilateral reconstruction of auricles and external auditory canals and fitting of new canal-type hearing aids to replace a bone conduction hearing aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaga, Kimitaka; Asato, Hirotaka

    2017-04-01

    Each of eight patients with bilateral microtia and atresia underwent bilateral reconstruction of the auricles and external auditory canals and were fitted bilateral canal-type hearing aids in the operated ears to replace a bone conduction hearing aid. The ability to discriminate inter-aural intensity difference (IID) and even inter-aural time difference (ITD) was retained in all these patients. This study studied the post-operative sound lateralization ability of patients with bilateral microtia and atresia after total reconstruction of both auricles and external auditory canals, followed by fitting of bilateral canal-type hearing aids. Eight patients with bilateral microtia and atresia ranging in age from 13-43 years were recruited in this study. Each of them underwent bilateral reconstruction of the auricles and external auditory canals and were fitted canal-type hearing aids in both the operated ears to replace a bone conduction hearing aid. A sound lateralization test was conducted to determine IID and ITD discrimination ability thresholds. In all the patients, the IID discrimination ability thresholds of the patients were more than 3-fold those of the controls, the ITD discrimination ability threshold was more than 5-fold those of controls, and binaural hearing was retained.

  1. Effects of Auditory Information on Self-Motion Perception during Simultaneous Presentation of Visual Shearing Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigehito eTanahashi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have found that self-motion perception induced by simultaneous presentation of visual and auditory motion is facilitated when the directions of visual and auditory motion stimuli are identical. They did not, however, examine possible contributions of auditory motion information for determining direction of self-motion perception. To examine this, a visual stimulus projected on a hemisphere screen and an auditory stimulus presented through headphones were presented separately or simultaneously, depending on experimental conditions. The participant continuously indicated the direction and strength of self-motion during the 130-s experimental trial. When the visual stimulus with a horizontal shearing rotation and the auditory stimulus with a horizontal one-directional rotation were presented simultaneously, the duration and strength of self-motion perceived in the opposite direction of the auditory rotation stimulus were significantly longer and stronger than those perceived in the same direction of the auditory rotation stimulus. However, the auditory stimulus alone could not sufficiently induce self-motion perception, and if it did, its direction was not consistent within each experimental trial. We concluded that auditory motion information can determine perceived direction of self-motion during simultaneous presentation of visual and auditory motion information, at least when visual stimuli moved in opposing directions (around the yaw-axis. We speculate that the contribution of auditory information depends on the plausibility and information balance of visual and auditory information.

  2. Acoustic Noise of MRI Scans of the Internal Auditory Canal and Potential for Intracochlear Physiological Changes

    CERN Document Server

    Busada, M A; Ibrahim, G; Huckans, J H

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a widely used medical imaging technique to assess the health of the auditory (vestibulocochlear) nerve. A well known problem with MRI machines is that the acoustic noise they generate during a scan can cause auditory temporary threshold shifts (TTS) in humans. In addition, studies have shown that excessive noise in general can cause rapid physiological changes of constituents of the auditory within the cochlea. Here, we report in-situ measurements of the acoustic noise from a 1.5 Tesla MRI machine (GE Signa) during scans specific to auditory nerve assessment. The measured average and maximum noise levels corroborate earlier investigations where TTS occurred. We briefly discuss the potential for physiological changes to the intracochlear branches of the auditory nerve as well as iatrogenic misdiagnoses of intralabyrinthine and intracochlear schwannomas due to hypertrophe of the auditory nerve within the cochlea during MRI assessment.

  3. Squamous cell carcinoma of the external auditory canal: computed tomography findings in six cases; Carcinoma espinocelular do conduto auditivo externo: estudo por tomografia computadorizada de seis casos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Fabio Mota; Paes Junior, Ademar Jose de Oliveira; Tornin, Olger de Souza [Complexo Hospitalar Heliopolis, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Servico de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: fmg961@yahoo.com.br; Souza, Ricardo Pires de [Complexo Hospitalar Heliopolis, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Programa de Residencia Medica em Radiologia e Diagnostico por Imagem

    2005-05-15

    Objective: to evaluate the role of computed tomography in the assessment of deep extension of squamous cell carcinoma of the external auditory canal. Materials and methods: in the period between May 1995 and December 2003 six patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the external auditory canal were submitted to computed tomography scan at 'Hospital Heliopolis', Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil, including axial and coronal slices with soft tissue and bone algorithms. Results: thickening of the soft tissue of the external auditory canal was seen in all patients, bone erosion and invasion of the middle ear in five (83.3%), invasion of the mastoid and parotid gland in four (66.7%), invasion of the temporomandibular joint in three (50%), and invasion of the middle cranial fossa, carotid canal and cervical lymph node enlargement in two (33.3%) patients. Conclusion: assessment of deep extension of squamous cell carcinoma of the external auditory canal using computed tomography is useful for clinical staging of the disease allowing better therapeutic planning for these patients. (author)

  4. Auditory Processing Theories of Language Disorders: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Carol A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to provide information that will assist readers in understanding and interpreting research literature on the role of auditory processing in communication disorders. Method: A narrative review was used to summarize and synthesize the literature on auditory processing deficits in children with auditory…

  5. Late metastasis of breast adenocarcinoma into internal auditory canal and cerebellopontine angle: case report Metástase tardia de adenocarcinoma de mama para o canal auditivo interno e ângulo ponto-cerebelar: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilson Marques

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available A case of metastasis of breast adenocarcinoma into the internal auditory canal (IAC and cerebellopontine angle (CPA is presented, which appeared 16 years after primary tumor had been treated by surgery and radiation therapy. The 66-year old patient was considered cured from the primary disease, when she started with a rapidly developing hearing loss and intermittent facial palsy. Magnetic resonance image (MRI displayed an intra- and extracanalicular tumor mass, which radiologically resembled a vestibular schwannoma. Surgery was performed and histopathological studies showed an adenocarcinoma compatible with breast origin. Metastasis is a rare occurrence within the IAC and CPA. Clinical history of severe facial palsy will rise suspicion of malignant tumor in spite of the radiological findings.Um caso de metástase de adenocarcinoma de mama para o canal auditivo interno e ângulo ponto-cerebelar é apresentado. A metástase ocorreu após 16 anos do tumor primário ter sido tratado com cirurgia e radioterapia. A paciente de 66 anos foi considerada curada de sua doença primária, quando apresentou perda auditiva de progressão rápida associada a paralisia facial intermitente. Ressonância magnética demonstrou uma lesão expansiva intra e extracanalicular, cujo aspecto radiológico lembrava schwannoma do vestibular. A paciente foi submetida a cirurgia e investigação histopatológica confirmou tratar-se de metástase. Metástase é uma rara ocorrência dentro do canal auditivo interno e ângulo ponto-cerebelar. História clínica de paralisia facial severa aumentará a suspeita de lesão maligna apesar dos achados radiológicos.

  6. A Guyon's canal ganglion presenting as occupational overuse syndrome: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hennessy Michael J

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Occupational overuse syndrome (OOS can present as Guyon's canal syndrome in computer keyboard users. We report a case of Guyon's canal syndrome caused by a ganglion in a computer user that was misdiagnosed as OOS. Case presentation A 54-year-old female secretary was referred with a six-month history of right little finger weakness and difficulty with adduction. Prior to her referral, she was diagnosed by her general practitioner and physiotherapist with a right ulnar nerve neuropraxia at the level of the Guyon's canal. This was thought to be secondary to computer keyboard use and direct pressure exerted on a wrist support. There was obvious atrophy of the hypothenar eminence and the first dorsal interosseous muscle. Both Froment's and Wartenberg's signs were positive. A nerve conduction study revealed that both the abductor digiti minimi and the first dorsal interosseus muscles showed prolonged motor latency. Ulnar conduction across the right elbow was normal. Ulnar sensory amplitude across the right wrist to the fifth digit was reduced while the dorsal cutaneous nerve response was normal. Magnetic resonance imaging of the right wrist showed a ganglion in Guyon's canal. Decompression of the Guyon's canal was performed and histological examination confirmed a ganglion. The patient's symptoms and signs resolved completely at four-month follow-up. Conclusion Clinical history, occupational history and examination alone could potentially lead to misdiagnosis of OOS when a computer user presents with these symptoms and we recommend that nerve conduction or imaging studies be performed.

  7. Auditory presentation and synchronization in Adobe Flash and HTML5/JavaScript Web experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimers, Stian; Stewart, Neil

    2016-09-01

    Substantial recent research has examined the accuracy of presentation durations and response time measurements for visually presented stimuli in Web-based experiments, with a general conclusion that accuracy is acceptable for most kinds of experiments. However, many areas of behavioral research use auditory stimuli instead of, or in addition to, visual stimuli. Much less is known about auditory accuracy using standard Web-based testing procedures. We used a millisecond-accurate Black Box Toolkit to measure the actual durations of auditory stimuli and the synchronization of auditory and visual presentation onsets. We examined the distribution of timings for 100 presentations of auditory and visual stimuli across two computers with difference specs, three commonly used browsers, and code written in either Adobe Flash or JavaScript. We also examined different coding options for attempting to synchronize the auditory and visual onsets. Overall, we found that auditory durations were very consistent, but that the lags between visual and auditory onsets varied substantially across browsers and computer systems.

  8. Vertically transmitted HPV-dependent squamous cell carcinoma of the external auditory canal. Case report of a child

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snietura, Miroslaw; Pakulo, Slawomir; Kopec, Agnieszka; Piglowski, Wojciech; Stanek-Widera, Agata [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Tumor Pathology Department, Gliwice (Poland); Chelmecka-Wiktorczyk, Liliana [University Children' s Hospital of Cracow, Department of Oncology and Hematology, Cracow (Poland); Drabik, Grazyna [University Children' s Hospital of Cracow, Pathology Department, Cracow (Poland); Kosowski, Bogdan [NZOZ Prosmed, Cracow (Poland); Wyrobek, Lukasz [University Children' s Hospital of Cracow, Department of Radiology, Cracow (Poland); Balwierz, Walentyna [University Children' s Hospital of Cracow, Department of Oncology and Hematology, Cracow (Poland); Jagiellonian University in Cracow, Clinic of Oncology and Hematology, Polish-American Pediatric Institute, Cracow (Poland)

    2017-02-15

    There is much evidence that high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) plays a causative role in a subset of head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) in adults. HPV-positive tumors behave differently even in their response to treatment and are therefore a distinct subset. Both HPV-positive and HPV-negative tumors of the head and neck region are usually in the domain of adults and cases in children are rare; thus when a 2-year-old child was diagnosed with this cancer in the external auditory canal, an in-depth assessment of the tumor was considered necessary. A 2-year-old girl was born to a HPV-positive mother who was diagnosed with cervical cancer during pregnancy. The child was delivered by caesarean section and the mother died of her cancer 7 months after delivery. After the diagnosis of locally invasive HPV-positive squamous cell cancer of the external auditory canal, the child was treated surgically, and with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Full remission was obtained lasting up to 325 weeks since treatment was started, resulting in over 6 years of disease-free survival. This is the first case of advanced, HPV-related HNSCC in a 2-year-old child, in whom the tumor was located in the external auditory canal and who made a dramatic recovery after treatment with nonradical surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The child has currently been disease free for 6 years. This case supports the observation that HPV-related HNSCC tumors appear to respond favorably to treatment despite the patient's young age and the clinically advanced stage of the tumor. (orig.) [German] Es gibt reichlich Belege dafuer, dass das menschliche Papillomavirus vom Hochrisikotyp (HR-HPV) in einigen Faellen von Plattenepithelkarzinomen des Kopf- und Halsbereichs (HNSCC) eine Schluesselrolle spielt. HPV-positive Tumoren verhalten sich anders, auch bezueglich des Ansprechens auf die Behandlung. Deswegen stellen sie eine separate biologische Gruppe dar. Sowohl HPV-positive als auch HPV

  9. Inter- and Intramodal Encoding of Auditory and Visual Presentation of Material: Effects on Memory Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    De Haan, Edward H. F; Appels, Bregje; Aleman, André; Postma, Albert

    2000-01-01

    ... using visual and auditory presentation and writing and vocalization as encoding activities. The results show a similar memory performance in all conditions apart from the one in which visually presented words had to be written down...

  10. Cavernous hemangioma of the internal auditory canal encasing the VII and VIII cranial nerve complex: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastronardi, Luciano; Carpineta, Ettore; Cacciotti, Guglielmo; Di Scipio, Ettore; Roperto, Raffaelino

    2016-04-01

    Cavernous angiomas originating in the internal auditory canal are very rare. In the available literature, only 65 cases of cavernomas in this location have been previously reported. We describe the case of a 22-year-old woman surgically treated for a cavernous hemangioma in the left internal auditory canal, mimicking on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging MRI an acoustic neuroma. Neurological symptoms were hypoacusia and dizziness. The cavernous angioma encased the seventh and, partially, the eighth cranial nerve complex. A "nearly total" removal was performed, leaving a thin residual of malformation adherent to the facial nerve. Postoperative period was uneventful; hearing was unchanged, but the patient had a moderate inferior left facial palsy (House-Brackmann grade II) slightly improved during the following weeks. On the basis of the observation of this uncommon case, we propose a revision of the literature and discuss clinical features, differential diagnosis, and treatment.

  11. Carcinoma espinocelular do conduto auditivo externo: estudo por tomografia computadorizada de seis casos Squamous cell carcinoma of the external auditory canal: computed tomography findings in six cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Mota Gonzalez

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a importância da avaliação tomográfica da extensão profunda dos carcinomas espinocelulares do conduto auditivo externo. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram realizados exames tomográficos com cortes axiais e coronais com janelas para partes moles e óssea em seis pacientes com carcinoma espinocelular do conduto auditivo externo, com idade variando entre 55 e 71 anos, internados no Hospital Heliópolis, no período entre maio de 1995 e dezembro de 2003. RESULTADOS: Dos seis pacientes, todos apresentavam aumento de partes moles no conduto auditivo externo, cinco (83,3% tinham erosão óssea e invasão da orelha média, quatro (66,7% possuíam comprometimento da mastóide e da glândula parótida, três (50% apresentavam invasão da articulação temporomandibular, dois (33,3% tinham invasão da fossa média, do canal carotídeo e linfonodomegalia júgulo-carotídea alta ipisilateral. CONCLUSÃO: A avaliação da extensão tumoral profunda fornecida pela tomografia computadorizada é importante no estadiamento clínico, possibilitando um planejamento terapêutico mais eficaz.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of computed tomography in the assessment of deep extension of squamous cell carcinoma of the external auditory canal. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the period between May 1995 and December 2003 six patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the external auditory canal were submitted to computed tomography scan at "Hospital Heliópolis", São Paulo, SP, Brazil, including axial and coronal slices with soft tissue and bone algorithms. RESULTS: Thickening of the soft tissue of the external auditory canal was seen in all patients, bone erosion and invasion of the middle ear in five (83.3%, invasion of the mastoid and parotid gland in four (66.7%, invasion of the temporomandibular joint in three (50%, and invasion of the middle cranial fossa, carotid canal and cervical lymph node enlargement in two (33.3% patients. CONCLUSION: Assessment of

  12. Presenting multiple auditory signals using multiple sound cards in Visual Basic 6.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jason S; Spence, Charles

    2003-02-01

    In auditory research, it is often desirable to present more than two auditory stimuli at any one time. Although the technology has been available for some time, the majority of researchers have not utilized it. This article provides a simple means of presenting multiple, concurrent, independent auditory events, using two or more different sound cards installed within a single computer. By enabling the presentation of more auditory events, we can hope to gain a better understanding of the cognitive and attentional processes operating under more complex and realistic scenes, such as that embodied by the cocktail party effect. The software requirements are Windows 98SR2/Me/NT4/2000/XP, Visual Basic 6.0, and DirectX 7.0 or above. The hardware requirements are a Pentium II, 128 MB RAM, and two or more different sound cards.

  13. Otalgia and eschar in the external auditory canal in scrub typhus complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiple organ failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Sung-Yuan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scrub typhus, a mite-transmitted zoonosis caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, is an endemic disease in Taiwan and may be potentially fatal if diagnosis is delayed. Case presentations We encountered a 23-year-old previously healthy Taiwanese male soldier presenting with the right ear pain after training in the jungle and an eleven-day history of intermittent high fever up to 39°C. Amoxicillin/clavulanate was prescribed for otitis media at a local clinic. Skin rash over whole body and abdominal cramping pain with watery diarrhea appeared on the sixth day of fever. He was referred due to progressive dyspnea and cough for 4 days prior to admission in our institution. On physical examination, there were cardiopulmonary distress, icteric sclera, an eschar in the right external auditory canal and bilateral basal rales. Laboratory evaluation revealed thrombocytopenia, elevation of liver function and acute renal failure. Chest x-ray revealed bilateral diffuse infiltration. Doxycycline was prescribed for scrub typhus with acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiple organ failure. Fever subsided dramatically the next day and he was discharged on day 7 with oral tetracycline for 7 days. Conclusion Scrub typhus should be considered in acutely febrile patients with multiple organ involvement, particularly if there is an eschar or a history of environmental exposure in endemic areas. Rapid and accurate diagnosis, timely administration of antibiotics and intensive supportive care are necessary to decrease mortality of serious complications of scrub typhus.

  14. Hemispheric asymmetry in the auditory facilitation effect in dual-stream rapid serial visual presentation tasks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Takeshima

    Full Text Available Even though auditory stimuli do not directly convey information related to visual stimuli, they often improve visual detection and identification performance. Auditory stimuli often alter visual perception depending on the reliability of the sensory input, with visual and auditory information reciprocally compensating for ambiguity in the other sensory domain. Perceptual processing is characterized by hemispheric asymmetry. While the left hemisphere is more involved in linguistic processing, the right hemisphere dominates spatial processing. In this context, we hypothesized that an auditory facilitation effect in the right visual field for the target identification task, and a similar effect would be observed in the left visual field for the target localization task. In the present study, we conducted target identification and localization tasks using a dual-stream rapid serial visual presentation. When two targets are embedded in a rapid serial visual presentation stream, the target detection or discrimination performance for the second target is generally lower than for the first target; this deficit is well known as attentional blink. Our results indicate that auditory stimuli improved target identification performance for the second target within the stream when visual stimuli were presented in the right, but not the left visual field. In contrast, auditory stimuli improved second target localization performance when visual stimuli were presented in the left visual field. An auditory facilitation effect was observed in perceptual processing, depending on the hemispheric specialization. Our results demonstrate a dissociation between the lateral visual hemifield in which a stimulus is projected and the kind of visual judgment that may benefit from the presentation of an auditory cue.

  15. Tumor budding and laminin5-γ2 in squamous cell carcinoma of the external auditory canal are associated with shorter survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okado, Yasuko; Aoki, Mikiko; Hamasaki, Makoto; Koga, Kaori; Sueta, Takayuki; Shiratsuchi, Hideki; Oda, Yoshinao; Nakagawa, Takashi; Nabeshima, Kazuki

    2015-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the external auditory canal (EAC) is rare, usually presents at an advanced stage, and is a more aggressive tumor with poor prognosis. The University of Pittsburgh TNM staging system commonly used in prognostication is not perfect, and more accurate biomarkers predicting prognosis are needed. Tumor budding is an established negative prognostic factor at the invasive front in colorectal cancer. Moreover, immunohistochemical studies showed that laminin 5-γ2 (Ln5-γ2) is expressed at the invasive front in tumor or tumor budding cells. We assessed the prognostic significance of tumor budding and Ln5-γ2 expression by performing Ln5-γ2 immunohistochemistry and evaluated the degree of tumor budding in pre-treatment biopsy specimens, and investigated their correlations to clinicopathological parameters in patients with SCC of the EAC. Patients whose tumors had high budding grade and Ln5-γ2 expression had significantly shorter survival times. Budding grade was significantly correlated with Ln5-γ2 expression. Multivariate analysis revealed that high budding grade predicted poorer prognosis regardless of disease stage. Our results suggested that budding grade and Ln5-γ2 expression can be used as indicators of poor prognosis in patients with SCC of the EAC.

  16. Comprehension of idiomatic expressions in Japanese--auditory and visual presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, I

    1996-11-01

    This study reports on the auditory and visual comprehension of Japanese idioms having both literal and figurative meanings. Experiment I conducted the rating of the semantic distance between the two meanings. Experiment II investigated the difference of comprehension between semantically far and close idioms. Here the materials are presented in isolation both auditorily and visually. Experiment III conducted the same investigation as Experiment II, except that idioms were presented embedded in literally and figuratively induced contexts. Experiment IV reinvestigated the findings obtained from the previous experiments. The results of these experiments show that in isolation visual presentation precedes auditory presentation, and that both in the auditory and visual presentations semantically for idioms are comprehended more accurately than semantically close idioms.

  17. Use of a highly transparent zebrafish mutant for investigations in the development of the vertebrate auditory system (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniowiecki, Anna M.; Mattison, Scott P.; Kim, Sangmin; Riley, Bruce; Applegate, Brian E.

    2016-03-01

    Zebrafish, an auditory specialist among fish, offer analogous auditory structures to vertebrates and is a model for hearing and deafness in vertebrates, including humans. Nevertheless, many questions remain on the basic mechanics of the auditory pathway. Phase-sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography has been proven as valuable technique for functional vibrometric measurements in the murine ear. Such measurements are key to building a complete understanding of auditory mechanics. The application of such techniques in the zebrafish is impeded by the high level of pigmentation, which develops superior to the transverse plane and envelops the auditory system superficially. A zebrafish double mutant for nacre and roy (mitfa-/- ;roya-/- [casper]), which exhibits defects for neural-crest derived melanocytes and iridophores, at all stages of development, is pursued to improve image quality and sensitivity for functional imaging. So far our investigations with the casper mutants have enabled the identification of the specialized hearing organs, fluid-filled canal connecting the ears, and sub-structures of the semicircular canals. In our previous work with wild-type zebrafish, we were only able to identify and observe stimulated vibration of the largest structures, specifically the anterior swim bladder and tripus ossicle, even among small, larval specimen, with fully developed inner ears. In conclusion, this genetic mutant will enable the study of the dynamics of the zebrafish ear from the early larval stages all the way into adulthood.

  18. Successful control of recurrent angiosarcoma in the external auditory canal with CyberKnife radiosurgery and bisphosphonate risedronate sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eimei Iwama

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Angiosarcoma (AS is a highly aggressive vascular tumor that spreads widely throughout the skin. Since AS tends to recur locally and metastasize early, an additional intensive therapy is necessary. In this report, we describe an 83-year-old man with recurrent AS that metastasized to the right external auditory meatus, who achieved complete remission with CyberKnife and weekly administration of bisphosphonate risedronate sodium. Results of the present study might suggest the novel possibility of using CyberKnife with weekly administration of bisphosphonate risedronate sodium for the treatment of inoperable metastatic AS.

  19. Comparison of FSE T2 W PROPELLER and 3D-FIESTA of 3 T MR for the internal auditory canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hai-Bo; Yuan, Hui-Shu; Ma, Furong; Zhao, Qiang

    The study compared the use of periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction (PROPELLER) technique fast spin echo (FSE) T2 W and the sequence of three-dimensional fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (3D-FIESTA) technique in the MRI of the internal auditory canal for overall image quality improvement. One hundred thirty-two patients undergoing FSE T2 W PROPELLER and 3D-FIESTA examinations of the internal auditory canal were included. All examinations were performed at 3.0 T with comparison of a sagittal oblique FSE T2 W sequence with the PROPELLER technique to 3D-FIESTA in the same reconstructed orientation with PROPELLER. Image quality was evaluated by two radiologists using a 4-point scale. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare the data of the two techniques. The image quality of FSE T2 W PROPELLER was significantly improved compared to the reconstructed images of 3D-FIESTA. Observer 1: median FSE T2 W with PROPELLER, 4 [mean, 3.455] versus median reconstructed 3D-FIESTA, 3 [mean, 3.15], (PW with PROPELLER, 4 [mean, 3.47] versus median reconstructed 3D-FIESTA, 3 [mean, 3.25], (PW PROPELLER technique for MRI of internal auditory canal reduced uncertainty caused by motion artifact and improved the quality of the image compared to the reconstructed 3D-FIESTA. It was affected by different parameters including the blade width, echo train length (ETL). This is explained by data oversampling at the center region of k-space, which requires additional imaging time over conventional MRI techniques. Increasing blade was expected to improve motion correction effects but also the signal-to-noise ratio. ETL increases the image sharpness and the overall image quality. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Nevo melânico intradérmico do meato auditivo externo Intradermal melanocytic nevus of the external auditory canal

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Renato V.; Brandão,Fabiano H.; Aquino,José E. P.; Carvalho,Maria R. M. S.; Suzana M. Giancoli; Younes,Eduado A. P.

    2005-01-01

    Muito comuns, os nevos intradérmicos constituem um tumor cutâneo pigmentado benigno. Seu aparecimento no meato auditivo externo é inabitual. Os aspectos clínicos e histopatológicos dos nevos intradérmicos dentro do meato auditivo externo são apresentados e a literatura é revisada.Intradermal nevi are common benign pigmented skin tumors. Their occurrence within the external auditory canal is uncommon. The clinical and pathologic features of an intradermal nevus arising within the external audi...

  1. Enumeration produces poor primacy for tactile presentation relative to visual and auditory presentation as the only modality effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Jeffrey A; Velkey, Andrew J; Partin, Kathren T

    2008-06-01

    Methodological biases may help explain the modality effect, which is superior recall of auditory recency (end of list) items relative to visual recency items. In 1985 Nairne and McNabb used a counting procedure to reduce methodological biases, and they produced modality-like effects, such that recall of tactile recency items was superior to recall of visual recency items. The present study extended Nairne and McNabb's counting procedure and controlled several variables which may have enhanced recall of tactile end items or disrupted recall of visual end items in their study. Although the results of the present study indicated general serial position effects across tactile, visual, and auditory presentation modalities, the tactile condition showed lower recall for the initial items in the presentation list than the other two conditions. Moreover, recall of the final list item did not differ across the three presentation modalities; modality effects were not found. These results did not replicate the findings of Nairne and McNabb, or much of the past research showing superior recall of auditory recency items. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  2. MR Imaging of the Internal Auditory Canal and Inner Ear at 3T: Comparison between 3D Driven Equilibrium and 3D Balanced Fast Field Echo Sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Jun Soo; Kim, Hyung Jin; Yim, Yoo Jeong; Kim, Sung Tae; Jeon, Pyoung; Kim, Keon Ha [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sam Soo; Jeon, Yong Hwan; Lee, Ji Won [Kangwon National University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    To compare the use of 3D driven equilibrium (DRIVE) imaging with 3D balanced fast field echo (bFFE) imaging in the assessment of the anatomic structures of the internal auditory canal (IAC) and inner ear at 3 Tesla (T). Thirty ears of 15 subjects (7 men and 8 women; age range, 22 71 years; average age, 50 years) without evidence of ear problems were examined on a whole-body 3T MR scanner with both 3D DRIVE and 3D bFFE sequences by using an 8-channel sensitivity encoding (SENSE) head coil. Two neuroradiologists reviewed both MR images with particular attention to the visibility of the anatomic structures, including four branches of the cranial nerves within the IAC, anatomic structures of the cochlea, vestibule, and three semicircular canals. Although both techniques provided images of relatively good quality, the 3D DRIVE sequence was somewhat superior to the 3D bFFE sequence. The discrepancies were more prominent for the basal turn of the cochlea, vestibule, and all semicircular canals, and were thought to be attributed to the presence of greater magnetic susceptibility artifacts inherent to gradient-echo techniques such as bFFE. Because of higher image quality and less susceptibility artifacts, we highly recommend the employment of 3D DRIVE imaging as the MR imaging choice for the IAC and inner ear

  3. Present and past: Can writing abilities in school children be associated with their auditory discrimination capacities in infancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaadt, Gesa; Männel, Claudia; van der Meer, Elke; Pannekamp, Ann; Oberecker, Regine; Friederici, Angela D

    2015-12-01

    Literacy acquisition is highly associated with auditory processing abilities, such as auditory discrimination. The event-related potential Mismatch Response (MMR) is an indicator for cortical auditory discrimination abilities and it has been found to be reduced in individuals with reading and writing impairments and also in infants at risk for these impairments. The goal of the present study was to analyze the relationship between auditory speech discrimination in infancy and writing abilities at school age within subjects, and to determine when auditory speech discrimination differences, relevant for later writing abilities, start to develop. We analyzed the MMR registered in response to natural syllables in German children with and without writing problems at two points during development, that is, at school age and at infancy, namely at age 1 month and 5 months. We observed MMR related auditory discrimination differences between infants with and without later writing problems, starting to develop at age 5 months-an age when infants begin to establish language-specific phoneme representations. At school age, these children with and without writing problems also showed auditory discrimination differences, reflected in the MMR, confirming a relationship between writing and auditory speech processing skills. Thus, writing problems at school age are, at least, partly grounded in auditory discrimination problems developing already during the first months of life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Surgery With or Without Postoperative Radiation Therapy for Early-stage External Auditory Canal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oya, Ryohei; Takenaka, Yukinori; Takemura, Kazuya; Ashida, Naoki; Shimizu, Kotaro; Kitamura, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Yoshifumi; Uno, Atsuhiko

    2017-10-01

    External auditory canal squamous cell carcinoma (EACSCC) is a rare disease with no standard treatment supported by high-level evidence. The aim of this study was to investigate EACSCC prognoses according to treatment modality and thus determine the optimal intervention for early-stage disease. PubMed, Scopus, and Ichushi-Web searches of the English and Japanese-language literature published between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2016 were performed using the key words "external auditory canal cancer" and "temporal bone cancer." Articles related to EACSCC that include the 5-year overall survival rate or individual patient data for histological types, follow-up periods, and final outcomes were enrolled. Sex, age, Moody's modified Pittsburgh stage, type of treatment modality, type of operation, follow-up period, and 5-year survival rates were extracted. Twenty articles were used for the aggregate meta-analysis using a random-effects model, and 18 articles that reported 99 patients with early-stage EACSCC were used for the individual patient data meta-analysis. The 5-year overall survival rate of early-stage EACSCC was 77%. Postoperative radiation therapy (PORT) was performed in 45% of stage I patients and 68% of stage II patients. Survival analysis of all patients showed no differences between the surgery-only and PORT groups; however, PORT exhibited a better prognosis than surgery alone among patients with stage I disease (p = 0.003, log-rank test). This result indicated that PORT can be the standard therapy for stages I and II EACSCC.

  5. The Syndrome of Enlarged Vestibule and Dysplasia of the Lateral Semicircular Canal in Congenital Deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagundoye, S B; Martinson, F D; Fajemisin, A A

    1975-05-01

    A 5-year-old deaf-mute girl was shown on petrous bone tomography to have bilateral enlarged vestibules with assimilation of the lateral semicircular cannals, bilateral absence of the cochlea, aplasia of the left internal auditory canal with only the facial nerve compartment being present, and hypoplasia of the right internal auditory canal. The embryological basis of these inner ear abnormalities is discussed.

  6. Auditory distance perception in humans : A summary of past and present research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zahorik, P.; Brungart, D.S.; Bronkhorst, A.W.

    2005-01-01

    Although auditory distance perception is a critical component of spatial hearing, it has received substantially less scienti.c attention than the directional aspects of auditory localization. Here we summarize current knowledge on auditory distance perception, with special emphasis on recent

  7. Comparison of Microbiological Flora in the External Auditory Canal of Normal Ear and an Ear with Acute Otitis Externa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanpur, Asheesh Dora; Nayak, Dipak Ranjan; Chawla, Kiran; Shashidhar, V

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Acute Otitis Externa (AOE) is also known as swimmer’s ear. Investigations initiated during World War II firmly established the role of bacteria in the aetiology of Acute Otitis Externa. Aim To culture the microbiological flora of the normal ear and compare it with the flora causing AOE and to know the role of normal ear canal flora and anaerobes in the aetiology. Materials and Methods A prospective observational study was conducted on 64 patients clinically diagnosed with unilateral AOE. Ear swabs were taken from both the ears. Microbiological flora was studied considering diseased ear as test ear and the normal ear as the control. Aerobic and anaerobic cultures were done. Severity of the disease was assessed by subjective and objective scores. Effect of topical treatment with ichthammol glycerine pack was assessed after 48 hours and scores were calculated again. Patients with scores < 4 after pack removal were started on systemic antibiotics and were assessed after seven days of antibiotics course. Data was analysed using Paired t-test, Wilcoxon signed ranks test and Chi-square test. A p-value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results Pseudomonas aeruginosa (33%) was the most common bacteria cultured from the ear followed by Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (18%). Patients with anaerobic organism in the test ear had severe symptoms and needed systemic antibiotic therapy. Conclusion Most of the cases may respond to empirical antibiotic therapy. In cases with severe symptoms and the ones refractory to empirical treatment, a culture from the ear canal will not be a tax on the patient. This helps in giving a better understanding about the disease, causative organisms and helps in avoiding the use of inappropriate antibiotics that usually result in developing resistant strains of bacteria. PMID:29207743

  8. Present and future in the use of micro-CT scanner 3D analysis for the study of dental and root canal morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola M. Grande

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present article is to illustrate and analyze the applications and the potential of microcomputed tomography (micro-CT in the analysis of tooth anatomy and root canal morphology. The authors performed a micro-CT analysis of the following different teeth: maxillary first molars with a second canal in the mesiobuccal (MB root, mandibular first molars with complex anatomy in the mesial root, premolars with single and double roots and with complicated apical anatomy. The hardware device used in this study was a desktop X-ray microfocus CT scanner (SkyScan 1072, SkyScan bvba, Aartselaar, Belgium. A specific software ResolveRT Amira (Visage Imaging was used for the 3D analysis and imaging. The authors obtained three-dimensional images from 15 teeth. It was possible to precisely visualize and analyze external and internal anatomy of teeth, showing the finest details. Among the 5 upper molars analyzed, in three cases, the MB canals joined into one canal, while in the other two molars the two mesial canals were separate. Among the lower molars two of the five samples exhibited a single canal in the mesial root, which had a broad, flat appearance in a mesiodistal dimension. In the five premolar teeth, the canals were independent; however, the apical delta and ramifications of the root canals were quite complex. Micro-CT offers a simple and reproducible technique for 3D noninvasive assessment of the anatomy of root canal systems.

  9. A single-band envelope cue as a supplement to speechreading of segmentals: a comparison of auditory versus tactual presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratakos, M S; Reed, C M; Delhorne, L A; Denesvich, G

    2001-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of a single-band envelope cue as a supplement to speechreading of segmentals and sentences when presented through either the auditory or tactual modality. The supplementary signal, which consisted of a 200-Hz carrier amplitude-modulated by the envelope of an octave band of speech centered at 500 Hz, was presented through a high-performance single-channel vibrator for tactual stimulation or through headphones for auditory stimulation. Normal-hearing subjects were trained and tested on the identification of a set of 16 medial vowels in /b/-V-/d/ context and a set of 24 initial consonants in C-/a/-C context under five conditions: speechreading alone (S), auditory supplement alone (A), tactual supplement alone (T), speechreading combined with the auditory supplement (S+A), and speechreading combined with the tactual supplement (S+T). Performance on various speech features was examined to determine the contribution of different features toward improvements under the aided conditions for each modality. Performance on the combined conditions (S+A and S+T) was compared with predictions generated from a quantitative model of multi-modal performance. To explore the relationship between benefits for segmentals and for connected speech within the same subjects, sentence reception was also examined for the three conditions of S, S+A, and S+T. For segmentals, performance generally followed the pattern of T < A < S < S+T < S+A. Significant improvements to speechreading were observed with both the tactual and auditory supplements for consonants (10 and 23 percentage-point improvements, respectively), but only with the auditory supplement for vowels (a 10 percentage-point improvement). The results of the feature analyses indicated that improvements to speechreading arose primarily from improved performance on the features low and tense for vowels and on the features voicing, nasality, and plosion for consonants. These

  10. Bone-Anchored Hearing Aid vs. Reconstruction of the External Auditory Canal in Children and Adolescents with Congenital Aural Atresia: A Comparison Study of Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnoosh, Soroush; Mitsinikos, F Tania; Maceri, Dennis; Don, Debra M

    2014-01-01

    Congenital aural atresia is a rare condition affecting 1 in 10,000-20,000 children a year. Surgery is required to restore hearing to facilitate normal development. The objective of this study was to compare outcomes in hearing, complications, and quality of life of surgical reconstruction of the external auditory canal reconstruction (EACR) and bone-anchored hearing aid (BAHA) in a pediatric population with congenital aural atresia. Subjects were children who had a diagnosis of congenital aural atresia or stenosis and who received either BAHA or EACR. The medical records of 68 children were reviewed for operative complications and audiometric results. A quality of life questionnaire was prospectively administered to a subset of subjects. Pre-operatively, air conduction threshold was not significantly different between groups at 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 Hz (p > 0.05). Post-operatively, the BAHA group (44.3 ± 14.3 and 44.5 ± 11.3) demonstrated a significantly larger hearing gain than the EACR group (20.0 ± 18.9 and 15.3 ± 19.9) in both the short and long-term periods (p  0.05). Quality of life assessment revealed no statistical significance between the two groups (p > 0.05). Although the quality of life and incidence of surgical complications between the two interventions was not significantly different, BAHA implantation appears to provide a better, more reliable audiologic outcome than EACR.

  11. Bone -Anchored Hearing Aid versus Reconstruction of the External Auditory Canal in Children and Adolescents with Congenital Aural Atresia: A Comparison Study of Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra Mei Don

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives/Hypothesis: Congenital aural atresia is a rare condition in children affecting 1 in 10,000 to 20,000 children a year. Surgery is required to restore hearing to facilitate normal development. The objective of this study was to compare outcomes in hearing, complications and quality of life of surgical reconstruction of the external auditory canal (EACR and bone-anchored hearing aid (BAHA in a pediatric population with congenital aural atresia. Study Design: Subjects were children who had a diagnosis of congenital aural atresia or stenosis and who received either BAHA or EACR. Methods: The medical records of 68 children were reviewed for operative complications and audiometric results. A quality of life questionnaire was prospectively administered to a subset of subjects. Results: Pre-operatively, air conduction threshold were not significantly different between groups at 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 Hz (p>0.05. Post-operatively, the BAHA group (44.3 ± 14.3 and 44.5 ± 11.3 demonstrated a significantly larger hearing gain than the EACR group (20.0 ± 18.9 and 15.3 ± 19.9 in both the short and long-term periods (p<0.001. Overall the incidence of complications and need for revision surgery were comparable between groups (p>0.05. Quality of life assessment revealed no statistical significance between the two groups (p>0.05 Conclusion: Although the quality of life and incidence of surgical complications between the two interventions was not significantly different, BAHA implantation appears to provide a better, more reliable audiologic outcome than EACR.

  12. Enterobius vermicularis worm granuloma mimicking like a pseudo tumor in the anal canal: An unusual clinical presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharathi, K; Anuradha, S; Chandrasekar, Vc Ajay; Thirunarayanan, R

    2012-07-01

    Enterobius vermicularis is one of the most common intestinal nematode worldwide. Enterobius rarely causes a symptomatic disease. We report here an unusual case of a 60-year old man who came with a polypoidal growth in the anal canal increasing in size for past 20 years. He had pain and intense itching over the mass. The differential diagnosis of squamous papilloma, fibroma and foreign body granuloma were considered. The mass lesion was excised surgically and sent to the pathology laboratory. The mass turned out to be an "E. vermicularis worm granuloma" by histopathologic examination. Thus, timely reporting and surgical resection of such lesion is necessary to prevent further complications. This case is reported here for the unusual presentation of pinworm as a pseudoneoplasm in the anal canal. Incidence of these cases reflected the poor personal hygiene and improper disposal of human excreta in the rural areas. We insist that health education is the only way to control the spread of helminthic infections that causes a heavy disease burden to our country.

  13. [The structure of the skin of the external auditory canal and the antiviral activity of the cerumen in carnivorous mammals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, V E; Ushakova, N A; Chernova, O F; Alimbarova, L M; Barinskiĭ, I F

    1996-01-01

    The structure of the meatus acusticus externus skin was studied in the sable, mink, and European polecat with a parallel estimation of antiherpetic activity of the cerumen. Morphologically, these species differ in the degree of fat cellulose development, vascularization, and association with the lymphoid tissue. Lymphocytes are present both in the tissue and along the skin gland ducts and hair follicles up to the external surface only in the sable. The cerumen samples have antiviral activity also in the sable alone. The relationship between physiological properties of the mammalian cerumen and morphogenetic features is discussed.

  14. Auditory cortical activity in normal hearing subjects to consonant vowels presented in quiet and in noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijevic, Andrew; Pratt, Hillel; Starr, Arnold

    2013-06-01

    Compare brain potentials to consonant vowels (CVs) as a function of both voice onset times (VOTs) and consonant position; initial (CV) versus second (VCV). Auditory cortical potentials (N100, P200, N200, and a late slow negativity, (SN) were recorded from scalp electrodes in twelve normal hearing subjects to consonant vowels in initial position (CVs: /du/ and /tu/), in second position (VCVs: /udu/ and /utu/), and to vowels alone (V: /u/) and paired (VVs: /uu/) separated in time to simulate consonant voice onset times (VOTs). CVs evoked "acoustic onset" N100s of similar latency but larger amplitudes to /du/ than /tu/. CVs preceded by a vowel (VCVs) evoked "acoustic change" N100s with longer latencies to /utu/ than /udu/. Their absolute latency difference was less than the corresponding VOT difference. The SN following N100 to VCVs was larger to /utu/ than /udu/. Paired vowels (/uu/) separated by intervals corresponding to consonant VOTs evoked N100s with latency differences equal to the simulated VOT differences and SNs of similar amplitudes. Noise masking resulted in VCV N100 latency differences that were now equal to consonant VOT differences. Brain activations by CVs, VCVs, and VVs were maximal in right temporal lobe. Auditory cortical activities to CVs are sensitive to: (1) position of the CV in the utterance; (2) VOTs of consonants; and (3) noise masking. VOTs of stop consonants affect auditory cortical activities differently as a function of the position of the consonant in the utterance. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The head turn paradigm to assess auditory laterality in cats: influence of ear position and repeated sound presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiebke S. Konerding

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In most humans, speech is predominantly processed by the left hemisphere. This auditory laterality was formerly thought to be an exclusive human characteristic, but is now suggested to have pre-human origins. In studies on auditory laterality in nonhuman animals, the head turn paradigm has become very popular due to its non-invasive character. Although there are implications that the head turn direction indicates functional dominance of the contralateral hemisphere in processing a given sound, the validity of the paradigm is under debate. To validate the paradigm via comparison with imaging or electrophysiological methods, it is first necessary to establish turning biases at the individual level. Recently, the domestic cat, a common model in hearing research, has been found to show turning biases at the group level. To assess individual turning asymmetries in cats, we repeatedly presented kitten isolation calls and assessed whether differences in conveyed arousal changed the previously described left-wards lateralisation of conspecific vocalizations. Based on responses to 50 playback presentations (25 of high and 25 of low arousal, we calculated individual head turn indices. Based on the total data set, we found no consistent individual turning bias, irrespective of call category or sex of the receiver. Although the playback paradigm was chosen carefully to reduce any effects of lateralized loudness perception or changes in motivation due to habituation, individual head turn biases changed significantly in concordance with habituation to repeated playback-presentations and was predictable by small deflections in ear position prior to listening. When splitting the data set according to a decline in responsiveness after seven playback presentations, we revealed an initial left turning bias for most of our subjects (i.e., significant at the group level. We propose that this left turning bias is related to right hemisphere dominance in processes

  16. The head turn paradigm to assess auditory laterality in cats: influence of ear position and repeated sound presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konerding, Wiebke S; Zimmermann, Elke; Bleich, Eva; Hedrich, Hans-Jürgen; Scheumann, Marina

    2017-01-01

    In most humans, speech is predominantly processed by the left hemisphere. This auditory laterality was formerly thought to be an exclusive human characteristic, but is now suggested to have pre-human origins. In studies on auditory laterality in nonhuman animals, the head turn paradigm has become very popular due to its non-invasive character. Although there are implications that the head turn direction indicates functional dominance of the contralateral hemisphere in processing a given sound, the validity of the paradigm is under debate. To validate the paradigm via comparison with imaging or electrophysiological methods, it is first necessary to establish turning biases at the individual level. Recently, the domestic cat, a common model in hearing research, has been found to show turning biases at the group level. To assess individual turning asymmetries in cats, we repeatedly presented kitten isolation calls and assessed whether differences in conveyed arousal changed the previously described left-wards lateralisation of conspecific vocalizations. Based on responses to 50 playback presentations (25 of high and 25 of low arousal), we calculated individual head turn indices. Based on the total data set, we found no consistent individual turning bias, irrespective of call category or sex of the receiver. Although the playback paradigm was chosen carefully to reduce any effects of lateralized loudness perception or changes in motivation due to habituation, individual head turn biases changed significantly in concordance with habituation to repeated playback-presentations and was predictable by small deflections in ear position prior to listening. When splitting the data set according to a decline in responsiveness after seven playback presentations, we revealed an initial left turning bias for most of our subjects (i.e., significant at the group level). We propose that this left turning bias is related to right hemisphere dominance in processes like vigilance

  17. Angioma cavernoso do meato acústico interno envolvendo o complexo VII e VIII nervos cranianos: relato de caso Cavernous hemangioma of the internal auditory canal encasing the VII and VIII cranial nerve complex: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Leal Silveira

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se o caso de homem de 21 anos, leucoderma, portador de angioma cavernoso do meato acústico interno direito envolvendo o complexo VII e VIII nervos cranianos tratado cirurgicamente. Apenas 18 casos de angiomas cavernosos dessa localização foram relatados na literatura. São comentados os aspectos clínicos, o diagnóstico diferencial e o tratamento.We report the surgically treated case of a 21-year-old caucasian male harboring a cavernous hemangioma of the right internal auditory canal encasing the seventh and eighth cranial nerves complex. Only 18 cases of cavernous hemangiomas of this location have been previously reported. The clinical features, the differential diagnosis and the treatment are discussed.

  18. The sensory channel of presentation alters subjective ratings and autonomic responses toward disgusting stimuli-Blood pressure, heart rate and skin conductance in response to visual, auditory, haptic and olfactory presented disgusting stimuli

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Croy, Ilona; Laqua, Kerstin; Süß, Frank; Joraschky, Peter; Ziemssen, Tjalf; Hummel, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    .... Therefore, disgust experience evoked by four different sensory channels was compared. A total of 119 participants received 3 different disgusting and one control stimulus, each presented through the visual, auditory, tactile, and olfactory channel...

  19. BAER testing in a dog with bilateral external ear canal atresia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwer, Cona; Schwarz, Tobias; Volk, Susan W; Vite, Charles

    2011-01-01

    A 3 yr old male castrated Labrador retriever presented for evaluation and treatment of bilateral atresia of the external ear canals. The owners reported that the dog could hear only loud and high-pitched noises. Computed tomography of the head revealed intact vertical and horizontal ear canals filled with debris and a debris-filled right tympanic bulla. Air- and bone-conducted brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) testing revealed an elevated response threshold to air-conducted stimuli and greater amplitude waveforms evoked by bone-conducted stimuli. The ear canals were surgically corrected via lateral ear canal resection. BAER testing postoperatively revealed a decrease in the air-conducted BAER threshold. This case is an example of the use of bone-conducted BAER testing to aid in the diagnosis of conductive deafness, and in determining prognosis for normal hearing after surgical treatment of external ear canal atresia.

  20. Lateralisation of self-esteem: an investigation using a dichotically presented auditory adaptation of the Implicit Association Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Ryan; Arciuli, Joanne; Atkinson, Alikki; Bennett, Elaine; Pheils, Elisabeth

    2010-03-01

    Self-esteem is one of the most prominent and influential constructs in psychological science, yet very few neuropsychological/neuroscientific investigations have been undertaken in this area of research. The current study investigated the possibility of hemispheric lateralisation of self-esteem. By creating an auditory version of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) for self-esteem, we were able to present stimuli dichotically and thereby compare left- versus right-hemispheric measurements of self-esteem in 46 healthy adults. Although left- and right-hemispheric self-esteem measurements were correlated, within-participant analysis revealed that self-esteem levels (as reflected by IAT score) were significantly greater when elicited under right-ear presentation (reflecting left-hemispheric processing). We interpret this asymmetry with reference to the approach-withdrawal model of emotion processing and suggest avenues for future research. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  1. Auditory hallucinations in a 15-year-old boy: an unusual presentation of hypothyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Hockings, Catherine Ann; Cattaneo, Elena; Sanka, Sunil Kumar; Buck, Jackie Janet

    2009-01-01

    It is well recognised that thyroid disorders may present with a wide range of symptoms and signs in adults and children. We describe an unusual presentation of thyroid disease in an adolescent with psychiatric symptoms, in whom normalisation of his thyroid function resulted in significant improvement in his mental state. Although agitation and depression are commonly listed as symptoms of hyper- and hypothyroidism, respectively, presentation to psychiatric services is not well documented in t...

  2. Impact of speech presentation level on cognitive task performance: implications for auditory display design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Carryl L; Struckman-Johnson, David

    2002-01-15

    Speech displays and verbal response technologies are increasingly being used in complex, high workload environments that require the simultaneous performance of visual and manual tasks. Examples of such environments include the flight decks of modern aircraft, advanced transport telematics systems providing invehicle route guidance and navigational information and mobile communication equipment in emergency and public safety vehicles. Previous research has established an optimum range for speech intelligibility. However, the potential for variations in presentation levels within this range to affect attentional resources and cognitive processing of speech material has not been examined previously. Results of the current experimental investigation demonstrate that as presentation level increases within this 'optimum' range, participants in high workload situations make fewer sentence-processing errors and generally respond faster. Processing errors were more sensitive to changes in presentation level than were measures of reaction time. Implications of these findings are discussed in terms of their application for the design of speech communications displays in complex multi-task environments.

  3. Direct current induced short-term modulation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex while learning auditory presented nouns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Martin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the contribution of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS to the exploration of memory functions. The aim of the present study was to examine the behavioural effects of right or left-hemisphere frontal direct current delivery while committing to memory auditory presented nouns on short-term learning and subsequent long-term retrieval. Methods Twenty subjects, divided into two groups, performed an episodic verbal memory task during anodal, cathodal and sham current application on the right or left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC. Results Our results imply that only cathodal tDCS elicits behavioural effects on verbal memory performance. In particular, left-sided application of cathodal tDCS impaired short-term verbal learning when compared to the baseline. We did not observe tDCS effects on long-term retrieval. Conclusion Our results imply that the left DLPFC is a crucial area involved in short-term verbal learning mechanisms. However, we found further support that direct current delivery with an intensity of 1.5 mA to the DLPFC during short-term learning does not disrupt longer lasting consolidation processes that are mainly known to be related to mesial temporal lobe areas. In the present study, we have shown that the tDCS technique has the potential to modulate short-term verbal learning mechanism.

  4. Auditory speech recognition and visual text recognition in younger and older adults: similarities and differences between modalities and the effects of presentation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humes, Larry E; Burk, Matthew H; Coughlin, Maureen P; Busey, Thomas A; Strauser, Lauren E

    2007-04-01

    To examine age-related differences in auditory speech recognition and visual text recognition performance for parallel sets of stimulus materials in the auditory and visual modalities. In addition, the effects of variation in rate of presentation of stimuli in each modality were investigated in each age group. A mixed-model design was used in which 3 independent groups (13 young adults with normal hearing, 10 elderly adults with normal hearing, and 16 elderly hearing-impaired adults) listened to auditory speech tests (a sentence-in-noise task, time-compressed monosyllables, and a speeded-spelling task) and viewed visual text-based analogs of the auditory tests. All auditory speech materials were presented so that the amplitude of the speech signal was at least 15 dB above threshold through 4000 Hz. Analyses of the group data revealed that when baseline levels of performance were used as covariates in the group analyses the only significant group difference was that both elderly groups performed worse than the young group on the auditory speeded-speech tasks. Analysis of individual data, using correlations, factor analysis, and linear regression, was generally consistent with the group data and revealed significant, moderate correlations of performance for similar tasks across modalities, but stronger correlations across tasks within a modality. This suggests that performance on these tasks was mediated both by a common underlying factor, such as cognitive processing, as well as modality-specific processing. Performance on measures of auditory processing of speech examined here was closely associated with performance on parallel measures of the visual processing of text obtained from the same participants. Young and older adults demonstrated comparable abilities in the use of contextual information in each modality, but older adults, regardless of hearing status, had more difficulty with fast presentation of auditory speech stimuli than young adults. There were no

  5. A Standard Approach for Full Visual Annotation of Auditorially Presented Information for Users, Including Those Who Are Deaf: ShowSounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderheiden, Gregg C.

    This paper describes a standard cross-platform strategy for providing deaf individuals with access to sounds generated by electronic information systems. The strategy is based on a "ShowSounds" switch built into the basic system architecture. Turning the switch "on" would signal that all information presented auditorially is…

  6. CT and MR Imagings of Semicircular Canal Aplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Chung Hee; Hong, Hyun Sook; Yi, Beom Ha; Cha, Jang Gyu; Park, Seong Jin; Kim, Dae Ho; Lee, Hae Kyung; Kim, Shi Chan [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-15

    To evaluate the clinical, CT and MR imaging findings of semicircular canal (SCC) aplasia and to evaluate if a correlation exists between these findings and the associated anomalies or syndromes. This study retrospectively reviewed the CT and MRI findings of five patients with SCC aplasia. The CT and MR findings were analyzed for SCC, direction of facial nerve canal, cochlea, vestibule, oval or round window, middle ear ossicles, and internal auditory canal (IAC). The subjects included three boys and two girls ranging in age from one to 120 months (mean age; 51 months). Four of the subjects had the CHARGE syndrome, and one had the Goldenhar syndrome. Moreover, four subjects had sensorineural hearing loss and one had combined hearing loss. The course of the facial nerve canal was abnormal in all five cases. Moreover, trapped cochlea and dysplastic modiolus were each observed in one case. Four subjects had atresia of the oval window; whereas ankylosis of the ossicles was present in three subjects. IAC stenosis was present in one patient with the CHARGE syndrome. The aberrant course of the facial nerve canal, atresia of the oval window, and abnormal ossicles were frequently associated in patients with SCC aplasia. In addition, the Goldenhar and CHARGE syndromes were also commonly associated syndromes.

  7. [The effectiveness of the auditory training of the subjects presenting with partial deafness following cochlear implantation as reported by the patients and speech therapists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solnitsa, I; Kobosko, I; Pankovska, A; Skarzhin'skiĭ, P Kh; Zdoga, M; Skarzhin'skiĭ, Kh

    2014-01-01

    Auditory training consists of the exercises taking advantage of the environmental sounds and human speech; it is designed to ensure hearing for a person suffering its impairment within the range of acoustic experiences comparable with that of the normally hearing subjects. The successful treatment of partial deafness with the use of a cochlear implant (CI) resulted in the increase of the number of patients who needed auditory training to enable them to recognize mid-and high-frequency sounds. Bearing in mind the lack of the teaching aids permitting to adequately address the specific hearing problems in such patients, the Rehabilitation Clinic of the Institute of Physiology and Pathology of Hearing undertook to develop the relevant materials to satisfy the needs of auditory training following surgical cochlear implantation. The evaluation, by the patients suffering partial deafness and speech therapists, of the usefulness and the difficulty of the proposed auditory training based on the use of environmental sounds and human speech in the mid- and high-frequency ranges. The study included 29 adult CI users presenting with partial deafness participating in the Institute's rehabilitation program. Both the patients and the speech therapists independently evaluated the usefulness of the proposed training and the difficulties encountered with its practical realization by completing the questionnaire according to the Likert 5-point scale. The patients with partial deafness and speech therapists found out that the proposed auditory training was difficult to perform; this inference was especially true as regards the exercises designed to enable the identification of the mid- and high frequency speech sounds. The women experienced significantly more difficulties than men when performing the proposed exercises. Both the patients and the speech therapists confirmed the usefulness of the recommended auditory training as a component of the rehabilitation process. The surgical

  8. Method for Constructing Standardized Simulated Root Canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz-Bongert, Udo; Weine, Franklin S.

    1990-01-01

    The construction of visual and manipulative aids, clear resin blocks with root-canal-like spaces, for simulation of root canals is explained. Time, materials, and techniques are discussed. The method allows for comparison of canals, creation of any configuration of canals, and easy presentation during instruction. (MSE)

  9. Auditory Display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    volume. The conference's topics include auditory exploration of data via sonification and audification; real time monitoring of multivariate date; sound in immersive interfaces and teleoperation; perceptual issues in auditory display; sound in generalized computer interfaces; technologies supporting...... auditory display creation; data handling for auditory display systems; applications of auditory display....

  10. Design of canals

    CERN Document Server

    Swamee, P K

    2015-01-01

    The book presents firsthand material from the authors on design of hydraulic canals. The book discusses elements of design based on principles of hydraulic flow through canals. It covers optimization of design based on usage requirements and economic constraints. The book includes explicit design equations and design procedures along with design examples for varied cases. With its comprehensive coverage of the principles of hydraulic canal design, this book will prove useful to students, researchers, and practicing engineers. End-of-chapter pedagogical elements make it ideal for use in graduate courses on hydraulic structures offered by most civil engineering departments across the world.

  11. canal24

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Canal system center lines in the Central Valley of California and adjacent areas captured from 1:24,000-scale USGS topographic maps. Updates and modifications made...

  12. Auditory hallucinations induced by trazodone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiotsuki, Ippei; Terao, Takeshi; Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Hatano, Koji

    2014-01-01

    A 26-year-old female outpatient presenting with a depressive state suffered from auditory hallucinations at night. Her auditory hallucinations did not respond to blonanserin or paliperidone, but partially responded to risperidone. In view of the possibility that her auditory hallucinations began after starting trazodone, trazodone was discontinued, leading to a complete resolution of her auditory hallucinations. Furthermore, even after risperidone was decreased and discontinued, her auditory hallucinations did not recur. These findings suggest that trazodone may induce auditory hallucinations in some susceptible patients. PMID:24700048

  13. Isolated Deep Ear Canal Pain: Possible Role of Auricular Branch of Vagus Nerve-Case Illustrations with Cadaveric Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kentaro; Tubbs, R Shane; Satoh, Shunsuke; Zomorodi, Ali R; Liedtke, Wolfgang; Labidi, Moujahed; Friedman, Allan H; Fukushima, Takanori

    2016-12-01

    Glossopharyngeal, nervus intermedius, and vagus neuralgias can all present with ear pain. However, to our knowledge, there have been no reports of otalgia as the only symptom of vagus neuralgia. The seventh, ninth, and tenth cranial nerves have many interneural connections, and the exact anatomy and pathophysiology of these neuralgias are often not clear. Moreover, symptoms due to involvement of any of these nerves can be difficult to attribute solely to 1 of them. The overlapping sensory innervation of the external auditory canal can lead to misdiagnosis in patients suffering from otalgia. This report presents a case of pure otalgia due to vascular compression of the vagus nerve (VN) and considers the microanatomic differences between glossopharyngeal and nervus intermedius neuralgia via cadaveric dissections. We report 2 cases of external auditory canal pain that continued following microvascular treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. Intraoperatively and at secondary operation, the posterior inferior cerebellar artery was found to be adherent and to penetrate between the fibers of the VN. Following microvascular treatment of the VN, the pain resolved. This is the first report of vagus neuralgia presenting solely with ear pain. Surgeons should be aware that primary external auditory canal pain can be due to vagus neuralgia via its auricular branch and that such patients can be misdiagnosed with glossopharyngeal or nervus intermedius neuralgias. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Auditory agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slevc, L Robert; Shell, Alison R

    2015-01-01

    Auditory agnosia refers to impairments in sound perception and identification despite intact hearing, cognitive functioning, and language abilities (reading, writing, and speaking). Auditory agnosia can be general, affecting all types of sound perception, or can be (relatively) specific to a particular domain. Verbal auditory agnosia (also known as (pure) word deafness) refers to deficits specific to speech processing, environmental sound agnosia refers to difficulties confined to non-speech environmental sounds, and amusia refers to deficits confined to music. These deficits can be apperceptive, affecting basic perceptual processes, or associative, affecting the relation of a perceived auditory object to its meaning. This chapter discusses what is known about the behavioral symptoms and lesion correlates of these different types of auditory agnosia (focusing especially on verbal auditory agnosia), evidence for the role of a rapid temporal processing deficit in some aspects of auditory agnosia, and the few attempts to treat the perceptual deficits associated with auditory agnosia. A clear picture of auditory agnosia has been slow to emerge, hampered by the considerable heterogeneity in behavioral deficits, associated brain damage, and variable assessments across cases. Despite this lack of clarity, these striking deficits in complex sound processing continue to inform our understanding of auditory perception and cognition. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Caution and Warning Alarm Design and Evaluation for NASA CEV Auditory Displays: SHFE Information Presentation Directed Research Project (DRPP) report 12.07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begault, Durand R.; Godfroy, Martine; Sandor, Aniko; Holden, Kritina

    2008-01-01

    The design of caution-warning signals for NASA s Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) and other future spacecraft will be based on both best practices based on current research and evaluation of current alarms. A design approach is presented based upon cross-disciplinary examination of psychoacoustic research, human factors experience, aerospace practices, and acoustical engineering requirements. A listening test with thirteen participants was performed involving ranking and grading of current and newly developed caution-warning stimuli under three conditions: (1) alarm levels adjusted for compliance with ISO 7731, "Danger signals for work places - Auditory Danger Signals", (2) alarm levels adjusted to an overall 15 dBA s/n ratio and (3) simulated codec low-pass filtering. Questionnaire data yielded useful insights regarding cognitive associations with the sounds.

  16. The U.S. Army Research Laboratory’s Auditory Research for the Dismounted Soldier: Present (2009-2011) and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    release; distribution is unlimited. ii REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this...steady-state acoustic threats. This has led to research into the effects of various types of headgear on directional sound detection, auditory...research infrastructure available at ARL-HRED includes a unique world- class multispace auditory spatial perception laboratory, the Environment for

  17. Finite element modelling of the canine and feline outer ear canal: benefits for local drug delivery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wefstaedt, Patrick; Behrens, Bernd-Arno; Nolte, Ingo; Bouguecha, Anas

    2011-01-01

    Current therapeutic regimes of outer ear infections in dogs and cats aim at the application of efficient local therapeutics after cleaning of the acoustic meatus. One so far insufficiently answered question is if the local application of these substances results in an individually suitable drug concentration in the external ear canal. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to develop a finite element model to calculate the values of the different areas of the external acoustic meatus in dogs and cats in order to provide a tool for the benefit of an appropriate local drug dosage determination. A 3D finite element model (FEM), based on computer tomographic (CT) data sets of four dogs and two cats, was generated to determine areas and volumes of the outer ear canal. Furthermore, various ear therapeutics and cleansers were tested concerning their optimal distribution on 5 cm2 dog and cat skin. The data shows major variations of the area values of the external auditory canal in case of the different dogs but not in the examined cats. These results suggest that manufacturer's recommendations of the pharmaceuticals might be insufficient in terms of achieving an optimal drug concentration in the outer ear canal especially in larger dogs. In conclusion, the developed finite element model has shown to be suitable to calculate areas of the outer ear canal in cats and dogs and could be of help in context with the definition of optimal drug concentrations for a local drug delivery.

  18. Root canal treatment of mandibular second premolar with four root canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bander Al-Abdulwahhab

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Variation in the morphology of the root canal system of mandibular premolars has been demonstrated. This diverse morphology challenges for the clinician to clean, shape, and fill the entire root canal system. A case report of a mandibular second premolar with four root canals separated at the apical third and underwent endodontic treatment is presented.

  19. Early hominin auditory capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quam, Rolf; Martínez, Ignacio; Rosa, Manuel; Bonmatí, Alejandro; Lorenzo, Carlos; de Ruiter, Darryl J; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo; Conde Valverde, Mercedes; Jarabo, Pilar; Menter, Colin G; Thackeray, J Francis; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2015-09-01

    Studies of sensory capacities in past life forms have offered new insights into their adaptations and lifeways. Audition is particularly amenable to study in fossils because it is strongly related to physical properties that can be approached through their skeletal structures. We have studied the anatomy of the outer and middle ear in the early hominin taxa Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus and estimated their auditory capacities. Compared with chimpanzees, the early hominin taxa are derived toward modern humans in their slightly shorter and wider external auditory canal, smaller tympanic membrane, and lower malleus/incus lever ratio, but they remain primitive in the small size of their stapes footplate. Compared with chimpanzees, both early hominin taxa show a heightened sensitivity to frequencies between 1.5 and 3.5 kHz and an occupied band of maximum sensitivity that is shifted toward slightly higher frequencies. The results have implications for sensory ecology and communication, and suggest that the early hominin auditory pattern may have facilitated an increased emphasis on short-range vocal communication in open habitats.

  20. Early hominin auditory capacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quam, Rolf; Martínez, Ignacio; Rosa, Manuel; Bonmatí, Alejandro; Lorenzo, Carlos; de Ruiter, Darryl J.; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo; Conde Valverde, Mercedes; Jarabo, Pilar; Menter, Colin G.; Thackeray, J. Francis; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2015-01-01

    Studies of sensory capacities in past life forms have offered new insights into their adaptations and lifeways. Audition is particularly amenable to study in fossils because it is strongly related to physical properties that can be approached through their skeletal structures. We have studied the anatomy of the outer and middle ear in the early hominin taxa Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus and estimated their auditory capacities. Compared with chimpanzees, the early hominin taxa are derived toward modern humans in their slightly shorter and wider external auditory canal, smaller tympanic membrane, and lower malleus/incus lever ratio, but they remain primitive in the small size of their stapes footplate. Compared with chimpanzees, both early hominin taxa show a heightened sensitivity to frequencies between 1.5 and 3.5 kHz and an occupied band of maximum sensitivity that is shifted toward slightly higher frequencies. The results have implications for sensory ecology and communication, and suggest that the early hominin auditory pattern may have facilitated an increased emphasis on short-range vocal communication in open habitats. PMID:26601261

  1. Looking back at Love Canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deegan, J. Jr.

    1987-05-01

    In the first part of this series (ES and T, April 1987, pp. 328-31) it was pointed out that the methods and conclusions of EPA's Love Canal Study were the subject of some controversy in the environmental community. Others defended the agency's approaches and methods. Part 2 makes no attempt to resolve the controversy; its purpose is to present the results and conclusions of the Love Canal.

  2. Koebner phenomenon of the ear canal skin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Young, O

    2009-02-01

    The Koebner phenomenon originally described the appearance of psoriatic lesions in the uninvolved skin of patients with psoriasis as a consequence of trauma. We describe a case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the auditory canal, which represents an unusual manifestation of the Koebner phenomenon. This is the first case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the head and neck region and highlights the need for biopsy to allow accurate histopathological diagnosis and treatment.

  3. Koebner phenomenon of the ear canal skin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Young, O

    2012-02-01

    The Koebner phenomenon originally described the appearance of psoriatic lesions in the uninvolved skin of patients with psoriasis as a consequence of trauma. We describe a case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the auditory canal, which represents an unusual manifestation of the Koebner phenomenon. This is the first case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the head and neck region and highlights the need for biopsy to allow accurate histopathological diagnosis and treatment.

  4. The mitochondrial DNA 10197 G > A mutation causes MELAS/Leigh overlap syndrome presenting with acute auditory agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Yinglin; Liu, Yuhe; Fang, Xiaojing; Li, Yao; Yu, Lei; Yuan, Yun; Wang, Zhaoxia

    2015-04-01

    Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes/Leigh (MELAS/LS) overlap syndrome is a mitochondrial disorder subtype with clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features that are characteristic of both MELAS and Leigh syndrome (LS). Here, we report an MELAS/LS case presenting with cortical deafness and seizures. Cranial MRI revealed multiple lesions involving bilateral temporal lobes, the basal ganglia and the brainstem, which conformed to neuroimaging features of both MELAS and LS. Whole mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequencing and PCR-RFLP revealed a de novo heteroplasmic m.10197 G > A mutation in the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 3 gene (ND3), which was predicted to cause an alanine to threonine substitution at amino acid 47. Although the mtDNA m.10197 G > A mutation has been reported in association with LS, Leber hereditary optic neuropathy and dystonia, it has never been linked with MELAS/LS overlap syndrome. Our patient therefore expands the phenotypic spectrum of the mtDNA m.10197 G > A mutation.

  5. Contribution of bioanthropology to the reconstruction of prehistoric productive processes. The external auditory exostoses in the prehispanic population of Gran Canaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velasco Vázquez, Javier

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is an approach to the role of bioanthropological studies in the reconstruction of the productive processes of past societies. This objective is obtained starting from the survey and valuation of the prevalence of bone exostoses in the auditory canal among the prehistoric inhabitants of Gran Canaria. The auditory exostose is a bone wound well documented through clinical and experimental studies, closely related to the exposure of the auditory canal to cold water. The estimation of this bone anomaly among the analysed population, leads to the definition of outstanding territorial variations in the economic strategies of these human groups.

    En el presente trabajo se pretende abordar el papel de los estudios bioantropológicos en la reconstrucción de los procesos productivos de las sociedades del pasado. Esta finalidad es perseguida a partir del examen y valoración de la prevalencia de exostosis óseas en el canal auditivo en la población prehistórica de Gran Canaria. Las exostosis auditivas constituyen una lesión ósea, bien documentada en trabajos experimentales y clínicos, estrechamente relacionada con la exposición del canal auditivo al agua fría. La estimación de esta anormalidad ósea en el conjunto poblacional analizado permite la definición de importantes variaciones territoriales en las estrategias económicas emprendidas por estos grupos humanos.

  6. Endodontic management of permanent mandibular left first molar with six root canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The endodontic treatment of a mandibular molar with aberrant canal configuration can be diagnostically and clinically challenging. This case report presents the treatment of a mandibular first molar with six root canals, of which three canals were located in the mesial root and three in distal root. Third canals were found between the two main root canals. This case presents a rare anatomic configuration and points to the importance of expecting and searching for additional canals.

  7. Atrioventricular Canal Defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tract infections. Atrioventricular canal defect can cause recurrent bouts of lung infections. Heart failure. Untreated, atrioventricular canal ... Leaky heart valves Narrowing of the heart valves Abnormal heart rhythm Breathing difficulties associated with lung damage ...

  8. Radiographic versus electronic root canal working length determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lumnije Kqiku

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: The present ex vivo study showed that electronic root canal working length determination is not superior to radiographic methods. Both methods provided a good performance in determining the root canal working length.

  9. Management of C-shaped canals: Two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh Suryakant Kadam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A C-shaped canal with varying configuration is commonly observed in single-rooted mandibular second molars. Cooke and Cox (1979 first documented the C-shaped canal in endodontic literature. The presence of high incidence of transverse anastomoses, lateral canals, and apical deltas makes it difficult to clean and seal the root canal system in these teeth. The main reason for failure in endodontic treatment of mandibular second molars is the inability to detect the presence of C-shaped canals prior to an endodontic therapy. This case report presents successful management of two rare cases of C-shaped canal configurations.

  10. Type III apical transportation of root canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv P Mantri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Procedural accidents leading to complications such as canal transportation have been ascribed to inapt cleaning and shaping concepts. Canal transportation is an undesirable deviation from the natural canal path. Herewith a case of apical transportation of root canal resulting in endodontic retreatment failure and its management is presented. A healthy 21-year-old young male presented discomfort and swelling associated with painful endodontically retreated maxillary incisor. Radiograph revealed periradicular radiolucency involving underfilled 11 and overfilled 12. Insufficiently obturated 11 exhibited apical transportation of canal. This type III transportation was treated by periradicular surgery and repair using white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA. Comfortable asymptomatic patient presented uneventful healing at third and fourth month recall visits. A decrease in the size of radiolucency in radiograph supported the clinical finding. In the present case, MTA is useful in repairing the transportation defect. The result of these procedures is predictable and successful.

  11. Auditory and Visual Sensations

    CERN Document Server

    Ando, Yoichi

    2010-01-01

    Professor Yoichi Ando, acoustic architectural designer of the Kirishima International Concert Hall in Japan, presents a comprehensive rational-scientific approach to designing performance spaces. His theory is based on systematic psychoacoustical observations of spatial hearing and listener preferences, whose neuronal correlates are observed in the neurophysiology of the human brain. A correlation-based model of neuronal signal processing in the central auditory system is proposed in which temporal sensations (pitch, timbre, loudness, duration) are represented by an internal autocorrelation representation, and spatial sensations (sound location, size, diffuseness related to envelopment) are represented by an internal interaural crosscorrelation function. Together these two internal central auditory representations account for the basic auditory qualities that are relevant for listening to music and speech in indoor performance spaces. Observed psychological and neurophysiological commonalities between auditor...

  12. Surgical endodontic management of infected lateral canals of maxillary incisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Jung-Min; Yi, Jin-Kyu; Choi, Sung-Baik; Park, Sang-Hyuk

    2015-02-01

    This case report presents surgical endodontic management outcomes of maxillary incisors that were infected via the lateral canals. Two cases are presented in which endodontically-treated maxillary central incisors had sustained lateral canal infections. A surgical endodontic treatment was performed on both teeth. Flap elevation revealed vertical bone destruction along the root surface and infected lateral canals, and microscopy revealed that the lateral canals were the origin of the lesions. After the infected lateral canals were surgically managed, both teeth were asymptomatic and labial fistulas were resolved. There were no clinical or radiographic signs of surgical endodontic management failure at follow-up visits. This case report highlights the clinical significance and surgical endodontic management of infected lateral canal of maxillary incisor. It is important to be aware of root canal anatomy variability in maxillary incisors. Maxillary central incisors infected via the lateral canal can be successfully managed by surgical endodontic treatment.

  13. El Canal del Atazar I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López de Berges y de los Santos, Emilio

    1967-03-01

    Full Text Available The Atazar Canal helps to supply Madrid with water, from the rivers Lozoya, Jarama and Sorbe. The section which operates at present starts at the Torrelaguna dam and finishes at the El Goloso reservoir. Later a further section will be added, from the Atazar dam, on the Lozoya river, to link up with the control dam at Torrelaguna. The canal capacity is 16 m3/sec, and it is 43.47 km long. It has a slope of 4/10.000. The cross section is similar to that of the Jarama canal, already built. There are interconnections between this canal and the Canal Alto, which previously supplied the high and medium part of Madrid. To overcome the ground unevenness 5 syphons have been built, the most important of which is the Colmenar Goloso syphon, which is 10.88 km in length. Construction commenced on December 10, 1962, and water reached Madrid on June 15th, 1966. The initial budget for this project was 1,500 million pesetas.El canal del Atazar refuerza considerablemente el abastecimiento de aguas a Madrid, procedentes de los ríos Lozoya, Jarama y, en un próximo futuro, del Sorbe. El tramo, actualmente en funcionamiento, empieza en el salto de Torrelaguna y finaliza en los depósitos de El Goloso. Más adelante se completará su trazado mediante un nuevo tramo que partirá del embalse de Atazar, en el Lozoya, para unirse al actual en el depósito regulador de Torrelaguna. Su capacidad es de 16 m3/s; su longitud, 43,471 km, y su pendiente, 4 diezmilésimas. La sección tipo es análoga a la del canal del Jarama, de construcción anterior. Mediante la oportuna obra de transvase se realizan intercambios entre este Canal y el Canal Alto que abastecía anteriormente la parte media y alta de la capital. Para salvar los desniveles del terreno se han construido 5 sifones, siendo el más importante el de Colmenar-Goloso, con una longitud de 10,8S4 km. El comienzo de las obras tuvo lugar el 10 de diciembre de 1962, y el agua llegó a Madrid el 15 de junio de 1966. Su

  14. Anatomy, Physiology and Function of the Auditory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmeier, Birger

    The human ear consists of the outer ear (pinna or concha, outer ear canal, tympanic membrane), the middle ear (middle ear cavity with the three ossicles malleus, incus and stapes) and the inner ear (cochlea which is connected to the three semicircular canals by the vestibule, which provides the sense of balance). The cochlea is connected to the brain stem via the eighth brain nerve, i.e. the vestibular cochlear nerve or nervus statoacusticus. Subsequently, the acoustical information is processed by the brain at various levels of the auditory system. An overview about the anatomy of the auditory system is provided by Figure 1.

  15. Study of root canal accessibility in human primary molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminabadi, Naser A; Farahani, Ramin M Z; Gajan, Esrafil B

    2008-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to provide a general scheme for pulpectomy of primary molars that may be useful for decision-making about negotiation of root canals and selection of appropriate instruments. A total of 160 vital primary molars in 85 patients (40 males, 45 females) aged 4-6 years were selected. After taking primary radiographs, local anesthesia was induced, and the teeth were isolated using a rubber dam. Canal accessibility index (CAI) and tooth accessibility index (TAI) were calculated according to initial file size. Mandibular first molars had either three canals (79.2%) or four canals (20.8%), and all second molars had four canals. Maxillary first molars had three canals and second molars had either three canals (70.9%) or four canals (29.1%). Lower accessibility of the mandibular first molar distobuccal root accounted for the lower accessibility of these teeth in comparison with mandibular second molars. While three-canal maxillary second molars were more accessible due to the lower accessibility of the distobuccal canal of the maxillary first molar, poor accessibility of the distal canal in four-canal second molars was responsible for the difficult accessibility of these teeth. In conclusion, it seems that the accessibility of a single canal in each tooth determines the difficulty of accessibility for any given tooth. Moreover, while primary second molars are more accessible than first molars, all of them are negotiable.

  16. The enigma of the lateral canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weine, F S

    1984-10-01

    It is difficult to summarize an article of this type, in which the author is certain that his case has been presented fairly, but is aware that other views that are contrary could be stated and endorsed by pertinent clinical cases. Bearing this fact in mind, I wish to reiterate the following: Lateral canals are demonstrated in endodontic cases with much less frequency than they exist. This variance rarely, if ever, causes an endodontic failure. Some demonstrated lateral canals may really be other conditions. Preoperative evaluation should include examination of radiographs for lateral, as well as periapical, lesions. Lateral canals may be demonstrated by a variety of filling techniques. Careful canal preparation may enhance the frequency of such demonstration. Cases with necrotic pulps probably yield more frequent demonstration than do cases with vital pulps. Lateral canals harboring inflamed and/or infected material may cause pain during endodontic treatment. They may simulate periodontal disease and may cause problems with treatment if present when a tooth is left open for drainage. Periodontal disease may cause pulp exposure via lateral canals located coronally. Improper use of post room may lead to lateral failure from breakdown of tissue in a lateral canal. The enigma of the lateral canal has been the object of description and discussion in many articles, but no one is truly certain of their exact significance in endodontic therapy for the long haul.

  17. Comparison of auditory deficits associated with neglect and auditory cortex lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutschalk, Alexander; Brandt, Tobias; Bartsch, Andreas; Jansen, Claudia

    2012-04-01

    In contrast to lesions of the visual and somatosensory cortex, lesions of the auditory cortex are not associated with self-evident contralesional deficits. Only when two or more stimuli are presented simultaneously to the left and right, contralesional extinction has been observed after unilateral lesions of the auditory cortex. Because auditory extinction is also considered a sign of neglect, clinical separation of auditory neglect from deficits caused by lesions of the auditory cortex is challenging. Here, we directly compared a number of tests previously used for either auditory-cortex lesions or neglect in 29 controls and 27 patients suffering from unilateral auditory-cortex lesions, neglect, or both. The results showed that a dichotic-speech test revealed similar amounts of extinction for both auditory cortex lesions and neglect. Similar results were obtained for words lateralized by inter-aural time differences. Consistent extinction after auditory cortex lesions was also observed in a dichotic detection task. Neglect patients showed more general problems with target detection but no consistent extinction in the dichotic detection task. In contrast, auditory lateralization perception was biased toward the right in neglect but showed considerably less disruption by auditory cortex lesions. Lateralization of auditory-evoked magnetic fields in auditory cortex was highly correlated with extinction in the dichotic target-detection task. Moreover, activity in the right primary auditory cortex was somewhat reduced in neglect patients. The results confirm that auditory extinction is observed with lesions of the auditory cortex and auditory neglect. A distinction can nevertheless be made with dichotic target-detection tasks, auditory-lateralization perception, and magnetoencephalography. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Contribution of bioanthropology to the reconstruction of prehistoric productive processes. The external auditory exostoses in the prehispanic population of Gran Canaria

    OpenAIRE

    Velasco Vázquez, Javier; Martín Rodríguez, Ernesto; González Reimers, Emilio; Arnay de la Rosa, Matilde; Betancor Rodríguez, Antonio

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this paper is an approach to the role of bioanthropological studies in the reconstruction of the productive processes of past societies. This objective is obtained starting from the survey and valuation of the prevalence of bone exostoses in the auditory canal among the prehistoric inhabitants of Gran Canaria. The auditory exostose is a bone wound well documented through clinical and experimental studies, closely related to the exposure of the auditory canal to cold water. The esti...

  19. Influence of Eye Movements, Auditory Perception, and Phonemic Awareness in the Reading Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megino-Elvira, Laura; Martín-Lobo, Pilar; Vergara-Moragues, Esperanza

    2016-01-01

    The authors' aim was to analyze the relationship of eye movements, auditory perception, and phonemic awareness with the reading process. The instruments used were the King-Devick Test (saccade eye movements), the PAF test (auditory perception), the PFC (phonemic awareness), the PROLEC-R (lexical process), the Canals reading speed test, and the…

  20. Early auditory enrichment with music enhances auditory discrimination learning and alters NR2B protein expression in rat auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinghong; Yu, Liping; Cai, Rui; Zhang, Jiping; Sun, Xinde

    2009-01-03

    Previous studies have shown that the functional development of auditory system is substantially influenced by the structure of environmental acoustic inputs in early life. In our present study, we investigated the effects of early auditory enrichment with music on rat auditory discrimination learning. We found that early auditory enrichment with music from postnatal day (PND) 14 enhanced learning ability in auditory signal-detection task and in sound duration-discrimination task. In parallel, a significant increase was noted in NMDA receptor subunit NR2B protein expression in the auditory cortex. Furthermore, we found that auditory enrichment with music starting from PND 28 or 56 did not influence NR2B expression in the auditory cortex. No difference was found in the NR2B expression in the inferior colliculus (IC) between music-exposed and normal rats, regardless of when the auditory enrichment with music was initiated. Our findings suggest that early auditory enrichment with music influences NMDA-mediated neural plasticity, which results in enhanced auditory discrimination learning.

  1. Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Vicente

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present edition of Significação – Scientific Journal for Audiovisual Culture and in the others to follow something new is brought: the presence of thematic dossiers which are to be organized by invited scholars. The appointed subject for the very first one of them was Radio and the invited scholar, Eduardo Vicente, professor at the Graduate Course in Audiovisual and at the Postgraduate Program in Audiovisual Media and Processes of the School of Communication and Arts of the University of São Paulo (ECA-USP. Entitled Radio Beyond Borders the dossier gathers six articles and the intention of reuniting works on the perspectives of usage of such media as much as on the new possibilities of aesthetical experimenting being build up for it, especially considering the new digital technologies and technological convergences. It also intends to present works with original theoretical approach and original reflections able to reset the way we look at what is today already a centennial media. Having broadened the meaning of “beyond borders”, four foreign authors were invited to join the dossier. This is the first time they are being published in this country and so, in all cases, the articles where either written or translated into Portuguese.The dossier begins with “Radio is dead…Long live to the sound”, which is the transcription of a thought provoking lecture given by Armand Balsebre (Autonomous University of Barcelona – one of the most influential authors in the world on the Radio study field. It addresses the challenges such media is to face so that it can become “a new sound media, in the context of a new soundscape or sound-sphere, for the new listeners”. Andrew Dubber (Birmingham City University regarding the challenges posed by a Digital Era argues for a theoretical approach in radio studies which can consider a Media Ecology. The author understands the form and discourse of radio as a negotiation of affordances and

  2. Spatial Hearing with Incongruent Visual or Auditory Room Cues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gil Carvajal, Juan Camilo; Cubick, Jens; Santurette, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    features of the recording environment and listener’s anatomy to be recorded at the listener’s ear canals. Although the resulting auditory images can be indistinguishable from real-world sources, their externalization may be less robust when the playback and recording environments differ. Here we tested...... whether a mismatch between playback and recording room reduces perceived distance, azimuthal direction, and compactness of the auditory image, and whether this is mostly due to incongruent auditory cues or to expectations generated from the visual impression of the room. Perceived distance ratings...

  3. Posterior semicircular canal dehiscence: a morphologic cause of vertigo similar to superior semicircular canal dehiscence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krombach, G.A.; Schmitz-Rode, T.; Haage, P.; Guenther, R.W. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany); DiMartino, E. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany); Prescher, A. [Department of Anatomy, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany); Kinzel, S. [Department of Experimental Veterinarian Medicine, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany)

    2003-06-01

    Heading Abstract.The aim of this study was to assess imaging findings of posterior semicircular dehiscence on computed tomography and to evaluate incidence of posterior and superior semicircular canal dehiscence in patients presenting with vertigo, sensorineuronal hearing loss or in a control group without symptoms related to the inner ear. Computed tomography was performed in 507 patients presenting either with vertigo (n=128; 23 of these patients suffered also from sensorineuronal hearing loss), other symptoms related to the inner ear, such as hearing loss or tinnitus (n=183) or symptoms unrelated to the labyrinth (n=196). All images were reviewed for presence of dehiscence of the bone, overlying the semicircular canals. Twenty-nine patients had superior semicircular canal dehiscence. Of these patients, 83% presented with vertigo, 10% with hearing loss or tinnitus and the remaining 7% with symptoms unrelated to the inner ear. In 23 patients dehiscence of the posterior semicircular canal was encountered. Of these patients, 86% presented with vertigo, 9% with hearing loss or tinnitus and 5% with symptoms unrelated to the inner ear. Defects of the bony overly are found at the posterior semicircular canal, in addition to the recently introduced superior canal dehiscence syndrome. Significant prevalence of vertigo in these patients suggests that posterior semicircular canal dehiscence can cause vertigo, similar to superior semicircular canal dehiscence. (orig.)

  4. [Auditory fatigue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjuán Juaristi, Julio; Sanjuán Martínez-Conde, Mar

    2015-01-01

    Given the relevance of possible hearing losses due to sound overloads and the short list of references of objective procedures for their study, we provide a technique that gives precise data about the audiometric profile and recruitment factor. Our objectives were to determine peripheral fatigue, through the cochlear microphonic response to sound pressure overload stimuli, as well as to measure recovery time, establishing parameters for differentiation with regard to current psychoacoustic and clinical studies. We used specific instruments for the study of cochlear microphonic response, plus a function generator that provided us with stimuli of different intensities and harmonic components. In Wistar rats, we first measured the normal microphonic response and then the effect of auditory fatigue on it. Using a 60dB pure tone acoustic stimulation, we obtained a microphonic response at 20dB. We then caused fatigue with 100dB of the same frequency, reaching a loss of approximately 11dB after 15minutes; after that, the deterioration slowed and did not exceed 15dB. By means of complex random tone maskers or white noise, no fatigue was caused to the sensory receptors, not even at levels of 100dB and over an hour of overstimulation. No fatigue was observed in terms of sensory receptors. Deterioration of peripheral perception through intense overstimulation may be due to biochemical changes of desensitisation due to exhaustion. Auditory fatigue in subjective clinical trials presumably affects supracochlear sections. The auditory fatigue tests found are not in line with those obtained subjectively in clinical and psychoacoustic trials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Patología Cérvico-Facial. All rights reserved.

  5. MAXILLARY FIRST PREMOLARS WITH THREE ROOT CANALS: TWO CASE REPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeliha UĞUR

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available It is very important that the dentists have sufficient information about possible variations in the expected root canal configurations in order to achieve success in endodontic treatment. In addition to having adequate knowledge on the variations of the root canal anatomy, periapical radiographs from different angles, careful examination of the pulp chamber floor, and use of dental operation microscope during the procedure are also important factors that contribute to the diagnosis of the additional roots and canals. The aims of this article are to present the diagnostic approach and root canal treatments of two maxillary first premolar teeth with three canals in two patients.

  6. 22 an analysis of auditory manifestations in a group

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJTCAM

    Otosyphilis in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus: Internal auditory canal gumma. Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, 112, 488-492. 30. Marcusen, D.C. and Sooy, C.D. (1985) Otolaryngologic and head and neck manifestations of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Laryngoscope, 95, 401–405.

  7. Auditory Hallucination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MohammadReza Rajabi

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Auditory Hallucination or Paracusia is a form of hallucination that involves perceiving sounds without auditory stimulus. A common is hearing one or more talking voices which is associated with psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia or mania. Hallucination, itself, is the most common feature of perceiving the wrong stimulus or to the better word perception of the absence stimulus. Here we will discuss four definitions of hallucinations:1.Perceiving of a stimulus without the presence of any subject; 2. hallucination proper which are the wrong perceptions that are not the falsification of real perception, Although manifest as a new subject and happen along with and synchronously with a real perception;3. hallucination is an out-of-body perception which has no accordance with a real subjectIn a stricter sense, hallucinations are defined as perceptions in a conscious and awake state in the absence of external stimuli which have qualities of real perception, in that they are vivid, substantial, and located in external objective space. We are going to discuss it in details here.

  8. Auditory, visual and auditory-visual memory and sequencing performance in typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Roshni; Yathiraj, Asha

    2017-09-01

    The study evaluated whether there exists a difference/relation in the way four different memory skills (memory score, sequencing score, memory span, & sequencing span) are processed through the auditory modality, visual modality and combined modalities. Four memory skills were evaluated on 30 typically developing children aged 7 years and 8 years across three modality conditions (auditory, visual, & auditory-visual). Analogous auditory and visual stimuli were presented to evaluate the three modality conditions across the two age groups. The children obtained significantly higher memory scores through the auditory modality compared to the visual modality. Likewise, their memory scores were significantly higher through the auditory-visual modality condition than through the visual modality. However, no effect of modality was observed on the sequencing scores as well as for the memory and the sequencing span. A good agreement was seen between the different modality conditions that were studied (auditory, visual, & auditory-visual) for the different memory skills measures (memory scores, sequencing scores, memory span, & sequencing span). A relatively lower agreement was noted only between the auditory and visual modalities as well as between the visual and auditory-visual modality conditions for the memory scores, measured using Bland-Altman plots. The study highlights the efficacy of using analogous stimuli to assess the auditory, visual as well as combined modalities. The study supports the view that the performance of children on different memory skills was better through the auditory modality compared to the visual modality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Seeing the song: left auditory structures may track auditory-visual dynamic alignment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia A Mossbridge

    Full Text Available Auditory and visual signals generated by a single source tend to be temporally correlated, such as the synchronous sounds of footsteps and the limb movements of a walker. Continuous tracking and comparison of the dynamics of auditory-visual streams is thus useful for the perceptual binding of information arising from a common source. Although language-related mechanisms have been implicated in the tracking of speech-related auditory-visual signals (e.g., speech sounds and lip movements, it is not well known what sensory mechanisms generally track ongoing auditory-visual synchrony for non-speech signals in a complex auditory-visual environment. To begin to address this question, we used music and visual displays that varied in the dynamics of multiple features (e.g., auditory loudness and pitch; visual luminance, color, size, motion, and organization across multiple time scales. Auditory activity (monitored using auditory steady-state responses, ASSR was selectively reduced in the left hemisphere when the music and dynamic visual displays were temporally misaligned. Importantly, ASSR was not affected when attentional engagement with the music was reduced, or when visual displays presented dynamics clearly dissimilar to the music. These results appear to suggest that left-lateralized auditory mechanisms are sensitive to auditory-visual temporal alignment, but perhaps only when the dynamics of auditory and visual streams are similar. These mechanisms may contribute to correct auditory-visual binding in a busy sensory environment.

  10. The significance of a hypoplastic bony canal for the cochlear nerve in patients with sensorineural hearing loss: CT and MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yoon Jung; Park, Sang Yoo; Kim, Myung Soon; Sung, Ki Jun [College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the significance of the hypoplastic canal for the cochlear nerve in patients with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) and the relationship between the hypoplastic bony canal and aplasia or hypoplasia of the cochlear nerve. A retrospective review of high resolution temporal CT(HRCT) and MRI findings was conducted. The narrow bony canal of the cochlear nerve and the relative size of the internal auditory canal were correlated with the cochlear nerve deficiency on MRI. The comparative size of the component nerves (facial, cochlear, superior vestibular, inferior vestibular nerve), and the relative size of the internal auditory canal and the bony canal of the cochlear nerve were measured. The clinical history and the results of the clinical examination were reviewed for each patient. High resolution MRI showed aplasia of the common vestibulocochlear nerve in one patient and a deficiency of the cochlear nerve in 9 patients. These abnormalities occurred in association with a prominent narrowing of the canal for the cochlear nerve and a stenosis of the internal auditory canal, which was observed on temporal bone CT in 9 patients with congenital SNHL. Three patients had normal IAC, despite the presence of a hypoplastic cochlear nerve on the side on which they had SNHL. In one patient, the narrowing of the canal for the cochlear nerve and internal auditory canal were not found to be associated with acquired SNHL. The hypoplastic bony canal for the cochlear nerve might be more highly indicative of congenital cochlear nerve deficiency than that of the narrow internal auditory canal, and the position of the crista falciformis should also be carefully.

  11. Auditory Dysfunction in Patients with Cerebrovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadaharu Tabuchi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Auditory dysfunction is a common clinical symptom that can induce profound effects on the quality of life of those affected. Cerebrovascular disease (CVD is the most prevalent neurological disorder today, but it has generally been considered a rare cause of auditory dysfunction. However, a substantial proportion of patients with stroke might have auditory dysfunction that has been underestimated due to difficulties with evaluation. The present study reviews relationships between auditory dysfunction and types of CVD including cerebral infarction, intracerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, cerebrovascular malformation, moyamoya disease, and superficial siderosis. Recent advances in the etiology, anatomy, and strategies to diagnose and treat these conditions are described. The numbers of patients with CVD accompanied by auditory dysfunction will increase as the population ages. Cerebrovascular diseases often include the auditory system, resulting in various types of auditory dysfunctions, such as unilateral or bilateral deafness, cortical deafness, pure word deafness, auditory agnosia, and auditory hallucinations, some of which are subtle and can only be detected by precise psychoacoustic and electrophysiological testing. The contribution of CVD to auditory dysfunction needs to be understood because CVD can be fatal if overlooked.

  12. [Tomography of the pterygoid canals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riazantsev, S V; Kalenov, V E; Russkikh, N A

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents an X-ray scheme for calculating the depth of pterygoid canals required for accurate tomography. The scheme includes three lines: line A corresponds to the physiological horizontal line, line B is drawn, normally to line A through the tip of the nose, and line C is the perpendicular from line B to the upper third of the posterior wall of the pterygopalatine fossa. The length of line B plus 1 cm (thickness of external nose soft tissues) is the value to be determined. Twenty-six patients underwent X-ray examinations by an EDK-750B unit (70 kV, 150 mA, 1.65 s). In all cases 1-3 images were sufficient to obtain good visualization of the pterygoid canals.

  13. Source reliability in auditory health persuasion : Its antecedents and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbert, Sarah P.; Dijkstra, Arie

    2015-01-01

    Persuasive health messages can be presented through an auditory channel, thereby enhancing the salience of the source, making it fundamentally different from written or pictorial information. We focused on the determinants of perceived source reliability in auditory health persuasion by

  14. Developing Auditory Measures of General Speediness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian T. Zajac

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined whether the broad ability general speediness (Gs could be measured via the auditory modality. Existing and purpose-developed auditory tasks that maintained the cognitive requirements of established visually presented Gs markers were completed by 96 university undergraduates. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses showed that the auditory tasks combined with established visual measures to define latent Gs and reaction time factors. These findings provide preliminary evidence that suggests that if auditory tasks are developed that maintain the same cognitive requirements as existing visual measures, then they are likely to index similar cognitive processes.

  15. Concurrent auditory perception difficulties in older adults with right hemisphere cerebrovascular accident

    OpenAIRE

    Talebi, Hossein; Moossavi, Abdollah; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat

    2014-01-01

    Background: Older adults with cerebrovascular accident (CVA) show evidence of auditory and speech perception problems. In present study, it was examined whether these problems are due to impairments of concurrent auditory segregation procedure which is the basic level of auditory scene analysis and auditory organization in auditory scenes with competing sounds. Methods: Concurrent auditory segregation using competing sentence test (CST) and dichotic digits test (DDT) was assessed and compared...

  16. Heterochrony, modularity, and the functional evolution of the mechanosensory lateral line canal system of fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Nathan C; Webb, Jacqueline F

    2014-01-01

    widened canal phenotype, known to be associated with benthic prey detection in adult Aulonocara, is already present before feeding commences. Heterochrony can likely explain the convergent evolution of widened lateral line canals among diverse taxa. The lateral line system provides a valuable context for novel analyses of the relationship between developmental processes and the evolution of behaviorally and ecologically relevant phenotypes in fishes.

  17. Mandibular second premolar with three canals: Re-treatment of a case with unusual root canal anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niranjan Desai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A thorough knowledge of root canal anatomy along with the anatomical variations that may be present is essential for success of endodontic therapy. Unusual presentations in the number of the roots or the canals should be expected in every tooth. Mandibular second premolars are thought of as having a single root and canal. Studies have stated that the prevalence of three canals with three orifices in this tooth is 0.4%. The mandibular second premolar is particularly difficult to treat owing to the fact that a wide variation in the number, location and curvature of the roots and canals exist. Added to this is the fact that the access opening is restricted and location of the lingually placed orifices is difficult. This case report details the re-treatment of a mandibular second premolar with three canals and three separate orifices using the surgical microscope.

  18. Three distal root canals in mandibular first molar with different canal configurations: Report of two cases and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Bansal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing number of reports of aberrant root canal morphology, the clinician needs to be aware of the variable anatomy. Various case reports have been published with the finding of middle mesial canal in mandibular first molar, however finding of three distal canals in distal roots of mandibular first molar is rare. This article reports endodontic management of two mandibular first molars presented with three distal canals present in a single distal root (Sert and Bayirli type XVIII and distal and distolingual root.

  19. The role of temporal coherence in auditory stream segregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Simon Krogholt

    The ability to perceptually segregate concurrent sound sources and focus one’s attention on a single source at a time is essential for the ability to use acoustic information. While perceptual experiments have determined a range of acoustic cues that help facilitate auditory stream segregation......, it is not clear how the auditory system realizes the task. This thesis presents a study of the mechanisms involved in auditory stream segregation. Through a combination of psychoacoustic experiments, designed to characterize the influence of acoustic cues on auditory stream formation, and computational models...... of auditory processing, the role of auditory preprocessing and temporal coherence in auditory stream formation was evaluated. The computational model presented in this study assumes that auditory stream segregation occurs when sounds stimulate non-overlapping neural populations in a temporally incoherent...

  20. Auditory learning: a developmental method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yilu; Weng, Juyang; Hwang, Wey-Shiuan

    2005-05-01

    Motivated by the human autonomous development process from infancy to adulthood, we have built a robot that develops its cognitive and behavioral skills through real-time interactions with the environment. We call such a robot a developmental robot. In this paper, we present the theory and the architecture to implement a developmental robot and discuss the related techniques that address an array of challenging technical issues. As an application, experimental results on a real robot, self-organizing, autonomous, incremental learner (SAIL), are presented with emphasis on its audition perception and audition-related action generation. In particular, the SAIL robot conducts the auditory learning from unsegmented and unlabeled speech streams without any prior knowledge about the auditory signals, such as the designated language or the phoneme models. Neither available before learning starts are the actions that the robot is expected to perform. SAIL learns the auditory commands and the desired actions from physical contacts with the environment including the trainers.

  1. Root canal filling evaluation using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrutiu, Meda L.; Sinescu, Cosmin; Hughes, Michael; Bradu, Adrian; Todea, Carmen; Balabuc, Cosmin I.; Filip, Laura M.; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.

    2008-04-01

    The root canal fillings are destined to seal the root canal especially in the apical areea. Invasive techniques are known which are used to assess the quality of the seal. These lead to the destruction of the probes and often no conclusion could be drawn in respect to the existence of any microleakage in the investigated areas of interest. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a relatively novel non-invasive imaging technique which presents potential in assessing the microleakage of the apical area in the root canal fillings with micron depth resolution. 3D reconstruction allows a complete view with obvious display of gaps in the apical root canal filling. For this study, 30 monoradicular teeth were prepared by conventional and rotative methods. Afterwards, root canal fillings were produced in each tooth. The images obtained show some microleakage in all the investigated root canal fillings. The advantages of the OCT method consist in non-invasiveness and high resolution.

  2. Auditory Temporal Processing as a Specific Deficit among Dyslexic Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fostick, Leah; Bar-El, Sharona; Ram-Tsur, Ronit

    2012-01-01

    The present study focuses on examining the hypothesis that auditory temporal perception deficit is a basic cause for reading disabilities among dyslexics. This hypothesis maintains that reading impairment is caused by a fundamental perceptual deficit in processing rapid auditory or visual stimuli. Since the auditory perception involves a number of…

  3. External auditory canal leech: a rare case report of paediatric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access. Featuring journals from 32 Countries: Algeria (5); Benin (2); Botswana (3); Burkina Faso (3); Cameroon (8); Congo, Republic (1); Côte d'Ivoire (4); Egypt, Arab Rep. (14); Eritrea (1); Ethiopia (30) ...

  4. Endodontic management of mandibular first molar with seven canals using cone-beam computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Mahesh Banode

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The endodontic treatment of a mandibular molar with aberrant canal configuration can be diagnostically and clinically challenging. Successful endodontic therapy thus depends on the clinician's ability to anticipate and look for these aberrant variations. A mandibular first molar with seven canals represents a rare anatomical variant, particularly when four canals are found in distal root. Based on in vitro studies, its incidence is reported to be between 0.2% and 3%. With the advent of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT as an adjunctive diagnostic aid, the determination of root canal anatomy in teeth with complex canal configurations has become more precise. The present case report discusses successful nonsurgical management of radix entomolaris along with middle mesial canal and middle distal canal in mandibular first molar with seven canals (four canals in distal and three in mesial employing CBCT as an adjunctive diagnostic aid to conventional radiography.

  5. Anatomy and Physiology of the Auditory Tracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad hosein Hekmat Ara

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Hearing is one of the excel sense of human being. Sound waves travel through the medium of air and enter the ear canal and then hit the tympanic membrane. Middle ear transfer almost 60-80% of this mechanical energy to the inner ear by means of “impedance matching”. Then, the sound energy changes to traveling wave and is transferred based on its specific frequency and stimulates organ of corti. Receptors in this organ and their synapses transform mechanical waves to the neural waves and transfer them to the brain. The central nervous system tract of conducting the auditory signals in the auditory cortex will be explained here briefly.

  6. Octave effect in auditory attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borra, Tobias; Versnel, Huib; Kemner, Chantal; van Opstal, A John; van Ee, Raymond

    2013-09-17

    After hearing a tone, the human auditory system becomes more sensitive to similar tones than to other tones. Current auditory models explain this phenomenon by a simple bandpass attention filter. Here, we demonstrate that auditory attention involves multiple pass-bands around octave-related frequencies above and below the cued tone. Intriguingly, this "octave effect" not only occurs for physically presented tones, but even persists for the missing fundamental in complex tones, and for imagined tones. Our results suggest neural interactions combining octave-related frequencies, likely located in nonprimary cortical regions. We speculate that this connectivity scheme evolved from exposure to natural vibrations containing octave-related spectral peaks, e.g., as produced by vocal cords.

  7. Bilateral bifid mandibular canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Sheikhi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the normal interesting variations that we may encounter in the mandible is bifid mandibular canal. This condition can lead to difficulties when performing mandibular anesthesia or during extraction of lower third molar, placement of implants, and surgery in the mandible. Therefore diagnosis of this variation is sometimes very important and necessary.

  8. Maxillary first molars with six canals confirmed with the aid of cone-beam computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahra Mohammad Al-Habboubi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The maxillary first molar exhibits unpredictable root canal morphology. Different number of root canals has been reported with the aids of new tools. It is very important to clinically detect all canals for better outcome results. The purpose of the present case is to present a case of the maxillary first molar in a Saudi male patient with an anatomical variation of having six root canals that were confirmed with cone-beam computed tomography.

  9. Herpes zoster - typical and atypical presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, Roy Rafael; Peleg, Roni

    2017-08-01

    Varicella- zoster virus infection is an intriguing medical entity that involves many medical specialties including infectious diseases, immunology, dermatology, and neurology. It can affect patients from early childhood to old age. Its treatment requires expertise in pain management and psychological support. While varicella is caused by acute viremia, herpes zoster occurs after the dormant viral infection, involving the cranial nerve or sensory root ganglia, is re-activated and spreads orthodromically from the ganglion, via the sensory nerve root, to the innervated target tissue (skin, cornea, auditory canal, etc.). Typically, a single dermatome is involved, although two or three adjacent dermatomes may be affected. The lesions usually do not cross the midline. Herpes zoster can also present with unique or atypical clinical manifestations, such as glioma, zoster sine herpete and bilateral herpes zoster, which can be a challenging diagnosis even for experienced physicians. We discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of Herpes Zoster, typical and atypical presentations.

  10. Looming biases in monkey auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Joost X; Ghazanfar, Asif A

    2007-04-11

    Looming signals (signals that indicate the rapid approach of objects) are behaviorally relevant signals for all animals. Accordingly, studies in primates (including humans) reveal attentional biases for detecting and responding to looming versus receding signals in both the auditory and visual domains. We investigated the neural representation of these dynamic signals in the lateral belt auditory cortex of rhesus monkeys. By recording local field potential and multiunit spiking activity while the subjects were presented with auditory looming and receding signals, we show here that auditory cortical activity was biased in magnitude toward looming versus receding stimuli. This directional preference was not attributable to the absolute intensity of the sounds nor can it be attributed to simple adaptation, because white noise stimuli with identical amplitude envelopes did not elicit the same pattern of responses. This asymmetrical representation of looming versus receding sounds in the lateral belt auditory cortex suggests that it is an important node in the neural network correlate of looming perception.

  11. Auditory Hallucinations Nomenclature and Classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Jan Dirk; Sommer, Iris E. C.

    Introduction: The literature on the possible neurobiologic correlates of auditory hallucinations is expanding rapidly. For an adequate understanding and linking of this emerging knowledge, a clear and uniform nomenclature is a prerequisite. The primary purpose of the present article is to provide an

  12. Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial effect of herbal root canal irrigants (Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica, Aloe vera) with sodium hypochlorite: An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Babaji, Prashant; Jagtap, Kiran; Lau, Himani; Bansal, Nandita; Thajuraj, S.; Sondhi, Priti

    2016-01-01

    Aim and Objectives: Successful root canal treatment involves the complete elimination of microorganism from the root canal and the three-dimensional obturation of the canal space. Enterococcus faecalis is the most commonly found bacteria in failed root canal. Chemical irrigation of canals along with biomechanical preparation helps in the elimination of microorganisms. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of herbal root canal irrigants (Morinda citrifolia, Azadirach...

  13. Function of lateral line canal morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Adrian; Bleckmann, Horst

    2015-01-01

    Fish perceive water motions and pressure gradients with their lateral line. Lateral line information is used for prey detection, spatial orientation, predator avoidance, schooling behavior, intraspecific communication and station holding. The lateral line of most fishes consists of superficial neuromasts (SNs) and canal neuromasts (CNs). The distribution of SNs and CNs shows a high degree of variation among fishes. Researchers have speculated for decades about the functional significance of this diversity, often without any conclusive answers. Klein et al. (2013) examined how tubules, pore number and pore patterns affect the filter properties of lateral line canals in a marine teleost, the black prickleback (Xiphister atropurpureus). A preliminary mathematical model was formulated and biomimetic sensors were built. For the present study the mathematical model was extended to understand the major underlying principle of how canal dimensions influence the filter properties of the lateral line. Both the extended mathematical model and the sensor experiments show that the number and distribution of pores determine the spatial filter properties of the lateral line. In an environment with little hydrodynamic noise, simple and complex lateral line canals have comparable response properties. However, if exposed to highly turbulent conditions, canals with numerous widely spaced pores increase the signal to noise ratio significantly. © 2014 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Root canal debridement: an online study guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    The Editorial Board of the Journal of Endodontics has developed a literature-based study guide of topical areas related to endodontics. This study guide is intended to give the reader a focused review of the essential endodontic literature and does not cite all possible articles related to each topic. Although citing all articles would be comprehensive, it would defeat the idea of a study guide. This section will present root canal debridement including subdivisions on canal access, canal debridement, orifice enlargement and preflaring, crown-down technique, balanced force, nickel titanium and other shape memory alloys, rotary engine-driven techniques, endodontic instruments, irrigation, electronic apex locators, sonics/ultrasonics, smear layer, and intracanal medicaments.

  15. Water Environment Evolution along the China Grand Canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, F.; Wu, Y. X.; Yang, B. F.; Li, X. J.

    2014-03-01

    The China Grand Canal is one of the earliest canals in the world, having lasted for nearly 3000 years. Even its section canals have a rich history, such as the North-South Grand Canal that was established during the Sui Dynasty, whereas the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal was excavated during the Yuan Dynasty and the east line of the South-to-North Water Diversion. As one of the longest in the world, the China Grand Canal's total length is over 3500 kilometers. This length includes the navigable, unnavigable, and underground sections. Making the best use of situations and according to local conditions, the Chinese people harmoniously constructed the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal with nature. Tens of millions of workers took nearly 3000 years to complete the great shipping system. Navigable sections still exist for up to 900 kilometers and the volume of freight traffic is approximately 300 million tons. The canal remains the main logistical channel of the North-to-South Coal Transportation, South-to-North Water Diversion, and resources circulation. To date, China is promoting the success of heritage application. Part of these efforts is the declaration of the China Grand Canal as a World Cultural Heritage by 2014. In addition, the east route of the South-to-North Water Transfer project is planned to be navigable by 2016. The ancient Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal will usher in the new ecological civilization and cultural revival along the canal. This paper presents technical methods of water environment evolution research on the river system, river, and water quality along the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal through the integration of historical literature and modern remote sensing image data. The study carried out water environment investigation and analysis along the Beijing-Hangzhou canal by using ETM, SPOT image data, and GPS measurement data. Spatial and temporal evolution characteristics and regulations of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal regional water environment in the span of 3000

  16. Endodontic Treatment of a Mandibular Second Premolar with Three Roots and Three Canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonny Paul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex root canal system with atypical variations is a common finding among mandibular premolars. Endodontic treatment in these teeth may not be successful due to the failure to recognise and treat multiple canals. This paper presents endodontic treatment of a mandibular second premolar with three roots and three canals.

  17. Extracting Environmental Benefits from a New Canal in Nicaragua: Lessons from Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condit, Richard

    2015-07-01

    Biologists have raised objections to a new canal in Nicaragua, but in this Essay I argue that dire predictions of environmental catastrophe are exaggerated. I present an alternative view based on my research experience in Panama, where Canal operations foster forest conservation. Currently in Nicaragua, the rate of forest loss is so rapid that the canal cannot make it worse. Rather, I contend, adoption of international standards in canal construction could lead to net environmental and social benefits for the country.

  18. Managing curved canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iram Ansari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dilaceration is the result of a developmental anomaly in which there has been an abrupt change in the axial inclination between the crown and the root of a tooth. Dilaceration can be seen in both the permanent and deciduous dentitions, and is more commonly found in posterior teeth and in maxilla. Periapical radiographs are the most appropriate way to diagnose the presence of root dilacerations. The controlled regularly tapered preparation of the curved canals is the ultimate challenge in endodontics. Careful and meticulous technique will yield a safe and sufficient enlargement of the curved canals. This article gives a review of the literature and three interesting case reports of root dilacerations.

  19. Root canal treatment of mandibular second premolar tooth with taurodontism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujašković Mirjana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Taurodontism is a morphoanatomical change in the shape of a tooth. An enlarged body of a tooth with smaller than usual roots is a characteristic feature. Internal tooth anatomy correlates with this appearance, which means that a taurodontal tooth has a large pulp chamber and apically positioned furcations. This dental anomaly may be associated with different syndromes and congenital discoders. CASE OUTLINE The case report presents the patient of a rare case of taurodontism in the mandibular second premolar with chronic periodontitis. Endodontic treatment was performed after dental history and clinical examination. Special care is required in all segments of endodontic treatment of a taurodontal tooth from the identification orifice, canal exploration, determining working length, cleaning and shaping and obturation of the root canal. Precurved K-file was used for canal exploration and location of the furcation. One mesial and one distal canal with the buccal position were identified in the apical third of the root canal. The working lengths of two canals were determined by radiographic interpretation with two K-files in each canal and verified with the apex locator. During canal instrumentation, the third canal was located in the disto-lingual position. The working length of the third canal was established using the apex locator. CONCLUSION Thorough knowledge of tooth anatomy and its variations can lead to lower percentage of endodontic failure. Each clinical case involving these teeth should be investigated carefully, clinically and radiographically to detect additional root canals. High quality radiographs from different angles and proper instrumentarium improve the quality of endodontic procedure.

  20. [Root canal treatment of mandibular second premolar tooth with taurodontism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujasković, Mirjana; Karadzić, Branislav; Miletić, Vesna

    2008-01-01

    Taurodontism is a morphoanatomical change in the shape of a tooth. An enlarged body of a tooth with smaller than usual roots is a characteristic feature. Internal tooth anatomy correlates with this appearance, which means that a taurodontal tooth has a large pulp chamber and apically positioned furcations. This dental anomaly may be associated with different syndromes and congenital discoders. The case report presents the patient of a rare case of taurodontism in the mandibular second premolar with chronic periodontitis. Endodontic treatment was performed after dental history and clinical examination. Special care is required in all segments of endodontic treatment of a taurodontal tooth from the identification orifice, canal exploration, determining working length, cleaning and shaping and obturation of the root canal. Precurved K-file was used for canal exploration and location of the furcation. One mesial and one distal canal with the buccal position were identified in the apical third of the root canal. The working lengths of two canals were determined by radiographic interpretation with two K-files in each canal and verified with the apex locator. During canal instrumentation, the third canal was located in the disto-lingual position. The working length of the third canal was established using the apex locator. Thorough knowledge of tooth anatomy and its variations can lead to lower percentage of endodontic failure. Each clinical case involving these teeth should be investigated carefully, clinically and radiographically to detect additional root canals. High quality radiographs from different angles and proper instrumentarium improve the quality of endodontic procedure.

  1. Auditory Feedback and the Online Shopping Experience

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ryann Reynolds-McIlnay

    2014-01-01

      The present research proposes that the presence of auditory feedback increases satisfaction with the shopping experience, confidence in the retailer, and the likelihood to return to the retailer...

  2. Unusual Presentation of Ulcerative Postauricular Swelling as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sebaceous cell carcinoma is an uncommon, cutaneous tumor, .... in extra ocular sites. Extraocular sebaceous carcinoma most commonly involve the head and neck region, the parotid and submandibular glands, the external auditory canal, the trunk and ... composed of basal cells, squamous cells (mucoepidermoid and.

  3. BAER - brainstem auditory evoked response

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... auditory potentials; Brainstem auditory evoked potentials; Evoked response audiometry; Auditory brainstem response; ABR; BAEP ... Normal results vary. Results will depend on the person and the instruments used to perform the test.

  4. Auditory Processing Disorder (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... role. Auditory cohesion problems: This is when higher-level listening tasks are difficult. Auditory cohesion skills — drawing inferences from conversations, understanding riddles, or comprehending verbal math problems — require heightened auditory processing and language levels. ...

  5. Canal plane dynamic visual acuity in superior canal dehiscence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janky, Kristen L; Zuniga, M Geraldine; Ward, Bryan; Carey, John P; Schubert, Michael C

    2014-06-01

    1) To characterize normal, horizontal active dynamic visual acuity (DVA) and passive canal plane head thrust DVA (htDVA) across ages to establish appropriate control data and 2) to determine whether horizontal active DVA and passive canal plane htDVA are significantly different in individuals with superior canal dehiscence syndrome (SCDS) before and after surgical repair in the acute (within 10 d) and nonacute stage (>6 wk). Prospective study. Tertiary referral center Patients diagnosed with SCDS (n = 32) and healthy control subjects (n = 51). Surgical canal plugging on a subset of patients. Static visual acuity (SVA), active horizontal DVA, and canal plane htDVA. Visual acuity (SVA, active DVA, and htDVA) declines with age. In SCDS, SVA and active DVA are not significantly affected in individuals after surgical canal plugging; however, htDVA in the plane of the affected canal is significantly worse after canal plugging. Age-based normative data are necessary for DVA testing. In SCDS, htDVA in the plane of the affected canal is normal before surgery but permanently reduced afterward.

  6. VARIATION OF MAXILLARY FIRST PREMOLAR WITH THREE ROOT CANALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Kirilova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Successful endodontic treatment requires effective biomechanical preparation of the root canals and three-dimensional obturation of the root canal system. This can be achieved only by knowing and identifying the variations in the root canal system of the endodontically treated teeth. The Aim: The aim of this article is to present cases of endodontic treatment of maxillary first premolar with three root canals – different types. Material and Methods: Five clinical cases of successful endodontic treatment of patients with maxillary first premolar and three root canals are described. Result and Discussion: It is noted that good endodontic practice requires good knowledge of dental anatomy and possible variations, accurate X-ray images, as well as use of magnifying equipment. Conclusion: Knowledge of dental anatomy is fundamental for good endodontic practice.

  7. Endodontic management of mandibular canine with two canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Shrivastava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endodontic treatment may sometimes fail because morphological features of the tooth adversely affect the treatment procedures. Many investigators have reported the anatomical variations associated with mandibular canines. Mandibular canines are recognized as usually having one root and one root canal in most cases. This case report describes a clinical case of mandibular canine with two canals. Human mandibular canines do not present internal anatomy as simple as could be expected; there are such canines with a single root and two canals, two roots or fused roots. The existence of mandibular canines with more than one root canal is a fact that clinicians ought to keep in mind, in order to avoid failure during endodontic treatment. In spite of the low incidence of lower canines with one root and two canals, this possibility cannot be forgotten, inasmuch as the presence of a second canal in these teeth leads to difficulties in endodontic treatment. The precise knowledge of the dental endocanalicular system′s anatomy is essential in the success of the root canal therapy, because the failure to detect the accessories canals and the incomplete radicular obturation leads to the infection of the periapical space, which will ultimately result in the loss of the tooth.

  8. Multisensory Interactions between Auditory and Haptic Object Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassuba, Tanja; Menz, Mareike M; R�der, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    they matched a target object to a sample object within and across audition and touch. By introducing a delay between the presentation of sample and target stimuli, it was possible to dissociate haptic-to-auditory and auditory-to-haptic matching. We hypothesized that only semantically coherent auditory...... and haptic object features activate cortical regions that host unified conceptual object representations. The left fusiform gyrus (FG) and posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) showed increased activation during crossmodal matching of semantically congruent but not incongruent object stimuli. In the FG......, this effect was found for haptic-to-auditory and auditory-to-haptic matching, whereas the pSTS only displayed a crossmodal matching effect for congruent auditory targets. Auditory and somatosensory association cortices showed increased activity during crossmodal object matching which was, however, independent...

  9. Distributed control at Love canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McPherson, G.; Rider, G.J.; Sadowski, B.; Moore, M.

    1994-09-01

    Love Canal is known worldwide as the site of one of the worst non-nuclear environmental disasters in modern history. For 12 years, a Niagara Falls, New York chemical company used the canal bed as a chemical dump. This article discusses the computerized control of equipment used to remove the toxic materials from the ground under Love Canal, and how the minimization of maintenance is reducing maintenance costs and increasing operator safety.

  10. Analysis of sedimentation of canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agunwamba, J.C.,

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The dredged canals in the Niger Delta coastal flood plain are being threatened by siltation. This study is limited to those canals in Rivers State of Nigeria, which are under the influence of tidal waves. A total of eight canals were considered with four each from Ekulama and Cawthorne Channel. Different approaches were used to carry out this study, which includes field reconnaissance survey, hydrographic survey, soil sample analysis and collection of all available data and information. The typical bed materials size (D50 is approximately 0.01mm; which gives a settling velocity of 0.09mm/sec using stroke’s law. Hydrographic survey of the canals from 1992 to 1996 revealed an average siltation rate of 2.35m/yr. A regression equation was also derived which relates the cost of dredging to canal area, rate of siltation and average aggregation. A plot of canal centre profile; entrance, middle and end cross sections showing sediment distribution along the canal profile, shows that majority of the particles that form the sediment enter the canal from the rivers. The sedimentation is caused by the reduction in water current, which has average value of 0.0145m/sec. The bathyorographical check on the canals revealed that the sum of the two exterior angles of the canal with the river at the point of connection has to lie within 1800 + 50 for an effective flow that will minimize settlement of particles. In addition, the canals should be constructed to start and terminate on a moving water body, to avoid dead ends. A regression equation was determined which relates the cost of dredging to canal area, rate of siltation and average aggradations.

  11. Functional imaging of auditory scene analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutschalk, Alexander; Dykstra, Andrew R

    2014-01-01

    Our auditory system is constantly faced with the task of decomposing the complex mixture of sound arriving at the ears into perceptually independent streams constituting accurate representations of individual sound sources. This decomposition, termed auditory scene analysis, is critical for both survival and communication, and is thought to underlie both speech and music perception. The neural underpinnings of auditory scene analysis have been studied utilizing invasive experiments with animal models as well as non-invasive (MEG, EEG, and fMRI) and invasive (intracranial EEG) studies conducted with human listeners. The present article reviews human neurophysiological research investigating the neural basis of auditory scene analysis, with emphasis on two classical paradigms termed streaming and informational masking. Other paradigms - such as the continuity illusion, mistuned harmonics, and multi-speaker environments - are briefly addressed thereafter. We conclude by discussing the emerging evidence for the role of auditory cortex in remapping incoming acoustic signals into a perceptual representation of auditory streams, which are then available for selective attention and further conscious processing. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Human Auditory Neuroimaging. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A Survey of auditory display in image-guided interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, David; Hansen, Christian; Nabavi, Arya; Kikinis, Ron; Hahn, Horst

    2017-03-08

    This article investigates the current state of the art of the use of auditory display in image-guided medical interventions. Auditory display is a means of conveying information using sound, and we review the use of this approach to support navigated interventions. We discuss the benefits and drawbacks of published systems and outline directions for future investigation. We undertook a review of scientific articles on the topic of auditory rendering in image-guided intervention. This includes methods for avoidance of risk structures and instrument placement and manipulation. The review did not include auditory display for status monitoring, for instance in anesthesia. We identified 15 publications in the course of the search. Most of the literature (60%) investigates the use of auditory display to convey distance of a tracked instrument to an object using proximity or safety margins. The remainder discuss continuous guidance for navigated instrument placement. Four of the articles present clinical evaluations, 11 present laboratory evaluations, and 3 present informal evaluation (2 present both laboratory and clinical evaluations). Auditory display is a growing field that has been largely neglected in research in image-guided intervention. Despite benefits of auditory displays reported in both the reviewed literature and non-medical fields, adoption in medicine has been slow. Future challenges include increasing interdisciplinary cooperation with auditory display investigators to develop more meaningful auditory display designs and comprehensive evaluations which target the benefits and drawbacks of auditory display in image guidance.

  13. Auditory Startle Response in Firefighters Before and After Trauma Exposure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guthrie, Rachel M; Bryant, Richard A

    2005-01-01

    .... The present study reports the first prospective psychophysiological investigation, to the authors' knowledge, of posttraumatic stress responses by prospectively evaluating the auditory startle...

  14. Auditory motion capturing ambiguous visual motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjen eAlink

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is demonstrated that moving sounds have an effect on the direction in which one sees visual stimuli move. During the main experiment sounds were presented consecutively at four speaker locations inducing left- or rightwards auditory apparent motion. On the path of auditory apparent motion, visual apparent motion stimuli were presented with a high degree of directional ambiguity. The main outcome of this experiment is that our participants perceived visual apparent motion stimuli that were ambiguous (equally likely to be perceived as moving left- or rightwards more often as moving in the same direction than in the opposite direction of auditory apparent motion. During the control experiment we replicated this finding and found no effect of sound motion direction on eye movements. This indicates that auditory motion can capture our visual motion percept when visual motion direction is insufficiently determinate without affecting eye movements.

  15. Resizing Auditory Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzfeldt, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Heard through the ears of the Canadian composer and music teacher R. Murray Schafer the ideal auditory community had the shape of a village. Schafer’s work with the World Soundscape Project in the 70s represent an attempt to interpret contemporary environments through musical and auditory...

  16. Lumbar canal stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazanec, D J; Drucker, Y; Segal, A M

    1997-04-01

    Lumbar canal stenosis is an increasingly recognized condition in patients more than 65 years of age. The clinical syndrome is dominated by neurogenic claudication. The natural history of the Condition is not yet well described. Long-term results of surgical therapy are frequently disappointing, and reoperation is required in more than 10% of patients. Nonoperative treatment options include physical therapy exercise programs, calcitonin, analgesics, and epidural steroid injections. A clinical pathway for management of symptomatic stenosis, emphasizing an initial nonoperative approach, is suggested.

  17. Auditory-motor learning influences auditory memory for music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel M; Palmer, Caroline

    2012-05-01

    In two experiments, we investigated how auditory-motor learning influences performers' memory for music. Skilled pianists learned novel melodies in four conditions: auditory only (listening), motor only (performing without sound), strongly coupled auditory-motor (normal performance), and weakly coupled auditory-motor (performing along with auditory recordings). Pianists' recognition of the learned melodies was better following auditory-only or auditory-motor (weakly coupled and strongly coupled) learning than following motor-only learning, and better following strongly coupled auditory-motor learning than following auditory-only learning. Auditory and motor imagery abilities modulated the learning effects: Pianists with high auditory imagery scores had better recognition following motor-only learning, suggesting that auditory imagery compensated for missing auditory feedback at the learning stage. Experiment 2 replicated the findings of Experiment 1 with melodies that contained greater variation in acoustic features. Melodies that were slower and less variable in tempo and intensity were remembered better following weakly coupled auditory-motor learning. These findings suggest that motor learning can aid performers' auditory recognition of music beyond auditory learning alone, and that motor learning is influenced by individual abilities in mental imagery and by variation in acoustic features.

  18. Nonsurgical Endodontic Retreatment of Maxillary Second Molar with Two Palatal Root Canals: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Eskandarinezhad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Successful endodontic treatment requires thorough knowledge regarding each root canal system of any tooth and probability of extra canals should be considered. Second maxillary molar with two palatal root canals is not frequent and its incidence reported in literatures is about 0.4–2%. The present case report describes non-surgical retreatment of maxillary second molar with two palatal root canals. Radiographic interpretation is difficult in this region; so, very careful examination of pulpal space and using supportive devices such as loupe and operating microscope is recommended to discover any unusual anatomic features like extra canals.

  19. Spinal canal stenosis; Spinalkanalstenose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papanagiotou, P.; Boutchakova, M. [Klinikum Bremen-Mitte/Bremen-Ost, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Bremen (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of the spinal canal by a combination of bone and soft tissues, which can lead to mechanical compression of spinal nerve roots or the dural sac. The lumbal spinal compression of these nerve roots can be symptomatic, resulting in weakness, reflex alterations, gait disturbances, bowel or bladder dysfunction, motor and sensory changes, radicular pain or atypical leg pain and neurogenic claudication. The anatomical presence of spinal canal stenosis is confirmed radiologically with computerized tomography, myelography or magnetic resonance imaging and play a decisive role in optimal patient-oriented therapy decision-making. (orig.) [German] Die Spinalkanalstenose ist eine umschriebene, knoechern-ligamentaer bedingte Einengung des Spinalkanals, die zur Kompression der Nervenwurzeln oder des Duralsacks fuehren kann. Die lumbale Spinalkanalstenose manifestiert sich klinisch als Komplex aus Rueckenschmerzen sowie sensiblen und motorischen neurologischen Ausfaellen, die in der Regel belastungsabhaengig sind (Claudicatio spinalis). Die bildgebende Diagnostik mittels Magnetresonanztomographie, Computertomographie und Myelographie spielt eine entscheidende Rolle bei der optimalen patientenbezogenen Therapieentscheidung. (orig.)

  20. Complete atrioventricular canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limongelli Giuseppe

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Complete atrioventricular canal (CAVC, also referred to as complete atrioventricular septal defect, is characterised by an ostium primum atrial septal defect, a common atrioventricular valve and a variable deficiency of the ventricular septum inflow. CAVC is an uncommon congenital heart disease, accounting for about 3% of cardiac malformations. Atrioventricular canal occurs in two out of every 10,000 live births. Both sexes are equally affected and a striking association with Down syndrome was found. Depending on the morphology of the superior leaflet of the common atrioventricular valve, 3 types of CAVC have been delineated (type A, B and C, according to Rastelli's classification. CAVC results in a significant interatrial and interventricular systemic-to-pulmonary shunt, thus inducing right ventricular pressure and volume overload and pulmonary hypertension. It becomes symptomatic in infancy due to congestive heart failure and failure to thrive. Diagnosis of CAVC might be suspected from electrocardiographic and chest X-ray findings. Echocardiography confirms it and gives anatomical details. Over time, pulmonary hypertension becomes irreversible, thus precluding the surgical therapy. This is the reason why cardiac catheterisation is not mandatory in infants (less than 6 months but is indicated in older patients if irreversible pulmonary hypertension is suspected. Medical treatment (digitalis, diuretics, vasodilators plays a role only as a bridge toward surgery, usually performed between the 3rd and 6th month of life.

  1. Using Auditory Steady-State Responses for Measuring Hearing Protector Attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentin, Olivier; John, Sasha M.; Laville, Frédéric

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Present methods of measuring the attenuation of hearing protection devices (HPDs) have limitations. Objective measurements such as field microphone in real-ear do not assess bone-conducted sound. Psychophysical measurements such as real-ear attenuation at threshold (REAT) are biased due to the low frequency masking effects from test subjects’ physiological noise and the variability of measurements based on subjective responses. An auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs) procedure is explored as a technique which might overcome these limitations. Subjects and Methods: Pure tone stimuli (500 and 1000 Hz), amplitude modulated at 40 Hz, are presented to 10 normal-hearing adults through headphones at three levels in 10 dB steps. Two conditions were assessed: unoccluded ear canal and occluded ear canal. ASSR amplitude data as a function of the stimulation level are linearized using least-square regressions. The “physiological attenuation” is then calculated as the average difference between the two measurements. The technical feasibility of measuring earplug attenuation is demonstrated for the group average attenuation across subjects. Results: No significant statistical difference is found between the average REAT attenuation and the average ASSR-based attenuation. Conclusion: Feasibility is not yet demonstrated for individual subjects since differences between the estimates occurred for some subjects. PMID:28164933

  2. Using Auditory Steady-State Responses for Measuring Hearing Protector Attenuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Valentin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Present methods of measuring the attenuation of hearing protection devices (HPDs have limitations. Objective measurements such as field microphone in real-ear do not assess bone-conducted sound. Psychophysical measurements such as real-ear attenuation at threshold (REAT are biased due to the low frequency masking effects from test subjects’ physiological noise and the variability of measurements based on subjective responses. An auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs procedure is explored as a technique which might overcome these limitations. Subjects and Methods: Pure tone stimuli (500 and 1000 Hz, amplitude modulated at 40 Hz, are presented to 10 normal-hearing adults through headphones at three levels in 10 dB steps. Two conditions were assessed: unoccluded ear canal and occluded ear canal. ASSR amplitude data as a function of the stimulation level are linearized using least-square regressions. The “physiological attenuation” is then calculated as the average difference between the two measurements. The technical feasibility of measuring earplug attenuation is demonstrated for the group average attenuation across subjects. Results: No significant statistical difference is found between the average REAT attenuation and the average ASSR-based attenuation. Conclusion: Feasibility is not yet demonstrated for individual subjects since differences between the estimates occurred for some subjects.

  3. Reconstructing speech from human auditory cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian N Pasley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available How the human auditory system extracts perceptually relevant acoustic features of speech is unknown. To address this question, we used intracranial recordings from nonprimary auditory cortex in the human superior temporal gyrus to determine what acoustic information in speech sounds can be reconstructed from population neural activity. We found that slow and intermediate temporal fluctuations, such as those corresponding to syllable rate, were accurately reconstructed using a linear model based on the auditory spectrogram. However, reconstruction of fast temporal fluctuations, such as syllable onsets and offsets, required a nonlinear sound representation based on temporal modulation energy. Reconstruction accuracy was highest within the range of spectro-temporal fluctuations that have been found to be critical for speech intelligibility. The decoded speech representations allowed readout and identification of individual words directly from brain activity during single trial sound presentations. These findings reveal neural encoding mechanisms of speech acoustic parameters in higher order human auditory cortex.

  4. The shape of the human lumbar vertebral canal A forma do canal vertebral lombar humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Zarzur

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available Literature on the anatomy of the human vertebral column characterizes the shape of the lumbar vertebral canal as triangular. The purpose of the present study was to determine the precise shape of the lumbar vertebral canal. Ten lumbar vertebral columns of adult male cadavers were dissected. Two transverse sections were performed in the third lumbar vertebra. One section was performed at the level of the lower border of the ligamenta flava, and the other section was performed at the level of the pedicles. The shape of the lumbar vertebral canal at the level of the pedicles tends to be oval or circular, whereas the shape of the lumbar vertebral canal at the level of the lower border of the ligamenta flava is triangular. Thus, the shape of the human lumbar vertebral canal is not exclusively triangular, as reported in the literature. It is related to the level of the transversal section performed on the lumbar vertebra. This finding should be taken into consideration among factors involved in the spread of solutions introduced into the epidural space.A literatura sobre a anatomia da coluna vertebral descreve como sendo triangular o formato do canal vertebral na região lombar. O objetivo deste estudo é determinar a real forma do canal da coluna vertebral lombar.Dez colunas vertebrais de cadáveres de homens adultos foram dissecadas. Dois cortes transversais foram executados na terceira vértebra lombar. Um corte foi feito no nível das bordas inferiores de dois ligamentos amarelos vizinhos e o outro corte foi transversal, no nível dos pedículos. A forma do canal vertebral variou: no nível dos pedículos ela tende a ser oval ou circular e junto às bordas inferiores dos ligamentos amarelos passa a ser triangular. Portanto, a forma do canal vertebral lombar não é somente triangular; ela depende do nível em que se faz o corte transversal da vértebra. Estes achados devem ser levados em consideração entre os fatores envolvidos na difusão das

  5. Auditory Integration Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Jafari

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Auditory integration training (AIT is a hearing enhancement training process for sensory input anomalies found in individuals with autism, attention deficit hyperactive disorder, dyslexia, hyperactivity, learning disability, language impairments, pervasive developmental disorder, central auditory processing disorder, attention deficit disorder, depressin, and hyperacute hearing. AIT, recently introduced in the United States, and has received much notice of late following the release of The Sound of a Moracle, by Annabel Stehli. In her book, Mrs. Stehli describes before and after auditory integration training experiences with her daughter, who was diagnosed at age four as having autism.

  6. Review: Auditory Integration Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Ja'fari

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Auditory integration training (AIT is a hearing enhancement training process for sensory input anomalies found in individuals with autism, attention deficit hyperactive disorder, dyslexia, hyperactivity, learning disability, language impairments, pervasive developmental disorder, central auditory processing disorder, attention deficit disorder, depression, and hyper acute hearing. AIT, recently introduced in the United States, and has received much notice of late following the release of the sound of a miracle, by Annabel Stehli. In her book, Mrs. Stehli describes before and after auditory integration training experiences with her daughter, who was diagnosed at age four as having autism.

  7. Enhanced auditory temporal gap detection in listeners with musical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Srikanta K; Panda, Manas R; Herbert, Carolyn

    2014-08-01

    Many features of auditory perception are positively altered in musicians. Traditionally auditory mechanisms in musicians are investigated using the Western-classical musician model. The objective of the present study was to adopt an alternative model-Indian-classical music-to further investigate auditory temporal processing in musicians. This study presents that musicians have significantly lower across-channel gap detection thresholds compared to nonmusicians. Use of the South Indian musician model provides an increased external validity for the prediction, from studies on Western-classical musicians, that auditory temporal coding is enhanced in musicians.

  8. Management of middle mesial canal in mandibular second molar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J V Karunakaran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of endodontic therapy is to achieve a three-dimensional obturation of the root canal space after adequate preparation of the canal space to remove the tissue debris, microorganisms, and their byproducts. Anatomical variations have frequently been encountered in endodontic practice and have to be adequately managed by the clinician. Missed roots and canals are a major reason for failure of therapy. Technological advances have given the clinician ample opportunity to identify and treat these aberrations successfully. The present report describes a left mandibular second permanent molar requiring root canal treatment, found to have three separate canals in the mesial root. This case demonstrates a rare anatomical configuration and emphasizes the need for the clinician to be aware of and look out for such variations and use adequate diagnostic methodologies prior to and during therapy to detect such variations. The possibility of additional canals, whenever in doubt, should be explored with the assistance of technologies such as those of magnification and illumination and various diagnostic aids. Operator experience has also shown to be a key factor in negotiation and management of these aberrant canal configurations.

  9. Functional Mapping of the Human Auditory Cortex: fMRI Investigation of a Patient with Auditory Agnosia from Trauma to the Inferior Colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliva, Oren; Bestelmeyer, Patricia E G; Hall, Michelle; Bultitude, Janet H; Koller, Kristin; Rafal, Robert D

    2015-09-01

    To use functional magnetic resonance imaging to map the auditory cortical fields that are activated, or nonreactive, to sounds in patient M.L., who has auditory agnosia caused by trauma to the inferior colliculi. The patient cannot recognize speech or environmental sounds. Her discrimination is greatly facilitated by context and visibility of the speaker's facial movements, and under forced-choice testing. Her auditory temporal resolution is severely compromised. Her discrimination is more impaired for words differing in voice onset time than place of articulation. Words presented to her right ear are extinguished with dichotic presentation; auditory stimuli in the right hemifield are mislocalized to the left. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine cortical activations to different categories of meaningful sounds embedded in a block design. Sounds activated the caudal sub-area of M.L.'s primary auditory cortex (hA1) bilaterally and her right posterior superior temporal gyrus (auditory dorsal stream), but not the rostral sub-area (hR) of her primary auditory cortex or the anterior superior temporal gyrus in either hemisphere (auditory ventral stream). Auditory agnosia reflects dysfunction of the auditory ventral stream. The ventral and dorsal auditory streams are already segregated as early as the primary auditory cortex, with the ventral stream projecting from hR and the dorsal stream from hA1. M.L.'s leftward localization bias, preserved audiovisual integration, and phoneme perception are explained by preserved processing in her right auditory dorsal stream.

  10. Conceptual priming for realistic auditory scenes and for auditory words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Aline; Aramaki, Mitsuko; Besson, Mireille

    2014-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted using both behavioral and Event-Related brain Potentials methods to examine conceptual priming effects for realistic auditory scenes and for auditory words. Prime and target sounds were presented in four stimulus combinations: Sound-Sound, Word-Sound, Sound-Word and Word-Word. Within each combination, targets were conceptually related to the prime, unrelated or ambiguous. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to judge whether the primes and targets fit together (explicit task) and in Experiment 2 they had to decide whether the target was typical or ambiguous (implicit task). In both experiments and in the four stimulus combinations, reaction times and/or error rates were longer/higher and the N400 component was larger to ambiguous targets than to conceptually related targets, thereby pointing to a common conceptual system for processing auditory scenes and linguistic stimuli in both explicit and implicit tasks. However, fine-grained analyses also revealed some differences between experiments and conditions in scalp topography and duration of the priming effects possibly reflecting differences in the integration of perceptual and cognitive attributes of linguistic and nonlinguistic sounds. These results have clear implications for the building-up of virtual environments that need to convey meaning without words. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Configuration and corticalization of the mandibular bifid canal in a Taiwanese adult population: a computed tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, E-Chin; Fu, Earl; Fu, Martin Ming-Jen; Peng, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    The configuration and degree of corticalization of bifid mandibular canals were examined using medical computed tomography (CT) images from 170 hemimandibles obtained from 308 Taiwanese adults. The configurations of the bifid canals were assessed according to their anatomical position in relation to the ramus, molars, premolars, and mental foramen; their course (anterior/posterior or superior/inferior); the presence or absence of confluence with the main mandibular canal; and the presence or absence of penetration through the mandible to form an accessory foramen. The percentage of the canal length that was corticalized was measured. Two different classifications of bifid canals were also briefly summarized and compared. When bifid canals are present (41.2% of patients; 27.6% of hemimandibles), the bifid canals were primarily located in the ramus and retromolar regions (67.7%) running anteriorly (95.9%) and superiorly (95.9%) without confluence with the main mandibular canal (91.1%). Up to 16.5% of bifid canals form accessory foramina on the cortical surface of the mandible. Approximately 78% of the bifid canals have varied degrees of corticalization around the bifid canals. The configuration and course of 170 mandibular bifid canals were evaluated with CT images. The bifid canals were primarily located in the ramus and retromolar regions; however, 32.4% of the bifid canals were located in potential positions for dental implant placement. Most of the bifid canals ran anteriorly superior to the main mandibular canal, did not rejoin with the main mandibular canal, and diminished within the mandibular body. Approximately half of the bifid canals (45%) were completely corticated.

  12. Spatial Hearing with Incongruent Visual or Auditory Room Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Carvajal, Juan C.; Cubick, Jens; Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    2016-11-01

    In day-to-day life, humans usually perceive the location of sound sources as outside their heads. This externalized auditory spatial perception can be reproduced through headphones by recreating the sound pressure generated by the source at the listener’s eardrums. This requires the acoustical features of the recording environment and listener’s anatomy to be recorded at the listener’s ear canals. Although the resulting auditory images can be indistinguishable from real-world sources, their externalization may be less robust when the playback and recording environments differ. Here we tested whether a mismatch between playback and recording room reduces perceived distance, azimuthal direction, and compactness of the auditory image, and whether this is mostly due to incongruent auditory cues or to expectations generated from the visual impression of the room. Perceived distance ratings decreased significantly when collected in a more reverberant environment than the recording room, whereas azimuthal direction and compactness remained room independent. Moreover, modifying visual room-related cues had no effect on these three attributes, while incongruent auditory room-related cues between the recording and playback room did affect distance perception. Consequently, the external perception of virtual sounds depends on the degree of congruency between the acoustical features of the environment and the stimuli.

  13. Effects of otitis on hearing in dogs characterised by brainstem auditory evoked response testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eger, C E; Lindsay, P

    1997-09-01

    Hearing function was measured in normal dogs and in dogs with otitis using brainstem auditory evoked response testing. Data were obtained from 86 normal ears and from 105 ears with otitis, categorised into four degrees of severity. The data were analysed to illustrate the differences between the hearing function in the normal and abnormal ears and to estimate the degree of impairment associated with differing degrees of pathology. While severe hearing loss seemed to be present in the dogs with more severe otitis, only two individuals were identified as being totally deaf in the affected ears and no dogs were identified in which the cleaning and examination processes had caused damage to hearing function. Cleaning the ear canal produced measurable improvements in hearing in several dogs, indicating the profound effect of physical obstruction of the external ear canal by debris. It is concluded that most dogs with chronic otitis externa are not totally deaf and that the hearing impairment that does occur has the characteristics of conductive hearing loss.

  14. Long Latency Auditory Evoked Potentials during Meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telles, Shirley; Deepeshwar, Singh; Naveen, Kalkuni Visweswaraiah; Pailoor, Subramanya

    2015-10-01

    The auditory sensory pathway has been studied in meditators, using midlatency and short latency auditory evoked potentials. The present study evaluated long latency auditory evoked potentials (LLAEPs) during meditation. Sixty male participants, aged between 18 and 31 years (group mean±SD, 20.5±3.8 years), were assessed in 4 mental states based on descriptions in the traditional texts. They were (a) random thinking, (b) nonmeditative focusing, (c) meditative focusing, and (d) meditation. The order of the sessions was randomly assigned. The LLAEP components studied were P1 (40-60 ms), N1 (75-115 ms), P2 (120-180 ms), and N2 (180-280 ms). For each component, the peak amplitude and peak latency were measured from the prestimulus baseline. There was significant decrease in the peak latency of the P2 component during and after meditation (Pmeditation facilitates the processing of information in the auditory association cortex, whereas the number of neurons recruited was smaller in random thinking and non-meditative focused thinking, at the level of the secondary auditory cortex, auditory association cortex and anterior cingulate cortex. © EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ECNS) 2014.

  15. Antibacterial activity of different root canal sealers against Enterococcus faecalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trovati, Federico; Ceci, Matteo; Colombo, Marco; Pietrocola, Giampiero

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to compare in vitro the antimicrobial activity of different root canal sealers against Enterococcus faecalis, prior and subsequent to setting. Material and Methods Agar diffusion test (ADT) was used for evaluating the antibacterial activity of non-set sealer while the direct contact test (DCT) was used for after setting. Results ADT: Except for TotalFill BC Sealer all the others sealers tested showed antibacterial activity. BioRoot™RCS, MTA Fillapex and Sealapex Root Canal Sealer showed the lowest antibacterial activity, a significant increase in antibacterial effect for both Pulp Canal Sealer™ and AH plus sealers were found. Significantly higher were the mean diameters of the bacterial inhibition zone by both EasySeal or N2 sealers. DCT: AH plus and Sealapex Root Canal Sealer doesn’t show any bactericidal effect after 6 min of contact. After 15 and 60 min of contact a significant increment for AH plus and for Sealapex Root Canal Sealer of the bactericidal effect was found. Significantly much higher was the antibacterial effect of Sealapex Root Canal Sealer compare to that observed for AH plus. BioRootTMRCS, MTA Fillapex, Pulp Canal Sealer™ and N2 showed at least means of the number of colonies formed in milliliter after 6 min of contact. Except for N2, a significant increase in bactericidal effect after 15 and 60 min for the other compared sealers (BioRootTMRCS, MTA Fillapex and Pulp Canal Sealer™). Conclusions For every contact times considered, both TotalFill BC Sealer and EasySeal were bactericidal against E. faecalis and killed all bacteria. Key words:Agar diffusion test, antibacterial activity, direct contact test, Enterococcus faecalis, root canal sealer. PMID:28638549

  16. Aktiverende Undervisning i auditorier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parus, Judith

    Workshop om erfaringer og brug af aktiverende metoder i undervisning i auditorier og på store hold. Hvilke metoder har fungeret godt og hvilke dårligt ? Hvilke overvejelser skal man gøre sig.......Workshop om erfaringer og brug af aktiverende metoder i undervisning i auditorier og på store hold. Hvilke metoder har fungeret godt og hvilke dårligt ? Hvilke overvejelser skal man gøre sig....

  17. Endodontic retreatment of a mandibular first molar with five root canal systems: an important clinical lesson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Muhammad; Umer, Fahad

    2014-03-20

    The objective of root canal treatment is to perform complete debridement of the root canals and subsequent obturation to facilitate healing of periapical pathosis. However, this process becomes complicated with the presence of additional root canal systems. The purpose of the present article is to report successful non-surgical retreatment of a mandibular first molar with five canals. This case report discusses the clinical management of a previously root filled mandibular firstmolar with two missed canal systems; distolingual and an additional mesial canal known as the middle mesial canal. The post-treatment radiographs show successful obturation to length in all canals. The middle mesial canal was found to be associated with mesiolingual canal and categorised as confluent. The configuration of canals in the mesial root was type XV, based on the classification given by Sert and Bayirli. This case report highlights the importance of knowledge and its application in the management of abnormal anatomic variants which play a crucial role in the success of endodontic retreatment.

  18. Auditory Spatial Layout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wightman, Frederic L.; Jenison, Rick

    1995-01-01

    All auditory sensory information is packaged in a pair of acoustical pressure waveforms, one at each ear. While there is obvious structure in these waveforms, that structure (temporal and spectral patterns) bears no simple relationship to the structure of the environmental objects that produced them. The properties of auditory objects and their layout in space must be derived completely from higher level processing of the peripheral input. This chapter begins with a discussion of the peculiarities of acoustical stimuli and how they are received by the human auditory system. A distinction is made between the ambient sound field and the effective stimulus to differentiate the perceptual distinctions among various simple classes of sound sources (ambient field) from the known perceptual consequences of the linear transformations of the sound wave from source to receiver (effective stimulus). Next, the definition of an auditory object is dealt with, specifically the question of how the various components of a sound stream become segregated into distinct auditory objects. The remainder of the chapter focuses on issues related to the spatial layout of auditory objects, both stationary and moving.

  19. [Verbal auditory agnosia: SPECT study of the brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, C; Casado, I; Fernández-Rojas, J; Garín, J; Rayo, J I

    1995-01-01

    Verbal auditory agnosia are rare in clinical practice. Clinically, it characterized by impairment of comprehension and repetition of speech but reading, writing, and spontaneous speech are preserved. So it is distinguished from generalized auditory agnosia by the preserved ability to recognize non verbal sounds. We present the clinical picture of a forty-years-old, right handed woman who developed verbal auditory agnosic after an bilateral temporal ischemic infarcts due to atrial fibrillation by dilated cardiomyopathie. Neurophysiological studies by pure tone threshold audiometry: brainstem auditory evoked potentials and cortical auditory evoked potentials showed sparing of peripheral hearing and intact auditory pathway in brainstem but impaired cortical responses. Cranial CT-SCAN revealed two large hypodenses area involving both cortico-subcortical temporal lobes. Cerebral SPECT using 99mTc-HMPAO as radiotracer showed hypoperfusion just posterior in both frontal lobes nect to Roland's fissure and at level of bitemporal lobes just anterior to Sylvian's fissure.

  20. Hood Canal Steelhead - Hood Canal Steelhead Supplementation Experiment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hood Canal Steelhead Project is a 17-year before-after-control-impact experiment that tests the effects of supplementation on natural steelhead populations in...

  1. Mesiodens within the nasopalatine canal: an exceptional entity

    OpenAIRE

    Georges Aoun; Ibrahim Nasseh

    2016-01-01

    A supernumerary tooth is one that is supplementary to the normal dentition. It can be found anywhere at the dental arch. A mesiodens is a supernumerary tooth located between the two maxillary central incisors usually palatally or within the alveolar process. Less frequently, the mesiodens is in relation with the nasal floor and the nasopalatine canal walls. This paper presents a very rare case of an impacted inverted mesiodens located inside the nasopalatine canal and found incidentally with ...

  2. Biomedical Simulation Models of Human Auditory Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicak, Mehmet M. A.

    2012-01-01

    Detailed acoustic engineering models that explore noise propagation mechanisms associated with noise attenuation and transmission paths created when using hearing protectors such as earplugs and headsets in high noise environments. Biomedical finite element (FE) models are developed based on volume Computed Tomography scan data which provides explicit external ear, ear canal, middle ear ossicular bones and cochlea geometry. Results from these studies have enabled a greater understanding of hearing protector to flesh dynamics as well as prioritizing noise propagation mechanisms. Prioritization of noise mechanisms can form an essential framework for exploration of new design principles and methods in both earplug and earcup applications. These models are currently being used in development of a novel hearing protection evaluation system that can provide experimentally correlated psychoacoustic noise attenuation. Moreover, these FE models can be used to simulate the effects of blast related impulse noise on human auditory mechanisms and brain tissue.

  3. Across frequency processes involved in auditory detection of coloration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholz, Jörg; Kerketsos, P

    2008-01-01

    filterbank was designed to approximate auditory filter-shapes measured by Oxenham and Shera [JARO, 2003, 541-554], derived from forward masking data. The results of the present study demonstrate that a “purely” spectrum-based model approach can successfully describe auditory coloration detection even at high...... detection are investigated. Coloration detection thresholds were therefore measured as a function of reflection delay and stimulus bandwidth. In order to investigate the involved auditory mechanisms, an auditory model was employed that was conceptually similar to the peripheral weighting model [Yost, JASA...

  4. Auditory Alterations in Children Infected by Human Immunodeficiency Virus Verified Through Auditory Processing Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Ana Carla Leite; Alfaya, Lívia Marangoni; Gonçales, Alina Sanches; Frizzo, Ana Claudia Figueiredo; Isaac, Myriam de Lima

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The auditory system of HIV-positive children may have deficits at various levels, such as the high incidence of problems in the middle ear that can cause hearing loss. Objective The objective of this study is to characterize the development of children infected by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in the Simplified Auditory Processing Test (SAPT) and the Staggered Spondaic Word Test. Methods We performed behavioral tests composed of the Simplified Auditory Processing Test and the Portuguese version of the Staggered Spondaic Word Test (SSW). The participants were 15 children infected by HIV, all using antiretroviral medication. Results The children had abnormal auditory processing verified by Simplified Auditory Processing Test and the Portuguese version of SSW. In the Simplified Auditory Processing Test, 60% of the children presented hearing impairment. In the SAPT, the memory test for verbal sounds showed more errors (53.33%); whereas in SSW, 86.67% of the children showed deficiencies indicating deficit in figure-ground, attention, and memory auditory skills. Furthermore, there are more errors in conditions of background noise in both age groups, where most errors were in the left ear in the Group of 8-year-olds, with similar results for the group aged 9 years. Conclusion The high incidence of hearing loss in children with HIV and comorbidity with several biological and environmental factors indicate the need for: 1) familiar and professional awareness of the impact on auditory alteration on the developing and learning of the children with HIV, and 2) access to educational plans and follow-up with multidisciplinary teams as early as possible to minimize the damage caused by auditory deficits.

  5. Research progress of antagonistic interactions among root canal irrigations disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen QU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Root canal therapy is the most effective way to treat various pulposis and periapical disease. Simple mechanical apparatus can not clean root canal thoroughly, but may affect tight filling instead. It can achieve a satisfactory cleansing effect only when it is combined with a chemical solution. Irrigation fluid for root canal should possess the properties of tissue dissolution, antimicrobial, lubrication, and removal of smear layer. So far, no solution is able to fulfill all these functions. Therefore, a combined use of multiple irrigation solutions is suggested. It can not only achieve good effect in cleaning and disinfection, also it can lower the concentration of different solutions, thus reducing the side effects. Nevertheless, some experiments proved that antagonism existed among the chemicals used for irrigations. The purpose of present article is to review the antagonistic effect among the chemicals used for irrigation when they are used together for root canal treatment.

  6. Maxillary First Molars with Six Canals Diagnosed with the Aid of Cone Beam Computed Tomography: A Report of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamta Kaushik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The case reports present the endodontic management of two maxillary first molars with six canals. The diagnosis of morphology of multiple canal systems was identified under magnification of the dental operating microscope and was confirmed with the help of cone beam computed tomography. This paper discusses the variations in the canal morphology and the use of the latest adjuncts in successfully diagnosing and treating unusual canal anatomy.

  7. Neuronal hyperplasia in the anal canal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, C; Schrøder, H D

    1990-01-01

    In a consecutive series of minor surgical specimens from the anal canal, neuronal hyperplasia was found in nine of 56 haemorrhoidectomy specimens and in four of 23 fibrous polyps. In an additional series of 14 resections of the anal canal, neuronal hyperplasia was present in six cases, of which...... five showed haemorrhoids. In all cases, neuronal hyperplasia was located in the submucosa beneath squamous epithelium and extended over an area from 5 to 12 mm. Immunohistochemically, the foci of hyperplasia were found to consist of both neuronal and Schwann cell components. Staining for vasoactive...... intestinal peptide, neuropeptide Y and calcitonin gene related peptide, did not demonstrate any increased terminal density. It is suggested that anal neuronal hyperplasia in these cases represents an acquired lesion due to local mechanical influence....

  8. Facilitated auditory detection for speech sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine eSignoret

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available If it is well known that knowledge facilitates higher cognitive functions, such as visual and auditory word recognition, little is known about the influence of knowledge on detection, particularly in the auditory modality. Our study tested the influence of phonological and lexical knowledge on auditory detection. Words, pseudo words and complex non phonological sounds, energetically matched as closely as possible, were presented at a range of presentation levels from sub threshold to clearly audible. The participants performed a detection task (Experiments 1 and 2 that was followed by a two alternative forced choice recognition task in Experiment 2. The results of this second task in Experiment 2 suggest a correct recognition of words in the absence of detection with a subjective threshold approach. In the detection task of both experiments, phonological stimuli (words and pseudo words were better detected than non phonological stimuli (complex sounds, presented close to the auditory threshold. This finding suggests an advantage of speech for signal detection. An additional advantage of words over pseudo words was observed in Experiment 2, suggesting that lexical knowledge could also improve auditory detection when listeners had to recognize the stimulus in a subsequent task. Two simulations of detection performance performed on the sound signals confirmed that the advantage of speech over non speech processing could not be attributed to energetic differences in the stimuli.

  9. Morphology and ontogeny of multiple lateral-line canals in the rock prickleback, Xiphister mucosus (Cottiformes: Zoarcoidei: Stichaeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clardy, Todd R; Hilton, Eric J; Vogelbein, Wolfgang K

    2015-10-01

    The structure and ontogeny of lateral-line canals in the Rock Prickleback, Xiphister mucosus, were studied using cleared-and-stained specimens, and the distribution and morphology of neuromasts within lateral-line canals were examined using histology. X. mucosus has seven cephalic canals in a pattern that, aside from four branches of the infraorbital canals, is similar to that of most teleostean fishes. Unlike most other teleosts, however, X. mucosus features multiple trunk lateral-line canals. These include a short median posterior extension of the supratemporal canal and three paired, branching canals located on the dorsolateral, mediolateral, and ventrolateral surfaces. The ventrolateral canal (VLC) includes a loop across the ventral surface of the abdomen. All trunk canals, as well as the branches of the infraorbitals, are supported by small, dermal, ring-like ossifications that develop independently from scales. Trunk canals develop asynchronously with the mediodorsal and dorsolateral canals (DLC) developing earliest, followed by the VLC, and, finally, by the mediolateral canal (MLC). Only the mediodorsal and DLC connect to the cephalic sensory canals. Fractal analysis shows that the complexity of the trunk lateral-line canals stabilizes when all trunk canals develop and begin to branch. Histological sections show that neuromasts are present in all cephalic canals and in the DLC and MLC of the trunk. However, no neuromasts were identified in the VLC or its abdominal loop. The VLC cannot, therefore, directly function as a part of the mechanosensory system in X. mucosus. The evolution and functional role of multiple lateral-line canals are discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Integration of auditory and visual speech information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, M.; Smeele, P.M.T.; Kuhl, P.K.

    1998-01-01

    The integration of auditory and visual speech is observed when modes specify different places of articulation. Influences of auditory variation on integration were examined using consonant identifi-cation, plus quality and similarity ratings. Auditory identification predicted auditory-visual

  11. Long-term cytotoxic effects of contemporary root canal sealers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Joao Nogueira Leal da SILVA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of root canal sealers on the cytotoxicity of 3T3 fibroblasts during a period of 5 weeks. Material and Methods Fibroblasts (3T3, 1×105 cells per well were incubated with elutes of fresh specimens from eight root canal sealers (AH Plus, Epiphany, Endomethasone N, EndoREZ, MTA Fillapex, Pulp Canal Sealer EWT, RoekoSeal and Sealapex and with elutes of the same specimens for 5 succeeding weeks after immersing in simulated body fluid. The cytotoxicity of all root canal sealers was determined using the MTT assay. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's test. Results RoekoSeal was the only sealer that did not show any cytotoxic effects (p<0.05. All the other tested sealers exhibited severe toxicity initially (week 0. MTA Fillapex remained moderately cytotoxic after the end of experimental period. Toxicity of the other tested sealers decreased gradually over time. The evaluated root canal sealers presented varying degrees of cytotoxicity, mainly in fresh mode. Conclusions RoekoSeal had no cytotoxic effect both freshly mixed and in the other tested time points. MTA Fillapex was associated with significantly less cell viability when compared to the other tested root canal sealers.

  12. Anterior canal lithiasis: diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casani, Augusto Pietro; Cerchiai, Niccolò; Dallan, Iacopo; Sellari-Franceschini, Stefano

    2011-03-01

    To describe the clinical and oculographic features in patients with anterior semicircular canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and to determine the efficacy of a canalith repositioning procedure for its management. Case series with chart review of patients presenting positional vertigo and positional downbeating nystagmus during a 2-year period. Outpatients' tertiary referral center for balance disorders. Eighteen patients suffering from positional vertigo and presenting positional downbeating nystagmus were treated with a maneuver based on a modification of the procedure proposed by Crevits. disappearance of positional downbeating nystagmus. Positional downbeating nystagmus was elicited unilaterally with the Dix-Hallpike maneuver in 6 cases. In 4 patients, it was triggered by both left and right Dix-Hallpike tests. In 8 patients, the positional nystagmus was elicited by a straight head-hanging maneuver. The positional nystagmus was purely downbeating in 12 patients. In the remaining, a torsional component was detected. After the treatment, only 1 patient showed positional nystagmus at 30 days. In anterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, the presence of a positional downbeating nystagmus in response to positional tests is key for diagnosis. In a significant number of patients, the affected side may not be detected because of the inconstant presence of a torsional component. Treatment with a simplified maneuver based on Crevits's technique can be considered an effective method for the treatment of anterior canal lithiasis, especially when the affected side cannot be detected clearly.

  13. From ear to hand: the role of the auditory-motor loop in pointing to an auditory source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Olivier Boyer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the nature of the neural mechanisms involved in goal-directed movements tend to concentrate on the role of vision. We present here an attempt to address the mechanisms whereby an auditory input is transformed into a motor command. The spatial and temporal organization of hand movements were studied in normal human subjects as they pointed towards unseen auditory targets located in a horizontal plane in front of them. Positions and movements of the hand were measured by a six infrared camera tracking system. In one condition, we assessed the role of auditory information about target position in correcting the trajectory of the hand. To accomplish this, the duration of the target presentation was varied. In another condition, subjects received continuous auditory feedback of their hand movement while pointing to the auditory targets. Online auditory control of the direction of pointing movements was assessed by evaluating how subjects reacted to shifts in heard hand position. Localization errors were exacerbated by short duration of target presentation but not modified by auditory feedback of hand position. Long duration of target presentation gave rise to a higher level of accuracy and was accompanied by early automatic head orienting movements consistently related to target direction. These results highlight the efficiency of auditory feedback processing in online motor control and suggest that the auditory system takes advantages of dynamic changes of the acoustic cues due to changes in head orientation in order to process online motor control. How to design an informative acoustic feedback needs to be carefully studied to demonstrate that auditory feedback of the hand could assist the monitoring of movements directed at objects in auditory space.

  14. Modeling auditory evoked brainstem responses to transient stimuli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønne, Filip Munch; Dau, Torsten; Harte, James

    2012-01-01

    A quantitative model is presented that describes the formation of auditory brainstem responses (ABR) to tone pulses, clicks and rising chirps as a function of stimulation level. The model computes the convolution of the instantaneous discharge rates using the “humanized” nonlinear auditory-nerve ...

  15. Auditory sustained field responses to periodic noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keceli Sumru

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Auditory sustained responses have been recently suggested to reflect neural processing of speech sounds in the auditory cortex. As periodic fluctuations below the pitch range are important for speech perception, it is necessary to investigate how low frequency periodic sounds are processed in the human auditory cortex. Auditory sustained responses have been shown to be sensitive to temporal regularity but the relationship between the amplitudes of auditory evoked sustained responses and the repetitive rates of auditory inputs remains elusive. As the temporal and spectral features of sounds enhance different components of sustained responses, previous studies with click trains and vowel stimuli presented diverging results. In order to investigate the effect of repetition rate on cortical responses, we analyzed the auditory sustained fields evoked by periodic and aperiodic noises using magnetoencephalography. Results Sustained fields were elicited by white noise and repeating frozen noise stimuli with repetition rates of 5-, 10-, 50-, 200- and 500 Hz. The sustained field amplitudes were significantly larger for all the periodic stimuli than for white noise. Although the sustained field amplitudes showed a rising and falling pattern within the repetition rate range, the response amplitudes to 5 Hz repetition rate were significantly larger than to 500 Hz. Conclusions The enhanced sustained field responses to periodic noises show that cortical sensitivity to periodic sounds is maintained for a wide range of repetition rates. Persistence of periodicity sensitivity below the pitch range suggests that in addition to processing the fundamental frequency of voice, sustained field generators can also resolve low frequency temporal modulations in speech envelope.

  16. Auditory Perception of Statistically Blurred Sound Textures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McWalter, Richard Ian; MacDonald, Ewen; Dau, Torsten

    Sound textures have been identified as a category of sounds which are processed by the peripheral auditory system and captured with running timeaveraged statistics. Although sound textures are temporally homogeneous, they offer a listener with enough information to identify and differentiate...... sources. This experiment investigated the ability of the auditory system to identify statistically blurred sound textures and the perceptual relationship between sound textures. Identification performance of statistically blurred sound textures presented at a fixed blur increased over those presented...... as a gradual blur. The results suggests that the correct identification of sound textures is influenced by the preceding blurred stimulus. These findings draw parallels to the recognition of blurred images....

  17. Octave effect in auditory attention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tobias Borra; Huib Versnel; Chantal Kemner; A. John van Opstal; Raymond van Ee

    2013-01-01

    ... tones. Current auditory models explain this phenomenon by a simple bandpass attention filter. Here, we demonstrate that auditory attention involves multiple pass-bands around octave-related frequencies above and below the cued tone...

  18. Affective priming with auditory speech stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degner, J.

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments explored the applicability of auditory stimulus presentation in affective priming tasks. In Experiment 1, it was found that standard affective priming effects occur when prime and target words are presented simultaneously via headphones similar to a dichotic listening procedure. In

  19. Auditory pathology in cri-du-chat (5p-) syndrome: phenotypic evidence for auditory neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanepoel, D

    2007-10-01

    5p-(cri-du-chat syndrome) is a well-defined clinical entity presenting with phenotypic and cytogenetic variability. Despite recognition that abnormalities in audition are common, limited reports on auditory functioning in affected individuals are available. The current study presents a case illustrating the auditory functioning in a 22-month-old patient diagnosed with 5p- syndrome, karyotype 46,XX,del(5)(p13). Auditory neuropathy was diagnosed based on abnormal auditory evoked potentials with neural components suggesting severe to profound hearing loss in the presence of cochlear microphonic responses and behavioral reactions to sound at mild to moderate hearing levels. The current case and a review of available reports indicate that auditory neuropathy or neural dys-synchrony may be another phenotype of the condition possibly related to abnormal expression of the protein beta-catenin mapped to 5p. Implications are for routine and diagnostic specific assessments of auditory functioning and for employment of non-verbal communication methods in early intervention.

  20. Root canal filling using Resilon: a review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, D J

    2011-07-01

    Root canal treatment is achieved by chemo-mechanical debridement of the root canal system followed by filling. The filling material \\'entombs\\' residual bacteria and acts as a barrier which prevents the entrance of oral microorganisms and reinfection of the root canal system through microleakage. However, filling with contemporary root filling materials such as gutta-percha offers limited long-term resistance to microorganisms; as a result other materials such as Resilon have been investigated as alternatives. The aim of this review was to analyse the literature to consider whether Resilon is a suitable root canal filling material. A MEDLINE and Cochrane library search including various keyword searches identified several papers which investigated or discussed Resilon or RealSeal\\/Epiphany. Analysis of the literature demonstrated that the bulk of the literature is in vitro in nature, based largely on leakage-type studies, and demonstrates a wide variety of methodologies with conflicting findings; as a result meaningful conclusions are difficult. Within the limit of these in vitro studies Resilon appears to perform adequately in comparison to gutta-percha, however, as a result of the questionable merit of such studies, it cannot presently be considered an evidence-based alternative to the current gold standard gutta-percha. It is imperative that before Resilon is considered as a replacement material, a better understanding of the physical properties of the resin sealer and the reality of the adhesive \\'monoblock\\' are elucidated. The literature also demonstrates a paucity of quality long-term clinical outcome studies which will need to be addressed before firm conclusions can be reached.

  1. A comparison of the shaping ability of reciprocating NiTi instruments in simulated curved canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Sil Yoo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The study was to compare the shaping ability of Reciproc (VDW and WaveOne (Dentsply Maillefer instruments compared with ProTaper, Profile and hand instrument during the preparation of simulated root canals. Materials and Methods Five groups (n = 5 were established. Reciproc, WaveOne, ProTaper, Profile and K file (K-flexo file were used to prepare the resin simulated canals. A series of preoperative and postoperative images were taken by a microscope and superimposed in 2 different layers. The amount of resin removed from both the inner and the outer sides of the canal was measured to the level of 10 mm from the apical tip, with a 1 mm increment. Results The mean of resin removal from the inner canal wall was not different from the outer canal wall for Reciproc and WaveOne groups at apical third (1 - 3 mm level. There was no difference in the change of working length and maintenance of canal curvature. NiTi instruments are superior to stainless-steel K file in their shaping ability. Conclusions Within the limitation of this present study, Reciproc and WaveOne instruments maintained the original canal curvature in curved canals better than ProTaper and Profile, which tend to transport towards the outer canal wall of the curve in the apical part of the canal.

  2. Auditory comprehension: from the voice up to the single word level

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Anna Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Auditory comprehension, the ability to understand spoken language, consists of a number of different auditory processing skills. In the five studies presented in this thesis I investigated both intact and impaired auditory comprehension at different levels: voice versus phoneme perception, as well as single word auditory comprehension in terms of phonemic and semantic content. In the first study, using sounds from different continua of ‘male’-/pæ/ to ‘female’-/tæ/ and ‘male’...

  3. Revisiting the 'enigma' of musicians with dyslexia: auditory sequencing and speech abilities

    OpenAIRE

    Zuk, J.; Bishop-Liebler, P.; Ozernov-Palchik, O.; Moore, E.; Overy, K.; Welch, G.; Gaab, N.

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has suggested a link between musical training and auditory processing skills. Musicians have shown enhanced perception of auditory features critical to both music and speech, suggesting that this link extends beyond basic auditory processing. It remains unclear to what extent musicians who also have dyslexia show these specialized abilities, considering often-observed persistent deficits that coincide with reading impairments. The present study evaluated auditory sequencing ...

  4. Active Auditory Mechanics in Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, D.; Göpfert, M. C.

    2003-02-01

    Evidence is presented that hearing in some insects is an active process. Audition in mosquitoes is used for mate-detection and is supported by antennal receivers, whose sound-induced vibrations are transduced by Johnston's organs. Each of these sensory organs contains ca. 15,000 sensory neurons. As shown by mechanical analysis, a physiologically vulnerable mechanism is at work that nonlinearly enhances the sensitivity and frequency selectivity of antennal hearing. This process of amplification correlates with the electrical activity of the auditory mechanoreceptor units in Johnston's organ.

  5. Effects of Caffeine on Auditory Brainstem Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleheh Soleimanian

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Blocking of the adenosine receptor in central nervous system by caffeine can lead to increasing the level of neurotransmitters like glutamate. As the adenosine receptors are present in almost all brain areas like central auditory pathway, it seems caffeine can change conduction in this way. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of caffeine on latency and amplitude of auditory brainstem response(ABR.Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial study 43 normal 18-25 years old male students were participated. The subjects consumed 0, 2 and 3 mg/kg BW caffeine in three different sessions. Auditory brainstem responses were recorded before and 30 minute after caffeine consumption. The results were analyzed by Friedman and Wilcoxone test to assess the effects of caffeine on auditory brainstem response.Results: Compared to control group the latencies of waves III,V and I-V interpeak interval of the cases decreased significantly after 2 and 3mg/kg BW caffeine consumption. Wave I latency significantly decreased after 3mg/kg BW caffeine consumption(p<0.01. Conclusion: Increasing of the glutamate level resulted from the adenosine receptor blocking brings about changes in conduction in the central auditory pathway.

  6. Neurophysiological investigation of idiopathic acquired auditory-visual synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afra, Pegah; Anderson, Jeffrey; Funke, Michael; Johnson, Michael; Matsuo, Fumisuke; Constantino, Tawnya; Warner, Judith

    2012-01-01

    We present a case of acquired auditory-visual synesthesia and its neurophysiological investigation in a healthy 42-year-old woman. She started experiencing persistent positive and intermittent negative visual phenomena at age 37 followed by auditory-visual synesthesia. Her neurophysiological investigation included video-EEG, fMRI, and MEG. Auditory stimuli (700 Hz, 50 ms duration, 0.5 s ISI) were presented binaurally at 60 db above the hearing threshold in a dark room. The patient had bilateral symmetrical auditory-evoked neuromagnetic responses followed by an occipital-evoked field 16.3 ms later. The activation of occipital cortex following auditory stimuli may represent recruitment of existing cross-modal sensory pathways.

  7. Modification of sudden onset auditory ERP by involuntary attention to visual stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oray, Serkan; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Dawson, Michael E

    2002-03-01

    To investigate the cross-modal nature of the exogenous attention system, we studied how involuntary attention in the visual modality affects ERPs elicited by sudden onset of events in the auditory modality. Relatively loud auditory white noise bursts were presented to subjects with random and long inter-trial intervals. The noise bursts were either presented alone, or paired with a visual stimulus with a visual to auditory onset asynchrony of 120 ms. In a third condition, the visual stimuli were shown alone. All three conditions, auditory alone, visual alone, and paired visual/auditory, were randomly inter-mixed and presented with equal probabilities. Subjects were instructed to fixate on a point in front of them without task instructions concerning either the auditory or visual stimuli. ERPs were recorded from 28 scalp sites throughout every experimental session. Compared to ERPs in the auditory alone condition, pairing the auditory noise bursts with the visual stimulus reduced the amplitude of the auditory N100 component at Cz by 40% and the auditory P200/P300 component at Cz by 25%. No significant topographical change was observed in the scalp distributions of the N100 and P200/P300. Our results suggest that involuntary attention to visual stimuli suppresses early sensory (N100) as well as late cognitive (P200/P300) processing of sudden auditory events. The activation of the exogenous attention system by sudden auditory onset can be modified by involuntary visual attention in a cross-model, passive prepulse inhibition paradigm.

  8. Auditory capture of visual motion: effects on perception and discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCourt, Mark E; Leone, Lynnette M

    2016-09-28

    We asked whether the perceived direction of visual motion and contrast thresholds for motion discrimination are influenced by the concurrent motion of an auditory sound source. Visual motion stimuli were counterphasing Gabor patches, whose net motion energy was manipulated by adjusting the contrast of the leftward-moving and rightward-moving components. The presentation of these visual stimuli was paired with the simultaneous presentation of auditory stimuli, whose apparent motion in 3D auditory space (rightward, leftward, static, no sound) was manipulated using interaural time and intensity differences, and Doppler cues. In experiment 1, observers judged whether the Gabor visual stimulus appeared to move rightward or leftward. In experiment 2, contrast discrimination thresholds for detecting the interval containing unequal (rightward or leftward) visual motion energy were obtained under the same auditory conditions. Experiment 1 showed that the perceived direction of ambiguous visual motion is powerfully influenced by concurrent auditory motion, such that auditory motion 'captured' ambiguous visual motion. Experiment 2 showed that this interaction occurs at a sensory stage of processing as visual contrast discrimination thresholds (a criterion-free measure of sensitivity) were significantly elevated when paired with congruent auditory motion. These results suggest that auditory and visual motion signals are integrated and combined into a supramodal (audiovisual) representation of motion.

  9. Perceptual Plasticity for Auditory Object Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heald, Shannon L. M.; Van Hedger, Stephen C.; Nusbaum, Howard C.

    2017-01-01

    of perceptual categories that are thought to be highly stable. This framework suggests that the process of auditory recognition cannot be divorced from the short-term context in which an auditory object is presented. Implications for auditory category acquisition and extant models of auditory perception, both cognitive and neural, are discussed. PMID:28588524

  10. Perceptual Plasticity for Auditory Object Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon L. M. Heald

    2017-05-01

    draw upon examples of perceptual categories that are thought to be highly stable. This framework suggests that the process of auditory recognition cannot be divorced from the short-term context in which an auditory object is presented. Implications for auditory category acquisition and extant models of auditory perception, both cognitive and neural, are discussed.

  11. Reduced auditory segmentation potentials in first-episode schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffman, Brian A; Haigh, Sarah M; Murphy, Timothy K; Leiter-Mcbeth, Justin; Salisbury, Dean F

    2017-10-22

    Auditory scene analysis (ASA) dysfunction is likely an important component of the symptomatology of schizophrenia. Auditory object segmentation, the grouping of sequential acoustic elements into temporally-distinct auditory objects, can be assessed with electroencephalography through measurement of the auditory segmentation potential (ASP). Further, N2 responses to the initial and final elements of auditory objects are enhanced relative to medial elements, which may indicate auditory object edge detection (initiation and termination). Both ASP and N2 modulation are impaired in long-term schizophrenia. To determine whether these deficits are present early in disease course, we compared ASP and N2 modulation between individuals at their first episode of psychosis within the schizophrenia spectrum (FE, N=20) and matched healthy controls (N=24). The ASP was reduced by >40% in FE; however, N2 modulation was not statistically different from HC. This suggests that auditory segmentation (ASP) deficits exist at this early stage of schizophrenia, but auditory edge detection (N2 modulation) is relatively intact. In a subset of subjects for whom structural MRIs were available (N=14 per group), ASP sources were localized to midcingulate cortex (MCC) and temporal auditory cortex. Neurophysiological activity in FE was reduced in MCC, an area linked to aberrant perceptual organization, negative symptoms, and cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia, but not temporal auditory cortex. This study supports the validity of the ASP for measurement of auditory object segmentation and suggests that the ASP may be useful as an early index of schizophrenia-related MCC dysfunction. Further, ASP deficits may serve as a viable biomarker of disease presence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Auditory Midbrain Implant: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hubert H.; Lenarz, Minoo; Lenarz, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The auditory midbrain implant (AMI) is a new hearing prosthesis designed for stimulation of the inferior colliculus in deaf patients who cannot sufficiently benefit from cochlear implants. The authors have begun clinical trials in which five patients have been implanted with a single shank AMI array (20 electrodes). The goal of this review is to summarize the development and research that has led to the translation of the AMI from a concept into the first patients. This study presents the rationale and design concept for the AMI as well a summary of the animal safety and feasibility studies that were required for clinical approval. The authors also present the initial surgical, psychophysical, and speech results from the first three implanted patients. Overall, the results have been encouraging in terms of the safety and functionality of the implant. All patients obtain improvements in hearing capabilities on a daily basis. However, performance varies dramatically across patients depending on the implant location within the midbrain with the best performer still not able to achieve open set speech perception without lip-reading cues. Stimulation of the auditory midbrain provides a wide range of level, spectral, and temporal cues, all of which are important for speech understanding, but they do not appear to sufficiently fuse together to enable open set speech perception with the currently used stimulation strategies. Finally, several issues and hypotheses for why current patients obtain limited speech perception along with several feasible solutions for improving AMI implementation are presented. PMID:19762428

  13. Incidental auditory category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabay, Yafit; Dick, Frederic K; Zevin, Jason D; Holt, Lori L

    2015-08-01

    Very little is known about how auditory categories are learned incidentally, without instructions to search for category-diagnostic dimensions, overt category decisions, or experimenter-provided feedback. This is an important gap because learning in the natural environment does not arise from explicit feedback and there is evidence that the learning systems engaged by traditional tasks are distinct from those recruited by incidental category learning. We examined incidental auditory category learning with a novel paradigm, the Systematic Multimodal Associations Reaction Time (SMART) task, in which participants rapidly detect and report the appearance of a visual target in 1 of 4 possible screen locations. Although the overt task is rapid visual detection, a brief sequence of sounds precedes each visual target. These sounds are drawn from 1 of 4 distinct sound categories that predict the location of the upcoming visual target. These many-to-one auditory-to-visuomotor correspondences support incidental auditory category learning. Participants incidentally learn categories of complex acoustic exemplars and generalize this learning to novel exemplars and tasks. Further, learning is facilitated when category exemplar variability is more tightly coupled to the visuomotor associations than when the same stimulus variability is experienced across trials. We relate these findings to phonetic category learning. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Modelling auditory attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Emine Merve; Elhilali, Mounya

    2017-02-19

    Sounds in everyday life seldom appear in isolation. Both humans and machines are constantly flooded with a cacophony of sounds that need to be sorted through and scoured for relevant information-a phenomenon referred to as the 'cocktail party problem'. A key component in parsing acoustic scenes is the role of attention, which mediates perception and behaviour by focusing both sensory and cognitive resources on pertinent information in the stimulus space. The current article provides a review of modelling studies of auditory attention. The review highlights how the term attention refers to a multitude of behavioural and cognitive processes that can shape sensory processing. Attention can be modulated by 'bottom-up' sensory-driven factors, as well as 'top-down' task-specific goals, expectations and learned schemas. Essentially, it acts as a selection process or processes that focus both sensory and cognitive resources on the most relevant events in the soundscape; with relevance being dictated by the stimulus itself (e.g. a loud explosion) or by a task at hand (e.g. listen to announcements in a busy airport). Recent computational models of auditory attention provide key insights into its role in facilitating perception in cluttered auditory scenes.This article is part of the themed issue 'Auditory and visual scene analysis'. © 2017 The Authors.

  15. Auditory Channel Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Philip H.; Suiter, Patricia A.

    This teacher's guide contains a list of general auditory problem areas where students have the following problems: (a) inability to find or identify source of sound; (b) difficulty in discriminating sounds of words and letters; (c) difficulty with reproducing pitch, rhythm, and melody; (d) difficulty in selecting important from unimportant sounds;…

  16. The many facets of auditory display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blattner, Meera M.

    1995-01-01

    In this presentation we will examine some of the ways sound can be used in a virtual world. We make the case that many different types of audio experience are available to us. A full range of audio experiences include: music, speech, real-world sounds, auditory displays, and auditory cues or messages. The technology of recreating real-world sounds through physical modeling has advanced in the past few years allowing better simulation of virtual worlds. Three-dimensional audio has further enriched our sensory experiences.

  17. Rhythmic walking interaction with auditory feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maculewicz, Justyna; Jylhä, Antti; Serafin, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    We present an interactive auditory display for walking with sinusoidal tones or ecological, physically-based synthetic walking sounds. The feedback is either step-based or rhythmic, with constant or adaptive tempo. In a tempo-following experiment, we investigate different interaction modes...... and auditory feedback, based on the MSE between the target and performed tempo, and the stability of the latter. The results indicate that the MSE with ecological sounds is comparable to that with the sinusoidal tones, yet ecological sounds are considered more natural. Adaptive conditions result in stable...

  18. Ab interno Schlemm's Canal Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Brian A; Akil, Handan; Bert, Benjamin B

    2017-01-01

    In primary open-angle glaucoma, the site of greatest resistance to aqueous outflow is thought to be the trabecular meshwork (TM) and inner wall of Schlemm's canal. Augmentation of the conventional (trabecular) outflow pathway can facilitate physiologic outflow and subsequently lower intraocular pressure. The most recent approach to enhancing the conventional outflow pathway is via an internal approach to the TM and Schlemm's canal. Ab interno Schlemm's canal surgery includes 4 novel surgical approaches: (1) removal of the TM and inner wall of Schlemm's canal by an internal approach (ab interno trabeculectomy), (2) implantation of a microstent to bypass the TM, (3) disruption of the TM and inner wall of Schlemm's canal via an internal approach (ab interno trabeculotomy), and (4) dilation of Schlemm's canal via an internal approach (ab interno canaloplasty). The first category includes the Trabectome (Neomedix, Tustin, CA, USA), and Kahook Dual Blade (New World Medical, Rancho Cucamonga, CA, USA). The second category includes the iStent (Glaukos, Laguna Hills, CA, USA), as well as the investigational Hydrus Microstent implant (Ivantis, Irvine, CA, USA). The third category includes gonioscopic-assisted transluminal trabeculotomy (iSciences catheter; Ellex, Adelaide, Australia), and 360° suture trabeculotomy (TRAB360, Sight Sciences, Menlo Park, CA, USA). The fourth category includes ab interno canaloplasty or AbiC (Ellex), and Visco360 (Sight Sciences). In contrast to external filtration surgeries, such as trabeculectomy and aqueous tube shunt, these procedures are categorized as internal filtration surgeries and are performed from an internal approach via gonioscopic guidance. Published results suggest that these surgical procedures are both safe and efficacious for the treatment of open-angle glaucoma. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Three Independent Mesial Canals in a Mandibular Molar: Four-Year Followup of a Case Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrianne Freire de Paula

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endodontic treatment of mandibular molars is challenging because of variable root canal morphology. The nonsurgical endodontic management of a mandibular first molar presenting an independent middle mesial canal is reported. After coronal access, additional clinical inspection of the mesial canals’ orifices and their interconnecting groove using an endodontic explorer and 4.5× loupes enabled the identification of the middle mesial canal orifice. All root canals were chemomechanically prepared and filled. The tooth was asymptomatic and functional after 4 years of followup. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT images revealed normal periapical status and three-dimensional (3D anatomical aspects of the root canal system.

  20. Assessment of the Second Mesiobuccal Root Canal in Maxillary First Molars: A Cone-beam Computed Tomographic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuerong; Xu, Hai; Wang, Dongmiao; Gu, Yongchun; Wang, Juan; Tu, Shuzhen; Qiu, Xiaohui; Zhang, Fuyu; Luo, Yao; Xu, Shi; Bai, Jianling; Simone, Grandini; Zhang, Guangdong

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence and location of the second mesiobuccal (MB2) root canal of the maxillary first molar and the relationship between the presence of an MB2 canal and the distribution of canal orifices on the pulpal floor with the aid of cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) technology. A total of 1008 maxillary first molars (548 patients) were randomly selected and analyzed through CBCT imaging. The association between the incidence of MB2 canals and potential impacting factors including sex, side, age, and the distribution of the main root canal orifices on the pulpal floor was explored. The interorifice distances (ie, the length of a line between the center point of any 2 orifices) at the pulpal floor level were measured using Mimics 10.01 software (ImageWorks, Materialise, Belgium). The majority of 3-rooted maxillary first molars showed 2 root canals (85.4%) in the mesiobuccal root. The incidence of MB2 canals had no statistically significant difference between the left and right sides (P > .05) but had a significant association with the patients' sex and age (P 1.26) indicated a highly probable existence of an MB2 canal. In this study, no molar presented an MB2 canal with a distance ratio of less than 1.16, whereas all molars with a ratio greater than 1.37 presented an MB2 canal without exception. A Bland-Altman scatterplot showed great agreement between the distances of the main mesiobuccal and the distobuccal canal orifices and the second mesiobuccal and the distobuccal canal orifices. Understanding the incidence of MB2 canals and the distribution pattern of canal orifices on the pulpal floor may help clinicians to quickly identify and locate MB2 canals. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Mejoras en el canal de Panamá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandl, Charles McG.

    1963-07-01

    Full Text Available The Panama Canal, together with the Suez Canal, is an engineering accomplishment which is now regarded as a master work marking the initiation of modern civil engineering. Other projects, also of great magnitude, do not seem to maintain the reputation of the above two, because they cannot continue to serve their function with sustained usefulness in the new circumstances of today. The Panama Canal, with its limited dock capacity, and the narrow, so called Serpent, canal, has had to cope with a continuously increasing volume of shipping traffic; a natural consequence of commercial evolution. In order to keep up with these increasing demands, it has been necessary to carry out an almost uninterrupted series of modifications and improvements, affecting both the method of operation and organisation, and the actual nature of the canal. Thanks to these alterations the Panama Canal has continued to maintain, at least nominally, an adequate standard of functional efficiency. At present the canal is being widened over certain sections to enable the easy passage of ships of great displacement. The work is being done very rapidly, and in order to gain time, it has been distributed to various contractors simultaneously.El canal a través del ismo de Panamá es una obra de ingeniería civil que, junto con el de Suez, empiezan ya a clasificarse como obras maestras que señalan el primer jalón del desarrollo de la ingeniería moderna. Otras obras, también importantes, no conservan, sin embargo, la misma reputación que aquéllas, por no seguir un paralelismo con las exigencias en cada época. El canal de Panamá, con sus exclusas, y angosto paso llamado de la. Culebra, ha tenido que afrontar un tráfico creciente de navíos que siguen la evolución del tiempo. Para conseguir este paralelismo, tanto el material de explotación como la organización, dragados y mejoras, han tenido que conocer una sucesión ininterrumpida de modificaciones que han permitido

  2. Musical training and the role of auditory feedback during performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfordresher, Peter Q

    2012-04-01

    Recent research has shown that music training enhances music-related sensorimotor associations, such as the relationship between a key press on the keyboard and its associated musical pitch (auditory feedback). Such results suggest that the role of auditory feedback in performance may be based on learned associations that are task specific. Here, results from various studies will be presented that suggest that the real state of affairs is more complex. Several recent studies have shown similar effects of altered auditory feedback during piano performance for pianists and individuals with no piano training. Other recent research suggests dramatic differences between pianists and nonmusicians concerning the influence of auditory feedback on melody switching that suggest greater influence of auditory feedback among nonmusicians than pianists. Taken together, results suggest that musical training refines preexisting sensorimotor associations. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  3. Self-affirmation in auditory persuasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbert, Sarah; Dijkstra, Arie

    Persuasive health information can be presented through an auditory channel. Curiously enough, the effect of voice cues in health persuasion has hardly been studied. Research concerning visual persuasive messages showed that self-affirmation results in a more open-minded reaction to threatening

  4. Effects of Context on Auditory Stream Segregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Joel S.; Carter, Olivia L.; Lee, Suh-Kyung; Hannon, Erin E.; Alain, Claude

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined the effect of preceding context on auditory stream segregation. Low tones (A), high tones (B), and silences (-) were presented in an ABA-pattern. Participants indicated whether they perceived 1 or 2 streams of tones. The A tone frequency was fixed, and the B tone was the same as the A tone or had 1 of 3 higher frequencies.…

  5. Simultanagnosia does not affect processes of auditory Gestalt perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennig, Johannes; Bleyer, Anna Lena; Karnath, Hans-Otto

    2017-05-01

    Simultanagnosia is a neuropsychological deficit of higher visual processes caused by temporo-parietal brain damage. It is characterized by a specific failure of recognition of a global visual Gestalt, like a visual scene or complex objects, consisting of local elements. In this study we investigated to what extend this deficit should be understood as a deficit related to specifically the visual domain or whether it should be seen as defective Gestalt processing per se. To examine if simultanagnosia occurs across sensory domains, we designed several auditory experiments sharing typical characteristics of visual tasks that are known to be particularly demanding for patients suffering from simultanagnosia. We also included control tasks for auditory working memory deficits and for auditory extinction. We tested four simultanagnosia patients who suffered from severe symptoms in the visual domain. Two of them indeed showed significant impairments in recognition of simultaneously presented sounds. However, the same two patients also suffered from severe auditory working memory deficits and from symptoms comparable to auditory extinction, both sufficiently explaining the impairments in simultaneous auditory perception. We thus conclude that deficits in auditory Gestalt perception do not appear to be characteristic for simultanagnosia and that the human brain obviously uses independent mechanisms for visual and for auditory Gestalt perception. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Superior Semicircular Canal Ampullae Dehiscence As Part of the Spectrum of the Third Window Abnormalities: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Constant Ionescu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A 60-year-old man was referred to the ENT department for intense episodic vertigo triggered by loud sounds. Pure tone audiometry and otoneurological assessment, including videonystagmography using auditory stimulation and cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential measures, conducted to the hypothesis of a third window syndrome in the left ear. Results from the high-resolution computed tomography of the petrous bone confirmed the hypothesis and revealed the presence of a submillimeter semicircular canal dehiscence, located between the left lateral and superior semicircular canal ampullae on the left side.

  7. Developmental spinal canal stenosis and somatotype.

    OpenAIRE

    Nightingale, S.

    1989-01-01

    The hypothesis that somatotype and cervical spine developmental canal stenosis may be associated has been investigated by anthropometry and measurement of lateral projection cervical spine radiographs. A significant association of canal size with somatotype has been found such that those with developmentally narrow canals are more likely to have relatively shorter long-bones, particularly in the upper arm, and longer trunks.

  8. Preschool children and adults flexibly shift their preferences for auditory versus visual modalities, but do not exhibit auditory dominance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noles, Nicholaus S.; Gelman, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the present study is to evaluate the claim that young children display preferences for auditory stimuli over visual stimuli. This study is motivated by concerns that the visual stimuli employed in prior studies were considerably more complex and less distinctive than the competing auditory stimuli, resulting in an illusory preference for auditory cues. Across three experiments, preschool children and adults were trained to use paired audio-visual cues to predict the location of a target. At test, the cues were switched so that auditory cues indicated one location and visual cues indicated the opposite location. In contrast to prior studies, preschool age children did not exhibit auditory dominance. Instead, children and adults flexibly shifted their preferences as a function of the degree of contrast within each modality (with high contrast leading to greater use). PMID:22513210

  9. Increased BOLD Signals Elicited by High Gamma Auditory Stimulation of the Left Auditory Cortex in Acute State Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironori Kuga, M.D.

    2016-10-01

    We acquired BOLD responses elicited by click trains of 20, 30, 40 and 80-Hz frequencies from 15 patients with acute episode schizophrenia (AESZ, 14 symptom-severity-matched patients with non-acute episode schizophrenia (NASZ, and 24 healthy controls (HC, assessed via a standard general linear-model-based analysis. The AESZ group showed significantly increased ASSR-BOLD signals to 80-Hz stimuli in the left auditory cortex compared with the HC and NASZ groups. In addition, enhanced 80-Hz ASSR-BOLD signals were associated with more severe auditory hallucination experiences in AESZ participants. The present results indicate that neural over activation occurs during 80-Hz auditory stimulation of the left auditory cortex in individuals with acute state schizophrenia. Given the possible association between abnormal gamma activity and increased glutamate levels, our data may reflect glutamate toxicity in the auditory cortex in the acute state of schizophrenia, which might lead to progressive changes in the left transverse temporal gyrus.

  10. Radiographic evaluation of the course and visibility of the mandibular canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Yun Hoa; Cho, Bong Hae [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    This study was performed to investigate the course of the mandibular canal on panoramic radiography and the visibility of this canal on both panoramic radiography and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). The study consisted of panoramic radiographs and CBCT images from 262 patients. The course of the mandibular canal, as seen in panoramic radiographs, was classified into four types: linear, elliptical, spoon-shaped, and turning curves. The visibility of this canal from the first to the third molar region was evaluated by visually determining whether the mandibular canal was clearly visible, probably visible, or invisible. The visibility of the canal on panoramic radiographs was compared with that on CBCT images. Elliptical curves were most frequently observed along the course of the mandibular canal. The percentage of clearly visible mandibular canals was the highest among the spoon-shaped curves and the lowest among the linear curves. On panoramic radiographs, invisible mandibular canals were found in 22.7% of the examined sites in the first molar region, 11.8% in the second molar region, and 1.3% in the third molar region. On CBCT cross-sectional images, the mandibular canal was invisible in 8.2% of the examined sites in the first molar region, 5.7% in the second molar region, and 0.2% in the third molar region. The visibility of this canal was lower in the first molar region than in the third molar region. The mandibular canal presented better visibility on CBCT images than on panoramic radiographs.

  11. Selective memory retrieval of auditory what and auditory where involves the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostopoulos, Penelope; Petrides, Michael

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence from the visual, verbal, and tactile memory domains that the midventrolateral prefrontal cortex plays a critical role in the top–down modulation of activity within posterior cortical areas for the selective retrieval of specific aspects of a memorized experience, a functional process often referred to as active controlled retrieval. In the present functional neuroimaging study, we explore the neural bases of active retrieval for auditory nonverbal information, about which almost nothing is known. Human participants were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a task in which they were presented with short melodies from different locations in a simulated virtual acoustic environment within the scanner and were then instructed to retrieve selectively either the particular melody presented or its location. There were significant activity increases specifically within the midventrolateral prefrontal region during the selective retrieval of nonverbal auditory information. During the selective retrieval of information from auditory memory, the right midventrolateral prefrontal region increased its interaction with the auditory temporal region and the inferior parietal lobule in the right hemisphere. These findings provide evidence that the midventrolateral prefrontal cortical region interacts with specific posterior cortical areas in the human cerebral cortex for the selective retrieval of object and location features of an auditory memory experience. PMID:26831102

  12. Descripción de la rotiferofauna presente en Ciénaga La Redonda, Ciénaga La Luna, Ciénaga Pajaral y Canal Dragado durante la época lluviosa. Complejo de Pajarales, Departamento de Magdalena, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celis Melo Juan Sebastián

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La Composición y Abundancia de Rotíferos presentes durante la época lluviosa en las ciénagas de La Redonda, ciénaga La Luna, ciénaga Pajaral y Canal Dragado (Magdalena, Colombia fueron determinadas utilizando el conteo microscópico. La colecta de las muestras se llevó a cabo los días 15 septiembre, 29 septiembre, 23 octubre, 16 noviembre, 23 noviembre y 12 diciembre de 2006, mediante una botella de tipo Van Dorn. Paralelamente en cada estación se tomaron datos de las variables: salinidad, temperatura, pH y oxígeno empleando sondas multiparámetro WTW. La diversidad de rotíferos fue calculada empleando el índice de Shannon-Wienner H’ (log10 comparando entre estaciones y fechas de muestreo para establecer variaciones a lo largo del periodo de estudio, además se relacionaron gráficamente las variables fisicoquímicas con los valores de diversidad calculados empleando un valor de 0,05 y un intervalo de confianza del 95%. En total, fueron encontradas 20 especies pertenecientes a las familias Brachionidae, Lecanidae, Filiniidae, Synchaetidae, Hexarthriidae y Testudinellidae, siendo las familias Brachionidae y Lecanidae las más abundantes. La relación entre la diversidad encontrada y las variables fisicoquímicas medidas indican que la salinidad es la principal responsable de la diversidad de rotíferos durante el periodo de estudio. En conclusión, la reapertura de los canales de comunicación entre el río Magdalena y las ciénagas del Complejo de Pajarales han disminuido los valores de salinidad sugiriendo un aumentó en la diversidad de rotíferos. Palabras clalve: rotífero, laguna costera, disturbio ecosistémico, salinidad, complejo pajarales.

  13. Erie Canal Technology: Stump Pullers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Many years ago I saw a picture of a huge set of wheels that was used to remove tree stumps during the construction of the Erie Canal (1817-1825) and was intrigued by its use of leverage, mechanical advantage, and torque. Figure 1 is a scale model of the device based on my memory of the (lost) picture and published accounts.

  14. Contemporary root canal filling strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moinzadeh, A.T.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, clinicians can choose from a wide range of root canal filling materials and techniques, some of which have been evaluated in this thesis. Methacrylate resin-based sealers suffer from polymerization shrinkage stresses. This limitation may partly be overcome by a two-step cementation

  15. Retention of Root Canal Posts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahafi, A; Benetti, Ana Raquel; Flury, S

    2015-01-01

    ] and a self-etch adhesive resin cement [Panavia F2.0]) were used. After removal of the crowns of 360 extracted premolars, canines, or incisors, the root canals were prepared with a parallel-sided drill system to three different final diameters. Half the posts did not receive any pretreatment. The other half...

  16. Auditory pathways: anatomy and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickles, James O

    2015-01-01

    This chapter outlines the anatomy and physiology of the auditory pathways. After a brief analysis of the external, middle ears, and cochlea, the responses of auditory nerve fibers are described. The central nervous system is analyzed in more detail. A scheme is provided to help understand the complex and multiple auditory pathways running through the brainstem. The multiple pathways are based on the need to preserve accurate timing while extracting complex spectral patterns in the auditory input. The auditory nerve fibers branch to give two pathways, a ventral sound-localizing stream, and a dorsal mainly pattern recognition stream, which innervate the different divisions of the cochlear nucleus. The outputs of the two streams, with their two types of analysis, are progressively combined in the inferior colliculus and onwards, to produce the representation of what can be called the "auditory objects" in the external world. The progressive extraction of critical features in the auditory stimulus in the different levels of the central auditory system, from cochlear nucleus to auditory cortex, is described. In addition, the auditory centrifugal system, running from cortex in multiple stages to the organ of Corti of the cochlea, is described. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Detection of a second mesiobuccal canal in the mesiobuccal roots of maxillary first molar teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smadi, Leena; Khraisat, Ameen

    2007-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether the MB2 canal in the mesiobuccal root (MBR) of maxillary first molars could be identified through a clinical access cavity preparation, with and without magnification. One hundred extracted maxillary first molar teeth were collected. After a clinical access cavity preparation with careful use of bur to locate any additional canal (dentine troughing), the MB2 canals were located in 2 stages. Stage I was located with unaided vision and stage II was located under moderate magnification with x3.5 magnifying dental loupes. All specimens were stained, rendered transparent, and then classified. The number of canals detected by stage was analyzed statistically by a chi-square test. Statistical significance was considered to be P magnification, the number of detected MB2 canals was increased from 55 (56.7%) to 61 (62.9%) teeth. Cleared teeth showed 77.32% of MB2 canals. The effectiveness of MB2 location was 73.3% and 82.7% in stage I and stage II, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the 2 methods of detecting the MB2 canal (P = .3). The use of magnification enhanced the ability to detect the MB2 canals, although the difference was not statistically significant. The MB2 canals could not be detected in 16.5% of the teeth, mainly because of pulpal calcification.

  18. Auditory object cognition in dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goll, Johanna C.; Kim, Lois G.; Hailstone, Julia C.; Lehmann, Manja; Buckley, Aisling; Crutch, Sebastian J.; Warren, Jason D.

    2011-01-01

    The cognition of nonverbal sounds in dementia has been relatively little explored. Here we undertook a systematic study of nonverbal sound processing in patient groups with canonical dementia syndromes comprising clinically diagnosed typical amnestic Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 21), progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA; n = 5), logopenic progressive aphasia (LPA; n = 7) and aphasia in association with a progranulin gene mutation (GAA; n = 1), and in healthy age-matched controls (n = 20). Based on a cognitive framework treating complex sounds as ‘auditory objects’, we designed a novel neuropsychological battery to probe auditory object cognition at early perceptual (sub-object), object representational (apperceptive) and semantic levels. All patients had assessments of peripheral hearing and general neuropsychological functions in addition to the experimental auditory battery. While a number of aspects of auditory object analysis were impaired across patient groups and were influenced by general executive (working memory) capacity, certain auditory deficits had some specificity for particular dementia syndromes. Patients with AD had a disproportionate deficit of auditory apperception but preserved timbre processing. Patients with PNFA had salient deficits of timbre and auditory semantic processing, but intact auditory size and apperceptive processing. Patients with LPA had a generalised auditory deficit that was influenced by working memory function. In contrast, the patient with GAA showed substantial preservation of auditory function, but a mild deficit of pitch direction processing and a more severe deficit of auditory apperception. The findings provide evidence for separable stages of auditory object analysis and separable profiles of impaired auditory object cognition in different dementia syndromes. PMID:21689671

  19. A RARE CASE OF HYDROCOELE OF CANAL OF NUCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Kumar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Hydrocele of canal of Nuck of female is a rare developmental disorder corresponding to the hydrocele of the spermatic cord of males It results from the failure of obliteration of the distal portion of evaginated parietal peritoneum within the inguinal canal which forms a sac containing fluid. It can be diagnosed on the operating table at the time of operation of suspected incarcerated inguinal hernia. We present a rare case of a 15 year old girl with right-sided groin swelling over 4 years, diagnosed as hydrocele of canal of Nuck. Patient underwent surgical exploration and excision of hydrocele. This entity should be considered in young females presenting with an inguinal swelling.

  20. Auditory Reserve and the Legacy of Auditory Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Skoe, Erika; Kraus, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Musical training during childhood has been linked to more robust encoding of sound later in life. We take this as evidence for an auditory reserve: a mechanism by which individuals capitalize on earlier life experiences to promote auditory processing. We assert that early auditory experiences guide how the reserve develops and is maintained over the lifetime. Experiences that occur after childhood, or which are limited in nature, are theorized to affect the reserve, although their influence o...

  1. Hydrodynamic detection by cupulae in a lateral line canal: functional relations between physics and physiology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Netten, Sietse M

    2006-01-01

    In the present review, signal-processing capabilities of the canal lateral line organ imposed by its peripheral architecture are quantified in terms of a limited set of measurable physical parameters. It is demonstrated that cupulae in the lateral line canal organ can only partly be described as

  2. Mandibular Second Premolar with Four Canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Ghiasi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A mandibular second premolar with four canals is an interesting example of anatomic variations. This report describes a case of a mandibular second premolar with three roots and four canals (one mesiobuccal, two distobuccal and one lingual. The canals were prepared using K-files and irrigated with NaOCl (5.25% and normal saline as the final irrigant. The canals were filled laterally with gutta percha and AH26 sealer (De Trey, Dentsply, Switzerland. This case shows a rare anatomic configuration and points out the importance of looking for additional canals.

  3. Auditory-motor coupling affects phonetic encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Kassow, Maren; Thöne, Katharina; Kaiser, Jochen

    2017-11-27

    Recent studies have shown that moving in synchrony with auditory stimuli boosts attention allocation and verbal learning. Furthermore rhythmic tones are processed more efficiently than temporally random tones ('timing effect'), and this effect is increased when participants actively synchronize their motor performance with the rhythm of the tones, resulting in auditory-motor synchronization. Here, we investigated whether this applies also to sequences of linguistic stimuli (syllables). We compared temporally irregular syllable sequences with two temporally regular conditions where either the interval between syllable onsets (stimulus onset asynchrony, SOA) or the interval between the syllables' vowel onsets was kept constant. Entrainment to the stimulus presentation frequency (1 Hz) and event-related potentials were assessed in 24 adults who were instructed to detect pre-defined deviant syllables while they either pedaled or sat still on a stationary exercise bike. We found larger 1 Hz entrainment and P300 amplitudes for the SOA presentation during motor activity. Furthermore, the magnitude of the P300 component correlated with the motor variability in the SOA condition and 1 Hz entrainment, while in turn 1 Hz entrainment correlated with auditory-motor synchronization performance. These findings demonstrate that acute auditory-motor coupling facilitates phonetic encoding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Stochastic undersampling steepens auditory threshold/duration functions: Implications for understanding auditory deafferentation and aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic eMarmel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available It has long been known that some listeners experience hearing difficulties out of proportion with their audiometric losses. Notably, some older adults as well as auditory neuropathy patients have temporal-processing and speech-in-noise intelligibility deficits not accountable for by elevated audiometric thresholds. The study of these hearing deficits has been revitalized by recent studies that show that auditory deafferentation comes with aging and can occur even in the absence of an audiometric loss. The present study builds on the stochastic undersampling principle proposed by Lopez-Poveda and Barrios (2013 to account for the perceptual effects of auditory deafferentation. Auditory threshold/duration functions were measured for broadband noises that were stochastically undersampled to various different degrees. Stimuli with and without undersampling were equated for overall energy in order to focus on the changes that undersampling elicited on the stimulus waveforms, and not on its effects on the overall stimulus energy. Stochastic undersampling impaired the detection of short sounds ( 50 ms did not change or improved, depending on the degree of undersampling. The results for short sounds show that stochastic undersampling, and hence presumably deafferentation, can account for the steeper threshold/duration functions observed in auditory neuropathy patients and older adults with (near normal audiometry. This suggests that deafferentation might be diagnosed using pure-tone audiometry with short tones. It further suggests that that the auditory system of audiometrically normal older listeners might not be ‘slower than normal’, as is commonly thought, but simply less well afferented. Finally, the results for both short and long sounds support the probabilistic theories of detectability that challenge the idea that auditory threshold occurs by integration of sound energy over time.

  5. Variations in the Root Form and Root Canal Morphology of Permanent Mandibular First Molars in a Sri Lankan Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan Peiris

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the number of roots and morphology of the root canal system of permanent mandibular first molars (M1 in a Sri Lankan population. Sample of 529 M1 teeth was used. The number of roots was examined and the lengths of the mesial and distal roots were measured to the nearest 0.01 mm. Vacuum injection protocol was used to inject China ink into the root canal system, making it transparent. Root canal morphology was recorded using Vertucci’s classification. Presence of furcation canals, position of lateral canals, intercanal communications, level of bifurcation, and convergence of the root canal system were recorded. M1 showed three roots in 4.1% of the sample. Commonest root canal morphology of the mesial root was type IV and the distal root was type I. The level of bifurcation of the root canals was commonly observed in the cervical one-third of the root while convergence was observed in the apical one-third in both roots. Prevalence of three rooted mandibular first molars is less than 5%. Mesial root showed the most variable canal morphology. Prevalence of furcation canals was 1.5% while that of middle mesial canals was 0.2%.

  6. Prediction of speech intelligibility based on an auditory preprocessing model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Claus Forup Corlin; Pedersen, Michael Syskind; Dau, Torsten

    2010-01-01

    Classical speech intelligibility models, such as the speech transmission index (STI) and the speech intelligibility index (SII) are based on calculations on the physical acoustic signals. The present study predicts speech intelligibility by combining a psychoacoustically validated model of auditory...

  7. Acquired Auditory Verbal Agnosia and Seizures in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Judith A.; Ferry, Peggy C.

    1978-01-01

    The paper presents a review of cases of children with acquired aphasia with convulsive disorder and discusses clinical features of three additional children in whom the specific syndrome of auditory verbal agnosia was identified. (Author/CL)

  8. Stereomicroscopic Dye Leakage Measurement of Six Different Root Canal Sealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballullaya, Srinidhi V; Vinay, Vusurumarthi; Thumu, Jayaprakash; Devalla, Srihari; Bollu, Indira Priyadarshini; Balla, Sagarika

    2017-06-01

    Hermetic sealing of the root canal is the most desirable outcome of any root canal treatment, but almost always the filling of the root canal is defective, which is a multifactorial outcome. One such factor majorly influencing the obturation is the root canal sealer used. The present study was done for evaluating microleakage in different root canal sealers. Sixty extracted human single rooted teeeth were used in this in-vitro study. Sealers tested for microleakage in this study were zinc oxide eugenol based sealer, Sealapex, AH Plus, MTA Plus, EndoRez, Endosequence BC. All the specimens were examined under stereomicroscope for microleakage and the obtained data were statistically analysed using One-way ANOVA test and Tukey's multiple comparision tests using the software GraphPad Prism 7.02. The Endosequence BC group showed the least dye leakage and the highest leakage was seen in Zinc oxide Eugenol based sealer. Bio ceramic salers being hydrophilic show better sealing ability compared to resin based and eugenol based sealers.

  9. Partial ear canal ablation and lateral bulla osteotomy in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eatwell, K; Mancinelli, E; Hedley, J; Keeble, E; Kovalik, M; Yool, D A

    2013-06-01

    Six lop rabbits were presented with clinical signs of otitis media or externa. The presence of disease was confirmed by computerized tomography examination, with two rabbits suffering from bilateral disease. The rabbits were anaesthetized and underwent surgery of the affected bulla. Rabbits with bilateral disease had a minimum of 2 weeks between procedures. A single vertical incision was made over the base of the vertical canal, which was bluntly dissected free from surrounding tissue. The ventral portion of the vertical canal was removed and a lateral bulla osteotomy was performed. The mucosa at the base of the dorsal vertical canal was apposed and the aural cartilage sutured to form a blind-ending pouch open at the pretragic incisure. Histopathological samples taken from the dorsal margin of the vertical canal yielded subtle and non-specific changes in the six samples submitted. All rabbits were discharged within 48 hours of surgery. The cosmetic outcome was excellent with animals retaining visually normal aural anatomy. The partial ear canal ablation/lateral bulla osteotomy procedure is quick and has a good cosmetic result when performed in rabbits. © 2013 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  10. Auditory Perceptual Abilities Are Associated with Specific Auditory Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Zaltz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The extent to which auditory experience can shape general auditory perceptual abilities is still under constant debate. Some studies show that specific auditory expertise may have a general effect on auditory perceptual abilities, while others show a more limited influence, exhibited only in a relatively narrow range associated with the area of expertise. The current study addresses this issue by examining experience-dependent enhancement in perceptual abilities in the auditory domain. Three experiments were performed. In the first experiment, 12 pop and rock musicians and 15 non-musicians were tested in frequency discrimination (DLF, intensity discrimination, spectrum discrimination (DLS, and time discrimination (DLT. Results showed significant superiority of the musician group only for the DLF and DLT tasks, illuminating enhanced perceptual skills in the key features of pop music, in which miniscule changes in amplitude and spectrum are not critical to performance. The next two experiments attempted to differentiate between generalization and specificity in the influence of auditory experience, by comparing subgroups of specialists. First, seven guitar players and eight percussionists were tested in the DLF and DLT tasks that were found superior for musicians. Results showed superior abilities on the DLF task for guitar players, though no difference between the groups in DLT, demonstrating some dependency of auditory learning on the specific area of expertise. Subsequently, a third experiment was conducted, testing a possible influence of vowel density in native language on auditory perceptual abilities. Ten native speakers of German (a language characterized by a dense vowel system of 14 vowels, and 10 native speakers of Hebrew (characterized by a sparse vowel system of five vowels, were tested in a formant discrimination task. This is the linguistic equivalent of a DLS task. Results showed that German speakers had superior formant

  11. Temporal Bone Fracture Causing Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A. Peng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Importance. Superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SCD is a third window lesion of the inner ear causing symptoms of vertigo, autophony, tinnitus, and hearing loss. A “two-hit” hypothesis has traditionally been proposed, whereby thinly developed bone overlying the superior canal is disrupted by a sudden change in intracranial pressure. Although the symptoms of SCD may be precipitated by head injury, no previous reports have described a temporal bone fracture directly causing SCD. Observations. Two patients sustained temporal bone fractures after closed head trauma, and developed unilateral otologic symptoms consistent with SCD. In each instance, computed tomography imaging revealed fractures extending through the bony roof of the superior semicircular canal. Conclusions and Relevance. Temporal bone fractures, which are largely treated nonoperatively, have not previously been reported to cause SCD. As it is a potentially treatable entity, SCD resulting from temporal bone fracture must be recognized as a possibility and diagnosed promptly if present.

  12. Absent semicircular canals in CHARGE syndrome: radiologic spectrum of findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, A K; Wiggins, R H; Hudgins, P A; Hedlund, G L; Hamilton, B; Mukherji, S K; Telian, S A; Harnsberger, H R

    2006-09-01

    This paper describes the CT findings that characterize the middle and inner ear anomalies in coloboma, heart defects, choanal atresia, mental retardation, genitourinary, and ear anomalies (CHARGE) syndrome. With this information, neuroradiologists will be better prepared to provide clinically relevant information to their referring physicians regarding this rare syndrome. CT studies from 13 patients were reviewed by 2 neuroradiologists with Certificate of Additional Qualification. Each ear was counted separately for a total of 26 ears. Middle and inner ear anomalies associated with CHARGE syndrome were categorized. Investigational review board approval was obtained. Twenty of 26 (77%) ears demonstrated cochlear aperture atresia. Four of these ears were evaluated with MR imaging and were found to lack a cochlear nerve. Twenty-one of 26 (81%) cochlea had some form of dysplasia. Six of 26 (23%) round windows were aplastic. Three of 26 (12%) round windows were hypoplastic. Twenty-one of 26 (81%) oval windows were atretic or aplastic. Fifteen of 26 (58%) vestibules were hypoplastic or dysplastic. There were 5 of 26 (19%) enlarged vestibular aqueducts. Twelve of 26 (46%) vestibular aqueducts had an anomalous course. All cases demonstrated absent semicircular canals. Twenty-three of 26 (88%) facial nerve canals had an anomalous course. Four of 26 (15%) tympanic segments were prolapsed. Three of 26 (12%) temporal bones had an anomalous emissary vein referred to as a petrosquamosal sinus. Twenty-one of 26 (81%) middle ear cavities were small. Twenty-three of 26 (93%) ossicles were dysplastic with ankylosis. Three of 26 (12%) internal auditory canals were small. The CT findings that correlate to the anomalies of CHARGE syndrome affect conductive as well as sensorineural hearing. Stenosis of the aperture for the cochlear nerve aperture on CT is suggestive of hypoplasia or absence of the cochlear nerve, which has been demonstrated in some cases by MR. Absence of the cochlear

  13. 75 FR 39632 - Regulated Navigation Area; Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, Harvey...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    ..., Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, Harvey Canal, Algiers Canal, New Orleans, LA; Correction ACTION: Interim... Navigation Canal, Harvey Canal, Algiers Canal, New Orleans, LA into the Code of Federal Regulations. That...

  14. Mesiodens Within the Nasopalatine Canal: An Exceptional Entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoun, Georges; Nasseh, Ibrahim

    2016-10-24

    A supernumerary tooth is one that is supplementary to the normal dentition. It can be found anywhere at the dental arch. A mesiodens is a supernumerary tooth located between the two maxillary central incisors usually palatally or within the alveolar process. Less frequently, the mesiodens is in relation with the nasal floor and the nasopalatine canal walls. This paper presents a very rare case of an impacted inverted mesiodens located inside the nasopalatine canal and found incidentally with a cone-beam computed tomography examination.

  15. Mesiodens within the nasopalatine canal: an exceptional entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Aoun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A supernumerary tooth is one that is supplementary to the normal dentition. It can be found anywhere at the dental arch. A mesiodens is a supernumerary tooth located between the two maxillary central incisors usually palatally or within the alveolar process. Less frequently, the mesiodens is in relation with the nasal floor and the nasopalatine canal walls. This paper presents a very rare case of an impacted inverted mesiodens located inside the nasopalatine canal and found incidentally with a cone-beam computed tomography examination.

  16. Shape and Deformation Analysis of the Human Ear Canal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darkner, Sune

    is on the extraction and analysis of the shape and deformation of the ear canal due to movements of the mandible, leaning over, and turning of the head. Methods for surface registration with focus on non-rigid registration are presented, as well as a wide range of statistical methods used for analyzing the shapes...... and deformation fields. The results show that the ear canal changes shape significantly in all subjects and that the deformation is more complicated than previously described in the literature. It is shown that the deformation at specific locations in the ear is significantly correlated to comfort issues reported...

  17. Lateralization of auditory-cortex functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tervaniemi, Mari; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2003-12-01

    In the present review, we summarize the most recent findings and current views about the structural and functional basis of human brain lateralization in the auditory modality. Main emphasis is given to hemodynamic and electromagnetic data of healthy adult participants with regard to music- vs. speech-sound encoding. Moreover, a selective set of behavioral dichotic-listening (DL) results and clinical findings (e.g., schizophrenia, dyslexia) are included. It is shown that human brain has a strong predisposition to process speech sounds in the left and music sounds in the right auditory cortex in the temporal lobe. Up to great extent, an auditory area located at the posterior end of the temporal lobe (called planum temporale [PT]) underlies this functional asymmetry. However, the predisposition is not bound to informational sound content but to rapid temporal information more common in speech than in music sounds. Finally, we obtain evidence for the vulnerability of the functional specialization of sound processing. These altered forms of lateralization may be caused by top-down and bottom-up effects inter- and intraindividually In other words, relatively small changes in acoustic sound features or in their familiarity may modify the degree in which the left vs. right auditory areas contribute to sound encoding.

  18. [Auditory processing in specific language disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idiazábal-Aletxa, M A; Saperas-Rodríguez, M

    2008-01-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI) is diagnosed when a child has difficulty in producing or understanding spoken language for no apparent reason. The diagnosis in made when language development is out of keeping with other aspects of development, and possible explanatory causes have been excluded. During the last years neurosciences have approached to the study of SLI. The ability to process two or more rapidly presented, successive, auditory stimuli is believed to underlie successful language acquisition. It has been proposed that SLI is the consequence of low-level abnormalities in auditory perception. Too, children with SLI show a specific deficit in automatic discrimination of syllables. Electrophysiological methods may reveal underlying immaturity or other abnormality of auditory processing even when behavioural thresholds look normal. There is much controversy about the role of such deficits in causing their language problems, and it has been difficult to establish solid, replicable findings in this area because of the heterogeneity in the population and because insufficient attention has been paid to maturational aspects of auditory processing.

  19. A Time-Frequency Auditory Model Using Wavelet Packets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn

    1996-01-01

    A time-frequency auditory model is presented. The model uses the wavelet packet analysis as the preprocessor. The auditory filters are modelled by the rounded exponential filters, and the excitation is smoothed by a window function. By comparing time-frequency excitation patterns it is shown...... that the change in the time-frequency excitation pattern introduced when a test tone at masked threshold is added to the masker is approximately equal to 7 dB for all types of maskers. The classic detection ratio therefore overrates the detection efficiency of the auditory system....

  20. Threatening auditory hallucinations and Cotard syndrome in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Factor, Stewart A; Molho, Eric S

    2004-01-01

    Psychotic symptoms are commonly reported in patients with Parkinson disease (PD). In particular, patients experience nonthreatening visual hallucinations that can occur with insight (so called hallucinosis) or without. Auditory hallucinations are uncommon, and schizophrenialike symptoms such as pejorative and threatening auditory hallucinations and delusions that are persecutory, referential, somatic, religious, or grandiose have rarely been reported. The authors present 2 PD patients who experienced threatening auditory hallucinations, without visual hallucinations, and schizophrenialike delusions with detailed description of the clinical phenomenology including 1 patient with Cotard syndrome.

  1. Evaluation of root canal morphology of human primary molars by using CBCT and comprehensive review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Gozde; Sekerci, Ahmet Ercan; Cantekin, Kenan; Aydinbelge, Mustafa; Dogan, Salih

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of primary tooth morphology is essential for clinical dentistry, especially for root canal treatment and dental traumatology. However, this has not been well documented to date with a large sample. This study was carried out to investigate the variation in number and morphology of the root canals of the primary molars, to study the applicability of cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT) in assessing the same and to provide a comprehensive review of the literature. A total of 343 primary molars, without any root resorption, were divided into four main groups including the maxillary first molars, maxillary second molars, mandibular first molars and mandibular second molars. All of them were analysed in CBCT images in the axial, sagittal and coronal planes. Various parameters such as the number of roots, number of canals, the root canal type, diameter of root and root canal and root canal curvature were studied. Primary molars in all four groups showed variability in the number of roots and root canals. As far as length of the roots was concerned, the palatal root of the maxillary molar was found to be longest, while the distobuccal root was shortest. In mandibular molars, the mesial root was longer than the distal root. The length of distobuccal root canal of the maxillary molars and the distolingual canal of the mandibular molars was found to be shortest. The number of roots and root canals varied from two to four and three to four, respectively. The maxillary molars exhibited more one-canal than two-canal roots. The present study provides comprehensive information to the existing literature concerning the variation in root canal morphology of the maxillary and mandibular primary molar teeth. These data may help clinicians in the root canal treatment of these teeth.

  2. A case of generalized auditory agnosia with unilateral subcortical brain lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Hyee; Shin, Yong-Il; Kim, Soo Yeon; Kim, Sook Hee; Chang, Jae Hyeok; Shin, Yong Beom; Ko, Hyun-Yoon

    2012-12-01

    The mechanisms and functional anatomy underlying the early stages of speech perception are still not well understood. Auditory agnosia is a deficit of auditory object processing defined as a disability to recognize spoken languages and/or nonverbal environmental sounds and music despite adequate hearing while spontaneous speech, reading and writing are preserved. Usually, either the bilateral or unilateral temporal lobe, especially the transverse gyral lesions, are responsible for auditory agnosia. Subcortical lesions without cortical damage rarely causes auditory agnosia. We present a 73-year-old right-handed male with generalized auditory agnosia caused by a unilateral subcortical lesion. He was not able to repeat or dictate but to perform fluent and comprehensible speech. He could understand and read written words and phrases. His auditory brainstem evoked potential and audiometry were intact. This case suggested that the subcortical lesion involving unilateral acoustic radiation could cause generalized auditory agnosia.

  3. Challenges in fitting a hearing aid to a severely collapsed ear canal and mixed hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeding, Kristi; Valente, Michael; Chole, Richard

    2012-04-01

    Collapsed ear canals typically occur when an outside force, such as a headset for audiometric testing, is present. However, when a collapsed ear canal occurs without external pressure, this creates a challenge not only for performing audiometric testing but also for coupling a hearing aid to the ear canal. This case report highlights the challenges associated with fitting a hearing aid on a patient with a severe anterior-posterior collapsed ear canal with a mixed hearing loss. A 67-yr-old female originally presented to Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine in 1996 with a long-standing history of bilateral otosclerosis. She had chronic ear infections in the right ear and a severely collapsed ear canal in the left ear and was fit with a bone anchored hearing aid (BAHA®) on the right side in 2003. However, benefit from the BAHA started to decrease due to changes in hearing, and a different hearing solution was needed. It was proposed that a hearing aid be fit to her collapsed left ear canal; however, trying to couple a hearing aid to the collapsed ear canal required unique noncustom earmold solutions. This case study highlights some of the obstacles and potential solutions for coupling a hearing aid to a severely collapsed ear canal. American Academy of Audiology.

  4. Auditory Discrimination and Auditory Sensory Behaviours in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Catherine R. G.; Happe, Francesca; Baird, Gillian; Simonoff, Emily; Marsden, Anita J. S.; Tregay, Jenifer; Phillips, Rebecca J.; Goswami, Usha; Thomson, Jennifer M.; Charman, Tony

    2009-01-01

    It has been hypothesised that auditory processing may be enhanced in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We tested auditory discrimination ability in 72 adolescents with ASD (39 childhood autism; 33 other ASD) and 57 IQ and age-matched controls, assessing their capacity for successful discrimination of the frequency, intensity and duration…

  5. Auditory and non-auditory effects of noise on health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basner, M.; Babisch, W.; Davis, A.; Brink, M.; Clark, C.; Janssen, S.A.; Stansfeld, S.

    2013-01-01

    Noise is pervasive in everyday life and can cause both auditory and non-auditory health eff ects. Noise-induced hearing loss remains highly prevalent in occupational settings, and is increasingly caused by social noise exposure (eg, through personal music players). Our understanding of molecular

  6. The Central Auditory Processing Kit[TM]. Book 1: Auditory Memory [and] Book 2: Auditory Discrimination, Auditory Closure, and Auditory Synthesis [and] Book 3: Auditory Figure-Ground, Auditory Cohesion, Auditory Binaural Integration, and Compensatory Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhemar, Mary Ann

    This kit for assessing central auditory processing disorders (CAPD), in children in grades 1 through 8 includes 3 books, 14 full-color cards with picture scenes, and a card depicting a phone key pad, all contained in a sturdy carrying case. The units in each of the three books correspond with auditory skill areas most commonly addressed in…

  7. Cervical Cord-Canal Mismatch: A New Method for Identifying Predisposition to Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Aria; Montejo, Julio; Sun, Xin; Virojanapa, Justin; Kolb, Luis E; Abbed, Khalid M; Cheng, Joseph S

    2017-12-01

    The risk for spinal cord injuries (SCIs) ranging from devastating traumatic injuries, compression because of degenerative pathology, and neurapraxia is increased in patients with congenital spinal stenosis. Classical diagnostic criteria include an absolute anteroposterior diameter of cord, which varies across patients, independent of canal size. Recent large magnetic resonance imaging studies of population cohorts have allowed newer methods to emerge that account for both cord and canal size by measuring a spinal cord occupation ratio (SCOR). A SCOR defined as ≥70% on midsagittal imaging or ≥80% on axial imaging appears to be an effective method of identifying cord-canal mismatch, but requires further validation. Cord-canal size mismatch predisposes patients to SCI because of 1) less space within the canal lowering the amount of degenerative changes needed for cord compression, and 2) less cerebrospinal fluid surrounding the spinal cord decreasing the ability to absorb kinetic forces directed at the spine. Patients with cord-canal mismatch have been reported to be at a substantially higher risk of traumatic SCI, and present with degenerative cervical myelopathy at a younger age than patients without cord-canal mismatch. However, neurologic outcome after SCI has occurred does not appear to be different in patients with or without a cord-canal mismatch. Recognition that canal and cord size are both factors which predispose to SCI supports that cord-canal size mismatch rather than a narrow cervical canal in isolation should be viewed as the underlying mechanism predisposing to SCI. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Scalloping at the lumbosacral canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhardt, R.

    1987-07-01

    Scalloping is an indentation of the dorsal side of the vertebral body (anterior wall of the lumbosacral or sacral canal) which typically involves several adjacent lumbal vertebral body segments and the anterior wall of the canalis sacralis. Occurrence without underlying disease is rare; it occurs most frequently with chondrodystrophy, neurofibromatosis, Morquio's syndrome, Hurler's syndrome, acromegaly, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Marfan's syndrome, cysts, tumors and in peridural lipomas.

  9. Endometriosis en el canal inguinal

    OpenAIRE

    Quirós, José Luis; Corrales, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Resumen: Endometriosis se define como la presencia de tejido glandular y estromal endometrial fuera de la cavidad uterina y este tejido ectópico es dependiente de la estimulación estrogénica. Usualmente se presenta en ovarios, fondos de saco, ligamento ancho, ligamento uterosacro, útero, trompas de Falopio, tracto gastrointestinal y geniturinario. Sin embargo, puede presentarse en otras localizaciones, como en el canal inguinal. Prevalece en 10% de las mujeres en edad reproductiva. Existen mu...

  10. Cognitive factors shape brain networks for auditory skills: spotlight on auditory working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Nina; Strait, Dana L; Parbery-Clark, Alexandra

    2012-04-01

    Musicians benefit from real-life advantages, such as a greater ability to hear speech in noise and to remember sounds, although the biological mechanisms driving such advantages remain undetermined. Furthermore, the extent to which these advantages are a consequence of musical training or innate characteristics that predispose a given individual to pursue music training is often debated. Here, we examine biological underpinnings of musicians' auditory advantages and the mediating role of auditory working memory. Results from our laboratory are presented within a framework that emphasizes auditory working memory as a major factor in the neural processing of sound. Within this framework, we provide evidence for music training as a contributing source of these abilities. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  11. The human brain maintains contradictory and redundant auditory sensory predictions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika Pieszek

    Full Text Available Computational and experimental research has revealed that auditory sensory predictions are derived from regularities of the current environment by using internal generative models. However, so far, what has not been addressed is how the auditory system handles situations giving rise to redundant or even contradictory predictions derived from different sources of information. To this end, we measured error signals in the event-related brain potentials (ERPs in response to violations of auditory predictions. Sounds could be predicted on the basis of overall probability, i.e., one sound was presented frequently and another sound rarely. Furthermore, each sound was predicted by an informative visual cue. Participants' task was to use the cue and to discriminate the two sounds as fast as possible. Violations of the probability based prediction (i.e., a rare sound as well as violations of the visual-auditory prediction (i.e., an incongruent sound elicited error signals in the ERPs (Mismatch Negativity [MMN] and Incongruency Response [IR]. Particular error signals were observed even in case the overall probability and the visual symbol predicted different sounds. That is, the auditory system concurrently maintains and tests contradictory predictions. Moreover, if the same sound was predicted, we observed an additive error signal (scalp potential and primary current density equaling the sum of the specific error signals. Thus, the auditory system maintains and tolerates functionally independently represented redundant and contradictory predictions. We argue that the auditory system exploits all currently active regularities in order to optimally prepare for future events.

  12. Functional sex differences in human primary auditory cortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruytjens, Liesbet [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Groningen (Netherlands); University Medical Center Utrecht, Department Otorhinolaryngology, P.O. Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Georgiadis, Janniko R. [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Groningen (Netherlands); Holstege, Gert [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Center for Uroneurology, Groningen (Netherlands); Wit, Hero P. [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Groningen (Netherlands); Albers, Frans W.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department Otorhinolaryngology, P.O. Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Willemsen, Antoon T.M. [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2007-12-15

    We used PET to study cortical activation during auditory stimulation and found sex differences in the human primary auditory cortex (PAC). Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 10 male and 10 female volunteers while listening to sounds (music or white noise) and during a baseline (no auditory stimulation). We found a sex difference in activation of the left and right PAC when comparing music to noise. The PAC was more activated by music than by noise in both men and women. But this difference between the two stimuli was significantly higher in men than in women. To investigate whether this difference could be attributed to either music or noise, we compared both stimuli with the baseline and revealed that noise gave a significantly higher activation in the female PAC than in the male PAC. Moreover, the male group showed a deactivation in the right prefrontal cortex when comparing noise to the baseline, which was not present in the female group. Interestingly, the auditory and prefrontal regions are anatomically and functionally linked and the prefrontal cortex is known to be engaged in auditory tasks that involve sustained or selective auditory attention. Thus we hypothesize that differences in attention result in a different deactivation of the right prefrontal cortex, which in turn modulates the activation of the PAC and thus explains the sex differences found in the activation of the PAC. Our results suggest that sex is an important factor in auditory brain studies. (orig.)

  13. Abnormal auditory synchronization in stuttering: A magnetoencephalographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Yoshikazu; Okamoto, Tsuyoshi; Ogata, Katsuya; Hagiwara, Koichi; Umezaki, Toshiro; Kenjo, Masamutsu; Nakagawa, Takashi; Tobimatsu, Shozo

    2017-02-01

    In a previous magnetoencephalographic study, we showed both functional and structural reorganization of the right auditory cortex and impaired left auditory cortex function in people who stutter (PWS). In the present work, we reevaluated the same dataset to further investigate how the right and left auditory cortices interact to compensate for stuttering. We evaluated bilateral N100m latencies as well as indices of local and inter-hemispheric phase synchronization of the auditory cortices. The left N100m latency was significantly prolonged relative to the right N100m latency in PWS, while healthy control participants did not show any inter-hemispheric differences in latency. A phase-locking factor (PLF) analysis, which indicates the degree of local phase synchronization, demonstrated enhanced alpha-band synchrony in the right auditory area of PWS. A phase-locking value (PLV) analysis of inter-hemispheric synchronization demonstrated significant elevations in the beta band between the right and left auditory cortices in PWS. In addition, right PLF and PLVs were positively correlated with stuttering frequency in PWS. Taken together, our data suggest that increased right hemispheric local phase synchronization and increased inter-hemispheric phase synchronization are electrophysiological correlates of a compensatory mechanism for impaired left auditory processing in PWS. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Functional sex differences in human primary auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruytjens, Liesbet; Georgiadis, Janniko R; Holstege, Gert; Wit, Hero P; Albers, Frans W J; Willemsen, Antoon T M

    2007-12-01

    We used PET to study cortical activation during auditory stimulation and found sex differences in the human primary auditory cortex (PAC). Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 10 male and 10 female volunteers while listening to sounds (music or white noise) and during a baseline (no auditory stimulation). We found a sex difference in activation of the left and right PAC when comparing music to noise. The PAC was more activated by music than by noise in both men and women. But this difference between the two stimuli was significantly higher in men than in women. To investigate whether this difference could be attributed to either music or noise, we compared both stimuli with the baseline and revealed that noise gave a significantly higher activation in the female PAC than in the male PAC. Moreover, the male group showed a deactivation in the right prefrontal cortex when comparing noise to the baseline, which was not present in the female group. Interestingly, the auditory and prefrontal regions are anatomically and functionally linked and the prefrontal cortex is known to be engaged in auditory tasks that involve sustained or selective auditory attention. Thus we hypothesize that differences in attention result in a different deactivation of the right prefrontal cortex, which in turn modulates the activation of the PAC and thus explains the sex differences found in the activation of the PAC. Our results suggest that sex is an important factor in auditory brain studies.

  15. Music lessons improve auditory perceptual and cognitive performance in deaf children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise eROCHETTE

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite advanced technologies in auditory rehabilitation of profound deafness, deaf children often exhibit delayed cognitive and linguistic development and auditory training remains a crucial element of their education. In the present cross-sectional study, we assess whether music would be a relevant tool for deaf children rehabilitation. In normal-hearing children, music lessons have been shown to improve cognitive and linguistic-related abilities, such as phonetic discrimination and reading. We compared auditory perception, auditory cognition, and phonetic discrimination between 14 profoundly deaf children who completed weekly music lessons for a period of 1.5 to 4 years and 14 deaf children who did not receive musical instruction. Children were assessed on perceptual and cognitive auditory tasks using environmental sounds: discrimination, identification, auditory scene analysis, auditory working memory. Transfer to the linguistic domain was tested with a phonetic discrimination task. Musically-trained children showed better performance in auditory scene analysis, auditory working memory and phonetic discrimination tasks, and multiple regressions showed that success on these tasks was at least partly driven by music lessons. We propose that musical education contributes to development of general processes such as auditory attention and perception, which, in turn, facilitate auditory-related cognitive and linguistic processes.

  16. Music lessons improve auditory perceptual and cognitive performance in deaf children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochette, Françoise; Moussard, Aline; Bigand, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Despite advanced technologies in auditory rehabilitation of profound deafness, deaf children often exhibit delayed cognitive and linguistic development and auditory training remains a crucial element of their education. In the present cross-sectional study, we assess whether music would be a relevant tool for deaf children rehabilitation. In normal-hearing children, music lessons have been shown to improve cognitive and linguistic-related abilities, such as phonetic discrimination and reading. We compared auditory perception, auditory cognition, and phonetic discrimination between 14 profoundly deaf children who completed weekly music lessons for a period of 1.5-4 years and 14 deaf children who did not receive musical instruction. Children were assessed on perceptual and cognitive auditory tasks using environmental sounds: discrimination, identification, auditory scene analysis, auditory working memory. Transfer to the linguistic domain was tested with a phonetic discrimination task. Musically trained children showed better performance in auditory scene analysis, auditory working memory and phonetic discrimination tasks, and multiple regressions showed that success on these tasks was at least partly driven by music lessons. We propose that musical education contributes to development of general processes such as auditory attention and perception, which, in turn, facilitate auditory-related cognitive and linguistic processes.

  17. Single-unit Analysis of Somatosensory Processing in Core Auditory Cortex of Hearing Ferrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, M. Alex; Allman, Brian L.

    2014-01-01

    The recent findings in several species that primary auditory cortex processes non-auditory information have largely overlooked the possibility for somatosensory effects. Therefore, the present investigation examined the core auditory cortices (anterior – AAF, and primary auditory-- A1, fields) for tactile responsivity. Multiple single-unit recordings from anesthetized ferret cortex yielded histologically verified neurons (n=311) tested with electronically controlled auditory, visual and tactile stimuli and their combinations. Of the auditory neurons tested, a small proportion (17%) was influenced by visual cues, but a somewhat larger number (23%) was affected by tactile stimulation. Tactile effects rarely occurred alone and spiking responses were observed in bimodal auditory-tactile neurons. However, the broadest tactile effect that was observed, which occurred in all neuron types, was that of suppression of the response to a concurrent auditory cue. The presence of tactile effects in core auditory cortices was supported by a substantial anatomical projection from the rostral suprasylvian sulcal somatosensory area. Collectively, these results demonstrate that crossmodal effects in auditory cortex are not exclusively visual and that somatosensation plays a significant role in modulation of acoustic processing and indicate that crossmodal plasticity following deafness may unmask these existing non-auditory functions. PMID:25728185

  18. Assessment of Irrigation Performance along the Canal Reach of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the results of irrigation performance assessment made along the canal reaches of community-managed Hare irrigation scheme in. Southern Ethiopia. Field measurement, interview, group discussion and measurement of water supply were undertaken, and output performance indicators were assessed.

  19. Atlantoaxial dislocation associated with stenosis of canal at atlas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goel A

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Three rare cases of stenosis of spinal canal at the level of atlas associated with atlantoaxial dislocation are presented. An atlantoaxial lateral mass fixation with plate and screws after posterior midline bony decompression was successfully performed in these cases.

  20. Relação entre potenciais evocados auditivos de média latência e distúrbio de processamento auditivo: estudo de casos Relationship between auditory evoked potentials and middle latency auditory processing disorder: cases study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carla Leite Romero

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O Potencial Evocado Auditivo de Média Latência é um teste objetivo promissor na audiologia na pesquisa neuro-diagnóstica das disfunções do sistema auditivo. Tem como vantagens a precisão e objetividade na avaliação e por isso é útil em crianças. O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar os potenciais evocados auditivos de média latência em dois pacientes com distúrbio de processamento auditivo e relacionar as medidas objetivas e comportamentais. Para tanto foi realizado estudo de caso de dois pacientes (P1= feminino, 12 anos; P2= masculino, 17 anos, ambos com ausência de alterações sensoriais, distúrbios neurológicos, neuropsiquiátricos. Ambos foram submetidos à anamnese, inspeção do meato acústico externo, avaliação audiológica e avaliação do exame de potencial evocado auditivo de média latência. Houve associação significante entre os resultados dos exames comportamentais e objetivos. Na anamnese, houve queixas referentes à dificuldade de escuta em ambiente ruidoso, localização sonora, desatenção, além de trocas fonológicas na escrita e na fala. Foram observadas alterações no processo de decodificação auditiva à direita em ambos os casos na avaliação comportamental do processamento auditivo e no exame de potencial evocado auditivo de média latência a resposta da via contralateral direita foi deficitária, confirmando as dificuldades dos pacientes estudados na atribuição de significado às informações acústicas em condição de competição sonora à direita nos dois casos. Para os casos estudados comprovou-se à associação entre os resultados, porém há necessidade de novos estudos com maior amostra para confirmação dos dados.The Auditory Evoked Middle Latency Response is one of the most promising objective tests in audiology and in revealing brain dysfunction and neuro-audiologic findings. The main advantages of its clinical use are precision and objectivity in evaluating children

  1. Relação entre potenciais evocados auditivos de média latência e distúrbio de processamento auditivo: estudo de casos Relationship between auditory evoked potentials and middle latency auditory processing disorder: cases study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carla Leite Romero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O Potencial Evocado Auditivo de Média Latência é um teste objetivo promissor na audiologia na pesquisa neuro-diagnóstica das disfunções do sistema auditivo. Tem como vantagens a precisão e objetividade na avaliação e por isso é útil em crianças. O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar os potenciais evocados auditivos de média latência em dois pacientes com distúrbio de processamento auditivo e relacionar as medidas objetivas e comportamentais. Para tanto foi realizado estudo de caso de dois pacientes (P1= feminino, 12 anos; P2= masculino, 17 anos, ambos com ausência de alterações sensoriais, distúrbios neurológicos, neuropsiquiátricos. Ambos foram submetidos à anamnese, inspeção do meato acústico externo, avaliação audiológica e avaliação do exame de potencial evocado auditivo de média latência. Houve associação significante entre os resultados dos exames comportamentais e objetivos. Na anamnese, houve queixas referentes à dificuldade de escuta em ambiente ruidoso, localização sonora, desatenção, além de trocas fonológicas na escrita e na fala. Foram observadas alterações no processo de decodificação auditiva à direita em ambos os casos na avaliação comportamental do processamento auditivo e no exame de potencial evocado auditivo de média latência a resposta da via contralateral direita foi deficitária, confirmando as dificuldades dos pacientes estudados na atribuição de significado às informações acústicas em condição de competição sonora à direita nos dois casos. Para os casos estudados comprovou-se à associação entre os resultados, porém há necessidade de novos estudos com maior amostra para confirmação dos dados.The Auditory Evoked Middle Latency Response is one of the most promising objective tests in audiology and in revealing brain dysfunction and neuro-audiologic findings. The main advantages of its clinical use are precision and objectivity in evaluating children

  2. Cochlear Responses and Auditory Brainstem Response Functions in Adults with Auditory Neuropathy/ Dys-Synchrony and Individuals with Normal Hearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Jafari

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Physiologic measures of cochlear and auditory nerve function may be of assis¬tance in distinguishing between hearing disorders due primarily to auditory nerve impairment from those due primarily to cochlear hair cells dysfunction. The goal of present study was to measure of co-chlear responses (otoacoustic emissions and cochlear microphonics and auditory brainstem response in some adults with auditory neuropathy/ dys-synchrony and subjects with normal hearing. Materials and Methods: Patients were 16 adults (32 ears in age range of 14-30 years with auditory neu¬ropathy/ dys-synchrony and 16 individuals in age range of 16-30 years from both sexes. The results of transient otoacoustic emissions, cochlear microphonics and auditory brainstem response measures were compared in both groups and the effects of age, sex, ear and degree of hearing loss were studied. Results: The pure-tone average was 48.1 dB HL in auditory neuropathy/dys-synchrony group and the fre¬quency of low tone loss and flat audiograms were higher among other audiogram's shapes. Transient oto¬acoustic emissions were shown in all auditory neuropathy/dys-synchrony people except two cases and its average was near in both studied groups. The latency and amplitude of the biggest reversed co-chlear microphonics response were higher in auditory neuropathy/dys-synchrony patients than control peo¬ple significantly. The correlation between cochlear microphonics amplitude and degree of hearing loss was not significant, and age had significant effect in some cochlear microphonics measures. Audi-tory brainstem response had no response in auditory neuropathy/dys-synchrony patients even with low stim¬uli rates. Conclusion: In adults with speech understanding worsen than predicted from the degree of hearing loss that suspect to auditory neuropathy/ dys-synchrony, the frequency of low tone loss and flat audiograms are higher. Usually auditory brainstem response is absent in

  3. Visibility of the central canal on MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petit-Lacour, M.C.; Lasjaunias, P.; Iffenecker, C.; Benoudiba, F.; Hadj Rabia, M.; Doyon, D. [Service de Neuroradiologie, Faculte de Paris Sud (France); Hurth, M. [Department of Neurosurgery, Faculte Paris Sud, Kremlin-Bicetre (France)

    2000-10-01

    The central canal of the spinal cord is present at birth and becomes progressively obliterated. Cadaver studies have shown that it may persiste partially or completely. To our knowledge, this entity has not been described on MRI. We reviewed 794 MRI studies of the spinal cord, and found 12 patients (aged 14 to 65 years) who had an intramedullary cavity. The cavity was at the junction of the ventral {sup 1}/{sub 3} and dorsal {sup 2}/{sub 3} of the spinal cord, except at the level of the lumbar enlargement, where it was central. It was filiform in most cases, although sometimes fusiform (3 to 4 mm in diameter), and had regular contours. The cavity were thoracic in 69 % of cases. The clinical features were totally unrelated to the image, and there were no anatomical factors (Chiari malformation, dysraphism) predisposing to syringomyelia. The images were perfectly compatible with a persistent central canal, which we interpret as a variant of normal anatomy. Therefore it is important to regard these findings as normal, to avoid unnecessary treatment and follow-up. (orig.)

  4. Root canals-from concretion to patency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakar Chaman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Teeth with calcification provide an endodontic treatment challenge; traumatized teeth usually develop partial or total pulpal obliteration which is characterized by apparent loss of the pulp space radiographically and a yellow discoloration of the clinical crown. Since only 7-27% of such teeth develop pulp necrosis with radiographic signs of apical periodontitis, it is difficult to decide whether to treat these teeth immediately upon detection of the pulpal obliteration or to wait until signs and symptoms of pulp and/or apical periodontitis occur. This article reviews the etiology, prevalence, classification, mechanism, diagnosis as well as treatment options for teeth with pulp obliteration and the various management approaches and treatment strategies for overcoming potential complications. A search of articles from "PubMed" and "Medline" from 1965 to present was done with the keywords dental trauma, discoloration, pathfinding instruments, pulp canal obliteration, and root canal treatment was conducted. A total of 94 abstracts were collected, of which 70 relevant articles were read and 31 most relevant articles were included in this article.

  5. Cigarette smoking as a risk factor for auditory problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschoal, Carolina Pamplona; Azevedo, Marisa Frasson de

    2009-01-01

    Smoking is a public health concern and we are still unsure of its relation with auditory problems. To study the effects of cigarette smoking in auditory thresholds, in otoacoustic emissions and in their inhibition by the efferent olivocochlear medial system. 144 adults from both genders, between 20 and 31 years of age, smoking and non-smoking individuals were submitted to conventional and high-frequency audiometry, transient stimuli otoacoustic emissions and suppression effect investigation. smokers presented worse auditory thresholds in the frequencies of 12.500Hz in the right ear and 14,000 kHz in both ears. Regarding the otoacoustic emissions, smokers group presented a lower response level in the frequencies of 1,000Hz in both ears and 4,000Hz in the left ear. Among smokers there were more cases of cochlear dysfunction and tinnitus. Our results suggest that cigarette smoking has an adverse effect on the auditory system.

  6. Partial Epilepsy with Auditory Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The clinical characteristics of 53 sporadic (S cases of idiopathic partial epilepsy with auditory features (IPEAF were analyzed and compared to previously reported familial (F cases of autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features (ADPEAF in a study at the University of Bologna, Italy.

  7. Measuring Auditory Selective Attention using Frequency Tagging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari M Bharadwaj

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Frequency tagging of sensory inputs (presenting stimuli that fluctuate periodically at rates to which the cortex can phase lock has been used to study attentional modulation of neural responses to inputs in different sensory modalities. For visual inputs, the visual steady-state response (VSSR at the frequency modulating an attended object is enhanced, while the VSSR to a distracting object is suppressed. In contrast, the effect of attention on the auditory steady-state response (ASSR is inconsistent across studies. However, most auditory studies analyzed results at the sensor level or used only a small number of equivalent current dipoles to fit cortical responses. In addition, most studies of auditory spatial attention used dichotic stimuli (independent signals at the ears rather than more natural, binaural stimuli. Here, we asked whether these methodological choices help explain discrepant results. Listeners attended to one of two competing speech streams, one simulated from the left and one from the right, that were modulated at different frequencies. Using distributed source modeling of magnetoencephalography results, we estimate how spatially directed attention modulates the ASSR in neural regions across the whole brain. Attention enhances the ASSR power at the frequency of the attended stream in the contralateral auditory cortex. The attended-stream modulation frequency also drives phase-locked responses in the left (but not right precentral sulcus (lPCS, a region implicated in control of eye gaze and visual spatial attention. Importantly, this region shows no phase locking to the distracting stream suggesting that the lPCS in engaged in an attention-specific manner. Modeling results that take account of the geometry and phases of the cortical sources phase locked to the two streams (including hemispheric asymmetry of lPCS activity help partly explain why past ASSR studies of auditory spatial attention yield seemingly contradictory

  8. Cone Beam Computed Tomographic Evaluation and Diagnosis of Mandibular First Molar with 6 Canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasha, Shiraz; Chaitanya, Bathula Vimala; Somisetty, Kusum Valli

    2016-01-01

    Root canal treatment of tooth with aberrant root canal morphology is very challenging. So thorough knowledge of both the external and internal anatomy of teeth is an important aspect of root canal treatment. With the advancement in technology it is imperative to use modern diagnostic tools such as magnification devices, CBCT, microscopes, and RVG to confirm the presence of these aberrant configurations. However, in everyday endodontic practice, clinicians have to treat teeth with atypical configurations for root canal treatment to be successful. This case report presents the management of a mandibular first molar with six root canals, four in mesial and two in distal root, and also emphasizes the use and importance of Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) as a diagnostic tool in endodontics.

  9. Cone Beam Computed Tomographic Evaluation and Diagnosis of Mandibular First Molar with 6 Canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiraz Pasha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Root canal treatment of tooth with aberrant root canal morphology is very challenging. So thorough knowledge of both the external and internal anatomy of teeth is an important aspect of root canal treatment. With the advancement in technology it is imperative to use modern diagnostic tools such as magnification devices, CBCT, microscopes, and RVG to confirm the presence of these aberrant configurations. However, in everyday endodontic practice, clinicians have to treat teeth with atypical configurations for root canal treatment to be successful. This case report presents the management of a mandibular first molar with six root canals, four in mesial and two in distal root, and also emphasizes the use and importance of Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT as a diagnostic tool in endodontics.

  10. Kedo-S Paediatric Rotary Files for Root Canal Preparation in Primary Teeth – Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Nickel-Titanium (Ni-Ti) instrument are widely used for root canal preparation in permanent tooth compared to primary teeth. Hand instrumentation technique remains the conventional method for root canal preparation in primary teeth. The time taken for root canal preparation with the conventional method is more resulting in patients and clinicians fatigue. Recently Ni-Ti rotary files designed for permanent tooth has been used for root canal preparation in primary teeth. Using rotary instruments for primary tooth pulpectomies resulted in better and predictable root canal filling. This article presents case reports of pulpectomy treatment performed using Kedo-S an exclusive paediatric Ni-Ti rotary files. The advantages and disadvantages in use of Ni-Ti rotary files in primary teeth are discussed in this article. PMID:28511532

  11. Kedo-S Paediatric Rotary Files for Root Canal Preparation in Primary Teeth - Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevanandan, Ganesh

    2017-03-01

    Nickel-Titanium (Ni-Ti) instrument are widely used for root canal preparation in permanent tooth compared to primary teeth. Hand instrumentation technique remains the conventional method for root canal preparation in primary teeth. The time taken for root canal preparation with the conventional method is more resulting in patients and clinicians fatigue. Recently Ni-Ti rotary files designed for permanent tooth has been used for root canal preparation in primary teeth. Using rotary instruments for primary tooth pulpectomies resulted in better and predictable root canal filling. This article presents case reports of pulpectomy treatment performed using Kedo-S an exclusive paediatric Ni-Ti rotary files. The advantages and disadvantages in use of Ni-Ti rotary files in primary teeth are discussed in this article.

  12. Influence of smear layer removal on the obturation of root canal ramifications

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    Elaine Vianna Freitas Fachin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated whether smear layer removal has any influence on the filling of the root canal system, by examining the obturation of lateral canals, secondary canals and apical deltas. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty maxillary and mandibular canines were randomly divided into two groups, according to their irrigation regimen. Both groups were irrigated with 1% NaOCl during canal shaping, but only the teeth in Group II received a final irrigation with 17% EDTA for smear layer removal. The root canals were obturated with lateral condensation of gutta-percha and the specimens were cleared, allowing for observation under the microscope. RESULTS: In Groups I and II, 42.5% and 37.5% of the teeth, respectively, presented at least one filled canal ramification. Although a larger number of obturated ramifications was found in Group I, there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups (p = 0.4957. CONCLUSIONS: Smear layer removal under the conditions tested in this study did not affect the obturation of root canal ramifications when lateral condensation of gutta-percha was the technique used for root canal filling.

  13. [Dentascan computed tomography of the mandibular incisive canal. Its radiologic anatomy and the therapeutic implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calgaro, A; Bison, L; Bellis, G B; Pozzi Mucelli, R

    1999-11-01

    To stress the importance of CT depiction of the mandibular incisive canal. This anatomical structure contains a major neurovascular bundle and is thus very important in the planning of mandibular implants in the canine-incisive area. January through December 1998, sixty patients unselected by age and gender were submitted to mandibular CT. Axial slices were acquired with 1-1.5 mm thickness and 1 mm table feed, and the images were then reformatted with a dedicated dental software. Both the conventional and the Helical techniques were used. The incisive canal appears on Dentascan transverse reconstructions as a round low-density area within mandibular trabecular bone, which is surrounded by a higher-density rim representing the canal walls. This anatomical structure originates from the mental foramen and continues mesially to the mental symphysis. The mandibular canal was visualized in 95% of cases bilaterally (57/60); the incisive canal was depicted on the left side in 41.6% of cases (25/60) and on the right side in 51.6% (31/60). The importance of careful assessment of the mandibular canal course before implantology is now widely recognized. The same holds true for the canine-incisive region in the jaw, to detect the incisive canal if present and prevent any complications from its accidental damage. CT with a dedicated software showed the incisive canal in a large number of patients, which calls for precise reporting of its presence, course, and relationships with teeth.

  14. Influence of smear layer removal on the obturation of root canal ramifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachin, Elaine Vianna Freitas; Scarparo, Roberta Kochenborger; Massoni, Liliane Inês Sachet

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated whether smear layer removal has any influence on the filling of the root canal system, by examining the obturation of lateral canals, secondary canals and apical deltas. Eighty maxillary and mandibular canines were randomly divided into two groups, according to their irrigation regimen. Both groups were irrigated with 1% NaOCl during canal shaping, but only the teeth in Group II received a final irrigation with 17% EDTA for smear layer removal. The root canals were obturated with lateral condensation of gutta-percha and the specimens were cleared, allowing for observation under the microscope. In Groups I and II, 42.5% and 37.5% of the teeth, respectively, presented at least one filled canal ramification. Although a larger number of obturated ramifications was found in Group I, there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups (p = 0.4957). Smear layer removal under the conditions tested in this study did not affect the obturation of root canal ramifications when lateral condensation of gutta-percha was the technique used for root canal filling.

  15. The Perception of Auditory Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Johahn

    2016-01-01

    The growing availability of efficient and relatively inexpensive virtual auditory display technology has provided new research platforms to explore the perception of auditory motion. At the same time, deployment of these technologies in command and control as well as in entertainment roles is generating an increasing need to better understand the complex processes underlying auditory motion perception. This is a particularly challenging processing feat because it involves the rapid deconvolution of the relative change in the locations of sound sources produced by rotational and translations of the head in space (self-motion) to enable the perception of actual source motion. The fact that we perceive our auditory world to be stable despite almost continual movement of the head demonstrates the efficiency and effectiveness of this process. This review examines the acoustical basis of auditory motion perception and a wide range of psychophysical, electrophysiological, and cortical imaging studies that have probed the limits and possible mechanisms underlying this perception. PMID:27094029

  16. Feel what you say: an auditory effect on somatosensory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champoux, François; Shiller, Douglas M; Zatorre, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we demonstrate an audiotactile effect in which amplitude modulation of auditory feedback during voiced speech induces a throbbing sensation over the lip and laryngeal regions. Control tasks coupled with the examination of speech acoustic parameters allow us to rule out the possibility that the effect may have been due to cognitive factors or motor compensatory effects. We interpret the effect as reflecting the tight interplay between auditory and tactile modalities during vocal production.

  17. Feel what you say: an auditory effect on somatosensory perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Champoux

    Full Text Available In the present study, we demonstrate an audiotactile effect in which amplitude modulation of auditory feedback during voiced speech induces a throbbing sensation over the lip and laryngeal regions. Control tasks coupled with the examination of speech acoustic parameters allow us to rule out the possibility that the effect may have been due to cognitive factors or motor compensatory effects. We interpret the effect as reflecting the tight interplay between auditory and tactile modalities during vocal production.

  18. Chronic granulomatous otitis externa as an initial presentation of cutaneous Crohn disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynor, Eileen M

    2014-08-01

    In the limited number of Crohn disease cases involving the head and neck, there is a predilection for mucosal surfaces and rare reports of involvement in the postauricular region. To our knowledge, in all previously reported cases involving the head and neck, the patients had a known diagnosis of Crohn disease. This case describes a 10-year-old boy with a history of psoriasis and psoriasiform dermatitis who presented with bilateral chronic granulomatous otitis externa, obliteration of the external auditory canal, and fissuring, resulting in separation of the lobule from the preauricular skin. Pathologic examination results were consistent with granulomatous dermatitis concerning for cutaneous Crohn disease, and a subsequent gastroenterologic workup confirmed the diagnosis of Crohn disease. This is a report of chronic granulomatous otitis as the initial presentation of cutaneous Crohn disease in a child.

  19. Cross-Modal Functional Reorganization of Visual and Auditory Cortex in Adult Cochlear Implant Users Identified with fNIRS

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    Ling-Chia Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cochlear implant (CI users show higher auditory-evoked activations in visual cortex and higher visual-evoked activation in auditory cortex compared to normal hearing (NH controls, reflecting functional reorganization of both visual and auditory modalities. Visual-evoked activation in auditory cortex is a maladaptive functional reorganization whereas auditory-evoked activation in visual cortex is beneficial for speech recognition in CI users. We investigated their joint influence on CI users’ speech recognition, by testing 20 postlingually deafened CI users and 20 NH controls with functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS. Optodes were placed over occipital and temporal areas to measure visual and auditory responses when presenting visual checkerboard and auditory word stimuli. Higher cross-modal activations were confirmed in both auditory and visual cortex for CI users compared to NH controls, demonstrating that functional reorganization of both auditory and visual cortex can be identified with fNIRS. Additionally, the combined reorganization of auditory and visual cortex was found to be associated with speech recognition performance. Speech performance was good as long as the beneficial auditory-evoked activation in visual cortex was higher than the visual-evoked activation in the auditory cortex. These results indicate the importance of considering cross-modal activations in both visual and auditory cortex for potential clinical outcome estimation.

  20. Peripheral Auditory Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, J; Hubbard, A; Neely, S; Tubis, A

    1986-01-01

    How weIl can we model experimental observations of the peripheral auditory system'? What theoretical predictions can we make that might be tested'? It was with these questions in mind that we organized the 1985 Mechanics of Hearing Workshop, to bring together auditory researchers to compare models with experimental observations. Tbe workshop forum was inspired by the very successful 1983 Mechanics of Hearing Workshop in Delft [1]. Boston University was chosen as the site of our meeting because of the Boston area's role as a center for hearing research in this country. We made a special effort at this meeting to attract students from around the world, because without students this field will not progress. Financial support for the workshop was provided in part by grant BNS- 8412878 from the National Science Foundation. Modeling is a traditional strategy in science and plays an important role in the scientific method. Models are the bridge between theory and experiment. Tbey test the assumptions made in experim...

  1. Frequency-specific modulation of population-level frequency tuning in human auditory cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Larry E

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Under natural circumstances, attention plays an important role in extracting relevant auditory signals from simultaneously present, irrelevant noises. Excitatory and inhibitory neural activity, enhanced by attentional processes, seems to sharpen frequency tuning, contributing to improved auditory performance especially in noisy environments. In the present study, we investigated auditory magnetic fields in humans that were evoked by pure tones embedded in band-eliminated noises during two different stimulus sequencing conditions (constant vs. random under auditory focused attention by means of magnetoencephalography (MEG. Results In total, we used identical auditory stimuli between conditions, but presented them in a different order, thereby manipulating the neural processing and the auditory performance of the listeners. Constant stimulus sequencing blocks were characterized by the simultaneous presentation of pure tones of identical frequency with band-eliminated noises, whereas random sequencing blocks were characterized by the simultaneous presentation of pure tones of random frequencies and band-eliminated noises. We demonstrated that auditory evoked neural responses were larger in the constant sequencing compared to the random sequencing condition, particularly when the simultaneously presented noises contained narrow stop-bands. Conclusion The present study confirmed that population-level frequency tuning in human auditory cortex can be sharpened in a frequency-specific manner. This frequency-specific sharpening may contribute to improved auditory performance during detection and processing of relevant sound inputs characterized by specific frequency distributions in noisy environments.

  2. Neuromechanistic Model of Auditory Bistability.

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    James Rankin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sequences of higher frequency A and lower frequency B tones repeating in an ABA- triplet pattern are widely used to study auditory streaming. One may experience either an integrated percept, a single ABA-ABA- stream, or a segregated percept, separate but simultaneous streams A-A-A-A- and -B---B--. During minutes-long presentations, subjects may report irregular alternations between these interpretations. We combine neuromechanistic modeling and psychoacoustic experiments to study these persistent alternations and to characterize the effects of manipulating stimulus parameters. Unlike many phenomenological models with abstract, percept-specific competition and fixed inputs, our network model comprises neuronal units with sensory feature dependent inputs that mimic the pulsatile-like A1 responses to tones in the ABA- triplets. It embodies a neuronal computation for percept competition thought to occur beyond primary auditory cortex (A1. Mutual inhibition, adaptation and noise are implemented. We include slow NDMA recurrent excitation for local temporal memory that enables linkage across sound gaps from one triplet to the next. Percepts in our model are identified in the firing patterns of the neuronal units. We predict with the model that manipulations of the frequency difference between tones A and B should affect the dominance durations of the stronger percept, the one dominant a larger fraction of time, more than those of the weaker percept-a property that has been previously established and generalized across several visual bistable paradigms. We confirm the qualitative prediction with our psychoacoustic experiments and use the behavioral data to further constrain and improve the model, achieving quantitative agreement between experimental and modeling results. Our work and model provide a platform that can be extended to consider other stimulus conditions, including the effects of context and volition.

  3. Developmental spinal canal stenosis and somatotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, S

    1989-01-01

    The hypothesis that somatotype and cervical spine developmental canal stenosis may be associated has been investigated by anthropometry and measurement of lateral projection cervical spine radiographs. A significant association of canal size with somatotype has been found such that those with developmentally narrow canals are more likely to have relatively shorter long-bones, particularly in the upper arm, and longer trunks. Images PMID:2769282

  4. Auditory Processing Testing: In the Booth versus Outside the Booth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucker, Jay R

    2017-09-01

    Many audiologists believe that auditory processing testing must be carried out in a soundproof booth. This expectation is especially a problem in places such as elementary schools. Research comparing pure-tone thresholds obtained in sound booths compared to quiet test environments outside of these booths does not support that belief. Auditory processing testing is generally carried out at above threshold levels, and therefore may be even less likely to require a soundproof booth. The present study was carried out to compare test results in soundproof booths versus quiet rooms. The purpose of this study was to determine whether auditory processing tests can be administered in a quiet test room rather than in the soundproof test suite. The outcomes would identify that audiologists can provide auditory processing testing for children under various test conditions including quiet rooms at their school. A battery of auditory processing tests was administered at a test level equivalent to 50 dB HL through headphones. The same equipment was used for testing in both locations. Twenty participants identified with normal hearing were included in this study, ten having no auditory processing concerns and ten exhibiting auditory processing problems. All participants underwent a battery of tests, both inside the test booth and outside the booth in a quiet room. Order of testing (inside versus outside) was counterbalanced. Participants were first determined to have normal hearing thresholds for tones and speech. Auditory processing tests were recorded and presented from an HP EliteBook laptop computer with noise-canceling headphones attached to a y-cord that not only presented the test stimuli to the participants but also allowed monitor headphones to be worn by the evaluator. The same equipment was used inside as well as outside the booth. No differences were found for each auditory processing measure as a function of the test setting or the order in which testing was done

  5. Auditory/visual distance estimation: accuracy and variability

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    Paul Wallace Anderson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Past research has shown that auditory distance estimation improves when listeners are given the opportunity to see all possible sound sources when compared to no visual input. It has also been established that distance estimation is more accurate in vision than in audition. The present study investigates the degree to which auditory distance estimation is improved when matched with a congruent visual stimulus. Virtual sound sources based on binaural room impulse response (BRIR measurements made from distances ranging from approximately 0.3 to 9.8 m in a concert hall were used as auditory stimuli. Visual stimuli were photographs taken from the listener’s perspective at each distance in the impulse response measurement setup presented on a large HDTV monitor. Listeners were asked to estimate egocentric distance to the sound source in each of three conditions: auditory only (A, visual only (V, and congruent auditory/visual stimuli (A+V. Each condition was presented within its own block. Sixty-two listeners were tested in order to quantify the response variability inherent in auditory distance perception. Distance estimates from both the V and A+V conditions were found to be considerably more accurate and less variable than estimates from the A condition.

  6. Influence of Auditory and Haptic Stimulation in Visual Perception

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    Shunichi Kawabata

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available While many studies have shown that visual information affects perception in the other modalities, little is known about how auditory and haptic information affect visual perception. In this study, we investigated how auditory, haptic, or auditory and haptic stimulation affects visual perception. We used a behavioral task based on the subjects observing the phenomenon of two identical visual objects moving toward each other, overlapping and then continuing their original motion. Subjects may perceive the objects as either streaming each other or bouncing and reversing their direction of motion. With only visual motion stimulus, subjects usually report the objects as streaming, whereas if a sound or flash is played when the objects touch each other, subjects report the objects as bouncing (Bounce-Inducing Effect. In this study, “auditory stimulation”, “haptic stimulation” or “haptic and auditory stimulation” were presented at various times relative to the visual overlap of objects. Our result shows the bouncing rate when haptic and auditory stimulation were presented were the highest. This result suggests that the Bounce-Inducing Effect is enhanced by simultaneous modality presentation to visual motion. In the future, a neuroscience approach (eg, TMS, fMRI may be required to elucidate the brain mechanism in this study.

  7. Sensitivity and specificity of auditory steady-state response testing

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    Camila Maia Rabelo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The ASSR test is an electrophysiological test that evaluates, among other aspects, neural synchrony, based on the frequency or amplitude modulation of tones. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of auditory steady-state response testing in detecting lesions and dysfunctions of the central auditory nervous system. METHODS: Seventy volunteers were divided into three groups: those with normal hearing; those with mesial temporal sclerosis; and those with central auditory processing disorder. All subjects underwent auditory steady-state response testing of both ears at 500 Hz and 2000 Hz (frequency modulation, 46 Hz. The difference between auditory steady-state response-estimated thresholds and behavioral thresholds (audiometric evaluation was calculated. RESULTS: Estimated thresholds were significantly higher in the mesial temporal sclerosis group than in the normal and central auditory processing disorder groups. In addition, the difference between auditory steady-state response-estimated and behavioral thresholds was greatest in the mesial temporal sclerosis group when compared to the normal group than in the central auditory processing disorder group compared to the normal group. DISCUSSION: Research focusing on central auditory nervous system (CANS lesions has shown that individuals with CANS lesions present a greater difference between ASSR-estimated thresholds and actual behavioral thresholds; ASSR-estimated thresholds being significantly worse than behavioral thresholds in subjects with CANS insults. This is most likely because the disorder prevents the transmission of the sound stimulus from being in phase with the received stimulus, resulting in asynchronous transmitter release. Another possible cause of the greater difference between the ASSR-estimated thresholds and the behavioral thresholds is impaired temporal resolution. CONCLUSIONS: The overall sensitivity of auditory steady

  8. Development of the anterior chordal canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Miklós; Moser, Gerhard; Patonay, Lajos; Oláh, Imre

    2006-01-01

    Resent advances have led to the reexamination of the intraosseous pathway of the chorda tympani a few years ago and they stated that the nerve never enters the mandibular fossa and its exit the skull base in the sphenopetrosal fissure. In our report, 58 temporal bones were investigated after maceration and formalin fixation in order to understand the development of the anterior chordal canal. Our study revealed that the chorda tympani leaves the tympanic cavity through the tympanosquamosal fissure before formation of the anterior chordal canal of Huguier. This canal is situated parallel to and in front of the musculotubal canal and formed by the processus inferior tegminis tympani and the sphenoid bone between the second and fifth years of age. Prior to the age of 2, only the exit of the bony canal exists which is gradually followed by the appearance of a groove in the growing processus inferior tegminis tympani. The borders of the groove elevate and develop to upper and lower plates which lengthen with similar plates of the sphenoid bone, completing the anterior chordal canal by the fifth postnatal year. The entrance of the canal develops above the petrotympanic fissure and similar to the canal itself, it is also completely formed in the fifth year. In case of an incomplete development the anterior chordal canal remains partially opened laterally which might allow the head of the mandibula to effect the chorda tympani mechanically causing Costen's syndrome.

  9. Anatomical study of the auditory region of Arctotherium tarijense (Ursidae, Tremarctinae), an extinct short-faced bear from the Pleistocene of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaudo, Maria Eugenia; Bona, Paula; Soibelzon, Leopoldo Hector; Schubert, Blaine W

    2016-12-01

    Here we present the most detailed morphological study of the auditory region of a tremarctinae bear, Arctotherium tarijense Ameghino. In addition, we provide new anatomical information of the Tremarctinae inner ear, such as coplanarity and deviation from orthogonality of the semicircular canals, as an approach to infer the head movements which encountered the extinct forms in locomotion. Based on morphological comparisons, A. tarijense exhibits the following particular features: the cavum tympani presents the highest relative volume compared with other ursids; the processus paraoccipitalis has a foramen that is absent in other tremarctines; there is only one (ventral) recess in the anterior region of the cavum tympani; and the recessus epytimpanicus is the smallest for all ursids studied. In relation to the inner ear, A. tarijense shows the lowest values of orthogonality deviation and highest scores of locomotor agility. Based on this, is possible to make a preliminary proposal that this species had a relative high vestibular sensibility and therefore a better ability to explore different kind of habitats. However, this hypothesis might be contrasted among bears taking into account the orientation of each semicircular canal in a phylogenetic framework. © 2016 Anatomical Society.

  10. Study of lipid in the ear canal in canine otitis externa with Malassezia pachydermatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, A; Sukegawa, T; Mizumoto, N; Tani, H; Miyamoto, T; Sasai, K; Baba, E

    2000-11-01

    An epidemiological investigation of 120 canine otitis externa cases in 1,370 dogs was done on the incidence rate, ear pinna shapes, breeds and their relationships. Eighty-five cases (12.6%) in 672 dogs with pendulous ears and 35 cases (5.0%) in 698 dogs with erect ears had otitis externa, and the difference between them was significant (Pcanine otitis externa, prefers the auditory canal of dogs with lipid-rich earwax and grows fast, but growth strongly depends upon the canine breed.

  11. Prevalence of middle mesial canals in mandibular molars after guided troughing under high magnification: an in vivo investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azim, Adham A; Deutsch, Allan S; Solomon, Charles S

    2015-02-01

    A limited number of in vivo studies have discussed the prevalence of middle mesial canals in root canal systems of mandibular molars. The reported results have varied between 1% and 25%, with no detailed description of the depth and direction of troughing needed to identify such small canal orifices. The objective of the present study was to determine (1) the prevalence of a middle mesial canal before and after troughing by using a standardized troughing technique, (2) the pathway of the middle mesial canal in relation to the mesiobuccal (MB) and mesiolingual (ML) canals, and (3) its correlation with the patient's age. Ninety-one mandibular molars from 87 patients were included in this study. The patient's age and tooth number were recorded. After access cavity preparation, a standardized troughing technique was performed between MB and ML canals to search for a middle mesial canal by using a dental operating microscope. If a middle mesial canal was located, it was recorded as separate or as joining the MB or the ML canals. Results were statistically analyzed by using Z test and logistic regression. A middle mesial canal was found in 42 of 91 mandibular molars (46.2%). Six middle mesial canals were located after conventional access preparation (6.6%). The other 36 were located after standardized troughing (39.6%). The results were statistically significant (P magnification, troughing, and patient's age appeared to be determining factors in accessing the middle mesial canal. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A Transient Auditory Signal Shifts the Perceived Offset Position of a Moving Visual Object

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    Sung-En eChien

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Information received from different sensory modalities profoundly influences human perception. For example, changes in the auditory flutter rate induce changes in the apparent flicker rate of a flashing light (Shipley, 1964. In the present study, we investigated whether auditory information would affect the perceived offset position of a moving object. In Experiment 1, a visual object moved toward the center of the computer screen and disappeared abruptly. A transient auditory signal was presented at different times relative to the moment when the object disappeared. The results showed that if the auditory signal was presented before the abrupt offset of the moving object, the perceived final position was shifted backward, implying that the perceived offset position was affected by the transient auditory information. In Experiment 2, we presented the transient auditory signal to either the left or the right ear. The results showed that the perceived offset shifted backward more strongly when the auditory signal was presented to the same side from which the moving object originated. In Experiment 3, we found that the perceived timing of the visual offset was not affected by the spatial relation between the auditory signal and the visual offset. The present results are interpreted as indicating that an auditory signal may influence the offset position of a moving object through both spatial and temporal processes.

  13. 5 CFR 315.601 - Appointment of former employees of the Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System. 315.601 Section 315.601 Administrative... employees of the Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System. (a) Agency authority. This... Zone Merit System, which was in effect before March 31, 1982, or under the Panama Canal Employment...

  14. Auditory hallucinations treated by radio headphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feder, R

    1982-09-01

    A young man with chronic auditory hallucinations was treated according to the principle that increasing external auditory stimulation decreases the likelihood of auditory hallucinations. Listening to a radio through stereo headphones in conditions of low auditory stimulation eliminated the patient's hallucinations.

  15. Screening Test for Auditory Processing (STAP): a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yathiraj, Asha; Maggu, Akshay Raj

    2013-10-01

    The presence of auditory processing disorder in school-age children has been documented (Katz and Wilde, 1985; Chermak and Musiek, 1997; Jerger and Musiek, 2000; Muthuselvi and Yathiraj, 2009). In order to identify these children early, there is a need for a screening test that is not very time-consuming. The present study aimed to evaluate the independence of four subsections of the Screening Test for Auditory Processing (STAP) developed by Yathiraj and Maggu (2012). The test was designed to address auditory separation/closure, binaural integration, temporal resolution, and auditory memory in school-age children. The study also aimed to examine the number of children who are at risk for different auditory processes. Factor analysis research design was used in the current study. Four hundred school-age children consisting of 218 males and 182 females were randomly selected from 2400 children attending three schools. The children, aged 8 to 13 yr, were in grade three to eight class placements. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSES: The children were evaluated on the four subsections of the STAP (speech perception in noise, dichotic consonant-vowel [CV], gap detection, and auditory memory) in a quiet room within their school. The responses were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). In addition, the data were also analyzed to determine the number of children who were at risk for an auditory processing disorder (APD). Based on the PCA, three components with Eigen values greater than 1 were extracted. The orthogonal rotation of the variables using the Varimax technique revealed that component 1 consisted of binaural integration, component 2 consisted of temporal resolution, and component 3 was shared by auditory separation/closure and auditory memory. These findings were confirmed using CFA, where the predicted model displayed a good fit with or without the inclusion of the auditory memory subsection. It was determined that 16

  16. Effects of sequential streaming on auditory masking using psychoacoustics and auditory evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhey, Jesko L; Ernst, Stephan M A; Yasin, Ifat

    2012-03-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the relationship between the mismatch negativity (MMN) and psychoacoustical effects of sequential streaming on comodulation masking release (CMR). The influence of sequential streaming on CMR was investigated using a psychoacoustical alternative forced-choice procedure and electroencephalography (EEG) for the same group of subjects. The psychoacoustical data showed, that adding precursors comprising of only off-signal-frequency maskers abolished the CMR. Complementary EEG data showed an MMN irrespective of the masker envelope correlation across frequency when only the off-signal-frequency masker components were present. The addition of such precursors promotes a separation of the on- and off-frequency masker components into distinct auditory objects preventing the auditory system from using comodulation as an additional cue. A frequency-specific adaptation changing the representation of the flanking bands in the streaming conditions may also contribute to the reduction of CMR in the stream conditions, however, it is unlikely that adaptation is the primary reason for the streaming effect. A neurophysiological correlate of sequential streaming was found in EEG data using MMN, but the magnitude of the MMN was not correlated with the audibility of the signal in CMR experiments. Dipole source analysis indicated different cortical regions involved in processing auditory streaming and modulation detection. In particular, neural sources for processing auditory streaming include cortical regions involved in decision-making. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Síndrome do canal de Guyon causada por cisto sinovial Guyon's canal syndrome due to a synovial cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Silva Ruas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Apresentamos um caso de síndrome do canal de Guyon por um cisto sinovial no punho esquerdo de uma paciente do sexo feminino, de 48 anos. A paciente apresentava dor e parestesia na topografia do nervo ulnar, diminuição da força muscular e deformidade na mão esquerda. A eletroneuromiografia evidenciava compressão do nervo ulnar no nível do punho. Realizada a ressecção do cisto e descompressão do nervo no canal de Guyon. Após a cirurgia a paciente apresentou melhora da dor e da parestesia, além de aumento do trofismo muscular e correção da deformidade.The authors present a case of Guyon's canal syndrome due to a synovial cyst within the left wrist of a 48-year-old female patient. The patient reported pain and paresthesia in the topography of the ulnar nerve, loss of muscular strength and left hand deformity. Electromyography showed a compression of the ulnar nerve at the wrist level. Surgical decompression at the Guyon canal with resection of the cyst was performed. After surgery, the patient presented with improvement of pain and paresthesia, as well as an increase in muscular trophism and correction of the deformity.

  18. Temporal and Spatial Variation of Chemical Water Quality in a Contour Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, L. A.; Lunn, R. J.

    2004-12-01

    Chemical water quality is a highly variable aspect of any water body. Historically numerous researchers have investigated the chemical variability of rivers, streams and wetlands, artificial water bodies such as canals have been largely neglected. Canals are typically hydraulically characterised by low flows and a lack of mixing processes. This can potentially lead to significant spatial variability in water chemistry, and as a result many canals in the UK regularly fail water quality targets at specific locations. Recent changes to UK legislation, following the European Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC), have resulted in canals being subject to achieving `good ecological status'. In the case of canals, what constitutes `good ecological status' is largely unknown and little expertise is available since historically canal management has not been driven by chemical and ecological quality targets. Consequently, there is an urgent need for new research to determine the main factors influencing canal water quality and their ecological status. This research presents results from a study based on a UK contour canal, the Union Canal in central Scotland. The Union Canal typically demonstrates spatially and temporally variable levels of dissolved oxygen (DO) and orthophosphate (PO4-P): simultaneously, seasonal and diel fluctuations of DO and PO4-P are pronounced at a small number of locations. During 1995, minimum levels of DO along the canal length ranged from 9mgl-1 in Edinburgh to as low as 2mgl-1 approximately 20kms away, this then rose again to 8mgl-1 after a further distance of 2km. These acutely low levels of DO are coupled with events of excessive PO4-P up to 0.235mgl-1:10 times greater than those normally found in rivers, causing localised eutrophication and extensive fish kills. To determine the cause of the `hot spots' of poor water quality found on the Union Canal, simultaneous investigations of the hydraulic regime, spatial and temporal water quality

  19. Neural correlates of auditory scale illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriki, Shinya; Numao, Ryousuke; Nemoto, Iku

    2016-09-01

    The auditory illusory perception "scale illusion" occurs when ascending and descending musical scale tones are delivered in a dichotic manner, such that the higher or lower tone at each instant is presented alternately to the right and left ears. Resulting tone sequences have a zigzag pitch in one ear and the reversed (zagzig) pitch in the other ear. Most listeners hear illusory smooth pitch sequences of up-down and down-up streams in the two ears separated in higher and lower halves of the scale. Although many behavioral studies have been conducted, how and where in the brain the illusory percept is formed have not been elucidated. In this study, we conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging using sequential tones that induced scale illusion (ILL) and those that mimicked the percept of scale illusion (PCP), and we compared the activation responses evoked by those stimuli by region-of-interest analysis. We examined the effects of adaptation, i.e., the attenuation of response that occurs when close-frequency sounds are repeated, which might interfere with the changes in activation by the illusion process. Results of the activation difference of the two stimuli, measured at varied tempi of tone presentation, in the superior temporal auditory cortex were not explained by adaptation. Instead, excess activation of the ILL stimulus from the PCP stimulus at moderate tempi (83 and 126 bpm) was significant in the posterior auditory cortex with rightward superiority, while significant prefrontal activation was dominant at the highest tempo (245 bpm). We suggest that the area of the planum temporale posterior to the primary auditory cortex is mainly involved in the illusion formation, and that the illusion-related process is strongly dependent on the rate of tone presentation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Selective increase of auditory cortico-striatal coherence during auditory-cued Go/NoGo discrimination learning.

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    Andreas L. Schulz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Goal directed behavior and associated learning processes are tightly linked to neuronal activity in the ventral striatum. Mechanisms that integrate task relevant sensory information into striatal processing during decision making and learning are implicitly assumed in current reinforcementmodels, yet they are still weakly understood. To identify the functional activation of cortico-striatal subpopulations of connections during auditory discrimination learning, we trained Mongolian gerbils in a two-way active avoidance task in a shuttlebox to discriminate between falling and rising frequency modulated tones with identical spectral properties. We assessed functional coupling by analyzing the field-field coherence between the auditory cortex and the ventral striatum of animals performing the task. During the course of training, we observed a selective increase of functionalcoupling during Go-stimulus presentations. These results suggest that the auditory cortex functionally interacts with the ventral striatum during auditory learning and that the strengthening of these functional connections is selectively goal-directed.

  1. The Corticofugal Effects of Auditory Cortex Microstimulation on Auditory Nerve and Superior Olivary Complex Responses Are Mediated via Alpha-9 Nicotinic Receptor Subunit.

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    Cristian Aedo

    Full Text Available The auditory efferent system is a complex network of descending pathways, which mainly originate in the primary auditory cortex and are directed to several auditory subcortical nuclei. These descending pathways are connected to olivocochlear neurons, which in turn make synapses with auditory nerve neurons and outer hair cells (OHC of the cochlea. The olivocochlear function can be studied using contralateral acoustic stimulation, which suppresses auditory nerve and cochlear responses. In the present work, we tested the proposal that the corticofugal effects that modulate the strength of the olivocochlear reflex on auditory nerve responses are produced through cholinergic synapses between medial olivocochlear (MOC neurons and OHCs via alpha-9/10 nicotinic receptors.We used wild type (WT and alpha-9 nicotinic receptor knock-out (KO mice, which lack cholinergic transmission between MOC neurons and OHC, to record auditory cortex evoked potentials and to evaluate the consequences of auditory cortex electrical microstimulation in the effects produced by contralateral acoustic stimulation on auditory brainstem responses (ABR.Auditory cortex evoked potentials at 15 kHz were similar in WT and KO mice. We found that auditory cortex microstimulation produces an enhancement of contralateral noise suppression of ABR waves I and III in WT mice but not in KO mice. On the other hand, corticofugal modulations of wave V amplitudes were significant in both genotypes.These findings show that the corticofugal modulation of contralateral acoustic suppressions of auditory nerve (ABR wave I and superior olivary complex (ABR wave III responses are mediated through MOC synapses.

  2. Auditory short-term memory in the primate auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Brian H; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2016-06-01

    Sounds are fleeting, and assembling the sequence of inputs at the ear into a coherent percept requires auditory memory across various time scales. Auditory short-term memory comprises at least two components: an active ׳working memory' bolstered by rehearsal, and a sensory trace that may be passively retained. Working memory relies on representations recalled from long-term memory, and their rehearsal may require phonological mechanisms unique to humans. The sensory component, passive short-term memory (pSTM), is tractable to study in nonhuman primates, whose brain architecture and behavioral repertoire are comparable to our own. This review discusses recent advances in the behavioral and neurophysiological study of auditory memory with a focus on single-unit recordings from macaque monkeys performing delayed-match-to-sample (DMS) tasks. Monkeys appear to employ pSTM to solve these tasks, as evidenced by the impact of interfering stimuli on memory performance. In several regards, pSTM in monkeys resembles pitch memory in humans, and may engage similar neural mechanisms. Neural correlates of DMS performance have been observed throughout the auditory and prefrontal cortex, defining a network of areas supporting auditory STM with parallels to that supporting visual STM. These correlates include persistent neural firing, or a suppression of firing, during the delay period of the memory task, as well as suppression or (less commonly) enhancement of sensory responses when a sound is repeated as a ׳match' stimulus. Auditory STM is supported by a distributed temporo-frontal network in which sensitivity to stimulus history is an intrinsic feature of auditory processing. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Auditory-olfactory synesthesia coexisting with auditory-visual synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Thomas E; Sandramouli, Soupramanien

    2012-09-01

    Synesthesia is an unusual condition in which stimulation of one sensory modality causes an experience in another sensory modality or when a sensation in one sensory modality causes another sensation within the same modality. We describe a previously unreported association of auditory-olfactory synesthesia coexisting with auditory-visual synesthesia. Given that many types of synesthesias involve vision, it is important that the clinician provide these patients with the necessary information and support that is available.

  4. Influence of affective auditory stimuli on balance control during static stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xingyu; Qu, Xingda

    2017-03-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the effects of affective auditory stimuli on balance control during static stance. Twelve female and 12 male participants were recruited. Each participant completed four upright standing trials including three auditory stimuli trials and one baseline trial (ie no auditory stimuli). The three auditory stimuli trials corresponded to the pleasant, neutral and unpleasant sound conditions. Center of pressure (COP) measures were used to quantify balance control performance. It was found that unpleasant auditory stimuli were associated with larger COP amplitude in the AP direction compared to the rest testing conditions. There were no significant interaction effects between 'auditory stimuli' and gender. These findings suggested that some specificities presented by auditory stimuli are important for balance control, and the effects of auditory stimuli on balance control were dependent on their affective components. Practitioner Summary: Findings from this study can aid in better understanding of the relationship between auditory stimuli and balance control. In particular, unpleasant auditory stimuli were found to result in poorer balance control and higher fall risks. Therefore, to prevent fall accidents, interventions should be developed to reduce exposures to unpleasant sound.

  5. Simulating Auditory Hallucinations in a Video Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weinel, Jonathan; Cunningham, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    In previous work the authors have proposed the concept of 'ASC Simulations': including audio-visual installations and experiences, as well as interactive video game systems, which simulate altered states of consciousness (ASCs) such as dreams and hallucinations. Building on the discussion...... of the authors' previous paper, where a large-scale qualitative study explored the changes to auditory perception that users of various intoxicating substances report, here the authors present three prototype audio mechanisms for simulating hallucinations in a video game. These were designed in the Unity video...... game engine as an early proof-of-concept. The first mechanism simulates 'selective auditory attention' to different sound sources, by attenuating the amplitude of unattended sources. The second simulates 'enhanced sounds', by adjusting perceived brightness through filtering. The third simulates...

  6. Implicit temporal expectation attenuates auditory attentional blink.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Shen

    Full Text Available Attentional blink (AB describes a phenomenon whereby correct identification of a first target impairs the processing of a second target (i.e., probe nearby in time. Evidence suggests that explicit attention orienting in the time domain can attenuate the AB. Here, we used scalp-recorded, event-related potentials to examine whether auditory AB is also sensitive to implicit temporal attention orienting. Expectations were set up implicitly by varying the probability (i.e., 80% or 20% that the probe would occur at the +2 or +8 position following target presentation. Participants showed a significant AB, which was reduced with the increased probe probability at the +2 position. The probe probability effect was paralleled by an increase in P3b amplitude elicited by the probe. The results suggest that implicit temporal attention orienting can facilitate short-term consolidation of the probe and attenuate auditory AB.

  7. An Auditory Model with Hearing Loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Bramsløw

    An auditory model based on the psychophysics of hearing has been developed and tested. The model simulates the normal ear or an impaired ear with a given hearing loss. Based on reviews of the current literature, the frequency selectivity and loudness growth as functions of threshold and stimulus...... level have been found and implemented in the model. The auditory model was verified against selected results from the literature, and it was confirmed that the normal spread of masking and loudness growth could be simulated in the model. The effects of hearing loss on these parameters was also...... in qualitative agreement with recent findings. The temporal properties of the ear have currently not been included in the model. As an example of a real-world application of the model, loudness spectrograms for a speech utterance were presented. By introducing hearing loss, the speech sounds became less audible...

  8. Auditory environmental context affects visual distance perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchemendy, Pablo E; Abregú, Ezequiel; Calcagno, Esteban R; Eguia, Manuel C; Vechiatti, Nilda; Iasi, Federico; Vergara, Ramiro O

    2017-08-03

    In this article, we show that visual distance perception (VDP) is influenced by the auditory environmental context through reverberation-related cues. We performed two VDP experiments in two dark rooms with extremely different reverberation times: an anechoic chamber and a reverberant room. Subjects assigned to the reverberant room perceived the targets farther than subjects assigned to the anechoic chamber. Also, we found a positive correlation between the maximum perceived distance and the auditorily perceived room size. We next performed a second experiment in which the same subjects of Experiment 1 were interchanged between rooms. We found that subjects preserved the responses from the previous experiment provided they were compatible with the present perception of the environment; if not, perceived distance was biased towards the auditorily perceived boundaries of the room. Results of both experiments show that the auditory environment can influence VDP, presumably through reverberation cues related to the perception of room size.

  9. Auditory Processing Training in Learning Disability

    OpenAIRE

    Nívea Franklin Chaves Martins; Hipólito Virgílio Magalhães Jr

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this case report was to promote a reflection about the importance of speech-therapy for stimulation a person with learning disability associated to language and auditory processing disorders. Data analysis considered the auditory abilities deficits identified in the first auditory processing test, held on April 30,2002 compared with the new auditory processing test done on May 13,2003,after one year of therapy directed to acoustic stimulation of auditory abilities disorders,in acco...

  10. Central auditory masking by an illusory tone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plack, Christopher J; Oxenham, Andrew J; Kreft, Heather A; Carlyon, Robert P

    2013-01-01

    Many natural sounds fluctuate over time. The detectability of sounds in a sequence can be reduced by prior stimulation in a process known as forward masking. Forward masking is thought to reflect neural adaptation or neural persistence in the auditory nervous system, but it has been unclear where in the auditory pathway this processing occurs. To address this issue, the present study used a "Huggins pitch" stimulus, the perceptual effects of which depend on central auditory processing. Huggins pitch is an illusory tonal sensation produced when the same noise is presented to the two ears except for a narrow frequency band that is different (decorrelated) between the ears. The pitch sensation depends on the combination of the inputs to the two ears, a process that first occurs at the level of the superior olivary complex in the brainstem. Here it is shown that a Huggins pitch stimulus produces more forward masking in the frequency region of the decorrelation than a noise stimulus identical to the Huggins-pitch stimulus except with perfect correlation between the ears. This stimulus has a peripheral neural representation that is identical to that of the Huggins-pitch stimulus. The results show that processing in, or central to, the superior olivary complex can contribute to forward masking in human listeners.

  11. Central auditory masking by an illusory tone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Plack

    Full Text Available Many natural sounds fluctuate over time. The detectability of sounds in a sequence can be reduced by prior stimulation in a process known as forward masking. Forward masking is thought to reflect neural adaptation or neural persistence in the auditory nervous system, but it has been unclear where in the auditory pathway this processing occurs. To address this issue, the present study used a "Huggins pitch" stimulus, the perceptual effects of which depend on central auditory processing. Huggins pitch is an illusory tonal sensation produced when the same noise is presented to the two ears except for a narrow frequency band that is different (decorrelated between the ears. The pitch sensation depends on the combination of the inputs to the two ears, a process that first occurs at the level of the superior olivary complex in the brainstem. Here it is shown that a Huggins pitch stimulus produces more forward masking in the frequency region of the decorrelation than a noise stimulus identical to the Huggins-pitch stimulus except with perfect correlation between the ears. This stimulus has a peripheral neural representation that is identical to that of the Huggins-pitch stimulus. The results show that processing in, or central to, the superior olivary complex can contribute to forward masking in human listeners.

  12. Effect of Canal Bank Filtration on Quality of Water Long Hyderabad City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IMDAD ALI KANDHAR

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the present study was to examine the effect of canal bank filtration on the quality of water and the geological settings along the banks of canals at the shallow depth aquifers. The four Model wells were drilled at different locations of the Line channel, Pinyari and phulali canals in the study area. The samples of soil were collected throughout drilling of the model wells for the analysis of grain size distribution .In addition to this, canal water and model well water samples were collected and analyzed for the water quality characteristics during winter and summer seasons. The analysis of soil and water samples reveals that the ground water is influenced by the grain size distribution, hydraulic conductivity and the location of the model Wells. The model well that has higher percentage of 0.075 mm of grain size distribution(hydraulic conductivity between 10-25 ft/day was more suitable for the filtration of the canal water through its banks, followed by 0.15 mm of grain size distribution (hydraulic conductivity > 25ft/ day. Moreover, the present study also shows that the canal water filtration is suitable in terms of total alkalinity, nitrate-nitrogen, total iron and pH to get the potable water at the location near upstream of the canal, especially in the summer season.

  13. [Upper lateral incisor with 2 canals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabra Campos, H

    1991-01-01

    Clinical case summary of the patient with an upper lateral incisor with two root canals. The suspicion that there might be an anatomic anomaly in the root that includes a complex root canal system was made when an advanced radicular groove was detected in the lingual surface or an excessively enlarged cingulum.

  14. 33 CFR 117.438 - Company Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Company Canal. 117.438 Section 117.438 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.438 Company Canal. (a) The draw of the...

  15. Computed Tomography Findings of Mandibular Nutrient Canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Yusuke; Sekiya, Kotaro; Sasaki, Yusuke; Tsukioka, Tsuneyuki; Muramatsu, Teruaki; Kaneda, Takashi

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess computed tomography (CT) findings of mandibular nutrient canals using CT images. We retrospectively analyzed the mandibular CT images of 194 consecutive patients. For image analysis such as canal prevalence, location, number, size, shape, and the CT value of nutrient foramina were determined using CT axial images of 0.5 and 3 mm slice thickness. We revealed that the nutrient canals were seen 94.3% in the mandible, mostly seen in the anterior region. By location, nutrient canals were particularly seen between the central and lateral incisors. The mean number of nutrient canals was 2.7. The mean diameter of the nutrient foramen between the central and lateral incisors was 1.0 mm. In about 80% of the cases, foramina between the central and lateral incisors were ovoid. The mean CT value for the nutrient foramina between the central and lateral incisors was 411 HU. Mandibular nutrient canals were ovoid shape, and the mean CT value was 411 HU. By preoperative knowledge of the position and anatomy of the mandibular nutrient canals, complications such as injury to the nutrient canals can be avoided.

  16. Motor Training: Comparison of Visual and Auditory Coded Proprioceptive Cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Jepson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Self-perception of body posture and movement is achieved through multi-sensory integration, particularly the utilisation of vision, and proprioceptive information derived from muscles and joints. Disruption to these processes can occur following a neurological accident, such as stroke, leading to sensory and physical impairment. Rehabilitation can be helped through use of augmented visual and auditory biofeedback to stimulate neuro-plasticity, but the effective design and application of feedback, particularly in the auditory domain, is non-trivial. Simple auditory feedback was tested by comparing the stepping accuracy of normal subjects when given a visual spatial target (step length and an auditory temporal target (step duration. A baseline measurement of step length and duration was taken using optical motion capture. Subjects (n=20 took 20 ‘training’ steps (baseline ±25% using either an auditory target (950 Hz tone, bell-shaped gain envelope or visual target (spot marked on the floor and were then asked to replicate the target step (length or duration corresponding to training with all feedback removed. Visual cues (mean percentage error=11.5%; SD ± 7.0%; auditory cues (mean percentage error = 12.9%; SD ± 11.8%. Visual cues elicit a high degree of accuracy both in training and follow-up un-cued tasks; despite the novelty of the auditory cues present for subjects, the mean accuracy of subjects approached that for visual cues, and initial results suggest a limited amount of practice using auditory cues can improve performance.

  17. Temporal factors affecting somatosensory-auditory interactions in speech processing

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    Takayuki eIto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Speech perception is known to rely on both auditory and visual information. However, sound specific somatosensory input has been shown also to influence speech perceptual processing (Ito et al., 2009. In the present study we addressed further the relationship between somatosensory information and speech perceptual processing by addressing the hypothesis that the temporal relationship between orofacial movement and sound processing contributes to somatosensory-auditory interaction in speech perception. We examined the changes in event-related potentials in response to multisensory synchronous (simultaneous and asynchronous (90 ms lag and lead somatosensory and auditory stimulation compared to individual unisensory auditory and somatosensory stimulation alone. We used a robotic device to apply facial skin somatosensory deformations that were similar in timing and duration to those experienced in speech production. Following synchronous multisensory stimulation the amplitude of the event-related potential was reliably different from the two unisensory potentials. More importantly, the magnitude of the event-related potential difference varied as a function of the relative timing of the somatosensory-auditory stimulation. Event-related activity change due to stimulus timing was seen between 160-220 ms following somatosensory onset, mostly around the parietal area. The results demonstrate a dynamic modulation of somatosensory-auditory convergence and suggest the contribution of somatosensory information for speech processing process is dependent on the specific temporal order of sensory inputs in speech production.

  18. Auditory white noise reduces age-related fluctuations in balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J M; Will, O J; McGann, Z; Balasubramaniam, R

    2016-09-06

    Fall prevention technologies have the potential to improve the lives of older adults. Because of the multisensory nature of human balance control, sensory therapies, including some involving tactile and auditory noise, are being explored that might reduce increased balance variability due to typical age-related sensory declines. Auditory white noise has previously been shown to reduce postural sway variability in healthy young adults. In the present experiment, we examined this treatment in young adults and typically aging older adults. We measured postural sway of healthy young adults and adults over the age of 65 years during silence and auditory white noise, with and without vision. Our results show reduced postural sway variability in young and older adults with auditory noise, even in the absence of vision. We show that vision and noise can reduce sway variability for both feedback-based and exploratory balance processes. In addition, we show changes with auditory noise in nonlinear patterns of sway in older adults that reflect what is more typical of young adults, and these changes did not interfere with the typical random walk behavior of sway. Our results suggest that auditory noise might be valuable for therapeutic and rehabilitative purposes in older adults with typical age-related balance variability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Auditory Neuropathy: Findings of Behavioral, Physiological and Neurophysiological Tests

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    Mohammad Farhadi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Auditory neuropathy (AN can be diagnosed by abnormal auditory brainstem response (ABR, in the presence of normal cochlear microphonic (CM and otoacoustic emissions (OAEs.The aim of this study was to investigate the ABR and other electrodiagnostic test results of 6 patients suspicious to AN with problems in speech recognition. Materials and Methods: this cross sectional study was conducted on 6 AN patients with different ages evaluated by pure tone audiometry, speech discrimination score (SDS , immittance audiometry. ElectroCochleoGraphy , ABR, middle latency response (MLR, Late latency response (LLR, and OAEs. Results: Behavioral pure tone audiometric tests showed moderate to profound hearing loss. SDS was so poor which is not in accordance with pure tone thresholds. All patients had normal tympanogram but absent acoustic reflexes. CMs and OAEs were within normal limits. There was no contra lateral suppression of OAEs. None of cases had normal ABR or MLR although LLR was recorded in 4. Conclusion: All patients in this study are typical cases of auditory neuropathy. Despite having abnormal input, LLR remains normal that indicates differences in auditory evoked potentials related to required neural synchrony. These findings show that auditory cortex may play a role in regulating presentation of deficient signals along auditory pathways in primary steps.

  20. Auditory brainstem responses in term newborns with hyperbilirubinemia

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    Mônica Jubran Chapchap

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate auditory brainstem responses in term newbornswith hyperbilirubinemia. Methods: Seventy-one newborns, 35 withaggravated physiological neonatal jaundice (group I, 24 with ABOblood incompatibility (group II and 12 not suffering from jaundice orany other disease were submitted to auditory brainstem responses.Statistical analysis of variance was performed to evaluate waveformreproducibility, absolute and interwave latencies, and Pearsoncoefficient was used to evaluate the association between the level ofserum bilirubin and abnormalities in the auditory brainstem responses.Results: According to the criteria assumed in the present paperwaveform alterations were more frequently found in group II than inthe control group (p = 0.023. No significant differences were observedbetween groups I and II (p = 0.083 or between control group andgroup I (p = 0.166. Wave I latency at 80 dBHL for good reproducibilityresponses and III-V interwave latency at 40 dBHL for poor reproducibilityresponses of newborns with hyperbilirubinemia showed significantfindings in relation to the control group (0.008 and 0.004 respectively.There was positive, weak (9% association between serum indirectbilirubin levels and auditory brainstem responses only when the twogroups were analyzed together. Conclusions: Neonatalhyperbilirubinemia changed the conduction of auditory stimulus interm newborns with jaundice caused by ABO blood incompatibility.There was poor positive association between plasma levels of bilirubinand abnormalities in auditory brainstem responses.

  1. Auditory and cognitive performance in elderly musicians and nonmusicians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Grassi

    Full Text Available Musicians represent a model for examining brain and behavioral plasticity in terms of cognitive and auditory profile, but few studies have investigated whether elderly musicians have better auditory and cognitive abilities than nonmusicians. The aim of the present study was to examine whether being a professional musician attenuates the normal age-related changes in hearing and cognition. Elderly musicians still active in their profession were compared with nonmusicians on auditory performance (absolute threshold, frequency intensity, duration and spectral shape discrimination, gap and sinusoidal amplitude-modulation detection, and on simple (short-term memory and more complex and higher-order (working memory [WM] and visuospatial abilities cognitive tasks. The sample consisted of adults at least 65 years of age. The results showed that older musicians had similar absolute thresholds but better supra-threshold discrimination abilities than nonmusicians in four of the six auditory tasks administered. They also had a better WM performance, and stronger visuospatial abilities than nonmusicians. No differences were found between the two groups' short-term memory. Frequency discrimination and gap detection for the auditory measures, and WM complex span tasks and one of the visuospatial tasks for the cognitive ones proved to be very good classifiers of the musicians. These findings suggest that life-long music training may be associated with enhanced auditory and cognitive performance, including complex cognitive skills, in advanced age. However, whether this music training represents a protective factor or not needs further investigation.

  2. Auditory and cognitive performance in elderly musicians and nonmusicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Massimo; Meneghetti, Chiara; Toffalini, Enrico; Borella, Erika

    2017-01-01

    Musicians represent a model for examining brain and behavioral plasticity in terms of cognitive and auditory profile, but few studies have investigated whether elderly musicians have better auditory and cognitive abilities than nonmusicians. The aim of the present study was to examine whether being a professional musician attenuates the normal age-related changes in hearing and cognition. Elderly musicians still active in their profession were compared with nonmusicians on auditory performance (absolute threshold, frequency intensity, duration and spectral shape discrimination, gap and sinusoidal amplitude-modulation detection), and on simple (short-term memory) and more complex and higher-order (working memory [WM] and visuospatial abilities) cognitive tasks. The sample consisted of adults at least 65 years of age. The results showed that older musicians had similar absolute thresholds but better supra-threshold discrimination abilities than nonmusicians in four of the six auditory tasks administered. They also had a better WM performance, and stronger visuospatial abilities than nonmusicians. No differences were found between the two groups' short-term memory. Frequency discrimination and gap detection for the auditory measures, and WM complex span tasks and one of the visuospatial tasks for the cognitive ones proved to be very good classifiers of the musicians. These findings suggest that life-long music training may be associated with enhanced auditory and cognitive performance, including complex cognitive skills, in advanced age. However, whether this music training represents a protective factor or not needs further investigation.

  3. Contribution of Auditory Learning Style to Students’ Mathematical Connection Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlimah; Risfiani, F.

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents the results of the research on the relation of mathematical concept with mathematics, other subjects, and with everyday life. This research reveals study result of the students who had auditory learning style and correlates it with their ability of mathematical connection. In this research, the researchers used a combination model or sequential exploratory design method, which is the use of qualitative and quantitative research methods in sequence. The result proves that giving learning facilities which are not suitable for the class whose students have the auditory learning style results in the barely sufficient math connection ability. The average mathematical connection ability of the auditory students was initially in the medium level of qualification. Then, the improvement in the form of the varied learning that suited the auditory learning style still showed the average ability of mathematical connection in medium level of qualification. Nevertheless, there was increase in the frequency of students in the medium level of qualification and decrease in the very low and low level of qualification. This suggests that the learning facilities, which are appropriate for the student’s auditory learning style, contribute well enough to the students’ mathematical connection ability. Therefore, the mathematics learning for students who have an auditory learning style should consist of particular activity that is understanding the concepts of mathematics and their relations.

  4. Updated regime equations for alluvial Egyptian canals

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    Fahmy Salah Abdelhaleem

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Real accuracy of several regime relationships for designing stable alluvial channels in Egypt was determined. Extensive field measurements had been carried out on 26 Egyptian stable canals, which cover various categories of irrigation canals starting from distributary, branch to carrier canals in Egypt. Analysis of 1484 velocity profiles for 371 cross sections was employed in order to formulate new regime equations characterizing Egyptian canals. The functional formulations to include the flow depth, cross section area, hydraulic radius and mean velocity were achieved. This research compared the deduced formulas from the measured data with the equations derived by other researchers for stable channel design. It was found that the derived formulas are reliable and could help in the design of Egyptian canals to convey a discharge ranging from 0.11 to 287.5 m3/s (0.0095–24.84 millions m3/day.

  5. Water quality of the Delaware and Raritan Canal, New Jersey, 1998-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibs, Jacob; Gray, Bonnie; Rice, Donald E.; Tessler, Steven; Barringer, Thomas H.

    2001-01-01

    Since 1934, the Delaware and Raritan Canal has been used to transfer water from the Delaware River Basin to the Raritan River Basin. The water transported by the Delaware and Raritan Canal in New Jersey is used primarily for public supply after it has been treated at drinking-water treatment plants located in the Raritan River Basin. Recently (1999), the raw water taken from the canal during storms has required increased amounts of chemical treatments for removal of suspended solids, and the costs of removing the additional sludge or residuals generated during water treatment have increased. At present, action to control algae is unnecessary.

  6. Anatomy and morphology of the nasopalatine canal using cone-beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakur, Arpita Rai [Dept. of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Jamia Millia Islamia University, New Delhi (India); Burde, Krishna; Guttai, Kruthika; Naikmasu, Venkatesh [Dept. of Oral Medicine and Radiology, S.D.M. College of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Dharwad (India)

    2013-12-15

    This study was performed to evaluate the general anatomy and morphology of the nasopalatine canal using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and to determine the human anatomic variability of the nasopalatine canal in relation to age and gender. The study included 100 subjects aged between 20 and 86 years who were divided into the following 3 groups: 1) 20-34 years old; 2) 35-49 years old; 3) ≥50 years old. The subjects were equally distributed between the genders. CBCT was performed using a standard exposure and patient positioning protocol. The data of the CBCT images were sliced in three dimensions. Image planes on the three axes (X, Y, and Z) were sequentially analyzed for the location, morphology and dimensions of the nasopalatine canal by two independent observers. The correlation of age and gender with all the variables was evaluated. The present study did not reveal statistically significant differences in the number of openings at the nasal fossa; diameter of the nasal fossa openings; diameter of the incisive fossa; shape, curvature, and angulation of the canal as viewed in the sagittal sections; antero-posterior dimensions and length of the canal in the sagittal sections; or the level of division of the canal in the coronal plane by age. However, males and females showed significant differences in the length of the canal in the sagittal sections and level of the division of the canal in the coronal plane. The present study highlighted important variability observed in the anatomy and morphology of the nasopalatine canal.

  7. Temporal sequence of visuo-auditory interaction in multiple areas of the guinea pig visual cortex.

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    Masataka Nishimura

    Full Text Available Recent studies in humans and monkeys have reported that acoustic stimulation influences visual responses in the primary visual cortex (V1. Such influences can be generated in V1, either by direct auditory projections or by feedback projections from extrastriate cortices. To test these hypotheses, cortical activities were recorded using optical imaging at a high spatiotemporal resolution from multiple areas of the guinea pig visual cortex, to visual and/or acoustic stimulations. Visuo-auditory interactions were evaluated according to differences between responses evoked by combined auditory and visual stimulation, and the sum of responses evoked by separate visual and auditory stimulations. Simultaneous presentation of visual and acoustic stimulations resulted in significant interactions in V1, which occurred earlier than in other visual areas. When acoustic stimulation preceded visual stimulation, significant visuo-auditory interactions were detected only in V1. These results suggest that V1 is a cortical origin of visuo-auditory interaction.

  8. [Application of simultaneous auditory evoked potentials and functional magnetic resonance recordings for examination of central auditory system--preliminary results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Rafał; Rusiniak, Mateusz; Wolak, Tomasz; Piatkowska-Janko, Ewa; Naumczyk, Patrycja; Bogorodzki, Piotr; Senderski, Andrzej; Ganc, Małgorzata; Skarzyński, Henryk

    2011-01-01

    Processing of auditory information in central nervous system bases on the series of quickly occurring neural processes that cannot be separately monitored using only the fMRI registration. Simultaneous recording of the auditory evoked potentials, characterized by good temporal resolution, and the functional magnetic resonance imaging with excellent spatial resolution allows studying higher auditory functions with precision both in time and space. was to implement the simultaneous AEP-fMRI recordings method for the investigation of information processing at different levels of central auditory system. Five healthy volunteers, aged 22-35 years, participated in the experiment. The study was performed using high-field (3T) MR scanner from Siemens and 64-channel electrophysiological system Neuroscan from Compumedics. Auditory evoked potentials generated by acoustic stimuli (standard and deviant tones) were registered using modified odd-ball procedure. Functional magnetic resonance recordings were performed using sparse acquisition paradigm. The results of electrophysiological registrations have been worked out by determining voltage distributions of AEP on skull and modeling their bioelectrical intracerebral generators (dipoles). FMRI activations were determined on the basis of deviant to standard and standard to deviant functional contrasts. Results obtained from electrophysiological studies have been integrated with functional outcomes. Morphology, amplitude, latency and voltage distribution of auditory evoked potentials (P1, N1, P2) to standard stimuli presented during simultaneous AEP-fMRI registrations were very similar to the responses obtained outside scanner room. Significant fMRI activations to standard stimuli were found mainly in the auditory cortex. Activations in these regions corresponded with N1 wave dipoles modeled based on auditory potentials generated by standard tones. Auditory evoked potentials to deviant stimuli were recorded only outside the MRI

  9. [Latest treatment of lumbar canal stenosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyongsong; Isu, Toyohiko

    2009-06-01

    Lumbar canal stenosis (LCS) is a degenerative disease involving the lumbar vertebrae, discs, and ligamentum flavum that result in neurological deficit to some extent. The natural history of symptoms of LCS is highly important because they do not necessarily worsen with progressive degeneration. Therefore, a observation therapy is adopted for the treatment of this condition. Although invasive treatment is required for some patients, surgery cannot be performed solely on the basis of radiological findings and careful evaluation of neurological symptoms is necessary. In the event that spinal surgery is required, it is important to minimize degree of invasiveness; various devices and operative approaches and methods have been developed to this end. Our strategy for the surgical treatment of LCS involves microscopic decompression via a posterior approach. In our method, modified bilateral decompression via the splitting of the spinous process using an ultrasonic bone curette (SONOPET), and the results of this approach have been excellent. Our method is less invasive, facilitates the preservation of the paraspinal muscle, and represents a useful approach to posterior spinal elements. Our findings indicate that this method involves less muscle damage as compared to other methods. LCS should be differentiated from conditions other than those involving the spinal canal such as foraminal stenosis and far-out syndrome, piriformis syndrome, and tarsal tunnel syndrome. The incidence of these conditions is higher than appreciated and they present with neurological deficits similar to observed in LCS. Here, we report our criteria of operative indications for surger and the procedures that we developed for the treatment of LCS, based on a review of the available literature.

  10. BALDEY: A database of auditory lexical decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernestus, Mirjam; Cutler, Anne

    2015-01-01

    In an auditory lexical decision experiment, 5541 spoken content words and pseudowords were presented to 20 native speakers of Dutch. The words vary in phonological make-up and in number of syllables and stress pattern, and are further representative of the native Dutch vocabulary in that most are morphologically complex, comprising two stems or one stem plus derivational and inflectional suffixes, with inflections representing both regular and irregular paradigms; the pseudowords were matched in these respects to the real words. The BALDEY ("biggest auditory lexical decision experiment yet") data file includes response times and accuracy rates, with for each item morphological information plus phonological and acoustic information derived from automatic phonemic segmentation of the stimuli. Two initial analyses illustrate how this data set can be used. First, we discuss several measures of the point at which a word has no further neighbours and compare the degree to which each measure predicts our lexical decision response outcomes. Second, we investigate how well four different measures of frequency of occurrence (from written corpora, spoken corpora, subtitles, and frequency ratings by 75 participants) predict the same outcomes. These analyses motivate general conclusions about the auditory lexical decision task. The (publicly available) BALDEY database lends itself to many further analyses.

  11. Visual speech gestures modulate efferent auditory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namasivayam, Aravind Kumar; Wong, Wing Yiu Stephanie; Sharma, Dinaay; van Lieshout, Pascal

    2015-03-01

    Visual and auditory systems interact at both cortical and subcortical levels. Studies suggest a highly context-specific cross-modal modulation of the auditory system by the visual system. The present study builds on this work by sampling data from 17 young healthy adults to test whether visual speech stimuli evoke different responses in the auditory efferent system compared to visual non-speech stimuli. The descending cortical influences on medial olivocochlear (MOC) activity were indirectly assessed by examining the effects of contralateral suppression of transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) at 1, 2, 3 and 4 kHz under three conditions: (a) in the absence of any contralateral noise (Baseline), (b) contralateral noise + observing facial speech gestures related to productions of vowels /a/ and /u/ and (c) contralateral noise + observing facial non-speech gestures related to smiling and frowning. The results are based on 7 individuals whose data met strict recording criteria and indicated a significant difference in TEOAE suppression between observing speech gestures relative to the non-speech gestures, but only at the 1 kHz frequency. These results suggest that observing a speech gesture compared to a non-speech gesture may trigger a difference in MOC activity, possibly to enhance peripheral neural encoding. If such findings can be reproduced in future research, sensory perception models and theories positing the downstream convergence of unisensory streams of information in the cortex may need to be revised.

  12. Auditory Discrimination Learning: Role of Working Memory.

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    Yu-Xuan Zhang

    Full Text Available Perceptual training is generally assumed to improve perception by modifying the encoding or decoding of sensory information. However, this assumption is incompatible with recent demonstrations that transfer of learning can be enhanced by across-trial variation of training stimuli or task. Here we present three lines of evidence from healthy adults in support of the idea that the enhanced transfer of auditory discrimination learning is mediated by working memory (WM. First, the ability to discriminate small differences in tone frequency or duration was correlated with WM measured with a tone n-back task. Second, training frequency discrimination around a variable frequency transferred to and from WM learning, but training around a fixed frequency did not. The transfer of learning in both directions was correlated with a reduction of the influence of stimulus variation in the discrimination task, linking WM and its improvement to across-trial stimulus interaction in auditory discrimination. Third, while WM training transferred broadly to other WM and auditory discrimination tasks, variable-frequency training on duration discrimination did not improve WM, indicating that stimulus variation challenges and trains WM only if the task demands stimulus updating in the varied dimension. The results provide empirical evidence as well as a theoretic framework for interactions between cognitive and sensory plasticity during perceptual experience.

  13. An assessment of techniques for dehydrating root canals using infrared laser radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amyra, T; Walsh, L T; Walsh, L J

    2000-08-01

    Infrared lasers have been used for debridement and sterilisation of both soft and hard tissues, but there have been few studies of such laser applications in endodontics. The present laboratory study was undertaken to examine the feasibility of using pulsed infrared laser radiation to remove moisture from root canals (with an adjunctive sterilising effect). Canals were prepared in extracted teeth and a standardised technique used to fill the apical half of the root canal with saline. Pulses of CO2 or Nd:YAG laser energy were delivered into the root canal system via miniature applicators and residual fluid determined, as well as temperature changes on the root surface. With the CO2 laser, long pulse durations were effective at dehydrating the canals, but elicited deleterious thermal changes both locally within the canal as well as on the root surface. With Nd:YAG laser treatment, large temperature increases on the root surface occurred even with low powers and low pulse frequencies, and extended times were necessary for dehydration. With higher powers and pulse frequencies, complete dehydration could be achieved in less than 60 seconds, however root surface temperatures increased approximately 25 degrees, and the radicular dentine was damaged by the production of plasma. Dehydration of root canals could not be achieved safely with these two infrared lasers, and damage to both radicular dentine and the periodontal ligament would occur if these techniques were to be applied clinically. Alternative methods which do not exert significant thermal effects should be investigated.

  14. The surgical challenge of carotid artery and Fallopian canal dehiscence in chronic ear disease: a pitfall for endoscopic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauna, H F; Monsanto, R C; Schachern, P A; Costa, S S; Kwon, G; Paparella, M M; Cureoglu, S

    2017-04-01

    Endoscopic procedures are becoming common in middle ear surgery. Inflammation due to chronic ear disease can cause bony erosion of the carotid artery and Fallopian canals, making them more vulnerable during surgery. The objective of this study was to determine whether or not chronic ear disease increases dehiscence of the carotid artery and Fallopian canals. Comparative human temporal bone study. Otopathology laboratory. We selected 78 temporal bones from 55 deceased donors with chronic otitis media or cholesteatoma and then compared those two groups with a control group of 27 temporal bones from 19 deceased donors with no middle ear disease. We analysed the middle ear, carotid artery canal and Fallopian canal, looking for signs of dehiscence of its bony coverage, using light microscopy. We found an increased incidence in dehiscence of the carotid artery and Fallopian canals in temporal bones with chronic middle ear disease. The size of the carotid artery canal dehiscence was larger in the middle ear-diseased groups, and its bony coverage, when present, was also thinner compared to the control group. Dehiscence of the carotid artery canal was more frequently located closer to the promontory. The incidence of Fallopian canal dehiscence was significantly higher in temporal bones from donors older than 18 years with chronic middle ear disease. The increased incidence of the carotid artery and Fallopian canal dehiscence in temporal bones with chronic middle ear disease elevates the risk of adverse events during middle ear surgery. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Compression of auditory space during forward self-motion.

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    Wataru Teramoto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Spatial inputs from the auditory periphery can be changed with movements of the head or whole body relative to the sound source. Nevertheless, humans can perceive a stable auditory environment and appropriately react to a sound source. This suggests that the inputs are reinterpreted in the brain, while being integrated with information on the movements. Little is known, however, about how these movements modulate auditory perceptual processing. Here, we investigate the effect of the linear acceleration on auditory space representation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Participants were passively transported forward/backward at constant accelerations using a robotic wheelchair. An array of loudspeakers was aligned parallel to the motion direction along a wall to the right of the listener. A short noise burst was presented during the self-motion from one of the loudspeakers when the listener's physical coronal plane reached the location of one of the speakers (null point. In Experiments 1 and 2, the participants indicated which direction the sound was presented, forward or backward relative to their subjective coronal plane. The results showed that the sound position aligned with the subjective coronal plane was displaced ahead of the null point only during forward self-motion and that the magnitude of the displacement increased with increasing the acceleration. Experiment 3 investigated the structure of the auditory space in the traveling direction during forward self-motion. The sounds were presented at various distances from the null point. The participants indicated the perceived sound location by pointing a rod. All the sounds that were actually located in the traveling direction were perceived as being biased towards the null point. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest a distortion of the auditory space in the direction of movement during forward self-motion. The underlying mechanism might involve anticipatory spatial

  16. Looking back at Love Canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deegan, J. Jr.

    1987-04-01

    The comprehensive environmental study which describes the results of a monitoring program conducted by EPA at Love Canal is evaluated by EPA's former study director. Attention is focused on the episode's history and the agency's study methods. The aim of the program was to constitute a study team, design a monitoring study, reprogram and reallocate the financial resources needed to conduct the study, and identify and employ contractors who would collect and analyze environmental samples. The agency was directed to ensure the quality of the data acquired from various environmental media and analyzed by numerous laboratories; to integrate, interpret, and report the data; and to assess, from an environmental perspective, the habitability of the area.

  17. [The treatment of otosclerosis using laser assisted stapedotomy with mini incision in external auditory meatus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xinping; Chen, Shubin; Yu, Zilong; Liang, Fenghe; Li, Yongxin

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the feasibility of the treatment of otosclerosis using laser stapedotomy with mini incision in the external auditory meatus. Thirteen patients(15 ears) with otosclerosis evidence on clinic history. They were all operated using the laser assisted stapedotomy by mini incision in external auditory meatus because of the wide straight canal. Laser resection the tendo musculistapedius and anterior and postrior arch, breaking the articulatioincudostapedia, removing the stapes superstructure, making a hole of 6mm diameter in the rear of stapes footplate by laser drilling, implanting the corresponding length Piston artificial ossicle. All the surgeries were successful and the operation time was about one hour. There was only one patient manifested vertigo and nausea after the operation. But the symptoms improved three days later after the expectant treatment. All the incisions were healed in the externals. There was significant difference between the preoperative and postoperative PTA. The air conduct improved in every frequent and the bone conduct improved in 1 kHz, 2 kHz and 4 kHz. Laser assisted stapedotomy by mini incision in the external auditory meatus in patients having wide straight canal with otosclerosis can shorten the operation time, minimize the tissue damage, fasten the healing of the incision and reduce the complications postoperatively. In addition, the mini incision is beauty and easy to nurse.

  18. Grey matter connectivity within and between auditory, language and visual systems in prelingually deaf adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjing; Li, Jianhong; Wang, Zhenchang; Li, Yong; Liu, Zhaohui; Yan, Fei; Xian, Junfang; He, Huiguang

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown brain reorganizations after early deprivation of auditory sensory. However, changes of grey matter connectivity have not been investigated in prelingually deaf adolescents yet. In the present study, we aimed to investigate changes of grey matter connectivity within and between auditory, language and visual systems in prelingually deaf adolescents. We recruited 16 prelingually deaf adolescents and 16 age-and gender-matched normal controls, and extracted the grey matter volume as the structural characteristic from 14 regions of interest involved in auditory, language or visual processing to investigate the changes of grey matter connectivity within and between auditory, language and visual systems. Sparse inverse covariance estimation (SICE) was utilized to construct grey matter connectivity between these brain regions. The results show that prelingually deaf adolescents present weaker grey matter connectivity within auditory and visual systems, and connectivity between language and visual systems declined. Notably, significantly increased brain connectivity was found between auditory and visual systems in prelingually deaf adolescents. Our results indicate "cross-modal" plasticity after deprivation of the auditory input in prelingually deaf adolescents, especially between auditory and visual systems. Besides, auditory deprivation and visual deficits might affect the connectivity pattern within language and visual systems in prelingually deaf adolescents.

  19. Left auditory cortex gamma synchronization and auditory hallucination symptoms in schizophrenia

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    Shenton Martha E

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oscillatory electroencephalogram (EEG abnormalities may reflect neural circuit dysfunction in neuropsychiatric disorders. Previously we have found positive correlations between the phase synchronization of beta and gamma oscillations and hallucination symptoms in schizophrenia patients. These findings suggest that the propensity for hallucinations is associated with an increased tendency for neural circuits in sensory cortex to enter states of oscillatory synchrony. Here we tested this hypothesis by examining whether the 40 Hz auditory steady-state response (ASSR generated in the left primary auditory cortex is positively correlated with auditory hallucination symptoms in schizophrenia. We also examined whether the 40 Hz ASSR deficit in schizophrenia was associated with cross-frequency interactions. Sixteen healthy control subjects (HC and 18 chronic schizophrenia patients (SZ listened to 40 Hz binaural click trains. The EEG was recorded from 60 electrodes and average-referenced offline. A 5-dipole model was fit from the HC grand average ASSR, with 2 pairs of superior temporal dipoles and a deep midline dipole. Time-frequency decomposition was performed on the scalp EEG and source data. Results Phase locking factor (PLF and evoked power were reduced in SZ at fronto-central electrodes, replicating prior findings. PLF was reduced in SZ for non-homologous right and left hemisphere sources. Left hemisphere source PLF in SZ was positively correlated with auditory hallucination symptoms, and was modulated by delta phase. Furthermore, the correlations between source evoked power and PLF found in HC was reduced in SZ for the LH sources. Conclusion These findings suggest that differential neural circuit abnormalities may be present in the left and right auditory cortices in schizophrenia. In addition, they provide further support for the hypothesis that hallucinations are related to cortical hyperexcitability, which is manifested by

  20. S-Shaped Canals: A Series of Cases Performed by Four Specialists around the World

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    Ricardo Machado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of anatomical variations is a real challenge for clinicians undertaking therapy regardless of the teeth that are to be treated. The extent of the curvature is one of the most important variables that could lead to instrument fracture. In clinical conditions, two curves can be present in the same root canal trajectory. This type of geometry is denoted as the “S” shape, and it is a challenging condition. This report describes a different clinical and educational scenario where four specialists around the world present different approaches for the treatment of root canals with double curvatures or S-shaped canals. Endodontic therapy is a very nuanced and challenging science and art. The clinical and teaching experience of the authors show different approaches that can be successfully employed to treat challenging teeth having roots with multiple curves. The necessity of precise knowledge of the root canal morphology and its variation is also underlined.

  1. Naegleria fowleri from a canal draining cooling water from a factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerva, L; Jecná, P; Hyhlík, R

    1980-01-01

    In 1968, a canal draining cooling water from a factory was found to be the source of infection with primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAME) (one case). The bed of the canal lined with stone slabs was about 2 m wide, the flow rate of water was approximately 2 m/sec. Average annual water temperatures ranged from 27-30 degrees C. In culture, Naegleria fowleri was not found in the water of the canal, but it was present in scrapings off the canal walls and in its bottom sediment for a length of about 2 km starting at the site of the outlet of the water from the factory. The maximum number of amoebae in 1 liter of the sample was 800 individuals. The present paper discusses the detective efficacy of the culture methods employed, and the epidemiological bearing of the findings.

  2. Wave Mechanics of the Vestibular Semicircular Canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, Marta M; Rabbitt, Richard D

    2017-09-05

    The semicircular canals are biomechanical sensors responsible for detecting and encoding angular motion of the head in 3D space. Canal afferent neurons provide essential inputs to neural circuits responsible for representation of self-position/orientation in space, and to compensatory circuits including the vestibulo-ocular and vestibulo-collic reflex arcs. In this work we derive, to our knowledge, a new 1D mathematical model quantifying canal biomechanics based on the morphology, dynamics of the inner ear fluids, and membranous labyrinth deformability. The model takes the form of a dispersive wave equation and predicts canal responses to angular motion, sound, and mechanical stimulation. Numerical simulations were carried out for the morphology of the human lateral canal using known physical properties of the endolymph and perilymph in three diverse conditions: surgical plugging, rotation, and mechanical indentation. The model reproduces frequency-dependent attenuation and phase shift in cases of canal plugging. During rotation, duct deformability extends the frequency bandwidth and enhances the high frequency gain. Mechanical indentation of the membranous duct at high frequencies evokes traveling waves that move away from the location of indentation and at low frequencies compels endolymph displacement along the canal. These results demonstrate the importance of the conformal perilymph-filled bony labyrinth to pressure changes and to high frequency sound and vibration. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. How to bond to root canal dentin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nica, Luminita; Todea, Carmen; Furtos, Gabriel; Baldea, Bogdan

    2014-01-01

    Bonding to root canal dentin may be difficult due to various factors: the structural characteristic of the root canal dentin, which is different from that of the coronal dentin; the presence of the organic tissue of the dental pulp inside the root canal, which has to be removed during the cleaning-shaping of the root canal system; the smear-layer resulted after mechanical instrumentation, which may interfere with the adhesion of the filling materials; the type of the irrigants used in the cleaning protocol; the type of the sealer and core material used in the obturation of the endodontic space; the type of the materials used for the restoration of the endodontically treated teeth. The influence of the cleaning protocol, of the root canal filling material, of the type of the adhesive system used in the restoration of the treated teeth and of the region of the root canal, on the adhesion of several filling and restorative materials to root canal dentin was evaluated in the push-out bond strength test on 1-mm thick slices of endodontically treated human teeth. The results showed that all these factors have a statistically significant influence on the push-out bond strength. Formation of resin tags between radicular dentin and the investigated materials was observed in some of the samples at SEM analysis.

  4. Panama Canal Watershed Experiment- Agua Salud Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallard, Robert F.; Ogden, Fred L.; Elsenbeer, Helmut; Hall, Jefferson S.

    2010-01-01

    The Agua Salud Project utilizes the Panama Canal’s (Canal) central role in world commerce to focus global attention on the ecosystem services provided by tropical forests. The Canal was one of the great engineering projects in the world. Completed in 1914, after almost a decade of concerted effort, its 80 km length greatly shortened the voyage between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. An entire class of ships, the Panamax, has been constructed to maximize the amount of cargo that can be carried in a Canal passage. In today’s parlance, the Canal is a “green” operation, powered largely by water (Table 1). The locks, three pairs on each end with a net lift of 27 meters, are gravity fed. For each ton of cargo that is transferred from ocean to ocean, about 13 tons of water (m3) are used. Lake Gatún forms much of the waterway in the Canal transect. Hydroelectricity is generated at the Gatún dam, whenever there is surplus water, and at Madden Dam (completed in 1936) when water is transferred from Lake Alhajuela to Lake Gatún. The Canal watershed is the source of drinking water for Panama City and Colon City, at either end of the Canal, and numerous towns in between.

  5. Conventional Versus Digital Radiography in Detecting Root Canal Type in Maxillary Premolars: An in Vitro Study

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    Mahkameh Moshfeghi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Successful endodontic therapy depends on adequate mechanical and chemical debridement of the canal which requires knowledge of the canal morphology. Conventional radiography has been used to evaluate the canal type; however, direct digital radiography has recently been practiced for this purpose due to the shortcomings of conventional radiography. The aim of the present study was to compare the accuracy of digital and conventional radiography taken at 0° and 30° angles in the diagnosis of the canal type of extracted maxillary premolars.Materials and Methods: This diagnostic study was performed on 90 extracted maxillary premolars. Conventional and digital radiographies were taken of all teeth at 0° and 30° horizontal angles. The images were assessed by an oral and maxillofacial radiologist. The clearing technique was used as the gold standard. The canal type was determined using Weine classification. The agreement between each one of the 4 radiographic modalities and gold standard was determined by kappa statistics.Results: The kappa values for the agreement of parallel conventional, 30° conventional, parallel digital and 30° digital modalities with the clearing technique were 0.059, 0.215, 0.043 and 0.391, respectively. Parallel modalities were unable to determine the tooth canal type. Radiographic images taken at 30° significantly determined the canal type, although only a poor level of agreement was noted between the two modalities and the clearing technique.Conclusion: All modalities had limited value to determine the root canal type in maxillary premolars. However, direct digital imaging taken at 30° angle showed the highest accuracy for canal type assessment.

  6. Lingual Foramina and Canals of the Mandible: Anatomic Variations in a Lebanese Population

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    Georges Aoun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the mandibular lingual foramina (LF and canals and their anatomic variations using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT technology in a Lebanese population. Materials and Methods: In this study, we analyzed CBCT images of 90 adult Lebanese patients (41 males and 49 females. We assessed the number and location of the LF. In additional, we measured: (a The distance from both the alveolar crest and the inferior border of the mandible to the LF and (b the length of the lingual canals (LCs. The data obtained was analyzed statistically using Shapiro–Wilk normality test, t-test, Chi-square, and Fisher's exact tests. Statistical significance was set at 0.05. Results: In our sample, the LF and canals were present in 93.33% of the CBCT analyzed, and the majority (76.64% was located above the genial tubercles. The distance from the foramen of the superior and the inferior LCs to the alveolar crest was 16.24 ± 2.82 mm and 25.49 ± 2.43 mm, respectively. The distance from the foramen of the superior canal to the inferior border of the mandible was 14 ± 2.32 mm. The mean length of the superior canal was 5.81 ± 1.6 mm and 4.25 ± 1.2 mm for the inferior one. There were no gender-related differences in the anatomic characteristics of the LF and canals except for the distance measured from the superior canal foramina to the alveolar crest where the measurement was significantly greater in males compared to females. Neither the number of canals nor the positions of the foramina were different between males and females. Conclusion: Within the limits of this study, we concluded that in our sample of Lebanese adults, there was substantial variability in the LF and canals anatomy and location.

  7. Lingual Foramina and Canals of the Mandible: Anatomic Variations in a Lebanese Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoun, Georges; Nasseh, Ibrahim; Sokhn, Sayde; Rifai, Mohamad

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the mandibular lingual foramina (LF) and canals and their anatomic variations using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) technology in a Lebanese population. Materials and Methods: In this study, we analyzed CBCT images of 90 adult Lebanese patients (41 males and 49 females). We assessed the number and location of the LF. In additional, we measured: (a) The distance from both the alveolar crest and the inferior border of the mandible to the LF and (b) the length of the lingual canals (LCs). The data obtained was analyzed statistically using Shapiro–Wilk normality test, t-test, Chi-square, and Fisher's exact tests. Statistical significance was set at 0.05. Results: In our sample, the LF and canals were present in 93.33% of the CBCT analyzed, and the majority (76.64%) was located above the genial tubercles. The distance from the foramen of the superior and the inferior LCs to the alveolar crest was 16.24 ± 2.82 mm and 25.49 ± 2.43 mm, respectively. The distance from the foramen of the superior canal to the inferior border of the mandible was 14 ± 2.32 mm. The mean length of the superior canal was 5.81 ± 1.6 mm and 4.25 ± 1.2 mm for the inferior one. There were no gender-related differences in the anatomic characteristics of the LF and canals except for the distance measured from the superior canal foramina to the alveolar crest where the measurement was significantly greater in males compared to females. Neither the number of canals nor the positions of the foramina were different between males and females. Conclusion: Within the limits of this study, we concluded that in our sample of Lebanese adults, there was substantial variability in the LF and canals anatomy and location. PMID:28589055

  8. Methodological challenges and solutions in auditory functional magnetic resonance imaging

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    Jonathan E Peelle

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies involve substantial acoustic noise. This review covers the difficulties posed by such noise for auditory neuroscience, as well as a number of possible solutions that have emerged. Acoustic noise can affect the processing of auditory stimuli by making them inaudible or unintelligible, and can result in reduced sensitivity to auditory activation in auditory cortex. Equally importantly, acoustic noise may also lead to increased listening effort, meaning that even when auditory stimuli are perceived, neural processing may differ from when the same stimuli are presented in quiet. These and other challenges have motivated a number of approaches for collecting auditory fMRI data. Although using a continuous echoplanar imaging (EPI sequence provides high quality imaging data, these data may also be contaminated by background acoustic noise. Traditional sparse imaging has the advantage of avoiding acoustic noise during stimulus presentation, but at a cost of reduced temporal resolution. Recently, three classes of techniques have been developed to circumvent these limitations. The first is Interleaved Silent Steady State (ISSS imaging, a variation of sparse imaging that involves collecting multiple volumes following a silent period while maintaining steady-state longitudinal magnetization. The second involves active noise control to limit the impact of acoustic scanner noise. Finally, novel MRI sequences that reduce the amount of acoustic noise produced during fMRI make the use of continuous scanning a more practical option. Together these advances provide unprecedented opportunities for researchers to collect high-quality data of hemodynamic responses to auditory stimuli using fMRI.

  9. Methodological challenges and solutions in auditory functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peelle, Jonathan E

    2014-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies involve substantial acoustic noise. This review covers the difficulties posed by such noise for auditory neuroscience, as well as a number of possible solutions that have emerged. Acoustic noise can affect the processing of auditory stimuli by making them inaudible or unintelligible, and can result in reduced sensitivity to auditory activation in auditory cortex. Equally importantly, acoustic noise may also lead to increased listening effort, meaning that even when auditory stimuli are perceived, neural processing may differ from when the same stimuli are presented in quiet. These and other challenges have motivated a number of approaches for collecting auditory fMRI data. Although using a continuous echoplanar imaging (EPI) sequence provides high quality imaging data, these data may also be contaminated by background acoustic noise. Traditional sparse imaging has the advantage of avoiding acoustic noise during stimulus presentation, but at a cost of reduced temporal resolution. Recently, three classes of techniques have been developed to circumvent these limitations. The first is Interleaved Silent Steady State (ISSS) imaging, a variation of sparse imaging that involves collecting multiple volumes following a silent period while maintaining steady-state longitudinal magnetization. The second involves active noise control to limit the impact of acoustic scanner noise. Finally, novel MRI sequences that reduce the amount of acoustic noise produced during fMRI make the use of continuous scanning a more practical option. Together these advances provide unprecedented opportunities for researchers to collect high-quality data of hemodynamic responses to auditory stimuli using fMRI.

  10. Association between language development and auditory processing disorders

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    Caroline Nunes Rocha-Muniz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: It is crucial to understand the complex processing of acoustic stimuli along the auditory pathway ;comprehension of this complex processing can facilitate our understanding of the processes that underlie normal and altered human communication. AIM: To investigate the performance and lateralization effects on auditory processing assessment in children with specific language impairment (SLI, relating these findings to those obtained in children with auditory processing disorder (APD and typical development (TD. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective study. Seventy-five children, aged 6-12 years, were separated in three groups: 25 children with SLI, 25 children with APD, and 25 children with TD. All went through the following tests: speech-in-noise test, Dichotic Digit test and Pitch Pattern Sequencing test. RESULTS: The effects of lateralization were observed only in the SLI group, with the left ear presenting much lower scores than those presented to the right ear. The inter-group analysis has shown that in all tests children from APD and SLI groups had significantly poorer performance compared to TD group. Moreover, SLI group presented worse results than APD group. CONCLUSION: This study has shown, in children with SLI, an inefficient processing of essential sound components and an effect of lateralization. These findings may indicate that neural processes (required for auditory processing are different between auditory processing and speech disorders.

  11. The role of attention in visual and auditory suffix effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitch, G J

    1975-09-01

    The auditory suffix effect (SE), in which recall of the terminal items of a sequence is impaired by presenting a redundant item at the end of the sequence, has been attributed to the displacement of information from auditory sensory storage. However, the SE may result entirely from unnecessary processing of the redundant item due to a failure of attentional control. Two studies examined this possibility using visual presentation to minimize the importance of sensory storage as a source of information. Experiment I first demonstrated a visual SE and showed that its magnitude did not vary when background illumination was altered, a factor which affects the duration of sensory storage. Experiment II used auditory as well as visual presentation and tested the hypothesis that training subjects to ignore the suffix would reduce the SE. Training was achieved by interpolating redundant items identical to the suffix within sequences. It abolished the visual SE but left the auditory SE unaffected. The visual SE, therefore, is not solely determined by the physical characteristics of the suffix, and cannot be based on erasure in sensory storage. The auditory data, on the other hand, were consistent with the erasure hypothesis. It was concluded that an SE does not of itself demonstrate the involvement of sensory storage, and, in particular, the visual SE appears to reflect the degree to which the redundant item can be excluded from focal attention.

  12. Prevalence of auditory changes in newborns in a teaching hospital

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    Guimarães, Valeriana de Castro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The precocious diagnosis and the intervention in the deafness are of basic importance in the infantile development. The loss auditory and more prevalent than other joined riots to the birth. Objective: Esteem the prevalence of auditory alterations in just-born in a hospital school. Method: Prospective transversal study that evaluated 226 just-been born, been born in a public hospital, between May of 2008 the May of 2009. Results: Of the 226 screened, 46 (20.4% had presented absence of emissions, having been directed for the second emission. Of the 26 (56.5% children who had appeared in the retest, 8 (30.8% had remained with absence and had been directed to the Otolaryngologist. Five (55.5% had appeared and had been examined by the doctor. Of these, 3 (75.0% had presented normal otoscopy, being directed for evaluation of the Evoked Potential Auditory of Brainstem (PEATE. Of the total of studied children, 198 (87.6% had had presence of emissions in one of the tests and, 2 (0.9% with deafness diagnosis. Conclusion: The prevalence of auditory alterations in the studied population was of 0,9%. The study it offers given excellent epidemiologists and it presents the first report on the subject, supplying resulted preliminary future implantation and development of a program of neonatal auditory selection.

  13. CBCT analysis of root canal morphology in geminated primary incisor: a proposed classification and case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandiban, Kanimozhi; Ramakrishnan, Mahesh

    2014-01-01

    Endodontic management of the geminated tooth requires a proper understanding of root canal morphology. The use of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in the diagnosis of complex endodontic morphology, and in revealing morphological variations, has been well documented in the literature. A case involving endodontic management of a geminated primary central incisor with CBCT is presented here. A CBCT analysis was vital in the diagnosis of this unusual root canal system and its successful endodontic treatment.

  14. Lumbar spinal canal MRI diameter is smaller in herniated disc cauda equina syndrome patients

    OpenAIRE

    Korse, Nina S.; Kruit, Mark C.; Peul, Wilco C.; Vleggeert-Lankamp, Carmen L. A.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Correlation between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and clinical features in cauda equina syndrome (CES) is unknown; nor is known whether there are differences in MRI spinal canal size between lumbar herniated disc patients with CES versus lumbar herniated discs patients without CES, operated for sciatica. The aims of this study are 1) evaluating the association of MRI features with clinical presentation and outcome of CES and 2) comparing lumbar spinal canal diameters of lumbar...

  15. Microbial Flora of Root Canals of Pulpally-infected Teeth: Enterococcus faecalis a Prevalent Species

    OpenAIRE

    Esrafil Balaei Gajan; Mohammad Aghazadeh; Rahib Abashov; Amin Salem Milani; Zohreh Moosavi

    2009-01-01

    Background and aims. The aim of this study was to determine the microorganisms prevalent in the necrotic dental pulp and root canals of unsuccessfully treated teeth. Materials and methods. The present study was conducted on 150 single-rooted teeth of patients referring to a dental clinic. Sampling was performed by placing a sterile paper point in the canal for 60 s. Bacterial samples were evaluated by a microbiological technique specific for anaerobic species, used for isolation and ide...

  16. Spiral computed tomographic evaluation and endodontic management of a mandibular first molar with three distal canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Mubashir; Farooq, Riyaz; Rashid, Aamir; Robbani, Irfan

    2011-01-01

    The use of spiral computed tomography serves as a boon in endodontic diagnosis of complex anatomic variations. The present case demonstrates the spiral tomographic evaluation and endodontic management of a mandibular first molar with 5 canals (2 mesial and 3 distal canals), which is a very rare anatomic variant. Such anatomic variations should be taken into account in day to day endodontic practice to ensure a high degree of clinical success. PMID:21814366

  17. MEASUREMENT OF ROOT CANAL LENGTH – USE OF AN ELECTROMETRIC DEVICE

    OpenAIRE

    ANAND, SC; KHATTAK, BP; SACHDEVA, VP; CHETAL, BR

    1994-01-01

    The measurement of root canal length is a pre-requisite for successful pulpectomy. The conventional manual and radiographic methods are not very accurate. In the present study, odontometer was used [Group B) to assess its efficacy over the conventional methods (Group A) for recording root canal length. In group A, 36 teeth were treated with pulpectomy while in group B, 51 teeth were managed by the same treatment. It was observed that post operative complications in group B were significantly ...

  18. Mandibular Canal Enlargement: Clinical and Radiological Characteristics

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    Chong Jun Ai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Enlargement of the mandibular canal is a rare radiological finding. Clinically, it may or may not be associated with sensory deficits. We report four cases of widening of the mandibular canal observed with various methods of imaging with different clinical characteristics. We describe this unique radiological finding and elaborate the importance of quality assessment of the imaging that is vital for accurate diagnosis and treatment planning. Clinicians should be mindful when assessing the imaging whenever the size of the mandibular canal is implicated. The case ranged from a benign tumor to malignancy, radiological errors, and artifacts. A more superior imaging or treatment modality was necessary to ascertain the diagnosis.

  19. Delayed Mismatch Field Latencies in Autism Spectrum Disorder with Abnormal Auditory Sensitivity: A Magnetoencephalographic Study

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    Junko Matsuzaki

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Although abnormal auditory sensitivity is the most common sensory impairment associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD, the neurophysiological mechanisms remain unknown. In previous studies, we reported that this abnormal sensitivity in patients with ASD is associated with delayed and prolonged responses in the auditory cortex. In the present study, we investigated alterations in residual M100 and MMFs in children with ASD who experience abnormal auditory sensitivity. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG to measure MMF elicited by an auditory oddball paradigm (standard tones: 300 Hz, deviant tones: 700 Hz in 20 boys with ASD (11 with abnormal auditory sensitivity: mean age, 9.62 ± 1.82 years, 9 without: mean age, 9.07 ± 1.31 years and 13 typically developing boys (mean age, 9.45 ± 1.51 years. We found that temporal and frontal residual M100/MMF latencies were significantly longer only in children with ASD who have abnormal auditory sensitivity. In addition, prolonged residual M100/MMF latencies were correlated with the severity of abnormal auditory sensitivity in temporal and frontal areas of both hemispheres. Therefore, our findings suggest that children with ASD and abnormal auditory sensitivity may have atypical neural networks in the primary auditory area, as well as in brain areas associated with attention switching and inhibitory control processing. This is the first report of an MEG study demonstrating altered MMFs to an auditory oddball paradigm in patients with ASD and abnormal auditory sensitivity. These findings contribute to knowledge of the mechanisms for abnormal auditory sensitivity in ASD, and may therefore facilitate development of novel clinical interventions.

  20. Modulation of Auditory Responses to Speech vs. Nonspeech Stimuli during Speech Movement Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daliri, Ayoub; Max, Ludo

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we showed that the N100 amplitude in long latency auditory evoked potentials (LLAEPs) elicited by pure tone probe stimuli is modulated when the stimuli are delivered during speech movement planning as compared with no-speaking control conditions. Given that we probed the auditory system only with pure tones, it remained unknown whether the nature and magnitude of this pre-speech auditory modulation depends on the type of auditory stimulus. Thus, here, we asked whether the effect of speech movement planning on auditory processing varies depending on the type of auditory stimulus. In an experiment with nine adult subjects, we recorded LLAEPs that were elicited by either pure tones or speech syllables when these stimuli were presented prior to speech onset in a delayed-response speaking condition vs. a silent reading control condition. Results showed no statistically significant difference in pre-speech modulation of the N100 amplitude (early stages of auditory processing) for the speech stimuli as compared with the nonspeech stimuli. However, the amplitude of the P200 component (later stages of auditory processing) showed a statistically significant pre-speech modulation that was specific to the speech stimuli only. Hence, the overall results from this study indicate that, immediately prior to speech onset, modulation of the auditory system has a general effect on early processing stages but a speech-specific effect on later processing stages. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that pre-speech auditory modulation may play a role in priming the auditory system for its role in monitoring auditory feedback during speech production.

  1. Automatic cortical representation of auditory pitch changes in Rett syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxe, John J; Burke, Kelly M; Andrade, Gizely N; Djukic, Aleksandra; Frey, Hans-Peter; Molholm, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Over the typical course of Rett syndrome, initial language and communication abilities deteriorate dramatically between the ages of 1 and 4 years, and a majority of these children go on to lose all oral communication abilities. It becomes extremely difficult for clinicians and caretakers to accurately assess the level of preserved auditory functioning in these children, an issue of obvious clinical import. Non-invasive electrophysiological techniques allow for the interrogation of auditory cortical processing without the need for overt behavioral responses. In particular, the mismatch negativity (MMN) component of the auditory evoked potential (AEP) provides an excellent and robust dependent measure of change detection and auditory sensory memory. Here, we asked whether females with Rett syndrome would produce the MMN to occasional changes in pitch in a regularly occurring stream of auditory tones. Fourteen girls with genetically confirmed Rett syndrome and 22 age-matched neurotypical controls participated (ages 3.9-21.1 years). High-density electrophysiological recordings from 64 scalp electrodes were made while participants passively listened to a regularly occurring stream of 503-Hz auditory tone pips that was occasionally (15 % of presentations) interrupted by a higher-pitched deviant tone of 996 Hz. The MMN was derived by subtracting the AEP to these deviants from the AEP produced to the standard. Despite clearly anomalous morphology and latency of the AEP to simple pure-tone inputs in Rett syndrome, the MMN response was evident in both neurotypicals and Rett patients. However, we found that the pitch-evoked MMN was both delayed and protracted in duration in Rett, pointing to slowing of auditory responsiveness. The presence of the MMN in Rett patients suggests preserved abilities to process pitch changes in auditory sensory memory. This work represents a beginning step in an effort to comprehensively map the extent of auditory cortical functioning in Rett

  2. [Auditory threshold for white noise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrat, R; Thillier, J L; Durivault, J

    1975-01-01

    The liminal auditory threshold for white noise and for coloured noise was determined from a statistical survey of a group of 21 young people with normal hearing. The normal auditory threshold for white noise with a spectrum covering the whole of the auditory field is between -- 0.57 dB +/- 8.78. The normal auditory threshold for bands of filtered white noise (coloured noise with a central frequency corresponding to the pure frequencies usually employed in tonal audiometry) describes a typical curve which, instead of being homothetic to the usual tonal curves, sinks to low frequencies and then rises. The peak of this curve is replaced by a broad plateau ranging from 750 to 6000 Hz and contained in the concavity of the liminal tonal curves. The ear is therefore less sensitive but, at limited acoustic pressure, white noise first impinges with the same discrimination upon the whole of the conversational zone of the auditory field. Discovery of the audiometric threshold for white noise constitutes a synthetic method of measuring acuteness of hearing which considerably reduces the amount of manipulation required.

  3. Scanning electron microscopy investigation of canal cleaning after canal preparation with nickel titanium files

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Slavoljub

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Root canal preparation is the most important phase of endodontic procedure and it consists of adequate canal space cleaning and shaping. In recent years, rotary instruments and techniques have gained importance because of the great efficacy, speed and safety of the preparation procedure. Objective. The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of different NiTi files on the canal wall cleaning quality, residual dentine debris and smear layer. Methods. The research was conducted on extracted human teeth in vitro conditions. Teeth were divided in 7 main groups depending on the kind of instruments used for root canal preparation: ProTaper, GT, ProFile, K-3, FlexMaster, hand ProTaper and hand GT. Root canal preparation was accomplished by crown-down technique. Prepared samples were assessed on scanning electron microscopy JEOL, JSM-6460 LV. The evaluation of dentine debris was done with 500x magnification, and the evaluation of smear layer with 1,000 times magnification. Quantitive assessment of dentine debris and smear layer was done according to the criteria of Hulsmann. Results. The least amount of debris and smear layer has been found in canals shaped with ProFile instruments, and the largest amount in canals shaped with FlexMaster instruments. Canal cleaning efficacy of hand GT and ProTaper files has been similar to cleaning efficacy of rotary NiTi files. Statistic analysis has shown a significant difference in amount of dentine debris and smear layer on the canal walls between sample groups shaped with different instruments. Conclusion. Completely clean canals have not been found in any tested group of instruments. The largest amount of debris and smear layer has been found in the apical third of all canals. The design and the type of endodontic instruments influence the efficacy of the canal cleaning.

  4. ERP Correlates of Language-Specific Processing of Auditory Pitch Feedback during Self-Vocalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhaocong; Liu, Peng; Wang, Emily Q.; Larson, Charles R.; Huang, Dongfeng; Liu, Hanjun

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated whether the neural correlates for auditory feedback control of vocal pitch can be shaped by tone language experience. Event-related potentials (P2/N1) were recorded from adult native speakers of Mandarin and Cantonese who heard their voice auditory feedback shifted in pitch by -50, -100, -200, or -500 cents when they…

  5. Speech identification and cortical potentials in individuals with auditory neuropathy

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    Vanaja CS

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Present study investigated the relationship between speech identification scores in quiet and parameters of cortical potentials (latency of P1, N1, and P2; and amplitude of N1/P2 in individuals with auditory neuropathy. Methods Ten individuals with auditory neuropathy (five males and five females and ten individuals with normal hearing in the age range of 12 to 39 yr participated in the study. Speech identification ability was assessed for bi-syllabic words and cortical potentials were recorded for click stimuli. Results Results revealed that in individuals with auditory neuropathy, speech identification scores were significantly poorer than that of individuals with normal hearing. Individuals with auditory neuropathy were further classified into two groups, Good Performers and Poor Performers based on their speech identification scores. It was observed that the mean amplitude of N1/P2 of Poor Performers was significantly lower than that of Good Performers and those with normal hearing. There was no significant effect of group on the latency of the peaks. Speech identification scores showed a good correlation with the amplitude of cortical potentials (N1/P2 complex but did not show a significant correlation with the latency of cortical potentials. Conclusion Results of the present study suggests that measuring the cortical potentials may offer a means for predicting perceptual skills in individuals with auditory neuropathy.

  6. The impact of visual gaze direction on auditory object tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomper, Ulrich; Chait, Maria

    2017-07-05

    Subjective experience suggests that we are able to direct our auditory attention independent of our visual gaze, e.g when shadowing a nearby conversation at a cocktail party. But what are the consequences at the behavioural and neural level? While numerous studies have investigated both auditory attention and visual gaze independently, little is known about their interaction during selective listening. In the present EEG study, we manipulated visual gaze independently of auditory attention while participants detected targets presented from one of three loudspeakers. We observed increased response times when gaze was directed away from the locus of auditory attention. Further, we found an increase in occipital alpha-band power contralateral to the direction of gaze, indicative of a suppression of distracting input. Finally, this condition also led to stronger central theta-band power, which correlated with the observed effect in response times, indicative of differences in top-down processing. Our data suggest that a misalignment between gaze and auditory attention both reduce behavioural performance and modulate underlying neural processes. The involvement of central theta-band and occipital alpha-band effects are in line with compensatory neural mechanisms such as increased cognitive control and the suppression of task irrelevant inputs.

  7. Auditory evoked potentials in children and adolescents with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Letícia; Rosa, Rafael F M; Zen, Paulo R G; Sleifer, Pricila

    2018-01-01

    Down syndrome, or trisomy 21, is the most common genetic alteration in humans. The syndrome presents with several features, including hearing loss and changes in the central nervous system, which may affect language development in children and lead to school difficulties. The present study aimed to investigate group differences in the central auditory system by long-latency auditory evoked potentials and cognitive potential. An assessment of 23 children and adolescents with Down syndrome was performed, and a control group composed of 43 children and adolescents without genetic and/or neurological changes was used for comparison. All children underwent evaluation with pure tone and vocal audiometry, acoustic immitance measures, long-latency auditory evoked potentials, and cognitive potential. Longer latencies of the waves were found in the Down syndrome group than the control group, without significant differences in amplitude, suggesting that individuals with Down syndrome have difficulty in discrimination and auditory memory. It is, therefore, important to stimulate and monitor these children in order to enable adequate development and improve their life quality. We also emphasize the importance of the application of auditory evoked potentials in clinical practice, in order to contribute to the early diagnosis of hearing alterations and the development of more research in this area. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Incidence of accessory canals in Japanese anterior maxillary teeth following root canal filling ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adorno, C G; Yoshioka, T; Suda, H

    2010-05-01

    To investigate the vertical and horizontal distribution and the incidence of accessory canals in Japanese maxillary anterior teeth following root filling. The study included maxillary teeth; 69 central incisors, 61 lateral incisors and 31 canines. After the canal systems had been dyed and root canal instrumentation had been carried out, all prepared canals were filled with gutta-percha without using sealer. Transparent specimens were then obtained and examined with a digital microscope for horizontal and vertical distributions of accessory canals. The incidence of teeth with accessory canals in the apical 3 mm was 46%, 29% and 38% for the maxillary central incisors, lateral incisors and canines, respectively. The horizontal distribution was mainly buccal for central incisors, palatal for lateral incisors and distal and palatal for canines. There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) between the apical 3 mm and the rest of the root (16%, 20% and 19% for the maxillary central incisors, lateral incisors and canines, respectively) in terms of the presence of accessory canals. A high percentage of accessory canals can be found in apical 3 mm of the root. The horizontal distribution of accessory canals differed amongst the tooth types studied.

  9. Canal and isthmus debridement efficacy using a sonic irrigation technique in a closed-canal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Meenal; Sidow, Stephanie J; Looney, Stephen W; Lindsey, Kimberly; Niu, Li-na; Tay, Franklin R

    2012-09-01

    This in vitro study compared debridement efficacies of a sonic irrigation technique (Vibringe; Cavex Holland BV, Haarlem, The Netherlands) with side-vented needle irrigation (SNI) in the mesiobuccal root of maxillary first molars. Twenty roots with narrow isthmuses (≤ 1/4 canal diameter) were selected using micro-computed tomography scanning. Collagen solution was injected into canals/isthmuses and reconstituted with NH(4)OH to simulate canal debris. Each root was sealed apically and embedded in polyvinyl siloxane simulating a closed-canal system. Canals were instrumented to size 40/.04 taper 1 mm short of the anatomic apex. The final irrigation was performed with the Vibringe or SNI. Roots were demineralized, sectioned at 6 levels (1.2-3.2 mm) from the anatomic apex, and stained using Masson trichrome stain. The areas occupied by canals and isthmus and the debris-containing areas were statistically analyzed with repeated-measures analyses using "irrigation technique" as the between factor and "canal level" as the within factor (α = 0.05). Canals had significantly more debris at 1.2 and 1.6 mm (P .05). Considerably more debris remained at 1.2 and 2.0 mm for the Vibringe (P < .05). A significant difference was observed between the canal and the isthmus (P < .001). There is no difference between the Vibringe and SNI in their overall debridement efficacy in apical one third of the mesiobuccal root of maxillary first molars. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. The Effect of Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia on the Auditory System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Zahra Jafari

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Hyperbilirubinemia during the neonatal period is known to be an important risk factor for neonatal auditory impairment, and may reveal as a permanent brain damage, if no proper therapeutic intervention is considered. In the present study some electroacoustic and electrophysiologic tests were used to evaluate function of auditory system in a group of children with severe neonatal Jaundice. Materials and Methods: Forty five children with mean age of 16.1 14.81 months and 17 mg/dl and higher bilirubin level were studied, and the transient evoked otoacoustic emission, acoustic reflex, auditory brainstem response and auditory steady-state response tests were performed for them. Results: The mean score of bilirubin was 29.37 8.95 mg/dl. It was lower than 20 mg/dl in 22.2%, between 20-30 mg/dl in 24.4% and more than 30 mg/dl in 48.0% of children. No therapeutic intervention in 26.7%, phototherapy in 44.4%, and blood exchange in 28.9% of children were reported. 48.9% hypoxia and 26.6% preterm birth history was shown too. TEOAEs was recordable in 71.1% of cases. The normal result in acoustic reflex, ABR and ASSR tests was shown just in 11.1% of cases. The clinical symptoms of auditory neuropathy were revealed in 57.7% of children. Conclusion: Conducting auditory tests sensitive to hyperbilirubinemia place of injury is necessary to inform from functional effect and severity of disorder. Because the auditory neuropathy/ dys-synchrony is common in neonates with hyperbilirubinemic, the OAEs and ABR are the minimum essential tests to identify this disorder.

  11. Multi-Regional Adaptation in Human Auditory Association Cortex

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    Urszula Malinowska

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In auditory cortex, neural responses decrease with stimulus repetition, known as adaptation. Adaptation is thought to facilitate detection of novel sounds and improve perception in noisy environments. Although it is well established that adaptation occurs in primary auditory cortex, it is not known whether adaptation also occurs in higher auditory areas involved in processing complex sounds, such as speech. Resolving this issue is important for understanding the neural bases of adaptation and to avoid potential post-operative deficits after temporal lobe surgery for treatment of focal epilepsy. Intracranial electrocorticographic recordings were acquired simultaneously from electrodes implanted in primary and association auditory areas of the right (non-dominant temporal lobe in a patient with complex partial seizures originating from the inferior parietal lobe. Simple and complex sounds were presented in a passive oddball paradigm. We measured changes in single-trial high-gamma power (70–150 Hz and in regional and inter-regional network-level activity indexed by cross-frequency coupling. Repetitive tones elicited the greatest adaptation and corresponding increases in cross-frequency coupling in primary auditory cortex. Conversely, auditory association cortex showed stronger adaptation for complex sounds, including speech. This first report of multi-regional adaptation in human auditory cortex highlights the role of the non-dominant temporal lobe in suppressing neural responses to repetitive background sounds (noise. These results underscore the clinical utility of functional mapping to avoid potential post-operative deficits including increased listening difficulties in noisy, real-world environments.

  12. MODELING SPECTRAL AND TEMPORAL MASKING IN THE HUMAN AUDITORY SYSTEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Torsten; Jepsen, Morten Løve; Ewert, Stephan D.

    2007-01-01

    An auditory signal processing model is presented that simulates psychoacoustical data from a large variety of experimental conditions related to spectral and temporal masking. The model is based on the modulation filterbank model by Dau et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 102, 2892-2905 (1997)] but inclu......An auditory signal processing model is presented that simulates psychoacoustical data from a large variety of experimental conditions related to spectral and temporal masking. The model is based on the modulation filterbank model by Dau et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 102, 2892-2905 (1997...

  13. Association of odor from infected root canal analyzed by an electronic nose with isolated bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yoko; Takahashi, Yukihiro; Konishi, Kiyoshi; Katsuumi, Ichiroh

    2007-09-01

    Infected root canals usually cause foul odor. On sensory testing, objective evaluation of the odor is difficult because of the subjectivity of the examiner. In this study, the odor of the canal content was analyzed by an electronic nose. Moreover, association of the odor with culturable bacteria isolated from the root canal was examined. The median of the odor index (indicating odor quantity) in nonvital teeth group was significantly higher than that in vital teeth. When Prevotella, Porphyromonas, Fusobacterium, or Bacteroides was detected, the value of the odor index and the strength of smell representation (indicating odor quality) for hydrogen sulfide and ammonia were higher than when these bacteria were not present. Relationship between odor analysis data, clinical symptoms, and isolated bacterial species was seen, thus suggesting that the electronic nose is useful for objective evaluation of root canal odor.

  14. UNUSUAL CASE OF A MAXILLARY FIRST INCISOR WITH TWO ROOT CANALS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Kirilova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Maxillary central incisors usually have one root with one root canal. The cases with two root canals are extremely rare. Purpose: The aim was to present an unusual case of a maxillary first incisor with two root canals and the methods of treatment. Material and methods: The 48-year old patient had a painful swelling above the first maxillary incisor. The diagnosis was Periodontitis chronica granulomatosa diffusa exacerbata. After exploration of the pulp chamber, the inspection with an operating microscope was found two root canals. The lesion was covered to periapical and the part of marginal periodontium. The decision was taken of combined endodontic and surgery treatment. Results and discussion: After 7-year follow-up, there was a healing of the lesions and no recurrence. Conclusions: The combined endodontic and surgery treatment was successful choice for preservation of the tooth.

  15. Semicircular canal modeling in human perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Houshyar; Mohamed, Shady; Lim, Chee Peng; Nahavandi, Saeid; Nalivaiko, Eugene

    2017-07-26

    The human vestibular system is a sensory and equilibrium system that manages and controls the human sense of balance and movement. It is the main sensor humans use to perceive rotational and linear motions. Determining an accurate mathematical model of the human vestibular system is significant for research pertaining to motion perception, as the quality and effectiveness of the motion cueing algorithm (MCA) directly depends on the mathematical model used in its design. This paper describes the history and analyses the development process of mathematical semicircular canal models. The aim of this review is to determine the most consistent and reliable mathematical semicircular canal models that agree with experimental results and theoretical analyses, and offer reliable approximations for the semicircular canal functions based on the existing studies. Selecting and formulating accurate mathematical models of semicircular canals are essential for implementation into the MCA and for ensuring effective human motion perception modeling.

  16. Devices and Procedures for Auditory Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Daniel

    1986-01-01

    The article summarizes information on assistive devices (hearing aids, cochlear implants, tactile aids, visual aids) and rehabilitation procedures (auditory training, speechreading, cued speech, and speech production) to aid the auditory learning of the hearing impaired.(DB)

  17. Auditory adaptation improves tactile frequency perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crommett, L.E.; Pérez Bellido, A.; Yau, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Our ability to process temporal frequency information by touch underlies our capacity to perceive and discriminate surface textures. Auditory signals, which also provide extensive temporal frequency information, can systematically alter the perception of vibrations on the hand. How auditory signals

  18. Endodontic Treatment of the Mandibular First Molar with Six Roots Canals – Two Case Reports and Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Craig

    2015-01-01

    The most common configuration of the mandibular first molar is the presence of two roots and three root canals. The objective of this work is to present two rare anatomic configurations with six root canals on two mandibular left first molars diagnosed during endodontic therapy. Root canal therapy was performed using a dental operating microscope. Ultrasonic troughing in the grooves in between the mesial root canals and in between the distal root canals was able to show the middle root canals. Large samples population characterization researches and systematic reviews were unable to detect a single case of six root canals configuration in a mandibular first molar in their investigations. Although it is a rare configuration, a six root canal configuration is possible to be found in the mandibular first molar. Three different pulp chamber configurations are possible to be found. Two or three roots may be present and the root configuration more common in the mesial root is the Type 8 and Type 12 for the distal root. Some concepts about the required technique to approach these cases are also debated. PMID:26023651

  19. Context effects on auditory distraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sufen; Sussman, Elyse S.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to test the hypothesis that sound context modulates the magnitude of auditory distraction, indexed by behavioral and electrophysiological measures. Participants were asked to identify tone duration, while irrelevant changes occurred in tone frequency, tone intensity, and harmonic structure. Frequency deviants were randomly intermixed with standards (Uni-Condition), with intensity deviants (Bi-Condition), and with both intensity and complex deviants (Tri-Condition). Only in the Tri-Condition did the auditory distraction effect reflect the magnitude difference among the frequency and intensity deviants. The mixture of the different types of deviants in the Tri-Condition modulated the perceived level of distraction, demonstrating that the sound context can modulate the effect of deviance level on processing irrelevant acoustic changes in the environment. These findings thus indicate that perceptual contrast plays a role in change detection processes that leads to auditory distraction. PMID:23886958

  20. Auditory Hallucinations in Acute Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yair Lampl

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Auditory hallucinations are uncommon phenomena which can be directly caused by acute stroke, mostly described after lesions of the brain stem, very rarely reported after cortical strokes. The purpose of this study is to determine the frequency of this phenomenon. In a cross sectional study, 641 stroke patients were followed in the period between 1996–2000. Each patient underwent comprehensive investigation and follow-up. Four patients were found to have post cortical stroke auditory hallucinations. All of them occurred after an ischemic lesion of the right temporal lobe. After no more than four months, all patients were symptom-free and without therapy. The fact the auditory hallucinations may be of cortical origin must be taken into consideration in the treatment of stroke patients. The phenomenon may be completely reversible after a couple of months.

  1. Silent articulation modulates auditory and audiovisual speech perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Marc; Troille, Emilie; Ménard, Lucie; Cathiard, Marie-Agnès; Gracco, Vincent

    2013-06-01

    The concept of an internal forward model that internally simulates the sensory consequences of an action is a central idea in speech motor control. Consistent with this hypothesis, silent articulation has been shown to modulate activity of the auditory cortex and to improve the auditory identification of concordant speech sounds, when embedded in white noise. In the present study, we replicated and extended this behavioral finding by showing that silently articulating a syllable in synchrony with the presentation of a concordant auditory and/or visually ambiguous speech stimulus improves its identification. Our results further demonstrate that, even in the case of perfect perceptual identification, concurrent mouthing of a syllable speeds up the perceptual processing of a concordant speech stimulus. These results reflect multisensory-motor interactions during speech perception and provide new behavioral arguments for internally generated sensory predictions during silent speech production.

  2. Using QUAL2K Model and river pollution index for water quality management in Mahmoudia Canal, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab A. Elsayed

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Mahmoudia Canal is the main source of municipal and industrial water supply for Alexandria (the second largest city in Egypt and many other towns and villages. In recent years, considerable water quality degradation has been observed in the Mahmoudia Canal. This problem has attracted increasing attention from both the public and the Egyptian government. As a result, this study aims at assessing the current seasonal variations in water quality in the Mahmoudia Canal and simulating various water quality management scenarios for the canal. The present research involves the application of the water quality model, QUAL2K, to predict water quality along the Mahmoudia Canal on a seasonal basis for the considered scenarios. Based on the QUAL2K simulations, the River Pollution Index (RPI was used to appraise the conditions of water pollution at the intakes of the twelve water treatment plants (WTPs located along Mahmoudia Canal. The results showed that the QUAL2K model is successfully applied to simulate the water quantity and quality parameters of the Mahmoudia Canal in different seasons. For the current status of the canal, it was found that the highest pollution level occurred in autumn in which effluent water quality at all WTPs along the Mahmoudia Canal was classified as moderately polluted. In the other seasons, effluent water quality was categorized as moderately polluted at most WTPs in the Beheira governorate and negligibly polluted at all WTPs in the Alexandria governorate. Moreover, it was concluded that controlling the Rahawy drain discharge or treating its pollution loads before mixing with the Rosetta Branch may solve water quality problems of the Mahmoudia Canal and allow re-running of the Edko re-use pump station in summer, winter, and spring. However in autumn, additional measures will be required to mitigate pollution levels in the canal.

  3. Exploiting the potential of free software to evaluate root canal biomechanical preparation outcomes through micro-CT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, A A; Silva, E J; Roter, J M; Belladona, F G; Alves, H D; Lopes, R T; Paciornik, S; De-Deus, G A

    2015-11-01

    To propose an automated image processing routine based on free software to quantify root canal preparation outcomes in pairs of sound and instrumented roots after micro-CT scanning procedures. Seven mesial roots of human mandibular molars with different canal configuration systems were studied: (i) Vertucci's type 1, (ii) Vertucci's type 2, (iii) two individual canals, (iv) Vertucci's type 6, canals (v) with and (vi) without debris, and (vii) canal with visible pulp calcification. All teeth were instrumented with the BioRaCe system and scanned in a Skyscan 1173 micro-CT before and after canal preparation. After reconstruction, the instrumented stack of images (IS) was registered against the preoperative sound stack of images (SS). Image processing included contrast equalization and noise filtering. Sound canal volumes were obtained by a minimum threshold. For the IS, a fixed conservative threshold was chosen as the best compromise between instrumented canal and dentine whilst avoiding debris, resulting in instrumented canal plus empty spaces. Arithmetic and logical operations between sound and instrumented stacks were used to identify debris. Noninstrumented dentine was calculated using a minimum threshold in the IS and subtracting from the SS and total debris. Removed dentine volume was obtained by subtracting SS from IS. Quantitative data on total debris present in the root canal space after instrumentation, noninstrumented areas and removed dentine volume were obtained for each test case, as well as three-dimensional volume renderings. After standardization of acquisition, reconstruction and image processing micro-CT images, a quantitative approach for calculation of root canal biomechanical outcomes was achieved using free software. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Stuttering Inhibition via Altered Auditory Feedback during Scripted Telephone Conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudock, Daniel; Kalinowski, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Background: Overt stuttering is inhibited by approximately 80% when people who stutter read aloud as they hear an altered form of their speech feedback to them. However, levels of stuttering inhibition vary from 60% to 100% depending on speaking situation and signal presentation. For example, binaural presentations of delayed auditory feedback…

  5. New fluoride MI Varnish as root canal sealer: An in vitro analysis of bacterial leakage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanu G Rao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the sealing ability of root canal obturation after the application of fluoride varnish (MI Varnish containing 5% sodium fluoride and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate, fluoride varnish, and AH Plus and AH-Plus as root canal sealer by bacterial penetration test. Materials and Methods: Root canals of 65 single-rooted and single-canalled teeth were prepared. They were divided into three experimental groups (n = 15 and two control groups (n = 10. The root canal walls in Group I were coated with AH Plus, Group II were coated with AH Plus and fluoride varnish, and Group III were coated with fluoride varnish. All the teeth were obturated with gutta-percha using the lateral condensation technique. Enterococcus faecalis were used as test bacteria to determine the leakage during 100 days. Statistical Analysis: The data were analyzed using log-rank test and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Results: Group III showed significantly less bacterial penetration as compared to Group I (P = 0.01 and Group II (P = 0.03. However, there was no statistical significance between Groups I and II (P = 0.672. Conclusions: It can be concluded from the present study that fluoride varnish can be used as a root canal sealer. However, further in vitro and in vivo studies are required.

  6. A STUDY OF ROOT CANAL MORPHOLOGY OF Cebus apella TEETH ESTUDO ANATÔMICO DO CANAL RADICULAR DE DENTES DE Cebus apella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Rocha Afonso

    2008-12-01

    , upper and lower canines and first, second, third lower premolars present single and wide canal with easy access being ideals for endodontic experiments.

    KEY WORDS: Anatomy, Cebus apella, teeth.

  7. Auditory white noise reduces postural fluctuations even in the absence of vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jessica Marie; Balasubramaniam, Ramesh

    2015-08-01

    The contributions of somatosensory, vestibular, and visual feedback to balance control are well documented, but the influence of auditory information, especially acoustic noise, on balance is less clear. Because somatosensory noise has been shown to reduce postural sway, we hypothesized that noise from the auditory modality might have a similar effect. Given that the nervous system uses noise to optimize signal transfer, adding mechanical or auditory noise should lead to increased feedback about sensory frames of reference used in balance control. In the present experiment, postural sway was analyzed in healthy young adults where they were presented with continuous white noise, in the presence and absence of visual information. Our results show reduced postural sway variability (as indexed by the body's center of pressure) in the presence of auditory noise, even when visual information was not present. Nonlinear time series analysis revealed that auditory noise has an additive effect, independent of vision, on postural stability. Further analysis revealed that auditory noise reduced postural sway variability in both low- and high-frequency regimes (> or noise. Our results support the idea that auditory white noise reduces postural sway, suggesting that auditory noise might be used for therapeutic and rehabilitation purposes in older individuals and those with balance disorders.

  8. Auditory processing in children and adolescents in situations of risk and vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Cristina Ferraz Borges; Pontes, Fernanda; Stivanin, Luciene; Picoli, Erica; Schochat, Eliane

    2012-01-01

    Children and adolescents who live in situations of social vulnerability present a series of health problems. Nonetheless, affirmations that sensory and cognitive abnormalities are present are a matter of controversy. The aim of this study was to investigate aspects to auditory processing, through applying the brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) and behavioral auditory processing tests to children living on the streets, and comparison with a control group. Cross-sectional study in the Laboratory of Auditory Processing, School of Medicine, Universidade de São Paulo. The auditory processing tests were applied to a group of 27 individuals, subdivided into 11 children (7 to 10 years old) and 16 adolescents (11 to 16 years old), of both sexes, in situations of social vulnerability, compared with an age-matched control group of 10 children and 11 adolescents without complaints. The BAEP test was also applied to investigate the integrity of the auditory pathway. For both children and adolescents, there were significant differences between the study and control groups in most of the tests applied, with significantly worse performance in the study group, except in the pediatric speech intelligibility test. Only one child had an abnormal result in the BAEP test. The results showed that the study group (children and adolescents) presented poor performance in the behavioral auditory processing tests, despite their unaltered auditory brainstem pathways, as shown by their normal results in the BAEP test.

  9. Is sensorimotor BCI performance influenced differently by mono, stereo, or 3-D auditory feedback?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreadie, Karl A; Coyle, Damien H; Prasad, Girijesh

    2014-05-01

    Imagination of movement can be used as a control method for a brain-computer interface (BCI) allowing communication for the physically impaired. Visual feedback within such a closed loop system excludes those with visual problems and hence there is a need for alternative sensory feedback pathways. In the context of substituting the visual channel for the auditory channel, this study aims to add to the limited evidence that it is possible to substitute visual feedback for its auditory equivalent and assess the impact this has on BCI performance. Secondly, the study aims to determine for the first time if the type of auditory feedback method influences motor imagery performance significantly. Auditory feedback is presented using a stepped approach of single (mono), double (stereo), and multiple (vector base amplitude panning as an audio game) loudspeaker arrangements. Visual feedback involves a ball-basket paradigm and a spaceship game. Each session consists of either auditory or visual feedback only with runs of each type of feedback presentation method applied in each session. Results from seven subjects across five sessions of each feedback type (visual, auditory) (10 sessions in total) show that auditory feedback is a suitable substitute for the visual equivalent and that there are no statistical differences in the type of auditory feedback presented across five sessions.

  10. Auditory processing in children and adolescents in situations of risk and vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ferraz Borges Murphy

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Children and adolescents who live in situations of social vulnerability present a series of health problems. Nonetheless, affirmations that sensory and cognitive abnormalities are present are a matter of controversy. The aim of this study was to investigate aspects to auditory processing, through applying the brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP and behavioral auditory processing tests to children living on the streets, and comparison with a control group. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study in the Laboratory of Auditory Processing, School of Medicine, Universidade de São Paulo. METHODS: The auditory processing tests were applied to a group of 27 individuals, subdivided into 11 children (7 to 10 years old and 16 adolescents (11 to 16 years old, of both sexes, in situations of social vulnerability, compared with an age-matched control group of 10 children and 11 adolescents without complaints. The BAEP test was also applied to investigate the integrity of the auditory pathway. RESULTS: For both children and adolescents, there were significant differences between the study and control groups in most of the tests applied, with significantly worse performance in the study group, except in the pediatric speech intelligibility test. Only one child had an abnormal result in the BAEP test. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that the study group (children and adolescents presented poor performance in the behavioral auditory processing tests, despite their unaltered auditory brainstem pathways, as shown by their normal results in the BAEP test.

  11. Auditory Training Effects on the Listening Skills of Children With Auditory Processing Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Jenny Hooi Yin; Rosen, Stuart; Bamiou, Doris-Eva

    2016-01-01

    Children with auditory processing disorder (APD) typically present with "listening difficulties,"' including problems understanding speech in noisy environments. The authors examined, in a group of such children, whether a 12-week computer-based auditory training program with speech material improved the perception of speech-in-noise test performance, and functional listening skills as assessed by parental and teacher listening and communication questionnaires. The authors hypothesized that after the intervention, (1) trained children would show greater improvements in speech-in-noise perception than untrained controls; (2) this improvement would correlate with improvements in observer-rated behaviors; and (3) the improvement would be maintained for at least 3 months after the end of training. This was a prospective randomized controlled trial of 39 children with normal nonverbal intelligence, ages 7 to 11 years, all diagnosed with APD. This diagnosis required a normal pure-tone audiogram and deficits in at least two clinical auditory processing tests. The APD children were randomly assigned to (1) a control group that received only the current standard treatment for children diagnosed with APD, employing various listening/educational strategies at school (N = 19); or (2) an intervention group that undertook a 3-month 5-day/week computer-based auditory training program at home, consisting of a wide variety of speech-based listening tasks with competing sounds, in addition to the current standard treatment. All 39 children were assessed for language and cognitive skills at baseline and on three outcome measures at baseline and immediate postintervention. Outcome measures were repeated 3 months postintervention in the intervention group only, to assess the sustainability of treatment effects. The outcome measures were (1) the mean speech reception threshold obtained from the four subtests of the listening in specialized noise test that assesses sentence perception in

  12. Evaluation of peripheral compression and auditory nerve fiber intensity coding using auditory steady-state responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Encina Llamas, Gerard; M. Harte, James; Epp, Bastian

    2015-01-01

    cause auditory nerve fiber (ANF) deafferentation in predominantly low-spontaneous rate (SR) fibers. In the present study, auditory steadystate response (ASSR) level growth functions were measured to evaluate the applicability of ASSR to assess compression and the ability to code intensity fluctuations...... at high stimulus levels. Level growth functions were measured in normal-hearing adults at stimulus levels ranging from 20 to 90 dB SPL. To evaluate compression, ASSR were measured for multiple carrier frequencies simultaneously. To evaluate intensity coding at high intensities, ASSR were measured using....... The results indicate that the slope of the ASSR level growth function can be used to estimate peripheral compression simultaneously at four frequencies below 60 dB SPL, while the slope above 60 dB SPL may provide information about the integrity of intensity coding of low-SR fibers....

  13. RETRATAMENTO ENDODÔNTICO: ESTUDO COMPARATIVO ENTRE TÉCNICA MANUAL, ULTRA-SOM E CANAL FINDER ENDODONTIC RETREATMENT: COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN MANUAL TECHNIQUE, ULTRASONIC SCALER, AND CANAL FINDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clovis Monteiro BRAMANTE

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Instrumentações manual, ultra-sônica e com Canal Finder foram utilizadas para retratamento de 30 dentes com canais obturados com guta-percha e óxido de zinco e eugenol. Avaliaram-se: 1. tempo gasto para a penetração inicial até o ápice; 2. tempo para completar a limpeza; 3. extrusão de material e 4. limpeza dos canais. O Canal Finder foi a técnica que propiciou melhor limpeza, seguida da manual e da ultra-sônica. A parede palatina do canal foi constantemente mais limpa do que a vestibular. Quanto à extrusão, a técnica de ultra-som foi a que propiciou mais extravasamento de material obturador.Endodontic retreatment of 30 teeth filled with guta percha and zinc oxide-eugenol was carried out using manual instrumentation, ultrasonic scaler, and the Canal Finder System. The following variables were evaluated: time spent to reach the apex; time spent to complete cleaning of the canal; apical extrusion of material; and cleanliness of the canals. Results showed the Canal Finder System as providing the highest level of cleanliness of the canal system; lingual walls were constantly cleaner than buccal walls; ultrasonic technique presented a greater degree of apical extrusion of filling material.

  14. Modeling of Auditory Neuron Response Thresholds with Cochlear Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic Venail

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of the prosthetic-neural interface is a critical point for cochlear implant efficiency. It depends not only on technical and anatomical factors such as electrode position into the cochlea (depth and scalar placement, electrode impedance, and distance between the electrode and the stimulated auditory neurons, but also on the number of functional auditory neurons. The efficiency of electrical stimulation can be assessed by the measurement of e-CAP in cochlear implant users. In the present study, we modeled the activation of auditory neurons in cochlear implant recipients (nucleus device. The electrical response, measured using auto-NRT (neural responses telemetry algorithm, has been analyzed using multivariate regression with cubic splines in order to take into account the variations of insertion depth of electrodes amongst subjects as well as the other technical and anatomical factors listed above. NRT thresholds depend on the electrode squared impedance (β = −0.11 ± 0.02, P<0.01, the scalar placement of the electrodes (β = −8.50 ± 1.97, P<0.01, and the depth of insertion calculated as the characteristic frequency of auditory neurons (CNF. Distribution of NRT residues according to CNF could provide a proxy of auditory neurons functioning in implanted cochleas.

  15. [Auditory processing maturation in children with and without learning difficulties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivone, Ferreira Neves; Schochat, Eliane

    2005-01-01

    Auditory processing maturation in school children with and without learning difficulties. To verify response improvement with the increase in age of the auditory processing skills in school children with ages ranging from eight to ten years, with and without learning difficulties and to perform a comparative study. Eighty-nine children without learning complaints (Group 1) and 60 children with learning difficulties (Group II) were assessed. The used auditory processing tests were: Pediatric Speech Intelligibility (PSI), Speech in Noise, Dichotic Non-Verbal (DNV) and Staggered Spondaic Word (SSW). A better performance was observed for Group I between the ages of eight and ten in all of the used tests. However, the observed differences were statistically significant only for PSI and SSW. For Group II, a better performance was also observed with the increase in age, with statistically significant differences for all of the used tests. Comparing the results between Groups I and II, a better performance was verified for children with no learning difficulties, in the three age groups, in PSI, DNV and SSW. A statistically significant improvement was verified in the responses of the auditory processing with the increase in age, for the ages between eight and ten years, in children with and without learning difficulties. In the comparative study, it was verified that children with learning difficulties presented a lower performance in all of the used tests in the three age groups. This suggests, for this group, a delay in the maturation of the auditory processing skills.

  16. Task-irrelevant auditory feedback facilitates motor performance in musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia eConde

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available An efficient and fast auditory–motor network is a basic resource for trained musicians due to the importance of motor anticipation of sound production in musical performance. When playing an instrument, motor performance always goes along with the production of sounds and the integration between both modalities plays an essential role in the course of musical training. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of task-irrelevant auditory feedback during motor performance in musicians using a serial reaction time task (SRTT. Our hypothesis was that musicians, due to their extensive auditory–motor practice routine during musical training, have a superior performance and learning capabilities when receiving auditory feedback during SRTT relative to musicians performing the SRTT without any auditory feedback. Here we provide novel evidence that task-irrelevant auditory feedback is capable to reinforce SRTT performance but not learning, a finding that might provide further insight into auditory-motor integration in musicians on a behavioral level.

  17. Task-Irrelevant Auditory Feedback Facilitates Motor Performance in Musicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Virginia; Altenmüller, Eckart; Villringer, Arno; Ragert, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    An efficient and fast auditory–motor network is a basic resource for trained musicians due to the importance of motor anticipation of sound production in musical performance. When playing an instrument, motor performance always goes along with the production of sounds and the integration between both modalities plays an essential role in the course of musical training. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of task-irrelevant auditory feedback during motor performance in musicians using a serial reaction time task (SRTT). Our hypothesis was that musicians, due to their extensive auditory–motor practice routine during musical training, have superior performance and learning capabilities when receiving auditory feedback during SRTT relative to musicians performing the SRTT without any auditory feedback. Behaviorally, we found that auditory feedback reinforced SRTT performance of the right hand (referring to absolute response speed) while learning capabilities remained unchanged. This finding highlights a potential important role for task-irrelevant auditory feedback in motor performance in musicians, a finding that might provide further insight into auditory–motor integration independent of the trained musical context. PMID:22623920

  18. Training-induced plasticity of auditory localization in adult mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Kacelnik

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurate auditory localization relies on neural computations based on spatial cues present in the sound waves at each ear. The values of these cues depend on the size, shape, and separation of the two ears and can therefore vary from one individual to another. As with other perceptual skills, the neural circuits involved in spatial hearing are shaped by experience during development and retain some capacity for plasticity in later life. However, the factors that enable and promote plasticity of auditory localization in the adult brain are unknown. Here we show that mature ferrets can rapidly relearn to localize sounds after having their spatial cues altered by reversibly occluding one ear, but only if they are trained to use these cues in a behaviorally relevant task, with greater and more rapid improvement occurring with more frequent training. We also found that auditory adaptation is possible in the absence of vision or error feedback. Finally, we show that this process involves a shift in sensitivity away from the abnormal auditory spatial cues to other cues that are less affected by the earplug. The mature auditory system is therefore capable of adapting to abnormal spatial information by reweighting different localization cues. These results suggest that training should facilitate acclimatization to hearing aids in the hearing impaired.

  19. Delayed visual maturation associated with auditory neuropathy/dyssynchrony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldosari, Mohammed; Mabie, Ann; Husain, Aatif M

    2003-05-01

    Delayed visual maturation is a term used to describe infants who initially seem blind but subsequently have a marked improvement. The mechanism of visual loss and the subsequent improvement remains unknown. Auditory neuropathy/dyssynchrony is a condition of hearing impairment associated with absent or severely abnormal brainstem auditory evoked potentials but normal cochlear functions as measured by otoacoustic emissions. In this report, a 9-month-old infant who had no visual fixation for the first 3 months of life and congenital hearing impairment is described. Her brainstem auditory evoked potential study at 2.5 months of age showed no response to click stimuli presented at 90 dB nHL, whereas her otoacoustic emissions were normal. Subsequently, her vision and hearing improved. A brainstem auditory evoked potential study at 9 months of age showed reproducible waveforms. This case suggests the need for a detailed hearing evaluation of children with delayed visual maturation. Furthermore, this case highlights the need for follow-up brainstem auditory evoked potential testing prior to pursuing any audiologic intervention.

  20. Endodontic Treatment of a Maxillary First Molar with Seven Root Canals Confirmed with Cone Beam Computer Tomography – Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The most common configuration of the maxillary first molar is the presence of three roots and four root canals, although the presence of several other configurations have already been reported. The objective of this work is to present a rare anatomic configuration with seven root canals diagnosed during an endodontic therapy. Endodontic treatment was performed using a dental operating microscope. Exploring the grooves surrounding the main canals with ultrasonic troughing was able expose unexpected root canals. Instrumentation with files of smaller sizes and tapers was performed to prevent root physical weakness. The anatomic configuration was confirmed with a Cone Beam Computer Tomography image analysis which was able to clearly show the presence of seven root canals. An electronic database search was conducted to identify all the published similar cases and the best techniques to approach them are discussed. PMID:25121069

  1. The fluid mechanics of root canal irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulabivala, K; Ng, Y-L; Gilbertson, M; Eames, I

    2010-12-01

    Root canal treatment is a common dental operation aimed at removing the contents of the geometrically complex canal chambers within teeth; its purpose is to remove diseased or infected tissue. The complex chamber is first enlarged and shaped by instruments to a size sufficient to deliver antibacterial fluids. These irrigants help to dissolve dying tissue, disinfect the canal walls and space and flush out debris. The effectiveness of the procedure is limited by access to the canal terminus. Endodontic research is focused on finding the instruments and clinical procedures that might improve success rates by more effectively reaching the apical anatomy. The individual factors affecting treatment outcome have not been unequivocally deciphered, partly because of the difficulty in isolating them and in making the link between simplified, general experimental models and the complex biological objects that are teeth. Explicitly considering the physical processes within the root canal can contribute to the resolution of these problems. The central problem is one of fluid motion in a confined geometry, which makes the dispersion and mixing of irrigant more difficult because of the absence of turbulence over much of the canal volume. The effects of treatments can be understood through the use of scale models, mathematical modelling and numerical computations. A particular concern in treatment is that caustic irrigant may penetrate beyond the root canal, causing chemical damage to the jawbone. In fact, a stagnation plane exists beyond the needle tip, which the irrigant cannot penetrate. The goal is therefore to shift the stagnation plane apically to be coincident with the canal terminus without extending beyond it. Needle design may solve some of the problems but the best design for irrigant penetration conflicts with that for optimal removal of the bacterial biofilm from the canal wall. Both irrigant penetration and biofilm removal may be improved through canal fluid

  2. Evaluation of lingual vascular canals of the mandible with Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cova, Maria; Ukmar, Maja; Bole, Tanja; Morra, Aldo; Lubin, Enrico; Pozzi Mucelli, Roberto

    2003-10-01

    To assess the anatomy of the mandibular lingual vascular canals with the use of computed tomography (CT). Seventy consecutive patients underwent preimplantation CT of the mandible. CT images were obtained on axial plane by using a bone reconstruction algorithm and then processed with dedicated software (Dentascan). The number of lingual vascular canals, the diameter of their entrance foramina and the distance of the foramina from the symphysis menti and from the lower edge of the mandible were measured in each patient. The median superior canal (MSC), the median inferior canal (MIC), the lateral mesial canals (LMC) and the lateral distal canals (LDC) were evaluated separately. 0 to 5 canals were found in each patient. The MSC was found to be present in 98.6% of cases; the mean diameter of the entrance foramen was 0.85+/-0.28 mm located adjacent the symphysis menti and 11.3+/-2.6 mm from the inferior margin of the mandible. The MIC was found to be present in 32.9% of cases; the mean diameter of the entrance foramen was 0.58+/-0.21 mm located adjacent the symphysis menti and 5.5+/-2.2 mm from the inferior margin of the mandible. LMCs were found to be present in 38.6% of cases; the mean diameter of their entrance foramina was 0.60+/-0.24 mm located 5.1+/-2.5 mm from the symphysis menti and 6.3+/-3.2 mm from the inferior margin of the mandible. LDCs were found to be present in 48.6% of the patients; the mean diameter of their entrance foramina was 0.58+/-0.19 mm located 19.3+/-7.3 mm from the symphysis menti and 6.6+/-5.4 mm from the inferior margin of mandible. Dental CT detects the lingual vascular canals of the mandible in a high percentage of subjects and allows a good demonstration of their number, location and entrance foramen diameter. The evaluation of these canals is important in the preoperative planning of dental implants or in the planning of dental surgery in general so as to avoid bleeding due to damage of the vessels present in these canals.

  3. Brainstem auditory evoked responses in 37 dogs with otitis media before and after topical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, S

    2017-07-18

    The objective of this study was to determine whether intra-aural administration of aqueous solutions of marbofloxacin, gentamicin, tobramycin and ticarcillin (used off-licence) was associated with changes in hearing as measured by brainstem auditory evoked responses. Dogs diagnosed with otitis media (n=37) underwent brainstem auditory evoked response testing and then were treated for their ear disease. First, the external ear canal and middle ear were flushed with sterile saline followed by EDTA tris with 0·15% chlorhexidine. Then, a combination of aqueous antibiotic mixed with an aqueous solution of EDTA tris was instilled into the middle ear. Follow-up examinations were undertaken for each dog, and treatment was continued until there were no detected infectious organisms or inflammatory infiltrate. Brainstem auditory evoked response testing was repeated after resolution of the infection and discontinuation of therapy. Brainstem auditory evoked responses in dogs treated with aqueous solutions of marbofloxacin or gentamicin remained unchanged or improved after therapy of otitis media but were impaired in dogs treated with ticarcillin or tobramycin. If off-licence use of topical antibiotics is deemed necessary in cases of otitis media, aqueous solutions of marbofloxacin and gentamicin appear to be less ototoxic than aqueous solutions of ticarcillin or tobramycin. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  4. Effects of selective attention on the electrophysiological representation of concurrent sounds in the human auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidet-Caulet, Aurélie; Fischer, Catherine; Besle, Julien; Aguera, Pierre-Emmanuel; Giard, Marie-Helene; Bertrand, Olivier

    2007-08-29

    In noisy environments, we use auditory selective attention to actively ignore distracting sounds and select relevant information, as during a cocktail party to follow one particular conversation. The present electrophysiological study aims at deciphering the spatiotemporal organization of the effect of selective attention on the representation of concurrent sounds in the human auditory cortex. Sound onset asynchrony was manipulated to induce the segregation of two concurrent auditory streams. Each stream consisted of amplitude modulated tones at different carrier and modulation frequencies. Electrophysiological recordings were performed in epileptic patients with pharmacologically resistant partial epilepsy, implanted with depth electrodes in the temporal cortex. Patients were presented with the stimuli while they either performed an auditory distracting task or actively selected one of the two concurrent streams. Selective attention was found to affect steady-state responses in the primary auditory cortex, and transient and sustained evoked responses in secondary auditory areas. The results provide new insights on the neural mechanisms of auditory selective attention: stream selection during sound rivalry would be facilitated not only by enhancing the neural representation of relevant sounds, but also by reducing the representation of irrelevant information in the auditory cortex. Finally, they suggest a specialization of the left hemisphere in the attentional selection of fine-grained acoustic information.

  5. Experimental Evaluation of Auditory Cognition's Effects on Visual Cognition of Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamitani, Tatsuo; Haruki, Kazuhito; Matsuda, Minoru

    This paper presents the experimental evaluation of auditory cognition's effects on visual cognition of video. The influences of seven auditory stimuli on visual recognition are investigated based on experimental data of key-down operations. The key-down operations for locating a moving target by visual and auditory images are monitored by an experiment system originally made by devices including VTR, CRT, Data Recorder, etc.. Regression analysis and EM algorithm are applied to analyzing the experiment data of 350 key-down operations, made with 50 people and 7 auditory stimulus types. The following characteristic results about the influence of auditory stimulus on visual recognition are derived. Firstly, seven people responded too early for every experiment. The average of and the standard deviation of their response times are 439[ms] and 231[ms] respectively. Secondly, the other forty three people responded about 10[ms] after at cases, in which auditory images were presented 30[ms] or 60[ms] before visual images. Also they responded about 10[ms] early at the other cases. Thirdly, as the visual image was dominant information used for the key-down decision making, apparent effects of auditory images on the key-down operation were not measured. Averages and standard deviations of distributions measured by EM algorithm, regarding to 7 auditory stimulus types, are considered and verified with the Card's MHP model of human response.

  6. Auditory-olfactory integration: congruent or pleasant sounds amplify odor pleasantness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seo, Han-Seok; Hummel, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    ...) and the "halo/horns effect" of auditory pleasantness (Experiment 2). First, in Experiment 1, participants were presented with congruent, incongruent, or neutral sounds before and during the presentation of odor...

  7. Changes in Properties of Auditory Nerve Synapses following Conductive Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Xiaowen; Sun, Wei; Xu-Friedman, Matthew A

    2017-01-11

    Auditory activity plays an important role in the development of the auditory system. Decreased activity can result from conductive hearing loss (CHL) associated with otitis media, which may lead to long-term perceptual deficits. The effects of CHL have been mainly studied at later stages of the auditory pathway, but early stages remain less examined. However, changes in early stages could be important because they would affect how information about sounds is conveyed to higher-order areas for further processing and localization. We examined the effects of CHL at auditory nerve synapses onto bushy cells in the mouse anteroventral cochlear nucleus following occlusion of the ear canal. These synapses, called endbulbs of Held, normally show strong depression in voltage-clamp recordings in brain slices. After 1 week of CHL, endbulbs showed even greater depression, reflecting higher release probability. We observed no differences in quantal size between control and occluded mice. We confirmed these observations using mean-variance analysis and the integration method, which also revealed that the number of release sites decreased after occlusion. Consistent with this, synaptic puncta immunopositive for VGLUT1 decreased in area after occlusion. The level of depression and number of release sites both showed recovery after returning to normal conditions. Finally, bushy cells fired fewer action potentials in response to evoked synaptic activity after occlusion, likely because of increased depression and decreased input resistance. These effects appear to reflect a homeostatic, adaptive response of auditory nerve synapses to reduced activity. These effects may have important implications for perceptual changes following CHL. Normal hearing is important to everyday life, but abnormal auditory experience during development can lead to processing disorders. For example, otitis media reduces sound to the ear, which can cause long-lasting deficits in language skills and verbal

  8. Visual and auditory perception in preschool children at risk for dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Rosario; Estévez, Adelina; Muñetón, Mercedes; Domínguez, Carolina

    2014-11-01

    Recently, there has been renewed interest in perceptive problems of dyslexics. A polemic research issue in this area has been the nature of the perception deficit. Another issue is the causal role of this deficit in dyslexia. Most studies have been carried out in adult and child literates; consequently, the observed deficits may be the result rather than the cause of dyslexia. This study addresses these issues by examining visual and auditory perception in children at risk for dyslexia. We compared children from preschool with and without risk for dyslexia in auditory and visual temporal order judgment tasks and same-different discrimination tasks. Identical visual and auditory, linguistic and nonlinguistic stimuli were presented in both tasks. The results revealed that the visual as well as the auditory perception of children at risk for dyslexia is impaired. The comparison between groups in auditory and visual perception shows that the achievement of children at risk was lower than children without risk for dyslexia in the temporal tasks. There were no differences between groups in auditory discrimination tasks. The difficulties of children at risk in visual and auditory perceptive processing affected both linguistic and nonlinguistic stimuli. Our conclusions are that children at risk for dyslexia show auditory and visual perceptive deficits for linguistic and nonlinguistic stimuli. The auditory impairment may be explained by temporal processing problems and these problems are more serious for processing language than for processing other auditory stimuli. These visual and auditory perceptive deficits are not the consequence of failing to learn to read, thus, these findings support the theory of temporal processing deficit. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Auditory and Visual Electrophysiology of Deaf Children with Cochlear Implants: Implications for Cross-modal Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corina, David P.; Blau, Shane; LaMarr, Todd; Lawyer, Laurel A.; Coffey-Corina, Sharon

    2017-01-01

    Deaf children who receive a cochlear implant early in life and engage in intensive oral/aural therapy often make great strides in spoken language acquisition. However, despite clinicians’ best efforts, there is a great deal of variability in language outcomes. One concern is that cortical regions which normally support auditory processing may become reorganized for visual function, leaving fewer available resources for auditory language acquisition. The conditions under which these changes occur are not well understood, but we may begin investigating this phenomenon by looking for interactions between auditory and visual evoked cortical potentials in deaf children. If children with abnormal auditory responses show increased sensitivity to visual stimuli, this may indicate the presence of maladaptive cortical plasticity. We recorded evoked potentials, using both auditory and visual paradigms, from 25 typical hearing children and 26 deaf children (ages 2–8 years) with cochlear implants. An auditory oddball paradigm was used (85% /ba/ syllables vs. 15% frequency modulated tone sweeps) to elicit an auditory P1 component. Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were recorded during presentation of an intermittent peripheral radial checkerboard while children watched a silent cartoon, eliciting a P1–N1 response. We observed reduced auditory P1 amplitudes and a lack of latency shift associated with normative aging in our deaf sample. We also observed shorter latencies in N1 VEPs to visual stimulus offset in deaf participants. While these data demonstrate cortical changes associated with auditory deprivation, we did not find evidence for a relationship between cortical auditory evoked potentials and the VEPs. This is consistent with descriptions of intra-modal plasticity within visual systems of deaf children, but do not provide evidence for cross-modal plasticity. In addition, we note that sign language experience had no effect on deaf children’s early auditory and visual

  10. Calcium hydroxide has limited effectiveness in eliminating bacteria from human root canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balto, Khaled A

    2007-01-01

    Searches of Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Medline, Embase, six thesis databases (Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations, Proquest Digital Dissertations, OAIster, Index to Theses, Australian Digital Thesis program and Dissertation.com) and one conference report database (BIOSIS Previews) were undertaken. There were no language restrictions. Studies were included in which participants had a noncontributory medical history, presented with mature teeth and radiographic evidence of periapical bone loss (as an indication of pre-operative canal infection), whose selected root canals had not previously received any endodontic treatment, and who had undergone nonsurgical root canal treatment during the study in which calcium hydroxide had also been used to seal in the canals. In addition, it was required that microbiological sampling had been undertaken during the course of treatment, before canal preparation, after canal preparation and after canal medication. Aerobic and anaerobic culturing techniques were performed on all samples. The treatment outcomes were stated in terms of positive and negative canal cultures. All data were extracted in the same manner using a standardised data extraction sheet. Between-study heterogeneity was assessed using the standard chi-squared test or Q-statistic. The principal measure of treatment effect (antibacterial efficacy) was risk difference, which is normally defined as the risk in the experimental group minus risk in the control group. For the purpose of this study, it is given as the difference in the proportion of bacteria-positive cultures pre- and post-medication. Out of the eight studies (257 cases) included, one study used a small control group (in which canals were left empty, and no intracanal medicament was used between appointments). The other seven studies simply compared the frequency of positive cultures before and after calcium hydroxide medication. Six studies demonstrated a

  11. Cone Beam Computed Tomographic Analysis of the Course and Position of Mandibular Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorshidi, Hooman; Raoofi, Saeed; Ghapanchi, Janan; Shahidi, Shoaleh; Paknahad, Maryam

    2017-09-01

    Estimation of the relative position of infra alveolar nerve (IAN) canal and its relation to the mandibular anatomical landmarks can be clinically useful in minimizing the risk of surgery complications such as neurosensory disturbances that may occur after invasive mandibular surgical procedures. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the anatomic location and radiographic course of the mandibular canal compared to anatomic landmarks on CBCT and to discuss its clinical significance and also to determine the possible correlations between the mandibular position and the age of the patients. This cross sectional study was conducted on 242 CBCT of patients (99 males and 143 females). The location of canal was evaluated in 4 different regions. The first section in trans-axial view after mental foramen, in which the loop of mandibular canal is formed, was selected as point 1 for measurement and intervals of 10 mm, respectively, points 2, 3, 4 were selected for measurement. On these sections, the shortest linear distances (mm) from the most buccal and lingual aspects of the canal to the corresponding cortical plates of the mandible and also the minimum linear distance between the inferior aspect of canal and inferior border of mandible in these regions were calculated. There was statistically significant correlation between the anatomic course of the canal and the patients' gender. The mean vertical position of the canal, as measured from the lower border of the IAN canal to the inferior border of the mandible, was 8.50 mm, ranging from 4.80 to 14.50 mm. On average, the mandibular canal was situated more lingually at all sites to the point it reached the mental foramen. However, at the mental foramen region (Point 1), it was located closer to the buccal cortical plate. Assessment of the exact course of the IAN preoperatively along the body of the mandible by using CBCT might contribute to efficient and accurate surgical planning and therefore positively

  12. Auditory aura in frontal opercular epilepsy: sounds from afar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Stephen A; Alexopoulos, Andreas; Bingaman, William; Gonzalez-Martinez, Jorge; Bulacio, Juan; Nair, Dileep; So, Norman K

    2015-06-01

    Auditory auras are typically considered to localize to the temporal neocortex. Herein, we present two cases of frontal operculum/perisylvian epilepsy with auditory auras. Following a non-invasive evaluation, including ictal SPECT and magnetoencephalography, implicating the frontal operculum, these cases were evaluated with invasive monitoring, using stereoelectroencephalography and subdural (plus depth) electrodes, respectively. Spontaneous and electrically-induced seizures showed an ictal onset involving the frontal operculum in both cases. A typical auditory aura was triggered by stimulation of the frontal operculum in one. Resection of the frontal operculum and subjacent insula rendered one case seizure- (and aura-) free. From a hodological (network) perspective, we discuss these findings with consideration of the perisylvian and insular network(s) interconnecting the frontal and temporal lobes, and revisit the non-invasive data, specifically that of ictal SPECT.

  13. Self-grounding visual, auditory and olfactory autobiographical memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knez, Igor; Ljunglöf, Louise; Arshamian, Artin; Willander, Johan

    2017-07-01

    Given that autobiographical memory provides a cognitive foundation for the self, we investigated the relative importance of visual, auditory and olfactory autobiographical memories for the self. Thirty subjects, with a mean age of 35.4years, participated in a study involving a three×three within-subject design containing nine different types of autobiographical memory cues: pictures, sounds and odors presented with neutral, positive and negative valences. It was shown that visual compared to auditory and olfactory autobiographical memories involved higher cognitive and emotional constituents for the self. Furthermore, there was a trend showing positive autobiographical memories to increase their proportion to both cognitive and emotional components of the self, from olfactory to auditory to visually cued autobiographical memories; but, yielding a reverse trend for negative autobiographical memories. Finally, and independently of modality, positive affective states were shown to be more involved in autobiographical memory than negative ones. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. LPS levels in root canals after the use of ozone gas and high frequency electrical pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago André Fontoura de MELO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study aims to verify the effect of ozone gas (OZY® System and high frequency electric pulse (Endox® System systems on human root canals previously contaminated with Escherichia colilipopolysaccharide (LPS. Fifty single-rooted teeth had their dental crowns removed and root lengths standardized to 16 mm. The root canals were prepared up to #60 hand K-files and sterilized using gamma radiation with cobalt 60. The specimens were divided into the following five groups (n = 10 based on the disinfection protocol used: OZY® System, one 120-second-pulse (OZY 1p; OZY® System, four 24-second-pulses (OZY 4p; and Endox® System (ENDOX. Contaminated and non-contaminated canals were exposed only to apyrogenic water and used as positive (C+ and negative (C- controls, respectively. LPS (O55:B55 was administered in all root canals except those belonging to group C-. After performing disinfection, LPS samples were collected from the canals using apyrogenic paper tips. Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate (LAL was used to quantify the LPS levels, and the data obtained was analyzed using one-way ANOVA. The disinfection protocols used were unable to reduce the LPS levels significantly (p = 0.019. The use of ozone gas and high frequency electric pulses was not effective in eliminating LPS from the root canals.

  15. The circulation of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the spinal canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Antonio L.; Martinez-Bazan, Carlos; Lasheras, Juan C.

    2016-11-01

    Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) is secreted in the choroid plexus in the lateral sinuses of the brain and fills the subarachnoid space bathing the external surfaces of the brain and the spinal canal. Absence of CSF circulation has been shown to impede its physiological function that includes, among others, supplying nutrients to neuronal and glial cells and removing the waste products of cellular metabolism. Radionuclide scanning images published by Di Chiro in 1964 showed upward migration of particle tracers from the lumbar region of the spinal canal, thereby suggesting the presence of an active bulk circulation responsible for bringing fresh CSF into the spinal canal and returning a portion of it to the cranial vault. However, the existence of this slow moving bulk circulation in the spinal canal has been a subject of dispute for the last 50 years. To date, there has been no physical explanation for the mechanism responsible for the establishment of such a bulk motion. We present a perturbation analysis of the flow in an idealized model of the spinal canal and show how steady streaming could be responsible for the establishment of such a circulation. The results of this analysis are compared to flow measurements conducted on in-vitro models of the spinal canal of adult humans.

  16. Knowledge of General Dentists of Kermanshah about Root Canal Therapy in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roohollah Sharifi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study was conducted to analyze the knowledge of general dentists of Kermanshah about root canal therapy in 2012. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, a two-part questionnaire was designed and given to 93 general dentists in Kermanshah to complete. The first part of the questionnaire comprised of personal and professional information of the participant dentists and the second part of the questionnaire determined the awareness of the dentists about root canal therapy. Data were analyzed by SPSS software (version 20 using Pearson correlation coefficient, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and independent t-test. Results: A total of 84 dentists with the mean age of 39.3±7.1 completed the questionnaires. The mean for 12 correct responses was 63.3%. The highest number of correct responses (86.2% belonged to using proper intra-canal medication (calcium hydroxide and the lowest number of correct responses (41.4% was associated with the number of root canals in maxillary first molar (four canals. There was a reverse correlation between awareness and work experience (P=0.002, r=-0.337. Also, participation in retraining courses did not have significant impact on the knowledge of the dentists (P =0.82. Conclusion: General dentists have average knowledge about root canal therapy. Higher quality regular training is recommended to promote the knowledge of the dentists about endodontic therapies.

  17. Central Auditory Maturation and Behavioral Outcome in Children with Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder who Use Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardon, Garrett; Sharma, Anu

    2013-01-01

    Objective We examined cortical auditory development and behavioral outcomes in children with ANSD fitted with cochlear implants (CI). Design Cortical maturation, measured by P1 cortical auditory evoked potential (CAEP) latency, was regressed against scores on the Infant Toddler Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale (IT-MAIS). Implantation age was also considered in relation to CAEP findings. Study Sample Cross-sectional and longitudinal samples of 24 and 11 children, respectively, with ANSD fitted with CIs. Result P1 CAEP responses were present in all children after implantation, though previous findings suggest that only 50-75% of ANSD children with hearing aids show CAEP responses. P1 CAEP latency was significantly correlated with participants' IT-MAIS scores. Furthermore, more children implanted before age two years showed normal P1 latencies, while those implanted later mainly showed delayed latencies. Longitudinal analysis revealed that most children showed normal or improved cortical maturation after implantation. Conclusion Cochlear implantation resulted in measureable cortical auditory development for all children with ANSD. Children fitted with CIs under age two years were more likely to show age-appropriate CAEP responses within 6 months after implantation, suggesting a possible sensitive period for cortical auditory development in ANSD. That CAEP responses were correlated with behavioral outcome highlights their clinical decision-making utility. PMID:23819618

  18. Central auditory maturation and behavioral outcome in children with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder who use cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardon, Garrett; Sharma, Anu

    2013-09-01

    We examined cortical auditory development and behavioral outcomes in children with ANSD fitted with cochlear implants (CI). Cortical maturation, measured by P1 cortical auditory evoked potential (CAEP) latency, was regressed against scores on the infant toddler meaningful auditory integration scale (IT-MAIS). Implantation age was also considered in relation to CAEP findings. Cross-sectional and longitudinal samples of 24 and 11 children, respectively, with ANSD fitted with CIs. P1 CAEP responses were present in all children after implantation, though previous findings suggest that only 50-75% of ANSD children with hearing aids show CAEP responses. P1 CAEP latency was significantly correlated with participants' IT-MAIS scores. Furthermore, more children implanted before age two years showed normal P1 latencies, while those implanted later mainly showed delayed latencies. Longitudinal analysis revealed that most children showed normal or improved cortical maturation after implantation. Cochlear implantation resulted in measureable cortical auditory development for all children with ANSD. Children fitted with CIs under age two years were more likely to show age-appropriate CAEP responses within six months after implantation, suggesting a possible sensitive period for cortical auditory development in ANSD. That CAEP responses were correlated with behavioral outcome highlights their clinical decision-making utility.

  19. Auditory Risk of Air Rifles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankford, James E.; Meinke, Deanna K.; Flamme, Gregory A.; Finan, Donald S.; Stewart, Michael; Tasko, Stephen; Murphy, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To characterize the impulse noise exposure and auditory risk for air rifle users for both youth and adults. Design Acoustic characteristics were examined and the auditory risk estimates were evaluated using contemporary damage-risk criteria for unprotected adult listeners and the 120-dB peak limit and LAeq75 exposure limit suggested by the World Health Organization (1999) for children. Study sample Impulses were generated by 9 pellet air rifles and 1 BB air rifle. Results None of the air rifles generated peak levels that exceeded the 140 dB peak limit for adults and 8 (80%) exceeded the 120 dB peak SPL limit for youth. In general, for both adults and youth there is minimal auditory risk when shooting less than 100 unprotected shots with pellet air rifles. Air rifles with suppressors were less hazardous than those without suppressors and the pellet air rifles with higher velocities were generally more hazardous than those with lower velocities. Conclusion To minimize auditory risk, youth should utilize air rifles with an integrated suppressor and lower velocity ratings. Air rifle shooters are advised to wear hearing protection whenever engaging in shooting activities in order to gain self-efficacy and model appropriate hearing health behaviors necessary for recreational firearm use. PMID:26840923

  20. Molecular approach of auditory neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Magali Aparecida Orate Menezes da; Piatto, Vânia Belintani; Maniglia, Jose Victor

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the otoferlin gene are responsible for auditory neuropathy. To investigate the prevalence of mutations in the mutations in the otoferlin gene in patients with and without auditory neuropathy. This original cross-sectional case study evaluated 16 index cases with auditory neuropathy, 13 patients with sensorineural hearing loss, and 20 normal-hearing subjects. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes, and the mutations in the otoferlin gene sites were amplified by polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism. The 16 index cases included nine (56%) females and seven (44%) males. The 13 deaf patients comprised seven (54%) males and six (46%) females. Among the 20 normal-hearing subjects, 13 (65%) were males and seven were (35%) females. Thirteen (81%) index cases had wild-type genotype (AA) and three (19%) had the heterozygous AG genotype for IVS8-2A-G (intron 8) mutation. The 5473C-G (exon 44) mutation was found in a heterozygous state (CG) in seven (44%) index cases and nine (56%) had the wild-type allele (CC). Of these mutants, two (25%) were compound heterozygotes for the mutations found in intron 8 and exon 44. All patients with sensorineural hearing loss and normal-hearing individuals did not have mutations (100%). There are differences at the molecular level in patients with and without auditory neuropathy. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Nigel: A Severe Auditory Dyslexic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotterell, Gill

    1976-01-01

    Reported is the case study of a boy with severe auditory dyslexia who received remedial treatment from the age of four and progressed through courses at a technical college and a 3-year apprenticeship course in mechanics by the age of eighteen. (IM)

  2. Auditory Processing Disorder in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Auditory Neuropathy Autism Spectrum Disorder: Communication Problems in Children Dysphagia Quick Statistics About Voice, Speech, Language Speech and Language Developmental Milestones What Is Voice? What Is Speech? What Is Language? ... communication provides better outcomes for children with cochlear implants University of Texas at Dallas ...

  3. Single visit root canal treatment: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edionwe, J I; Shaba, O P; Umesi, D C

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to determine the success rate of single visit root canal treatment (RCT) and thus encourage clinicians to offer this treatment option appropriately. This was a longitudinal clinical study involving all teeth of the secondary dentition except third molars in the upper and lower jaws. Teeth having irreversible pulpitis, pulp necrosis or periapical periodontitis were included in the study. RCT and obturation was done at a single visit. The patients were monitored over 6 months. Forty-five teeth were treated in 21 females and 24 males, aged 18-56 years (34.4+/-12.7). Preoperatively, pain was present in 84.4%, tenderness to percussion in 53.3%, and periapical radiolucency in 24.4% teeth. Forty percent had irreversible pulpitis and 60% had apical periodontitis. Post-operatively, pain reduced to 51.1% on day 1, 15.5% at 1 week, and 0% for the rest of the period. Tenderness to percussion reduced to 15.6% at 1 week and 0% by 1 month. Periapical radiolucency reduced to 9.5% at 6 months. Favorable outcome of 33.3% was recorded on day 1 and increased to 90.5% at 6 months. Six months success rate for teeth which had irreversible pulpitis was 100% and 83.3% for apical periodontitis. The mean time needed to complete a single visit RCT ranged from 77 min for a tooth having one canal to 132 min for one having four canals. Single visit RCT is a viable treatment option for teeth having irreversible pulpitis or apical periodontitis irrespective of tooth type or number of canals. A lot of patients are lost to follow-up visits for teeth requiring RCT once the pulp is extirpated at the first visit due to cessation of pain, subsequently leading to treatment failure. Single visit endodontics eliminates the need for follow-up visits and improves treatment prognosis.

  4. Effect of neonatal asphyxia on the impairment of the auditory pathway by recording auditory brainstem responses in newborn piglets: a new experimentation model to study the perinatal hypoxic-ischemic damage on the auditory system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Jose Alvarez

    Full Text Available Hypoxia-ischemia (HI is a major perinatal problem that results in severe damage to the brain impairing the normal development of the auditory system. The purpose of the present study is to study the effect of perinatal asphyxia on the auditory pathway by recording auditory brain responses in a novel animal experimentation model in newborn piglets.Hypoxia-ischemia was induced to 1.3 day-old piglets by clamping 30 minutes both carotid arteries by vascular occluders and lowering the fraction of inspired oxygen. We compared the Auditory Brain Responses (ABRs of newborn piglets exposed to acute hypoxia/ischemia (n = 6 and a control group with no such exposure (n = 10. ABRs were recorded for both ears before the start of the experiment (baseline, after 30 minutes of HI injury, and every 30 minutes during 6 h after the HI injury.Auditory brain responses were altered during the hypoxic-ischemic insult but recovered 30-60 minutes later. Hypoxia/ischemia seemed to induce auditory functional damage by increasing I-V latencies and decreasing wave I, III and V amplitudes, although differences were not significant.The described experimental model of hypoxia-ischemia in newborn piglets may be useful for studying the effect of perinatal asphyxia on the impairment of the auditory pathway.

  5. Effect of neonatal asphyxia on the impairment of the auditory pathway by recording auditory brainstem responses in newborn piglets: a new experimentation model to study the perinatal hypoxic-ischemic damage on the auditory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Francisco Jose; Revuelta, Miren; Santaolalla, Francisco; Alvarez, Antonia; Lafuente, Hector; Arteaga, Olatz; Alonso-Alconada, Daniel; Sanchez-del-Rey, Ana; Hilario, Enrique; Martinez-Ibargüen, Agustin

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia-ischemia (HI) is a major perinatal problem that results in severe damage to the brain impairing the normal development of the auditory system. The purpose of the present study is to study the effect of perinatal asphyxia on the auditory pathway by recording auditory brain responses in a novel animal experimentation model in newborn piglets. Hypoxia-ischemia was induced to 1.3 day-old piglets by clamping 30 minutes both carotid arteries by vascular occluders and lowering the fraction of inspired oxygen. We compared the Auditory Brain Responses (ABRs) of newborn piglets exposed to acute hypoxia/ischemia (n = 6) and a control group with no such exposure (n = 10). ABRs were recorded for both ears before the start of the experiment (baseline), after 30 minutes of HI injury, and every 30 minutes during 6 h after the HI injury. Auditory brain responses were altered during the hypoxic-ischemic insult but recovered 30-60 minutes later. Hypoxia/ischemia seemed to induce auditory functional damage by increasing I-V latencies and decreasing wave I, III and V amplitudes, although differences were not significant. The described experimental model of hypoxia-ischemia in newborn piglets may be useful for studying the effect of perinatal asphyxia on the impairment of the auditory pathway.

  6. Auditory Presentation of H/OZ Critical Flight Data Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Automation of a flight control system to perform functions normally attributed to humans is often not robust and limited to specific operating conditions and types...

  7. Perineural Spread of Salivary Duct Carcinoma to the Internal Auditory Canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winfred Kitavi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Salivary duct carcinomas (SDCs are high-grade malignant tumors exhibiting aggressive growth with early regional and distant metastasis. We report a case of SDC in a 63-year-old male with early recurrent disease in the cerebellopontine angle (CPA after total parotidectomy and adjuvant radiotherapy. The tendency of the tumor to recur or metastasize despite radical surgical measures and radiotherapy continues to pose a therapeutic challenge.

  8. Cancer of the external auditory canal and middle ear in Denmark from 1992 to 2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Rørbæk; Gundgaard, Maria G; Hoff, Camilla M

    2008-01-01

    cell carcinoma, 10 basal cell carcinoma, and 11 other histologies. Moody (modified Pittsburgh) stages were T1 (26), T2 (9), T3 (8), T4 (23), Tx (2). Sixty-four patients were treated with curative intent: 24 primary radiotherapy, 18 primary surgery, and 22 combined. Surgery was limited to tumor excision...... and mastoidectomy and in 1 case temporal bone excision. RESULTS: Twenty-seven of 28 recurrences involved primary site. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed 5-year locoregional control of 48%, disease-specific survival 57%, and overall survival 44%. CONCLUSION: This nationwide study confirmed that local failure is the main...

  9. An examination of auditory processing and affective prosody in relatives of patients with auditory hallucinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel eTucker

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Research on auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs indicates that AVH schizophrenia patients show greater abnormalities on tasks requiring recognition of affective prosody (AP than non-AVH patients. Detecting AP requires accurate perception of manipulations in pitch, amplitude and duration. Schizophrenia patients with AVHs also experience difficulty detecting these acoustic manipulations; with a number of theorists speculating that difficulties in pitch, amplitude and duration discrimination underlie AP abnormalities. This study examined whether both AP and these aspects of auditory processing are also impaired in first degree relatives of persons with AVHs. It also examined whether pitch, amplitude and duration discrimination were related to AP, and to hallucination proneness. Unaffected relatives of AVH schizophrenia patients (N=19 and matched healthy controls (N=33 were compared using tone discrimination tasks, an AP task, and clinical measures. Relatives were slower at identifying emotions on the AP task (p =.002, with secondary analysis showing this was especially so for happy (p = .014 and neutral (p =.001 sentences. There was a significant interaction effect for pitch between tone deviation level and group (p = .019, and relatives performed worse than controls on amplitude discrimination and duration discrimination. AP performance for happy and neutral sentences was significantly correlated with amplitude perception. Lastly, AVH proneness in the entire sample was significantly correlated with pitch discrimination (r = .44 and pitch perception was shown to predict AVH proneness in the sample (p = .005. These results suggest basic impairments in auditory processing are present in relatives of AVH patients; they potentially underlie processing speed in AP tasks, and predict AVH proneness. This indicates auditory processing deficits may be a core feature of AVHs in schizophrenia, and are worthy of further study as a potential endophenotype for

  10. Transcranial Random Noise Stimulation (tRNS Shapes the Processing of Rapidly Changing Auditory Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina S. Rufener

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Neural oscillations in the gamma range are the dominant rhythmic activation pattern in the human auditory cortex. These gamma oscillations are functionally relevant for the processing of rapidly changing acoustic information in both speech and non-speech sounds. Accordingly, there is a tight link between the temporal resolution ability of the auditory system and inherent neural gamma oscillations. Transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS has been demonstrated to specifically increase gamma oscillation in the human auditory cortex. However, neither the physiological mechanisms of tRNS nor the behavioral consequences of this intervention are completely understood. In the present study we stimulated the human auditory cortex bilaterally with tRNS while EEG was continuously measured. Modulations in the participants’ temporal and spectral resolution ability were investigated by means of a gap detection task and a pitch discrimination task. Compared to sham, auditory tRNS increased the detection rate for near-threshold stimuli in the temporal domain only, while no such effect was present for the discrimination of spectral features. Behavioral findings were paralleled by reduced peak latencies of the P50 and N1 component of the auditory event-related potentials (ERP indicating an impact on early sensory processing. The facilitating effect of tRNS was limited to the processing of near-threshold stimuli while stimuli clearly below and above the individual perception threshold were not affected by tRNS. This non-linear relationship between the signal-to-noise level of the presented stimuli and the effect of stimulation further qualifies stochastic resonance (SR as the underlying mechanism of tRNS on auditory processing. Our results demonstrate a tRNS related improvement in acoustic perception of time critical auditory information and, thus, provide further indices that auditory tRNS can amplify the resonance frequency of the auditory system.

  11. [Aging changes of the root canal morphology in maxillary first premolars observed by cone-beam computerized tomography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, R C; Cao, L L; Xie, W; Hu, Y Q; Piao, Z G

    2016-04-09

    To observe the morphological changes of root canals with aging in maxillary first premolars by using cone-beam computerized tomography(CBCT)in order to facilitate endodontic management of root canals in various aged patients. The digital CBCT data of the maxillary first premolars in 405 cases from the patients in Oral Medical Center of The First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University from March 2011 to June 2015 were collected. The CBCT images were divided into 6 groups according to the patients' ages: groups 11-20, 21-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60 and >60 years-olds, respectively. Changes of morphologies of root canals with aging including such parameters as types of the root canal, incidence of double root canals in single rooted teeth, distance between both root canal orifices of double rooted canals, and morphological change of the cross section of roots. Chi-square test and liner trend test were adopted in statistical analysis in the present study. The distribution of various types of the root canals were significantly different amongst various aged groups(Paging, the percentages of type Ⅰ and type Ⅲ decreased while type Ⅱ increased. However, there were no remarkable changes of type Ⅳ observed. The incidence of double rooted canals in single rooted teeth gradually increased with aging especially in 20-years-old and above groups, e.g. 51.7%(31/60)in group 11-20 years-olds and 83.0%(44/53)in group 21-30 years-olds. However, there was no significant increase observed after the age of 40. The distance between both root canal orifices of double rooted canals became shorter with aging except in groups of 40-years-olds and above. The morphologies of the cross sections in most aged groups were flat shaped(1 020/2 105, 48.5%)and oval shape(594/2 105, 28.2%). Along with aging, the percentage of circular shape gradually increased while flat and oval shapes decreased. The morphology of root canal could be clearly showed by the CBCT images. The change of morphologies of

  12. The encoding of auditory objects in auditory cortex: insights from magnetoencephalography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Jonathan Z

    2015-02-01

    Auditory objects, like their visual counterparts, are perceptually defined constructs, but nevertheless must arise from underlying neural circuitry. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings of the neural responses of human subjects listening to complex auditory scenes, we review studies that demonstrate that auditory objects are indeed neurally represented in auditory cortex. The studies use neural responses obtained from different experiments in which subjects selectively listen to one of two competing auditory streams embedded in a variety of auditory scenes. The auditory streams overlap spatially and often spectrally. In particular, the studies demonstrate that selective attentional gain does not act globally on the entire auditory scene, but rather acts differentially on the separate auditory streams. This stream-based attentional gain is then used as a tool to individually analyze the different neural representations of the competing auditory streams. The neural representation of the attended stream, located in posterior auditory cortex, dominates the neural responses. Critically, when the intensities of the attended and background streams are separately varied over a wide intensity range, the neural representation of the attended speech adapts only to the intensity of that speaker, irrespective of the intensity of the background speaker. This demonstrates object-level intensity gain control in addition to the above object-level selective attentional gain. Overall, these results indicate that concurrently streaming auditory objects, even if spectrally overlapping and not resolvable at the auditory periphery, are individually neurally encoded in auditory cortex, as separate objects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Haptic and visual information speed up the neural processing of auditory speech in live dyadic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treille, Avril; Cordeboeuf, Camille; Vilain, Coriandre; Sato, Marc

    2014-05-01

    Speech can be perceived not only by the ear and by the eye but also by the hand, with speech gestures felt from manual tactile contact with the speaker׳s face. In the present electro-encephalographic study, early cross-modal interactions were investigated by comparing auditory evoked potentials during auditory, audio-visual and audio-haptic speech perception in dyadic interactions between a listener and a speaker. In line with previous studies, early auditory evoked responses were attenuated and speeded up during audio-visual compared to auditory speech perception. Crucially, shortened latencies of early auditory evoked potentials were also observed during audio-haptic speech perception. Altogether, these results suggest early bimodal interactions during live face-to-face and hand-to-face speech perception in dyadic interactions. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Influence of anxiety, depression and looming cognitive style on auditory looming perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskind, John H; Kleiman, Evan M; Seifritz, Erich; Neuhoff, John

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies show that individuals with an anticipatory auditory looming bias over-estimate the closeness of a sound source that approaches them. Our present study bridges cognitive clinical and perception research, and provides evidence that anxiety symptoms and a particular putative cognitive style that creates vulnerability for anxiety (looming cognitive style, or LCS) are related to how people perceive this ecologically fundamental auditory warning signal. The effects of anxiety symptoms on the anticipatory auditory looming effect synergistically depend on the dimension of perceived personal danger assessed by the LCS (physical or social threat). Depression symptoms, in contrast to anxiety symptoms, predict a diminution of the auditory looming bias. Findings broaden our understanding of the links between cognitive-affective states and auditory perception processes and lend further support to past studies providing evidence that the looming cognitive style is related to bias in threat processing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Common Misconceptions Regarding Pediatric Auditory Processing Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliki Iliadou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric hearing evaluation based on pure tone audiometry does not always reflect how a child hears in everyday life. This practice is inappropriate when evaluating the difficulties children experiencing auditory processing disorder (APD in school or on the playground. Despite the marked increase in research on pediatric APD, there remains limited access to proper evaluation worldwide. This perspective article presents five common misconceptions of APD that contribute to inappropriate or limited management in children experiencing these deficits. The misconceptions discussed are (1 the disorder cannot be diagnosed due to the lack of a gold standard diagnostic test; (2 making generalizations based on profiles of children suspected of APD and not diagnosed with the disorder; (3 it is best to discard an APD diagnosis when another disorder is present; (4 arguing that the known link between auditory perception and higher cognition function precludes the validity of APD as a clinical entity; and (5 APD is not a clinical entity. These five misconceptions are described and rebutted using published data as well as critical thinking on current available knowledge on APD.

  16. The auditory startle response in post-traumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegelaar, S. E.; Olff, M.; Bour, L. J.; Veelo, D.; Zwinderman, A. H.; van Bruggen, G.; de Vries, G. J.; Raabe, S.; Cupido, C.; Koelman, J. H. T. M.; Tijssen, M. A. J.

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients are considered to have excessive EMG responses in the orbicularis oculi (OO) muscle and excessive autonomic responses to startling stimuli. The aim of the present study was to gain more insight into the pattern of the generalized auditory startle reflex

  17. Auditory Space Perception in Left- and Right-Handers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Hirnstein, Marco; Hausmann, Markus; Lewald, Jorg

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have shown that handedness has an impact on visual spatial abilities. Here we investigated the effect of laterality on auditory space perception. Participants (33 right-handers, 20 left-handers) completed two tasks of sound localization. In a dark, anechoic, and sound-proof room, sound stimuli (broadband noise) were presented via…

  18. Irrelevant Auditory and Visual Events Induce a Visual Attentional Blink

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Burg, Erik; Nieuwenstein, Mark R.; Theeuwes, Jan; Olivers, Christian N. L.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study we investigated whether a task-irrelevant distractor can induce a visual attentional blink pattern. Participants were asked to detect only a visual target letter (A, B, or C) and to ignore the preceding auditory, visual, or audiovisual distractor. An attentional blink was

  19. Auditory temporal-order thresholds show no gender differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kesteren, Marlieke T. R.; Wierslnca-Post, J. Esther C.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Several studies on auditory temporal-order processing showed gender differences. Women needed longer inter-stimulus intervals than men when indicating the temporal order of two clicks presented to the left and right ear. In this study, we examined whether we could reproduce these results in

  20. The listening cube: a three dimensional auditory training program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raeve, L. de; Anderson, I.; Bammens, M.; Jans, J.; Haesevoets, M.; Pans, R.; Vandistel, H.; Vrolix, Y.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Here we present the Listening Cube, an auditory training program for children and adults receiving cochlear implants, developed during the clinical practice at the KIDS Royal Institute for the Deaf in Belgium. We provide information on the content of the program as well as guidance as to