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Sample records for auditory canal cholesteatoma

  1. Cholesteatoma associated with squamous cell carcinoma of the external auditory canal: Case report and literature review

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    Olfa Ben Gamra

    2015-11-01

    Conclusion: SCC of the external auditory canal can mimic cholesteatoma. A precise diagnosis of the disease is important to predict the treatment outcome. Optimal management relies on early surgery and postoperative radiotherapy, thus offering the greatest chance of cure.

  2. First Branchial Cleft Fistula Associated with External Auditory Canal Stenosis and Middle Ear Cholesteatoma

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    shahin abdollahi fakhim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: First branchial cleft anomalies manifest with duplication of the external auditory canal.   Case Report: This report features a rare case of microtia and congenital middle ear and canal cholesteatoma with first branchial fistula. External auditory canal stenosis was complicated by middle ear and external canal cholesteatoma, but branchial fistula, opening in the zygomatic root and a sinus in the helical root, may explain this feature. A canal wall down mastoidectomy with canaloplasty and wide meatoplasty was performed. The branchial cleft was excised through parotidectomy and facial nerve dissection.   Conclusion:  It should be considered that canal stenosis in such cases can induce cholesteatoma formation in the auditory canal and middle ear.

  3. External auditory canal and middle ear cholesteatoma and osteonecrosis in bisphosphonate-treated osteoporosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, A-L; Vestergaard, P; Eiken, P

    2014-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Long-term treatment with bisphosphonates against osteoporosis may cause atypical femur fractures and osteonecrosis of the jaw. Eight cases of bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the external auditory canal area are published. Based on Danish national registers, we report a time......- and dose-dependent increased risk of cholesteatoma in osteoporosis patients treated with bisphosphonates. INTRODUCTION: In the recent years, there has been a focus on possible rare side effects of bisphosphonates (BPs). Eight cases of BP-associated osteonecrosis of the external auditory canal have been...... reported in the world literature. Our aim was to describe the incidence of external auditory canal and middle ear diseases in Danish patients exposed to BPs in the treatment of osteoporosis. METHODS: This register-based nationwide cohort study was conducted on the Danish population of approximately 5...

  4. Differences in clinical characteristics of fallopian canal dehiscence associated with pars flaccida and pars tensa cholesteatomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinnabe, Akihiro; Yamamoto, Hiroki; Hara, Mariko; Hasegawa, Masayo; Matsuzawa, Shingo; Kanazawa, Hiromi; Yoshida, Naohiro; Iino, Yukiko

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the difference in clinical characteristics of fallopian canal dehiscence associated with pars flaccida and pars tensa cholesteatomas for the purpose of increasing the preoperative detectability of dehiscence. A total of 189 ears of patients 7-80 years of age (mean 42 years) with pars flaccida cholesteatoma and 63 ears of patients 9-84 years of age (mean 50 years) with pars tensa cholesteatoma were studied. All patients had undergone prior surgical management at our institution from January 2006 to April 2012. The incidence of fallopian canal dehiscence and its location were compared between pars flaccida and pars tensa cholesteatomas. Intraoperative findings of coexistent pathologies, including destruction of the stapes superstructure, labyrinthine fistula, and dural exposure, were compared between the dehiscence and no-dehiscence groups for the two types of cholesteatomas. The incidence of dehiscence was significantly higher in patients with pars tensa cholesteatoma (55.6 %) than in patients with pars flaccida cholesteatoma (26.5 %). Dehiscence located posterior to the cochleariform process occurred slightly more frequently in patients with pars tensa cholesteatoma than in those with pars flaccida cholesteatoma. In patients with pars flaccida cholesteatoma, labyrinthine fistulas and dural exposure were significantly more frequent in the dehiscence group than in the no-dehiscence group. Fallopian canal dehiscence is more frequent in patients with pars tensa cholesteatoma than in those with pars flaccida cholesteatoma. Especially in patients with pars flaccida cholesteatoma, paying special attention to these coexisting pathologies is important to increase preoperative detectability of dehiscence.

  5. Cholesteatoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... requests or policy questions to our media and public relations staff at newsroom@entnet.org . An abnormal skin ... cholesteatoma usually occurs because of poor eustachian tube function as well as infection in the middle ear. ...

  6. Significance of temporal bone CT scan for exposure of the facial canal and the lateral semicircular canal in cholesteatoma

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    Sung, Ki Joon; Kim, Dong Jin; Kim, Myung Soon; Kim, Young Ju; Kweon, Joon [Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-09-15

    By reviewing retrospectively the HRCT findings in 130 surgically proven cases of chronic otitis media with cholesteatoma, we estimated the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictability of the HRCT compared to surgical findings. For exposure of the facial canal, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictability was 59.7%, 84.9%, and 85.2% respectively. For exposure of the lateral semicircular canal, the sensitivity was 80.6%, the specificity 99.0%, and the positive predictability 96.2%. Conclusively, the diagnostic accuracy of preoperative temporal bone CT regarding the state of the lateral semicircular canal seems to be highly reliable. Gross invasion of the facial canal can be usually detected. However, relatively low sensitivity suggests that evaluation of the ultra-thin structures of the tympanic segment is often problematic.

  7. Facial nerve canal dehiscence in chronic otitis media without cholesteatoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomiya, Shigenobu; Kariya, Shin; Nomiya, Rie; Morita, Norimasa; Nishizaki, Kazunori; Paparella, Michael M; Cureoglu, Sebahattin

    2014-03-01

    The information on incidence of the facial nerve canal dehiscence in chronic otitis media is important for surgeons. The purpose of this study is to disclose the histopathologic findings of facial nerve canal dehiscence in human temporal bones with chronic otitis media. We divided the human temporal bones into two groups (age 4 years, and under 4 years of age). We evaluated the incidence and the area of the facial nerve canal dehiscence in chronic otitis media under light microscopy. Age-matched normal control temporal bones were also examined. In the age group of 4 years, 68.9 % of temporal bones with chronic otitis media and 71.9 % of controls had the facial nerve canal dehiscence. There was no significant difference between them (P = 0.61). The area of the dehiscence in temporal bones with chronic otitis media was not statistically different from controls (P = 0.53). In the age group under 4 years, 88.2 % of temporal bones with chronic otitis media and 76.5 % of controls had the dehiscence. No significant difference was found between them (P = 0.66). The area of the dehiscence in temporal bones with chronic otitis media was not statistically different from controls in the age group under 4 years (P = 0.43). In chronic otitis media, the incidence of facial nerve canal dehiscence was high and was not statistically different from controls. These results suggest that there is no association between chronic otitis media and the presence of facial nerve canal dehiscence.

  8. Hearing results using titanium ossicular replacement prosthesis in intact canal wall tympanoplasty for cholesteatoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Nicola; Zizzi, Stefania; Quaranta, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Titanium proved to be a valuable alternative to ossicles in ossiculoplasty procedures. Complication rates are comparable to those obtained by other authors with titanium and nontitanium prostheses. Hearing results were worse compared with other reports; however, no conclusion can be drawn on the basis of the literature because of the heterogeneity of the populations studied. To evaluate the results and complications of total (TORP) and partial (PORP) titanium ossicular replacement prostheses in middle ear cholesteatoma. Fifty-seven patients affected by acquired cholesteatoma of the middle ear undergoing titanium ossiculoplasty during second stage intact canal wall tympanoplasty were evaluated. Postoperative hearing gain, complication rate, and revision rate were analyzed. Average postoperative gain was 13.6 dB HL for PORP and 17.9 dB HL for TORP. After ossicular reconstruction the mean postoperative ABG was 24.1 dB HL in PORPs and 27.2 dB HL in TORPs. The difference in air-bone gap (ABG) between the two groups after ossiculoplasty was not significant. The number of patients with an ABG > 30 dB was higher in the TORP group compared with the PORP group (p = 0.024) after ossicular reconstruction. The total extrusion rate was 5.2% and the total revision rate was 10.5%.

  9. Quality of life after cholesteatoma surgery: intact-canal wall tympanoplasty versus canal wall-down tympanoplasty with mastoid obliteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Nicola; Iannuzzi, Lucia; Petrone, Paolo; D'Elia, Alessandra; Quaranta, Antonio

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate, by means of the Chronic Ear Survey (CES), the quality of life of patients who had undergone either intact-canal wall tympanoplasty (ICWT) or canal wall-down tympanoplasty (CWDT) with mastoid obliteration. This was a retrospective case review study performed at a tertiary referral center. Among 379 patients affected by middle ear and mastoid cholesteatoma operated on between November 2000 and December 2009, 50 patients who underwent ICWT and 50 who underwent CWDT with mastoid obliteration were randomly selected. The CES scores were analyzed for both groups. The mean scores on the CES were 6.5 ± 2.1 in patients who underwent CWDT and 6.9 ± 2.2 in patients treated with ICWT (t = -0.93; p > 0.05). No significant differences between the two groups were found on the activity restriction, symptom, or medical resource subscales (p > 0.05). The results of this study demonstrate that CWDT with mastoid obliteration resulted in a quality of life comparable with that after ICWT. Postoperative hearing loss is the most frequently reported problem for both techniques.

  10. Intradermal melanocytic nevus of the external auditory canal.

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    Alves, Renato V; Brandão, Fabiano H; Aquino, José E P; Carvalho, Maria R M S; Giancoli, Suzana M; Younes, Eduado A P

    2005-01-01

    Intradermal nevi are common benign pigmented skin tumors. Their occurrence within the external auditory canal is uncommon. The clinical and pathologic features of an intradermal nevus arising within the external auditory canal are presented, and the literature reviewed.

  11. Cancer of the external auditory canal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyrop, Mette; Grøntved, Aksel

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcome of surgery for cancer of the external auditory canal and relate this to the Pittsburgh staging system used both on squamous cell carcinoma and non-squamous cell carcinoma. DESIGN: Retrospective case series of all patients who had surgery between 1979 and 2000. M...

  12. Lesions in the external auditory canal

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    Priyank S Chatra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The external auditory canal is an S- shaped osseo-cartilaginous structure that extends from the auricle to the tympanic membrane. Congenital, inflammatory, neoplastic, and traumatic lesions can affect the EAC. High-resolution CT is well suited for the evaluation of the temporal bone, which has a complex anatomy with multiple small structures. In this study, we describe the various lesions affecting the EAC.

  13. Congenital cholesteatoma of the infratemporal fossa with congenital aural atresia and mastoiditis: a case report

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    Abdel-Aziz Mosaad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Congenital cholesteatoma may be expected in abnormally developed ear, it may cause bony erosion of the middle ear cleft and extend to the infratemporal fossa. We present the first case of congenital cholesteatoma of the infratemporal fossa in a patient with congenital aural atresia that has been complicated with acute mastoiditis. Case presentation A sixteen year old Egyptian male patient presented with congenital cholesteatoma of the infratemporal fossa with congenital aural atresia complicated with acute mastoiditis. Two weeks earlier, the patient suffered pain necessitating hospital admission, magnetic resonance imaging revealed a soft tissue mass in the right infratemporal fossa. On presentation to our institute, Computerized tomography was done as a routine, it proved the diagnosis of mastoiditis, pure tone audiometry showed an air-bone gap of 60 dB. Cortical mastoidectomy was done for treatment of mastoiditis, removal of congenital cholesteatoma was carried out with reconstruction of external auditory canal. Follow-up of the patient for 2 years and 3 months showed a patent, infection free external auditory canal with an air-bone gap has been reduced to 35db. One year after the operation; MRI was done and it showed no residual or recurrent cholesteatoma. Conclusions Congenital cholesteatoma of the infratemporal fossa in cases of congenital aural atresia can be managed safely even if it was associated with mastoiditis. It is an original case report of interest to the speciality of otolaryngology.

  14. Pneumocystis jirovecii infection of the external auditory canal : case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    primaquine, atovaquone and pentamidine isethionate.1,3 Although there is usually resolution of symptoms after medical therapy, surgical excision of lesions in the external auditory canal may be clinically indicated. Disseminated pneumocystosis, like ...

  15. CT findings of the osteoma of the external auditory canal

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    Kim, Ha Young; Song, Chang Joon; Yoon, Chung Dae; Park, Mi Hyun; Shin, Byung Seok [Chungnam National University, School of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-15

    We wanted to report the CT image findings of the osteoma of the external auditory canal. Temporal bone CT scanning was performed on eight patients (4 males and 4 females aged between 8 and 41 years) with pathologically proven osteoma of the external auditory canal after operation, and the findings of the CT scanning were retrospectively reviewed. Not only did we analyze the size, shape, distribution and location of the osteomas, we also analyzed the relationship between the lesion and the tympanosqumaous or tympanomastoid suture line, and the changes seen on the CT scan images for the patients who were able to undergo follow-up. All the lesions of the osteoma of the external auditory canal were unilateral, solitary, pedunculated bony masses. In five patients, the osteomas occurred on the left side and for the other three patients, the osteomas occurred on the right side. The average size of the osteoma was 0.6 cm with the smallest being 0.5 cm and the largest being 1.2 cm. Each of the lesions was located at the osteochondral junction in the terminal part of the osseous external ear canal. The stalk of the osteoma of the external auditory canal was found to have occurred in the anteroinferior wall in five cases (63%), in the anterosuperior wall (the tympanosqumaous suture line) in two cases (25%), and in the anterior wall in one case. The osteoma of the external auditory canal was a compact form in five cases and it was a cancellous form in three cases. One case of the cancellous form was changed into a compact form 35 months later due to the advanced ossification. Osteoma of the external auditory canal developed in a unilateral and solitary fashion. The characteristic image findings show that it is attached to the external auditory canal by its stalk. Unlike our common knowledge about its occurrence, osteoma mostly occurred in the tympanic wall, and this is regardless of the tympanosquamous or tympanomastoid suture line.

  16. Labyrinthine artery aneurysm as an internal auditory canal mass.

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    Diaz, Rodney C; Konia, Thomas; Brunberg, James

    2014-08-01

    We present the first case report of a labyrinthine artery aneurysm masquerading as an internal auditory canal tumor. A 72-year-old woman presented with sudden onset right facial paralysis, facial pain, hearing loss, and vertigo. She demonstrated dense right-sided facial paralysis involving all branches of the facial nerve, left beating horizontal nystagmus, and anacusis of the right ear. Magnetic resonance imaging with contrast demonstrated a 6 × 7 mm peripherally enhancing lesion with lack of central uptake filling the right internal auditory canal. The patient elected to proceed with translabyrinthine approach to the internal auditory canal for definitive resection of the mass as well as to decompress the neural structures of the internal auditory canal in an attempt to recover neural function, particularly of the facial nerve. Intraoperatively, the internal auditory canal mass was resected with minimal difficulty, with intraoperative dissection notable for brisk bleeding at the medial base of the tumor just as the tumor was dissected off its medial fibrous attachments. Final pathology of the resected mass revealed a blood vessel with mucinous degeneration of the medial layer of the vessel wall, with immunohistochemical staining confirming the presence and structure of aneurysmal blood vessel.

  17. Microbiology of normal external auditory canal.

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    Stroman, D W; Roland, P S; Dohar, J; Burt, W

    2001-11-01

    To isolate and characterize bacteria and fungi from the healthy ear and to obtain susceptibility profiles on each bacterial isolate. Prospective. Specimens were collected from the external canals and cerumen of healthy subjects. Species-level identification was obtained by combining phenotypic and genotypic data. End-point minimal inhibitory concentration testing was performed using National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards recommended methods. One hundred sixty-four subjects were cultured. Seventeen canal and 16 cerumen specimens showed no growth. One hundred forty-eight cerumen specimens yielded 314 organisms, including 23 fungi. One hundred forty-seven canal specimens yielded 310 organisms, including 7 fungi. Of 291 bacteria isolated from cerumen, 99% were Gram-positive. Of 302 bacteria isolated from the canal, 96% were Gram-positive. Staphylococci were 63% of both the cerumen bacteria and the canal bacteria. Coryneforms represented 22% of the bacteria in cerumen and 19% in the canal. Turicellaotitidis was the primary coryneform isolated from both the canal and the cerumen. Streptococci-like bacteria were 10% from the cerumen, 7% from the canal. In both cerumen and canal, Alloiococcusotitis was more than 95% of the streptococci-like bacteria. Fifteen gram-negative organisms were isolated from the canal and cerumen, including four Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. The percentages of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates that had high-level resistance (> or =8 microg/mL) were as follows: to neomycin, 28% from cerumen and 11% from the canal; to oxacillin, 28% from cerumen and 25% from the canal; and to ofloxacin, 15% from cerumen and 19% from the canal. Turcellaotitidis and A. otitidis were present with a much higher frequency than previously described, lending evidence that they be considered normal otic flora. Corynebacterium auris, previously reported only in children, was isolated from normal adults.

  18. Identification of novel cholesteatoma-related gene expression signatures using full-genome microarrays.

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    Christin Klenke

    Full Text Available Cholesteatoma is a gradually expanding destructive epithelial lesion within the middle ear. It can cause extensive local tissue destruction in the temporal bone and can initially lead to the development of conductive hearing loss via ossicular erosion. As the disease progresses, sensorineural hearing loss, vertigo or facial palsy may occur. Cholesteatoma may promote the spread of infection through the tegmen of the middle ear and cause meningitis or intracranial infections with abscess formation. It must, therefore, be considered as a potentially life-threatening middle ear disease.In this study, we investigated differentially expressed genes in human cholesteatomas in comparison to regular auditory canal skin using Whole Human Genome Microarrays containing 19,596 human genes. In addition to already described up-regulated mRNAs in cholesteatoma, such as MMP9, DEFB2 and KRT19, we identified 3558 new cholesteatoma-related transcripts. 811 genes appear to be significantly differentially up-regulated in cholesteatoma. 334 genes were down-regulated more than 2-fold. Significantly regulated genes with protein metabolism activity include matrix metalloproteinases as well as PI3, SERPINB3 and SERPINB4. Genes like SPP1, KRT6B, PRPH, SPRR1B and LAMC2 are known as genes with cell growth and/or maintenance activity. Transport activity genes and signal transduction genes are LCN2, GJB2 and CEACAM6. Three cell communication genes were identified; one CDH19 and two from the S100 family.This study demonstrates that the expression profile of cholesteatoma is similar to a metastatic tumour and chronically inflamed tissue. Based on the investigated profiles we present novel protein-protein interaction and signal transduction networks, which include cholesteatoma-regulated transcripts and may be of great value for drug targeting and therapy development.

  19. Benign Temporomandibular Joint Lesions Presenting as Masses in the External Auditory Canal.

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    Williams, Ryan A; Jackler, Robert K; Corrales, C Eduardo

    2017-04-01

    Describe benign lesions arising from the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) that presented as masses in the external auditory canal (EAC). Retrospective case series of two academic medical centers. Six patients with lesions emanating from the TMJ that presented as EAC masses. Lesions included pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS), nodular fasciitis, foramen of Huschke herniation with salivary fistula, fibroepithelial polyp, superficial angiomyxoma, and giant cell tumor (GCT). Surgical resection. Tumor control, TMJ function, and hearing. All patients presented with hearing loss, TMJ pain, and otalgia. Three patients with EAC occluding masses developed entrapment cholesteatoma between the mass and tympanic membrane. Following surgical resection, four patients were free of disease. The patient with PVNS has a stable remnant at 3 years follow up and the patient with giant cell tumor is under active surveillance. Hearing improved in three patients, remained stable in one patient, and worsened in two patients. All had resolution of their TMJ and ear pain. EAC masses of uncertain origin should be imaged preoperatively to exclude lesions best not biopsied (e.g., encephalocele, facial nerve schwannoma, paraganglioma). In the differential of EAC masses, lesions emanating from the TMJ need to be considered, especially for those based anteriorly. Understanding the extent of TMJ involvement is crucial for surgical planning which optimizes outcome. Goals for therapy are to control the underlying disease process, restore patency of the EAC, improve hearing, and preserve function of TMJ.

  20. Pneumocystis jirovecii infection of the external auditory canal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pneumocystis jirovecii is well known to cause interstitial plasma cell pneumonia in immunocompromised patients. It has been implicated as a rare cause of infections in other anatomical sites.¹ We report a rare case of P. jirovecii infection of the external auditory canal. This was the first manifestation of a previously unknown ...

  1. External Auditory Canal Stenosis After Traumatic Auricular Amputation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong Chung, J.E.; Chussi, D.C; Heerbeek, N. van

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The auricles are easily injured or amputated in case of head trauma. Inadequate treatment of the external auditory canal (EAC) after auricular injury is often seen and can lead to significant complications of the EAC. CASE REPORT: The authors report 4 cases of auricular injury or

  2. Quantitative analysis of cholesteatoma using high resolution computed tomography

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    Kikuchi, Shigeru; Yamasoba, Tatsuya (Kameda General Hospital, Chiba (Japan)); Iinuma, Toshitaka

    1992-05-01

    Seventy-three cases of adult cholesteatoma, including 52 cases of pars flaccida type cholesteatoma and 21 of pars tensa type cholesteatoma, were examined using high resolution computed tomography, in both axial (lateral semicircular canal plane) and coronal sections (cochlear, vestibular and antral plane). These cases were classified into two subtypes according to the presence of extension of cholesteatoma into the antrum. Sixty cases of chronic otitis media with central perforation (COM) were also examined as controls. Various locations of the middle ear cavity were measured in terms of size in comparison with pars flaccida type cholesteatoma, pars tensa type cholesteatoma and COM. The width of the attic was significantly larger in both pars flaccida type and pars tensa type cholesteatoma than in COM. With pars flaccida type cholesteatoma there was a significantly larger distance between the malleus and lateral wall of the attic than with COM. In contrast, the distance between the malleus and medial wall of the attic was significantly larger with pars tensa type cholesteatoma than with COM. With cholesteatoma extending into the antrum, regardless of the type of cholesteatoma, there were significantly larger distances than with COM at the following sites: the width and height of the aditus ad antrum, and the width, height and anterior-posterior diameter of the antrum. However, these distances were not significantly different between cholesteatoma without extension into the antrum and COM. The hitherto demonstrated qualitative impressions of bone destruction in cholesteatoma were quantitatively verified in detail using high resolution computed tomography. (author).

  3. Reconstruction of lateral attic wall in acquired cholesteatoma

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    Erdoglija Milan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Attic cholesteatoma is an epithelial cystic pseudotumor which arises in the top compartment of the middle ear. Surgery is the only therapeutic treatment for attic cholesteatoma. The aim of this study was to analyze the surgical and audiological results in tympanoplasties that use a logical application of several techniques for the management of attic cholesteatoma. Our hypothesis was that the tympanoplasty technique with cartilage/bone reconstruction of the achieve better outcome than the tympanoplasty technique with only temporal fascia reconstruction of the lateral attic wall. Methods. This retrospective clinical study included 80 patients, aged 16–65 years, with attic cholesteatoma undergoing canal “wall up” tympanoplasty with lateral attic wall reconstruction, under general anesthesia in the Eear, Nose and Throat Clinic, Military Medical Academy in Belgrade between 2006 and 2010. The patients were divided into two groups according to the type of lateral attic wall reconstruction: the group I of 60 patients with cartilage/bone plus temporalis fascia lateral attic wall reconstruction and the group II of 20 patients with only temporal fascia lateral attic wall reconstruction. Postoperative follow-up examinations were done at least 5 years after the surgery. The χ2 test was used to compare postoperative sequelae for two groups of operated patients with lateral attic wall reconstruction. The independent and paired samples t-test of air conduction and air-bone gap were used to compare the results of preoperative and postoperative hearing tests. Results. The differences between hearing measurements of the two groups according to preoperative and postoperative auditory thresholds of the air conduction and the air-bone gap were considered no statistically significant. The difference between the two groups recarding to recurrent attic retraction pocket appearance and recurrence of cholesteatoma was considered statistically

  4. Huschke's anterior external auditory canal foramen: art before medicine?

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    Pirsig, Wolfgang; Mudry, Albert

    2015-03-01

    During the Renaissance, several anatomic details were described with a degree of exactness, which would stand the test of time. One example is the foramen in the anteroinferior wall of the external auditory canal, eponymously named after the German anatomist, Emil Huschke, who described it in 1844. However, the first clearly medical observation of this foramen was published by the French physician Jean Riolan the Younger in 1648. After a short excursion into some paleopathologic findings of this foramen in skulls of the Early Bronze Age and of pre-Columbian Peruvian populations, this article follows the traces of the early medical descriptions and depictions of the foramen up until the 19th century. They are connected with the names of Duverney (1683), Cassebohm (1734), Lincke (1837), Huschke (1844); Humphry (1858), von Troeltsch (1860), and especially Buerkner (1878). Surprisingly, the earliest exact depiction of the foramen in the auditory canal of a skull was found in the oil painting Saint Jerome in his study by the Flemish artist Marinus Claeszon van Reymerswaele. He depicted the foramen in the period between 1521 and 1541, a hundred years before Riolan the Younger.

  5. Xanthogranuloma of the External Auditory Canal Mimicking a Benign Tumor: A Case Report

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    Keisuke Yoshihama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Exostosis, osteoma, and adenoma are the most commonly encountered benign lesions in the external auditory canal. Herein, we report a case of the mass arising from the external auditory canal in a 24-year-old Japanese man. CT revealed the soft tissue mass without bony erosion, and MRI revealed that the mass showed a homogenous, iso signal intensity on a both T1- and T2-weighted image, suggesting that the mass is a benign tumor such as adenoma. Pathological examination showed that the specimen demonstrated xanthogranuloma in the external auditory canal. Although xanthogranuloma of the external auditory canal is extremely rare, otolaryngologists should recognize this condition during the inspection of the external auditory canal.

  6. Prevalence of Internal Auditory Canal Diverticulum and Its Association with Hearing Loss and Otosclerosis.

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    Pippin, K J; Muelleman, T J; Hill, J; Leever, J; Staecker, H; Ledbetter, L N

    2017-11-01

    Focal low-attenuation outpouching or diverticulum at the anterolateral internal auditory canal is an uncommon finding on CT of the temporal bone. This finding has been described as cavitary otosclerosis in small case reports and histology series. The purpose of this study was to establish the prevalence of internal auditory canal diverticulum and its association with classic imaging findings of otosclerosis and/or hearing loss. Temporal bone CT scans of 807 patients, obtained between January 2013 and January 2016, were retrospectively reviewed to identify internal auditory canal diverticula and/or classic imaging findings of otosclerosis. Clinical evaluations for hearing loss were reviewed for patients with internal auditory canal diverticula and/or otosclerosis. Internal auditory canal diverticula were found in 43 patients (5%); classic otosclerosis, in 39 patients (5%); and both findings, in 7 patients (1%). Most temporal bones with only findings of internal auditory canal diverticula (91%) demonstrated hearing loss, with 63% of this group demonstrating sensorineural hearing loss. The hearing loss classification distribution was significantly different (P < .01) from that in the classic otosclerosis group and in the group with both diverticula and otosclerosis. Internal auditory canal diverticula are not uncommon on CT examinations of the temporal bone and most commonly occur without classic imaging findings of otosclerosis. These lesions are associated with sensorineural hearing loss, and referral for hearing evaluation may be appropriate when present. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  7. Ectopic external auditory canal and ossicular formation in the oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum

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    Supakul, Nucharin [Indiana University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Department of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Radiology, Bangkok (Thailand); Kralik, Stephen F. [Indiana University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Ho, Chang Y. [Indiana University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Riley Children' s Hospital, MRI Department, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Ear abnormalities in oculo-auricular-vertebral spectrum commonly present with varying degrees of external and middle ear atresias, usually in the expected locations of the temporal bone and associated soft tissues, without ectopia of the external auditory canal. We present the unique imaging of a 4-year-old girl with right hemifacial microsomia and ectopic location of an atretic external auditory canal, terminating in a hypoplastic temporomandibular joint containing bony structures with the appearance of auditory ossicles. This finding suggests an early embryological dysfunction involving Meckel's cartilage of the first branchial arch. (orig.)

  8. External auditory canal atresia of probable congenital origin in a dog.

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    Schmidt, K; Piaia, T; Bertolini, G; De Lorenzi, D

    2007-04-01

    A nine-month-old Labrador retriever was referred to the Clinica Veterinaria Privata San Marco because of frequent headshaking and downward turning of the right ear. Clinical examination revealed that there was no external acoustic meatus in the right ear. Computed tomography confirmed that the vertical part of the right auditory canal ended blindly, providing a diagnosis of external auditory canal atresia. Cytological examination and culture of fluid from the canal and the bulla revealed only aseptic cerumen; for this reason, it was assumed that the dog was probably affected by a congenital developmental deformity of the external auditory canal. Reconstructive surgery was performed using a "pull-through" technique. Four months after surgery the cosmetic and functional results were satisfactory.

  9. Hearing loss and enlarged internal auditory canal in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Saturnino; Domínguez, M Jesús; Cervera, Javier; Suárez, Alicia; Bueno, Antonio; Bartolomé, Margarita; López, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Among the temporal bone abnormalities that can be found in the etiological study of paediatric sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) by imaging techniques, those related to the internal auditory canal (IAC) are the least frequent. The most prevalent of these abnormalities that is associated with SNHL is stenotic IAC due to its association with cochlear nerve deficiencies. Less frequent and less concomitant with SNHL is the finding of an enlarged IAC (>8mm). Retrospective and descriptive review of clinical associations, imaging, audiological patterns and treatment of 9 children with hearing loss and enlarged IAC in the period 1999 to 2012. Two groups of patients are described. The first, without association with vestibulocochlear dysplasias, consisted of: 2 patients with SNHL without other temporal bone or systemic abnormalities, one with bilateral mixed HL from chromosome 18q deletion, one with a genetic X-linked DFN3 hearing loss, one with unilateral hearing loss in neurofibromatosis type 2 with bilateral acoustic neuroma, and one with unilateral hearing loss with cochlear nerve deficiency. The second group, with association with vestibulocochlear dysplasias, was comprised of: one patient with moderate bilateral mixed hearing loss in branchio-oto-renal syndrome, one with profound unilateral SNHL with recurrent meningitis, and another with profound bilateral SNHL with congenital hypothyroidism. The presence of an enlarged IAC in children can be found in different clinical and audiological settings with relevancies that can range from life-threatening situations, such as recurrent meningitis, to isolated hearing loss with no other associations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  10. Cutaneous Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the External Auditory Canal: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ke Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma (cNEC is rarely seen in the external ear. In this paper, we newly describe a patient with cNEC in his right external auditory canal, followed by a further discussion on the clinical features, diagnosis, and treatments of cNEC of the external ear. A review of the literature showed that cNEC of the external auditory canal generally presents as asymptomatic and that pathology yields the most confirmative diagnosis. A wide resection with adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy is recommended. The overall prognosis of this condition is poor.

  11. Adult-onset juvenile xanthogranuloma of the external auditory canal: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hur, Joon Ho; Kim, Jae Kyun; Seo, Gi Young; Choi, Woo Sun; Byun, Jun Soo; Lee, Woong Jae; Lee, Tae Jin [Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Chung-Ang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Na Ra [Dept. of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) is a benign, spontaneously regressing lesion that usually occurs during the first year of life, but may also occur in adulthood. Although the most common presentation of JXG is the cutaneous lesion, it can also manifest in various visceral organs. JXG of the external auditory canal is extremely rare, and there have been only a few reports of those cases in the English literature. In this study, we present a case of pathologically proven JXG that occurred in the external auditory canal with a symptomatic clinical presentation.

  12. External auditory canal stenosis due to the use of powdered boric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dündar, Riza; Soy, Fatih Kemal; Kulduk, Erkan; Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Cingi, Cemal

    2014-09-01

    Acquired stenosis of the external auditory canal (EAC) may occur because of chronic external otitis, recurrent chronic catarrhal otitis media associated with tympanic membrane perforation, chronic dermatitis, tumors, and trauma. Stenosis occurs generally at the one-third bone part of the external auditory canal. In this article, we present 3 cases of acquired EAC stenosis due to the previous powdered boric acid application. Besides the presentation of surgical intervetions in these cases, we want to notify the physicians not to use or carefully use powdered boric acid because of the complication of EAC stenosis.

  13. Massive Temporal Lobe Cholesteatoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasan Waidyasekara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intracranial extension of cholesteatoma is rare. This may occur de novo or recur some time later either contiguous with or separate to the site of the original cholesteatoma. Presentation of Case. A 63-year-old female presented to a tertiary referral hospital with a fluctuating level of consciousness, fever, headache, and right-sided otorrhoea, progressing over several days. Her past medical history included surgery for right ear cholesteatoma and drainage of intracranial abscess 23 years priorly. There had been no relevant symptoms in the interim until 6 weeks prior to this presentation. Imaging demonstrated a large right temporal lobe mass contiguous with the middle ear and mastoid cavity with features consistent with cholesteatoma. The patient underwent a combined transmastoid/middle fossa approach for removal of the cholesteatoma and repair of the tegmen dehiscence. The patient made an uneventful recovery and remains well over 12 months later. Conclusion. This case presentation details a large intracranial cholesteatoma which had extended through a tegmen tympani dehiscence from recurrent right ear cholesteatoma treated by modified radical mastoidectomy over two decades priorly. There was a completely asymptomatic progression of disease until several weeks prior to this presentation.

  14. Expanded transcanal transpromontorial approach to the internal auditory canal: Pilot clinical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presutti, Livio; Alicandri-Ciufelli, Matteo; Bonali, Marco; Rubini, Alessia; Pavesi, Giacomo; Feletti, Alberto; Masotto, Barbara; Anschuetz, Lukas; Marchioni, Daniele

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to describe and evaluate the feasibility of an expanded transcanal transpromontorial approach, developed from the exclusive endoscopic transcanal transpromontorial approach. Retrospective case series. Retrospective chart review of 10 patients operated by an expanded transcanal transpromontorial approach in two tertiary referral centers (University Hospital of Modena, Italy and University Hospital of Verona, Italy). Data from charts and video documentation were collected and analyzed. Between April 2015 and January 2016, 10 patients underwent an expanded transcanal transpromontorial approach for vestibular schwannoma Koos stage I or II and were enrolled in the study. The size of the tumors ranged from 7 to 19 mm in maximum diameter. A gross total resection was achieved in all cases. One subject experienced postoperative cerebrospinal fluid otorhinorrhea and three subjects experienced temporary postoperative facial weakness, all of which completely resolved. The mean follow-up was 5 months. The expanded transcanal transpromontorial approach allowed bimanual dissection using a microscopic technique for the treatment of pathologies of the internal auditory canal and cerebellopontine angle. This novel approach resulted in minimal morbidity and comparable facial nerve preservation rates to the traditional approaches to the internal auditory canal. The expanded transpromontorial approach to the internal auditory canal holds promise for addressing pathology in this region of the temporal bone from the external auditory canal. 4. Laryngoscope, 127:2608-2614, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  15. Maxillofacial trauma patterns associated with external auditory canal fractures: Cone beam computed tomography analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ibrahim K; Sansare, Kaustubh; Karjodkar, Freny R; Salve, Prashant; Vanga, Kavita; Pawar, Ajinkya M

    2017-08-01

    There is a paucity of literature on external auditory canal (EAC) fractures secondary to maxillofacial trauma, with most of the literature on EAC fractures consisting of isolated case reports. To the authors' best knowledge, this is the first study to use cone beam computed tomography to evaluate the EAC region. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of external auditory canal (EAC) fracture following maxillofacial trauma and to evaluate the association between EAC fracture and other maxillofacial fractures and the region of trauma. One hundred patients were prospectively evaluated over 6 months from February to August 2016. The patients were referred for CBCT regarding temporomandibular joint or condylar fractures following maxillofacial trauma. Two observers (both experienced radiologists) assessed the EAC and associated fractures in the maxillofacial region. External auditory canal (EAC) fracture was confirmed in 32% of the patients. Of the EAC fractures, 68.75% and 31.25% were associated with mandibular fractures and non-mandibular fractures, respectively. Of the EAC fractures, 68.75% were single fractures and 31.25% of patients had multiple comminuted fractures. Significant association was observed on cross-tabulation of the fractured region and region of trauma with the presence of EAC fracture using chi-square test. External auditory canal (EAC) fracture is associated with maxillofacial fractures with increased incidence in mandibular fractures compared to non-mandibular fractures. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Air and Bone Conduction Frequency-specific Auditory Brainstem Response in Children with Agenesis of the External Auditory Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleifer, Pricila; Didoné, Dayane Domeneghini; Keppeler, Ísis Bicca; Bueno, Claudine Devicari; Riesgo, Rudimar Dos Santos

    2017-10-01

    Introduction  The tone-evoked auditory brainstem responses (tone-ABR) enable the differential diagnosis in the evaluation of children until 12 months of age, including those with external and/or middle ear malformations. The use of auditory stimuli with frequency specificity by air and bone conduction allows characterization of hearing profile. Objective  The objective of our study was to compare the results obtained in tone-ABR by air and bone conduction in children until 12 months, with agenesis of the external auditory canal. Method  The study was cross-sectional, observational, individual, and contemporary. We conducted the research with tone-ABR by air and bone conduction in the frequencies of 500 Hz and 2000 Hz in 32 children, 23 boys, from one to 12 months old, with agenesis of the external auditory canal. Results  The tone-ABR thresholds were significantly elevated for air conduction in the frequencies of 500 Hz and 2000 Hz, while the thresholds of bone conduction had normal values in both ears. We found no statistically significant difference between genders and ears for most of the comparisons. Conclusion  The thresholds obtained by bone conduction did not alter the thresholds in children with conductive hearing loss. However, the conductive hearing loss alter all thresholds by air conduction. The tone-ABR by bone conduction is an important tool for assessing cochlear integrity in children with agenesis of the external auditory canal under 12 months.

  17. Massive temporal lobe cholesteatoma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Waidyasekara, Pasan; Dowthwaite, Samuel A; Stephenson, Ellison; Bhuta, Sandeep; McMonagle, Brent

    2015-01-01

    .... There had been no relevant symptoms in the interim until 6 weeks prior to this presentation. Imaging demonstrated a large right temporal lobe mass contiguous with the middle ear and mastoid cavity with features consistent with cholesteatoma...

  18. Massive Temporal Lobe Cholesteatoma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Waidyasekara, Pasan; Dowthwaite, Samuel A; Stephenson, Ellison; Bhuta, Sandeep; McMonagle, Brent

    2015-01-01

    .... There had been no relevant symptoms in the interim until 6 weeks prior to this presentation. Imaging demonstrated a large right temporal lobe mass contiguous with the middle ear and mastoid cavity with features consistent with cholesteatoma...

  19. Branchial cleft anomaly of external auditory canal: a case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 15 year old male with a first branchial cleft anomaly seen at the Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital Sokoto is presented. He had recurrent preauricular swelling, which was continuous with three fistulous openings in the left external auditory meatus confirmed by sinogram. It may be mistaken for chronic ...

  20. Cholesteatoma recidivism: comparison of three different surgical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neudert, Marcus; Lailach, Susen; Lasurashvili, Nikoloz; Kemper, Max; Beleites, Thomas; Zahnert, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    To compare cholesteatoma recidivism rates after exclusive transcanal technique (ETC), combined transcanal and mastoidal technique (TCM, both subsets of intact canal wall technique, ICW), and canal wall down surgery (CWD). Retrospective case review and clinical case study Tertiary referral center. 406 cholesteatoma surgeries (2007-2009), 116 ears in clinical re-examination at least 1 year postoperatively. Sequential cholesteatoma surgery with ETC, TCM, or CWD. Cholesteatoma recidivism, residual and recurrent disease, localization of recidivism, validity of clinical findings. Out of 406 patients, ETC was performed in 227 (56%), TCM in 122 (30%), and CWD in 57 (14%) cases. Recidivism rates after ICW (15%) and CWD (16%) were almost similar. Recidivism was more frequent after ETC (11%) than after TCM (25%). Residuals were observed in 2% after ETC, 6.5% after TCM, and 7% after CWD. Incidence of recurrent disease was 9% for ETC, 18% for TCM, and 9% for CWD. Preferred localization of recidivism was the tympanic cavity after ETC (92%) and CWD (56%) and the mastoid cavity after TCM (53%). The clinical re-examination showed no further recidivistic disease. Sequential surgery is an effective and successful strategy in cholesteatoma eradication, providing a similar recidivism rate compared to following cholesteatoma retrograde and resection of the posterior canal wall. Lower recidivism after ETC was observed as a consequence of limited disease and the postoperative middle ear status determined the higher rate of recurrence after TCM. Therefore, the restricted visualization of the middle ear during ICW surgery does not increase the rate of recidivism, compared with CWD, as described in other studies. Cholesteatoma recidivism is mainly attributed to the surgeon's experience that outweighs the chosen strategy.

  1. Split thickness skin grafts in four cases of medial meatal fibrosis of the external auditory canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Andreia; Leonardo, Abílio; e Rodrigues, Manuel Rodrigues; Lopes, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Medial meatal fibrosis is a rare condition in which the medial portion of the external auditory canal is obliterated with fibrous tissue. We selected 4 cases of patients with medial meatal fibrosis with a history of recurrent otorrhea who underwent surgery during the years of 2012 and 2013, presenting the surgical results here. Physical examination showed an obliterated external auditory canal and conductive hypoacusis. All cases were solved using a split thickness skin graft from the thigh. The surgical principles that appear to correlate with a favorable outcome are the removal of all fibrous tissue and unhealthy skin, a wide canaloplasty and the use of a split thickness skin graft. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Patología Cérvico-Facial. All rights reserved.

  2. Internal auditory canal meningocele-perilabyrinthine/translabyrinthine fistula: Case report and imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truesdale, Carl M; Peterson, Ryan B; Hudgins, Patricia A; Vivas, Esther X

    2016-08-01

    The case of a 17-year-old patient with progressive unilateral sensorineural hearing loss and temporal bone malformations concerning for internal auditory canal meningocele with translabyrinthine/perilabyrinthine cerebrospinal fluid fistula is presented with associated computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. As the second reported case of an unruptured internal auditory canal meningocele with translabyrinthine/perilabyrinthine fistula, the case presents several clinically relevant points for otologists, neurotologists, and neuroradiologists. Although rare, it is an additional entity to consider as a cause of unilateral sensorineural hearing loss and may pose a risk for developing meningitis and possible "gushing" of cerebrospinal fluid should surgical intervention be attempted. Laryngoscope, 126:1931-1934, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  3. A Case of Dysplastic Nevus of the External Auditory Canal Presenting with Conductive Hearing Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Chang Woo; Oh, So Jung; Rho, Young-Soo; Cho, Seong Jin; Koh, Eun Seok

    2009-01-01

    A nevus which is a benign melanocytic neoplasm rarely occurs within the external auditory canal (EAC). A dysplastic nevus presents atypical features both clinically and histologically, and is important as a potential precursor for melanoma. We present a case of a 33-year-old female patient with a dysplastic nevus in her EAC. Physical examination revealed a protruding mass arising from the posterior wall of the left cartilaginous EAC. The mass showed clinically characteristic findings of a mel...

  4. Middle ear cholesteatoma: an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, C G; Meyerhoff, W L; Burns, D K

    1985-01-01

    Topical otic preparations now in clinical use contain a variety of antibiotics and solvents that may produce severe inflammation if they reach the middle ear cavity. This report describes the response of the chinchilla middle ear to direct application of one such preparation that appears to act as a nonspecific irritant. Cortisporin otic suspension (containing neomycin, polymyxin B, hydrocortisone, and propylene glycol) was introduced into the bullae of 32 chinchillas that were kept alive for four days to five months before histologic examination of their temporal bones. All the experimental animals had tissue damage and inflammation within the middle ear. The changes observed included proliferation of ciliated and secretory columnar cells, formation of granulation tissue, bone erosion, and osteoneogenesis. Some areas of the mucosa underwent metaplasia to stratified squamous epithelium; this metaplastic epithelium, however, did not produce keratin. In the majority of animals kept for two months or more, cholesteatoma was identified in the middle ear. The cholesteatomas appeared to develop as a result of penetration of external canal epidermis through intact tympanic membranes or as the result of migration of epidermis through perforations. The experimental cholesteatomas behaved like those seen clinically in humans, with extensive erosion of bony structures within the middle ear.

  5. The cochlear nerve canal and internal auditory canal in children with normal cochlea but cochlear nerve deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Fei; Li, Jianhong; Xian, Junfang; Wang, Zhenchang [Dept. of Radiology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical Univ., Beijing (China)], e-mail: cjr.wzhch@vip.163.com; Mo, Lingyan [Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical Univ., Beijing (China)

    2013-04-15

    Background: There is an increasing frequency of requests for cochlear implantation (CI) in deaf children and more detailed image information is necessary for selecting appropriate candidates. Cochlear nerve deficiency (CND) is a contraindication to CI. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used to evaluate the integrity of the cochlear nerve. The abnormalities of the cochlear nerve canal (CNC) and internal auditory canal (IAC) have been reported to be associated with CND. Purpose: To correlate CNC manifestation, size, and IAC diameter on high-resolution CT (HRCT) with CND diagnosed by MRI in children. Material and Methods: HRCT images from 35 sensorineurally deaf children who had normal cochlea but bilateral or unilateral CND diagnosed by MRI were studied retrospectively. The CNC and IAC manifestation and size were assessed and correlated with CND. Results: CND was diagnosed by MRI in 54/70 ears (77.1%). Thirty-two ears had an absent cochlear nerve (59.3%), while 22 ears had a small cochlear nerve (40.7%). The CNC diameter was <1.5 mm in 36 ears (66.7%). The CNC diameter ranged between 1.5 and 2.0 mm in seven ears (13.0%) and was >2.0 mm in 11 ears (20.4%). The IAC diameter was <3.0 mm in 25 ears (46.3%) and >3.0 mm in 29 ears (53.7%). Conclusion: The hypoplastic CNC might be more highly indicative of CND than that of a narrow IAC.

  6. Isolated Myxoma in the External Auditory Canal of a 10-Year-Old Girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Hee; Jeong, Su Hee; Kim, Hojong; Shin, Eunhye

    2015-12-01

    Myxoma is a benign connective tissue tumor that is most commonly found in the heart. Because myxoma of the external ear is extremely rare, its diagnosis may be easily delayed or it may be misdiagnosed as another disease. Moreover, because it can be a part of Carney complex (autosomal dominant syndrome), its correct diagnosis is very important. We experienced a 10-year-old girl who had a mass on the posterior surface of the tragus at the entrance of the left ear canal. Fine-needle aspiration revealed mucoid content of the cystic mass, but its cytology did not confirm the diagnosis. The whole mass was surgically removed, and the diagnosis was confirmed as myxoma with a stellate spindle cell proliferation in the hypocellular matrix. Thorough examination failed to determine any presentation of Carney complex, and her final diagnosis was isolated myxoma of the external auditory canal. This is the first reported study regarding myxoma of the external auditory canal in the Korean literature.

  7. Differences in middle ear ventilation disorders between pars flaccida and pars tensa cholesteatoma in sonotubometry and patterns of tympanic and mastoid pneumatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinnabe, Akihiro; Hara, Mariko; Hasegawa, Masayo; Matsuzawa, Shingo; Kanazawa, Hiromi; Kanazawa, Takeharu; Yoshida, Naohiro; Iino, Yukiko

    2012-07-01

    To investigate differences in middle ear ventilation mechanisms between pars flaccida and pars tensa cholesteatoma. Retrospective case review. A referral hospital otolaryngology department. Sixty-six ears with pars flaccida cholesteatoma (mean age, 45.7 yr) and 19 ears with pars tensa cholesteatoma (mean age, 58.8 yr) were included. Patients with totally adhesive tympanic membranes or mixed-type cholesteatoma were excluded. Patients underwent canal wall down tympanoplasty with canal reconstruction. The canal wall was reconstructed with tragal or conchal cartilage and cortical bone grafts. Habitual sniffing, preoperative sonotubometry results, mastoid pneumatization (maturation), and postoperative aeration around the stapes were investigated. Preoperative mastoid pneumatization and postoperative aeration around the stapes were measured on computed tomography scans. Ten (15.4%) of 65 patients with pars flaccida cholesteatoma and 3 (15.7%) of 19 patients with pars tensa cholesteatoma were habitual sniffers (p = 0.5). Preoperative sonotubometry indicated that a patulous pattern was more common in ears with pars flaccida than pars tensa cholesteatoma (42.8% versus 7.1%, p pars tensa than pars flaccida cholesteatoma (85.8% versus 42.8%, p pars flaccida than pars tensa cholesteatoma (p pars flaccida and pars tensa cholesteatoma.

  8. Surgical Procedures for External Auditory Canal Carcinoma and the Preservation of Postoperative Hearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Hoshikawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma of the external auditory canal (EAC is an unusual head and neck malignancy. The pathophysiology of these tumors is different from other skin lesions because of their anatomical and functional characteristics. Early-stage carcinoma of the EAC can be generally cured by surgical treatment, and reconstruction of the EAC with a tympanoplasty can help to retain hearing, thus improving the patients’ quality of life. In this study, we present two cases of early-stage carcinoma of the EAC treated by canal reconstruction using skin grafts after lateral temporal bone resection. A rolled-up skin graft with a temporal muscle flap was useful for keeping the form and maintaining the postoperative hearing. An adequate size of the skin graft and blood supply to the graft bed are important for achieving a successful operation.

  9. A Narrow Internal Auditory Canal with Duplication in a Patient with Congenital Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baik, Hye Won; Yu, Hye On; Kim, Kyung Soo; Kim, Gi Hyeon [Chung-Ang University Hospital, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-15

    A narrow internal auditory canal (IAC) with duplication is a rare anomaly of the temporal bone. It is associated with congenital sensorineural hearing loss. Aplasia or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve may cause the hearing loss. We present an unusual case of an isolated narrow IAC with duplication that was detected by a CT scan. In this case, the IAC was divided by a bony septum into an empty stenotic inferoposterior portion and a large anterosuperior portion containing the facial nerve that was clearly delineated on MRI.

  10. A study with high resolution computed tomography of bone destruction in cholesteatoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Shigeru; Yamaso, Tatsuya; Higo, Ryusaburo (Kameda General Hospital, Kamogawa, Chiba (Japan)); Senba, Tetsuo; Iinuma, Yoshitaka

    1992-07-01

    The modes and incidences of bone destruction in the middle ear cholesteatoma were evaluated by high resolution computed tomography, comparing with chronic otitis media with central perforation (COM) as control. The head of the malleus, the body and long process of the incus were more markedly destroyed in cholesteatoma than in COM with statistical significance. With the further extension of cholesteatoma into the antrum, the tegmen of the aditus ad antrum, the lateral semicircular canal, the handle of the malleus and the Korner's septum were involved in bone destruction. (author).

  11. Ceruminous Adenoma of the External Auditory Canal: A Case Report with Imaging and Pathologic Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Psillas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ceruminous adenomas are benign tumors that are rare in humans and present with a nonspecific symptomatology. The treatment of choice is surgical excision. We present an 87-year-old woman who presented with a reddish, tender, round, soft mass of the outer third of the inferior wall of the left external auditory canal, discharging a yellowish fluid upon pressure. Coincidentally, due to her poor general condition, this patient also showed symptoms consistent with chronic otitis media, parotitis, and cervical lymphadenopathy, such as otorrhea, through a ruptured tympanic membrane and swelling of the parotid gland and cervical lymph nodes. The external auditory canal lesion was surgically excised under general anesthesia, utilizing a transmeatal approach. The pathological diagnosis was ceruminous gland adenoma. The tumor was made of tubular and cystic structures and embedded in a fibrous, focally hyalinized stroma. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of two distinct cell populations. The luminal cells expressed keratin 7, while peripheral (basal cells expressed keratins 5/6, S100 protein, and p63. The apocrine gland-related antigen GCDFP-15 was focally expressed by tumor cells. The postoperative course was uneventful and at the 2-year follow-up no recurrence of the ceruminous adenoma was noted.

  12. Complete occipitalization of the atlas with bilateral external auditory canal atresia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolenšek, Janez; Cvetko, Erika; Snoj, Žiga; Meznaric, Marija

    2017-02-18

    Fusion of the atlas with the occipital bone is a rare congenital dysplasia known as occipitalization of the atlas, occipitocervical synostosis, assimilation of the atlas, or atlanto-occipital fusion. It is a component of the paraxial mesodermal maldevelopment and commonly associated with other dysplasias of the craniovertebral junction. External auditory canal atresia or external aural atresia is a rare congenital absence of the external auditory canal. It occurs as the consequence of the maldevelopment of the first pharyngeal cleft due to defects of cranial neural crest cells migration and/or differentiation. It is commonly associated with the dysplasias of the structures derived from the first and second pharyngeal arches including microtia. We present the coexistence of the occipitalization of the atlas and congenital aural atresia, an uncommon combination of the paraxial mesodermal maldevelopment, and defects of cranial neural crest cells. The association is most probably syndromic as minimal diagnostic criteria for the oculoariculovertebral spectrum are fulfilled. From the clinical point of view, it is important to be aware that patients with microtia must obtain also appropriate diagnostic imaging studies of the craniovetebral junction due to eventual concomitant occipitalization of the atlas and frequently associated C1-C2 instability.

  13. Development of a method for estimating oesophageal temperature by multi-locational temperature measurement inside the external auditory canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakada, Hirofumi; Horie, Seichi; Kawanami, Shoko; Inoue, Jinro; Iijima, Yoshinori; Sato, Kiyoharu; Abe, Takeshi

    2017-09-01

    We aimed to develop a practical method to estimate oesophageal temperature by measuring multi-locational auditory canal temperatures. This method can be applied to prevent heatstroke by simultaneously and continuously monitoring the core temperatures of people working under hot environments. We asked 11 healthy male volunteers to exercise, generating 80 W for 45 min in a climatic chamber set at 24, 32 and 40 °C, at 50% relative humidity. We also exposed the participants to radiation at 32 °C. We continuously measured temperatures at the oesophagus, rectum and three different locations along the external auditory canal. We developed equations for estimating oesophageal temperatures from auditory canal temperatures and compared their fitness and errors. The rectal temperature increased or decreased faster than oesophageal temperature at the start or end of exercise in all conditions. Estimated temperature showed good similarity with oesophageal temperature, and the square of the correlation coefficient of the best fitting model reached 0.904. We observed intermediate values between rectal and oesophageal temperatures during the rest phase. Even under the condition with radiation, estimated oesophageal temperature demonstrated concordant movement with oesophageal temperature at around 0.1 °C overestimation. Our method measured temperatures at three different locations along the external auditory canal. We confirmed that the approach can credibly estimate the oesophageal temperature from 24 to 40 °C for people performing exercise in the same place in a windless environment.

  14. Nontumorous enlargement of the internal auditory canal. A risk factor for sensorineural hearing loss? A high resolution CT-study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stimmer, H.; Rummeny, E.J. [Technical University Munich, Klinikum rechts der Isar (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Niedermeyer, H.P. [Technical University Munich, Klinikum rechts der Isar (Germany). ENT-Clinic; Kehl, V. [Technical University Munich, Klinikum rechts der Isar (Germany). Inst. for Medical Statistics and Epidemiology

    2015-06-15

    First aim of the study was to define normal shape and diameter of the internal auditory canal (IAC). In the second part the clinical relevance of IAC-enlargement was analyzed, considering also lesions of the subtle structures at the fundus of the internal auditory canal. 440 high resolution CT-scans of the temporal bone were used for retrospective analysis of the internal auditory canal and its fundus region. The mean value of the IAC diameter in axial and coronal plane was determined. In 20 of 440 patients IAC enlargement was found. In the group with pronounced enlargement (3fold SD) nearly all patients suffered from hearing impairment. In some of them we found structural abnormalities near the IAC fundus in the CSF/perilymph border zone. A new CT-based definition of normal shape and diameter of the internal auditory canal is presented. There is some evidence that a pathologic transmission of CSF-pressure in case of IAC-enlargement and/or abnormal fistulous communications could play an important role in the pathophysiology of hearing loss.

  15. A case of dysplastic nevus of the external auditory canal presenting with conductive hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang Woo; Oh, So Jung; Rho, Young-Soo; Cho, Seong Jin; Koh, Eun Seok

    2009-12-31

    A nevus which is a benign melanocytic neoplasm rarely occurs within the external auditory canal (EAC). A dysplastic nevus presents atypical features both clinically and histologically, and is important as a potential precursor for melanoma. We present a case of a 33-year-old female patient with a dysplastic nevus in her EAC. Physical examination revealed a protruding mass arising from the posterior wall of the left cartilaginous EAC. The mass showed clinically characteristic findings of a melanocytic nevus. The patient underwent excisional biopsy via a transcanal approach under local anesthesia. Histopathological examination revealed an intradermal nevus with atypical melanocytes without pleomorphism. There was no evidence of recurrence two years after surgical excision.

  16. Posttraumatic Temporal Bone Meningocele Presenting as a Cystic Mass in the External Auditory Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alijani, Babak; Bagheri, Hamid Reza; Chabok, Shahrokh Yousefzadeh; Behzadnia, Hamid; Dehghani, Siavash

    2016-07-01

    Temporal bone meningoencephalic herniation may occur in head trauma. It is a rare condition with potentially dangerous complications. Several different routes for temporal bone meningoencephalocele have been proposed. An11-year-old boy with history of head trauma initially presented with a 9-months history of progressive right-sided hearing loss and facial weakness. The other complaint was formation of a cystic mass in the right external auditory canal. The patient underwent surgery via a mini middle cranial fossa craniotomy associated with a transmastoid approach. Although presenting symptoms can be subtle, early suspicion and confirmatory imaging aid in establishing the diagnosis. The combination of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging will help in proper preoperative diagnosis. The operation includes transmastoid, middle cranial fossa repair, or combination of both. The multilayer closure of bony defect is very important to avoid cerebrospinal fluid leak. Clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and surgical approaches for posttraumatic meningoencephaloceles arising in the head and neck region are briefly discussed.

  17. Morphometric analysis of the internal auditory canal by computed tomography imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Sergio Ricardo; Ajzen, Sergio; D Ippolito, Giuseppe; Alonso, Luis; Isotani, Sadao; Lederman, Henrique

    2012-06-01

    Many clinical and experimental studies have been done to analyze the anatomical and functional aspects of the internal auditory canal (IAC) in human beings since there are great inter-individual variability and structural variations that may occur regarding the other adjacent structures. The purpose of this study was to characterize the morphology of the internal auditory canal (IAC) during development using high resolution computed tomography (CT) and to analyze its dimensions, which will be determined by measuring the nearby areas and structures using a system of digital image processing. CT images of the IAC of 110 normal subjects aged 1 to 92 years (mean age, 46.5 years) of both genders were reviewed to determine the shape, area, opening width (OW), longitudinal length (LL), vertical diameter (VD) and distance from the vestibular aqueduct. The shapes observed in children and adults were funnel-shaped (74% and 58.3%, respectively), cylindrical (22% and 30.9%, respectively) and bud-shaped (4% and 10.8%, respectively). The measurements by CT in children were: area= 50.30 mm(2), OW = 7.53 mm, length = 11.17 mm, VD = 4.82 mm and the distance between the IAC and the vestibular aqueduct (VA) = 12.63 mm. In adults, the measurements were: area = 44.64 mm(2), OW = 7.10 mm, length = 9.84 mm, VD = 4.47 mm and the distance between IAC and VA = 11.17 mm. CT images showed that the IAC has different shapes and when the measurements obtained for children were compared with those of adults, the parameters that presented statistically significant differences in either gender were length and diameter.

  18. Incidence, 10-year recidivism rate and prognostic factors for cholesteatoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britze, A; Møller, M L; Ovesen, T

    2017-04-01

    Cholesteatoma patients have a high risk of recurrence with complications, and knowledge exchange is a prerequisite for improving treatment. This study aimed to apply appropriate statistics to provide meaningful and transferable results from cholesteatoma surgery, to highlight independent prognostic factors, and to assess the incidence rate. Incidence rates were assessed for the district of Aarhus, Denmark. From 147 patients operated on mainly with canal wall up mastoidectomies for debuting cholesteatomas, 10-year Kaplan-Meier recidivism rates were calculated and independent prognostic factors for the recidivism were identified by Cox multivariate regression analyses. Incidence rate was 6.8 per 100 000 per year. The 10-year cumulative recidivism rate was 0.44 (95 per cent confidence interval, 0.37-0.53). Independent prognostic factors for the recidivism were: age below 15 years (hazard ratio = 2.2; p > z = 0.002), cholesteatoma localised to the mastoid (hazard ratio = 1.7; p > z = 0.04), stapes erosion (hazard ratio = 1.9; p > z = 0.02) and incus erosion (hazard ratio = 1.9; p > z = 0.04). The recidivism rate is influenced by several factors that are important to observe, both in the clinic and when comparing results from surgery.

  19. High-resolution computed tomography of cholesteatoma of the middle ear. CT, otological, and surgical correlation

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    Ishii, Kiyoshi; Fukusumi, Akio; Okudera, Toshio; Kato, Toshihiko; Soda, Toyoji

    1988-08-01

    The high-resolution computed tomography (CT) appearances of 72 consecutive cases (92 ears) of chronic otomastoiditis were reviewed. The cholesteatomas were verified surgically and/or otologically in 35 of these 92 ears. Discussion was made with special emphasis on the differential diagnosis of cholesteatoma of the middle ear from the non-cholesteatoma otitis media. The CT findings suggestive of cholesteatoma were as follows: the definitive findings was of a soft-tissue opacity filling Purssak's space, with a medial displacement of the malleus and the incus; the possible findings were 1) a bony erosion of the wall of the middle ear cavity, 2) a partial or complete disappearance of the malleus and/or the incus, and 3) an opacification of Purssak's space and the superomedial aspect of the external auditory meatus.

  20. Cholesteatoma imaging using modified echo-planar diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flook, E; Izzat, S; Ismail, A

    2011-01-01

    Imaging of cholesteatomas can be useful especially in cases of recurrent disease. Computed tomography scans have been recommended before primary surgery, but cholesteatoma tissue looks similar to inflammatory tissue. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging is both sensitive and specific in detecting cholesteatoma, which appears as a bright signal on a dark background. Non-echo-planar diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging is superior to routine echo-planar diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging as it minimises susceptibility artefacts; however, the addition of this facility involves expensive magnetic resonance scanner upgrading. To avoid the cost of such upgrading, we modified our echo-planar diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging parameters and then scanned 15 consecutive cases of suspected cholesteatoma or suspected recurrent cholesteatoma. Imaging results correlated well with clinical and/or operative findings. These results indicate that software adjustments can enable echo-planar diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging to detect cholesteatomas reliably, and as effectively as non-echo-planar diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. This discovery has the potential to facilitate reliable delayed post-operative screening of canal wall up mastoidectomies, avoiding the need for a 'second look' procedure.

  1. Primary Pleomorphic Adenoma of the External Auditory Canal: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chizu Saito

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Pleomorphic adenoma (PA is a benign tumour that mainly arises from salivary glands, and PA of the external auditory canal (EAC is very rare. The objective of this study was to clarify the clinical presentation and treatment of PA of the EAC. Method. The authors present a case of PA arising from the EAC together with a literature review. Results. A 40-year-old man complained of hearing loss and foreign-body sensation of the right ear. Clinical and radiological examinations revealed a well-defined tumour limited to the EAC, with no connection to the parotid gland. Preoperative fine-needle aspiration cytology findings were characteristic of PA. The tumour was removed en bloc with the overlying skin. Conclusion. PA of the EAC is very rare, and methods to rule out malignancy before treatment are lacking. Thus, long-term follow-up is necessary, because malignant tumours are common in the EAC and PA has malignant potential.

  2. Simulating cartilage conduction sound to estimate the sound pressure level in the external auditory canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimokura, Ryota; Hosoi, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Tadashi; Iwakura, Takashi; Yamanaka, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    When the aural cartilage is made to vibrate it generates sound directly into the external auditory canal which can be clearly heard. Although the concept of cartilage conduction can be applied to various speech communication and music industrial devices (e.g. smartphones, music players and hearing aids), the conductive performance of such devices has not yet been defined because the calibration methods are different from those currently used for air and bone conduction. Thus, the aim of this study was to simulate the cartilage conduction sound (CCS) using a head and torso simulator (HATS) and a model of aural cartilage (polyurethane resin pipe) and compare the results with experimental ones. Using the HATS, we found the simulated CCS at frequencies above 2 kHz corresponded to the average measured CCS from seven subjects. Using a model of skull bone and aural cartilage, we found that the simulated CCS at frequencies lower than 1.5 kHz agreed with the measured CCS. Therefore, a combination of these two methods can be used to estimate the CCS with high accuracy.

  3. Expression of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Human Middle Ear Cholesteatoma

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    Ying-Che Hsu

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Middle ear cholesteatoma is destructive to auditory ossicles and temporal bone, and treatment usually includes surgical removal of all epithelial content in the tympanomastoid cavity. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR is a 170 kd to 180 kd transmembrane glycoprotein and its distribution density is related to the ability of the keratinocytes to differentiate and their state of differentiation. We used the avidinbiotin complex technique and EGFR monoclonal antibody to evaluate the expression of EGFR in 29 cases of cholesteatoma and 34 samples of normal postauricular skin. Of patients with cholesteatoma, 79% (23 cases had EGFR-positive cells in the basal layer, 66% (19 cases in the parabasal layer, and 62% (18 cases in the upper layer of the epithelial tissue. Among patients with normal postauricular skin, 85% (29 cases had EGFR-positive cells in the basal layer, 79% (27 cases in the parabasal layer, and 79% (27 cases in the upper layer of the epithelial tissue. No statistical difference in EGFR expression between each layer of cholesteatoma and postauricular skin was noted. However, there was an intensity gradient of positive EGFR immunoreactivity from the basal to the higher layers in cholesteatoma. Our results showed that the distribution of EGFR in middle ear cholesteatoma is not deranged, but is similar to that in normal skin tissue.

  4. Clinical and histological characteristics of melanocytic nevus in external auditory canals and auricles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hye Jin; Kim, Yun Tae; Choo, Oak-Sung; Park, Keehyun; Park, Hun Yi; Choung, Yun-Hoon

    2013-11-01

    Nevi, which consist of nevus cells arising from external auditory canals (EACs) and auricles, are rare and their characteristics are not thoroughly understood. The purpose of this study was to analyze the clinicopathological characteristics of melanocytic nevus (MN) in EACs and auricles. Medical records were reviewed in 35 cases with junctional, compound and intradermal nevi treated in Ajou University Hospital, Korea between 2001 and 2011. Patient demographic, location, shape, and diameter of nevi, and pathologic results were analyzed according to the location, EACs (23 cases) and auricles (12 cases). Female predominance was noted in both EAC (60.9 %, 14 cases) and auricular (75 %, 9 cases) nevi. The mean age of EAC nevi (37.1 years) was younger than that of auricular nevi (42.2 years). The chief complaint was a symptomless mass in both groups, mostly in dome-like gross appearances. The mean diameter of EAC and auricular nevi was 9.6 (3-16) mm and 12.2 (3-25) mm, respectively. Histological findings chiefly presented intradermal nevi in EACs (78.3 %) and auricles (83.3 %) which showed preference to older patients, in contrast to the compound type. All nevi including five cases with skin grafts were completely excised without any recurrence within the follow-up period (average 5.3 months). A possible dysplastic nevus was detected in only one case. All MNs in EACs or auricles reveal similar characteristics. Early and complete excision is recommended to avoid skin graft, functional problems, and the risk of malignant melanoma.

  5. Exclusive endoscopic transcanal transpromontorial approach: a new perspective for internal auditory canal vestibular schwannoma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchioni, Daniele; Alicandri-Ciufelli, Matteo; Rubini, Alessia; Masotto, Babara; Pavesi, Giacomo; Presutti, Livio

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to describe the first case series in which an exclusive endoscopic transcanal transpromontorial approach (EETTA) was used to treat small vestibular schwannomas (VSs) and meningiomas of the internal auditory canal (IAC). METHODS The authors performed a retrospective review of patients who had undergone surgery using an EETTA to the IAC at 2 university tertiary care referral centers during the period from November 2011 to January 2015. RESULTS Ten patients underwent surgery via an EETTA for the treatment of VS in the IAC at the University Hospital of Modena or the University Hospital of Verona. The patients had Koos Grade I or II tumors and American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery (AAO-HNS) Class D hearing status preoperatively. Gross-total resection was achieved in all patients. No major complications such as cerebrospinal fluid leakage or hemorrhage were reported. In 7 of 10 (70%) patients, facial nerve function was normal immediately after surgery (Rough Grading System [RGS] Grade I). Two patients presented with a transitory facial palsy immediately after surgery (RGS Grade II-III) but experienced complete recovery during the follow-up period. The mean follow-up was 10 months. CONCLUSIONS The EETTA proved to be successful for the removal of VS or meningioma involving the cochlea, fundus, and IAC, with possible lower complication rates and less invasive procedures than those for traditional microscopic approaches. The potential for the extensive and routine use of this approach in lateral and posterior skull base surgery will depend on the development of technology and surgical refinements and on the diffusion of skull base endoscopic skills among the otolaryngological and neurosurgical communities.

  6. High-dose-rate brachytherapy of rhabdomyosarcoma limited to the external auditory canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Martin T; Voros, Laszlo; Cohen, Gil'ad N; Lanning, Ryan M; Ganly, Ian; O'Suoji, Chibuzo C; Wolden, Suzanne L

    To report on the single-catheter high-dose-rate brachytherapy treatment of a 21-month-old girl child with an embryonal, botryoid-type, rhabdomyosarcoma limited to the external auditory canal (EAC). A 2.4-mm diameter catheter was inserted into the right EAC and placed against the tympanic membrane. A computed tomography simulation scan was acquired. A brachytherapy treatment plan, in which 21 Gy in seven fractions was prescribed to a 1-mm depth along the distal 2 cm of the catheter, was generated. Treatments were delivered under anesthesia without complication. A dosimetric comparison between this plan and an intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plan was then conducted. A clinical target volume (CTV), which encompassed a 1-mm margin along the distal 2 cm of the catheter, was delineated for both plans. Given positioning uncertainty under image guidance, a planning target volume (PTV = CTV + 3-mm margin) was defined for the IMRT plan. The IMRT plan was optimized for maximal CTV coverage but subsequently normalized to the same CTV volume receiving 100% of the prescription dose (V100) of the brachytherapy plan. The IMRT plan was normalized to the brachytherapy CTV V100 of 82.0%. The PTV V100 of this plan was 34.1%. The PTV exhibited dosimetric undercoverage within the middle ear and toward the external ear. Mean cochlea doses for the IMRT and brachytherapy plans were 26.7% and 10.5% of prescription, respectively. For rhabdomyosarcomas limited to the EAC, a standard brachytherapy catheter can deliver a highly conformal radiation plan that can spare the nearby cochlea from excess radiation. Copyright © 2016 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Improving resident familiarity with the translabyrinthine approach to the internal auditory canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedmon, Matthew M; O'Connell, Brendan P; Adams, Austin S; Wanna, George B; Haynes, David S

    To increase otolaryngology resident experience with drilling and dissection of the internal auditory canal (IAC) via a translabyrinthine approach. Pilot study involving temporal bone education and drilling with completion of pre- and post-drilling surveys. Participants observed an educational presentation on IAC anatomy and drilling, followed by manipulation of IAC nerves using a prosected cadaveric temporal bone. Participants then drilled the IAC and identified nerves using temporal bones with previously drilled mastoidectomies and labyrinthectomies. Pre- and post-drilling 5-point Likert-based surveys were completed. 7 participants were included in this study ranging in experience from PGY1 through PGY 5. The median number of times the IAC had been drilled previously was 0. Participants reported statistically significantly improved familiarity with the translabyrinthine approach after the session with median scores increasing from 2 to 3 (p=0.02), and a near-significant increase in familiarity with IAC anatomy with median scores increasing from 3 to 4 (p=0.06). Prior to the session, 71% of participants either disagreed or strongly disagreed that they had an idea of what the procedure would be like in a real operating room, whereas after the session 0% reported disagreement. 100% of participants were very satisfied with the overall experience. An educational session and temporal bone drilling experience using prosected bones significantly increased the reported familiarity with the translabyrinthine approach. Experiences such as this may enhance resident exposure to advanced lateral skull base approaches in a safe environment, and increase comprehension of the complex anatomic relationships of the IAC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Rare Presentation of Giant Cell Tumor in the Internal Auditory Canal: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jada, Ajit S; Shrivastava, Raj K; Mannan, Abul; Kobets, Andrew; Manolidis, Spiros

    2015-07-01

    Giant cell tumor (GCT) is a benign but locally aggressive bone tumor that usually involves the end of long bones. It is a relatively common neoplasm in patients, constituting 5 to 10% of all benign bone tumors. Approximately 2% of GCTs occur in the craniofacial skeleton with a predilection for the ethmoid, sphenoid, and temporal bones. The skull base location is unique and not commonly described. Hearing loss, headache, tinnitus, and subcutaneous masses are the most commonly reported symptoms in GCTs of the skull base. In this case report we present the first description of a GCT within the internal auditory canal causing cranial neuropathy and review the recent pertinent literature.

  9. Spontaneous temporomandibular joint herniation into the external auditory canal through a patent foramen of Huschke: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyeong Hwa Ryu, M.D.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Temporomandibular joint herniation (TMJ can be caused by inflammation, trauma, tumor, or otologic procedures. However, spontaneous TMJ herniation can also occur as a result of a congenital bony defect in the external auditory canal (EAC, known as the patent foramen of Huschke (PFH, and occurs in 0.4% of the population. Herein, the authors present a case of spontaneous TMJ herniation through the PFH with clicking tinnitus. The patient underwent the surgical repair of bony defect in the EAC with placement of titanium mesh, and the symptom disappeared after surgery. They also review the relevant literature regarding this disease and discuss its embryologic development and clinical significance.

  10. Role of high-resolution CT in cholesteatoma involving the supratubal recess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funai, Hiroaki; Yabe, Toshie; Kase, Yasuhiro; Kitahara, Nobuo; Horiuchi, Koji; Yano, Jun; Ushijima, Tatsujiro; Iinuma, Toshitaka

    1987-11-01

    Operative findings of the supratubal recess were examined in the 30 patients with acquired cholesteatoma. They were compared with findings of high-resolution CTs (HRCTs) obtained preoperatively. Thus the role of HRCT in cholesteatoma involving the supratubal recess were evaluated. HRCTs of 172 ears without otitis media and 65 ears with tubotympanic type otitis media were analyzed as control. The HRCT has proved to provide excellent informations regarding the presence of cholesteatoma in the supratubal recess. Diagnostic points were as follows. (1) Destruction of the ''cog''. (2) Erosion or destruction of surrounding bony structures, for example, facial canal, tympanic tegmen. (3) Soft tissue density in the supratubal recess.

  11. Sound lateralization ability of patients with bilateral microtia and atresia after bilateral reconstruction of auricles and external auditory canals and fitting of new canal-type hearing aids to replace a bone conduction hearing aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaga, Kimitaka; Asato, Hirotaka

    2017-04-01

    Each of eight patients with bilateral microtia and atresia underwent bilateral reconstruction of the auricles and external auditory canals and were fitted bilateral canal-type hearing aids in the operated ears to replace a bone conduction hearing aid. The ability to discriminate inter-aural intensity difference (IID) and even inter-aural time difference (ITD) was retained in all these patients. This study studied the post-operative sound lateralization ability of patients with bilateral microtia and atresia after total reconstruction of both auricles and external auditory canals, followed by fitting of bilateral canal-type hearing aids. Eight patients with bilateral microtia and atresia ranging in age from 13-43 years were recruited in this study. Each of them underwent bilateral reconstruction of the auricles and external auditory canals and were fitted canal-type hearing aids in both the operated ears to replace a bone conduction hearing aid. A sound lateralization test was conducted to determine IID and ITD discrimination ability thresholds. In all the patients, the IID discrimination ability thresholds of the patients were more than 3-fold those of the controls, the ITD discrimination ability threshold was more than 5-fold those of controls, and binaural hearing was retained.

  12. Congenital aural atresia: bone-anchored hearing aid vs. external auditory canal reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhabel, Sarah; Arcand, Pierre; Saliba, Issam

    2012-02-01

    To compare the audiologic outcome and feasibility of bone-anchored hearing aid (BAHA) and external auditory canal reconstruction (EACR) surgeries in pediatric patients presenting a congenital aural atresia (CAA). A retrospective chart review of 40 patients operated in our tertiary pediatric care center between 2002 and 2010 was performed. 20 patients underwent EACR, whereas another 20 patients were implanted with a BAHA device. Air conduction (AC), bone conduction (BC), pure tone average (PTA) and speech discrimination score (SDS) were compared preoperatively, and hearing gain (HG) postoperatively at 6 and at 12 months at frequencies of 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 Hz. Operative time, complications and associated microtia were documented as well. EACR patients were graded retrospectively upon Jahrsdoerfer's classification. Preoperative AC were significantly different between groups, at 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz but not at 4000 Hz. BAHA group compared postoperatively to EACR group showed significantly a superior HG of 46.9 ± 7.0 dB (paided air thresholds from the EACR group revealed an audiologic status similar to those of the BAHA group patients, at 6 months and one year postoperatively. Both groups had a similar evolution of their BC, as well as of the incidence of complications. We report one case of transient facial paralysis in the EACR group. Total operative time is significantly lower (pBAHA implantation (56 ± 21 min) than for EACR surgery (216 ± 174 min). No preoperative or postoperative correlation (Pearson correlation test; p>0.05) was found between patient's Jahrsdoerfer's score and their audiologic outcome. HG does not seem to be influenced by the presence of microtia. EACR, although constituting an attractive option, does not give acceptable results alone. It can however, when combined to conventional air conduction hearing aids, provide excellent audiologic outcomes comparable to BAHA. BAHA implantation is a reliable, safe and efficient therapeutic option

  13. Diagnosis and treatment of cavernous hemangioma of the internal auditory canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei Dong; Huang, Qi; Li, Xi Ye; Chen, Hong Sai; Wang, Zhao Yan; Wu, Hao

    2016-03-01

    Cavernous hemangioma of the internal auditory canal (IAC) is an extremely rare type of tumor, and only 50 cases have been reported in the literature prior to this study. The aim in this study was to describe the symptomatology, radiological features, and surgical outcomes for patients with cavernous hemangioma of the IAC and to discuss the diagnostic criteria and treatment strategy for the disease. The study included 6 patients with cavernous hemangioma of the IAC. All patients presented with sensorineural hearing loss and tinnitus, and 2 also suffered from vertigo. Five patients reported a history of facial symptoms with hemispasm or palsy: 3 had progressive facial weakness, 1 had a hemispasm, and 1 had a history of recovery from sudden facial paresis. All patients underwent CT and MRI to rule out intracanalicular vestibular schwannomas and facial nerve neuromas. Five patients had their tumors surgically removed, while 1 patient, who did not have facial problems, was followed up with a wait-and-scan approach. All patients had a presurgical diagnosis of cavernous hemangioma of the IAC, which was confirmed pathologically in the 5 patients who underwent surgical removal of the tumor. The translabyrinthine approach was used to remove the tumor in 4 patients, while the middle cranial fossa approach was used in the 1 patient who still had functional hearing. Tumors adhered to cranial nerves VII and/or VIII and were difficult to dissect from nerve sheaths during surgeries. Complete hearing loss occurred in all 5 patients. In 3 patients, the facial nerve could not be separated from the tumor, and primary end-to-end anastomosis was performed. Intact facial nerve preservation was achieved in 2 patients. Patients were followed up for at least 1 year after treatment, and MRI showed no evidence of tumor regrowth. All patients experienced some level of recovery in facial nerve function. Cavernous hemangioma of the IAC can be diagnosed preoperatively through analysis of clinical

  14. Acoustic Noise of MRI Scans of the Internal Auditory Canal and Potential for Intracochlear Physiological Changes

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    Busada, M A; Ibrahim, G; Huckans, J H

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a widely used medical imaging technique to assess the health of the auditory (vestibulocochlear) nerve. A well known problem with MRI machines is that the acoustic noise they generate during a scan can cause auditory temporary threshold shifts (TTS) in humans. In addition, studies have shown that excessive noise in general can cause rapid physiological changes of constituents of the auditory within the cochlea. Here, we report in-situ measurements of the acoustic noise from a 1.5 Tesla MRI machine (GE Signa) during scans specific to auditory nerve assessment. The measured average and maximum noise levels corroborate earlier investigations where TTS occurred. We briefly discuss the potential for physiological changes to the intracochlear branches of the auditory nerve as well as iatrogenic misdiagnoses of intralabyrinthine and intracochlear schwannomas due to hypertrophe of the auditory nerve within the cochlea during MRI assessment.

  15. Nevo melânico intradérmico do meato auditivo externo Intradermal melanocytic nevus of the external auditory canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato V. Alves

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Muito comuns, os nevos intradérmicos constituem um tumor cutâneo pigmentado benigno. Seu aparecimento no meato auditivo externo é inabitual. Os aspectos clínicos e histopatológicos dos nevos intradérmicos dentro do meato auditivo externo são apresentados e a literatura é revisada.Intradermal nevi are common benign pigmented skin tumors. Their occurrence within the external auditory canal is uncommon. The clinical and pathologic features of an intradermal nevus arising within the external auditory canal are presented, and the literature reviewed.

  16. Squamous cell carcinoma of the external auditory canal: computed tomography findings in six cases; Carcinoma espinocelular do conduto auditivo externo: estudo por tomografia computadorizada de seis casos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Fabio Mota; Paes Junior, Ademar Jose de Oliveira; Tornin, Olger de Souza [Complexo Hospitalar Heliopolis, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Servico de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: fmg961@yahoo.com.br; Souza, Ricardo Pires de [Complexo Hospitalar Heliopolis, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Programa de Residencia Medica em Radiologia e Diagnostico por Imagem

    2005-05-15

    Objective: to evaluate the role of computed tomography in the assessment of deep extension of squamous cell carcinoma of the external auditory canal. Materials and methods: in the period between May 1995 and December 2003 six patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the external auditory canal were submitted to computed tomography scan at 'Hospital Heliopolis', Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil, including axial and coronal slices with soft tissue and bone algorithms. Results: thickening of the soft tissue of the external auditory canal was seen in all patients, bone erosion and invasion of the middle ear in five (83.3%), invasion of the mastoid and parotid gland in four (66.7%), invasion of the temporomandibular joint in three (50%), and invasion of the middle cranial fossa, carotid canal and cervical lymph node enlargement in two (33.3%) patients. Conclusion: assessment of deep extension of squamous cell carcinoma of the external auditory canal using computed tomography is useful for clinical staging of the disease allowing better therapeutic planning for these patients. (author)

  17. Surgical management of cholesteatoma: the two main options and the third way--atticotomy/limited mastoidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolopoulos, T P; Gerbesiotis, P

    2009-09-01

    Chronic otitis media with cholesteatoma is considered an "unsafe" ear and generally requires surgical management. This is particularly challenging in children due to anatomical, pathophysiological and social reasons. There are different approaches for this objective. The two main options are the canal wall up and canal wall down mastoidectomy. The aim of this article is to compare the advantages and disadvantages of canal wall up and canal wall down method and present the third way of surgical management: the inside-outside approach through an endaural incision. This technique includes atticotomy, atticoantrostomy or mastoidectomy (mostly very limited) according to the size and location of the cholesteatoma. This technique contributes to the successful surgical management of cholesteatoma, eradicating the disease with the creation of small, dry, self-cleaning cavities and no pinna protrusion. Moreover, there is no need for meatoplasty or obliteration. However, we should never forget that in ear surgery the choice of the operative procedure should take into account the needs of the patient, the extent of the disease, and the surgeon's experience.

  18. Differential diagnosis between chronic otitis media with and without cholesteatoma by temporal bone CT: focus on bone change and mass effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Cheol Kyu; Park, Dong Woo; Seong, Jin Yong; Lee, Kak Soo; Park Choong Ki; Lee, Seung Ro; Hahm, Chang Kok [College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-01-01

    In order to determine specific differences, we compared the temporal bone CT findings of chronic otitis media (COM) with and without cholesteatoma, focusing on bone change. Between 1997 and 1998, 82 patients (84 cases) underwent temporal bone CT and were shown to have COM, with or without cholesteatoma after mastoidectomy and tympanoplasty. There were 36 cases of COM with cholesteatoma (26 patients, M:F =3D 11:15; age range, 16-61 (mean, 36,2) years), and 58 cases without chlesteatoma (56 patients, M:F =3D 25:31, age range, 15-61 (mean, 36.2) years). The findings of temporal bone CT were analysed at the point of bony changes including erosion and medial displacement of ossicles (malleus, incus, and stapes), erosion or destruction of the scutum, tegmen, facial canal, and lateral semicircular canal, and ballooning of the tympanic cavity and mastoid antrum. In addition, the soft tissue changes seen on temporal bone CT were analyzed at the site of lateral bulging of soft tissue in Prussak's space, perforation of the pars flaccida, tympanic membrane retraction, and tympanosclerosis. We retrospectively compared the findings of temporal bone CT with the surgical findings, and to assess statistical significance, the Chi-square test was used. Bone erosion or destruction was seen in 36.2% of COM cases without cholesteatoma, and in 96.2% of cases with cholesteatoma. Comparing COM with and without cholesteatoma, the erosion of ossicles including the malleus (81%, 24%), incus (88%, 14%), stapes (58%, 10%), scutum (88%, 10%), facial canal (8%, 0%), and lateral semicircular canal (8%, 0%), was more common in COM with cholesteatoma (p-value less than 0.05), with the exception of erosion of the tegmen (8%, 3%). Other bony changes including medial displacement of ossicles (27%, 3%), ballooning of tympanic cavity and mastoid antrum (96%, 16%), and the soft tissue changes including lateral bulging of soft tissue in Prussak's space (58%, 14%) and perforation of the pars

  19. Cholesteatoma presenting as a late complication of cochlear implant surgery: Case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bort, A; Portmann, D; Guindi, S

    2015-01-01

    A male patient with post lingual hearing loss was implanted at 16 years of age with a Nucleus cochlear implant (Cochlear) in his left ear. Twenty two years later, he developed a cholesteatoma in relation to the mastoid portion of the facial nerve and in contact with the electrodes array. The cholesteatoma was removed and the ear canal reconstructed. There was no post-operative facial palsy and the cochlear implant was preserved. Although cholesteatoma is a rare complication of the cochlear implant surgery, it still can occur and can be a source of potential damage to the implant. The origin of this late-presenting complication could be excessive bone drilling associated with the pressure caused by the loop of the electrodes array on the posterior canal wall. Implanted patients must have a close and particular long-term follow-up, especially when a surgical breach of the canal wall or a tear of the tympanic membrane have occurred during surgery, as well as in those patients in whom excessive thinning-out of the posterior meatal wall was done.

  20. Vertically transmitted HPV-dependent squamous cell carcinoma of the external auditory canal. Case report of a child

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snietura, Miroslaw; Pakulo, Slawomir; Kopec, Agnieszka; Piglowski, Wojciech; Stanek-Widera, Agata [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Tumor Pathology Department, Gliwice (Poland); Chelmecka-Wiktorczyk, Liliana [University Children' s Hospital of Cracow, Department of Oncology and Hematology, Cracow (Poland); Drabik, Grazyna [University Children' s Hospital of Cracow, Pathology Department, Cracow (Poland); Kosowski, Bogdan [NZOZ Prosmed, Cracow (Poland); Wyrobek, Lukasz [University Children' s Hospital of Cracow, Department of Radiology, Cracow (Poland); Balwierz, Walentyna [University Children' s Hospital of Cracow, Department of Oncology and Hematology, Cracow (Poland); Jagiellonian University in Cracow, Clinic of Oncology and Hematology, Polish-American Pediatric Institute, Cracow (Poland)

    2017-02-15

    There is much evidence that high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) plays a causative role in a subset of head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) in adults. HPV-positive tumors behave differently even in their response to treatment and are therefore a distinct subset. Both HPV-positive and HPV-negative tumors of the head and neck region are usually in the domain of adults and cases in children are rare; thus when a 2-year-old child was diagnosed with this cancer in the external auditory canal, an in-depth assessment of the tumor was considered necessary. A 2-year-old girl was born to a HPV-positive mother who was diagnosed with cervical cancer during pregnancy. The child was delivered by caesarean section and the mother died of her cancer 7 months after delivery. After the diagnosis of locally invasive HPV-positive squamous cell cancer of the external auditory canal, the child was treated surgically, and with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Full remission was obtained lasting up to 325 weeks since treatment was started, resulting in over 6 years of disease-free survival. This is the first case of advanced, HPV-related HNSCC in a 2-year-old child, in whom the tumor was located in the external auditory canal and who made a dramatic recovery after treatment with nonradical surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The child has currently been disease free for 6 years. This case supports the observation that HPV-related HNSCC tumors appear to respond favorably to treatment despite the patient's young age and the clinically advanced stage of the tumor. (orig.) [German] Es gibt reichlich Belege dafuer, dass das menschliche Papillomavirus vom Hochrisikotyp (HR-HPV) in einigen Faellen von Plattenepithelkarzinomen des Kopf- und Halsbereichs (HNSCC) eine Schluesselrolle spielt. HPV-positive Tumoren verhalten sich anders, auch bezueglich des Ansprechens auf die Behandlung. Deswegen stellen sie eine separate biologische Gruppe dar. Sowohl HPV-positive als auch HPV

  1. Cavernous hemangioma of the internal auditory canal encasing the VII and VIII cranial nerve complex: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastronardi, Luciano; Carpineta, Ettore; Cacciotti, Guglielmo; Di Scipio, Ettore; Roperto, Raffaelino

    2016-04-01

    Cavernous angiomas originating in the internal auditory canal are very rare. In the available literature, only 65 cases of cavernomas in this location have been previously reported. We describe the case of a 22-year-old woman surgically treated for a cavernous hemangioma in the left internal auditory canal, mimicking on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging MRI an acoustic neuroma. Neurological symptoms were hypoacusia and dizziness. The cavernous angioma encased the seventh and, partially, the eighth cranial nerve complex. A "nearly total" removal was performed, leaving a thin residual of malformation adherent to the facial nerve. Postoperative period was uneventful; hearing was unchanged, but the patient had a moderate inferior left facial palsy (House-Brackmann grade II) slightly improved during the following weeks. On the basis of the observation of this uncommon case, we propose a revision of the literature and discuss clinical features, differential diagnosis, and treatment.

  2. Congenital cholesteatoma of mastoid origin: A multicenter case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čvorović Ljiljana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The mastoid is the rarest site for the onset of congenital cholesteatoma (CC. The symptoms are atypical and minimal. The aim of this multicenter retrospective descriptive study was to define this extremely rare condition and its clinical presentation, diagnosis and management. Methods. We analyzed data files for a 15- year period in 4 tertiary otology centers and discovered 6 patients with the diagnosis of CC of the mastoid. Results. The clinical presentation of CC varied from incidental findings in patient to patient with otogenic meningitis. The most common findings during surgical procedures were mastoid cortex erosion, sigmoid plate dehiscence, dural exposure and external canal wall destruction. Conclusion. CC of mastoid origin tends to occur in adult patients probably because of minimal symptoms and the delayed diagnosis. It can exist for years in a nonaggressive state and develop to giant sizes. In children it is almost incidentally diagnosed. Early imaging is necessary in order to prevent serious complication.

  3. Differential Protein Expression in Congenital and Acquired Cholesteatomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Ho Shin

    Full Text Available Congenital cholesteatomas are epithelial lesions that present as an epithelial pearl behind an intact eardrum. Congenital and acquired cholesteatomas progress quite differently from each other and progress patterns can provide clues about the unique origin and pathogenesis of the abnormality. However, the exact pathogenic mechanisms by which cholesteatomas develop remain unknown. In this study, key proteins that directly affect cholesteatoma pathogenesis are investigated with proteomics and immunohistochemistry. Congenital cholesteatoma matrices and retroauricular skin were harvested during surgery in 4 patients diagnosed with a congenital cholesteatoma. Tissue was also harvested from the retraction pocket in an additional 2 patients during middle ear surgery. We performed 2-dimensional (2D electrophoresis to detect and analyze spots that are expressed only in congenital cholesteatoma and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS to separate proteins by molecular weight. Protein expression was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining. The image analysis of 2D electrophoresis showed that 4 congenital cholesteatoma samples had very similar protein expression patterns and that 127 spots were exclusively expressed in congenital cholesteatomas. Of these 127 spots, 10 major spots revealed the presence of titin, forkhead transcription activator homolog (FKH 5-3, plectin 1, keratin 10, and leucine zipper protein 5 by MALDI-TOF/MS analysis. Immunohistochemical staining showed that FKH 5-3 and titin were expressed in congenital cholesteatoma matrices, but not in acquired cholesteatomas. Our study shows that protein expression patterns are completely different in congenital cholesteatomas, acquired cholesteatomas, and skin. Moreover, non-epithelial proteins, including FKH 5-3 and titin, were unexpectedly expressed in congenital cholesteatoma tissue. Our data indicates that congenital cholesteatoma origins

  4. [Preoperative CT Scan in middle ear cholesteatoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethom, Anissa; Akkari, Khemaies; Dridi, Inès; Tmimi, S; Mardassi, Ali; Benzarti, Sonia; Miled, Imed; Chebbi, Mohamed Kamel

    2011-03-01

    To compare preoperative CT scan finding and per-operative lesions in patients operated for middle ear cholesteatoma, A retrospective study including 60 patients with cholesteatoma otitis diagnosed and treated within a period of 5 years, from 2001 to 2005, at ENT department of Military Hospital of Tunis. All patients had computed tomography of the middle and inner ear. High resolution CT scan imaging was performed using millimetric incidences (3 to 5 millimetres). All patients had surgical removal of their cholesteatoma using down wall technic. We evaluated sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of CT-scan comparing otitic damages and CT finding, in order to examine the real contribution of computed tomography in cholesteatoma otitis. CT scan analysis of middle ear bone structures shows satisfaction (with 83% of sensibility). The rate of sensibility decrease (63%) for the tympanic raff. Predictive value of CT scan for the diagnosis of cholesteatoma was low. However, we have noticed an excellent sensibility in the analysis of ossicular damages (90%). Comparative frontal incidence seems to be less sensible for the detection of facial nerve lesions (42%). But when evident on CT scan findings, lesions of facial nerve were usually observed preoperatively (spécificity 78%). Predictive value of computed tomography for the diagnosis of perilymphatic fistulae (FL) was low. In fact, CT scan imaging have showed FL only for four patients among eight. Best results can be obtained if using inframillimetric incidences with performed high resolution computed tomography. Preoperative computed tomography is necessary for the diagnosis and the evaluation of chronic middle ear cholesteatoma in order to show extending lesion and to detect complications. This CT analysis and surgical correlation have showed that sensibility, specificity and predictive value of CT-scan depend on the anatomic structure implicated in cholesteatoma damages.

  5. Extension of indications for transcanal endoscopic ear surgery using an ultrasonic bone curette for cholesteatomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakehata, Seiji; Watanabe, Tomoo; Ito, Tsukasa; Kubota, Toshinori; Furukawa, Takatoshi

    2014-01-01

    One-handed endoscopic procedures have, up until now, limited the indications for transcanal endoscopic ear surgery (TEES) in cholesteatoma surgery. However, the development of electrically powered instruments has opened the door to such one-handed endoscopic procedures in restricted surgical spaces. We examined the feasibility of using one such powered instrument, the ultrasonic bone curette (UBC) in TEES for cholesteatoma surgery. The UBC offers several advantages, including nonrotational motion and the combination of both suction and irrigation in a single handpiece. A prospective case series. Tertiary referral center. TEES was performed on 43 cases of primary cholesteatoma between September 2011 and December 2012, including 14 cases extending to the antrum. Zero-, 30-, or 70-degree angled rigid endoscopes with an outer diameter of 2.7 mm (Karl Storz) were used together with a high-definition video system. A Sonopet UBC (Stryker) was used to cut bony tissue. The nonrotational motion of the UBC prevents injury to the tympanomeatal flap and other soft tissue, which may result with standard drills. Transcanal endoscopic retrograde mastoidectomy on demand was performed to access the pathologies in the attic and antrum. A minimum attico-antrotomy was performed using the UBC, removing only the bony tissue necessary to visualize the pathology. The cholesteatoma was completely removed from the antral mucosa under clear endoscopic visualization in 13 of 14 cases. After removal of the cholesteatoma, the canal wall was reconstructed using cartilage taken from the tragus. This procedure resulted in greater mastoid preservation. The transcanal endoscopic approach to the antrum using the UBC proved to be less invasive and more functional. The UBC contains both a suction and irrigation system in a single handpiece, and this UBC is an appropriate cutting tool that extends the indications for TEES.

  6. Measurement of normal auditory ossicles by high-resolusion CT with application of normal criteria to disease cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, Jyoko

    1988-09-01

    The purposes of this study were to define criteria for the normal position of ossicles and to apply them in patients with rhinolaryngologically or pathologically confirmed diseases. Ossicles were measured on high-resolution CT images of 300 middle ears, including 241 normal ears and 59 diseased ears, in a total of 203 subjects. Angles A, B, and C to the baseline between the most lateral margins of bilateral internal auditory canals, and distance ratio b/a were defined as measurement items. Normal angles A, B, and C and distance ratio b/a ranged from 19 deg to 59 deg, 101 deg to 145 deg, 51 deg to 89 deg, and 0.49 to 0.51, respectively. Based on these criteria, all of these items were within the normal range in 30/34 (88.2 %) ears for otitis media and mastoiditis. One or more items showed far abnormal values (standard deviation; more than 3) in 5/7 (71.4 %) ears for cholesteatoma and 4/4 (100 %) ears for external ear anomaly. These normal measurements may aid in evaluating the position of auditory ossicles especially in the case of cholesteatoma and auditory ossicle abnormality. (Namekawa, K.).

  7. Laterality of acquired cholesteatoma and handedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migirov, Lela

    2012-08-01

    To investigate a possible contribution of handedness to the development of unilateral acquired cholesteatoma. All patients with unilateral acquired cholesteatoma attending otorhinolaryngology clinic between August 2009 and February 2012 were asked about their handedness. The study group consisted of 237 right-handed and 31 left-handed (11.8%) patients who included 158 male (59%) and 79 female subjects with an age range of 6 to 81 years (mean, 38.6 yr). There were no ambidexters in the present cohort. Overall, unilateral cholesteatoma involved 146 right (54.5%) and 122 left ears (45.5%). Ten of 31 patients (32.3%) with left hand predominance were female subjects. In the unilateral disease, the right ears were affected more frequently in patients with right-hand dominance (59.5%), and the left ears were more frequently affected in the left-handed patients (83.9%); this difference was statistically significant (p handedness were not statistically significant (p = 0.098). The strong relationship has been observed between the patient's handedness, and laterality of the unilateral acquired cholesteatoma may have contribution in the multifactorial process of cholesteatoma formation.

  8. Carcinoma espinocelular do conduto auditivo externo: estudo por tomografia computadorizada de seis casos Squamous cell carcinoma of the external auditory canal: computed tomography findings in six cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Mota Gonzalez

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a importância da avaliação tomográfica da extensão profunda dos carcinomas espinocelulares do conduto auditivo externo. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram realizados exames tomográficos com cortes axiais e coronais com janelas para partes moles e óssea em seis pacientes com carcinoma espinocelular do conduto auditivo externo, com idade variando entre 55 e 71 anos, internados no Hospital Heliópolis, no período entre maio de 1995 e dezembro de 2003. RESULTADOS: Dos seis pacientes, todos apresentavam aumento de partes moles no conduto auditivo externo, cinco (83,3% tinham erosão óssea e invasão da orelha média, quatro (66,7% possuíam comprometimento da mastóide e da glândula parótida, três (50% apresentavam invasão da articulação temporomandibular, dois (33,3% tinham invasão da fossa média, do canal carotídeo e linfonodomegalia júgulo-carotídea alta ipisilateral. CONCLUSÃO: A avaliação da extensão tumoral profunda fornecida pela tomografia computadorizada é importante no estadiamento clínico, possibilitando um planejamento terapêutico mais eficaz.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of computed tomography in the assessment of deep extension of squamous cell carcinoma of the external auditory canal. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the period between May 1995 and December 2003 six patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the external auditory canal were submitted to computed tomography scan at "Hospital Heliópolis", São Paulo, SP, Brazil, including axial and coronal slices with soft tissue and bone algorithms. RESULTS: Thickening of the soft tissue of the external auditory canal was seen in all patients, bone erosion and invasion of the middle ear in five (83.3%, invasion of the mastoid and parotid gland in four (66.7%, invasion of the temporomandibular joint in three (50%, and invasion of the middle cranial fossa, carotid canal and cervical lymph node enlargement in two (33.3% patients. CONCLUSION: Assessment of

  9. Biochemical and Bioimaging Evidence of Cholesterol in Acquired Cholesteatoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsted, Bjarne; Bloksgaard, Maria; Groza, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    : The results show that the total lipid content of the cholesteatoma matrix is similar to that of stratum corneum from skin and that the cholesteatoma matrix unquestionably contains cholesterol. The cholesterol content in the cholesteatoma matrix is increased by over 30% (w/w dry weight) compared to the control....... The cholesterol sulfate content is below 1% of the total lipids in both the cholesteatoma and the control. Cholesterol ester was reduced by over 30% when compared to the control. CONCLUSIONS: The content of cholesterol in the cholesteatoma matrix is significantly different from that in stratum corneum from skin...

  10. Hearing loss assessment in primary and secondary acquired cholesteatoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Julia Maria; Ribeiro, Fernando de Andrade Quintanilha; Yasui, Mariana Mieko Mendes; dos Santos, Ivan Taylor Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Acquired middle ear cholesteatoma can be classified as primary or secondary. Although both can result in hearing loss, it is still controversial whether there is an association between the type of cholesteatoma and the degree of hearing loss. To analyze the association between hearing loss and the type of acquired cholesteatoma, and the status of the ossicular chain. This was a cross-sectional historical cohort study involving patients diagnosed with acquired cholesteatoma who were surgically treated. Air and bone conduction thresholds, air-bone gaps and the status of the ossicular chain were analyzed for both types of cholesteatoma. Eighty patients aged 5-57 were included in the study. Fifty-one patients had primary cholesteatoma and 29 had secondary cholesteatoma. Both types of cholesteatoma determined greater air-bone gaps at 0.5kHz. Secondary cholesteatoma determined greater hearing loss in all analyzed frequencies and higher air conduction and air-bone gap means. There was association between hearing loss and the type of cholesteatoma. Secondary cholesteatoma resulted in greater hearing impairment. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. [Studies of labyrinthine cholesteatoma-related fistulas: report of 22 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portier, Frédéric; Lescanne, Emmanuel; Racy, Emmanuel; Nowak, Catherine; Lamblin, Benoit; Bobin, Serge

    2005-02-01

    To study the incidence, location, pre- and postoperative symptoms (hearing loss, tinnitus, vertigo, facial palsy), preoperative diagnostic imaging, and surgical treatment of labyrinthine fistulae (LF). Retrospective case review. Twenty-two cases of LF over 382 mastoid operations performed in a 168-month period. Clinical, imaging, and surgical correlation of extensive fistulae and bone fistulae. LF prevalence was 5.8%. The main primary symptoms were otorrhea and hypoacusis. Only four patients presented vertigo as their main complaint. All patients underwent preoperative computed tomographic (CT) scans and preoperative audiometry. LF diagnosis was made before surgery for 100% of patients on the basis of CT scan. A second fistula was, however, misdiagnosed by imaging in two patients. With respect to surgical technique, a canal wall down procedure was performed in 77% and a conservative procedure was performed in 23%. Fistula was located in the horizontal semicircular canal in 100% of cases, and in 9%, a second fistula was operatively diagnosed. In 91% of cases, the matrix was removed, whereas it was left in the course of a canal down procedure in 9%. With a follow-up of 5.7 years, hearing remained unchanged in 80% of patients. Surgery with removal of the cholesteatoma matrix and sealing of the fistula with temporalis fascia is a safe procedure that can help preserve cochlear function. The choice of a canal down procedure would be influenced by cholesteatoma characteristics rather than by the finding of an LF.

  12. Retrolabyrinthine Meatotomy as Part of Retrosigmoid Approach to Expose the Whole Internal Auditory Canal: Rationale, Technique, and Outcome in Hearing Preservation Surgery for Vestibular Schwannoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, Antonio; Zanoletti, Elisabetta; Denaro, Luca; Martini, Alessandro; Avella, Domenico d'

    2018-01-01

    Vestibular schwannoma extending to the fundus of the internal auditory canal is currently considered an unfavorable condition for hearing preservation surgery via a retrosigmoid approach because the lateral end of the canal is hard to view directly during microsurgery. To present an improved retrolabyrinthine meatotomy (RLM) technique that enables the full length of the cochlear and facial nerves to be inspected up to their orifices on the fundus. Long-term results are briefly reported. A consecutive series of 100 cases with various degrees of fundus involvement underwent surgery via a retrosigmoid approach and RLM. The follow-up ranged from 4 to 14 yr. Outcomes on hearing and facial nerve function were recorded, and preoperative MRI findings of the tumor on the fundus were correlated with the surgical findings and the long-term radicality of the tumor resection. Residual tumor on the fundus was identified in 3 cases, all belonging to the group with tumors adhering to the fundus. The functional results were in line with the best reported outcomes of this surgery. RLM via a retrosigmoid approach seemed adequate for the purposes of hearing preservation surgery and enabled the full course of the facial and cochlear nerves through the internal auditory canal to be exposed to direct view. Tumors adhering to the vestibular quadrant of the fundus were more difficult to remove, and there were a few cases of local residual tumor.

  13. Comparison of FSE T2 W PROPELLER and 3D-FIESTA of 3 T MR for the internal auditory canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hai-Bo; Yuan, Hui-Shu; Ma, Furong; Zhao, Qiang

    The study compared the use of periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction (PROPELLER) technique fast spin echo (FSE) T2 W and the sequence of three-dimensional fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (3D-FIESTA) technique in the MRI of the internal auditory canal for overall image quality improvement. One hundred thirty-two patients undergoing FSE T2 W PROPELLER and 3D-FIESTA examinations of the internal auditory canal were included. All examinations were performed at 3.0 T with comparison of a sagittal oblique FSE T2 W sequence with the PROPELLER technique to 3D-FIESTA in the same reconstructed orientation with PROPELLER. Image quality was evaluated by two radiologists using a 4-point scale. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare the data of the two techniques. The image quality of FSE T2 W PROPELLER was significantly improved compared to the reconstructed images of 3D-FIESTA. Observer 1: median FSE T2 W with PROPELLER, 4 [mean, 3.455] versus median reconstructed 3D-FIESTA, 3 [mean, 3.15], (PW with PROPELLER, 4 [mean, 3.47] versus median reconstructed 3D-FIESTA, 3 [mean, 3.25], (PW PROPELLER technique for MRI of internal auditory canal reduced uncertainty caused by motion artifact and improved the quality of the image compared to the reconstructed 3D-FIESTA. It was affected by different parameters including the blade width, echo train length (ETL). This is explained by data oversampling at the center region of k-space, which requires additional imaging time over conventional MRI techniques. Increasing blade was expected to improve motion correction effects but also the signal-to-noise ratio. ETL increases the image sharpness and the overall image quality. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Effect of surgical intervention on middle-ear cholesteatoma with associated facial paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkul, Y; Songu, M; Onal, K; Imre, A; Arslanoglu, S; Horoz, E; Bayrak, F; Pinar, E

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the presenting symptoms, intra-operative findings and long-term facial nerve function in patients treated for cholesteatoma with associated facial paralysis. Fifteen patients with facial paralysis due to middle-ear cholesteatoma who underwent tympanomastoidectomy surgery from February 2000 to February 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. After removal of the cholesteatoma, a limited area of the fallopian canal, in which facial nerve oedema or redness was evident, was opened. Incision of the epineural sheath for nerve decompression was not performed. Pre-operative House-Brackmann grade was grade II in two patients, grade III in four, grade IV in seven, grade V in one and grade VI in one. Facial nerve perineurium damage was observed in two patients with poor prognoses. All patients treated within the first 15 days after paralysis onset showed normal facial function at long-term follow up. Post-operative House-Brackmann grade was grade I in 11 patients, grade II in 1, grade III in 2 and grade VI in 1. Early surgical treatment is more likely to give good results, and poor outcomes are observed in patients with facial nerve perineurium damage.

  15. [A middle to long-term clinical study on pars flaccida and pars tensa cholesteatoma using survival analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somekawa, Yukihiro; Nagashima, Tsutomu; Masaki, Tomoyuki; Asano, Katsuji; Yajima, Ryoto; Himi, Tetsuo

    2014-12-01

    The current clinical study was performed on 311 cases of pars flaccida and 89 cases of pars tensa cholesteatoma which were treated with canal wall reconstructed tympanoplasty between 1991 and 2012. The average follow-up time of these patients was 5.3 years. Since follow-up periods were different in each case and some censored patients were involved, we used survival analysis on this study to discuss the cumulative rates of disease-free successful cases and the rates of recurrent cholesteatoma throughout the postoperative course. The disease-free successful cases were defined as those cases in which patients were both out of re-operation with recurrent and residual cholesteatoma and out of revision operation with another problem, furthermore, maintained good hearing outcome. Based on the criteria set by the Japan Otological Society (2010), the cases that satisfied the following were evaluated as good hearing results; (a) a successful case in which preoperative bone conduction was used, and (b) a case in which the postoperative air-bone gap was within 20dB after tympanoplasty for chronic otitis media. The analysis results were shown for each of (a) and (b). 1. In pars flaccida cholesteatoma, the 5-year survival rate of successful case was (a) 76.1% and (b) 83.9%, the 10-year survival rate was (a) 58.9% and (b) 73.0%. In pars tensa cholesteatoma, the 5-year survival rate of successful cases was (a) 57.7% and (b) 63.5%, the 10-year rate was (a) 42.1% and (b) 56.9%. A significant difference was seen between pars flaccida and pars tensa cholesteatoma (p pars flaccida cholesteatoma, the 5-year recurrence rate was 7.6% and the 10-year rate was 15.3%, and the recurrence rate increased gradually throughout the follow-up period. On the other hand, in pars tensa cholesteatoma, the increase in the recurrence rate reached a peak 15.8% at 5.5 years after the surgery. A long-term follow-up is necessary when evaluating the clinical results after tympanoplasty.

  16. Nevo melânico intradérmico do meato auditivo externo Intradermal melanocytic nevus of the external auditory canal

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Renato V.; Brandão,Fabiano H.; Aquino,José E. P.; Carvalho,Maria R. M. S.; Suzana M. Giancoli; Younes,Eduado A. P.

    2005-01-01

    Muito comuns, os nevos intradérmicos constituem um tumor cutâneo pigmentado benigno. Seu aparecimento no meato auditivo externo é inabitual. Os aspectos clínicos e histopatológicos dos nevos intradérmicos dentro do meato auditivo externo são apresentados e a literatura é revisada.Intradermal nevi are common benign pigmented skin tumors. Their occurrence within the external auditory canal is uncommon. The clinical and pathologic features of an intradermal nevus arising within the external audi...

  17. Stratum Corneum Barrier Lipids in Cholesteatoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane-Knudsen, V; Halkier-Sørensen, L; Rasmussen, G

    2000-01-01

    Specimens from primary cholesteatomas were examined under the electron microscope using a lipid-retaining method that is best suited for intracellular lipids and a method that is best for intercellular lipids. In the stratum granulosum of the squamous epithelium, a large number of Odland bodies...... emerged. When the corneocyte reaches the transitional stage to the stratum corneum, the Odland bodies accumulate near the cell membrane and discharge their contents of lipid and enzymes. The lipids are reorganized into multiple long sheets of lamellar structures that embrace the keratinized corneocytes......, as seen in the formation and maintenance of the cutaneous permeability barrier. In this study we draw the attention to the facts that the cholesteatoma epithelium is capable of producing not only cholesterol, but also several lipids, and that the lipid molecules are organized in multilamellar structures...

  18. MR Imaging of the Internal Auditory Canal and Inner Ear at 3T: Comparison between 3D Driven Equilibrium and 3D Balanced Fast Field Echo Sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Jun Soo; Kim, Hyung Jin; Yim, Yoo Jeong; Kim, Sung Tae; Jeon, Pyoung; Kim, Keon Ha [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sam Soo; Jeon, Yong Hwan; Lee, Ji Won [Kangwon National University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    To compare the use of 3D driven equilibrium (DRIVE) imaging with 3D balanced fast field echo (bFFE) imaging in the assessment of the anatomic structures of the internal auditory canal (IAC) and inner ear at 3 Tesla (T). Thirty ears of 15 subjects (7 men and 8 women; age range, 22 71 years; average age, 50 years) without evidence of ear problems were examined on a whole-body 3T MR scanner with both 3D DRIVE and 3D bFFE sequences by using an 8-channel sensitivity encoding (SENSE) head coil. Two neuroradiologists reviewed both MR images with particular attention to the visibility of the anatomic structures, including four branches of the cranial nerves within the IAC, anatomic structures of the cochlea, vestibule, and three semicircular canals. Although both techniques provided images of relatively good quality, the 3D DRIVE sequence was somewhat superior to the 3D bFFE sequence. The discrepancies were more prominent for the basal turn of the cochlea, vestibule, and all semicircular canals, and were thought to be attributed to the presence of greater magnetic susceptibility artifacts inherent to gradient-echo techniques such as bFFE. Because of higher image quality and less susceptibility artifacts, we highly recommend the employment of 3D DRIVE imaging as the MR imaging choice for the IAC and inner ear

  19. Etiología del colesteatoma ótico Etiology of otic cholesteatoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianis Loraine Quintero Noa

    2011-12-01

    very clear and controversial. Different theories are reported to explain the congenital cholesteatoma, the transition of a retraction pocket until the appearance of primary acquired cholesteatoma and other on the genesis of the secondary acquired cholesteatoma. Presence of some cytokines in cholesteatoma is described inducing to hyperproliferation and not coordinated of keratinocytes of the external auditory meatus and the pars flaccida more aggressive in the pediatric acquired cholesteatoma playing a fundamental role in the proliferation and in apoptosis of keratinocyte. In a sample of choleastomatous tissue in vitro culture has been recently identified that the a-TNF stimulates the production of IL-8. It is interesting to offer present review on the etiology of cholesteatoma that still is under research and a challenge for otologists due to its high relapses incidence and potential complications.

  20. Post-traumatic cholesteatoma... a rare occurrence | Naidoo | SA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Temporal bone fractures and their acute complications have been well described in radiology and ENT journals; this is in contrast to the delayed and rare complication of implantation cholesteatomas. We present the computed tomographic (CT) findings of two cases of infiltrating cholesteatomas that developed many years ...

  1. CASE REPORT CASE CASE Post-traumatic cholesteatoma … a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post-traumatic cholesteatomas are well recognised albeit rare late complications of temporal bone injuries. They were first described in. German literature by doctors reviewing World War I blast victims,1 with the first definitive series by Eckel in 1966.2 He described three cases of post-traumatic cholesteatomas and made ...

  2. Structural characterization and lipid composition of acquired cholesteatoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Maria; Svane-Knudsen, Viggo; Sørensen, Jens A

    2012-01-01

    , evaluation of Nile red and LAURDAN generalized polarization function images of the cholesteatoma show intercellular regions similar to normal skin stratum corneum in terms of lipid membrane packing and local water content. CONCLUSION: The investigations show the presence of an extremely thickened stratum...... is a suitable noninvasive tool for investigating the morphology and intrinsic physical properties of acquired cholesteatoma....

  3. Imaging evaluation of middle ear cholesteatoma: iconographic essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, Ana Flavia Assis de; Aburjeli, Bruna de Oliveira Melim; Moreira, Wanderval; Motta, Emilia Guerra Pinto Coelho; Ribeiro, Marcelo Almeida; Diniz, Renata Lopes Furletti Caldeira, E-mail: fauassis@hotmail.com [Hospital Mater Dei, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-06-15

    Middle ear cholesteatoma is a relevant and relatively common disease that may have severe consequences. In the present pictorial essay, the authors have selected illustrative examples of multislice computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging depicting the main presentations of cholesteatomas, and describing their characteristics, locations, and major complications. (author)

  4. Imaging evaluation of middle ear cholesteatoma: iconographic essay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Flavia Assis de Avila

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Middle ear cholesteatoma is a relevant and relatively common disease that may have severe consequences. In the present pictorial essay, the authors have selected illustrative examples of multislice computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging depicting the main presentations of cholesteatomas, and describing their characteristics, locations, and major complications.

  5. CASE REPORT CASE CASE Post-traumatic cholesteatoma … a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Temporal bone fractures and their acute complications have been well described in radiology and ENT journals; this is in contrast to the delayed and rare complication of implantation cholesteatomas. We present the computed tomographic (CT) findings of two cases of infiltrating cholesteatomas that developed many years ...

  6. Late metastasis of breast adenocarcinoma into internal auditory canal and cerebellopontine angle: case report Metástase tardia de adenocarcinoma de mama para o canal auditivo interno e ângulo ponto-cerebelar: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilson Marques

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available A case of metastasis of breast adenocarcinoma into the internal auditory canal (IAC and cerebellopontine angle (CPA is presented, which appeared 16 years after primary tumor had been treated by surgery and radiation therapy. The 66-year old patient was considered cured from the primary disease, when she started with a rapidly developing hearing loss and intermittent facial palsy. Magnetic resonance image (MRI displayed an intra- and extracanalicular tumor mass, which radiologically resembled a vestibular schwannoma. Surgery was performed and histopathological studies showed an adenocarcinoma compatible with breast origin. Metastasis is a rare occurrence within the IAC and CPA. Clinical history of severe facial palsy will rise suspicion of malignant tumor in spite of the radiological findings.Um caso de metástase de adenocarcinoma de mama para o canal auditivo interno e ângulo ponto-cerebelar é apresentado. A metástase ocorreu após 16 anos do tumor primário ter sido tratado com cirurgia e radioterapia. A paciente de 66 anos foi considerada curada de sua doença primária, quando apresentou perda auditiva de progressão rápida associada a paralisia facial intermitente. Ressonância magnética demonstrou uma lesão expansiva intra e extracanalicular, cujo aspecto radiológico lembrava schwannoma do vestibular. A paciente foi submetida a cirurgia e investigação histopatológica confirmou tratar-se de metástase. Metástase é uma rara ocorrência dentro do canal auditivo interno e ângulo ponto-cerebelar. História clínica de paralisia facial severa aumentará a suspeita de lesão maligna apesar dos achados radiológicos.

  7. Surgery With or Without Postoperative Radiation Therapy for Early-stage External Auditory Canal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oya, Ryohei; Takenaka, Yukinori; Takemura, Kazuya; Ashida, Naoki; Shimizu, Kotaro; Kitamura, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Yoshifumi; Uno, Atsuhiko

    2017-10-01

    External auditory canal squamous cell carcinoma (EACSCC) is a rare disease with no standard treatment supported by high-level evidence. The aim of this study was to investigate EACSCC prognoses according to treatment modality and thus determine the optimal intervention for early-stage disease. PubMed, Scopus, and Ichushi-Web searches of the English and Japanese-language literature published between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2016 were performed using the key words "external auditory canal cancer" and "temporal bone cancer." Articles related to EACSCC that include the 5-year overall survival rate or individual patient data for histological types, follow-up periods, and final outcomes were enrolled. Sex, age, Moody's modified Pittsburgh stage, type of treatment modality, type of operation, follow-up period, and 5-year survival rates were extracted. Twenty articles were used for the aggregate meta-analysis using a random-effects model, and 18 articles that reported 99 patients with early-stage EACSCC were used for the individual patient data meta-analysis. The 5-year overall survival rate of early-stage EACSCC was 77%. Postoperative radiation therapy (PORT) was performed in 45% of stage I patients and 68% of stage II patients. Survival analysis of all patients showed no differences between the surgery-only and PORT groups; however, PORT exhibited a better prognosis than surgery alone among patients with stage I disease (p = 0.003, log-rank test). This result indicated that PORT can be the standard therapy for stages I and II EACSCC.

  8. Altered permeability barrier structure in cholesteatoma matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane-Knudsen, Viggo; Halkier-Sørensen, Lars; Rasmussen, Gurli

    2002-01-01

    lipid structures filling the intercellular spaces mainly control the barrier function. The barrier in cholesteatoma epithelium is several times thicker than in unaffected skin but presents distinctive features of a defective barrier as seen in other scaling skin diseases. The intercellular spaces appear...... frequently occur. The corneocytes are shed in clusters, not as single cells. Further, lipid droplets and intracellular membranous material are occasionally seen. In spite of these clear signs of barrier dysfunction, it is unknown whether the thickness of the barrier compensates for the defect in barrier...

  9. Characteristics of 419 patients with acquired middle ear cholesteatoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosito, Letícia Petersen Schmidt; da Silva, Maurício Noschang Lopes; Selaimen, Fábio André; Jung, Yuri Petermann; Pauletti, Marcos Guilherme Tibes; Jung, Larissa Petermann; Freitas, Luiza Alexi; da Costa, Sady Selaimen

    Cholesteatoma is a destructive lesion that can result in life-threatening complications. Typically, it presents with hypoacusis and continuous otorrhea as symptoms. Because it is a rare disease, there are few studies in Brazil describing the characteristics of patients with the disease. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of cholesteatoma in patients with chronic otitis media and describe clinical, audiological and surgical characteristics of patients with acquired middle ear cholesteatoma treated at a referral hospital in the public health system. Cross-sectional and prospective cohort study, including 1710 patients with chronic otitis media, treated between August 2000 and June 2015, without prior surgery. Detailed clinical history, videotoscopy, and audiometry were performed, in addition to review of medical records to search for surgical data. Cholesteatomas were classified according to their route of formation. Of the patients with chronic otitis media, 419 (24.5%) had cholesteatoma; mean age of 34.49 years; 53.5% female and 63.8% adults. Bilateral cholesteatoma was observed in 17.1%. Anterior epitympanic cholesteatoma corresponded to 1.9%; posterior epitympanic, 32.9%; posterior mesotympanic, 33.7%; two routes, 14.8%; and indeterminate, 16.7%. The mean air-bone gap was 29.84dB and did not differ between routes of formation. There were no correlations between gap size and patient age or duration of symptoms. Of the surgical cases, 16.8% underwent closed tympanomastoidectomy and 75.2% open tympanomastoidectomy. The prevalence of cholesteatoma in patients with chronic otitis media was 24.5% and it was more common in adults than in children. Posterior mesotympanic cholesteatoma was more frequent, with no difference in mean air-bone gap between the different routes of formation. In patients undergoing surgery, open tympanomastoidectomy was the procedure most frequently chosen. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia C

  10. Congenital cholesteatoma of the middle ear - uncommon clinical presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukurov Bojana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Congenital cholesteatoma of the middle ear is un uncommon and yet not well-defined disease. Only few cases of cholesteatoma in the fossa ovalis with unusual clinical presentation have been reported in medical literature. Case report. We reported a 16-year-old girl with congenital cholesteatoma in the fossa ovalis with minimal clinical presentation. A small mass was found occluding the fossa ovalis and mimicking otosclerotic process within tympanic cavity. The operation started as stapedotomy, and when the process was confirmed it converted to mastoidectomy via the retroauricular approach. Conclusion. The diagnosis of congenital cholesteatoma in children should always be considered, even if the clinical symptoms imitate other ear disorders, in our case otosclerosis. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179055: Cochlear implantation impact on education of deaf and hearing-impaired

  11. Chronic suppurative otitis media and cholesteatoma in Australia's refugee population

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benson, Jill; Mwanri, Lillian

    2012-01-01

    .... The aim of this research was to ascertain whether refugees newly arrived in Australia have a higher prevalence of CSOM and cholesteatoma than the majority of the Australian population. Methods...

  12. School performance in cholesteatoma-operated children in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djurhuus, Bjarki; Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Pedersen, Jacob Krabbe

    2016-01-01

    Cholesteatoma in childhood had no long-term effect on school performance for the majority who completed lower secondary school. Aim To investigate whether individuals operated on for cholesteatoma in childhood have impaired school performance in adolescence. Methods All children born in Denmark...... between 1986-1991 with cholesteatoma surgery performed before the age of 15 years were included (cholestetaoma group). A control group consisting of a 5% random sample of all children born in Denmark during the same period was used for comparison. Final marks (average, mathematics, Danish, and English......) achieved upon completion of lower secondary school (9th grade; age 15 or 16 years) were compared between groups. Results A total of 549 individuals met the inclusion criteria for the cholesteatoma group and 15 106 for the control group. High parental education and female sex were strongly associated...

  13. CT of petrou bone. Utility to cholesteatoma location. Study of 28 cases. TC de peasco. Utilidad para la localizacion preoperativa del colesteatoma. Estudio de 28 casos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrer, M.D.; Espinos, M.A.; Molina, A.; Martinez-Rodrigo, J.; Galant, J. (Hospital Dr. Peset. Servicio de Diagnostico por la imagen. Valencia (Spain))

    1993-01-01

    Twenty-eight patients with cholesteatoma were studied preoperatively by means of CT petrous bone to determine the localization and extension of their lesion. All the patients underwent survey and the intraoperative findings were compared with those resulting from CT. The reading was carried out with no knowledge of the intraoperative data. The following results were obtained: localization of cholesteatoma in attic, antrum and posterior tympanic cavity had a sensitivity of 0.91 and a specificity of 0.57, with a Fisher's p value less than 0.0005. When the erosion produced by the cholesteatoma was studied in the different structures, the accuracy was greatest with the stape, the septum and prussak's space; the highest number of false negatives corresponded to the tympanic membrane. The false positives were produced in the assessment of the facial canal, tegmen tympani and the labyrinthine fistula. The reliability of CT was very high for the diagnosis of ossicular destruction and displacement of the small bones, as well as for the state of the mastoid cells and congenital variations. In conclusion, we point out the importance of performing a CT study prior to surgery for cholesteatoma due to its elevated sensitivity in locating the lesion, and we stress the value of the knowledge of the erosion of the different structures since it constitutes a guide for intraoperative exploration and assessment. (Author)

  14. Successful control of recurrent angiosarcoma in the external auditory canal with CyberKnife radiosurgery and bisphosphonate risedronate sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eimei Iwama

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Angiosarcoma (AS is a highly aggressive vascular tumor that spreads widely throughout the skin. Since AS tends to recur locally and metastasize early, an additional intensive therapy is necessary. In this report, we describe an 83-year-old man with recurrent AS that metastasized to the right external auditory meatus, who achieved complete remission with CyberKnife and weekly administration of bisphosphonate risedronate sodium. Results of the present study might suggest the novel possibility of using CyberKnife with weekly administration of bisphosphonate risedronate sodium for the treatment of inoperable metastatic AS.

  15. Attic cholesteatoma with closure of the entrance to pars flaccida retraction pocket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzawa, Shingo; Iino, Yukiko; Yamamoto, Daiki; Hasegawa, Masayo; Hara, Mariko; Shinnabe, Akihiro; Kanazawa, Hiromi; Yoshida, Naohiro

    2017-12-01

    We report three patients with pars flaccida-type cholesteatoma (attic cholesteatoma) with closure of the entrance to the cholesteatoma at the time of surgery. These patients were diagnosed with attic cholesteatoma requiring surgery on the basis of abnormal findings of the pars flaccida, audiometry, and temporal bone computed tomography during the clinical course. Intraoperatively, cholesteatoma matrix and granulation tissue were observed behind the intact pars flaccida epithelium, which suggested that the entrance had apparently closed and the continuity with the cholesteatoma matrix disappeared after resolution of inflammation at the pars flaccida. In such patients, a normal pars flaccida may cause cholesteatoma to be initially overlooked, or misdiagnosed as congenital cholesteatoma. The diagnosis should be carefully made on the basis of the clinical course and the results of various examinations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of Microbiological Flora in the External Auditory Canal of Normal Ear and an Ear with Acute Otitis Externa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanpur, Asheesh Dora; Nayak, Dipak Ranjan; Chawla, Kiran; Shashidhar, V

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Acute Otitis Externa (AOE) is also known as swimmer’s ear. Investigations initiated during World War II firmly established the role of bacteria in the aetiology of Acute Otitis Externa. Aim To culture the microbiological flora of the normal ear and compare it with the flora causing AOE and to know the role of normal ear canal flora and anaerobes in the aetiology. Materials and Methods A prospective observational study was conducted on 64 patients clinically diagnosed with unilateral AOE. Ear swabs were taken from both the ears. Microbiological flora was studied considering diseased ear as test ear and the normal ear as the control. Aerobic and anaerobic cultures were done. Severity of the disease was assessed by subjective and objective scores. Effect of topical treatment with ichthammol glycerine pack was assessed after 48 hours and scores were calculated again. Patients with scores < 4 after pack removal were started on systemic antibiotics and were assessed after seven days of antibiotics course. Data was analysed using Paired t-test, Wilcoxon signed ranks test and Chi-square test. A p-value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results Pseudomonas aeruginosa (33%) was the most common bacteria cultured from the ear followed by Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (18%). Patients with anaerobic organism in the test ear had severe symptoms and needed systemic antibiotic therapy. Conclusion Most of the cases may respond to empirical antibiotic therapy. In cases with severe symptoms and the ones refractory to empirical treatment, a culture from the ear canal will not be a tax on the patient. This helps in giving a better understanding about the disease, causative organisms and helps in avoiding the use of inappropriate antibiotics that usually result in developing resistant strains of bacteria. PMID:29207743

  17. The genetics of cholesteatoma. A systematic review using narrative synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, B A; Prinsley, P; Philpott, C; Willis, G; Bhutta, M F

    2018-02-01

    A cholesteatoma is a mass of keratinising epithelium in the middle ear. It is a rare disorder that is associated with significant morbidity, and its causative risk factors are poorly understood; on a global scale, up to a million people are affected by this each year. We have conducted a systematic literature review to identify reports about the heritability of cholesteatoma or any constitutional genetic factors that may be associated with its aetiology. A systematic search of MEDLINE (EBSCO) and two databases of curated genetic research (OMIM and Phenopedia) was conducted. The participants and populations of interest for this review were people treated for cholesteatoma and their family members. The studies of interest reported evidence of heritability for the trait, or any association with congenital syndromes and particular genetic variants. The searches identified 449 unique studies, of which 35 were included in the final narrative synthesis. A narrative synthesis was conducted, and data were tabulated to record characteristics, including study design, genetic data and author conclusions. Most of the studies identified in the literature search, and described here, are case reports and so represent the lowest level of evidence. In a few case reports, congenital and acquired cholesteatomas have been shown to segregate within families in the pattern typical of a monogenic or oligogenic disorder with incomplete penetrance. Evidence from syndromic cases could suggest that genes controlling ear morphology may be risk factors for cholesteatoma formation. This is the first systematic review about the genetics of cholesteatoma, and we have identified a small body of relevant literature that provides evidence of a heritable component for its aetiology. Cholesteatoma is a complex and heterogeneous clinical phenotype, and it is often associated with chronic otitis media and with some rare congenital syndromes known to affect ear morphology and related pathologies. © 2017

  18. Tumor budding and laminin5-γ2 in squamous cell carcinoma of the external auditory canal are associated with shorter survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okado, Yasuko; Aoki, Mikiko; Hamasaki, Makoto; Koga, Kaori; Sueta, Takayuki; Shiratsuchi, Hideki; Oda, Yoshinao; Nakagawa, Takashi; Nabeshima, Kazuki

    2015-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the external auditory canal (EAC) is rare, usually presents at an advanced stage, and is a more aggressive tumor with poor prognosis. The University of Pittsburgh TNM staging system commonly used in prognostication is not perfect, and more accurate biomarkers predicting prognosis are needed. Tumor budding is an established negative prognostic factor at the invasive front in colorectal cancer. Moreover, immunohistochemical studies showed that laminin 5-γ2 (Ln5-γ2) is expressed at the invasive front in tumor or tumor budding cells. We assessed the prognostic significance of tumor budding and Ln5-γ2 expression by performing Ln5-γ2 immunohistochemistry and evaluated the degree of tumor budding in pre-treatment biopsy specimens, and investigated their correlations to clinicopathological parameters in patients with SCC of the EAC. Patients whose tumors had high budding grade and Ln5-γ2 expression had significantly shorter survival times. Budding grade was significantly correlated with Ln5-γ2 expression. Multivariate analysis revealed that high budding grade predicted poorer prognosis regardless of disease stage. Our results suggested that budding grade and Ln5-γ2 expression can be used as indicators of poor prognosis in patients with SCC of the EAC.

  19. Otalgia and eschar in the external auditory canal in scrub typhus complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiple organ failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Sung-Yuan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scrub typhus, a mite-transmitted zoonosis caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, is an endemic disease in Taiwan and may be potentially fatal if diagnosis is delayed. Case presentations We encountered a 23-year-old previously healthy Taiwanese male soldier presenting with the right ear pain after training in the jungle and an eleven-day history of intermittent high fever up to 39°C. Amoxicillin/clavulanate was prescribed for otitis media at a local clinic. Skin rash over whole body and abdominal cramping pain with watery diarrhea appeared on the sixth day of fever. He was referred due to progressive dyspnea and cough for 4 days prior to admission in our institution. On physical examination, there were cardiopulmonary distress, icteric sclera, an eschar in the right external auditory canal and bilateral basal rales. Laboratory evaluation revealed thrombocytopenia, elevation of liver function and acute renal failure. Chest x-ray revealed bilateral diffuse infiltration. Doxycycline was prescribed for scrub typhus with acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiple organ failure. Fever subsided dramatically the next day and he was discharged on day 7 with oral tetracycline for 7 days. Conclusion Scrub typhus should be considered in acutely febrile patients with multiple organ involvement, particularly if there is an eschar or a history of environmental exposure in endemic areas. Rapid and accurate diagnosis, timely administration of antibiotics and intensive supportive care are necessary to decrease mortality of serious complications of scrub typhus.

  20. Attic cholesteatoma with tiny retraction of pars flaccida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Ho; Hong, Seok Min; Kim, Chang Woo; Park, Yeo Hoon; Baek, So-Hye

    2015-04-01

    This clinical study was performed to analyze the characteristics of attic cholesteatoma occurring behind a tiny retraction of the pars flaccida, which was classified as Tos type I or II and had an intact pars tensa of the tympanic membrane. The clinical records of patients who underwent tympanomastoidectomy for attic cholesteatoma at a tertiary care referral center (Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital of Seoul, Korea) between March 2004 and December 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Eleven patients (five men and six women) who underwent tympanomastoidectomy between March 2004 and December 2012 for attic cholesteatoma occurring behind a tiny attic retraction were included. The mean age of patients was 41.1 years (range 20-58 years) and the mean duration of follow-up was 29.5 months (range 13-52 months). Every patient had a unilateral cholesteatoma, and the opposite side was normal except in one patient. Hearing loss was the most common symptom, followed by earfullness and otalgia. Five patients had type I attic retraction, and six patients had type II attic retraction. No patient had definite scutum erosion. Interestingly, during regular postoperative checkup, one patient was found incidentally for the opposite ear. Six patients had a cholesteatoma sac that was separated from the pars flaccida, whereas in five patients it was in contact with the pars flaccida but was easily separated. Six patients had a limited cholesteatoma within the epitympanum, and five patients had extension beyond the epitympanum. The average air-bone gap was 24.3±10.1dB before the operation and 14.2±6.6dB after the operation. Every patient had an intact tympanic membrane without retraction pocket postoperatively. There was no recurrence of cholesteatoma during follow-up. The rate of attic cholesteatomas occurring behind a tiny retraction of the pars flaccida was 7.7% (11 of 142 patients with attic cholesteatoma). Attic retractions must be followed closely using endoscopy, microscopy, and

  1. Evidence against the mucosal traction theory in cholesteatoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauna, Henrique F; Monsanto, Rafael C; Schachern, Patricia; Paparella, Michael M; Chole, Richard A; Cureoglu, Sebahattin

    2017-10-08

    To investigate the distribution of ciliated epithelium in the human middle ear and its potential role in the formation of cholesteatoma. Comparative human temporal bone study. We selected temporal bones from 14 donors with a diagnosis of cholesteatoma, 15 with chronic otitis media without retraction pockets, 14 with chronic otitis media with retraction pockets, 14 with cystic fibrosis (CF), and 16 controls. We mapped the distribution of the ciliated cells in the mucosal lining of the middle ear and tympanic membrane using three-dimensional reconstruction analysis, and counted the number of ciliated cells in the middle ear mucosa. Ciliated cells are extremely sparse in the epithelial lining of the lateral surface of the ossicles in the epitympanum and the medial surface of the tympanic membrane. Furthermore, there is a significant decrease in the number of ciliated cells in these areas in temporal bones with cholesteatoma, chronic otitis media, chronic otitis media with retraction pockets, and CF compared to controls. Ciliated cells most commonly are located at the hypotympanum and the Eustachian tube opening but not the tympanic membrane or epitympanum. The paucity of ciliated epithelial cells on the medial side of the tympanic membrane and the lateral surface of the ossicles in the epitympanum in cases with cholesteatoma and/or chronic otitis media do not support the mucosal migration theory of cholesteatoma formation. NA. Laryngoscope, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  2. Bone-Anchored Hearing Aid vs. Reconstruction of the External Auditory Canal in Children and Adolescents with Congenital Aural Atresia: A Comparison Study of Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnoosh, Soroush; Mitsinikos, F Tania; Maceri, Dennis; Don, Debra M

    2014-01-01

    Congenital aural atresia is a rare condition affecting 1 in 10,000-20,000 children a year. Surgery is required to restore hearing to facilitate normal development. The objective of this study was to compare outcomes in hearing, complications, and quality of life of surgical reconstruction of the external auditory canal reconstruction (EACR) and bone-anchored hearing aid (BAHA) in a pediatric population with congenital aural atresia. Subjects were children who had a diagnosis of congenital aural atresia or stenosis and who received either BAHA or EACR. The medical records of 68 children were reviewed for operative complications and audiometric results. A quality of life questionnaire was prospectively administered to a subset of subjects. Pre-operatively, air conduction threshold was not significantly different between groups at 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 Hz (p > 0.05). Post-operatively, the BAHA group (44.3 ± 14.3 and 44.5 ± 11.3) demonstrated a significantly larger hearing gain than the EACR group (20.0 ± 18.9 and 15.3 ± 19.9) in both the short and long-term periods (p  0.05). Quality of life assessment revealed no statistical significance between the two groups (p > 0.05). Although the quality of life and incidence of surgical complications between the two interventions was not significantly different, BAHA implantation appears to provide a better, more reliable audiologic outcome than EACR.

  3. Bone -Anchored Hearing Aid versus Reconstruction of the External Auditory Canal in Children and Adolescents with Congenital Aural Atresia: A Comparison Study of Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra Mei Don

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives/Hypothesis: Congenital aural atresia is a rare condition in children affecting 1 in 10,000 to 20,000 children a year. Surgery is required to restore hearing to facilitate normal development. The objective of this study was to compare outcomes in hearing, complications and quality of life of surgical reconstruction of the external auditory canal (EACR and bone-anchored hearing aid (BAHA in a pediatric population with congenital aural atresia. Study Design: Subjects were children who had a diagnosis of congenital aural atresia or stenosis and who received either BAHA or EACR. Methods: The medical records of 68 children were reviewed for operative complications and audiometric results. A quality of life questionnaire was prospectively administered to a subset of subjects. Results: Pre-operatively, air conduction threshold were not significantly different between groups at 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 Hz (p>0.05. Post-operatively, the BAHA group (44.3 ± 14.3 and 44.5 ± 11.3 demonstrated a significantly larger hearing gain than the EACR group (20.0 ± 18.9 and 15.3 ± 19.9 in both the short and long-term periods (p<0.001. Overall the incidence of complications and need for revision surgery were comparable between groups (p>0.05. Quality of life assessment revealed no statistical significance between the two groups (p>0.05 Conclusion: Although the quality of life and incidence of surgical complications between the two interventions was not significantly different, BAHA implantation appears to provide a better, more reliable audiologic outcome than EACR.

  4. Managing chronic otitis media with cholesteatoma: report of 233 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: To assess the clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of patients having chronic otitis media (COM) with cholesteatoma seen in the ENT/Head and Neck Surgery Clinic at the University Clinical Center, Prishtina, Kosovo. Method: A systematic review of the medical records of all patients admitted to the ENT ...

  5. The distribution of free calcium ions in the cholesteatoma epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane-Knudsen, Viggo; Rasmussen, Gurli; Ottosen, Peter D

    2005-01-01

    The distribution of free calcium ions in normal skin and cholesteatoma epithelium was investigated using the oxalate precipitation method. In agreement with previous observations, we could demonstrate a calcium ion gradient in normal epidermis where the cells in stratum basale and spinosum reside...

  6. Cholesteatoma risk in 8,593 orofacial cleft cases and 6,989 siblings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djurhuus, Bjarki Ditlev; Skytthe, Axel; Faber, Christian Emil

    2015-01-01

    249,708 persons without an orofacial cleft was created, and 175,724 siblings to these persons were identified. These controls underwent 485 and 332 first-time cholesteatoma surgeries, respectively. For individuals with cleft lip and palate the HR for cholesteatoma surgery was 14 (95% confidence...... interval [CI], 12-18) and for individuals with cleft palate the HR was 20 (95% CI, 16-24) when compared with the random sample. In siblings of individuals with cleft palate, the HR for cholesteatoma surgery was 2.1 (95% CI, 1.1-4.1) when compared with siblings of the random sample. CONCLUSIONS: A 20-fold...... increase in the risk of cholesteatoma was found in individuals with cleft palate, whereas cleft lip did not pose a risk of cholesteatoma. Furthermore, the study indicates an increased risk of cholesteatoma in unaffected siblings of individuals with cleft palate. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 2b Laryngoscope, 2014....

  7. Diagnostic Bedside Vestibuloocular Reflex Evaluation in the Setting of a False Negative Fistula Test in Cholesteatoma of the Middle Ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo D’Albora

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. False negative fistula testing in patients with chronic suppurative otitis media is a dilemma when proceeding to surgery. It is imperative to rule out a dead labyrinth or a mass effect secondary to the cholesteatoma in an otherwise normally functioning inner ear. We present a case series of three patients in whom a bedside vestibuloocular reflex (VOR evaluation using a head impulse test was used successfully for further evaluation prior to surgery. Results. In all three cases with a false negative fistula test we were able to further evaluate at the bedside and were not only able to register the abnormal VOR but also localize its deterioration to a particular semicircular canal eroded by the fistula. Conclusion. Vestibuloocular reflex evaluation is mandatory in patients with suspected labyrinthine fistula due to cholesteatoma of the middle ear before proceeding to surgery. We demonstrate successful use of a bedside head impulse test for further evaluation prior to surgery in patients with false negative fistula test.

  8. Canine aural cholesteatoma: a histological and immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banco, Barbara; Grieco, Valeria; Di Giancamillo, Mauro; Greci, Valentina; Travetti, Olga; Martino, Pieranna; Mortellaro, Carlo M; Giudice, Chiara

    2014-06-01

    Canine aural cholesteatoma is an epidermoid cyst that forms in the middle ear cavity as a rare complication of otitis media but the aetiopathogenesis remains controversial. In the present study, 13 cases of canine aural cholesteatoma were investigated histologically and immunohistochemically and compared with cases of chronic otitis. The immunohistochemical investigation was performed using the following monoclonal antibodies: anti-cytokeratins (CK) 14, 16, 8/18, and 19, and anti-Ki67. The proliferative indexes (PIs) of cholesteatomata and otitis epithelium were calculated as the percentage of Ki67 positive nuclei/total nuclei. Histologically, the cholesteatomata were composed of a hyperplastic, hyperkeratotic epithelium (matrix) resting on a fibrous perimatrix, infiltrated by inflammatory cells and devoid of cutaneous adnexa. Immunohistochemically, the cholesteatoma epithelium was CK14- and CK16-positive, and CK8/18- and CK19-negative. A similar pattern of CK expression was found in otitis externa. In otitis media, ciliated epithelium stained CK8/18- and CK19-positive in all layers, CK14-positive in the basal layers, and CK16-negative. The mean PIs in cholesteatomata and otitides were 18.8 and 17.8, respectively. The immunohistochemical pattern of CK expression in cholesteatomata, when compared with chronic otitis, was suggestive of hyperproliferative epithelium, but its origin could not be demonstrated. Comparable PI values were obtained in cholesteatoma and in chronic otitis, which confirmed that Ki67 is a valuable indicator of a hyperproliferative state, but not a predictor of aggressiveness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Bilateral congenital cholesteatoma of the temporal bone in Crouzon syndrome

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    Đerić Dragoslava

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Crouzon syndrome is an autosomal dominant genetic disease characterized by bicoronal craniosynostosis, exorbitism with hypertelorism, and maxillary hypoplasia with mandibular prognathism. Case Outline. We present the first reported case of Crouzon syndrome associated with a bilateral congenital cholesteatoma of the temporal bone and discuss about the potential pathogenesis. Conclusion. Early diagnosis and management are crucial to prevent complications and an otologist should be an integral part of the multidisciplinary team.

  10. Surgical treatment of labyrinthine fistula in cholesteatoma surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Nicola; Liuzzi, Cristina; Zizzi, Stefania; Dicorato, Anna; Quaranta, Antonio

    2009-03-01

    Evaluate the treatment of labyrinthine fistula in a large series of middle ear cholesteatomas. Case series in a tertiary referral center. Between January 2001 and December 2007, 361 ears affected by mastoid and middle ear cholesteatoma were operated at our institution. The incidence of labyrinthine fistula, preoperative and postoperative hearing function, preoperative symptoms, type of surgery, and intraoperative findings were all analyzed. The incidence of labyrinthine fistula was 12.7 percent. During surgery the matrix over the fistula was removed in all but one case. A labyrinthine fistula occurred in larger cholesteatomas as demonstrated by the higher number of cases with more than two sites involved (P < 0.001), facial nerve exposed (P < 0.001), and stapes superstructure eroded (P = 0.010). Postoperative change of bone conduction threshold and postoperative dead ears were not significantly different between fistula and nonfistula cases. The preservation of the bone conduction threshold is a common finding in small fistulas and can be obtained also in "large" fistulas when appropriate surgical technique is used. In fistulas involving the promontory the matrix should be left in situ when the endosteum is involved.

  11. Identification of altered protein abundances in cholesteatoma matrix via mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Derrick R; Park, Phillip S; Chau, Justin K

    2015-11-25

    Cholesteatoma are cyst-like structures lined with a matrix of differentiated squamous epithelium overlying connective tissue. Although epithelium normally exhibits self-limited growth, cholesteatoma matrix erodes mucosa and bone suggesting changes in matrix protein constituents that permit destructive behaviour. Differential proteomic studies can measure and compare the cholesteatoma proteome to normal tissues, revealing protein alterations that may propagate the destructive process. Human cholesteatoma matrix, cholesteatoma-involved ossicles, and normal middle ear mucosa, post-auricular skin, and non-involved ossicles were harvested. These tissues were subjected to multiplex peptide labeling followed by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Relative protein abundances were compared and evaluated for ontologic function and putative involvement in cholesteatoma. Our methodology detected 10 764 peptides constituting 1662 unique proteins at 95 % confidence or greater. Twenty-nine candidate proteins were identified in soft tissue analysis, with 29 additional proteins showing altered abundances in bone samples. Ontologic functions and known relevance to cholesteatoma are discussed, with several candidates highlighted for their roles in epithelial integrity, evasion of apoptosis, and immunologic function. This study produced an extensive cholesteatoma proteome and identified 58 proteins with altered abundances contributing to disease pathopathysiology. As well, potential biomarkers of residual disease were highlighted. Further investigation into these proteins may provide useful options for novel therapeutics or monitoring disease status.

  12. HB-EGF expression as a potential biomarker of acquired middle ear cholesteatoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shumin; Wang, Xiaoli; Ren, Hongmiao; Liu, Xiaoyu; Ren, Jihao; Liu, Wei

    2017-08-01

    The heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) plays an essential role in the development and invasiveness of cholesteatoma. This study may help to realize the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of cholesteatoma and make HB-EGF a promising target for drug intervention of cholesteatoma. To detect HB-EGF expression in human surgical specimens of acquired middle ear cholesteatoma and analyze its functional role as a regulator of epithelial keratinocytes hyperproliferation. A total of 34 patients who underwent surgical treatment for middle ear cholesteatoma were recruited in the study. The mRNA and protein expression of HB-EGF in middle ear cholesteatoma tissues and normal postauricular skin tissues was investigated by real-time quantitative reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), immunohistochemical staining, and western blot. The correlation between bone resorption degree and HB-EGF expression was also analyzed. On average, compared with normal postauricular skin, expression of HB-EGF mRNA in the cholesteatoma epithelium was significantly elevated 2.41-fold by RT-qPCR, and HB-EGF protein significantly upregulated 2.32-fold by western blot. Positive HB-EGF immunostaining observed in the basal and suprabasal layers of cholesteatoma epithelium was significantly stronger than in normal postauricular skin. Meanwhile, an obviously positive correlation between HB-EGF protein expression and bone resorption degree was discovered.

  13. Angioma cavernoso do meato acústico interno envolvendo o complexo VII e VIII nervos cranianos: relato de caso Cavernous hemangioma of the internal auditory canal encasing the VII and VIII cranial nerve complex: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Leal Silveira

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se o caso de homem de 21 anos, leucoderma, portador de angioma cavernoso do meato acústico interno direito envolvendo o complexo VII e VIII nervos cranianos tratado cirurgicamente. Apenas 18 casos de angiomas cavernosos dessa localização foram relatados na literatura. São comentados os aspectos clínicos, o diagnóstico diferencial e o tratamento.We report the surgically treated case of a 21-year-old caucasian male harboring a cavernous hemangioma of the right internal auditory canal encasing the seventh and eighth cranial nerves complex. Only 18 cases of cavernous hemangiomas of this location have been previously reported. The clinical features, the differential diagnosis and the treatment are discussed.

  14. Colesteatoma causando paralisia facial Cholesteatoma causing facial paralysis

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    José Ricardo Gurgel Testa

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available A paralisia facial causada pelo colesteatoma é pouco freqüente. As porções do nervo mais acometidas são a timpânica e a região do 2º joelho. Nos casos de disseminação da lesão colesteatomatosa para o epitímpano anterior, o gânglio geniculado é o segmento do nervo facial mais sujeito à injúria. A etiopatogenia pode estar ligada à compressão do nervo pelo colesteatoma seguida de diminuição do seu suprimento vascular como também pela possível ação de substâncias neurotóxicas produzidas pela matriz do tumor ou pelas bactérias nele contidas. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a incidência, as características clínicas e o tratamento da paralisia facial decorrente da lesão colesteatomatosa. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Clínico retrospectivo. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo envolvendo dez casos de paralisia facial por colesteatoma selecionados através de levantamento de 206 descompressões do nervo facial com diferentes etiologias, realizadas na UNIFESP-EPM nos últimos dez anos. RESULTADOS: A incidência de paralisia facial por colesteatoma neste estudo foi de 4,85%,com predominância do sexo feminino (60%. A idade média dos pacientes foi de 39 anos. A duração e o grau da paralisia (inicial juntamente com a extensão da lesão foram importantes em relação à recuperação funcional do nervo facial. CONCLUSÃO: O tratamento cirúrgico precoce é fundamental para que ocorra um resultado funcional mais adequado. Nos casos de ruptura ou intensa fibrose do tecido nervoso, o enxerto de nervo (auricular magno/sural e/ou a anastomose hipoglosso-facial podem ser sugeridas.Facial paralysis caused by cholesteatoma is uncommon. The portions most frequently involved are horizontal (tympanic and second genu segments. When cholesteatomas extend over the anterior epitympanic space, the facial nerve is placed in jeopardy in the region of the geniculate ganglion. The aetiology can be related to compression of the nerve followed by impairment of its

  15. Etiopathogenesis of acquired cholesteatoma: prominent theories and recent advances in biomolecular research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chin-Lung

    2015-01-01

    To review recent biomolecular advances in etiopathogenesis of acquired cholesteatoma. MEDLINE via OVID (to March 2014) and PubMed (to March 2014). All articles referring to etiopathogenesis of acquired cholesteatoma were identified in the above databases, from which 89 articles were included in this review. The mechanisms underlying the etiopathogenesis of acquired cholesteatoma remain a subject of competing hypotheses. Four theories dominate the debate, including theories of invagination, immigration, squamous metaplasia, and basal cell hyperplasia. However, no single theory has been able to explain the clinical characteristics of all cholesteatoma types: uncoordinated hyperproliferation, invasion, migration, altered differentiation, aggressiveness, and recidivism. Modern technologies have prompted a number of researchers to seek explanations at the molecular level. First, cholesteatomas could be considered an example of uncontrolled cell growth, capable of altering the balance toward cellular hyperproliferation and enhancing the capacity for invasion and osteolysis. Second, the dysregulation of cell growth control involves internal genomic or epigenetic alterations and external stimuli, which induce excessive host immune response to inflammatory and infectious processes. This comprises several complex and dynamic pathophysiologic changes that involve extracellular and intracellular signal transduction cascades. This article summarizes the existing theories and provides conceptual insights into the etiopathogenesis of acquired cholesteatoma, with the aim of stimulating continued efforts to develop a nonsurgical means of treating the disorder. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  16. Usefulness of computed tomography hounsfield unit measurement for diagnosis of congenital cholesteatoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Sang Hyuk; Kim, Yong Woo; Baik, Seung Kug; Hwang, Jae Yeon; Lee, Il Woo [Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, College of Medicine, Pusan National University, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    To evaluate the usefulness of Hounsfield unit (HU) measurements for diagnosing of congenital cholesteatoma. A total of 43 patients who underwent surgery due to middle ear cavity lesions were enrolled. Twenty-one patients were confirmed to have congenital cholesteatoma by histopathological results and the other 22 patients were confirmed to have otitis media (OM) by operation. Their computed tomography images were retrospectively reviewed. We measured HU of the soft tissue mass in the middle ear cavity. In addition, we evaluated the largest diameter and location of the mass, the presence of bony erosion in the ear ossicle, and the status of the tympanic membrane in the cholesteatoma group. The mean HU was 37.36 ± 6.11 (range, 27.5-52.5) in the congenital cholesteatoma group and 76.09 ± 8.74 (range, 58.5-96) in the OM group (p < 0.001). The cut-off value was 55.5. The most common location for congenital cholesteatoma was the mesotympanum, and ear ossicle erosion was present in 24%. All patients had an intact tympanic membrane. HU measurement may be useful as an additional indicator to diagnose congenital cholesteatoma.

  17. Activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in human middle ear cholesteatoma and chronic otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariya, Shin; Okano, Mitsuhiro; Zhao, Pengfei; Kataoka, Yuko; Yoshinobu, Junko; Maeda, Yukihide; Ishihara, Hisashi; Higaki, Takaya; Nishizaki, Kazunori

    2016-01-01

    The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome plays an important role in the pathogenesis of middle ear diseases. Modulation of inflammasome-mediated inflammation may be a novel therapeutic strategy for cholesteatoma and chronic otitis media. NLRP3 inflammasome is a critical molecule mediating interleukin (IL)-1β responses. However, the expression of NLRP3 in the pathogenesis of cholesteatoma and chronic otitis media has not been fully examined. This study sought to assess the expression of NLRP3, ASC (apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain and a pyrin domain), and caspase-1 in middle ear tissues in patients with cholesteatoma or chronic otitis media. Middle ear tissue samples were obtained from patients with cholesteatoma or chronic otitis media. Control middle ear samples were collected during cochlear implant surgery of patients without middle ear inflammation. The expression of NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1 were examined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay and immunohistochemical study. The levels of mRNA of NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1 were significantly elevated in cholesteatoma and chronic otitis media as compared with that of normal controls. The proteins of NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1 were observed in infiltrating inflammatory cells in cholesteatoma and chronic otitis media.

  18. A PROSPECTIVE STUDY OF CHOLESTEATOMA IN PAEDIATRIC AGE GROUP AND ITS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraj

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION A cholesteatoma (sometimes called a keratoma is an abnormal growth of squamous epithelium in the middle ear and mastoid.1 It may progressively enlarge to surround and destroy the ossicles, resulting in conductive hearing loss. Hearing loss also may occur if the cholesteatoma obstructs the eustachian tube orifice, leading to middle ear effusion. Surgical therapy is required for most cholesteatomas. The extent and effectiveness of surgery depends upon the size of the cholesteatoma. Early diagnosis is crucial to an optimal outcome In children this disease is more aggressive and complex and leads to many complications and the treatment is mostly surgical.2 This study is chosen because the incidence of recurrence and residual disease is higher in children and its management is very challenging. OBJECTIVE To study the clinical features, disease process. spread and management of cholesteatoma in paediatric age group (less than 16 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective study was conducted at Govt. ENT Hospital over a period of two years that included 50 cases of cholesteatoma in paediatric age group. RESULTS Surgical treatment by Mastoidectomy was done in all cases. Out of 50 cases after surgery 33 patients had dry ear and improvement in hearing 7 patients had recurrence of disease 8 patients had cavity problems like discharge from the ear and 2 patients developed neurological complications. CONCLUSION Childhood cholesteatoma has an aggressive nature with tendency for complications hence its treatment is very challenging. Eradication of disease and restoration of hearing should be the primary goal of treatment. Long term follow up is important to monitor the disease recurrence.

  19. Detection of recurrent and primary acquired cholesteatoma with echo-planar diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evlice, A; Tarkan, Ö; Kiroğlu, M; Biçakci, K; Özdemir, S; Tuncer, Ü; Çekiç, E

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of echo-planar diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in pre-operative detection of suspected primary acquired, residual and/or recurrent cholesteatoma. Fifty-eight chronic otitis media patients with suspected cholesteatoma were thus evaluated two weeks pre-operatively, and divided into group one (41 patients, no previous surgery, suspected primary acquired cholesteatoma) and group two (17 patients, previous surgery, scheduled 'second-look' or revision surgery for suspected residual or recurrent cholesteatoma). Patients' operative, histopathology and radiological findings were compared. Cholesteatoma was found in 63 per cent of group one patients and 58 per cent of group two patients at surgery. Histopathological examination of surgical specimens indicated that imaging accurately predicted the presence or absence of cholesteatoma in 90 per cent of group one (37/41; 23 true positives, 14 true negatives) and 76 per cent of group two (13/17; seven true positives, six true negatives). Three patients in both groups were false negative diagnoses and one patient in both groups was a false positive. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of echo-planar diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of cholesteatoma were respectively 88, 93, 95 and 82 per cent in group one and 70, 85, 87 and 66 per cent in group two. Echo-planar diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging is a valuable technique with high sensitivity and specificity for cholesteatoma imaging.

  20. Surgical management of middle ear cholesteatoma and reconstruction at the same time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Pedro; González, Francisco; Holguín, Jorge; Guerra, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    In the surgical management of cholesteatoma, one can opt for a closed technique (simple mastoidectomy) or open surgery (radical mastoidectomy). Open mastoidectomy with reconstruction of the posterior wall and the middle ear in a single surgery combines the advantages of both techniques, namely, adequate surgical exposure, eradication of cholesteatoma, and anatomical reconstruction of the middle ear structures. To evaluate the surgical results in the management of cholesteatoma through the technique of open mastoidectomy with reconstruction of the posterior wall and the middle ear in a single surgery. Prospective analytical observational study conducted between 2009 and 2012 with patients undergoing this surgical technique in the Hospital Universitario del Valle [University Hospital of Valle], performing preoperative clinical monitoring and quarterly postoperative tomography with previous assessments of hearing and pre- and postoperative audiometry. Forty-five patients were studied. Mean postoperative follow-up was 28 months. Surgical success was achieved in 93.3% of patients, as measured by clinical and radiological follow-up. Hearing preservation was found after reconstruction of the hearing mechanism, based on measured audiometry, i.e., pure-tone average (PTA), using the statistical test for paired samples between preoperative and postoperative PTA. (95%CI -1.47-12.15). Residual cholesteatoma was present in 6.6% of cases; three to four times lower than the rate reported in the literature. This type of surgery can be considered a successful technique in the treatment of cholesteatoma in selected cases.

  1. Auditory Display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    volume. The conference's topics include auditory exploration of data via sonification and audification; real time monitoring of multivariate date; sound in immersive interfaces and teleoperation; perceptual issues in auditory display; sound in generalized computer interfaces; technologies supporting...... auditory display creation; data handling for auditory display systems; applications of auditory display....

  2. Incidence of dehiscence of the facial nerve in 416 cases of cholesteatoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Marcus W; Lambert, Paul R

    2007-04-01

    To determine the incidence and location of dehiscence of the facial nerve in patients with cholesteatoma. Prospective case series. Tertiary referral centers. Charts and operative details from 1,372 consecutive chronic ear cases performed by a single surgeon were reviewed for anatomic details regarding the facial nerve. The study group was limited to the 416 ears in which cholesteatoma was confirmed at the time of surgery. Facial nerve dehiscence was graded as present or absent for both the tympanic and mastoid segments; the location of dehiscence in the tympanic segment was further characterized in regard to its relationship to the oval window and cochleariform process. Adherence of cholesteatoma to any area of dehiscence was also noted as was the presence of any coexisting inner ear fistula. Dehiscence of the tympanic segment was present in 18.8% (78 of 416) of ears in the study group. There were five cases of mastoid dehiscence. Approximately 80% of nerves that were dehiscent involved the area just superior to the oval window, and 12% involved the nerve anterior to the cochleariform process. Adults in the study were more likely to have dehiscence than those 18 years and younger (p = 0.0003, chitest), and inner ear fistula was also more common in those with dehiscence (p = 0.0118, chitest). Case studies of cholesteatoma adherent to the facial nerve are reviewed. This study represents the largest group of patients evaluated to date for dehiscence of the facial nerve in the setting of cholesteatoma. Dehiscence is common, especially in patients with cholesteatoma, and the careful surgeon can avoid damage to the facial nerve through understanding of this anatomic variation.

  3. canal24

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Canal system center lines in the Central Valley of California and adjacent areas captured from 1:24,000-scale USGS topographic maps. Updates and modifications made...

  4. Upregulation of Phosphorylated HSP27, PRDX2, GRP75, GRP78 and GRP94 in Acquired Middle Ear Cholesteatoma Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuen Yao Ho

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cholesteatoma is a destructive and expanding growth of keratinizing squamous epithelium in the middle ear or petrous apex. The molecular and cellular processes of the pathogenesis of acquired middle ear cholesteatoma have not been fully understood. In this study, comparative proteomic analysis was conducted to investigate the roles of specific proteins in the pathways regarding keratinocyte proliferation in cholesteatoma. The differential proteins were detected by comparing the two-dimension electrophoresis (2-DE maps of the epithelial tissues of 12 attic cholesteatomas with those of retroauricular skins. There were 14 upregulated proteins in the epithelial tissues of cholesteatoma in comparison with retroauricular skin. The modulation of five crucial proteins, HSP27, PRDX2, GRP75, GRP78 and GRP94, was further determined by RT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Phosphorylation of HSP27 at Ser-82 was identified by mass spectroscopy. The results of this study suggested that phosphorylated HSP27 is the end expression of two potential signal-transduction pathways, and together with PRDX2, they are very likely involved in the proliferation of keratinocytes in cholesteatoma. Upregulations of GRP75, GRP78 and GRP94 in keratinocytes may be able to counter endoplasmic reticulum stress, to inhibit cell apoptosis, to prevent protein unfolding and to promote cholesteatoma growth.

  5. Cholesteatoma risk in 8,593 orofacial cleft cases and 6,989 siblings: A nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djurhuus, Bjarki D; Skytthe, Axel; Faber, Christian E; Christensen, Kaare

    2015-05-01

    To estimate the risk of surgically treated middle ear cholesteatoma in individuals with a nonsyndromic orofacial cleft and in their siblings compared with the general population. Historical cohort study. Using the unique civil registration number for linkage, data from three national registers were used for the Danish 1936-2009 birth cohorts. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated with Cox regression analyses using age as the underlying time variable. Individuals were followed from January 1, 1977 until time of surgically treated cholesteatoma, and censored at emigration, death, or end of follow-up (December 31, 2010). A total of 8,593 individuals with nonsyndromic orofacial cleft and 6,989 siblings were identified, undergoing 201 and 21 first-time cholesteatoma surgeries, respectively. A 5% random sample of the Danish population comprising 249,708 persons without an orofacial cleft was created, and 175,724 siblings to these persons were identified. These controls underwent 485 and 332 first-time cholesteatoma surgeries, respectively. For individuals with cleft lip and palate the HR for cholesteatoma surgery was 14 (95% confidence interval [CI], 12-18) and for individuals with cleft palate the HR was 20 (95% CI, 16-24) when compared with the random sample. In siblings of individuals with cleft palate, the HR for cholesteatoma surgery was 2.1 (95% CI, 1.1-4.1) when compared with siblings of the random sample. A 20-fold increase in the risk of cholesteatoma was found in individuals with cleft palate, whereas cleft lip did not pose a risk of cholesteatoma. Furthermore, the study indicates an increased risk of cholesteatoma in unaffected siblings of individuals with cleft palate. 2b Laryngoscope, 125:1225-1229, 2015. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  6. Cholesteatoma surgery in children: long-term results of the inside-out technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Thomas N; Ziglinas, Panagiotis; Haeusler, Rudolf; Caversaccio, Marco D

    2013-05-01

    To present the anatomical and functional results of the inside-out technique applied in pediatric cholestetaoma surgery and to evaluate functionality with good hearing results against radicality with lower recurrence rate. Retrospective analysis and evaluation of the postoperative outcome in a consecutive series of 126 children or 130 ears operated between 1992 and 2008. With the inside-out technique, cholesteatoma is eradicated from the epitympanum toward the mastoid and, as a single stage procedure, functional reconstruction of the middle ear is achieved by tympanoossiculoplasty. In 89.2% of all cases, the ear was dry postoperatively. 80.9% of the ears reached a postoperative air-bone gap of 30 dB or less and the median air conduction hearing threshold was 29 dB; in 60.9% of all cases, hearing was postoperatively improved. The recurrence rate was 16.2% in a mean postoperative follow-up 8.5 years. Altogether, 48 ears (36.9%) underwent revision surgery. The complication rate was 3.1% and involved only minor complications. The inside-out technique allows a safe removal of cholesteatoma from the epitympanum toward the mastoid with a single-stage reconstruction of the ossicular chain. For this reason we support our individual approach, which allows creation of the smallest possible cavity for the size of the cholesteatoma. Our results confirm that the inside-out technique is effective in the treatment of pediatric cholesteatoma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Is Cholesteatoma a Risk Factor for Graft Success Rate in Chronic Otitis Media Surgery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Faramarzi

    2015-11-01

    Materials and Methods: The present retrospective, study-controlled study investigated 422 ears undergoing COM surgery. The minimum and maximum postoperative follow-up periods were 6 and 48 months, respectively. The study group consisted of patients with cholesteatomatous COM, while the control group included patients with non-cholesteatomatous COM, who had undergone ear surgery.  Postoperative graft success rate and audiological test results were recorded and the effect of cholesteatoma on graft success rate was investigated.  Results: The overall GSR was 92.4%. In the study group (COM with cholesteatoma,the postoperative GSR, mean speech reception threshold improvement, and mean air-bone gap gain were 95.3%, 2.1 dB, and 3.2 dB, respectively. In the control group (COM without cholesteatoma, however, these measurements were 90.9%, 9.4 dB, and 9.1 dB, respectively. The difference between the two groups was not statistically significant.  Conclusion:  The study results suggest that cholesteatoma is not a significant prognostic factor in graft success rate.

  8. Pie-slice tympanoplasty for transcanal removal of small congenital cholesteatoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Jessica; Grindle, Christopher; O'Reilly, Robert

    2012-11-01

    To describe a novel approach for removal of selected congenital cholesteatomas. Description of technique and retrospective review of charts for patients undergoing procedure from January 1 to June 1, 2011. Two patients with congenital cholesteatomas localized to the middle ear necessitating transcanal surgical removal were identified. Using a transcanal approach, the "pie-slice" tympanic membrane flap was developed by incising the tympanic membrane anterior to the malleus, from the lateral process to the umbo. A second incision was then made anteriorly along an axis extending from the umbo to the 3-o'clock position for the right ear (9-o'clock in the left ear). The flap was elevated allowing for visualization and access to the lesion anterior to the malleus. The cholesteatoma was removed. Otoendoscopes were used to visualize the middle ear and ensure complete removal. The tympanic membrane was repaired with a tragal perichondrium graft placed medial to the edges of the elevated pie-slice flap. The flap was then replaced laterally. Tympanic membranes are well healed in both patients after one year of follow-up with no evidence of disease and good hearing results. Pie-slice tympanoplasty is a simple and effective technique for removing selected localized congenital cholesteatomas and represents a novel approach to treating these entities that minimizes operative time and patient morbidity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cholesteatoma in Danish children - A national study of changes in the incidence rate over 34 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djurhuus, Bjarki Ditlev; Skytthe, Axel; Christensen, Kaare

    2015-01-01

    was examined using Poisson regression analysis, while the cumulative incidence proportion was estimated using life-tables. RESULTS: A total of 5850 cases of surgically treated middle ear cholesteatoma distributed among 3874 children aged 0-15 years were identified. From 1977 to 2002 the age......, further studies are needed to find possible explanations for the decrease....

  10. CHRONIC OTITIS MEDIA WITH MIDDLE EAR CHOLESTEATOMA – CASEREPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Četina

    2008-02-01

    The case is interesting because in one patient three different complications are present(labyrinth fistula, destruction of facial nerve bony canal and skull base with dura exposure.There are also some data about surgery approaches, hearing results and discussionabout complications

  11. Single dose intratympanic mesna application inhibits propylene glycol induced cholesteatoma formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismi, O; Karabulut, Y Y; Bal, K K; Vayisoglu, Y; Unal, M

    2017-03-01

    Mesna (i.e. sodium 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate; C2H5NaO3S2) has been used in otological surgery such as cholesteatoma dissection and tympanic membrane lateralisation in atelectatic ears. However, this study aimed to investigate its effect on cholesteatoma formation. A total of 20 Wistar rats were divided into two groups of 10 animals. The right and left ears of control animals were treated with saline (saline control group; n = 10 ears) and propylene glycol plus saline (propylene glycol control group; n = 10 ears), respectively. In the mesna group, both ears were treated with propylene glycol plus mesna (n = 20 ears). On days 1, 8 and 15, the saline control group had intratympanic injections of 0.2 ml saline and the propylene glycol control and mesna groups had intratympanic injections of 0.2 ml 100 per cent propylene glycol. On day 22, the propylene glycol control group had a single intratympanic injection of 0.2 ml saline and the mesna group had a single intratympanic injection of 10 per cent mesna. Animals were killed 12 weeks after the last injection and the temporal bones were sent for histopathological evaluation. The cholesteatoma formation rate was 88 per cent in the propylene glycol control group, but was significantly lower in the mesna group (p = 0.01). There were no significant differences in granulation tissue formation (p = 0.498), cyst formation in the bulla (p = 0.381), fibrosis (p = 0.072) and epithelial hyperplasia (p = 0.081) among experimental groups. Intratympanic propylene glycol administration is an effective method of promoting experimental cholesteatoma formation. Administration of a single dose of intratympanic mesna inhibited cholesteatoma formation in an animal model.

  12. Pars tensa retractions without cholesteatoma in children: predictors for ossicular chain destruction, air conduction thresholds, and postoperative retractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesic, Snezana Dragoljub; Rovcanin, Lejla Hilmo; Jovicevic, Ognjen Djordjije; Jotic, Ana Dragan; Slijepcevic, Nikola Aleksandar; Ljubic, Vladimir Radoslav

    2014-07-01

    Determine predictive values of preoperative stages of pars tensa retractions, coexisting attic retraction and preoperative air conduction for ossicular destruction in isolated and combined pars tensa retraction, and predictors for successful tympanic grafts after surgery. Prospective case series study. Tertiary referral center. Forty-eight children ears without cholesteatoma were included in the study: 23 with isolated pars tensa retraction (median age, 11), 25 with combined pars tensa and attic retractions (median age, 13). Otomicroscopy, pure tone audiometry, and impedancmetry were carried out preoperatively. Three surgical procedures for isolated retractions were used: ventilation tube insertion alone or together with fascia graft or cartilage graft. Two surgical procedures for combined retractions were used: ventilation tube insertion alone and with cartilage graft. Incidence of ossicular destruction, postoperative retraction of the grafts. Stage of pars tensa retraction and preoperative air conduction thresholds do not predict long incus process defect in isolated group. Coexistence of an attic retraction predicts combined, long incus process and stapes superstructure defect (Chi = 3.943, p = 0.047, OR = 12.00). Retractions of grafts are predicted by mode of surgery, favoring cartilage graft (isolated group: Chi = 4.306, p = 0.0372,OR = 4.69; combined group Chi = 4.7836, p = 0.0287, OR = 0.1364). Stage of pars tensa retraction predicts poor outcome of fascia graft (Chi = 4.5347, p = 0.0332, OR = 12.00). Absence of correlation between stage of pars tensa retraction and air conduction thresholds with ossicular defects justifies surgical exploration of the auditory ossicles, even in lower stages of retraction. Combined ossicular defect is expected in combined retractions. The usage of cartilage graft proved to be more appropriate.

  13. The surgical challenge of carotid artery and Fallopian canal dehiscence in chronic ear disease: a pitfall for endoscopic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauna, H F; Monsanto, R C; Schachern, P A; Costa, S S; Kwon, G; Paparella, M M; Cureoglu, S

    2017-04-01

    Endoscopic procedures are becoming common in middle ear surgery. Inflammation due to chronic ear disease can cause bony erosion of the carotid artery and Fallopian canals, making them more vulnerable during surgery. The objective of this study was to determine whether or not chronic ear disease increases dehiscence of the carotid artery and Fallopian canals. Comparative human temporal bone study. Otopathology laboratory. We selected 78 temporal bones from 55 deceased donors with chronic otitis media or cholesteatoma and then compared those two groups with a control group of 27 temporal bones from 19 deceased donors with no middle ear disease. We analysed the middle ear, carotid artery canal and Fallopian canal, looking for signs of dehiscence of its bony coverage, using light microscopy. We found an increased incidence in dehiscence of the carotid artery and Fallopian canals in temporal bones with chronic middle ear disease. The size of the carotid artery canal dehiscence was larger in the middle ear-diseased groups, and its bony coverage, when present, was also thinner compared to the control group. Dehiscence of the carotid artery canal was more frequently located closer to the promontory. The incidence of Fallopian canal dehiscence was significantly higher in temporal bones from donors older than 18 years with chronic middle ear disease. The increased incidence of the carotid artery and Fallopian canal dehiscence in temporal bones with chronic middle ear disease elevates the risk of adverse events during middle ear surgery. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Expression of the epidermal growth factor system in human middle ear cholesteatoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Mette Bendixen; Munk, Mathias; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    2013-01-01

    surgery. mRNA expression was quantified with real-time PCR. The corresponding proteins were visualized using immunohistochemistry. Results: A systematic investigation of all four receptors, HER1, HER2, HER3, and HER4, and the ligands EGF, transforming growth factor (TGF)-α, amphiregulin (AR), heparin......-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF), and epiregulin (EPI) of the EGF system is presented. At the mRNA level, the study demonstrates an up-regulation of mRNA encoding EPI and AR. In contrast HER1 and EGF were down-regulated. HER4 mRNA could be detected in 50% of cholesteatoma and 20% of reference tissues......, and the HER4 protein was detectable only in cholesteatoma tissue. HER1 and HER2 were also visualized by immunohistochemistry, whereas the ligands EPI, AR, and EGF were undetectable with our methods....

  15. Ultrastructure of the middle ear mucosa in patients with chronic otitus media with cholesteatoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, W Y; Shen, C L

    1996-01-01

    Mucosa of the middle ear was obtained from the promontory wall in each of 20 patients during cholesteatoma surgery. Specimens were processed for both scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Non-ciliated mucosal cells were commonly found, with most being secretory cells with secretory droplets and microvilli. The patterns of distribution of microvilli on the surface of these cells were variable. The interciliary spaces were stagnated with secretion. Bacilli were present in five cases. Falloff of mucosal cells was common and intercellular spaces were widened. Compound cilia were observed sporadically. Polymorphic nuclear inflammatory cells, macrophages and fibroblasts appeared in the submucosal area. These findings indicate that although remaining adjacent mucosa after removal of cholesteatoma looks free of disease under the operating microscope, it is actually in a diseased condition with impaired mucociliary function. The cells and bacteria seen microscopically may account for postoperative inflammation, thus warranting continued postoperative antimicrobial medication.

  16. First Isolation of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron from a Patient with a Cholesteatoma and Experiencing Meningitis

    OpenAIRE

    Feuillet, Lionel; Carvajal, Joseph; Sudre, Isabelle; Pelletier, Jean; Thomassin, Jean Marc; Drancourt, Michel; Cherif, André Ali

    2005-01-01

    A 45-year-old man with a cholesteatoma experienced purulent meningitis. Microbial analysis of cerebrospinal fluid yielded in pure culture a gram-negative bacillus. Phenotypic methods were suggestive of a Bacteroides distasonis or either a Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron or Bacteroides ovatus infection. The isolate was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis as B. thetaiotaomicron. This is the first case of B. thetaiotaomicron meningitis in pure culture.

  17. First isolation of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron from a patient with a cholesteatoma and experiencing meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuillet, Lionel; Carvajal, Joseph; Sudre, Isabelle; Pelletier, Jean; Thomassin, Jean Marc; Drancourt, Michel; Cherif, André Ali

    2005-03-01

    A 45-year-old man with a cholesteatoma experienced purulent meningitis. Microbial analysis of cerebrospinal fluid yielded in pure culture a gram-negative bacillus. Phenotypic methods were suggestive of a Bacteroides distasonis or either a Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron or Bacteroides ovatus infection. The isolate was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis as B. thetaiotaomicron. This is the first case of B. thetaiotaomicron meningitis in pure culture.

  18. Auditory agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slevc, L Robert; Shell, Alison R

    2015-01-01

    Auditory agnosia refers to impairments in sound perception and identification despite intact hearing, cognitive functioning, and language abilities (reading, writing, and speaking). Auditory agnosia can be general, affecting all types of sound perception, or can be (relatively) specific to a particular domain. Verbal auditory agnosia (also known as (pure) word deafness) refers to deficits specific to speech processing, environmental sound agnosia refers to difficulties confined to non-speech environmental sounds, and amusia refers to deficits confined to music. These deficits can be apperceptive, affecting basic perceptual processes, or associative, affecting the relation of a perceived auditory object to its meaning. This chapter discusses what is known about the behavioral symptoms and lesion correlates of these different types of auditory agnosia (focusing especially on verbal auditory agnosia), evidence for the role of a rapid temporal processing deficit in some aspects of auditory agnosia, and the few attempts to treat the perceptual deficits associated with auditory agnosia. A clear picture of auditory agnosia has been slow to emerge, hampered by the considerable heterogeneity in behavioral deficits, associated brain damage, and variable assessments across cases. Despite this lack of clarity, these striking deficits in complex sound processing continue to inform our understanding of auditory perception and cognition. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A possible role for nitric oxide in osteoclastogenesis associated with cholesteatoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae Y; Pashia, Mary E; Nishimoto, Sheri Y; Faddis, Brian T; Chole, Richard A

    2004-09-01

    This study was designed to investigate the potential role of nitric oxide in cholesteatoma-induced bone resorption, in vitro and in vivo. Cholesteatoma is a disease of inflammatory bone resorption in the middle ear leading to hearing loss and vestibular dysfunction. Inappropriate activation of osteoclasts causes the morbidity associated with this disease. Previous studies suggest nitric oxide may be an important mediator of osteoclast function. A murine model of cholesteatoma induced bone resorption was used to demonstrate nitric oxide synthase (NOS) gene expression and the effect of a NOS inhibitor. An in vitro osteoclast culture method was used to demonstrate the effect of nitric oxide on isolated osteoclasts. Osteoclast development was assayed by counting the number of mature osteoclasts; activity was assayed by measuring the amount of resorbed bone. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction results demonstrated the temporal expression of all three NOS isoforms in vivo. NOS I demonstrated very low levels of expressions throughout the duration of the study with no change in expression in response to keratin implant. Similarly, NOS III also demonstrated low levels of expression and no change in response to keratin. NOS II was highly upregulated in response to keratin throughout the duration of the study. In vitro, pharmacological nitric oxide donors--sodium nitroprusside and S-nitroso-N-acetyl-D,L-penicillamine--dose-dependently stimulated osteoclast resorption. Alone, interferon gamma (IFNgamma)--but not IL-1beta or TNFalpha--generated nitrite in vitro. A cytokine cocktail of IL-1beta, TNFalpha, and IFNgamma synergistically enhanced nitrite production. Nitrite production was blocked by the addition of aminoguanidine (AG), suggesting that AG-inhibited cytokine mediated nitrite production. However, in an in vivo model of cholesteatoma-induced bone resorption, the osteoclast response of AG-treated mice was not statistically different from

  20. Early hominin auditory capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quam, Rolf; Martínez, Ignacio; Rosa, Manuel; Bonmatí, Alejandro; Lorenzo, Carlos; de Ruiter, Darryl J; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo; Conde Valverde, Mercedes; Jarabo, Pilar; Menter, Colin G; Thackeray, J Francis; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2015-09-01

    Studies of sensory capacities in past life forms have offered new insights into their adaptations and lifeways. Audition is particularly amenable to study in fossils because it is strongly related to physical properties that can be approached through their skeletal structures. We have studied the anatomy of the outer and middle ear in the early hominin taxa Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus and estimated their auditory capacities. Compared with chimpanzees, the early hominin taxa are derived toward modern humans in their slightly shorter and wider external auditory canal, smaller tympanic membrane, and lower malleus/incus lever ratio, but they remain primitive in the small size of their stapes footplate. Compared with chimpanzees, both early hominin taxa show a heightened sensitivity to frequencies between 1.5 and 3.5 kHz and an occupied band of maximum sensitivity that is shifted toward slightly higher frequencies. The results have implications for sensory ecology and communication, and suggest that the early hominin auditory pattern may have facilitated an increased emphasis on short-range vocal communication in open habitats.

  1. Early hominin auditory capacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quam, Rolf; Martínez, Ignacio; Rosa, Manuel; Bonmatí, Alejandro; Lorenzo, Carlos; de Ruiter, Darryl J.; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo; Conde Valverde, Mercedes; Jarabo, Pilar; Menter, Colin G.; Thackeray, J. Francis; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2015-01-01

    Studies of sensory capacities in past life forms have offered new insights into their adaptations and lifeways. Audition is particularly amenable to study in fossils because it is strongly related to physical properties that can be approached through their skeletal structures. We have studied the anatomy of the outer and middle ear in the early hominin taxa Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus and estimated their auditory capacities. Compared with chimpanzees, the early hominin taxa are derived toward modern humans in their slightly shorter and wider external auditory canal, smaller tympanic membrane, and lower malleus/incus lever ratio, but they remain primitive in the small size of their stapes footplate. Compared with chimpanzees, both early hominin taxa show a heightened sensitivity to frequencies between 1.5 and 3.5 kHz and an occupied band of maximum sensitivity that is shifted toward slightly higher frequencies. The results have implications for sensory ecology and communication, and suggest that the early hominin auditory pattern may have facilitated an increased emphasis on short-range vocal communication in open habitats. PMID:26601261

  2. Koebner phenomenon of the ear canal skin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Young, O

    2009-02-01

    The Koebner phenomenon originally described the appearance of psoriatic lesions in the uninvolved skin of patients with psoriasis as a consequence of trauma. We describe a case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the auditory canal, which represents an unusual manifestation of the Koebner phenomenon. This is the first case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the head and neck region and highlights the need for biopsy to allow accurate histopathological diagnosis and treatment.

  3. Koebner phenomenon of the ear canal skin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Young, O

    2012-02-01

    The Koebner phenomenon originally described the appearance of psoriatic lesions in the uninvolved skin of patients with psoriasis as a consequence of trauma. We describe a case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the auditory canal, which represents an unusual manifestation of the Koebner phenomenon. This is the first case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the head and neck region and highlights the need for biopsy to allow accurate histopathological diagnosis and treatment.

  4. The Syndrome of Enlarged Vestibule and Dysplasia of the Lateral Semicircular Canal in Congenital Deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagundoye, S B; Martinson, F D; Fajemisin, A A

    1975-05-01

    A 5-year-old deaf-mute girl was shown on petrous bone tomography to have bilateral enlarged vestibules with assimilation of the lateral semicircular cannals, bilateral absence of the cochlea, aplasia of the left internal auditory canal with only the facial nerve compartment being present, and hypoplasia of the right internal auditory canal. The embryological basis of these inner ear abnormalities is discussed.

  5. Effects of High Hydrostatic Pressure on Bacterial Growth on Human Ossicles Explanted from Cholesteatoma Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostwald, Jürgen; Lindner, Tobias; Zautner, Andreas Erich; Arndt, Kathleen; Pau, Hans Wilhelm; Podbielski, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Background High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment can eliminate cholesteatoma cells from explanted human ossicles prior to re-insertion. We analyzed the effects of HHP treatment on the microbial flora on ossicles and on the planktonic and biofilm states of selected isolates. Methodology Twenty-six ossicles were explanted from cholesteatoma patients. Five ossicles were directly analyzed for microbial growth without further treatment. Fifteen ossicles were cut into two pieces. One piece was exposed to HHP of 350 MPa for 10 minutes. Both the treated and untreated (control) pieces were then assessed semi-quantitatively. Three ossicles were cut into two pieces and exposed to identical pressure conditions with or without the addition of one of two different combinations of antibiotics to the medium. Differential effects of 10-minute in vitro exposure of planktonic and biofilm bacteria to pressures of 100 MPa, 250 MPa, 400 MPa and 540 MPa in isotonic and hypotonic media were analyzed using two patient isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Neisseria subflava. Bacterial cell inactivation and biofilm destruction were assessed by colony counting and electron microscopy. Principal Findings A variety of microorganisms were isolated from the ossicles. Irrespective of the medium, HHP treatment at 350 MPa for 10 minutes led to satisfying but incomplete inactivation especially of Gram-negative bacteria. The addition of antibiotics increased the efficacy of elimination. A comparison of HHP treatment of planktonic and biofilm cells showed that the effects of HPP were reduced by about one decadic logarithmic unit when HPP was applied to biofilms. High hydrostatic pressure conditions that are suitable to inactivate cholesteatoma cells fail to completely sterilize ossicles even if antibiotics are added. As a result of the reduced microbial load and the viability loss of surviving bacteria, however, there is a lower risk of re-infection after re-insertion. PMID:22291908

  6. Effects of high hydrostatic pressure on bacterial growth on human ossicles explanted from cholesteatoma patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Dommerich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High hydrostatic pressure (HHP treatment can eliminate cholesteatoma cells from explanted human ossicles prior to re-insertion. We analyzed the effects of HHP treatment on the microbial flora on ossicles and on the planktonic and biofilm states of selected isolates. METHODOLOGY: Twenty-six ossicles were explanted from cholesteatoma patients. Five ossicles were directly analyzed for microbial growth without further treatment. Fifteen ossicles were cut into two pieces. One piece was exposed to HHP of 350 MPa for 10 minutes. Both the treated and untreated (control pieces were then assessed semi-quantitatively. Three ossicles were cut into two pieces and exposed to identical pressure conditions with or without the addition of one of two different combinations of antibiotics to the medium. Differential effects of 10-minute in vitro exposure of planktonic and biofilm bacteria to pressures of 100 MPa, 250 MPa, 400 MPa and 540 MPa in isotonic and hypotonic media were analyzed using two patient isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Neisseria subflava. Bacterial cell inactivation and biofilm destruction were assessed by colony counting and electron microscopy. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A variety of microorganisms were isolated from the ossicles. Irrespective of the medium, HHP treatment at 350 MPa for 10 minutes led to satisfying but incomplete inactivation especially of gram-negative bacteria. The addition of antibiotics increased the efficacy of elimination. A comparison of HHP treatment of planktonic and biofilm cells showed that the effects of HPP were reduced by about one decadic logarithmic unit when HPP was applied to biofilms. High hydrostatic pressure conditions that are suitable to inactivate cholesteatoma cells fail to completely sterilize ossicles even if antibiotics are added. As a result of the reduced microbial load and the viability loss of surviving bacteria, however, there is a lower risk of re-infection after re-insertion.

  7. Cholesteatoma of the external ear canal: etiological factors, symptoms and clinical findings in a series of 48 cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaihede, Michael Lyhne

    2006-01-01

    (n = 2), and otorrhea (n = 1). Similar symptoms were found in secondary EECC, but less pronounced. In total the temporomandibular joint was exposed in 11 cases, while the mastoid and middle ear was invaded in six and three cases, respectively. In one primary case the facial nerve was exposed...

  8. A rare complication of middle ear cholesteatoma – Pseudoaneurysm of petrous internal carotid artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.Y. Lim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To report a rare complication of middle ear cholesteatoma resulting pseudoaneurysm of petrous internal carotid artery (ICA. Case report: A 39 year old lady presented with sudden profuse bleeding from the right ear. Previously, she had been having bilateral intermittent foul smelling ear discharge for a year. Otoscope finding was insignificant as only blood seen. Computed tomography of temporal bone and magnetic resonance imaging of brain suggested locally aggressive cholesteatoma. Right ICA angiography showed pseudoaneurysm of petrous part of ICA. She underwent coil embolisation followed by bilateral modified radical mastoidectomy a month later. She recovered well after surgery and remained symptoms free. Conclusions: Pseudoaneurysm of petrous ICA as a complication of middle ear cholesteatoma is extremely rare. Spontaneous profuse bleeding maybe the only clinical presentation. Radiological imaging is important to diagnose and assist in treatment. Endovascular technique may be required, followed by surgical treatment for infection control Keywords: Cholesteatoma, Middle ear, Aneurysm, False, Angiography, Carotid artery, Internal

  9. Atrioventricular Canal Defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tract infections. Atrioventricular canal defect can cause recurrent bouts of lung infections. Heart failure. Untreated, atrioventricular canal ... Leaky heart valves Narrowing of the heart valves Abnormal heart rhythm Breathing difficulties associated with lung damage ...

  10. [Importance of diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging at differentiation of cholesteatoma and granulation tissue in patients with chronic suppurative otitis media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzcu, Göksel; Yardımcı, Aytül Hande; Turna, Önder; Göner, Reyyan Elif; Acıoğlu, Engin

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to report the significance of echo-planar diffusion-weighted imaging (EP-DWI) in preoperative magnetic resonance imaging of patients with surgically corrected cholesteatoma and granulation tissue according to DWI and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. Ninety-one patients (52 males, 39 females; mean age 40.7±15.8 years; range 3 to 77 years) who admitted to radiology clinic of our hospital between December 2009 and May 2011 with a pre-diagnosis of chronic otitis media with primary acquired cholesteatoma and assessed preoperatively in our clinic by ear magnetic resonance imaging and DWI were included in the study. Diffusion-weighted imaging results were compared with operative findings and pathology results. Patients were retrospectively evaluated using picture archiving and communication system. Diffusion-weighted imaging and ADC images were examined qualitatively and quantitatively. Ninety-one patients suspected of cholesteatoma were operated. According to the results of operations, 50 patients had cholesteatoma and 41 patients had granulation tissue. The mean DWI values of patients with cholesteatoma were significantly higher than patients with granulation tissue (p<0.05). The mean ADC values of patients with cholesteatoma were significantly lower than patients with granulation tissue (p<0.05). The sensitivity and specificity of EP-DWI in detection of cholesteatoma were 97.6% and 92.0%, respectively. Echo-planar diffusion-weighted imaging by using ADC and DWI is a valuable tool with high sensitivity and specificity rates in detecting cholesteatoma particularly bigger than 5 mm and in differentiating them from other pathologies.

  11. Topical application of Mitomycin C in the treatment of granulation tissue after Canal Wall Down mastoidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Karimi-Yazdi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Otorrhea and granulation tissue in Canal Wall Down mastoidectomy (CWD is the common problem in cholesteatoma removal and leads to many discomfort for both the patient and the physician. The main objective in CWD is creating the dry cavity, so the topical antibiotic and acetic acid in variable saturations are used for this purpose. In this study we evaluate the effectiveness of topical MMC and chemical cautery by acetic acid.   Materials and Methods: Study population consists of 50 patients with cholesteatoma whom underwent CWD. All patient allocated randomly in two study groups, MMC and acetic acid. After 3 weeks, the first visit is planned, extension of granulation tissue and dryness of cavity are evaluated and topical drugs are used in blind fashion. MMC in 4% and acetic acid in 12.5% saturation are applied. Other visits are completed at next month and 3 months later.   Results: Both methods are effective in treatment of granulation tissue. In each group both treatment were effective too but MMC was more effective than acid acetic in the treatment of granulation tissue after 4 weeks.   Conclusion: Based on our findings, it is clear that topical MMC is very effective in the treatment of granulation tissue and in CWD. It results in dry cavity much better than acetic acid without any complication. 

  12. Anatomy, Physiology and Function of the Auditory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmeier, Birger

    The human ear consists of the outer ear (pinna or concha, outer ear canal, tympanic membrane), the middle ear (middle ear cavity with the three ossicles malleus, incus and stapes) and the inner ear (cochlea which is connected to the three semicircular canals by the vestibule, which provides the sense of balance). The cochlea is connected to the brain stem via the eighth brain nerve, i.e. the vestibular cochlear nerve or nervus statoacusticus. Subsequently, the acoustical information is processed by the brain at various levels of the auditory system. An overview about the anatomy of the auditory system is provided by Figure 1.

  13. Matriz Metaloproteinase 2: um importante marcador genético para colesteatomas Matrix Metalloproteinase 2: an important genetic marker for cholesteatomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Salmazo Rocha Morales

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi desenvolvido para determinar a presença de MMP2 em colesteatomas humanos e observar se colesteatomas que complicam (invasivos apresentam uma maior expressão imunohistoquímica de Matriz Metaloproteinase 2 (MMP2. Colesteatomas produzem enzimas que causam erosão óssea, como a MMP2. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Analisamos a expressão imunohistoquímica de MMP2 em colesteatomas invasivos, comparando-os aos latentes. Um estudo de corte transversal com dezenove lâminas e blocos parafinados de colesteatoma, derivados de mastoidectomias, foram desparafinados e submetidos à técnica imunohistoquímica com anticorpos anti-MMP2. RESULTADOS: Os resultados foram expressos em 0 (tênue, + (leve, ++ (moderado e +++ (intenso, de acordo com a intensidade da expressão de MMP2. As expressões 0 e + foram denominadas Fraca e as expressões ++ e +++, Forte. Dos 8 colesteatomas invasivos, 7 apresentaram Forte expressão de MMP2 (87,5%. Com relação aos colesteatomas latentes (11, apenas 3 apresentaram Forte expressão de MMP2 (27,3%, com um teste exato de Fisher significante (p= 0,015. CONCLUSÃO: Colesteatomas expressam MMP2 e colesteatomas invasivos expressam MMP2 com maior intensidade, em relação aos latentes.AIM: This study is to determine the MMP2’s presence in cholesteatomas and whether complicating cholesteatomas show a higher immunohistochemical expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2. Cholesteatoma produces enzymesthat cause bone erosion like Matrixmetalloproteinase 2 (MMP2. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We analyzed the expression of MMP2 in invasive (causing complications compared to latent cholesteatomas (not causing complications. A crosssectional study with nineteen slides and paraffin blocks of cholesteatomas derived from mastoidectomies were located and processed, including 8 invasive and 11 latent cholesteatomas. Immunohistochemical thecnique was empregated to MMP2. RESULTS: The results are expressed as 0, + (to low, ++ and +++(high

  14. Contribution of bioanthropology to the reconstruction of prehistoric productive processes. The external auditory exostoses in the prehispanic population of Gran Canaria

    OpenAIRE

    Velasco Vázquez, Javier; Martín Rodríguez, Ernesto; González Reimers, Emilio; Arnay de la Rosa, Matilde; Betancor Rodríguez, Antonio

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this paper is an approach to the role of bioanthropological studies in the reconstruction of the productive processes of past societies. This objective is obtained starting from the survey and valuation of the prevalence of bone exostoses in the auditory canal among the prehistoric inhabitants of Gran Canaria. The auditory exostose is a bone wound well documented through clinical and experimental studies, closely related to the exposure of the auditory canal to cold water. The esti...

  15. Influence of Eye Movements, Auditory Perception, and Phonemic Awareness in the Reading Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megino-Elvira, Laura; Martín-Lobo, Pilar; Vergara-Moragues, Esperanza

    2016-01-01

    The authors' aim was to analyze the relationship of eye movements, auditory perception, and phonemic awareness with the reading process. The instruments used were the King-Devick Test (saccade eye movements), the PAF test (auditory perception), the PFC (phonemic awareness), the PROLEC-R (lexical process), the Canals reading speed test, and the…

  16. Infectious Causes of Cholesteatoma and Treatment of Infected Ossicles prior to Reimplantation by Hydrostatic High-Pressure Inactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Chronic inflammation, which is caused by recurrent infections, is one of the factors contributing to the pathogenesis of cholesteatoma. If reimplantation of autologous ossicles after a surgical intervention is intended, inactivation of planktonic bacteria and biofilms is desirable. High hydrostatic pressure treatment is a procedure, which has been used to inactivate cholesteatoma cells on ossicles. Here we discuss the potential inactivating effect of high hydrostatic pressure on microbial pathogens including biofilms. Recent experimental data suggest an incomplete inactivation at a pressure level, which is tolerable for the bone substance of ossicles and results at least in a considerable reduction of pathogen load. Further studies are necessary to access how far this quantitative reduction of pathogens is sufficient to prevent ongoing chronic infections, for example, due to forming of biofilms. PMID:25705686

  17. Colesteatoma asociado a secuencia de labio y paladar hendidos Cholesteatoma associated with a sequence of cleft lip and palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianis Loraine Quintero Noa

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available El colesteatoma adquirido asociado a secuencia de labio y paladar hendidos constituye una secuela común en los niños como consecuencia de una función anormal de la trompa de Eustaquio. Se presenta el cuadro clínico-otológico, la otomicroscopia y la eficacia del tratamiento quirúrgico en una paciente de 9 años, afecta de labio y paladar hendido y colesteatoma en el oído derecho complicado con meningitis. Se destaca el riesgo de complicaciones de la otitis media con derrame crónico y la importancia de su diagnóstico precoz, en estadios previos a la formación del colesteatoma.The cholesteatoma acquired associated with the sequence of cleft lip and palate is a common sequel in children as a result of a malfunction of the Eustachian tube. The clinical-otological picture, the otomicroscopy and the efficiency of the surgical treatment in a 9-year-old patient with cleft lip and palate and cholesteatoma on the right ear complicated with meningitis are presented. The risk for complications of otitis media with chronic effusion and the importance of its early diagnosis in stages previous to the formation of cholesteatoma are stressed.

  18. Spatial Hearing with Incongruent Visual or Auditory Room Cues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gil Carvajal, Juan Camilo; Cubick, Jens; Santurette, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    features of the recording environment and listener’s anatomy to be recorded at the listener’s ear canals. Although the resulting auditory images can be indistinguishable from real-world sources, their externalization may be less robust when the playback and recording environments differ. Here we tested...... whether a mismatch between playback and recording room reduces perceived distance, azimuthal direction, and compactness of the auditory image, and whether this is mostly due to incongruent auditory cues or to expectations generated from the visual impression of the room. Perceived distance ratings...

  19. [Auditory fatigue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjuán Juaristi, Julio; Sanjuán Martínez-Conde, Mar

    2015-01-01

    Given the relevance of possible hearing losses due to sound overloads and the short list of references of objective procedures for their study, we provide a technique that gives precise data about the audiometric profile and recruitment factor. Our objectives were to determine peripheral fatigue, through the cochlear microphonic response to sound pressure overload stimuli, as well as to measure recovery time, establishing parameters for differentiation with regard to current psychoacoustic and clinical studies. We used specific instruments for the study of cochlear microphonic response, plus a function generator that provided us with stimuli of different intensities and harmonic components. In Wistar rats, we first measured the normal microphonic response and then the effect of auditory fatigue on it. Using a 60dB pure tone acoustic stimulation, we obtained a microphonic response at 20dB. We then caused fatigue with 100dB of the same frequency, reaching a loss of approximately 11dB after 15minutes; after that, the deterioration slowed and did not exceed 15dB. By means of complex random tone maskers or white noise, no fatigue was caused to the sensory receptors, not even at levels of 100dB and over an hour of overstimulation. No fatigue was observed in terms of sensory receptors. Deterioration of peripheral perception through intense overstimulation may be due to biochemical changes of desensitisation due to exhaustion. Auditory fatigue in subjective clinical trials presumably affects supracochlear sections. The auditory fatigue tests found are not in line with those obtained subjectively in clinical and psychoacoustic trials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Patología Cérvico-Facial. All rights reserved.

  20. Facial Nerve Paralysis in Patients With Chronic Ear Infections: Surgical Outcomes and Radiologic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin Woong

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical features, radiologic findings, and treatment outcomes in patients of facial nerve paralysis with chronic ear infections. And we also aimed to evaluate for radiologic sensitivities on facial canal, labyrinth and cranial fossa dehiscences in middle ear cholesteatomas. Methods A total of 13 patients were enrolled in this study. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed for clinical features, radiologic findings, surgical findings, and recovery course. In addition, retrospective review of temporal bone computed tomography (CT) and operative records in 254 middle ear cholesteatoma patients were also performed. Results Of the 13 patients, eight had cholesteatomas in the middle ear, while two patients exhibited external auditory canal cholesteatomas. Chronic suppurative otitis media, petrous apex cholesteatoma and tuberculous otitis media were also observed in some patients. The prevalence of facial paralysis in middle ear cholesteatoma patients was 3.5%. The most common involved site of the facial nerve was the tympanic segment. Labyrinthine fistulas and destruction of cranial bases were more frequently observed in facial paralysis patients than nonfacial paralysis patients. The radiologic sensitivity for facial canal dehiscence was 91%. The surgical outcomes for facial paralysis were relatively satisfactory in all patients except in two patients who had petrous apex cholesteatoma and requiring conservative management. Conclusion Facial paralyses associated with chronic ear infections were observed in more advanced lesions and the surgical outcomes for facial paralysis were relatively satisfactory. Facial canal dehiscences can be anticipated preoperatively with high resolution CTs. PMID:26330915

  1. 22 an analysis of auditory manifestations in a group

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJTCAM

    Otosyphilis in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus: Internal auditory canal gumma. Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, 112, 488-492. 30. Marcusen, D.C. and Sooy, C.D. (1985) Otolaryngologic and head and neck manifestations of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Laryngoscope, 95, 401–405.

  2. Auditory Hallucination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MohammadReza Rajabi

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Auditory Hallucination or Paracusia is a form of hallucination that involves perceiving sounds without auditory stimulus. A common is hearing one or more talking voices which is associated with psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia or mania. Hallucination, itself, is the most common feature of perceiving the wrong stimulus or to the better word perception of the absence stimulus. Here we will discuss four definitions of hallucinations:1.Perceiving of a stimulus without the presence of any subject; 2. hallucination proper which are the wrong perceptions that are not the falsification of real perception, Although manifest as a new subject and happen along with and synchronously with a real perception;3. hallucination is an out-of-body perception which has no accordance with a real subjectIn a stricter sense, hallucinations are defined as perceptions in a conscious and awake state in the absence of external stimuli which have qualities of real perception, in that they are vivid, substantial, and located in external objective space. We are going to discuss it in details here.

  3. The significance of a hypoplastic bony canal for the cochlear nerve in patients with sensorineural hearing loss: CT and MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yoon Jung; Park, Sang Yoo; Kim, Myung Soon; Sung, Ki Jun [College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the significance of the hypoplastic canal for the cochlear nerve in patients with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) and the relationship between the hypoplastic bony canal and aplasia or hypoplasia of the cochlear nerve. A retrospective review of high resolution temporal CT(HRCT) and MRI findings was conducted. The narrow bony canal of the cochlear nerve and the relative size of the internal auditory canal were correlated with the cochlear nerve deficiency on MRI. The comparative size of the component nerves (facial, cochlear, superior vestibular, inferior vestibular nerve), and the relative size of the internal auditory canal and the bony canal of the cochlear nerve were measured. The clinical history and the results of the clinical examination were reviewed for each patient. High resolution MRI showed aplasia of the common vestibulocochlear nerve in one patient and a deficiency of the cochlear nerve in 9 patients. These abnormalities occurred in association with a prominent narrowing of the canal for the cochlear nerve and a stenosis of the internal auditory canal, which was observed on temporal bone CT in 9 patients with congenital SNHL. Three patients had normal IAC, despite the presence of a hypoplastic cochlear nerve on the side on which they had SNHL. In one patient, the narrowing of the canal for the cochlear nerve and internal auditory canal were not found to be associated with acquired SNHL. The hypoplastic bony canal for the cochlear nerve might be more highly indicative of congenital cochlear nerve deficiency than that of the narrow internal auditory canal, and the position of the crista falciformis should also be carefully.

  4. The value of otoendoscopy in the management of middle ear cholesteatoma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abtahi, Sayed Hamidreza; Abootalebian, Farzaneh; Rogha, Mehrdad; Berjis, Nezamoddin

    2015-01-01

    ...) versus canal-wall-down mastoidectomy (CWDM). The current experiment compared the quality of visualization in different middle ear structures using ICWM with otoendoscopy with findings of CWDM by microscopy...

  5. Ten-year results of cartilage palisades versus fascia in eardrum reconstruction after surgery for sinus or tensa retraction cholesteatoma in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Andersen, Janne; Uzun, Cem

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To compare cartilage palisades with fascia grafting in reconstruction of the eardrum after surgery for sinus or tensa retraction cholesteatoma in children, with respect to long-term postoperative eardrum retraction and perforation, cholesteatoma recurrence, and hearing acuity....... METHODS: A total of 64 children underwent surgery for either sinus or tensa retraction cholesteatoma during the period 1995 to 2000 (mean age 9 years, range 5-15). The eardrum was reconstructed using cartilage palisades in 32 children (32 ears) and fascia or perichondrium in 32 children (33 ears...... threshold, and pure tone air-bone gap). RESULTS: All but two patients in both groups attended the 10-year follow-up examination (94% attendance). The mean overall follow-up period was 119 months (115 months in the palisade and 125 months in the fascia group). Total number of retractions during follow...

  6. Design of canals

    CERN Document Server

    Swamee, P K

    2015-01-01

    The book presents firsthand material from the authors on design of hydraulic canals. The book discusses elements of design based on principles of hydraulic flow through canals. It covers optimization of design based on usage requirements and economic constraints. The book includes explicit design equations and design procedures along with design examples for varied cases. With its comprehensive coverage of the principles of hydraulic canal design, this book will prove useful to students, researchers, and practicing engineers. End-of-chapter pedagogical elements make it ideal for use in graduate courses on hydraulic structures offered by most civil engineering departments across the world.

  7. Cholesteatoma: computed tomography and radiography in a dog; Colesteatoma: tomografia computadorizada e radiografia em cao com otite cronica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belotta, Alexandra Frey; Babicsak, Viviam Rocco; Mamprim, Maria Jaqueline; Vulcano, Luiz Carlos, E-mail: a_fbelotta@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FMVZ/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia . Dept. de Reproducao Animal e Radiologia Veterinaria; Arruda, Vanesa Kutz de; Amorim, Rogerio Martins [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FMVZ/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia. Dept. de Clinica Veterinaria

    2012-07-01

    Cholesteatoma, a rare and/or misdiagnosed disease, results of a serious complication in dogs with chronic otitis. This article describes a case of a dachshund sent to the veterinary hospital presenting signs of cognitive dysfunction associated to peripheral neuropathy of the facial nerve on the right side. At radiography, an enlargement and thickness of the contours associated with loss of anatomical definition of the right tympanic bulla compared to the left was seen. At tomography, this enlargement and thickness were seen with better definition, besides the fulfilling by hyperdense calcified content, bullae osteolysis and temporal bone sclerosis at the same side. (author)

  8. BAER testing in a dog with bilateral external ear canal atresia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwer, Cona; Schwarz, Tobias; Volk, Susan W; Vite, Charles

    2011-01-01

    A 3 yr old male castrated Labrador retriever presented for evaluation and treatment of bilateral atresia of the external ear canals. The owners reported that the dog could hear only loud and high-pitched noises. Computed tomography of the head revealed intact vertical and horizontal ear canals filled with debris and a debris-filled right tympanic bulla. Air- and bone-conducted brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) testing revealed an elevated response threshold to air-conducted stimuli and greater amplitude waveforms evoked by bone-conducted stimuli. The ear canals were surgically corrected via lateral ear canal resection. BAER testing postoperatively revealed a decrease in the air-conducted BAER threshold. This case is an example of the use of bone-conducted BAER testing to aid in the diagnosis of conductive deafness, and in determining prognosis for normal hearing after surgical treatment of external ear canal atresia.

  9. Non-echoplanar diffusion-weighted MRI in children and adolescents with cholesteatoma: reliability and pitfalls in comparison to middle ear surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalle, Thekla von [Olgahospital Klinikum Stuttgart, Pediatric Radiology, Radiologisches Institut, Stuttgart (Germany); Amrhein, Peter; Koitschev, Assen [Olgahospital Klinikum Stuttgart, Division of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology and Otology, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    Currently, there is only limited and contradictory evidence of the role of diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) in the management of children with cholesteatoma. To provide surgically controlled data that may allow to replace second-look surgery by non-echoplanar DW-MRI in children. Fifty-five children and adolescents with a median age of 8.6 years (2.2-17.7 years) underwent 61 preoperative half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin-echo (HASTE) DW-MRI of their petrous bone. Surgical interventions followed within 24 h (79%), within 5 months (20%) or at 18 months (1 case). Surgery detected a cholesteatoma or retraction pocket in 41 of 61 cases (67%). In 49 cases (80%), the MR result was confirmed by surgical findings. Two MR findings were false-positive and 10 false-negative (including cholesteatomas <4 mm). HASTE DW-MRI alone had a sensitivity of 76% and a specificity of 90%. The positive predictive value was 94%, the negative predictive value 64%. In combination with preoperative otoscopy, sensitivity was 90% and negative predictive value 82%. DW-MRI correctly detected the majority of lesions but could not reliably exclude small cholesteatomas and empty retraction pockets. We would therefore not generally recommend MR as a substitute for second-look surgery. (orig.)

  10. External auditory canal leech: a rare case report of paediatric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access. Featuring journals from 32 Countries: Algeria (5); Benin (2); Botswana (3); Burkina Faso (3); Cameroon (8); Congo, Republic (1); Côte d'Ivoire (4); Egypt, Arab Rep. (14); Eritrea (1); Ethiopia (30) ...

  11. Anatomy and Physiology of the Auditory Tracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad hosein Hekmat Ara

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Hearing is one of the excel sense of human being. Sound waves travel through the medium of air and enter the ear canal and then hit the tympanic membrane. Middle ear transfer almost 60-80% of this mechanical energy to the inner ear by means of “impedance matching”. Then, the sound energy changes to traveling wave and is transferred based on its specific frequency and stimulates organ of corti. Receptors in this organ and their synapses transform mechanical waves to the neural waves and transfer them to the brain. The central nervous system tract of conducting the auditory signals in the auditory cortex will be explained here briefly.

  12. CT and MR Imagings of Semicircular Canal Aplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Chung Hee; Hong, Hyun Sook; Yi, Beom Ha; Cha, Jang Gyu; Park, Seong Jin; Kim, Dae Ho; Lee, Hae Kyung; Kim, Shi Chan [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-15

    To evaluate the clinical, CT and MR imaging findings of semicircular canal (SCC) aplasia and to evaluate if a correlation exists between these findings and the associated anomalies or syndromes. This study retrospectively reviewed the CT and MRI findings of five patients with SCC aplasia. The CT and MR findings were analyzed for SCC, direction of facial nerve canal, cochlea, vestibule, oval or round window, middle ear ossicles, and internal auditory canal (IAC). The subjects included three boys and two girls ranging in age from one to 120 months (mean age; 51 months). Four of the subjects had the CHARGE syndrome, and one had the Goldenhar syndrome. Moreover, four subjects had sensorineural hearing loss and one had combined hearing loss. The course of the facial nerve canal was abnormal in all five cases. Moreover, trapped cochlea and dysplastic modiolus were each observed in one case. Four subjects had atresia of the oval window; whereas ankylosis of the ossicles was present in three subjects. IAC stenosis was present in one patient with the CHARGE syndrome. The aberrant course of the facial nerve canal, atresia of the oval window, and abnormal ossicles were frequently associated in patients with SCC aplasia. In addition, the Goldenhar and CHARGE syndromes were also commonly associated syndromes.

  13. Bilateral bifid mandibular canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Sheikhi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the normal interesting variations that we may encounter in the mandible is bifid mandibular canal. This condition can lead to difficulties when performing mandibular anesthesia or during extraction of lower third molar, placement of implants, and surgery in the mandible. Therefore diagnosis of this variation is sometimes very important and necessary.

  14. The impact of ventilation tubes in otitis media on the risk of cholesteatoma on a national level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djurhuus, Bjarki Ditlev; Christensen, Kaare; Skytthe, Axel

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the impact of treatment with middle ear ventilation tube insertion (VTI) in children with otitis media (OM) on the risk of cholesteatoma on a national level. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Danish National Patient Register, the National Health Service Register...... the risk of STMEC1 by 54% (47-63%), while each additional year between two successive tube insertions increased the risk by 28% (15-43%). CONCLUSION: We found that prolonged OM requiring multiple VTIs was associated with an increased risk of STMEC1. Early age at first VTI and short time between two VTIs...... was associated with a lower risk of STMEC1. This may be the result of reduced time with negative middle ear pressure and OM. However, these findings may be susceptible to selection bias, as age at first VTI and time between VTIs, as well as the outcome variable, STMEC1, may all depend on the underlying...

  15. Managing curved canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iram Ansari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dilaceration is the result of a developmental anomaly in which there has been an abrupt change in the axial inclination between the crown and the root of a tooth. Dilaceration can be seen in both the permanent and deciduous dentitions, and is more commonly found in posterior teeth and in maxilla. Periapical radiographs are the most appropriate way to diagnose the presence of root dilacerations. The controlled regularly tapered preparation of the curved canals is the ultimate challenge in endodontics. Careful and meticulous technique will yield a safe and sufficient enlargement of the curved canals. This article gives a review of the literature and three interesting case reports of root dilacerations.

  16. Detection of cholesteatoma: High-resolution DWI using RS-EPI and parallel imaging at 3 tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algin, O; Aydın, H; Ozmen, E; Ocakoglu, G; Bercin, S; Porter, D A; Kutluhan, A

    2017-06-30

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of RS-EPI-DWI in the detection of cholesteatoma and to compare with single-shot echo-planar DWI (SS-EPI-DWI). Diffusion-weighted and apparent diffusion-coefficient (ADC) images were obtained using RS-EPI and SS-EPI techniques in 30 patients. Presence of cholesteatoma (3 point scale), amount of artefacts (4 point scale), visibility (4 point scale), and ADC values of the lesions were assessed. The results of both techniques were compared with each other and gold-standard (GS) test results. Lesion visibility and presence of artefact scores of RS-EPI-DWI group were significantly different from those of the SS-EPI group. RS-EPI-DWI images had fewer artefacts and higher visibility scores. The sensitivity, specificity, negative/positive-predictive, and overall-agreement values of RS-EPI-DWI technique were 100%, 78%, 100%, 74%, and 87%; respectively. These values for SS-EPI-DWI technique were 91%, 60%, 88%, 67%, and 75%; respectively. Also, these values were higher on axial plane than coronal plane images for ADC measurements. Based on gold-standard test findings, agreement values were good (κ=0.74) for RS-EPI-DWI and moderate for SS-EP-DWI (κ=0.50) techniques (PEPI-DWI technique allows a higher spatial-resolution and this technique is less susceptible to artefacts when compared with SS-EPI technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. BAER - brainstem auditory evoked response

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... auditory potentials; Brainstem auditory evoked potentials; Evoked response audiometry; Auditory brainstem response; ABR; BAEP ... Normal results vary. Results will depend on the person and the instruments used to perform the test.

  18. Auditory Processing Disorder (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... role. Auditory cohesion problems: This is when higher-level listening tasks are difficult. Auditory cohesion skills — drawing inferences from conversations, understanding riddles, or comprehending verbal math problems — require heightened auditory processing and language levels. ...

  19. Canal plane dynamic visual acuity in superior canal dehiscence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janky, Kristen L; Zuniga, M Geraldine; Ward, Bryan; Carey, John P; Schubert, Michael C

    2014-06-01

    1) To characterize normal, horizontal active dynamic visual acuity (DVA) and passive canal plane head thrust DVA (htDVA) across ages to establish appropriate control data and 2) to determine whether horizontal active DVA and passive canal plane htDVA are significantly different in individuals with superior canal dehiscence syndrome (SCDS) before and after surgical repair in the acute (within 10 d) and nonacute stage (>6 wk). Prospective study. Tertiary referral center Patients diagnosed with SCDS (n = 32) and healthy control subjects (n = 51). Surgical canal plugging on a subset of patients. Static visual acuity (SVA), active horizontal DVA, and canal plane htDVA. Visual acuity (SVA, active DVA, and htDVA) declines with age. In SCDS, SVA and active DVA are not significantly affected in individuals after surgical canal plugging; however, htDVA in the plane of the affected canal is significantly worse after canal plugging. Age-based normative data are necessary for DVA testing. In SCDS, htDVA in the plane of the affected canal is normal before surgery but permanently reduced afterward.

  20. Distributed control at Love canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McPherson, G.; Rider, G.J.; Sadowski, B.; Moore, M.

    1994-09-01

    Love Canal is known worldwide as the site of one of the worst non-nuclear environmental disasters in modern history. For 12 years, a Niagara Falls, New York chemical company used the canal bed as a chemical dump. This article discusses the computerized control of equipment used to remove the toxic materials from the ground under Love Canal, and how the minimization of maintenance is reducing maintenance costs and increasing operator safety.

  1. Analysis of sedimentation of canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agunwamba, J.C.,

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The dredged canals in the Niger Delta coastal flood plain are being threatened by siltation. This study is limited to those canals in Rivers State of Nigeria, which are under the influence of tidal waves. A total of eight canals were considered with four each from Ekulama and Cawthorne Channel. Different approaches were used to carry out this study, which includes field reconnaissance survey, hydrographic survey, soil sample analysis and collection of all available data and information. The typical bed materials size (D50 is approximately 0.01mm; which gives a settling velocity of 0.09mm/sec using stroke’s law. Hydrographic survey of the canals from 1992 to 1996 revealed an average siltation rate of 2.35m/yr. A regression equation was also derived which relates the cost of dredging to canal area, rate of siltation and average aggregation. A plot of canal centre profile; entrance, middle and end cross sections showing sediment distribution along the canal profile, shows that majority of the particles that form the sediment enter the canal from the rivers. The sedimentation is caused by the reduction in water current, which has average value of 0.0145m/sec. The bathyorographical check on the canals revealed that the sum of the two exterior angles of the canal with the river at the point of connection has to lie within 1800 + 50 for an effective flow that will minimize settlement of particles. In addition, the canals should be constructed to start and terminate on a moving water body, to avoid dead ends. A regression equation was determined which relates the cost of dredging to canal area, rate of siltation and average aggradations.

  2. Resizing Auditory Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzfeldt, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Heard through the ears of the Canadian composer and music teacher R. Murray Schafer the ideal auditory community had the shape of a village. Schafer’s work with the World Soundscape Project in the 70s represent an attempt to interpret contemporary environments through musical and auditory...

  3. CT evaluation of the anterior epitympanic recess; Comparison among non-inflammatory ear, chronic otitis media with central perforation and cholesteatoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamasoba, Tatsuya; Kikuchi, Shigeru; Takeuchi, Naonobu; Harada, Takehiko; Nomura, Yasuya (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1991-02-01

    The structures of the anterior epitympanic recess and its surrounding tissues were examined among non-inflammatory ear, chronic otitis media with central perforation and cholesteatoma, using axial scans of high resolution computed tomography. The length and width of the recess, as well as the number of the slices where the cog was determined, had no significant differences among them. Thus, the bony structure of the recess was considered to be seldom influenced by inflammatory processes. In the non-inflammatory ear, the degree of pneumatization around the recess was similar to that of the petrous apex cells and lower than that of the mastoid cells. In the chronic otitis media with central perforation and cholesteatoma, the pneumatization of the whole temporal bones was suppressed and the tendency was also found that the cells around the recess were less pneumatized than the mastoid cells. When cholesteatoma invaded into the anterior epitympanic recess, the destruction of the bony protrusion of the lateral wall between the recess and the epitympanum was recognized, as well as the disappearance of the cog. The bony protrusion was considered to be an inferior extention of the cog toward the anterior tympanic spine. (author).

  4. Lumbar canal stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazanec, D J; Drucker, Y; Segal, A M

    1997-04-01

    Lumbar canal stenosis is an increasingly recognized condition in patients more than 65 years of age. The clinical syndrome is dominated by neurogenic claudication. The natural history of the Condition is not yet well described. Long-term results of surgical therapy are frequently disappointing, and reoperation is required in more than 10% of patients. Nonoperative treatment options include physical therapy exercise programs, calcitonin, analgesics, and epidural steroid injections. A clinical pathway for management of symptomatic stenosis, emphasizing an initial nonoperative approach, is suggested.

  5. Auditory-motor learning influences auditory memory for music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel M; Palmer, Caroline

    2012-05-01

    In two experiments, we investigated how auditory-motor learning influences performers' memory for music. Skilled pianists learned novel melodies in four conditions: auditory only (listening), motor only (performing without sound), strongly coupled auditory-motor (normal performance), and weakly coupled auditory-motor (performing along with auditory recordings). Pianists' recognition of the learned melodies was better following auditory-only or auditory-motor (weakly coupled and strongly coupled) learning than following motor-only learning, and better following strongly coupled auditory-motor learning than following auditory-only learning. Auditory and motor imagery abilities modulated the learning effects: Pianists with high auditory imagery scores had better recognition following motor-only learning, suggesting that auditory imagery compensated for missing auditory feedback at the learning stage. Experiment 2 replicated the findings of Experiment 1 with melodies that contained greater variation in acoustic features. Melodies that were slower and less variable in tempo and intensity were remembered better following weakly coupled auditory-motor learning. These findings suggest that motor learning can aid performers' auditory recognition of music beyond auditory learning alone, and that motor learning is influenced by individual abilities in mental imagery and by variation in acoustic features.

  6. Spinal canal stenosis; Spinalkanalstenose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papanagiotou, P.; Boutchakova, M. [Klinikum Bremen-Mitte/Bremen-Ost, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Bremen (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of the spinal canal by a combination of bone and soft tissues, which can lead to mechanical compression of spinal nerve roots or the dural sac. The lumbal spinal compression of these nerve roots can be symptomatic, resulting in weakness, reflex alterations, gait disturbances, bowel or bladder dysfunction, motor and sensory changes, radicular pain or atypical leg pain and neurogenic claudication. The anatomical presence of spinal canal stenosis is confirmed radiologically with computerized tomography, myelography or magnetic resonance imaging and play a decisive role in optimal patient-oriented therapy decision-making. (orig.) [German] Die Spinalkanalstenose ist eine umschriebene, knoechern-ligamentaer bedingte Einengung des Spinalkanals, die zur Kompression der Nervenwurzeln oder des Duralsacks fuehren kann. Die lumbale Spinalkanalstenose manifestiert sich klinisch als Komplex aus Rueckenschmerzen sowie sensiblen und motorischen neurologischen Ausfaellen, die in der Regel belastungsabhaengig sind (Claudicatio spinalis). Die bildgebende Diagnostik mittels Magnetresonanztomographie, Computertomographie und Myelographie spielt eine entscheidende Rolle bei der optimalen patientenbezogenen Therapieentscheidung. (orig.)

  7. Complete atrioventricular canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limongelli Giuseppe

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Complete atrioventricular canal (CAVC, also referred to as complete atrioventricular septal defect, is characterised by an ostium primum atrial septal defect, a common atrioventricular valve and a variable deficiency of the ventricular septum inflow. CAVC is an uncommon congenital heart disease, accounting for about 3% of cardiac malformations. Atrioventricular canal occurs in two out of every 10,000 live births. Both sexes are equally affected and a striking association with Down syndrome was found. Depending on the morphology of the superior leaflet of the common atrioventricular valve, 3 types of CAVC have been delineated (type A, B and C, according to Rastelli's classification. CAVC results in a significant interatrial and interventricular systemic-to-pulmonary shunt, thus inducing right ventricular pressure and volume overload and pulmonary hypertension. It becomes symptomatic in infancy due to congestive heart failure and failure to thrive. Diagnosis of CAVC might be suspected from electrocardiographic and chest X-ray findings. Echocardiography confirms it and gives anatomical details. Over time, pulmonary hypertension becomes irreversible, thus precluding the surgical therapy. This is the reason why cardiac catheterisation is not mandatory in infants (less than 6 months but is indicated in older patients if irreversible pulmonary hypertension is suspected. Medical treatment (digitalis, diuretics, vasodilators plays a role only as a bridge toward surgery, usually performed between the 3rd and 6th month of life.

  8. Auditory Integration Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Jafari

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Auditory integration training (AIT is a hearing enhancement training process for sensory input anomalies found in individuals with autism, attention deficit hyperactive disorder, dyslexia, hyperactivity, learning disability, language impairments, pervasive developmental disorder, central auditory processing disorder, attention deficit disorder, depressin, and hyperacute hearing. AIT, recently introduced in the United States, and has received much notice of late following the release of The Sound of a Moracle, by Annabel Stehli. In her book, Mrs. Stehli describes before and after auditory integration training experiences with her daughter, who was diagnosed at age four as having autism.

  9. Review: Auditory Integration Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Ja'fari

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Auditory integration training (AIT is a hearing enhancement training process for sensory input anomalies found in individuals with autism, attention deficit hyperactive disorder, dyslexia, hyperactivity, learning disability, language impairments, pervasive developmental disorder, central auditory processing disorder, attention deficit disorder, depression, and hyper acute hearing. AIT, recently introduced in the United States, and has received much notice of late following the release of the sound of a miracle, by Annabel Stehli. In her book, Mrs. Stehli describes before and after auditory integration training experiences with her daughter, who was diagnosed at age four as having autism.

  10. The impact of ventilation tubes in otitis media on the risk of cholesteatoma on a national level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djurhuus, Bjarki Ditlev; Christensen, Kaare; Skytthe, Axel; Faber, Christian Emil

    2015-04-01

    To estimate the impact of treatment with middle ear ventilation tube insertion (VTI) in children with otitis media (OM) on the risk of cholesteatoma on a national level. Data were obtained from the Danish National Patient Register, the National Health Service Register and Statistics Denmark. Cumulative incidence proportions were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and hazard ratios with Cox regression analysis. The first surgically treated middle ear cholesteatoma in a child (STMEC1) was considered an event. A total of 217,206 children, born after December 31, 1996, who had VTI from January 1, 1997 to August 31, 2011 were identified. Of these, 374 subsequently had a STMEC1. A corresponding 36,981 children without any VTI were identified for comparison using a random 5% sample of the Danish population. Of these, 5 had a STMEC1. The cumulative incidence proportion with STMEC1 at 12 years of age for children with 0, 1, 2, 3, and ≥4 VTI's was 0.04% (95% confidence interval 0.02-0.12%), 0.21% (0.18-0.26%), 0.35% (0.28-0.43%), 0.40% (0.30-0.54%), and 0.55% (0.44-0.70%), respectively. In the regression model each additional year of age before the first VTI increased the risk of STMEC1 by 54% (47-63%), while each additional year between two successive tube insertions increased the risk by 28% (15-43%). We found that prolonged OM requiring multiple VTIs was associated with an increased risk of STMEC1. Early age at first VTI and short time between two VTIs was associated with a lower risk of STMEC1. This may be the result of reduced time with negative middle ear pressure and OM. However, these findings may be susceptible to selection bias, as age at first VTI and time between VTIs, as well as the outcome variable, STMEC1, may all depend on the underlying indication for VTI. In short the present study suggests that treatment with VTI in children with OM reduces the risk of STMEC1 on a population level. However, for the individual child the absolute risk reduction is very

  11. Spatial Hearing with Incongruent Visual or Auditory Room Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Carvajal, Juan C.; Cubick, Jens; Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    2016-11-01

    In day-to-day life, humans usually perceive the location of sound sources as outside their heads. This externalized auditory spatial perception can be reproduced through headphones by recreating the sound pressure generated by the source at the listener’s eardrums. This requires the acoustical features of the recording environment and listener’s anatomy to be recorded at the listener’s ear canals. Although the resulting auditory images can be indistinguishable from real-world sources, their externalization may be less robust when the playback and recording environments differ. Here we tested whether a mismatch between playback and recording room reduces perceived distance, azimuthal direction, and compactness of the auditory image, and whether this is mostly due to incongruent auditory cues or to expectations generated from the visual impression of the room. Perceived distance ratings decreased significantly when collected in a more reverberant environment than the recording room, whereas azimuthal direction and compactness remained room independent. Moreover, modifying visual room-related cues had no effect on these three attributes, while incongruent auditory room-related cues between the recording and playback room did affect distance perception. Consequently, the external perception of virtual sounds depends on the degree of congruency between the acoustical features of the environment and the stimuli.

  12. Aktiverende Undervisning i auditorier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parus, Judith

    Workshop om erfaringer og brug af aktiverende metoder i undervisning i auditorier og på store hold. Hvilke metoder har fungeret godt og hvilke dårligt ? Hvilke overvejelser skal man gøre sig.......Workshop om erfaringer og brug af aktiverende metoder i undervisning i auditorier og på store hold. Hvilke metoder har fungeret godt og hvilke dårligt ? Hvilke overvejelser skal man gøre sig....

  13. Auditory Spatial Layout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wightman, Frederic L.; Jenison, Rick

    1995-01-01

    All auditory sensory information is packaged in a pair of acoustical pressure waveforms, one at each ear. While there is obvious structure in these waveforms, that structure (temporal and spectral patterns) bears no simple relationship to the structure of the environmental objects that produced them. The properties of auditory objects and their layout in space must be derived completely from higher level processing of the peripheral input. This chapter begins with a discussion of the peculiarities of acoustical stimuli and how they are received by the human auditory system. A distinction is made between the ambient sound field and the effective stimulus to differentiate the perceptual distinctions among various simple classes of sound sources (ambient field) from the known perceptual consequences of the linear transformations of the sound wave from source to receiver (effective stimulus). Next, the definition of an auditory object is dealt with, specifically the question of how the various components of a sound stream become segregated into distinct auditory objects. The remainder of the chapter focuses on issues related to the spatial layout of auditory objects, both stationary and moving.

  14. Hood Canal Steelhead - Hood Canal Steelhead Supplementation Experiment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hood Canal Steelhead Project is a 17-year before-after-control-impact experiment that tests the effects of supplementation on natural steelhead populations in...

  15. Biomedical Simulation Models of Human Auditory Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicak, Mehmet M. A.

    2012-01-01

    Detailed acoustic engineering models that explore noise propagation mechanisms associated with noise attenuation and transmission paths created when using hearing protectors such as earplugs and headsets in high noise environments. Biomedical finite element (FE) models are developed based on volume Computed Tomography scan data which provides explicit external ear, ear canal, middle ear ossicular bones and cochlea geometry. Results from these studies have enabled a greater understanding of hearing protector to flesh dynamics as well as prioritizing noise propagation mechanisms. Prioritization of noise mechanisms can form an essential framework for exploration of new design principles and methods in both earplug and earcup applications. These models are currently being used in development of a novel hearing protection evaluation system that can provide experimentally correlated psychoacoustic noise attenuation. Moreover, these FE models can be used to simulate the effects of blast related impulse noise on human auditory mechanisms and brain tissue.

  16. Method for Constructing Standardized Simulated Root Canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz-Bongert, Udo; Weine, Franklin S.

    1990-01-01

    The construction of visual and manipulative aids, clear resin blocks with root-canal-like spaces, for simulation of root canals is explained. Time, materials, and techniques are discussed. The method allows for comparison of canals, creation of any configuration of canals, and easy presentation during instruction. (MSE)

  17. Auditory hallucinations induced by trazodone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiotsuki, Ippei; Terao, Takeshi; Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Hatano, Koji

    2014-01-01

    A 26-year-old female outpatient presenting with a depressive state suffered from auditory hallucinations at night. Her auditory hallucinations did not respond to blonanserin or paliperidone, but partially responded to risperidone. In view of the possibility that her auditory hallucinations began after starting trazodone, trazodone was discontinued, leading to a complete resolution of her auditory hallucinations. Furthermore, even after risperidone was decreased and discontinued, her auditory hallucinations did not recur. These findings suggest that trazodone may induce auditory hallucinations in some susceptible patients. PMID:24700048

  18. Looking back at Love Canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deegan, J. Jr.

    1987-05-01

    In the first part of this series (ES and T, April 1987, pp. 328-31) it was pointed out that the methods and conclusions of EPA's Love Canal Study were the subject of some controversy in the environmental community. Others defended the agency's approaches and methods. Part 2 makes no attempt to resolve the controversy; its purpose is to present the results and conclusions of the Love Canal.

  19. Integration of auditory and visual speech information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, M.; Smeele, P.M.T.; Kuhl, P.K.

    1998-01-01

    The integration of auditory and visual speech is observed when modes specify different places of articulation. Influences of auditory variation on integration were examined using consonant identifi-cation, plus quality and similarity ratings. Auditory identification predicted auditory-visual

  20. Influence of Ossicular Chain Damage on Hearing After Chronic Otitis Media and Cholesteatoma Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Erik F; Gunning, Marlise N; Kleinrensink, Nienke J; Lokin, Alexander S H J; Bruijnzeel, Hanneke; Smit, Adriana L; Grolman, Wilko

    2015-11-01

    Physicians should ideally be able to provide patients with chronic otitis media and/or cholesteatoma specific information about postoperative hearing outcome, based on their level of preoperative ossicular chain damage (OCD). To identify the influence of preoperative OCD on hearing outcomes in patients after chronic otitis media and/or cholesteatoma surgery. PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library databases were systematically searched for available evidence, without any constraints, on December 13, 2014, for articles published between January 1, 1975, and December 13, 2014. We reviewed the literature for articles assessing the prognostic value of OCD on postoperative hearing outcome (air-bone gap [ABG] in decibels), using Austin-Kartush criteria or independent OCD classification systems. We assessed relevance and validity using a self-designed critical appraisal tool based on the Cochrane Collaboration's risk of bias tool. Characteristics of study populations and postoperative ABGs in decibels were extracted from all included studies by 4 authors (E.F.B., M.N.G., N.J.K., A.S.H.J.L.). The tested hypothesis was formulated before data collection. Primary study outcome was defined as postoperative adult hearing outcomes after COM and/or cholesteatoma surgery defined as mean postoperative ABG. Our search yielded 5661 articles. Nine articles with high relevance were included. Pooled results of studies using the Austin-Kartush criteria showed a significant (P influence of stapes structure (intact stapes suprastructure, 13.5 [95% CI, 10.3-16.7], 15.1 [95% CI, 11.8-18.3], and 21.9 [95% CI, 15.0-28.8] dB vs absent stapes structure, 12.8 [95% CI, 9.5-16.1], 19.5 [95% CI, 14.9-24.1], and 30.2 [95% CI, 24.7-35.8] dB) on postoperative ABG. One study reported a significant (P = .04) difference in mean ABG between patients with present (18.9 [95% CI, 15.7-22.1] dB) and absent (24.4 [95% CI, 20.2-28.6] dB) malleus. Pooled results of Austin-Kartush studies showed that in

  1. Octave effect in auditory attention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tobias Borra; Huib Versnel; Chantal Kemner; A. John van Opstal; Raymond van Ee

    2013-01-01

    ... tones. Current auditory models explain this phenomenon by a simple bandpass attention filter. Here, we demonstrate that auditory attention involves multiple pass-bands around octave-related frequencies above and below the cued tone...

  2. Auditory and Visual Sensations

    CERN Document Server

    Ando, Yoichi

    2010-01-01

    Professor Yoichi Ando, acoustic architectural designer of the Kirishima International Concert Hall in Japan, presents a comprehensive rational-scientific approach to designing performance spaces. His theory is based on systematic psychoacoustical observations of spatial hearing and listener preferences, whose neuronal correlates are observed in the neurophysiology of the human brain. A correlation-based model of neuronal signal processing in the central auditory system is proposed in which temporal sensations (pitch, timbre, loudness, duration) are represented by an internal autocorrelation representation, and spatial sensations (sound location, size, diffuseness related to envelopment) are represented by an internal interaural crosscorrelation function. Together these two internal central auditory representations account for the basic auditory qualities that are relevant for listening to music and speech in indoor performance spaces. Observed psychological and neurophysiological commonalities between auditor...

  3. El Canal del Atazar I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López de Berges y de los Santos, Emilio

    1967-03-01

    Full Text Available The Atazar Canal helps to supply Madrid with water, from the rivers Lozoya, Jarama and Sorbe. The section which operates at present starts at the Torrelaguna dam and finishes at the El Goloso reservoir. Later a further section will be added, from the Atazar dam, on the Lozoya river, to link up with the control dam at Torrelaguna. The canal capacity is 16 m3/sec, and it is 43.47 km long. It has a slope of 4/10.000. The cross section is similar to that of the Jarama canal, already built. There are interconnections between this canal and the Canal Alto, which previously supplied the high and medium part of Madrid. To overcome the ground unevenness 5 syphons have been built, the most important of which is the Colmenar Goloso syphon, which is 10.88 km in length. Construction commenced on December 10, 1962, and water reached Madrid on June 15th, 1966. The initial budget for this project was 1,500 million pesetas.El canal del Atazar refuerza considerablemente el abastecimiento de aguas a Madrid, procedentes de los ríos Lozoya, Jarama y, en un próximo futuro, del Sorbe. El tramo, actualmente en funcionamiento, empieza en el salto de Torrelaguna y finaliza en los depósitos de El Goloso. Más adelante se completará su trazado mediante un nuevo tramo que partirá del embalse de Atazar, en el Lozoya, para unirse al actual en el depósito regulador de Torrelaguna. Su capacidad es de 16 m3/s; su longitud, 43,471 km, y su pendiente, 4 diezmilésimas. La sección tipo es análoga a la del canal del Jarama, de construcción anterior. Mediante la oportuna obra de transvase se realizan intercambios entre este Canal y el Canal Alto que abastecía anteriormente la parte media y alta de la capital. Para salvar los desniveles del terreno se han construido 5 sifones, siendo el más importante el de Colmenar-Goloso, con una longitud de 10,8S4 km. El comienzo de las obras tuvo lugar el 10 de diciembre de 1962, y el agua llegó a Madrid el 15 de junio de 1966. Su

  4. Incidental auditory category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabay, Yafit; Dick, Frederic K; Zevin, Jason D; Holt, Lori L

    2015-08-01

    Very little is known about how auditory categories are learned incidentally, without instructions to search for category-diagnostic dimensions, overt category decisions, or experimenter-provided feedback. This is an important gap because learning in the natural environment does not arise from explicit feedback and there is evidence that the learning systems engaged by traditional tasks are distinct from those recruited by incidental category learning. We examined incidental auditory category learning with a novel paradigm, the Systematic Multimodal Associations Reaction Time (SMART) task, in which participants rapidly detect and report the appearance of a visual target in 1 of 4 possible screen locations. Although the overt task is rapid visual detection, a brief sequence of sounds precedes each visual target. These sounds are drawn from 1 of 4 distinct sound categories that predict the location of the upcoming visual target. These many-to-one auditory-to-visuomotor correspondences support incidental auditory category learning. Participants incidentally learn categories of complex acoustic exemplars and generalize this learning to novel exemplars and tasks. Further, learning is facilitated when category exemplar variability is more tightly coupled to the visuomotor associations than when the same stimulus variability is experienced across trials. We relate these findings to phonetic category learning. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Modelling auditory attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Emine Merve; Elhilali, Mounya

    2017-02-19

    Sounds in everyday life seldom appear in isolation. Both humans and machines are constantly flooded with a cacophony of sounds that need to be sorted through and scoured for relevant information-a phenomenon referred to as the 'cocktail party problem'. A key component in parsing acoustic scenes is the role of attention, which mediates perception and behaviour by focusing both sensory and cognitive resources on pertinent information in the stimulus space. The current article provides a review of modelling studies of auditory attention. The review highlights how the term attention refers to a multitude of behavioural and cognitive processes that can shape sensory processing. Attention can be modulated by 'bottom-up' sensory-driven factors, as well as 'top-down' task-specific goals, expectations and learned schemas. Essentially, it acts as a selection process or processes that focus both sensory and cognitive resources on the most relevant events in the soundscape; with relevance being dictated by the stimulus itself (e.g. a loud explosion) or by a task at hand (e.g. listen to announcements in a busy airport). Recent computational models of auditory attention provide key insights into its role in facilitating perception in cluttered auditory scenes.This article is part of the themed issue 'Auditory and visual scene analysis'. © 2017 The Authors.

  6. Auditory Channel Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Philip H.; Suiter, Patricia A.

    This teacher's guide contains a list of general auditory problem areas where students have the following problems: (a) inability to find or identify source of sound; (b) difficulty in discriminating sounds of words and letters; (c) difficulty with reproducing pitch, rhythm, and melody; (d) difficulty in selecting important from unimportant sounds;…

  7. Ab interno Schlemm's Canal Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Brian A; Akil, Handan; Bert, Benjamin B

    2017-01-01

    In primary open-angle glaucoma, the site of greatest resistance to aqueous outflow is thought to be the trabecular meshwork (TM) and inner wall of Schlemm's canal. Augmentation of the conventional (trabecular) outflow pathway can facilitate physiologic outflow and subsequently lower intraocular pressure. The most recent approach to enhancing the conventional outflow pathway is via an internal approach to the TM and Schlemm's canal. Ab interno Schlemm's canal surgery includes 4 novel surgical approaches: (1) removal of the TM and inner wall of Schlemm's canal by an internal approach (ab interno trabeculectomy), (2) implantation of a microstent to bypass the TM, (3) disruption of the TM and inner wall of Schlemm's canal via an internal approach (ab interno trabeculotomy), and (4) dilation of Schlemm's canal via an internal approach (ab interno canaloplasty). The first category includes the Trabectome (Neomedix, Tustin, CA, USA), and Kahook Dual Blade (New World Medical, Rancho Cucamonga, CA, USA). The second category includes the iStent (Glaukos, Laguna Hills, CA, USA), as well as the investigational Hydrus Microstent implant (Ivantis, Irvine, CA, USA). The third category includes gonioscopic-assisted transluminal trabeculotomy (iSciences catheter; Ellex, Adelaide, Australia), and 360° suture trabeculotomy (TRAB360, Sight Sciences, Menlo Park, CA, USA). The fourth category includes ab interno canaloplasty or AbiC (Ellex), and Visco360 (Sight Sciences). In contrast to external filtration surgeries, such as trabeculectomy and aqueous tube shunt, these procedures are categorized as internal filtration surgeries and are performed from an internal approach via gonioscopic guidance. Published results suggest that these surgical procedures are both safe and efficacious for the treatment of open-angle glaucoma. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. TNF-R2 expression in acquired middle ear cholesteatoma Expressão do TNF-R2 no colesteatoma adquirido da orelha média

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Faller Vitale

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Acquired middle ear cholesteatoma is a disease which promotes bone erosion resulting in potentially serious complications. The tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α is present in cholesteatoma and it is related to bone erosion, as shown by different authors. To understand the aggressiveness characteristics of cholesteatoma is necessary, however, to better address the presence and distribution of their receptors. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the expression of type 2 TNF-α receptor (TNF-R2 in fragments of cholesteatoma and correlate it to the degree of inflammation present. MATERIAL AND METHODS: observational cross-sectional study, which analyzed 33 fragments of cholesteatomas through histological analysis and immunohistochemistry (using as primary antibody to TNF-R2 LabVision® brand. The evaluation was performed by means of a qualitative and semi-quantitative agreement with the observed intensity. For statistical analysis we used the Fisher exact test and Spearman´s correlation coefficient (considered statistically significant when p O colesteatoma adquirido da orelha média promove erosão óssea, ocasionando complicações potencialmente graves. O fator de necrose tumoral alfa (TNF-α está presente no colesteatoma adquirido da orelha média e relaciona-se com a erosão óssea, como demonstraram diferentes autores. Para que se compreenda as características de agressividade do colesteatoma, é necessário que se estude a presença e a distribuição seus receptores. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a expressão do receptor tipo dois do TNF-α (TNF-R2 em fragmentos de colesteatoma e relacioná-lo com o grau de inflamação. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional do tipo transversal. Foram analisados 33 fragmentos de colesteatomas, submetidos à análise histológica e imunoistoquímica (utilizando o TNF-R2 da marca Labvision®. A avaliação foi realizada de forma qualitativa e semiquantitativa, de acordo com a intensidade observada. Para a análise estat

  9. Superior Semicircular Canal Ampullae Dehiscence As Part of the Spectrum of the Third Window Abnormalities: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Constant Ionescu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A 60-year-old man was referred to the ENT department for intense episodic vertigo triggered by loud sounds. Pure tone audiometry and otoneurological assessment, including videonystagmography using auditory stimulation and cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential measures, conducted to the hypothesis of a third window syndrome in the left ear. Results from the high-resolution computed tomography of the petrous bone confirmed the hypothesis and revealed the presence of a submillimeter semicircular canal dehiscence, located between the left lateral and superior semicircular canal ampullae on the left side.

  10. Finite element modelling of the canine and feline outer ear canal: benefits for local drug delivery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wefstaedt, Patrick; Behrens, Bernd-Arno; Nolte, Ingo; Bouguecha, Anas

    2011-01-01

    Current therapeutic regimes of outer ear infections in dogs and cats aim at the application of efficient local therapeutics after cleaning of the acoustic meatus. One so far insufficiently answered question is if the local application of these substances results in an individually suitable drug concentration in the external ear canal. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to develop a finite element model to calculate the values of the different areas of the external acoustic meatus in dogs and cats in order to provide a tool for the benefit of an appropriate local drug dosage determination. A 3D finite element model (FEM), based on computer tomographic (CT) data sets of four dogs and two cats, was generated to determine areas and volumes of the outer ear canal. Furthermore, various ear therapeutics and cleansers were tested concerning their optimal distribution on 5 cm2 dog and cat skin. The data shows major variations of the area values of the external auditory canal in case of the different dogs but not in the examined cats. These results suggest that manufacturer's recommendations of the pharmaceuticals might be insufficient in terms of achieving an optimal drug concentration in the outer ear canal especially in larger dogs. In conclusion, the developed finite element model has shown to be suitable to calculate areas of the outer ear canal in cats and dogs and could be of help in context with the definition of optimal drug concentrations for a local drug delivery.

  11. Developmental spinal canal stenosis and somatotype.

    OpenAIRE

    Nightingale, S.

    1989-01-01

    The hypothesis that somatotype and cervical spine developmental canal stenosis may be associated has been investigated by anthropometry and measurement of lateral projection cervical spine radiographs. A significant association of canal size with somatotype has been found such that those with developmentally narrow canals are more likely to have relatively shorter long-bones, particularly in the upper arm, and longer trunks.

  12. Erie Canal Technology: Stump Pullers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Many years ago I saw a picture of a huge set of wheels that was used to remove tree stumps during the construction of the Erie Canal (1817-1825) and was intrigued by its use of leverage, mechanical advantage, and torque. Figure 1 is a scale model of the device based on my memory of the (lost) picture and published accounts.

  13. Contemporary root canal filling strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moinzadeh, A.T.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, clinicians can choose from a wide range of root canal filling materials and techniques, some of which have been evaluated in this thesis. Methacrylate resin-based sealers suffer from polymerization shrinkage stresses. This limitation may partly be overcome by a two-step cementation

  14. Retention of Root Canal Posts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahafi, A; Benetti, Ana Raquel; Flury, S

    2015-01-01

    ] and a self-etch adhesive resin cement [Panavia F2.0]) were used. After removal of the crowns of 360 extracted premolars, canines, or incisors, the root canals were prepared with a parallel-sided drill system to three different final diameters. Half the posts did not receive any pretreatment. The other half...

  15. Auditory pathways: anatomy and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickles, James O

    2015-01-01

    This chapter outlines the anatomy and physiology of the auditory pathways. After a brief analysis of the external, middle ears, and cochlea, the responses of auditory nerve fibers are described. The central nervous system is analyzed in more detail. A scheme is provided to help understand the complex and multiple auditory pathways running through the brainstem. The multiple pathways are based on the need to preserve accurate timing while extracting complex spectral patterns in the auditory input. The auditory nerve fibers branch to give two pathways, a ventral sound-localizing stream, and a dorsal mainly pattern recognition stream, which innervate the different divisions of the cochlear nucleus. The outputs of the two streams, with their two types of analysis, are progressively combined in the inferior colliculus and onwards, to produce the representation of what can be called the "auditory objects" in the external world. The progressive extraction of critical features in the auditory stimulus in the different levels of the central auditory system, from cochlear nucleus to auditory cortex, is described. In addition, the auditory centrifugal system, running from cortex in multiple stages to the organ of Corti of the cochlea, is described. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Auditory object cognition in dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goll, Johanna C.; Kim, Lois G.; Hailstone, Julia C.; Lehmann, Manja; Buckley, Aisling; Crutch, Sebastian J.; Warren, Jason D.

    2011-01-01

    The cognition of nonverbal sounds in dementia has been relatively little explored. Here we undertook a systematic study of nonverbal sound processing in patient groups with canonical dementia syndromes comprising clinically diagnosed typical amnestic Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 21), progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA; n = 5), logopenic progressive aphasia (LPA; n = 7) and aphasia in association with a progranulin gene mutation (GAA; n = 1), and in healthy age-matched controls (n = 20). Based on a cognitive framework treating complex sounds as ‘auditory objects’, we designed a novel neuropsychological battery to probe auditory object cognition at early perceptual (sub-object), object representational (apperceptive) and semantic levels. All patients had assessments of peripheral hearing and general neuropsychological functions in addition to the experimental auditory battery. While a number of aspects of auditory object analysis were impaired across patient groups and were influenced by general executive (working memory) capacity, certain auditory deficits had some specificity for particular dementia syndromes. Patients with AD had a disproportionate deficit of auditory apperception but preserved timbre processing. Patients with PNFA had salient deficits of timbre and auditory semantic processing, but intact auditory size and apperceptive processing. Patients with LPA had a generalised auditory deficit that was influenced by working memory function. In contrast, the patient with GAA showed substantial preservation of auditory function, but a mild deficit of pitch direction processing and a more severe deficit of auditory apperception. The findings provide evidence for separable stages of auditory object analysis and separable profiles of impaired auditory object cognition in different dementia syndromes. PMID:21689671

  17. Auditory Reserve and the Legacy of Auditory Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Skoe, Erika; Kraus, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Musical training during childhood has been linked to more robust encoding of sound later in life. We take this as evidence for an auditory reserve: a mechanism by which individuals capitalize on earlier life experiences to promote auditory processing. We assert that early auditory experiences guide how the reserve develops and is maintained over the lifetime. Experiences that occur after childhood, or which are limited in nature, are theorized to affect the reserve, although their influence o...

  18. Mandibular Second Premolar with Four Canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Ghiasi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A mandibular second premolar with four canals is an interesting example of anatomic variations. This report describes a case of a mandibular second premolar with three roots and four canals (one mesiobuccal, two distobuccal and one lingual. The canals were prepared using K-files and irrigated with NaOCl (5.25% and normal saline as the final irrigant. The canals were filled laterally with gutta percha and AH26 sealer (De Trey, Dentsply, Switzerland. This case shows a rare anatomic configuration and points out the importance of looking for additional canals.

  19. Auditory Perceptual Abilities Are Associated with Specific Auditory Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Zaltz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The extent to which auditory experience can shape general auditory perceptual abilities is still under constant debate. Some studies show that specific auditory expertise may have a general effect on auditory perceptual abilities, while others show a more limited influence, exhibited only in a relatively narrow range associated with the area of expertise. The current study addresses this issue by examining experience-dependent enhancement in perceptual abilities in the auditory domain. Three experiments were performed. In the first experiment, 12 pop and rock musicians and 15 non-musicians were tested in frequency discrimination (DLF, intensity discrimination, spectrum discrimination (DLS, and time discrimination (DLT. Results showed significant superiority of the musician group only for the DLF and DLT tasks, illuminating enhanced perceptual skills in the key features of pop music, in which miniscule changes in amplitude and spectrum are not critical to performance. The next two experiments attempted to differentiate between generalization and specificity in the influence of auditory experience, by comparing subgroups of specialists. First, seven guitar players and eight percussionists were tested in the DLF and DLT tasks that were found superior for musicians. Results showed superior abilities on the DLF task for guitar players, though no difference between the groups in DLT, demonstrating some dependency of auditory learning on the specific area of expertise. Subsequently, a third experiment was conducted, testing a possible influence of vowel density in native language on auditory perceptual abilities. Ten native speakers of German (a language characterized by a dense vowel system of 14 vowels, and 10 native speakers of Hebrew (characterized by a sparse vowel system of five vowels, were tested in a formant discrimination task. This is the linguistic equivalent of a DLS task. Results showed that German speakers had superior formant

  20. Absent semicircular canals in CHARGE syndrome: radiologic spectrum of findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, A K; Wiggins, R H; Hudgins, P A; Hedlund, G L; Hamilton, B; Mukherji, S K; Telian, S A; Harnsberger, H R

    2006-09-01

    This paper describes the CT findings that characterize the middle and inner ear anomalies in coloboma, heart defects, choanal atresia, mental retardation, genitourinary, and ear anomalies (CHARGE) syndrome. With this information, neuroradiologists will be better prepared to provide clinically relevant information to their referring physicians regarding this rare syndrome. CT studies from 13 patients were reviewed by 2 neuroradiologists with Certificate of Additional Qualification. Each ear was counted separately for a total of 26 ears. Middle and inner ear anomalies associated with CHARGE syndrome were categorized. Investigational review board approval was obtained. Twenty of 26 (77%) ears demonstrated cochlear aperture atresia. Four of these ears were evaluated with MR imaging and were found to lack a cochlear nerve. Twenty-one of 26 (81%) cochlea had some form of dysplasia. Six of 26 (23%) round windows were aplastic. Three of 26 (12%) round windows were hypoplastic. Twenty-one of 26 (81%) oval windows were atretic or aplastic. Fifteen of 26 (58%) vestibules were hypoplastic or dysplastic. There were 5 of 26 (19%) enlarged vestibular aqueducts. Twelve of 26 (46%) vestibular aqueducts had an anomalous course. All cases demonstrated absent semicircular canals. Twenty-three of 26 (88%) facial nerve canals had an anomalous course. Four of 26 (15%) tympanic segments were prolapsed. Three of 26 (12%) temporal bones had an anomalous emissary vein referred to as a petrosquamosal sinus. Twenty-one of 26 (81%) middle ear cavities were small. Twenty-three of 26 (93%) ossicles were dysplastic with ankylosis. Three of 26 (12%) internal auditory canals were small. The CT findings that correlate to the anomalies of CHARGE syndrome affect conductive as well as sensorineural hearing. Stenosis of the aperture for the cochlear nerve aperture on CT is suggestive of hypoplasia or absence of the cochlear nerve, which has been demonstrated in some cases by MR. Absence of the cochlear

  1. 75 FR 39632 - Regulated Navigation Area; Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, Harvey...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    ..., Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, Harvey Canal, Algiers Canal, New Orleans, LA; Correction ACTION: Interim... Navigation Canal, Harvey Canal, Algiers Canal, New Orleans, LA into the Code of Federal Regulations. That...

  2. Effects of cavity reconstruction on morbidity and quality of life after canal wall down tympanomastoidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uluyol, Sinan; Ugur, Omer; Arslan, Ilker Burak; Yagiz, Ozlem; Gumussoy, Murat; Cukurova, Ibrahim

    2017-08-19

    Canal wall down (CWD) tympanomastoidectomy is commonly used to treat advanced chronic otitis media or cholesteatoma. The advantages of CWD mastoidectomy are excellent exposure for disease eradication and postoperative control of residual disease; its disadvantages include the accumulation of debris requiring life-long otological maintenance and cleaning, continuous ear drainage, fungal cavity infections, and the occurrence of dizziness and vertigo by changing temperature or pressure. To evaluate whether cavity-induced problems can be eliminated and patient comfort can be increased with mastoid cavity reconstruction. In total, 11 patients who underwent mastoid cavity reconstruction between March 2013 and June 2013 comprised the study group, and 11 patients who had dry, epithelialized CWD cavities were recruited as the control group. The study examined three parameters: epithelial migration, air caloric testing, and the Glasgow Benefit Inventory (GBI). Epithelial migration, air caloric testing, and the GBI were evaluated in the study and control groups. The epithelial migration rate was significantly faster in study group (1.63±0.5mm/week) than control group (0.94±0.37mm/week) (p=0.003, psocial health scores were -9.71, -21.09, and +20.35, respectively in the control group. These were +33.93, +35.59, +33.31, and +29.61, respectively in the study group. All but the social health score improved significantly (0.007, 0.008, 0.018, and 0.181, respectively). Cavity reconstruction improves epithelial migration, normalizes caloric responses and increases the quality of life. Thus, cavity rehabilitation eliminates open-cavity-induced problems by restoring the functional anatomy of the ear. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Auditory Discrimination and Auditory Sensory Behaviours in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Catherine R. G.; Happe, Francesca; Baird, Gillian; Simonoff, Emily; Marsden, Anita J. S.; Tregay, Jenifer; Phillips, Rebecca J.; Goswami, Usha; Thomson, Jennifer M.; Charman, Tony

    2009-01-01

    It has been hypothesised that auditory processing may be enhanced in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We tested auditory discrimination ability in 72 adolescents with ASD (39 childhood autism; 33 other ASD) and 57 IQ and age-matched controls, assessing their capacity for successful discrimination of the frequency, intensity and duration…

  4. Auditory and non-auditory effects of noise on health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basner, M.; Babisch, W.; Davis, A.; Brink, M.; Clark, C.; Janssen, S.A.; Stansfeld, S.

    2013-01-01

    Noise is pervasive in everyday life and can cause both auditory and non-auditory health eff ects. Noise-induced hearing loss remains highly prevalent in occupational settings, and is increasingly caused by social noise exposure (eg, through personal music players). Our understanding of molecular

  5. The Central Auditory Processing Kit[TM]. Book 1: Auditory Memory [and] Book 2: Auditory Discrimination, Auditory Closure, and Auditory Synthesis [and] Book 3: Auditory Figure-Ground, Auditory Cohesion, Auditory Binaural Integration, and Compensatory Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhemar, Mary Ann

    This kit for assessing central auditory processing disorders (CAPD), in children in grades 1 through 8 includes 3 books, 14 full-color cards with picture scenes, and a card depicting a phone key pad, all contained in a sturdy carrying case. The units in each of the three books correspond with auditory skill areas most commonly addressed in…

  6. [Tomography of the pterygoid canals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riazantsev, S V; Kalenov, V E; Russkikh, N A

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents an X-ray scheme for calculating the depth of pterygoid canals required for accurate tomography. The scheme includes three lines: line A corresponds to the physiological horizontal line, line B is drawn, normally to line A through the tip of the nose, and line C is the perpendicular from line B to the upper third of the posterior wall of the pterygopalatine fossa. The length of line B plus 1 cm (thickness of external nose soft tissues) is the value to be determined. Twenty-six patients underwent X-ray examinations by an EDK-750B unit (70 kV, 150 mA, 1.65 s). In all cases 1-3 images were sufficient to obtain good visualization of the pterygoid canals.

  7. Scalloping at the lumbosacral canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhardt, R.

    1987-07-01

    Scalloping is an indentation of the dorsal side of the vertebral body (anterior wall of the lumbosacral or sacral canal) which typically involves several adjacent lumbal vertebral body segments and the anterior wall of the canalis sacralis. Occurrence without underlying disease is rare; it occurs most frequently with chondrodystrophy, neurofibromatosis, Morquio's syndrome, Hurler's syndrome, acromegaly, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Marfan's syndrome, cysts, tumors and in peridural lipomas.

  8. Endometriosis en el canal inguinal

    OpenAIRE

    Quirós, José Luis; Corrales, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Resumen: Endometriosis se define como la presencia de tejido glandular y estromal endometrial fuera de la cavidad uterina y este tejido ectópico es dependiente de la estimulación estrogénica. Usualmente se presenta en ovarios, fondos de saco, ligamento ancho, ligamento uterosacro, útero, trompas de Falopio, tracto gastrointestinal y geniturinario. Sin embargo, puede presentarse en otras localizaciones, como en el canal inguinal. Prevalece en 10% de las mujeres en edad reproductiva. Existen mu...

  9. Isolated Deep Ear Canal Pain: Possible Role of Auricular Branch of Vagus Nerve-Case Illustrations with Cadaveric Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kentaro; Tubbs, R Shane; Satoh, Shunsuke; Zomorodi, Ali R; Liedtke, Wolfgang; Labidi, Moujahed; Friedman, Allan H; Fukushima, Takanori

    2016-12-01

    Glossopharyngeal, nervus intermedius, and vagus neuralgias can all present with ear pain. However, to our knowledge, there have been no reports of otalgia as the only symptom of vagus neuralgia. The seventh, ninth, and tenth cranial nerves have many interneural connections, and the exact anatomy and pathophysiology of these neuralgias are often not clear. Moreover, symptoms due to involvement of any of these nerves can be difficult to attribute solely to 1 of them. The overlapping sensory innervation of the external auditory canal can lead to misdiagnosis in patients suffering from otalgia. This report presents a case of pure otalgia due to vascular compression of the vagus nerve (VN) and considers the microanatomic differences between glossopharyngeal and nervus intermedius neuralgia via cadaveric dissections. We report 2 cases of external auditory canal pain that continued following microvascular treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. Intraoperatively and at secondary operation, the posterior inferior cerebellar artery was found to be adherent and to penetrate between the fibers of the VN. Following microvascular treatment of the VN, the pain resolved. This is the first report of vagus neuralgia presenting solely with ear pain. Surgeons should be aware that primary external auditory canal pain can be due to vagus neuralgia via its auricular branch and that such patients can be misdiagnosed with glossopharyngeal or nervus intermedius neuralgias. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Partial Epilepsy with Auditory Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The clinical characteristics of 53 sporadic (S cases of idiopathic partial epilepsy with auditory features (IPEAF were analyzed and compared to previously reported familial (F cases of autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features (ADPEAF in a study at the University of Bologna, Italy.

  11. The Perception of Auditory Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Johahn

    2016-01-01

    The growing availability of efficient and relatively inexpensive virtual auditory display technology has provided new research platforms to explore the perception of auditory motion. At the same time, deployment of these technologies in command and control as well as in entertainment roles is generating an increasing need to better understand the complex processes underlying auditory motion perception. This is a particularly challenging processing feat because it involves the rapid deconvolution of the relative change in the locations of sound sources produced by rotational and translations of the head in space (self-motion) to enable the perception of actual source motion. The fact that we perceive our auditory world to be stable despite almost continual movement of the head demonstrates the efficiency and effectiveness of this process. This review examines the acoustical basis of auditory motion perception and a wide range of psychophysical, electrophysiological, and cortical imaging studies that have probed the limits and possible mechanisms underlying this perception. PMID:27094029

  12. Peripheral Auditory Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, J; Hubbard, A; Neely, S; Tubis, A

    1986-01-01

    How weIl can we model experimental observations of the peripheral auditory system'? What theoretical predictions can we make that might be tested'? It was with these questions in mind that we organized the 1985 Mechanics of Hearing Workshop, to bring together auditory researchers to compare models with experimental observations. Tbe workshop forum was inspired by the very successful 1983 Mechanics of Hearing Workshop in Delft [1]. Boston University was chosen as the site of our meeting because of the Boston area's role as a center for hearing research in this country. We made a special effort at this meeting to attract students from around the world, because without students this field will not progress. Financial support for the workshop was provided in part by grant BNS- 8412878 from the National Science Foundation. Modeling is a traditional strategy in science and plays an important role in the scientific method. Models are the bridge between theory and experiment. Tbey test the assumptions made in experim...

  13. Developmental spinal canal stenosis and somatotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, S

    1989-01-01

    The hypothesis that somatotype and cervical spine developmental canal stenosis may be associated has been investigated by anthropometry and measurement of lateral projection cervical spine radiographs. A significant association of canal size with somatotype has been found such that those with developmentally narrow canals are more likely to have relatively shorter long-bones, particularly in the upper arm, and longer trunks. Images PMID:2769282

  14. Development of the anterior chordal canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Miklós; Moser, Gerhard; Patonay, Lajos; Oláh, Imre

    2006-01-01

    Resent advances have led to the reexamination of the intraosseous pathway of the chorda tympani a few years ago and they stated that the nerve never enters the mandibular fossa and its exit the skull base in the sphenopetrosal fissure. In our report, 58 temporal bones were investigated after maceration and formalin fixation in order to understand the development of the anterior chordal canal. Our study revealed that the chorda tympani leaves the tympanic cavity through the tympanosquamosal fissure before formation of the anterior chordal canal of Huguier. This canal is situated parallel to and in front of the musculotubal canal and formed by the processus inferior tegminis tympani and the sphenoid bone between the second and fifth years of age. Prior to the age of 2, only the exit of the bony canal exists which is gradually followed by the appearance of a groove in the growing processus inferior tegminis tympani. The borders of the groove elevate and develop to upper and lower plates which lengthen with similar plates of the sphenoid bone, completing the anterior chordal canal by the fifth postnatal year. The entrance of the canal develops above the petrotympanic fissure and similar to the canal itself, it is also completely formed in the fifth year. In case of an incomplete development the anterior chordal canal remains partially opened laterally which might allow the head of the mandibula to effect the chorda tympani mechanically causing Costen's syndrome.

  15. Use of a highly transparent zebrafish mutant for investigations in the development of the vertebrate auditory system (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniowiecki, Anna M.; Mattison, Scott P.; Kim, Sangmin; Riley, Bruce; Applegate, Brian E.

    2016-03-01

    Zebrafish, an auditory specialist among fish, offer analogous auditory structures to vertebrates and is a model for hearing and deafness in vertebrates, including humans. Nevertheless, many questions remain on the basic mechanics of the auditory pathway. Phase-sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography has been proven as valuable technique for functional vibrometric measurements in the murine ear. Such measurements are key to building a complete understanding of auditory mechanics. The application of such techniques in the zebrafish is impeded by the high level of pigmentation, which develops superior to the transverse plane and envelops the auditory system superficially. A zebrafish double mutant for nacre and roy (mitfa-/- ;roya-/- [casper]), which exhibits defects for neural-crest derived melanocytes and iridophores, at all stages of development, is pursued to improve image quality and sensitivity for functional imaging. So far our investigations with the casper mutants have enabled the identification of the specialized hearing organs, fluid-filled canal connecting the ears, and sub-structures of the semicircular canals. In our previous work with wild-type zebrafish, we were only able to identify and observe stimulated vibration of the largest structures, specifically the anterior swim bladder and tripus ossicle, even among small, larval specimen, with fully developed inner ears. In conclusion, this genetic mutant will enable the study of the dynamics of the zebrafish ear from the early larval stages all the way into adulthood.

  16. Study of lipid in the ear canal in canine otitis externa with Malassezia pachydermatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, A; Sukegawa, T; Mizumoto, N; Tani, H; Miyamoto, T; Sasai, K; Baba, E

    2000-11-01

    An epidemiological investigation of 120 canine otitis externa cases in 1,370 dogs was done on the incidence rate, ear pinna shapes, breeds and their relationships. Eighty-five cases (12.6%) in 672 dogs with pendulous ears and 35 cases (5.0%) in 698 dogs with erect ears had otitis externa, and the difference between them was significant (Pcanine otitis externa, prefers the auditory canal of dogs with lipid-rich earwax and grows fast, but growth strongly depends upon the canine breed.

  17. Root canal treatment of mandibular second premolar with four root canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bander Al-Abdulwahhab

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Variation in the morphology of the root canal system of mandibular premolars has been demonstrated. This diverse morphology challenges for the clinician to clean, shape, and fill the entire root canal system. A case report of a mandibular second premolar with four root canals separated at the apical third and underwent endodontic treatment is presented.

  18. 5 CFR 315.601 - Appointment of former employees of the Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System. 315.601 Section 315.601 Administrative... employees of the Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System. (a) Agency authority. This... Zone Merit System, which was in effect before March 31, 1982, or under the Panama Canal Employment...

  19. Auditory hallucinations treated by radio headphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feder, R

    1982-09-01

    A young man with chronic auditory hallucinations was treated according to the principle that increasing external auditory stimulation decreases the likelihood of auditory hallucinations. Listening to a radio through stereo headphones in conditions of low auditory stimulation eliminated the patient's hallucinations.

  20. Auditory short-term memory in the primate auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Brian H; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2016-06-01

    Sounds are fleeting, and assembling the sequence of inputs at the ear into a coherent percept requires auditory memory across various time scales. Auditory short-term memory comprises at least two components: an active ׳working memory' bolstered by rehearsal, and a sensory trace that may be passively retained. Working memory relies on representations recalled from long-term memory, and their rehearsal may require phonological mechanisms unique to humans. The sensory component, passive short-term memory (pSTM), is tractable to study in nonhuman primates, whose brain architecture and behavioral repertoire are comparable to our own. This review discusses recent advances in the behavioral and neurophysiological study of auditory memory with a focus on single-unit recordings from macaque monkeys performing delayed-match-to-sample (DMS) tasks. Monkeys appear to employ pSTM to solve these tasks, as evidenced by the impact of interfering stimuli on memory performance. In several regards, pSTM in monkeys resembles pitch memory in humans, and may engage similar neural mechanisms. Neural correlates of DMS performance have been observed throughout the auditory and prefrontal cortex, defining a network of areas supporting auditory STM with parallels to that supporting visual STM. These correlates include persistent neural firing, or a suppression of firing, during the delay period of the memory task, as well as suppression or (less commonly) enhancement of sensory responses when a sound is repeated as a ׳match' stimulus. Auditory STM is supported by a distributed temporo-frontal network in which sensitivity to stimulus history is an intrinsic feature of auditory processing. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Auditory-olfactory synesthesia coexisting with auditory-visual synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Thomas E; Sandramouli, Soupramanien

    2012-09-01

    Synesthesia is an unusual condition in which stimulation of one sensory modality causes an experience in another sensory modality or when a sensation in one sensory modality causes another sensation within the same modality. We describe a previously unreported association of auditory-olfactory synesthesia coexisting with auditory-visual synesthesia. Given that many types of synesthesias involve vision, it is important that the clinician provide these patients with the necessary information and support that is available.

  2. Auditory Processing Training in Learning Disability

    OpenAIRE

    Nívea Franklin Chaves Martins; Hipólito Virgílio Magalhães Jr

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this case report was to promote a reflection about the importance of speech-therapy for stimulation a person with learning disability associated to language and auditory processing disorders. Data analysis considered the auditory abilities deficits identified in the first auditory processing test, held on April 30,2002 compared with the new auditory processing test done on May 13,2003,after one year of therapy directed to acoustic stimulation of auditory abilities disorders,in acco...

  3. [Upper lateral incisor with 2 canals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabra Campos, H

    1991-01-01

    Clinical case summary of the patient with an upper lateral incisor with two root canals. The suspicion that there might be an anatomic anomaly in the root that includes a complex root canal system was made when an advanced radicular groove was detected in the lingual surface or an excessively enlarged cingulum.

  4. 33 CFR 117.438 - Company Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Company Canal. 117.438 Section 117.438 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.438 Company Canal. (a) The draw of the...

  5. The enigma of the lateral canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weine, F S

    1984-10-01

    It is difficult to summarize an article of this type, in which the author is certain that his case has been presented fairly, but is aware that other views that are contrary could be stated and endorsed by pertinent clinical cases. Bearing this fact in mind, I wish to reiterate the following: Lateral canals are demonstrated in endodontic cases with much less frequency than they exist. This variance rarely, if ever, causes an endodontic failure. Some demonstrated lateral canals may really be other conditions. Preoperative evaluation should include examination of radiographs for lateral, as well as periapical, lesions. Lateral canals may be demonstrated by a variety of filling techniques. Careful canal preparation may enhance the frequency of such demonstration. Cases with necrotic pulps probably yield more frequent demonstration than do cases with vital pulps. Lateral canals harboring inflamed and/or infected material may cause pain during endodontic treatment. They may simulate periodontal disease and may cause problems with treatment if present when a tooth is left open for drainage. Periodontal disease may cause pulp exposure via lateral canals located coronally. Improper use of post room may lead to lateral failure from breakdown of tissue in a lateral canal. The enigma of the lateral canal has been the object of description and discussion in many articles, but no one is truly certain of their exact significance in endodontic therapy for the long haul.

  6. Computed Tomography Findings of Mandibular Nutrient Canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Yusuke; Sekiya, Kotaro; Sasaki, Yusuke; Tsukioka, Tsuneyuki; Muramatsu, Teruaki; Kaneda, Takashi

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess computed tomography (CT) findings of mandibular nutrient canals using CT images. We retrospectively analyzed the mandibular CT images of 194 consecutive patients. For image analysis such as canal prevalence, location, number, size, shape, and the CT value of nutrient foramina were determined using CT axial images of 0.5 and 3 mm slice thickness. We revealed that the nutrient canals were seen 94.3% in the mandible, mostly seen in the anterior region. By location, nutrient canals were particularly seen between the central and lateral incisors. The mean number of nutrient canals was 2.7. The mean diameter of the nutrient foramen between the central and lateral incisors was 1.0 mm. In about 80% of the cases, foramina between the central and lateral incisors were ovoid. The mean CT value for the nutrient foramina between the central and lateral incisors was 411 HU. Mandibular nutrient canals were ovoid shape, and the mean CT value was 411 HU. By preoperative knowledge of the position and anatomy of the mandibular nutrient canals, complications such as injury to the nutrient canals can be avoided.

  7. Type III apical transportation of root canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv P Mantri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Procedural accidents leading to complications such as canal transportation have been ascribed to inapt cleaning and shaping concepts. Canal transportation is an undesirable deviation from the natural canal path. Herewith a case of apical transportation of root canal resulting in endodontic retreatment failure and its management is presented. A healthy 21-year-old young male presented discomfort and swelling associated with painful endodontically retreated maxillary incisor. Radiograph revealed periradicular radiolucency involving underfilled 11 and overfilled 12. Insufficiently obturated 11 exhibited apical transportation of canal. This type III transportation was treated by periradicular surgery and repair using white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA. Comfortable asymptomatic patient presented uneventful healing at third and fourth month recall visits. A decrease in the size of radiolucency in radiograph supported the clinical finding. In the present case, MTA is useful in repairing the transportation defect. The result of these procedures is predictable and successful.

  8. Updated regime equations for alluvial Egyptian canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahmy Salah Abdelhaleem

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Real accuracy of several regime relationships for designing stable alluvial channels in Egypt was determined. Extensive field measurements had been carried out on 26 Egyptian stable canals, which cover various categories of irrigation canals starting from distributary, branch to carrier canals in Egypt. Analysis of 1484 velocity profiles for 371 cross sections was employed in order to formulate new regime equations characterizing Egyptian canals. The functional formulations to include the flow depth, cross section area, hydraulic radius and mean velocity were achieved. This research compared the deduced formulas from the measured data with the equations derived by other researchers for stable channel design. It was found that the derived formulas are reliable and could help in the design of Egyptian canals to convey a discharge ranging from 0.11 to 287.5 m3/s (0.0095–24.84 millions m3/day.

  9. Looking back at Love Canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deegan, J. Jr.

    1987-04-01

    The comprehensive environmental study which describes the results of a monitoring program conducted by EPA at Love Canal is evaluated by EPA's former study director. Attention is focused on the episode's history and the agency's study methods. The aim of the program was to constitute a study team, design a monitoring study, reprogram and reallocate the financial resources needed to conduct the study, and identify and employ contractors who would collect and analyze environmental samples. The agency was directed to ensure the quality of the data acquired from various environmental media and analyzed by numerous laboratories; to integrate, interpret, and report the data; and to assess, from an environmental perspective, the habitability of the area.

  10. [The treatment of otosclerosis using laser assisted stapedotomy with mini incision in external auditory meatus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xinping; Chen, Shubin; Yu, Zilong; Liang, Fenghe; Li, Yongxin

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the feasibility of the treatment of otosclerosis using laser stapedotomy with mini incision in the external auditory meatus. Thirteen patients(15 ears) with otosclerosis evidence on clinic history. They were all operated using the laser assisted stapedotomy by mini incision in external auditory meatus because of the wide straight canal. Laser resection the tendo musculistapedius and anterior and postrior arch, breaking the articulatioincudostapedia, removing the stapes superstructure, making a hole of 6mm diameter in the rear of stapes footplate by laser drilling, implanting the corresponding length Piston artificial ossicle. All the surgeries were successful and the operation time was about one hour. There was only one patient manifested vertigo and nausea after the operation. But the symptoms improved three days later after the expectant treatment. All the incisions were healed in the externals. There was significant difference between the preoperative and postoperative PTA. The air conduct improved in every frequent and the bone conduct improved in 1 kHz, 2 kHz and 4 kHz. Laser assisted stapedotomy by mini incision in the external auditory meatus in patients having wide straight canal with otosclerosis can shorten the operation time, minimize the tissue damage, fasten the healing of the incision and reduce the complications postoperatively. In addition, the mini incision is beauty and easy to nurse.

  11. Wave Mechanics of the Vestibular Semicircular Canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, Marta M; Rabbitt, Richard D

    2017-09-05

    The semicircular canals are biomechanical sensors responsible for detecting and encoding angular motion of the head in 3D space. Canal afferent neurons provide essential inputs to neural circuits responsible for representation of self-position/orientation in space, and to compensatory circuits including the vestibulo-ocular and vestibulo-collic reflex arcs. In this work we derive, to our knowledge, a new 1D mathematical model quantifying canal biomechanics based on the morphology, dynamics of the inner ear fluids, and membranous labyrinth deformability. The model takes the form of a dispersive wave equation and predicts canal responses to angular motion, sound, and mechanical stimulation. Numerical simulations were carried out for the morphology of the human lateral canal using known physical properties of the endolymph and perilymph in three diverse conditions: surgical plugging, rotation, and mechanical indentation. The model reproduces frequency-dependent attenuation and phase shift in cases of canal plugging. During rotation, duct deformability extends the frequency bandwidth and enhances the high frequency gain. Mechanical indentation of the membranous duct at high frequencies evokes traveling waves that move away from the location of indentation and at low frequencies compels endolymph displacement along the canal. These results demonstrate the importance of the conformal perilymph-filled bony labyrinth to pressure changes and to high frequency sound and vibration. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. How to bond to root canal dentin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nica, Luminita; Todea, Carmen; Furtos, Gabriel; Baldea, Bogdan

    2014-01-01

    Bonding to root canal dentin may be difficult due to various factors: the structural characteristic of the root canal dentin, which is different from that of the coronal dentin; the presence of the organic tissue of the dental pulp inside the root canal, which has to be removed during the cleaning-shaping of the root canal system; the smear-layer resulted after mechanical instrumentation, which may interfere with the adhesion of the filling materials; the type of the irrigants used in the cleaning protocol; the type of the sealer and core material used in the obturation of the endodontic space; the type of the materials used for the restoration of the endodontically treated teeth. The influence of the cleaning protocol, of the root canal filling material, of the type of the adhesive system used in the restoration of the treated teeth and of the region of the root canal, on the adhesion of several filling and restorative materials to root canal dentin was evaluated in the push-out bond strength test on 1-mm thick slices of endodontically treated human teeth. The results showed that all these factors have a statistically significant influence on the push-out bond strength. Formation of resin tags between radicular dentin and the investigated materials was observed in some of the samples at SEM analysis.

  13. Panama Canal Watershed Experiment- Agua Salud Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallard, Robert F.; Ogden, Fred L.; Elsenbeer, Helmut; Hall, Jefferson S.

    2010-01-01

    The Agua Salud Project utilizes the Panama Canal’s (Canal) central role in world commerce to focus global attention on the ecosystem services provided by tropical forests. The Canal was one of the great engineering projects in the world. Completed in 1914, after almost a decade of concerted effort, its 80 km length greatly shortened the voyage between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. An entire class of ships, the Panamax, has been constructed to maximize the amount of cargo that can be carried in a Canal passage. In today’s parlance, the Canal is a “green” operation, powered largely by water (Table 1). The locks, three pairs on each end with a net lift of 27 meters, are gravity fed. For each ton of cargo that is transferred from ocean to ocean, about 13 tons of water (m3) are used. Lake Gatún forms much of the waterway in the Canal transect. Hydroelectricity is generated at the Gatún dam, whenever there is surplus water, and at Madden Dam (completed in 1936) when water is transferred from Lake Alhajuela to Lake Gatún. The Canal watershed is the source of drinking water for Panama City and Colon City, at either end of the Canal, and numerous towns in between.

  14. Mandibular Canal Enlargement: Clinical and Radiological Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Jun Ai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Enlargement of the mandibular canal is a rare radiological finding. Clinically, it may or may not be associated with sensory deficits. We report four cases of widening of the mandibular canal observed with various methods of imaging with different clinical characteristics. We describe this unique radiological finding and elaborate the importance of quality assessment of the imaging that is vital for accurate diagnosis and treatment planning. Clinicians should be mindful when assessing the imaging whenever the size of the mandibular canal is implicated. The case ranged from a benign tumor to malignancy, radiological errors, and artifacts. A more superior imaging or treatment modality was necessary to ascertain the diagnosis.

  15. Contribution of bioanthropology to the reconstruction of prehistoric productive processes. The external auditory exostoses in the prehispanic population of Gran Canaria

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    Velasco Vázquez, Javier

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is an approach to the role of bioanthropological studies in the reconstruction of the productive processes of past societies. This objective is obtained starting from the survey and valuation of the prevalence of bone exostoses in the auditory canal among the prehistoric inhabitants of Gran Canaria. The auditory exostose is a bone wound well documented through clinical and experimental studies, closely related to the exposure of the auditory canal to cold water. The estimation of this bone anomaly among the analysed population, leads to the definition of outstanding territorial variations in the economic strategies of these human groups.

    En el presente trabajo se pretende abordar el papel de los estudios bioantropológicos en la reconstrucción de los procesos productivos de las sociedades del pasado. Esta finalidad es perseguida a partir del examen y valoración de la prevalencia de exostosis óseas en el canal auditivo en la población prehistórica de Gran Canaria. Las exostosis auditivas constituyen una lesión ósea, bien documentada en trabajos experimentales y clínicos, estrechamente relacionada con la exposición del canal auditivo al agua fría. La estimación de esta anormalidad ósea en el conjunto poblacional analizado permite la definición de importantes variaciones territoriales en las estrategias económicas emprendidas por estos grupos humanos.

  16. [Auditory threshold for white noise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrat, R; Thillier, J L; Durivault, J

    1975-01-01

    The liminal auditory threshold for white noise and for coloured noise was determined from a statistical survey of a group of 21 young people with normal hearing. The normal auditory threshold for white noise with a spectrum covering the whole of the auditory field is between -- 0.57 dB +/- 8.78. The normal auditory threshold for bands of filtered white noise (coloured noise with a central frequency corresponding to the pure frequencies usually employed in tonal audiometry) describes a typical curve which, instead of being homothetic to the usual tonal curves, sinks to low frequencies and then rises. The peak of this curve is replaced by a broad plateau ranging from 750 to 6000 Hz and contained in the concavity of the liminal tonal curves. The ear is therefore less sensitive but, at limited acoustic pressure, white noise first impinges with the same discrimination upon the whole of the conversational zone of the auditory field. Discovery of the audiometric threshold for white noise constitutes a synthetic method of measuring acuteness of hearing which considerably reduces the amount of manipulation required.

  17. Scanning electron microscopy investigation of canal cleaning after canal preparation with nickel titanium files

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Slavoljub

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Root canal preparation is the most important phase of endodontic procedure and it consists of adequate canal space cleaning and shaping. In recent years, rotary instruments and techniques have gained importance because of the great efficacy, speed and safety of the preparation procedure. Objective. The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of different NiTi files on the canal wall cleaning quality, residual dentine debris and smear layer. Methods. The research was conducted on extracted human teeth in vitro conditions. Teeth were divided in 7 main groups depending on the kind of instruments used for root canal preparation: ProTaper, GT, ProFile, K-3, FlexMaster, hand ProTaper and hand GT. Root canal preparation was accomplished by crown-down technique. Prepared samples were assessed on scanning electron microscopy JEOL, JSM-6460 LV. The evaluation of dentine debris was done with 500x magnification, and the evaluation of smear layer with 1,000 times magnification. Quantitive assessment of dentine debris and smear layer was done according to the criteria of Hulsmann. Results. The least amount of debris and smear layer has been found in canals shaped with ProFile instruments, and the largest amount in canals shaped with FlexMaster instruments. Canal cleaning efficacy of hand GT and ProTaper files has been similar to cleaning efficacy of rotary NiTi files. Statistic analysis has shown a significant difference in amount of dentine debris and smear layer on the canal walls between sample groups shaped with different instruments. Conclusion. Completely clean canals have not been found in any tested group of instruments. The largest amount of debris and smear layer has been found in the apical third of all canals. The design and the type of endodontic instruments influence the efficacy of the canal cleaning.

  18. Incidence of accessory canals in Japanese anterior maxillary teeth following root canal filling ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adorno, C G; Yoshioka, T; Suda, H

    2010-05-01

    To investigate the vertical and horizontal distribution and the incidence of accessory canals in Japanese maxillary anterior teeth following root filling. The study included maxillary teeth; 69 central incisors, 61 lateral incisors and 31 canines. After the canal systems had been dyed and root canal instrumentation had been carried out, all prepared canals were filled with gutta-percha without using sealer. Transparent specimens were then obtained and examined with a digital microscope for horizontal and vertical distributions of accessory canals. The incidence of teeth with accessory canals in the apical 3 mm was 46%, 29% and 38% for the maxillary central incisors, lateral incisors and canines, respectively. The horizontal distribution was mainly buccal for central incisors, palatal for lateral incisors and distal and palatal for canines. There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) between the apical 3 mm and the rest of the root (16%, 20% and 19% for the maxillary central incisors, lateral incisors and canines, respectively) in terms of the presence of accessory canals. A high percentage of accessory canals can be found in apical 3 mm of the root. The horizontal distribution of accessory canals differed amongst the tooth types studied.

  19. Canal and isthmus debridement efficacy using a sonic irrigation technique in a closed-canal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Meenal; Sidow, Stephanie J; Looney, Stephen W; Lindsey, Kimberly; Niu, Li-na; Tay, Franklin R

    2012-09-01

    This in vitro study compared debridement efficacies of a sonic irrigation technique (Vibringe; Cavex Holland BV, Haarlem, The Netherlands) with side-vented needle irrigation (SNI) in the mesiobuccal root of maxillary first molars. Twenty roots with narrow isthmuses (≤ 1/4 canal diameter) were selected using micro-computed tomography scanning. Collagen solution was injected into canals/isthmuses and reconstituted with NH(4)OH to simulate canal debris. Each root was sealed apically and embedded in polyvinyl siloxane simulating a closed-canal system. Canals were instrumented to size 40/.04 taper 1 mm short of the anatomic apex. The final irrigation was performed with the Vibringe or SNI. Roots were demineralized, sectioned at 6 levels (1.2-3.2 mm) from the anatomic apex, and stained using Masson trichrome stain. The areas occupied by canals and isthmus and the debris-containing areas were statistically analyzed with repeated-measures analyses using "irrigation technique" as the between factor and "canal level" as the within factor (α = 0.05). Canals had significantly more debris at 1.2 and 1.6 mm (P .05). Considerably more debris remained at 1.2 and 2.0 mm for the Vibringe (P < .05). A significant difference was observed between the canal and the isthmus (P < .001). There is no difference between the Vibringe and SNI in their overall debridement efficacy in apical one third of the mesiobuccal root of maxillary first molars. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Semicircular canal modeling in human perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Houshyar; Mohamed, Shady; Lim, Chee Peng; Nahavandi, Saeid; Nalivaiko, Eugene

    2017-07-26

    The human vestibular system is a sensory and equilibrium system that manages and controls the human sense of balance and movement. It is the main sensor humans use to perceive rotational and linear motions. Determining an accurate mathematical model of the human vestibular system is significant for research pertaining to motion perception, as the quality and effectiveness of the motion cueing algorithm (MCA) directly depends on the mathematical model used in its design. This paper describes the history and analyses the development process of mathematical semicircular canal models. The aim of this review is to determine the most consistent and reliable mathematical semicircular canal models that agree with experimental results and theoretical analyses, and offer reliable approximations for the semicircular canal functions based on the existing studies. Selecting and formulating accurate mathematical models of semicircular canals are essential for implementation into the MCA and for ensuring effective human motion perception modeling.

  1. Devices and Procedures for Auditory Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Daniel

    1986-01-01

    The article summarizes information on assistive devices (hearing aids, cochlear implants, tactile aids, visual aids) and rehabilitation procedures (auditory training, speechreading, cued speech, and speech production) to aid the auditory learning of the hearing impaired.(DB)

  2. Auditory adaptation improves tactile frequency perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crommett, L.E.; Pérez Bellido, A.; Yau, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Our ability to process temporal frequency information by touch underlies our capacity to perceive and discriminate surface textures. Auditory signals, which also provide extensive temporal frequency information, can systematically alter the perception of vibrations on the hand. How auditory signals

  3. Auditory learning: a developmental method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yilu; Weng, Juyang; Hwang, Wey-Shiuan

    2005-05-01

    Motivated by the human autonomous development process from infancy to adulthood, we have built a robot that develops its cognitive and behavioral skills through real-time interactions with the environment. We call such a robot a developmental robot. In this paper, we present the theory and the architecture to implement a developmental robot and discuss the related techniques that address an array of challenging technical issues. As an application, experimental results on a real robot, self-organizing, autonomous, incremental learner (SAIL), are presented with emphasis on its audition perception and audition-related action generation. In particular, the SAIL robot conducts the auditory learning from unsegmented and unlabeled speech streams without any prior knowledge about the auditory signals, such as the designated language or the phoneme models. Neither available before learning starts are the actions that the robot is expected to perform. SAIL learns the auditory commands and the desired actions from physical contacts with the environment including the trainers.

  4. Auditory presentation of experimental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunney, David; Morrison, Robert C.

    1990-08-01

    Our research group has been working for several years on the development of auditory alternatives to visual graphs, primarily in order to give blind science students and scientists access to instrumental measurements. In the course of this work we have tried several modes for auditory presentation of data: synthetic speech, tones of varying pitch, complex waveforms, electronic music, and various non-musical sounds. Our most successful translation of data into sound has been presentation of infrared spectra as musical patterns. We have found that if the stick spectra of two compounds are visibly different, their musical patterns will be audibly different. Other possibilities for auditory presentation of data are also described, among them listening to Fourier transforms of spectra, and encoding data in complex waveforms (including synthetic speech).

  5. Context effects on auditory distraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sufen; Sussman, Elyse S.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to test the hypothesis that sound context modulates the magnitude of auditory distraction, indexed by behavioral and electrophysiological measures. Participants were asked to identify tone duration, while irrelevant changes occurred in tone frequency, tone intensity, and harmonic structure. Frequency deviants were randomly intermixed with standards (Uni-Condition), with intensity deviants (Bi-Condition), and with both intensity and complex deviants (Tri-Condition). Only in the Tri-Condition did the auditory distraction effect reflect the magnitude difference among the frequency and intensity deviants. The mixture of the different types of deviants in the Tri-Condition modulated the perceived level of distraction, demonstrating that the sound context can modulate the effect of deviance level on processing irrelevant acoustic changes in the environment. These findings thus indicate that perceptual contrast plays a role in change detection processes that leads to auditory distraction. PMID:23886958

  6. Auditory Hallucinations in Acute Stroke

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    Yair Lampl

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Auditory hallucinations are uncommon phenomena which can be directly caused by acute stroke, mostly described after lesions of the brain stem, very rarely reported after cortical strokes. The purpose of this study is to determine the frequency of this phenomenon. In a cross sectional study, 641 stroke patients were followed in the period between 1996–2000. Each patient underwent comprehensive investigation and follow-up. Four patients were found to have post cortical stroke auditory hallucinations. All of them occurred after an ischemic lesion of the right temporal lobe. After no more than four months, all patients were symptom-free and without therapy. The fact the auditory hallucinations may be of cortical origin must be taken into consideration in the treatment of stroke patients. The phenomenon may be completely reversible after a couple of months.

  7. Octave effect in auditory attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borra, Tobias; Versnel, Huib; Kemner, Chantal; van Opstal, A John; van Ee, Raymond

    2013-09-17

    After hearing a tone, the human auditory system becomes more sensitive to similar tones than to other tones. Current auditory models explain this phenomenon by a simple bandpass attention filter. Here, we demonstrate that auditory attention involves multiple pass-bands around octave-related frequencies above and below the cued tone. Intriguingly, this "octave effect" not only occurs for physically presented tones, but even persists for the missing fundamental in complex tones, and for imagined tones. Our results suggest neural interactions combining octave-related frequencies, likely located in nonprimary cortical regions. We speculate that this connectivity scheme evolved from exposure to natural vibrations containing octave-related spectral peaks, e.g., as produced by vocal cords.

  8. Efeito do ácido trans-retinóico na inibição de colesteatoma em cobaias Effect of trans-retinoic acid in the inhibition of cholesteatoma in guinea pigs

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    Marcos Luiz Antunes

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O colesteatoma de orelha média atingia mais de 5 milhões de pessoas até a década de 80. Vários modelos animais já foram utilizados para alternativas de tratamento do colesteatoma sem sucesso. OBJETIVO: Estudar os efeitos do ácido trans-retinóico, uso tópico na orelha externa em cobaias, na inibição da formação do colesteatoma de orelha média induzido pelo propilenoglicol. Estudo experimental prospectivo. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: 25 cobaias foram submetidas à aplicação de propilenoglicol a 100% na bula timpânica bilateralmente e uma solução de ácido trans-retinóico foi aplicada topicamente (total de 5 aplicações na orelha externa, região justa-timpânica, na orelha direita, enquanto na orelha esquerda aplicou-se solução fisiológica (orelha controle. As cobaias foram sacrificadas após 6 semanas do procedimento inicial e os ossos temporais foram separados, fixados e descalcificados, para análise macroscópica e histológica. RESULTADOS: Os achados macroscópicos evidenciaram a presença e suspeita de colesteatoma em 25% das orelhas direitas e 85% das orelhas esquerdas (P=0,0003*. Os achados histológicos dos 40 ossos temporais evidenciaram a presença de colesteatoma em 30% das orelhas direitas e 75% das orelhas esquerdas (P=0,0104*. CONCLUSÃO: O uso tópico do ácido trans-retinóico é efetivo na inibição da formação de colesteatoma induzido pelo propilenoglicol em cobaias.Middle ear cholesteatoma affected more than 5 million people until the 80`s. Many animal models were used, unsuccessfully, to study an alternative therapy to cholesteatoma. AIM: observe the effect of the trans-retinoic acid in the inhibition of middle ear cholesteatomas induced by propylene glycol. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical and Experimental. METHODS: 25 guinea pigs were submitted to the application of a 100% propylene glycol solution in their bulla bilaterally and a solution of trans-retinoic acid was applied locally in the external right ear, while

  9. Can long-term hearing preservation be expected in children following cholesteatoma surgery? Results from a 14-year-long study of atticotomy-limited mastoidectomy with cartilage reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chin-Lung; Shiao, An-Suey; Liao, Wen-Huei; Ho, Ching-Yin; Lien, Chiang-Feng

    2012-01-01

    Following cholesteatoma surgery, effective long-term hearing preservation in children is difficult and is not typically expected. Hence, long-term data on hearing outcomes are lacking. The aim of this study was to analyze long-term hearing outcomes in children following cholesteatoma surgery. For this study, 49 ears in 47 children (≤16 years) with acquired cholesteatomas following atticotomy-limited mastoidectomy with cartilage reconstruction (inside-out approach) during 1986-2010 were included. Pre- and post-operative recidivism-free audiometric results were compared. Hearing success was defined as a post-operative air conduction (AC) threshold of ≤30 dB (serviceable hearing). Logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate potential prognostic factors that independently contributed to the prediction of hearing success. These factors included stapes condition, pre-operative AC threshold, ossicular chain integrity, disease severity, age, and gender. The mean duration of follow-up was 14.2 years. The post-operative AC (33.55 ± 15.42 dB) and air-bone gap (17.88 ± 12.94 dB) were significantly improved compared with the pre-operative AC (42.90 ± 16.47 dB, p gap (30.23 ± 13.68 dB, p years. In addition, stapes destruction is an independent negative prognostic determinant of achieving hearing success. The prediction model in this study provides otologists with useful pre-operative information to inform patients and parents on expected hearing outcomes and may be useful for post-operative observations. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. The fluid mechanics of root canal irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulabivala, K; Ng, Y-L; Gilbertson, M; Eames, I

    2010-12-01

    Root canal treatment is a common dental operation aimed at removing the contents of the geometrically complex canal chambers within teeth; its purpose is to remove diseased or infected tissue. The complex chamber is first enlarged and shaped by instruments to a size sufficient to deliver antibacterial fluids. These irrigants help to dissolve dying tissue, disinfect the canal walls and space and flush out debris. The effectiveness of the procedure is limited by access to the canal terminus. Endodontic research is focused on finding the instruments and clinical procedures that might improve success rates by more effectively reaching the apical anatomy. The individual factors affecting treatment outcome have not been unequivocally deciphered, partly because of the difficulty in isolating them and in making the link between simplified, general experimental models and the complex biological objects that are teeth. Explicitly considering the physical processes within the root canal can contribute to the resolution of these problems. The central problem is one of fluid motion in a confined geometry, which makes the dispersion and mixing of irrigant more difficult because of the absence of turbulence over much of the canal volume. The effects of treatments can be understood through the use of scale models, mathematical modelling and numerical computations. A particular concern in treatment is that caustic irrigant may penetrate beyond the root canal, causing chemical damage to the jawbone. In fact, a stagnation plane exists beyond the needle tip, which the irrigant cannot penetrate. The goal is therefore to shift the stagnation plane apically to be coincident with the canal terminus without extending beyond it. Needle design may solve some of the problems but the best design for irrigant penetration conflicts with that for optimal removal of the bacterial biofilm from the canal wall. Both irrigant penetration and biofilm removal may be improved through canal fluid

  11. Early auditory enrichment with music enhances auditory discrimination learning and alters NR2B protein expression in rat auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinghong; Yu, Liping; Cai, Rui; Zhang, Jiping; Sun, Xinde

    2009-01-03

    Previous studies have shown that the functional development of auditory system is substantially influenced by the structure of environmental acoustic inputs in early life. In our present study, we investigated the effects of early auditory enrichment with music on rat auditory discrimination learning. We found that early auditory enrichment with music from postnatal day (PND) 14 enhanced learning ability in auditory signal-detection task and in sound duration-discrimination task. In parallel, a significant increase was noted in NMDA receptor subunit NR2B protein expression in the auditory cortex. Furthermore, we found that auditory enrichment with music starting from PND 28 or 56 did not influence NR2B expression in the auditory cortex. No difference was found in the NR2B expression in the inferior colliculus (IC) between music-exposed and normal rats, regardless of when the auditory enrichment with music was initiated. Our findings suggest that early auditory enrichment with music influences NMDA-mediated neural plasticity, which results in enhanced auditory discrimination learning.

  12. Brainstem auditory evoked responses in 37 dogs with otitis media before and after topical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, S

    2017-07-18

    The objective of this study was to determine whether intra-aural administration of aqueous solutions of marbofloxacin, gentamicin, tobramycin and ticarcillin (used off-licence) was associated with changes in hearing as measured by brainstem auditory evoked responses. Dogs diagnosed with otitis media (n=37) underwent brainstem auditory evoked response testing and then were treated for their ear disease. First, the external ear canal and middle ear were flushed with sterile saline followed by EDTA tris with 0·15% chlorhexidine. Then, a combination of aqueous antibiotic mixed with an aqueous solution of EDTA tris was instilled into the middle ear. Follow-up examinations were undertaken for each dog, and treatment was continued until there were no detected infectious organisms or inflammatory infiltrate. Brainstem auditory evoked response testing was repeated after resolution of the infection and discontinuation of therapy. Brainstem auditory evoked responses in dogs treated with aqueous solutions of marbofloxacin or gentamicin remained unchanged or improved after therapy of otitis media but were impaired in dogs treated with ticarcillin or tobramycin. If off-licence use of topical antibiotics is deemed necessary in cases of otitis media, aqueous solutions of marbofloxacin and gentamicin appear to be less ototoxic than aqueous solutions of ticarcillin or tobramycin. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  13. Changes in Properties of Auditory Nerve Synapses following Conductive Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Xiaowen; Sun, Wei; Xu-Friedman, Matthew A

    2017-01-11

    Auditory activity plays an important role in the development of the auditory system. Decreased activity can result from conductive hearing loss (CHL) associated with otitis media, which may lead to long-term perceptual deficits. The effects of CHL have been mainly studied at later stages of the auditory pathway, but early stages remain less examined. However, changes in early stages could be important because they would affect how information about sounds is conveyed to higher-order areas for further processing and localization. We examined the effects of CHL at auditory nerve synapses onto bushy cells in the mouse anteroventral cochlear nucleus following occlusion of the ear canal. These synapses, called endbulbs of Held, normally show strong depression in voltage-clamp recordings in brain slices. After 1 week of CHL, endbulbs showed even greater depression, reflecting higher release probability. We observed no differences in quantal size between control and occluded mice. We confirmed these observations using mean-variance analysis and the integration method, which also revealed that the number of release sites decreased after occlusion. Consistent with this, synaptic puncta immunopositive for VGLUT1 decreased in area after occlusion. The level of depression and number of release sites both showed recovery after returning to normal conditions. Finally, bushy cells fired fewer action potentials in response to evoked synaptic activity after occlusion, likely because of increased depression and decreased input resistance. These effects appear to reflect a homeostatic, adaptive response of auditory nerve synapses to reduced activity. These effects may have important implications for perceptual changes following CHL. Normal hearing is important to everyday life, but abnormal auditory experience during development can lead to processing disorders. For example, otitis media reduces sound to the ear, which can cause long-lasting deficits in language skills and verbal

  14. Posterior semicircular canal dehiscence: a morphologic cause of vertigo similar to superior semicircular canal dehiscence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krombach, G.A.; Schmitz-Rode, T.; Haage, P.; Guenther, R.W. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany); DiMartino, E. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany); Prescher, A. [Department of Anatomy, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany); Kinzel, S. [Department of Experimental Veterinarian Medicine, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany)

    2003-06-01

    Heading Abstract.The aim of this study was to assess imaging findings of posterior semicircular dehiscence on computed tomography and to evaluate incidence of posterior and superior semicircular canal dehiscence in patients presenting with vertigo, sensorineuronal hearing loss or in a control group without symptoms related to the inner ear. Computed tomography was performed in 507 patients presenting either with vertigo (n=128; 23 of these patients suffered also from sensorineuronal hearing loss), other symptoms related to the inner ear, such as hearing loss or tinnitus (n=183) or symptoms unrelated to the labyrinth (n=196). All images were reviewed for presence of dehiscence of the bone, overlying the semicircular canals. Twenty-nine patients had superior semicircular canal dehiscence. Of these patients, 83% presented with vertigo, 10% with hearing loss or tinnitus and the remaining 7% with symptoms unrelated to the inner ear. In 23 patients dehiscence of the posterior semicircular canal was encountered. Of these patients, 86% presented with vertigo, 9% with hearing loss or tinnitus and 5% with symptoms unrelated to the inner ear. Defects of the bony overly are found at the posterior semicircular canal, in addition to the recently introduced superior canal dehiscence syndrome. Significant prevalence of vertigo in these patients suggests that posterior semicircular canal dehiscence can cause vertigo, similar to superior semicircular canal dehiscence. (orig.)

  15. Auditory Hallucinations Nomenclature and Classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Jan Dirk; Sommer, Iris E. C.

    Introduction: The literature on the possible neurobiologic correlates of auditory hallucinations is expanding rapidly. For an adequate understanding and linking of this emerging knowledge, a clear and uniform nomenclature is a prerequisite. The primary purpose of the present article is to provide an

  16. Auditory Risk of Air Rifles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankford, James E.; Meinke, Deanna K.; Flamme, Gregory A.; Finan, Donald S.; Stewart, Michael; Tasko, Stephen; Murphy, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To characterize the impulse noise exposure and auditory risk for air rifle users for both youth and adults. Design Acoustic characteristics were examined and the auditory risk estimates were evaluated using contemporary damage-risk criteria for unprotected adult listeners and the 120-dB peak limit and LAeq75 exposure limit suggested by the World Health Organization (1999) for children. Study sample Impulses were generated by 9 pellet air rifles and 1 BB air rifle. Results None of the air rifles generated peak levels that exceeded the 140 dB peak limit for adults and 8 (80%) exceeded the 120 dB peak SPL limit for youth. In general, for both adults and youth there is minimal auditory risk when shooting less than 100 unprotected shots with pellet air rifles. Air rifles with suppressors were less hazardous than those without suppressors and the pellet air rifles with higher velocities were generally more hazardous than those with lower velocities. Conclusion To minimize auditory risk, youth should utilize air rifles with an integrated suppressor and lower velocity ratings. Air rifle shooters are advised to wear hearing protection whenever engaging in shooting activities in order to gain self-efficacy and model appropriate hearing health behaviors necessary for recreational firearm use. PMID:26840923

  17. Molecular approach of auditory neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Magali Aparecida Orate Menezes da; Piatto, Vânia Belintani; Maniglia, Jose Victor

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the otoferlin gene are responsible for auditory neuropathy. To investigate the prevalence of mutations in the mutations in the otoferlin gene in patients with and without auditory neuropathy. This original cross-sectional case study evaluated 16 index cases with auditory neuropathy, 13 patients with sensorineural hearing loss, and 20 normal-hearing subjects. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes, and the mutations in the otoferlin gene sites were amplified by polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism. The 16 index cases included nine (56%) females and seven (44%) males. The 13 deaf patients comprised seven (54%) males and six (46%) females. Among the 20 normal-hearing subjects, 13 (65%) were males and seven were (35%) females. Thirteen (81%) index cases had wild-type genotype (AA) and three (19%) had the heterozygous AG genotype for IVS8-2A-G (intron 8) mutation. The 5473C-G (exon 44) mutation was found in a heterozygous state (CG) in seven (44%) index cases and nine (56%) had the wild-type allele (CC). Of these mutants, two (25%) were compound heterozygotes for the mutations found in intron 8 and exon 44. All patients with sensorineural hearing loss and normal-hearing individuals did not have mutations (100%). There are differences at the molecular level in patients with and without auditory neuropathy. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Nigel: A Severe Auditory Dyslexic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotterell, Gill

    1976-01-01

    Reported is the case study of a boy with severe auditory dyslexia who received remedial treatment from the age of four and progressed through courses at a technical college and a 3-year apprenticeship course in mechanics by the age of eighteen. (IM)

  19. Auditory Processing Disorder in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Auditory Neuropathy Autism Spectrum Disorder: Communication Problems in Children Dysphagia Quick Statistics About Voice, Speech, Language Speech and Language Developmental Milestones What Is Voice? What Is Speech? What Is Language? ... communication provides better outcomes for children with cochlear implants University of Texas at Dallas ...

  20. Perineural Spread of Salivary Duct Carcinoma to the Internal Auditory Canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winfred Kitavi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Salivary duct carcinomas (SDCs are high-grade malignant tumors exhibiting aggressive growth with early regional and distant metastasis. We report a case of SDC in a 63-year-old male with early recurrent disease in the cerebellopontine angle (CPA after total parotidectomy and adjuvant radiotherapy. The tendency of the tumor to recur or metastasize despite radical surgical measures and radiotherapy continues to pose a therapeutic challenge.

  1. Cancer of the external auditory canal and middle ear in Denmark from 1992 to 2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Rørbæk; Gundgaard, Maria G; Hoff, Camilla M

    2008-01-01

    cell carcinoma, 10 basal cell carcinoma, and 11 other histologies. Moody (modified Pittsburgh) stages were T1 (26), T2 (9), T3 (8), T4 (23), Tx (2). Sixty-four patients were treated with curative intent: 24 primary radiotherapy, 18 primary surgery, and 22 combined. Surgery was limited to tumor excision...... and mastoidectomy and in 1 case temporal bone excision. RESULTS: Twenty-seven of 28 recurrences involved primary site. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed 5-year locoregional control of 48%, disease-specific survival 57%, and overall survival 44%. CONCLUSION: This nationwide study confirmed that local failure is the main...

  2. The encoding of auditory objects in auditory cortex: insights from magnetoencephalography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Jonathan Z

    2015-02-01

    Auditory objects, like their visual counterparts, are perceptually defined constructs, but nevertheless must arise from underlying neural circuitry. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings of the neural responses of human subjects listening to complex auditory scenes, we review studies that demonstrate that auditory objects are indeed neurally represented in auditory cortex. The studies use neural responses obtained from different experiments in which subjects selectively listen to one of two competing auditory streams embedded in a variety of auditory scenes. The auditory streams overlap spatially and often spectrally. In particular, the studies demonstrate that selective attentional gain does not act globally on the entire auditory scene, but rather acts differentially on the separate auditory streams. This stream-based attentional gain is then used as a tool to individually analyze the different neural representations of the competing auditory streams. The neural representation of the attended stream, located in posterior auditory cortex, dominates the neural responses. Critically, when the intensities of the attended and background streams are separately varied over a wide intensity range, the neural representation of the attended speech adapts only to the intensity of that speaker, irrespective of the intensity of the background speaker. This demonstrates object-level intensity gain control in addition to the above object-level selective attentional gain. Overall, these results indicate that concurrently streaming auditory objects, even if spectrally overlapping and not resolvable at the auditory periphery, are individually neurally encoded in auditory cortex, as separate objects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Management of C-shaped canals: Two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh Suryakant Kadam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A C-shaped canal with varying configuration is commonly observed in single-rooted mandibular second molars. Cooke and Cox (1979 first documented the C-shaped canal in endodontic literature. The presence of high incidence of transverse anastomoses, lateral canals, and apical deltas makes it difficult to clean and seal the root canal system in these teeth. The main reason for failure in endodontic treatment of mandibular second molars is the inability to detect the presence of C-shaped canals prior to an endodontic therapy. This case report presents successful management of two rare cases of C-shaped canal configurations.

  4. Function of lateral line canal morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Adrian; Bleckmann, Horst

    2015-01-01

    Fish perceive water motions and pressure gradients with their lateral line. Lateral line information is used for prey detection, spatial orientation, predator avoidance, schooling behavior, intraspecific communication and station holding. The lateral line of most fishes consists of superficial neuromasts (SNs) and canal neuromasts (CNs). The distribution of SNs and CNs shows a high degree of variation among fishes. Researchers have speculated for decades about the functional significance of this diversity, often without any conclusive answers. Klein et al. (2013) examined how tubules, pore number and pore patterns affect the filter properties of lateral line canals in a marine teleost, the black prickleback (Xiphister atropurpureus). A preliminary mathematical model was formulated and biomimetic sensors were built. For the present study the mathematical model was extended to understand the major underlying principle of how canal dimensions influence the filter properties of the lateral line. Both the extended mathematical model and the sensor experiments show that the number and distribution of pores determine the spatial filter properties of the lateral line. In an environment with little hydrodynamic noise, simple and complex lateral line canals have comparable response properties. However, if exposed to highly turbulent conditions, canals with numerous widely spaced pores increase the signal to noise ratio significantly. © 2014 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. Comparison of auditory deficits associated with neglect and auditory cortex lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutschalk, Alexander; Brandt, Tobias; Bartsch, Andreas; Jansen, Claudia

    2012-04-01

    In contrast to lesions of the visual and somatosensory cortex, lesions of the auditory cortex are not associated with self-evident contralesional deficits. Only when two or more stimuli are presented simultaneously to the left and right, contralesional extinction has been observed after unilateral lesions of the auditory cortex. Because auditory extinction is also considered a sign of neglect, clinical separation of auditory neglect from deficits caused by lesions of the auditory cortex is challenging. Here, we directly compared a number of tests previously used for either auditory-cortex lesions or neglect in 29 controls and 27 patients suffering from unilateral auditory-cortex lesions, neglect, or both. The results showed that a dichotic-speech test revealed similar amounts of extinction for both auditory cortex lesions and neglect. Similar results were obtained for words lateralized by inter-aural time differences. Consistent extinction after auditory cortex lesions was also observed in a dichotic detection task. Neglect patients showed more general problems with target detection but no consistent extinction in the dichotic detection task. In contrast, auditory lateralization perception was biased toward the right in neglect but showed considerably less disruption by auditory cortex lesions. Lateralization of auditory-evoked magnetic fields in auditory cortex was highly correlated with extinction in the dichotic target-detection task. Moreover, activity in the right primary auditory cortex was somewhat reduced in neglect patients. The results confirm that auditory extinction is observed with lesions of the auditory cortex and auditory neglect. A distinction can nevertheless be made with dichotic target-detection tasks, auditory-lateralization perception, and magnetoencephalography. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Auditory event files: integrating auditory perception and action planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmigrod, Sharon; Hommel, Bernhard

    2009-02-01

    The features of perceived objects are processed in distinct neural pathways, which call for mechanisms that integrate the distributed information into coherent representations (the binding problem). Recent studies of sequential effects have demonstrated feature binding not only in perception, but also across (visual) perception and action planning. We investigated whether comparable effects can be obtained in and across auditory perception and action. The results from two experiments revealed effects indicative of spontaneous integration of auditory features (pitch and loudness, pitch and location), as well as evidence for audio-manual stimulus-response integration. Even though integration takes place spontaneously, features related to task-relevant stimulus or response dimensions are more likely to be integrated. Moreover, integration seems to follow a temporal overlap principle, with features coded close in time being more likely to be bound together. Taken altogether, the findings are consistent with the idea of episodic event files integrating perception and action plans.

  7. Study of root canal accessibility in human primary molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminabadi, Naser A; Farahani, Ramin M Z; Gajan, Esrafil B

    2008-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to provide a general scheme for pulpectomy of primary molars that may be useful for decision-making about negotiation of root canals and selection of appropriate instruments. A total of 160 vital primary molars in 85 patients (40 males, 45 females) aged 4-6 years were selected. After taking primary radiographs, local anesthesia was induced, and the teeth were isolated using a rubber dam. Canal accessibility index (CAI) and tooth accessibility index (TAI) were calculated according to initial file size. Mandibular first molars had either three canals (79.2%) or four canals (20.8%), and all second molars had four canals. Maxillary first molars had three canals and second molars had either three canals (70.9%) or four canals (29.1%). Lower accessibility of the mandibular first molar distobuccal root accounted for the lower accessibility of these teeth in comparison with mandibular second molars. While three-canal maxillary second molars were more accessible due to the lower accessibility of the distobuccal canal of the maxillary first molar, poor accessibility of the distal canal in four-canal second molars was responsible for the difficult accessibility of these teeth. In conclusion, it seems that the accessibility of a single canal in each tooth determines the difficulty of accessibility for any given tooth. Moreover, while primary second molars are more accessible than first molars, all of them are negotiable.

  8. Root canal debridement: an online study guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    The Editorial Board of the Journal of Endodontics has developed a literature-based study guide of topical areas related to endodontics. This study guide is intended to give the reader a focused review of the essential endodontic literature and does not cite all possible articles related to each topic. Although citing all articles would be comprehensive, it would defeat the idea of a study guide. This section will present root canal debridement including subdivisions on canal access, canal debridement, orifice enlargement and preflaring, crown-down technique, balanced force, nickel titanium and other shape memory alloys, rotary engine-driven techniques, endodontic instruments, irrigation, electronic apex locators, sonics/ultrasonics, smear layer, and intracanal medicaments.

  9. The auditory brainstem is a barometer of rapid auditory learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoe, E; Krizman, J; Spitzer, E; Kraus, N

    2013-07-23

    To capture patterns in the environment, neurons in the auditory brainstem rapidly alter their firing based on the statistical properties of the soundscape. How this neural sensitivity relates to behavior is unclear. We tackled this question by combining neural and behavioral measures of statistical learning, a general-purpose learning mechanism governing many complex behaviors including language acquisition. We recorded complex auditory brainstem responses (cABRs) while human adults implicitly learned to segment patterns embedded in an uninterrupted sound sequence based on their statistical characteristics. The brainstem's sensitivity to statistical structure was measured as the change in the cABR between a patterned and a pseudo-randomized sequence composed from the same set of sounds but differing in their sound-to-sound probabilities. Using this methodology, we provide the first demonstration that behavioral-indices of rapid learning relate to individual differences in brainstem physiology. We found that neural sensitivity to statistical structure manifested along a continuum, from adaptation to enhancement, where cABR enhancement (patterned>pseudo-random) tracked with greater rapid statistical learning than adaptation. Short- and long-term auditory experiences (days to years) are known to promote brainstem plasticity and here we provide a conceptual advance by showing that the brainstem is also integral to rapid learning occurring over minutes. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Conceptual priming for realistic auditory scenes and for auditory words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Aline; Aramaki, Mitsuko; Besson, Mireille

    2014-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted using both behavioral and Event-Related brain Potentials methods to examine conceptual priming effects for realistic auditory scenes and for auditory words. Prime and target sounds were presented in four stimulus combinations: Sound-Sound, Word-Sound, Sound-Word and Word-Word. Within each combination, targets were conceptually related to the prime, unrelated or ambiguous. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to judge whether the primes and targets fit together (explicit task) and in Experiment 2 they had to decide whether the target was typical or ambiguous (implicit task). In both experiments and in the four stimulus combinations, reaction times and/or error rates were longer/higher and the N400 component was larger to ambiguous targets than to conceptually related targets, thereby pointing to a common conceptual system for processing auditory scenes and linguistic stimuli in both explicit and implicit tasks. However, fine-grained analyses also revealed some differences between experiments and conditions in scalp topography and duration of the priming effects possibly reflecting differences in the integration of perceptual and cognitive attributes of linguistic and nonlinguistic sounds. These results have clear implications for the building-up of virtual environments that need to convey meaning without words. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Adaptation in the auditory system: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David ePérez-González

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The early stages of the auditory system need to preserve the timing information of sounds in order to extract the basic features of acoustic stimuli. At the same time, different processes of neuronal adaptation occur at several levels to further process the auditory information. For instance, auditory nerve fiber responses already experience adaptation of their firing rates, a type of response that can be found in many other auditory nuclei and may be useful for emphasizing the onset of the stimuli. However, it is at higher levels in the auditory hierarchy where more sophisticated types of neuronal processing take place. For example, stimulus-specific adaptation, where neurons show adaptation to frequent, repetitive stimuli, but maintain their responsiveness to stimuli with different physical characteristics, thus representing a distinct kind of processing that may play a role in change and deviance detection. In the auditory cortex, adaptation takes more elaborate forms, and contributes to the processing of complex sequences, auditory scene analysis and attention. Here we review the multiple types of adaptation that occur in the auditory system, which are part of the pool of resources that the neurons employ to process the auditory scene, and are critical to a proper understanding of the neuronal mechanisms that govern auditory perception.

  12. Auditory Dysfunction in Patients with Cerebrovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadaharu Tabuchi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Auditory dysfunction is a common clinical symptom that can induce profound effects on the quality of life of those affected. Cerebrovascular disease (CVD is the most prevalent neurological disorder today, but it has generally been considered a rare cause of auditory dysfunction. However, a substantial proportion of patients with stroke might have auditory dysfunction that has been underestimated due to difficulties with evaluation. The present study reviews relationships between auditory dysfunction and types of CVD including cerebral infarction, intracerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, cerebrovascular malformation, moyamoya disease, and superficial siderosis. Recent advances in the etiology, anatomy, and strategies to diagnose and treat these conditions are described. The numbers of patients with CVD accompanied by auditory dysfunction will increase as the population ages. Cerebrovascular diseases often include the auditory system, resulting in various types of auditory dysfunctions, such as unilateral or bilateral deafness, cortical deafness, pure word deafness, auditory agnosia, and auditory hallucinations, some of which are subtle and can only be detected by precise psychoacoustic and electrophysiological testing. The contribution of CVD to auditory dysfunction needs to be understood because CVD can be fatal if overlooked.

  13. Effect of two contemporary root canal sealers on root canal dentin microhardness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khallaf, Maram E

    2017-01-01

    Successful root canal treatment depends on proper cleaning, disinfecting and shaping of the root canal space. Pulpless teeth have lower dentin microhardness value compared to that of vital teeth. A material which can cause change in dentin composition may affect the microhardness. Thus the aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effect of two root canal sealers on dentin microhardness. Forty two single rooted teeth were selected and divided into 3 equal groups; Apexit, iRootSP and control groups (n=14) Each group was then divided into 2 subgroups according to the post evaluation period; 1 week and 2 months (n=7). Root canal procedure was done in the experimental groups and obturation was made using either; Apexit, iRootSP or left unprepared and unobturated in the control group. Roots were sectioned transversely into cervical, middle and apical segments. The three sections of each root were mounted in a plastic chuck with acrylic resin. The coronal dentin surfaces of the root segments werepolished. Microhardness of each section was measured at 500 µm and 1000 µm from the canal lumen. Four way-ANOVA revealed that different tested sealer materials, canal third, measuring distance from the pulp and time as independent variables had statistically non significant effect on mean microhardness values (VHN) at p≤0.001. Among iRootSP groups there was a statistically significant difference between iRoot SP at coronal root portion (87.79±17.83) and iRoot SP at apical root portion (76.26±9.33) groups where (p=0.01). IRoot SP at coronal canal third had higher statistically significant mean microhardness value (87.79±17.83) compared to Apexit at coronal third (73.61±13.47) where (p=0.01). Root canal sealers do not affect dentin microhardness. Key words:Root canal, dentin, sealers, microhardness, bioceramic.

  14. Reality of auditory verbal hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raij, Tuukka T; Valkonen-Korhonen, Minna; Holi, Matti; Therman, Sebastian; Lehtonen, Johannes; Hari, Riitta

    2009-11-01

    Distortion of the sense of reality, actualized in delusions and hallucinations, is the key feature of psychosis but the underlying neuronal correlates remain largely unknown. We studied 11 highly functioning subjects with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder while they rated the reality of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The subjective reality of AVH correlated strongly and specifically with the hallucination-related activation strength of the inferior frontal gyri (IFG), including the Broca's language region. Furthermore, how real the hallucination that subjects experienced was depended on the hallucination-related coupling between the IFG, the ventral striatum, the auditory cortex, the right posterior temporal lobe, and the cingulate cortex. Our findings suggest that the subjective reality of AVH is related to motor mechanisms of speech comprehension, with contributions from sensory and salience-detection-related brain regions as well as circuitries related to self-monitoring and the experience of agency.

  15. Cochlear implant outcomes in patients with superior canal dehiscence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puram, Sidharth V.; Roberts, Daniel S.; Niesten, Marlien E F|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/377125202; Dilger, Amanda E.; Lee, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether adult cochlear implant (CI) users with superior canal dehiscence syndrome (SCDS) or asymptomatic superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SCD) have different surgical, vestibular, and audiologic outcomes when compared to CI users with normal temporal bone anatomy.

  16. Surgical endodontic management of infected lateral canals of maxillary incisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Jung-Min; Yi, Jin-Kyu; Choi, Sung-Baik; Park, Sang-Hyuk

    2015-02-01

    This case report presents surgical endodontic management outcomes of maxillary incisors that were infected via the lateral canals. Two cases are presented in which endodontically-treated maxillary central incisors had sustained lateral canal infections. A surgical endodontic treatment was performed on both teeth. Flap elevation revealed vertical bone destruction along the root surface and infected lateral canals, and microscopy revealed that the lateral canals were the origin of the lesions. After the infected lateral canals were surgically managed, both teeth were asymptomatic and labial fistulas were resolved. There were no clinical or radiographic signs of surgical endodontic management failure at follow-up visits. This case report highlights the clinical significance and surgical endodontic management of infected lateral canal of maxillary incisor. It is important to be aware of root canal anatomy variability in maxillary incisors. Maxillary central incisors infected via the lateral canal can be successfully managed by surgical endodontic treatment.

  17. Radiographic versus electronic root canal working length determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lumnije Kqiku

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: The present ex vivo study showed that electronic root canal working length determination is not superior to radiographic methods. Both methods provided a good performance in determining the root canal working length.

  18. Report from the Panama Canal Stakeholder Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    This project assists the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) in assessing the potential impacts of the Panama Canal expansion on Texas ports and the landside transportation system. TxDOT formed a Panama Canal Stakeholder Working Group (PCSWG) ...

  19. Perception of Complex Auditory Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-02

    and Piercy, M. (1973). Defects of non - verbal auditory perception in children with developmental aphasia . Nature (London), 241, 468-469. Watson, C.S...LII, zS 4p ETV I Hearing and Communication Laboratory Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences 7 Indiana University Bloomington, Indiana 47405 Final...Technical Report Air Force Office of Scientific Research AFOSR-84-0337 September 1, 1984 to August 31, 1987 Hearing and Communication Laboratory

  20. Auditory based neuropsychology in neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, Knut

    2008-04-01

    In this article, an account is given on the author's experience with auditory based neuropsychology in a clinical, neurosurgical setting. The patients that were included in the studies are patients with traumatic or vascular brain lesions, patients undergoing brain surgery to alleviate symptoms of Parkinson's disease, or patients harbouring an intracranial arachnoid cyst affecting the temporal or the frontal lobe. The aims of these investigations were to collect information about the location of cognitive processes in the human brain, or to disclose dyscognition in patients with an arachnoid cyst. All the patients were tested with the DL technique. In addition, the cyst patients were subjected to a number of non-auditory, standard neuropsychological tests, such as Benton Visual Retention Test, Street Gestalt Test, Stroop Test and Trails Test A and B. The neuropsychological tests revealed that arachnoid cysts in general cause dyscognition that also includes auditory processes, and more importantly, that these cognition deficits normalise after surgical removal of the cyst. These observations constitute strong evidence in favour of surgical decompression.

  1. Auditory brainstem implant program development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Marc S; Wilkinson, Eric P

    2017-08-01

    Auditory brainstem implants (ABIs), which have previously been used to restore auditory perception to deaf patients with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2), are now being utilized in other situations, including treatment of congenitally deaf children with cochlear malformations or cochlear nerve deficiencies. Concurrent with this expansion of indications, the number of centers placing and expressing interest in placing ABIs has proliferated. Because ABI placement involves posterior fossa craniotomy in order to access the site of implantation on the cochlear nucleus complex of the brainstem and is not without significant risk, we aim to highlight issues important in developing and maintaining successful ABI programs that would be in the best interests of patients. Especially with pediatric patients, the ultimate benefits of implantation will be known only after years of growth and development. These benefits have yet to be fully elucidated and continue to be an area of controversy. The limited number of publications in this area were reviewed. Review of the current literature was performed. Disease processes, risk/benefit analyses, degrees of evidence, and U.S. Food and Drug Administration approvals differ among various categories of patients in whom auditory brainstem implantation could be considered for use. We suggest sets of criteria necessary for the development of successful and sustaining ABI programs, including programs for NF2 patients, postlingually deafened adult nonneurofibromatosis type 2 patients, and congenitally deaf pediatric patients. Laryngoscope, 127:1909-1915, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  2. Viscoelastic assessment of anal canal function using acoustic reflectometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Peter J; Klarskov, Niels; Telford, Karen J

    2012-01-01

    Anal acoustic reflectometry is a new reproducible technique that allows a viscoelastic assessment of anal canal function. Five new variables reflecting anal canal function are measured: the opening and closing pressure, opening and closing elastance, and hysteresis.......Anal acoustic reflectometry is a new reproducible technique that allows a viscoelastic assessment of anal canal function. Five new variables reflecting anal canal function are measured: the opening and closing pressure, opening and closing elastance, and hysteresis....

  3. High-resolution three-dimensional diffusion-weighted imaging of middle ear cholesteatoma at 3.0 T MRI: usefulness of 3D turbo field-echo with diffusion-sensitized driven-equilibrium preparation (TFE-DSDE) compared to single-shot echo-planar imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Koji; Yoshiura, Takashi; Hiwatashi, Akio; Obara, Makoto; Togao, Osamu; Matsumoto, Nozomu; Kikuchi, Kazufumi; Honda, Hiroshi

    2013-09-01

    To prospectively evaluate the usefulness of a newly developed high-resolution three-dimensional diffusion-weighted imaging method, turbo field-echo with diffusion-sensitized driven-equilibrium (TFE-DSDE) in diagnosing middle-ear cholesteatoma by comparing it to conventional single-shot echo-planar diffusion-weighted imaging (SS-EP DWI). Institutional review board approval and informed consent from all participants were obtained. We studied 30 patients with preoperatively suspected acquired cholesteatoma. Each patient underwent an MR examination including both SS-EP DWI and DSDE-TFE using a 3.0 T MR scanner. Images of the 30 patients (60 temporal bones including 30 with and 30 without cholesteatoma) were reviewed by two independent neuroradiologists. The confidence level for the presence of cholesteatoma was graded on a scale of 0-2 (0=definite absence, 1=equivocal, 2=definite presence). Interobserver agreement as well as sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for detection were assessed for the two reviewers. Excellent interobserver agreement was shown for TFE-DSDE (κ=0.821) whereas fair agreement was obtained for SS-EP DWI (κ=0.416). TFE-DSDE was associated with significantly higher sensitivity (83.3%) and accuracy (90.0%) compared to SS-EP DWI (sensitivity=35.0%, accuracy=66.7%; p<0.05). No significant difference was found in specificity (96.7% for TFE-DSDE, 98.3% for SS-EP DWI) CONCLUSION: With increased spatial resolution and reduced susceptibility artifacts, TFE-DSDE improves the accuracy in diagnosing acquired middle ear cholesteatomas compared to SS-EP DWI. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Differential responses of primary auditory cortex in autistic spectrum disorder with auditory hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Junko; Kagitani-Shimono, Kuriko; Goto, Tetsu; Sanefuji, Wakako; Yamamoto, Tomoka; Sakai, Saeko; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Hirata, Masayuki; Mohri, Ikuko; Yorifuji, Shiro; Taniike, Masako

    2012-01-25

    The aim of this study was to investigate the differential responses of the primary auditory cortex to auditory stimuli in autistic spectrum disorder with or without auditory hypersensitivity. Auditory-evoked field values were obtained from 18 boys (nine with and nine without auditory hypersensitivity) with autistic spectrum disorder and 12 age-matched controls. Autistic disorder with hypersensitivity showed significantly more delayed M50/M100 peak latencies than autistic disorder without hypersensitivity or the control. M50 dipole moments in the hypersensitivity group were larger than those in the other two groups [corrected]. M50/M100 peak latencies were correlated with the severity of auditory hypersensitivity; furthermore, severe hypersensitivity induced more behavioral problems. This study indicates auditory hypersensitivity in autistic spectrum disorder as a characteristic response of the primary auditory cortex, possibly resulting from neurological immaturity or functional abnormalities in it. © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

  5. 75 FR 32275 - Regulated Navigation Area; Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, Harvey...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ..., Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, Harvey Canal, Algiers Canal, New Orleans, LA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS...), Harvey Canal, and Algiers Canal during severe hurricane conditions. Vessels will not be permitted to stay... communities within the IHNC, Harvey, and Algiers Canals from potential hazards associated with vessels being...

  6. 21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a device composed of material, such as methylmethacrylate, intended...

  7. 5 CFR 550.714 - Panama Canal Commission employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Panama Canal Commission employees. 550... PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Severance Pay § 550.714 Panama Canal Commission employees. (a) Notwithstanding any other provisions of this subpart, an employee separated from employment with the Panama Canal...

  8. Maxillary First Premolar with Three Root Canals: A Case Report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the tooth is needed to ensure a proper endodontic treatment. This article reports a rare finding of three canals in a maxillary first premolar with non well defined root outline radiographically during an elective root canal treatment. Keywords: Maxillary First Premolar, Endodontic Treatment, Elective, Root Canal Morphology ...

  9. Lumbar Vertebral Canal Diameters in Adult Ugandan Skeletons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Normal values of lumbar vertebral canal diameters are useful in facilitating diagnosis of lumbar vertebral canal stenosis. Various studies have established variation on values between different populations, gender, age, and ethnic groups. Objectives: To determine the lumbar vertebral canal diameters in adult ...

  10. Auditory neuropathy/Auditory dyssynchrony - An underdiagnosed condition: A case report with review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Vinish Agarwal; Saurabh Varshney; Sampan Singh Bist; Sanjiv Bhagat; Sarita Mishra; Vivek Jha

    2012-01-01

    Auditory neuropathy (AN)/auditory dyssynchrony (AD) is a very often missed diagnosis, hence an underdiagnosed condition in clinical practice. Auditory neuropathy is a condition in which patients, on audiologic evaluation, are found to have normal outer hair cell function and abnormal neural function at the level of the eighth nerve. These patients, on clinical testing, are found to have normal otoacoustic emissions, whereas auditory brainstem response audiometry reveals the absence of neural ...

  11. The crazy project – Canal Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Kundak

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It was late April 2011 when “the Crazy Project - Canal Istanbul” was proposed by the Prime Minister of Turkey, during his election campaign.  Although the idea of an artificial canal is not new, since it is initiated without any consensus between the people and institutions in Istanbul, the project immediately set a large number of debates. These vary from the legitimacy of decentralization of governance, to potential impacts of the canal on international politics, economy, environment and urban life.  Regarding past infrastructure projects in Istanbul, such large scale investments have caused extensive acceleration in construction sector in one hand and social and economic shifts on the other.  In this paper, the Canal Istanbul Project is evaluated according to basic motivations and claims of the PM, multi-perspective view through challenges and limitation that the project is likely to face with and speculations on implementation approach. The final discussion on the project is based on benefits/losses of Istanbul once the project will be implemented.

  12. Infrared typmanic tempature and ear canal morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Several publications indicate that the infrared tympanic temperature (IRTT) underestimates the core temperature of the body when the ear canal is long, curvy and narrow. In order to quantify these observations, a study was performed in 10 subjects. The IRTT was determined and compared to the

  13. The Panama Canal and Social Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Margaret D., Ed.

    The booklet, designed to explore the issues of international justice in the context of the Gospel, reviews relations between the United States and Panama. It includes background materials and a study guide for parish leaders and other educators. The central question pertaining to the Panama Canal concerns the rights of the United States according…

  14. Residuos de antimicrobianos en canales de vacas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    GESCHE, E; EMILFORK, C

    1998-01-01

    Con la finalidad de conocer la presencia de residuos de antibióticos y sulfamidas en animales de abasto, se analizaron las canales de 300 vacas faenadas en una Planta Faenadora de Carnes de la X Región de Chile...

  15. The Identification and Remediation of Auditory Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottler, Sylvia B.

    1972-01-01

    Procedures and sample activities are provided for both identifying and training children with auditory perception problems related to sound localization, sound discrimination, and sound sequencing. (KW)

  16. Human Factors Military Lexicon: Auditory Displays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Letowski, Tomasz

    2001-01-01

    .... In addition to definitions specific to auditory displays, speech communication, and audio technology, the lexicon includes several terms unique to military operational environments and human factors...

  17. Developing Auditory Measures of General Speediness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian T. Zajac

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined whether the broad ability general speediness (Gs could be measured via the auditory modality. Existing and purpose-developed auditory tasks that maintained the cognitive requirements of established visually presented Gs markers were completed by 96 university undergraduates. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses showed that the auditory tasks combined with established visual measures to define latent Gs and reaction time factors. These findings provide preliminary evidence that suggests that if auditory tasks are developed that maintain the same cognitive requirements as existing visual measures, then they are likely to index similar cognitive processes.

  18. Auditory, visual and auditory-visual memory and sequencing performance in typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Roshni; Yathiraj, Asha

    2017-09-01

    The study evaluated whether there exists a difference/relation in the way four different memory skills (memory score, sequencing score, memory span, & sequencing span) are processed through the auditory modality, visual modality and combined modalities. Four memory skills were evaluated on 30 typically developing children aged 7 years and 8 years across three modality conditions (auditory, visual, & auditory-visual). Analogous auditory and visual stimuli were presented to evaluate the three modality conditions across the two age groups. The children obtained significantly higher memory scores through the auditory modality compared to the visual modality. Likewise, their memory scores were significantly higher through the auditory-visual modality condition than through the visual modality. However, no effect of modality was observed on the sequencing scores as well as for the memory and the sequencing span. A good agreement was seen between the different modality conditions that were studied (auditory, visual, & auditory-visual) for the different memory skills measures (memory scores, sequencing scores, memory span, & sequencing span). A relatively lower agreement was noted only between the auditory and visual modalities as well as between the visual and auditory-visual modality conditions for the memory scores, measured using Bland-Altman plots. The study highlights the efficacy of using analogous stimuli to assess the auditory, visual as well as combined modalities. The study supports the view that the performance of children on different memory skills was better through the auditory modality compared to the visual modality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Seeing the song: left auditory structures may track auditory-visual dynamic alignment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia A Mossbridge

    Full Text Available Auditory and visual signals generated by a single source tend to be temporally correlated, such as the synchronous sounds of footsteps and the limb movements of a walker. Continuous tracking and comparison of the dynamics of auditory-visual streams is thus useful for the perceptual binding of information arising from a common source. Although language-related mechanisms have been implicated in the tracking of speech-related auditory-visual signals (e.g., speech sounds and lip movements, it is not well known what sensory mechanisms generally track ongoing auditory-visual synchrony for non-speech signals in a complex auditory-visual environment. To begin to address this question, we used music and visual displays that varied in the dynamics of multiple features (e.g., auditory loudness and pitch; visual luminance, color, size, motion, and organization across multiple time scales. Auditory activity (monitored using auditory steady-state responses, ASSR was selectively reduced in the left hemisphere when the music and dynamic visual displays were temporally misaligned. Importantly, ASSR was not affected when attentional engagement with the music was reduced, or when visual displays presented dynamics clearly dissimilar to the music. These results appear to suggest that left-lateralized auditory mechanisms are sensitive to auditory-visual temporal alignment, but perhaps only when the dynamics of auditory and visual streams are similar. These mechanisms may contribute to correct auditory-visual binding in a busy sensory environment.

  20. Semiconductor laser irradiation improves root canal sealing during routine root canal therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Dandan; Hu, Xingxue; Wang, Dashan; Cui, Ting; Yao, RuYong; Sun, Huibin

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of semiconductor laser irradiation on root canal sealing after routine root canal therapy (RCT). Methods Sixty freshly extracted single-rooted human teeth were randomly divided into six groups (n = 10). The anatomic crowns were sectioned at the cementoenamel junction and the remaining roots were prepared endodontically with conventional RCT methods. Groups A and B were irradiated with semiconductor laser at 1W for 20 seconds; Groups C and D were ultrasonically...

  1. Auditory Processing Disorders (APD): a distinct clinical disorder or not?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellen de Wit

    2015-01-01

    Presentatie CPLOL congres Florence In this systematic review, six electronic databases were searched for peer-reviewed studies using the key words auditory processing, auditory diseases, central [Mesh], and auditory perceptual. Two reviewers independently assessed relevant studies by inclusion

  2. Computational Auditory Scene Analysis Based Perceptual and Neural Principles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, DeLiang

    2004-01-01

    .... This fundamental process of auditory perception is called auditory scene analysis. of particular importance in auditory scene analysis is the separation of speech from interfering sounds, or speech segregation...

  3. Stuttering adults' lack of pre-speech auditory modulation normalizes when speaking with delayed auditory feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daliri, Ayoub; Max, Ludo

    2018-02-01

    Auditory modulation during speech movement planning is limited in adults who stutter (AWS), but the functional relevance of the phenomenon itself remains unknown. We investigated for AWS and adults who do not stutter (AWNS) (a) a potential relationship between pre-speech auditory modulation and auditory feedback contributions to speech motor learning and (b) the effect on pre-speech auditory modulation of real-time versus delayed auditory feedback. Experiment I used a sensorimotor adaptation paradigm to estimate auditory-motor speech learning. Using acoustic speech recordings, we quantified subjects' formant frequency adjustments across trials when continually exposed to formant-shifted auditory feedback. In Experiment II, we used electroencephalography to determine the same subjects' extent of pre-speech auditory modulation (reductions in auditory evoked potential N1 amplitude) when probe tones were delivered prior to speaking versus not speaking. To manipulate subjects' ability to monitor real-time feedback, we included speaking conditions with non-altered auditory feedback (NAF) and delayed auditory feedback (DAF). Experiment I showed that auditory-motor learning was limited for AWS versus AWNS, and the extent of learning was negatively correlated with stuttering frequency. Experiment II yielded several key findings: (a) our prior finding of limited pre-speech auditory modulation in AWS was replicated; (b) DAF caused a decrease in auditory modulation for most AWNS but an increase for most AWS; and (c) for AWS, the amount of auditory modulation when speaking with DAF was positively correlated with stuttering frequency. Lastly, AWNS showed no correlation between pre-speech auditory modulation (Experiment II) and extent of auditory-motor learning (Experiment I) whereas AWS showed a negative correlation between these measures. Thus, findings suggest that AWS show deficits in both pre-speech auditory modulation and auditory-motor learning; however, limited pre

  4. MR determination of neonatal spinal canal depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthurs, Owen, E-mail: owenarthurs@uk2.net [Centre for Cardiovascular MR, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London WC1N 3JH (United Kingdom); Thayyil, Sudhin, E-mail: s.thayyil@ucl.ac.uk [Academic Neonatology, Institute for Women' s Health, London WC1E 6AU (United Kingdom); Wade, Angie, E-mail: a.wade@ucl.ac.uk [Centre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics, UCL Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom); Chong, W.K., E-mail: Kling.Chong@gosh.nhs.uk [Paediatric Neuroradiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom); Sebire, Neil J., E-mail: Neil.Sebire@gosh.nhs.uk [Histopathology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London WC1E 6AU (United Kingdom); Taylor, Andrew M., E-mail: a.taylor76@ucl.ac.uk [Centre for Cardiovascular MR, Cardiorespiratory Unit, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children and UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science, London WC1E 6AU (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-15

    Objectives: Lumbar punctures (LPs) are frequently performed in neonates and often result in traumatic haemorrhagic taps. Knowledge of the distance from the skin to the middle of the spinal canal (mid-spinal canal depth - MSCD) may reduce the incidence of traumatic taps, but there is little data in extremely premature or low birth weight neonates. Here, we determined the spinal canal depth at post-mortem in perinatal deaths using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Patients and methods: Spinal canal depth was measured in 78 post-mortem foetuses and perinatal cases (mean gestation 26 weeks; mean weight 1.04 kg) at the L3/L4 inter-vertebral space at post-mortem MRI. Both anterior (ASCD) and posterior (PSCD) spinal canal depth were measured; MSCD was calculated and modelled against weight and gestational age. Results: ASCD and PSCD (mm) correlated significantly with weight and gestational age (all r > 0.8). A simple linear model MSCD (mm) = 3 Multiplication-Sign Weight (kg) + 5 was the best fit, identifying an SCD value within the correct range for 87.2% (68/78) (95% CI (78.0, 92.9%)) cases. Gestational age did not add significantly to the predictive value of the model. Conclusion: There is a significant correlation between MSCD and body weight at post-mortem MRI in foetuses and perinatal deaths. If this association holds in preterm neonates, use of the formula MSCD (mm) = 3 Multiplication-Sign Weight (kg) + 5 could result in fewer traumatic LPs in this population.

  5. Cervical spinal canal narrowing in idiopathic syringomyelia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struck, Aaron F. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Neurology, Boston, MA (United States); Carr, Carrie M. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States); Shah, Vinil [University of California San Francisco, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Hesselink, John R. [University of California San Diego, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Haughton, Victor M. [University of Wisconsin, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-08-15

    The cervical spine in Chiari I patient with syringomyelia has significantly different anteroposterior diameters than it does in Chiari I patients without syringomyelia. We tested the hypothesis that patients with idiopathic syringomyelia (IS) also have abnormal cervical spinal canal diameters. The finding in both groups may relate to the pathogenesis of syringomyelia. Local institutional review boards approved this retrospective study. Patients with IS were compared to age-matched controls with normal sagittal spine MR. All subjects had T1-weighted spin-echo (500/20) and T2-weighted fast spin-echo (2000/90) sagittal cervical spine images at 1.5 T. Readers blinded to demographic data and study hypothesis measured anteroposterior diameters at each cervical level. The spinal canal diameters were compared with a Mann-Whitney U test. The overall difference was assessed with a Friedman test. Seventeen subjects were read by two reviewers to assess inter-rater reliability. Fifty IS patients with 50 age-matched controls were studied. IS subjects had one or more syrinxes varying from 1 to 19 spinal segments. Spinal canal diameters narrowed from C1 to C3 and then enlarged from C5 to C7 in both groups. Diameters from C2 to C4 were narrower in the IS group (p < 0.005) than in controls. The ratio of the C3 to the C7 diameters was also smaller (p = 0.004) in IS than controls. Collectively, the spinal canal diameters in the IS were significantly different from controls (Friedman test p < 0.0001). Patients with IS have abnormally narrow upper and mid cervical spinal canal diameters and greater positive tapering between C3 and C7. (orig.)

  6. Cervical spinal canal narrowing in idiopathic syringomyelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struck, Aaron F; Carr, Carrie M; Shah, Vinil; Hesselink, John R; Haughton, Victor M

    2016-08-01

    The cervical spine in Chiari I patient with syringomyelia has significantly different anteroposterior diameters than it does in Chiari I patients without syringomyelia. We tested the hypothesis that patients with idiopathic syringomyelia (IS) also have abnormal cervical spinal canal diameters. The finding in both groups may relate to the pathogenesis of syringomyelia. Local institutional review boards approved this retrospective study. Patients with IS were compared to age-matched controls with normal sagittal spine MR. All subjects had T1-weighted spin-echo (500/20) and T2-weighted fast spin-echo (2000/90) sagittal cervical spine images at 1.5 T. Readers blinded to demographic data and study hypothesis measured anteroposterior diameters at each cervical level. The spinal canal diameters were compared with a Mann-Whitney U test. The overall difference was assessed with a Friedman test. Seventeen subjects were read by two reviewers to assess inter-rater reliability. Fifty IS patients with 50 age-matched controls were studied. IS subjects had one or more syrinxes varying from 1 to 19 spinal segments. Spinal canal diameters narrowed from C1 to C3 and then enlarged from C5 to C7 in both groups. Diameters from C2 to C4 were narrower in the IS group (p < 0.005) than in controls. The ratio of the C3 to the C7 diameters was also smaller (p = 0.004) in IS than controls. Collectively, the spinal canal diameters in the IS were significantly different from controls (Friedman test p < 0.0001). Patients with IS have abnormally narrow upper and mid cervical spinal canal diameters and greater positive tapering between C3 and C7.

  7. MAXILLARY FIRST PREMOLARS WITH THREE ROOT CANALS: TWO CASE REPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeliha UĞUR

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available It is very important that the dentists have sufficient information about possible variations in the expected root canal configurations in order to achieve success in endodontic treatment. In addition to having adequate knowledge on the variations of the root canal anatomy, periapical radiographs from different angles, careful examination of the pulp chamber floor, and use of dental operation microscope during the procedure are also important factors that contribute to the diagnosis of the additional roots and canals. The aims of this article are to present the diagnostic approach and root canal treatments of two maxillary first premolar teeth with three canals in two patients.

  8. A new system for classifying tooth, root and canal anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, H M A; Dummer, P M H

    2017-10-12

    Understanding the normal anatomical features as well as the more unusual developmental anomalies of teeth, roots and root canals is essential for successful root canal treatment. In addition to various types of root canal configuration and accessory canal morphology, a wide range of developmental tooth, root and canal anomalies exists, including C-shaped canals, dens invaginatus, taurodontism, root fusion, dilacerations and palato-gingival grooves. There is a direct association between developmental anomalies and pulp and periradicular diseases that usually require a multidisciplinary treatment approach to achieve a successful outcome. A number of classifications have categorized tooth, root and canal anomalies; however, several important details are often missed making the classifications less than ideal and potentially confusing. Recently, a new coding system for classifying root, root canal and accessory canal morphology has been introduced. The purpose of this article is to introduce a new system for classifying tooth, root and canal anomalies for use in research, clinical practice and training, which can serve as complementary codes to the recently described system for classifying root, as well as main and accessory canal morphology. © 2017 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. [Measurements of semicircular canal space direction with MRI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaokai; Wu, Shuzhi; Ye, Hua

    2015-10-01

    Measure the space direction of semicircular canals to provide the anatomical basis for the diagnosis and treatment of BPPV. We calculated angles among semicircular canals of 24 patients using MRI scaning with 3D-CISS sequence. The angle between the left and right posterior semicircular canals was 106.61 degress ± 8.58 degrees, so the angle among the posterior semicircular canals and sagittal head plane was 53.31 degrees ± 4.29 degrees. Pairs of contralateral synergistic canal planes were not parallel, forming 171.67 degrees ± 4.36 degrees between the left and right horizontal semicircular canal planes, 154.37 degrees ± 10.87 degrees between the left posterior and right anterior semicircular canal planes and 156.84 degrees ± 9.34 degrees between the right posterior and left anterior semicircular canal planes. Our measurement of the angles among semicircular canals coincided with those of previous reports. The angles between contralateral synergistic canal planes were close to parallel, but the angle between the posterior semicircular canals and sagittal head plane was great than 45 degrees that traditionally thought to be.

  10. Auditory Association Cortex Lesions Impair Auditory Short-Term Memory in Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Michael; D'Amato, Michael R.; Rodman, Hillary R.; Gross, Charles G.

    1990-01-01

    Monkeys that were trained to perform auditory and visual short-term memory tasks (delayed matching-to-sample) received lesions of the auditory association cortex in the superior temporal gyrus. Although visual memory was completely unaffected by the lesions, auditory memory was severely impaired. Despite this impairment, all monkeys could discriminate sounds closer in frequency than those used in the auditory memory task. This result suggests that the superior temporal cortex plays a role in auditory processing and retention similar to the role the inferior temporal cortex plays in visual processing and retention.

  11. Active Auditory Mechanics in Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, D.; Göpfert, M. C.

    2003-02-01

    Evidence is presented that hearing in some insects is an active process. Audition in mosquitoes is used for mate-detection and is supported by antennal receivers, whose sound-induced vibrations are transduced by Johnston's organs. Each of these sensory organs contains ca. 15,000 sensory neurons. As shown by mechanical analysis, a physiologically vulnerable mechanism is at work that nonlinearly enhances the sensitivity and frequency selectivity of antennal hearing. This process of amplification correlates with the electrical activity of the auditory mechanoreceptor units in Johnston's organ.

  12. Primary Auditory Cortex Regulates Threat Memory Specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigestrand, Mattis B.; Schiff, Hillary C.; Fyhn, Marianne; LeDoux, Joseph E.; Sears, Robert M.

    2017-01-01

    Distinguishing threatening from nonthreatening stimuli is essential for survival and stimulus generalization is a hallmark of anxiety disorders. While auditory threat learning produces long-lasting plasticity in primary auditory cortex (Au1), it is not clear whether such Au1 plasticity regulates memory specificity or generalization. We used…

  13. Auditory Processing Disorder and Foreign Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselovska, Ganna

    2015-01-01

    This article aims at exploring various strategies for coping with the auditory processing disorder in the light of foreign language acquisition. The techniques relevant to dealing with the auditory processing disorder can be attributed to environmental and compensatory approaches. The environmental one involves actions directed at creating a…

  14. Further Evidence of Auditory Extinction in Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Rebecca Shisler; Basilakos, Alexandra; Love-Myers, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Preliminary research ( Shisler, 2005) suggests that auditory extinction in individuals with aphasia (IWA) may be connected to binding and attention. In this study, the authors expanded on previous findings on auditory extinction to determine the source of extinction deficits in IWA. Method: Seventeen IWA (M[subscript age] = 53.19 years)…

  15. Transmastoid resurfacing versus middle fossa plugging for repair of superior canal dehiscence: Comparison of techniques from a retrospective cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Rodgers

    2016-09-01

    less invasive option for patients with primarily vestibular complaints. Residual auditory symptoms in TMR patients may be due to the flow of acoustic energy from the superior canal to the mastoid cavity through an incompletely sealed third window. Keywords: Superior canal dehiscence, Plugging, Middle fossa, Transmastoid, Cartilage graft

  16. [Symptoms and diagnosis of auditory processing disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keilmann, A; Läßig, A K; Nospes, S

    2013-08-01

    The definition of an auditory processing disorder (APD) is based on impairments of auditory functions. APDs are disturbances in processes central to hearing that cannot be explained by comorbidities such as attention deficit or language comprehension disorders. Symptoms include difficulties in differentiation and identification of changes in time, structure, frequency and intensity of sounds; problems with sound localization and lateralization, as well as poor speech comprehension in adverse listening environments and dichotic situations. According to the German definition of APD (as opposed to central auditory processing disorder, CAPD), peripheral hearing loss or cognitive impairment also exclude APD. The diagnostic methodology comprises auditory function tests and the required diagnosis of exclusion. APD is diagnosed if a patient's performance is two standard deviations below the normal mean in at least two areas of auditory processing. The treatment approach for an APD depends on the patient's particular deficits. Training, compensatory strategies and improvement of the listening conditions can all be effective.

  17. Looming biases in monkey auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Joost X; Ghazanfar, Asif A

    2007-04-11

    Looming signals (signals that indicate the rapid approach of objects) are behaviorally relevant signals for all animals. Accordingly, studies in primates (including humans) reveal attentional biases for detecting and responding to looming versus receding signals in both the auditory and visual domains. We investigated the neural representation of these dynamic signals in the lateral belt auditory cortex of rhesus monkeys. By recording local field potential and multiunit spiking activity while the subjects were presented with auditory looming and receding signals, we show here that auditory cortical activity was biased in magnitude toward looming versus receding stimuli. This directional preference was not attributable to the absolute intensity of the sounds nor can it be attributed to simple adaptation, because white noise stimuli with identical amplitude envelopes did not elicit the same pattern of responses. This asymmetrical representation of looming versus receding sounds in the lateral belt auditory cortex suggests that it is an important node in the neural network correlate of looming perception.

  18. Auditory Midbrain Implant: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hubert H.; Lenarz, Minoo; Lenarz, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The auditory midbrain implant (AMI) is a new hearing prosthesis designed for stimulation of the inferior colliculus in deaf patients who cannot sufficiently benefit from cochlear implants. The authors have begun clinical trials in which five patients have been implanted with a single shank AMI array (20 electrodes). The goal of this review is to summarize the development and research that has led to the translation of the AMI from a concept into the first patients. This study presents the rationale and design concept for the AMI as well a summary of the animal safety and feasibility studies that were required for clinical approval. The authors also present the initial surgical, psychophysical, and speech results from the first three implanted patients. Overall, the results have been encouraging in terms of the safety and functionality of the implant. All patients obtain improvements in hearing capabilities on a daily basis. However, performance varies dramatically across patients depending on the implant location within the midbrain with the best performer still not able to achieve open set speech perception without lip-reading cues. Stimulation of the auditory midbrain provides a wide range of level, spectral, and temporal cues, all of which are important for speech understanding, but they do not appear to sufficiently fuse together to enable open set speech perception with the currently used stimulation strategies. Finally, several issues and hypotheses for why current patients obtain limited speech perception along with several feasible solutions for improving AMI implementation are presented. PMID:19762428

  19. Anal cancer; Cancer du canal anal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesneau, M.; Champeaux-Orange, E. [Service de radiotherapie, Centre regional universitaire de cancerologie Henry-S.-Kaplan CHU de Tours, Hopital Bretonneau, 37 - Tours (France); Champeaux-Orange, E. [Service d' oncologie-radiotherapie, Centre hospitalier regional d' Orleans, 45 - Orleans (France); Hennequin, C. [Service de cancerologie-radiotherapie, hopital Saint-Louis, 75 - Paris (France)

    2010-07-01

    Anal canal epidermoid carcinomas represent 1.2% of digestive cancers and 6% of ano-rectal cancers. For localized diseases, the treatment is based on radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy (5-FU and cisplatin or mitomycin), according to tumour and nodal extension. The recommended treatment dose is 45 Gy in the anal canal, the mesorectum, para-rectal lymph nodes, and inguinal lymph nodes. An additional dose of 15 to 20 Gy is delivered in the initial tumour for good responders. Salvage surgery is necessary in case of poor response. The organs at risk to be considered are bladder, femur heads, small intestine and vulva. The objective of this work is to summarize the epidemiological and radio-anatomic and prognostic characteristics of this tumour. The conformal radiotherapy technique is illustrated by a case report. (authors)

  20. Root Canal Filling after Revascularization/Revitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plascencia, Hugo; Cruz, Álvaro; Díaz, Mariana; Jiménez, Ana Laura; Solís, Rodrigo; Bernal, Cesar

    Revascularization/revitalization therapy is considered an alternative procedure for management of teeth with an immature apex and necrotic pulp, mainly when root development is interrupted in the early phases of formation. However, this clinical treatment protocol should be considered a permanent procedure? A maxillary central incisor with a previous and successful RR treatment was intentionally filled with a biocompatible material with the periapical tissues due to the patient's lack of adherence to the follow-up protocol. The 20-month follow-up showed absence of clinical, radiological and tomographic signs and symptoms of an endodontic re-infection. This case demonstrates that once the increased thickening of the canal walls, incrementing the root length, apical closure and the total resolution of the apical lesion are observed, the main canal of a previously treated tooth with an RR procedure can be filled.

  1. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin, F T

    2012-01-31

    Squamous cell carcinoma ofthe anal canal represents 1.5% of all malignancies affectingthe gastrointestinal tract. Over the past 20 years dramatic changes have been seen in both the epidemiological distribution of the disease and in the therapeutic modalities utilised to manage it. CLINICAL MANAGEMENT: Historically abdominoperineal resection had been the treatment of choice with local resection reserved for early stage disease. Work by Nigro et al. has revolutionised how we currently manage carcinoma of the anal canal, demonstrating combined modality chemoradiotherapy as an appropriate alternative to surgical resection with the benefit of preserving sphincter function. Surgery is then reserved for recurrent disease with salvage abdominoperineal resection. This article reviews current literature and highlights the changing therapeutic modalities with selected clinical cases

  2. Neuronal hyperplasia in the anal canal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, C; Schrøder, H D

    1990-01-01

    In a consecutive series of minor surgical specimens from the anal canal, neuronal hyperplasia was found in nine of 56 haemorrhoidectomy specimens and in four of 23 fibrous polyps. In an additional series of 14 resections of the anal canal, neuronal hyperplasia was present in six cases, of which...... five showed haemorrhoids. In all cases, neuronal hyperplasia was located in the submucosa beneath squamous epithelium and extended over an area from 5 to 12 mm. Immunohistochemically, the foci of hyperplasia were found to consist of both neuronal and Schwann cell components. Staining for vasoactive...... intestinal peptide, neuropeptide Y and calcitonin gene related peptide, did not demonstrate any increased terminal density. It is suggested that anal neuronal hyperplasia in these cases represents an acquired lesion due to local mechanical influence....

  3. Tactile feedback improves auditory spatial localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, Monica; Vercillo, Tiziana; Sandini, Giulio; Burr, David

    2014-01-01

    Our recent studies suggest that congenitally blind adults have severely impaired thresholds in an auditory spatial bisection task, pointing to the importance of vision in constructing complex auditory spatial maps (Gori et al., 2014). To explore strategies that may improve the auditory spatial sense in visually impaired people, we investigated the impact of tactile feedback on spatial auditory localization in 48 blindfolded sighted subjects. We measured auditory spatial bisection thresholds before and after training, either with tactile feedback, verbal feedback, or no feedback. Audio thresholds were first measured with a spatial bisection task: subjects judged whether the second sound of a three sound sequence was spatially closer to the first or the third sound. The tactile feedback group underwent two audio-tactile feedback sessions of 100 trials, where each auditory trial was followed by the same spatial sequence played on the subject's forearm; auditory spatial bisection thresholds were evaluated after each session. In the verbal feedback condition, the positions of the sounds were verbally reported to the subject after each feedback trial. The no feedback group did the same sequence of trials, with no feedback. Performance improved significantly only after audio-tactile feedback. The results suggest that direct tactile feedback interacts with the auditory spatial localization system, possibly by a process of cross-sensory recalibration. Control tests with the subject rotated suggested that this effect occurs only when the tactile and acoustic sequences are spatially congruent. Our results suggest that the tactile system can be used to recalibrate the auditory sense of space. These results encourage the possibility of designing rehabilitation programs to help blind persons establish a robust auditory sense of space, through training with the tactile modality.

  4. A Brain System for Auditory Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sukhbinder; Joseph, Sabine; Gander, Phillip E; Barascud, Nicolas; Halpern, Andrea R; Griffiths, Timothy D

    2016-04-20

    The brain basis for auditory working memory, the process of actively maintaining sounds in memory over short periods of time, is controversial. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in human participants, we demonstrate that the maintenance of single tones in memory is associated with activation in auditory cortex. In addition, sustained activation was observed in hippocampus and inferior frontal gyrus. Multivoxel pattern analysis showed that patterns of activity in auditory cortex and left inferior frontal gyrus distinguished the tone that was maintained in memory. Functional connectivity during maintenance was demonstrated between auditory cortex and both the hippocampus and inferior frontal cortex. The data support a system for auditory working memory based on the maintenance of sound-specific representations in auditory cortex by projections from higher-order areas, including the hippocampus and frontal cortex. In this work, we demonstrate a system for maintaining sound in working memory based on activity in auditory cortex, hippocampus, and frontal cortex, and functional connectivity among them. Specifically, our work makes three advances from the previous work. First, we robustly demonstrate hippocampal involvement in all phases of auditory working memory (encoding, maintenance, and retrieval): the role of hippocampus in working memory is controversial. Second, using a pattern classification technique, we show that activity in the auditory cortex and inferior frontal gyrus is specific to the maintained tones in working memory. Third, we show long-range connectivity of auditory cortex to hippocampus and frontal cortex, which may be responsible for keeping such representations active during working memory maintenance. Copyright © 2016 Kumar et al.

  5. The shape of the human lumbar vertebral canal A forma do canal vertebral lombar humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Zarzur

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available Literature on the anatomy of the human vertebral column characterizes the shape of the lumbar vertebral canal as triangular. The purpose of the present study was to determine the precise shape of the lumbar vertebral canal. Ten lumbar vertebral columns of adult male cadavers were dissected. Two transverse sections were performed in the third lumbar vertebra. One section was performed at the level of the lower border of the ligamenta flava, and the other section was performed at the level of the pedicles. The shape of the lumbar vertebral canal at the level of the pedicles tends to be oval or circular, whereas the shape of the lumbar vertebral canal at the level of the lower border of the ligamenta flava is triangular. Thus, the shape of the human lumbar vertebral canal is not exclusively triangular, as reported in the literature. It is related to the level of the transversal section performed on the lumbar vertebra. This finding should be taken into consideration among factors involved in the spread of solutions introduced into the epidural space.A literatura sobre a anatomia da coluna vertebral descreve como sendo triangular o formato do canal vertebral na região lombar. O objetivo deste estudo é determinar a real forma do canal da coluna vertebral lombar.Dez colunas vertebrais de cadáveres de homens adultos foram dissecadas. Dois cortes transversais foram executados na terceira vértebra lombar. Um corte foi feito no nível das bordas inferiores de dois ligamentos amarelos vizinhos e o outro corte foi transversal, no nível dos pedículos. A forma do canal vertebral variou: no nível dos pedículos ela tende a ser oval ou circular e junto às bordas inferiores dos ligamentos amarelos passa a ser triangular. Portanto, a forma do canal vertebral lombar não é somente triangular; ela depende do nível em que se faz o corte transversal da vértebra. Estes achados devem ser levados em consideração entre os fatores envolvidos na difusão das

  6. Root canal filling using Resilon: a review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, D J

    2011-07-01

    Root canal treatment is achieved by chemo-mechanical debridement of the root canal system followed by filling. The filling material \\'entombs\\' residual bacteria and acts as a barrier which prevents the entrance of oral microorganisms and reinfection of the root canal system through microleakage. However, filling with contemporary root filling materials such as gutta-percha offers limited long-term resistance to microorganisms; as a result other materials such as Resilon have been investigated as alternatives. The aim of this review was to analyse the literature to consider whether Resilon is a suitable root canal filling material. A MEDLINE and Cochrane library search including various keyword searches identified several papers which investigated or discussed Resilon or RealSeal\\/Epiphany. Analysis of the literature demonstrated that the bulk of the literature is in vitro in nature, based largely on leakage-type studies, and demonstrates a wide variety of methodologies with conflicting findings; as a result meaningful conclusions are difficult. Within the limit of these in vitro studies Resilon appears to perform adequately in comparison to gutta-percha, however, as a result of the questionable merit of such studies, it cannot presently be considered an evidence-based alternative to the current gold standard gutta-percha. It is imperative that before Resilon is considered as a replacement material, a better understanding of the physical properties of the resin sealer and the reality of the adhesive \\'monoblock\\' are elucidated. The literature also demonstrates a paucity of quality long-term clinical outcome studies which will need to be addressed before firm conclusions can be reached.

  7. Carotid canal dehiscence in the human skull

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastor Vazquez, J.F.; Gil Verona, J.A. [Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Valladolid, Ramon y Cajal, 7, E-47005 Valladolid (Spain); Garcia Porrero, M. [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Valladolid (Spain)

    1999-06-01

    Abnormalities of the floor of the carotid canal have been studied in 538 skulls. These abnormalities range from a fissure to total absence of the floor. This variation may be caused by abnormalities of the internal carotid artery or deficiencies in ossification of the skull base. CT suggests that these changes should be taken into account by surgeons working on the skull base. (orig.) With 4 figs., 8 refs.

  8. Roentgenographic study of the mandibular canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Hyung Kyu [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1980-11-15

    The mandibular canal must be considered carefully during the surgical treatment, especially surgical extraction of the impacted tooth and intraosseous implant, because it contains the important inferior alveolar nerve and vessels. The author investigated the curvature of the mandibular canal and its relation to the mandibular molars and positional relation between the mental foramen and the mandibular premolars in orthopantomogram. The materials consisted of 441 orthopantomograms divided four groups; Group I consisted of 56 males and 44 females from 1 to 6 years of age, Group II consisted of 58 males and 45 females from 7 to 12 years of age, Group III consisted of 65 males and 33 females from 13 to 18 years of age, Group IV consisted of 86 males and 54 females over 19 years of age. The results were as followings; 1. The curvature of mandibular canal was 144.50 .deg. in Group II, 148.11 .deg. in Group III, 147.33 .deg. in Group IV. 2. The curvature of mandibular canal was located most frequently on the area between mandibular 1st molar and mandibular 2nd molar in Group I (42%) and on the mandibular 2nd molar area in Group II (54%), Group III (59%), Group IV (53%). 3. The position of mental foramen was most frequently below the mandibular 1st premolar in Group I (58%), between the mandibular 1st premolar and the 2nd premolar in Group II (62%), Group III (47%), and below the mandibular 2nd premolar in Group IV (58%).

  9. Semiconductor laser irradiation improves root canal sealing during routine root canal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Dandan; Hu, Xingxue; Wang, Dashan; Cui, Ting; Yao, Ruyong; Sun, Huibin

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of semiconductor laser irradiation on root canal sealing after routine root canal therapy (RCT). Sixty freshly extracted single-rooted human teeth were randomly divided into six groups (n = 10). The anatomic crowns were sectioned at the cementoenamel junction and the remaining roots were prepared endodontically with conventional RCT methods. Groups A and B were irradiated with semiconductor laser at 1W for 20 seconds; Groups C and D were ultrasonically rinsed for 60 seconds as positive control groups; Groups E and F without treatment of root canal prior to RCT as negative control groups. Root canal sealing of Groups A, C and E were evaluated by measurements of apical microleakage. The teeth from Groups B, D and F were sectioned, and the micro-structures were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). One way ANOVA and LSD-t test were used for statistical analysis (α = .05). The apical sealing of both the laser irradiated group and the ultrasonic irrigated group were significantly different from the control group (p0.5). SEM observation showed that most of the dentinal tubules in the laser irradiation group melted, narrowed or closed, while most of the dentinal tubules in the ultrasonic irrigation group were filled with tooth paste. The application of semiconductor laser prior to root canal obturation increases the apical sealing of the roots treated.

  10. Semiconductor laser irradiation improves root canal sealing during routine root canal therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan Su

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of semiconductor laser irradiation on root canal sealing after routine root canal therapy (RCT.Sixty freshly extracted single-rooted human teeth were randomly divided into six groups (n = 10. The anatomic crowns were sectioned at the cementoenamel junction and the remaining roots were prepared endodontically with conventional RCT methods. Groups A and B were irradiated with semiconductor laser at 1W for 20 seconds; Groups C and D were ultrasonically rinsed for 60 seconds as positive control groups; Groups E and F without treatment of root canal prior to RCT as negative control groups. Root canal sealing of Groups A, C and E were evaluated by measurements of apical microleakage. The teeth from Groups B, D and F were sectioned, and the micro-structures were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM. One way ANOVA and LSD-t test were used for statistical analysis (α = .05.The apical sealing of both the laser irradiated group and the ultrasonic irrigated group were significantly different from the control group (p0.5. SEM observation showed that most of the dentinal tubules in the laser irradiation group melted, narrowed or closed, while most of the dentinal tubules in the ultrasonic irrigation group were filled with tooth paste.The application of semiconductor laser prior to root canal obturation increases the apical sealing of the roots treated.

  11. Comparison of Bacterial Leakage between 3 Different Root Canal Obturation Techniques in Oval Shaped Canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eshagh-ali Saberi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sealing ability of 3 obturation techniques in oval-shaped canals by bacterial leakage assessment. Methods: Sixty mandibular incisors with oval canals were selected after providing buccolingual and mesiodistal radiographs. The teeth were sectioned at a 10 mm distance from the apex. After instrumentation, the teeth were divided into 3 groups and the canals in the three groups were obturated with lateral condensation (G1, warm vertical condensation (G2 and thermoplasticized injectable gutta percha (G3. The teeth were exposed to human saliva. Observing the turbidity of the BHI broth for a period of 63 days the number of days required for the complete contamination of root canals was recorded. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistical methods and Kruskal-Wallis test with SPSS statistical software. Results: Warm vertical condensation (G2 needed a significantly greater average time for leakage than the two other methods. No significant differences were found between lateral condensations and thermoplasticized injectable G.P techniques. Conclusion: warm vertical condensation provides a better seal against bacterial leakage than lateral condensation and obtura II method in obturating oval-canals.

  12. Anterior canal lithiasis: diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casani, Augusto Pietro; Cerchiai, Niccolò; Dallan, Iacopo; Sellari-Franceschini, Stefano

    2011-03-01

    To describe the clinical and oculographic features in patients with anterior semicircular canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and to determine the efficacy of a canalith repositioning procedure for its management. Case series with chart review of patients presenting positional vertigo and positional downbeating nystagmus during a 2-year period. Outpatients' tertiary referral center for balance disorders. Eighteen patients suffering from positional vertigo and presenting positional downbeating nystagmus were treated with a maneuver based on a modification of the procedure proposed by Crevits. disappearance of positional downbeating nystagmus. Positional downbeating nystagmus was elicited unilaterally with the Dix-Hallpike maneuver in 6 cases. In 4 patients, it was triggered by both left and right Dix-Hallpike tests. In 8 patients, the positional nystagmus was elicited by a straight head-hanging maneuver. The positional nystagmus was purely downbeating in 12 patients. In the remaining, a torsional component was detected. After the treatment, only 1 patient showed positional nystagmus at 30 days. In anterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, the presence of a positional downbeating nystagmus in response to positional tests is key for diagnosis. In a significant number of patients, the affected side may not be detected because of the inconstant presence of a torsional component. Treatment with a simplified maneuver based on Crevits's technique can be considered an effective method for the treatment of anterior canal lithiasis, especially when the affected side cannot be detected clearly.

  13. Auditory agnosia due to long-term severe hydrocephalus caused by spina bifida - specific auditory pathway versus nonspecific auditory pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Kaga, Kimitaka; Hayashi, Akimasa

    2011-07-01

    A 27-year-old female showed auditory agnosia after long-term severe hydrocephalus due to congenital spina bifida. After years of hydrocephalus, she gradually suffered from hearing loss in her right ear at 19 years of age, followed by her left ear. During the time when she retained some ability to hear, she experienced severe difficulty in distinguishing verbal, environmental, and musical instrumental sounds. However, her auditory brainstem response and distortion product otoacoustic emissions were largely intact in the left ear. Her bilateral auditory cortices were preserved, as shown by neuroimaging, whereas her auditory radiations were severely damaged owing to progressive hydrocephalus. Although she had a complete bilateral hearing loss, she felt great pleasure when exposed to music. After years of self-training to read lips, she regained fluent ability to communicate. Clinical manifestations of this patient indicate that auditory agnosia can occur after long-term hydrocephalus due to spina bifida; the secondary auditory pathway may play a role in both auditory perception and hearing rehabilitation.

  14. Auditory memory function in expert chess players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattahi, Fariba; Geshani, Ahmad; Jafari, Zahra; Jalaie, Shohreh; Salman Mahini, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Chess is a game that involves many aspects of high level cognition such as memory, attention, focus and problem solving. Long term practice of chess can improve cognition performances and behavioral skills. Auditory memory, as a kind of memory, can be influenced by strengthening processes following long term chess playing like other behavioral skills because of common processing pathways in the brain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the auditory memory function of expert chess players using the Persian version of dichotic auditory-verbal memory test. The Persian version of dichotic auditory-verbal memory test was performed for 30 expert chess players aged 20-35 years and 30 non chess players who were matched by different conditions; the participants in both groups were randomly selected. The performance of the two groups was compared by independent samples t-test using SPSS version 21. The mean score of dichotic auditory-verbal memory test between the two groups, expert chess players and non-chess players, revealed a significant difference (p≤ 0.001). The difference between the ears scores for expert chess players (p= 0.023) and non-chess players (p= 0.013) was significant. Gender had no effect on the test results. Auditory memory function in expert chess players was significantly better compared to non-chess players. It seems that increased auditory memory function is related to strengthening cognitive performances due to playing chess for a long time.

  15. Looming auditory collision warnings for driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Rob

    2011-02-01

    A driving simulator was used to compare the effectiveness of increasing intensity (looming) auditory warning signals with other types of auditory warnings. Auditory warnings have been shown to speed driver reaction time in rear-end collision situations; however, it is not clear which type of signal is the most effective. Although verbal and symbolic (e.g., a car horn) warnings have faster response times than abstract warnings, they often lead to more response errors. Participants (N=20) experienced four nonlooming auditory warnings (constant intensity, pulsed, ramped, and car horn), three looming auditory warnings ("veridical," "early," and "late"), and a no-warning condition. In 80% of the trials, warnings were activated when a critical response was required, and in 20% of the trials, the warnings were false alarms. For the early (late) looming warnings, the rate of change of intensity signaled a time to collision (TTC) that was shorter (longer) than the actual TTC. Veridical looming and car horn warnings had significantly faster brake reaction times (BRT) compared with the other nonlooming warnings (by 80 to 160 ms). However, the number of braking responses in false alarm conditions was significantly greater for the car horn. BRT increased significantly and systematically as the TTC signaled by the looming warning was changed from early to veridical to late. Looming auditory warnings produce the best combination of response speed and accuracy. The results indicate that looming auditory warnings can be used to effectively warn a driver about an impending collision.

  16. Auditory Impairment in Young Type 1 Diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yanlian; Xiao, Xiaoyan; Ren, Jianmin; Wang, Yajuan; Zhao, Faming

    2015-10-01

    More attention has recently been focused on auditory impairment of young type 1 diabetics. This study aimed to evaluate auditory function of young type 1 diabetics and the correlation between clinical indexes and hearing impairment. We evaluated the auditory function of 50 type 1 diabetics and 50 healthy subjects. Clinical indexes were measured along with analyzing their relation of auditory function. Type 1 diabetic patients demonstrated a deficit with elevated thresholds at right ear and left ear when compared to healthy controls (p p V and interwave I-V) and left ear (wave III, V and interwave I-III, I-V) in diabetic group significantly increased compared to those in control subjects (p p p p p <0.01). Type 1 diabetics exerted higher auditory threshold, slower auditory conduction time and cochlear impairment. HDL-cholesterol, diabetes duration, systemic blood pressure, microalbuminuria, GHbA1C, triglyceride, and age may affect the auditory function of type 1 diabetics. Copyright © 2015 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Functional imaging of auditory scene analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutschalk, Alexander; Dykstra, Andrew R

    2014-01-01

    Our auditory system is constantly faced with the task of decomposing the complex mixture of sound arriving at the ears into perceptually independent streams constituting accurate representations of individual sound sources. This decomposition, termed auditory scene analysis, is critical for both survival and communication, and is thought to underlie both speech and music perception. The neural underpinnings of auditory scene analysis have been studied utilizing invasive experiments with animal models as well as non-invasive (MEG, EEG, and fMRI) and invasive (intracranial EEG) studies conducted with human listeners. The present article reviews human neurophysiological research investigating the neural basis of auditory scene analysis, with emphasis on two classical paradigms termed streaming and informational masking. Other paradigms - such as the continuity illusion, mistuned harmonics, and multi-speaker environments - are briefly addressed thereafter. We conclude by discussing the emerging evidence for the role of auditory cortex in remapping incoming acoustic signals into a perceptual representation of auditory streams, which are then available for selective attention and further conscious processing. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Human Auditory Neuroimaging. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Auditory Connections and Functions of Prefrontal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany ePlakke

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The functional auditory system extends from the ears to the frontal lobes with successively more complex functions occurring as one ascends the hierarchy of the nervous system. Several areas of the frontal lobe receive afferents from both early and late auditory processing regions within the temporal lobe. Afferents from the early part of the cortical auditory system, the auditory belt cortex, which are presumed to carry information regarding auditory features of sounds, project to only a few prefrontal regions and are most dense in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC. In contrast, projections from the parabelt and the rostral superior temporal gyrus (STG most likely convey more complex information and target a larger, widespread region of the prefrontal cortex. Neuronal responses reflect these anatomical projections as some prefrontal neurons exhibit responses to features in acoustic stimuli, while other neurons display task-related responses. For example, recording studies in non-human primates indicate that VLPFC is responsive to complex sounds including vocalizations and that VLPFC neurons in area 12/47 respond to sounds with similar acoustic morphology. In contrast, neuronal responses during auditory working memory involve a wider region of the prefrontal cortex. In humans, the frontal lobe is involved in auditory detection, discrimination, and working memory. Past research suggests that dorsal and ventral subregions of the prefrontal cortex process different types of information with dorsal cortex processing spatial/visual information and ventral cortex processing non-spatial/auditory information. While this is apparent in the non-human primate and in some neuroimaging studies, most research in humans indicates that specific task conditions, stimuli or previous experience may bias the recruitment of specific prefrontal regions, suggesting a more flexible role for the frontal lobe during auditory cognition.

  19. Auditory connections and functions of prefrontal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakke, Bethany; Romanski, Lizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    The functional auditory system extends from the ears to the frontal lobes with successively more complex functions occurring as one ascends the hierarchy of the nervous system. Several areas of the frontal lobe receive afferents from both early and late auditory processing regions within the temporal lobe. Afferents from the early part of the cortical auditory system, the auditory belt cortex, which are presumed to carry information regarding auditory features of sounds, project to only a few prefrontal regions and are most dense in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). In contrast, projections from the parabelt and the rostral superior temporal gyrus (STG) most likely convey more complex information and target a larger, widespread region of the prefrontal cortex. Neuronal responses reflect these anatomical projections as some prefrontal neurons exhibit responses to features in acoustic stimuli, while other neurons display task-related responses. For example, recording studies in non-human primates indicate that VLPFC is responsive to complex sounds including vocalizations and that VLPFC neurons in area 12/47 respond to sounds with similar acoustic morphology. In contrast, neuronal responses during auditory working memory involve a wider region of the prefrontal cortex. In humans, the frontal lobe is involved in auditory detection, discrimination, and working memory. Past research suggests that dorsal and ventral subregions of the prefrontal cortex process different types of information with dorsal cortex processing spatial/visual information and ventral cortex processing non-spatial/auditory information. While this is apparent in the non-human primate and in some neuroimaging studies, most research in humans indicates that specific task conditions, stimuli or previous experience may bias the recruitment of specific prefrontal regions, suggesting a more flexible role for the frontal lobe during auditory cognition. PMID:25100931

  20. Environmental pollution and shipping feasibility of the Nicaragua Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jihong; Zeng, Xin; Deng, Yibing

    2016-12-15

    In recent years, the Nicaraguan government's renewed interest in constructing this interoceanic canal has once again aroused widespread concern, particularly in the global shipping industry. The project's immense ecological risks, coupled with the recent expansions of both the Panama Canal and the Suez Canal, have raised questions among scientists and experts about its viability. Whether the Nicaragua Canal is really feasible for international shipping, given its high marine pollution risks, requires the further study. This paper discusses and analyses the feasibility of the Nicaragua Canal in the context of its environmental impact and value as a shipping service. This paper aims to provide an important information reference to inform strategic decision-making among policymakers and stakeholders. Our research results indicate that the environmental complexity, economic costs and safety risks of building a new transoceanic canal are simply too high to justify the project. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Root canal filling evaluation using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrutiu, Meda L.; Sinescu, Cosmin; Hughes, Michael; Bradu, Adrian; Todea, Carmen; Balabuc, Cosmin I.; Filip, Laura M.; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.

    2008-04-01

    The root canal fillings are destined to seal the root canal especially in the apical areea. Invasive techniques are known which are used to assess the quality of the seal. These lead to the destruction of the probes and often no conclusion could be drawn in respect to the existence of any microleakage in the investigated areas of interest. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a relatively novel non-invasive imaging technique which presents potential in assessing the microleakage of the apical area in the root canal fillings with micron depth resolution. 3D reconstruction allows a complete view with obvious display of gaps in the apical root canal filling. For this study, 30 monoradicular teeth were prepared by conventional and rotative methods. Afterwards, root canal fillings were produced in each tooth. The images obtained show some microleakage in all the investigated root canal fillings. The advantages of the OCT method consist in non-invasiveness and high resolution.

  2. Canal of Nuck hernia: a multimodality imaging review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rees, Mitchell A. [University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Squires, James E. [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Gastroenterology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Tadros, Sameh; Squires, Judy H. [University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-07-15

    Canal of Nuck abnormalities are a rare but important cause of morbidity in girls, most often those younger than 5 years of age. The canal of Nuck, which is the female equivalent of the male processus vaginalis, is a protrusion of parietal peritoneum that extends through the inguinal canal and terminates in the labia majora. The canal typically obliterates early in life, but in some cases the canal can partially or completely fail to close, potentially resulting in a hydrocele or hernia of pelvic contents. Recognition of this entity is especially important in cases of ovarian hernia due to the risk of incarceration and torsion. We aim to increase awareness of this condition by reviewing the embryology, anatomy and diagnosis of canal of Nuck disorders with imaging findings on US, CT and MRI using several cases from a single institution. (orig.)

  3. Neuromechanistic Model of Auditory Bistability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Rankin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sequences of higher frequency A and lower frequency B tones repeating in an ABA- triplet pattern are widely used to study auditory streaming. One may experience either an integrated percept, a single ABA-ABA- stream, or a segregated percept, separate but simultaneous streams A-A-A-A- and -B---B--. During minutes-long presentations, subjects may report irregular alternations between these interpretations. We combine neuromechanistic modeling and psychoacoustic experiments to study these persistent alternations and to characterize the effects of manipulating stimulus parameters. Unlike many phenomenological models with abstract, percept-specific competition and fixed inputs, our network model comprises neuronal units with sensory feature dependent inputs that mimic the pulsatile-like A1 responses to tones in the ABA- triplets. It embodies a neuronal computation for percept competition thought to occur beyond primary auditory cortex (A1. Mutual inhibition, adaptation and noise are implemented. We include slow NDMA recurrent excitation for local temporal memory that enables linkage across sound gaps from one triplet to the next. Percepts in our model are identified in the firing patterns of the neuronal units. We predict with the model that manipulations of the frequency difference between tones A and B should affect the dominance durations of the stronger percept, the one dominant a larger fraction of time, more than those of the weaker percept-a property that has been previously established and generalized across several visual bistable paradigms. We confirm the qualitative prediction with our psychoacoustic experiments and use the behavioral data to further constrain and improve the model, achieving quantitative agreement between experimental and modeling results. Our work and model provide a platform that can be extended to consider other stimulus conditions, including the effects of context and volition.

  4. Single visit root canal treatment: A prospective study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-08-31

    Aug 31, 2013 ... Post‑operative pain in multiple‑visit and single‑visit root canal treatment. J Endod 2010;36:36‑9. 13. Ferranti P. Treatment of the root canal of an infected tooth in one appointment: A report of 340 cases. Dent Dig 1959;65:49‑53. 14. Ufomata D. One‑visit root canal therapy: A preliminary clinical study in ...

  5. Three root canals in the maxillary second premolar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Almeida-Gomes Fabio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we report an endodontic treatment of the maxillary second premolar with three root canals and distinct foramens. The possibility of three root canals in this tooth is quite small; however, it must be taken into account in clinical and radiographic evaluation during endodontic treatment. Many times, their presence is noticed only after canal treatment due to continuing post-operative discomfort.

  6. Micro-Machined Flow Sensors Mimicking Lateral Line Canal Neuromasts

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrik Herzog; Siegfried Steltenkamp; Adrian Klein; Simon Tätzner; Elisabeth Schulze; Horst Bleckmann

    2015-01-01

    Fish sense water motions with their lateral line. The lateral line is a sensory system that contains up to several thousand mechanoreceptors, called neuromasts. Neuromasts occur freestanding on the skin and in subepidermal canals. We developed arrays of flow sensors based on lateral line canal neuromasts using a biomimetic approach. Each flow sensor was equipped with a PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) lamella integrated into a canal system by means of thick- and thin-film technology. Our artificia...

  7. Assessing the aging effect on auditory-verbal memory by Persian version of dichotic auditory verbal memory test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Shahidipour

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Based on the obtained results, significant reduction in auditory memory was seen in aged group and the Persian version of dichotic auditory-verbal memory test, like many other auditory verbal memory tests, showed the aging effects on auditory verbal memory performance.

  8. Effects of an Auditory Lateralization Training in Children Suspected to Central Auditory Processing Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Lotfi, Yones; Moosavi, Abdollah; Abdollahi, Farzaneh Zamiri; BAKHSHI, Enayatollah; Sadjedi, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Central auditory processing disorder [(C)APD] refers to a deficit in auditory stimuli processing in nervous system that is not due to higher-order language or cognitive factors. One of the problems in children with (C)APD is spatial difficulties which have been overlooked despite their significance. Localization is an auditory ability to detect sound sources in space and can help to differentiate between the desired speech from other simultaneous sound sources. Aim o...

  9. [Canal infection. Ecological theory and repair with osteodentin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñiz, M A; Zeberio, T

    1991-01-01

    The characteristics of the infection in the root canal are analyzed, specially its development before pulpal necrosis. It is inferred that it is an ecological infection with a function: to decompose the necrosis. Inactivating the infection in the canal by the formocresol technique, calcium hidroxide or with the conventional basic treatment in Endodontics, cleaning, washing, disinfecting and, in this case, with partial obturation of the canal, it is possible to induce a reparation with osteodentine that can cover all the free extension of the canal.

  10. Use of auditory learning to manage listening problems in children

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, David R.; Halliday, Lorna F.; Amitay, Sygal

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews recent studies that have used adaptive auditory training to address communication problems experienced by some children in their everyday life. It considers the auditory contribution to developmental listening and language problems and the underlying principles of auditory learning that may drive further refinement of auditory learning applications. Following strong claims that language and listening skills in children could be improved by auditory learning, researchers hav...

  11. AUDITORY REACTION TIME IN BASKETBALL PLAYERS AND HEALTHY CONTROLS

    OpenAIRE

    Ghuntla Tejas P.; Mehta Hemant B.; Gokhale Pradnya A.; Shah Chinmay J.

    2013-01-01

    Reaction is purposeful voluntary response to different stimuli as visual or auditory stimuli. Auditory reaction time is time required to response to auditory stimuli. Quickness of response is very important in games like basketball. This study was conducted to compare auditory reaction time of basketball players and healthy controls. The auditory reaction time was measured by the reaction time instrument in healthy controls and basketball players. Simple reaction time and choice reaction time...

  12. Functional Imaging of Human Vestibular Cortex Activity Elicited by Skull Tap and Auditory Tone Burst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noohi, F.; Kinnaird, C.; Wood, S.; Bloomberg, J.; Mulavara, A.; Seidler, R.

    2016-01-01

    The current study characterizes brain activation in response to two modes of vestibular stimulation: skull tap and auditory tone burst. The auditory tone burst has been used in previous studies to elicit either the vestibulo-spinal reflex (saccular-mediated colic Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials (cVEMP)), or the ocular muscle response (utricle-mediated ocular VEMP (oVEMP)). Some researchers have reported that air-conducted skull tap elicits both saccular and utricle-mediated VEMPs, while being faster and less irritating for the subjects. However, it is not clear whether the skull tap and auditory tone burst elicit the same pattern of cortical activity. Both forms of stimulation target the otolith response, which provides a measurement of vestibular function independent from semicircular canals. This is of high importance for studying otolith-specific deficits, including gait and balance problems that astronauts experience upon returning to earth. Previous imaging studies have documented activity in the anterior and posterior insula, superior temporal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, inferior frontal gyrus, and the anterior cingulate cortex in response to different modes of vestibular stimulation. Here we hypothesized that skull taps elicit similar patterns of cortical activity as the auditory tone bursts, and previous vestibular imaging studies. Subjects wore bilateral MR compatible skull tappers and headphones inside the 3T GE scanner, while lying in the supine position, with eyes closed. Subjects received both forms of the stimulation in a counterbalanced fashion. Pneumatically powered skull tappers were placed bilaterally on the cheekbones. The vibration of the cheekbone was transmitted to the vestibular system, resulting in the vestibular cortical response. Auditory tone bursts were also delivered for comparison. To validate our stimulation method, we measured the ocular VEMP outside of the scanner. This measurement showed that both skull tap and auditory

  13. Mandibular second premolar with three canals: Re-treatment of a case with unusual root canal anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niranjan Desai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A thorough knowledge of root canal anatomy along with the anatomical variations that may be present is essential for success of endodontic therapy. Unusual presentations in the number of the roots or the canals should be expected in every tooth. Mandibular second premolars are thought of as having a single root and canal. Studies have stated that the prevalence of three canals with three orifices in this tooth is 0.4%. The mandibular second premolar is particularly difficult to treat owing to the fact that a wide variation in the number, location and curvature of the roots and canals exist. Added to this is the fact that the access opening is restricted and location of the lingually placed orifices is difficult. This case report details the re-treatment of a mandibular second premolar with three canals and three separate orifices using the surgical microscope.

  14. [Assessment of the efficiency of the auditory training in children with dyslalia and auditory processing disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włodarczyk, Elżbieta; Szkiełkowska, Agata; Skarżyński, Henryk; Piłka, Adam

    2011-01-01

    To assess effectiveness of the auditory training in children with dyslalia and central auditory processing disorders. Material consisted of 50 children aged 7-9-years-old. Children with articulation disorders stayed under long-term speech therapy care in the Auditory and Phoniatrics Clinic. All children were examined by a laryngologist and a phoniatrician. Assessment included tonal and impedance audiometry and speech therapists' and psychologist's consultations. Additionally, a set of electrophysiological examinations was performed - registration of N2, P2, N2, P2, P300 waves and psychoacoustic test of central auditory functions: FPT - frequency pattern test. Next children took part in the regular auditory training and attended speech therapy. Speech assessment followed treatment and therapy, again psychoacoustic tests were performed and P300 cortical potentials were recorded. After that statistical analyses were performed. Analyses revealed that application of auditory training in patients with dyslalia and other central auditory disorders is very efficient. Auditory training may be a very efficient therapy supporting speech therapy in children suffering from dyslalia coexisting with articulation and central auditory disorders and in children with educational problems of audiogenic origin. Copyright © 2011 Polish Otolaryngology Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner (Poland). All rights reserved.

  15. Auditory motion capturing ambiguous visual motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjen eAlink

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is demonstrated that moving sounds have an effect on the direction in which one sees visual stimuli move. During the main experiment sounds were presented consecutively at four speaker locations inducing left- or rightwards auditory apparent motion. On the path of auditory apparent motion, visual apparent motion stimuli were presented with a high degree of directional ambiguity. The main outcome of this experiment is that our participants perceived visual apparent motion stimuli that were ambiguous (equally likely to be perceived as moving left- or rightwards more often as moving in the same direction than in the opposite direction of auditory apparent motion. During the control experiment we replicated this finding and found no effect of sound motion direction on eye movements. This indicates that auditory motion can capture our visual motion percept when visual motion direction is insufficiently determinate without affecting eye movements.

  16. Reconstructing speech from human auditory cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian N Pasley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available How the human auditory system extracts perceptually relevant acoustic features of speech is unknown. To address this question, we used intracranial recordings from nonprimary auditory cortex in the human superior temporal gyrus to determine what acoustic information in speech sounds can be reconstructed from population neural activity. We found that slow and intermediate temporal fluctuations, such as those corresponding to syllable rate, were accurately reconstructed using a linear model based on the auditory spectrogram. However, reconstruction of fast temporal fluctuations, such as syllable onsets and offsets, required a nonlinear sound representation based on temporal modulation energy. Reconstruction accuracy was highest within the range of spectro-temporal fluctuations that have been found to be critical for speech intelligibility. The decoded speech representations allowed readout and identification of individual words directly from brain activity during single trial sound presentations. These findings reveal neural encoding mechanisms of speech acoustic parameters in higher order human auditory cortex.

  17. Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder (ANSD) (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the inner row of hair cells or synapses between the inner hair cells and the auditory ... any other nerve-related problems. Ongoing speech and language testing . A child with ANSD needs regular visits ...

  18. Auditory Feedback and the Online Shopping Experience

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ryann Reynolds-McIlnay

    2014-01-01

      The present research proposes that the presence of auditory feedback increases satisfaction with the shopping experience, confidence in the retailer, and the likelihood to return to the retailer...

  19. Environment for Auditory Research Facility (EAR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — EAR is an auditory perception and communication research center enabling state-of-the-art simulation of various indoor and outdoor acoustic environments. The heart...

  20. Childhood trauma and auditory verbal hallucinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daalman, K.; Diederen, K. M. J.; Derks, E. M.; van Lutterveld, R.; Kahn, R. S.; Sommer, Iris E. C.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Hallucinations have consistently been associated with traumatic experiences during childhood. This association appears strongest between physical and sexual abuse and auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH). It remains unclear whether traumatic experiences mainly colour the content of AVH

  1. Presbycusis and auditory brainstem responses: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Khullar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Age-related hearing loss or presbycusis is a complex phenomenon consisting of elevation of hearing levels as well as changes in the auditory processing. It is commonly classified into four categories depending on the cause. Auditory brainstem responses (ABRs are a type of early evoked potentials recorded within the first 10 ms of stimulation. They represent the synchronized activity of the auditory nerve and the brainstem. Some of the changes that occur in the aging auditory system may significantly influence the interpretation of the ABRs in comparison with the ABRs of the young adults. The waves of ABRs are described in terms of amplitude, latencies and interpeak latency of the different waves. There is a tendency of the amplitude to decrease and the absolute latencies to increase with advancing age but these trends are not always clear due to increase in threshold with advancing age that act a major confounding factor in the interpretation of ABRs.

  2. Auditory stimulation and cardiac autonomic regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor E. Valenti

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have already demonstrated that auditory stimulation with music influences the cardiovascular system. In this study, we described the relationship between musical auditory stimulation and heart rate variability. Searches were performed with the Medline, SciELO, Lilacs and Cochrane databases using the following keywords: "auditory stimulation", "autonomic nervous system", "music" and "heart rate variability". The selected studies indicated that there is a strong correlation between noise intensity and vagal-sympathetic balance. Additionally, it was reported that music therapy improved heart rate variability in anthracycline-treated breast cancer patients. It was hypothesized that dopamine release in the striatal system induced by pleasurable songs is involved in cardiac autonomic regulation. Musical auditory stimulation influences heart rate variability through a neural mechanism that is not well understood. Further studies are necessary to develop new therapies to treat cardiovascular disorders.

  3. Effect of omega-3 on auditory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vida Rahimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Omega-3 fatty acid have structural and biological roles in the body 's various systems . Numerous studies have tried to research about it. Auditory system is affected a s well. The aim of this article was to review the researches about the effect of omega-3 on auditory system.Methods: We searched Medline , Google Scholar, PubMed, Cochrane Library and SID search engines with the "auditory" and "omega-3" keywords and read textbooks about this subject between 19 70 and 20 13.Conclusion: Both excess and deficient amounts of dietary omega-3 fatty acid can cause harmful effects on fetal and infant growth and development of brain and central nervous system esspesially auditory system. It is important to determine the adequate dosage of omega-3.

  4. Revestimientos especiales para diques y canales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorzi, Silvano

    1964-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the possibilities and advantages of adopting special facings for dykes and canals, and generally for all large hydraulic works, where waterproofing is of paramount importance. Technical advances in recent years have made it possible to prefabricate many facing units used in these types of works; large slabs, made in reinforced and prestressed concrete, are flexible, and watertight. Although there are many possibilities and types of facing treatments, the one described here is outstanding. It consists of narrow slabs, highly flexible, placed transversally with respect to the canal axis. They are attached with cement mortar, and the joints are finally sealed with a special mortar, called «Emboco». In this article a description is also given of a series of projects, where facing treatments have been used, which are now successfully in service. Finally some general and simple advise is given on the best procedure to apply these facing treatments in the most effective and economic manner.En este trabajo se resumen las posibilidades y ventajas que ofrecen los revestimientos especiales de diques y taludes de canales y, en general, en todas las grandes obras hidráulicas, en que la impermeabilización es de mayor importancia al tratar de conservar los caudales iniciales o la retención de aguas embalsadas, según los casos. Los progresos de las técnicas modernas, en particular la prefabricación, han permitido este tipo de revestimientos con losas de gran longitud, extremadamente flexibles e impermeables, de hormigón armado y pretensado. Aunque son muchas las posibilidades y tipos de revestimiento, destaca el que a continuación se expone: consiste en placas o losas estrechas, de gran flexibilidad, colocadas transversalmente al eje del canal sobre tongadas de mortero de cemento, y cuyas juntas se sellan, finalmente, con un mortero especial llamado «Emboco». Complementan la exposición teórica del método una serie de

  5. Three distal root canals in mandibular first molar with different canal configurations: Report of two cases and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Bansal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing number of reports of aberrant root canal morphology, the clinician needs to be aware of the variable anatomy. Various case reports have been published with the finding of middle mesial canal in mandibular first molar, however finding of three distal canals in distal roots of mandibular first molar is rare. This article reports endodontic management of two mandibular first molars presented with three distal canals present in a single distal root (Sert and Bayirli type XVIII and distal and distolingual root.

  6. Auditory memory function in expert chess players

    OpenAIRE

    Fattahi, Fariba; Geshani, Ahmad; Jafari, Zahra; Jalaie, Shohreh; Salman Mahini, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chess is a game that involves many aspects of high level cognition such as memory, attention, focus and problem solving. Long term practice of chess can improve cognition performances and behavioral skills. Auditory memory, as a kind of memory, can be influenced by strengthening processes following long term chess playing like other behavioral skills because of common processing pathways in the brain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the auditory memory function of expert...

  7. Mental concerts: musical imagery and auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatorre, Robert J; Halpern, Andrea R

    2005-07-07

    Most people intuitively understand what it means to "hear a tune in your head." Converging evidence now indicates that auditory cortical areas can be recruited even in the absence of sound and that this corresponds to the phenomenological experience of imagining music. We discuss these findings as well as some methodological challenges. We also consider the role of core versus belt areas in musical imagery, the relation between auditory and motor systems during imagery of music performance, and practical implications of this research.

  8. [Auditory performance analyses of cochlear implanted patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Süleyman; Kıroğlu, Mete; Tuncer, Ulkü; Sahin, Rasim; Tarkan, Ozgür; Sürmelioğlu, Ozgür

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the auditory performance development of cochlear implanted patients. The effects of age at implantation, gender, implanted ear and model of the cochlear implant on the patients' auditory performance were investigated. Twenty-eight patients (12 boys, 16 girls) with congenital prelingual hearing loss who underwent cochlear implant surgery at our clinic and a follow-up of at least 18 months were selected for the study. Listening Progress Profile (LiP), Monosyllable-Trochee-Polysyllable (MTP) and Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale (MAIS) tests were performed to analyze the auditory performances of the patients. To determine the effect of the age at implantation on the auditory performance, patients were assigned into two groups: group 1 (implantation age = or <60 months, mean 44.8 months) and group 2 (implantation age = or <60 months, mean 100.6 months). Group 2 had higher preoperative test scores than group 1 but after cochlear implant use, the auditory performance levels of the patients in group 1 improved faster and equalized to those of the patients in group 2 after 12-18 months. Our data showed that variables such as sex, implanted ear or model of the cochlear implant did not have any statistically significant effect on the auditory performance of the patients after cochlear implantation. We found a negative correlation between the implantation age and the auditory performance improvement in our study. We observed that children implanted at young age had a quicker language development and have had more success in reading, writing and other educational skills in the future.

  9. Water Environment Evolution along the China Grand Canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, F.; Wu, Y. X.; Yang, B. F.; Li, X. J.

    2014-03-01

    The China Grand Canal is one of the earliest canals in the world, having lasted for nearly 3000 years. Even its section canals have a rich history, such as the North-South Grand Canal that was established during the Sui Dynasty, whereas the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal was excavated during the Yuan Dynasty and the east line of the South-to-North Water Diversion. As one of the longest in the world, the China Grand Canal's total length is over 3500 kilometers. This length includes the navigable, unnavigable, and underground sections. Making the best use of situations and according to local conditions, the Chinese people harmoniously constructed the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal with nature. Tens of millions of workers took nearly 3000 years to complete the great shipping system. Navigable sections still exist for up to 900 kilometers and the volume of freight traffic is approximately 300 million tons. The canal remains the main logistical channel of the North-to-South Coal Transportation, South-to-North Water Diversion, and resources circulation. To date, China is promoting the success of heritage application. Part of these efforts is the declaration of the China Grand Canal as a World Cultural Heritage by 2014. In addition, the east route of the South-to-North Water Transfer project is planned to be navigable by 2016. The ancient Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal will usher in the new ecological civilization and cultural revival along the canal. This paper presents technical methods of water environment evolution research on the river system, river, and water quality along the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal through the integration of historical literature and modern remote sensing image data. The study carried out water environment investigation and analysis along the Beijing-Hangzhou canal by using ETM, SPOT image data, and GPS measurement data. Spatial and temporal evolution characteristics and regulations of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal regional water environment in the span of 3000

  10. Root canal treatment of mandibular second premolar tooth with taurodontism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujašković Mirjana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Taurodontism is a morphoanatomical change in the shape of a tooth. An enlarged body of a tooth with smaller than usual roots is a characteristic feature. Internal tooth anatomy correlates with this appearance, which means that a taurodontal tooth has a large pulp chamber and apically positioned furcations. This dental anomaly may be associated with different syndromes and congenital discoders. CASE OUTLINE The case report presents the patient of a rare case of taurodontism in the mandibular second premolar with chronic periodontitis. Endodontic treatment was performed after dental history and clinical examination. Special care is required in all segments of endodontic treatment of a taurodontal tooth from the identification orifice, canal exploration, determining working length, cleaning and shaping and obturation of the root canal. Precurved K-file was used for canal exploration and location of the furcation. One mesial and one distal canal with the buccal position were identified in the apical third of the root canal. The working lengths of two canals were determined by radiographic interpretation with two K-files in each canal and verified with the apex locator. During canal instrumentation, the third canal was located in the disto-lingual position. The working length of the third canal was established using the apex locator. CONCLUSION Thorough knowledge of tooth anatomy and its variations can lead to lower percentage of endodontic failure. Each clinical case involving these teeth should be investigated carefully, clinically and radiographically to detect additional root canals. High quality radiographs from different angles and proper instrumentarium improve the quality of endodontic procedure.

  11. [Root canal treatment of mandibular second premolar tooth with taurodontism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujasković, Mirjana; Karadzić, Branislav; Miletić, Vesna

    2008-01-01

    Taurodontism is a morphoanatomical change in the shape of a tooth. An enlarged body of a tooth with smaller than usual roots is a characteristic feature. Internal tooth anatomy correlates with this appearance, which means that a taurodontal tooth has a large pulp chamber and apically positioned furcations. This dental anomaly may be associated with different syndromes and congenital discoders. The case report presents the patient of a rare case of taurodontism in the mandibular second premolar with chronic periodontitis. Endodontic treatment was performed after dental history and clinical examination. Special care is required in all segments of endodontic treatment of a taurodontal tooth from the identification orifice, canal exploration, determining working length, cleaning and shaping and obturation of the root canal. Precurved K-file was used for canal exploration and location of the furcation. One mesial and one distal canal with the buccal position were identified in the apical third of the root canal. The working lengths of two canals were determined by radiographic interpretation with two K-files in each canal and verified with the apex locator. During canal instrumentation, the third canal was located in the disto-lingual position. The working length of the third canal was established using the apex locator. Thorough knowledge of tooth anatomy and its variations can lead to lower percentage of endodontic failure. Each clinical case involving these teeth should be investigated carefully, clinically and radiographically to detect additional root canals. High quality radiographs from different angles and proper instrumentarium improve the quality of endodontic procedure.

  12. File list: His.CDV.50.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  20. Glial cell contributions to auditory brainstem development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina S Cramer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Glial cells, previously thought to have generally supporting roles in the central nervous system, are emerging as essential contributors to multiple aspects of neuronal circuit function and development. This review focuses on the contributions of glial cells to the development of specialized auditory pathways in the brainstem. These pathways display specialized synapses and an unusually high degree of precision in circuitry that enables sound source localization. The development of these pathways thus requires highly coordinated molecular and cellular mechanisms. Several classes of glial cells, including astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and microglia, have now been explored in these circuits in both avian and mammalian brainstems. Distinct populations of astrocytes are found over the course of auditory brainstem maturation. Early appearing astrocytes are associated with spatial compartments in the avian auditory brainstem. Factors from late appearing astrocytes promote synaptogenesis and dendritic maturation, and astrocytes remain integral parts of specialized auditory synapses. Oligodendrocytes play a unique role in both birds and mammals in highly regulated myelination essential for proper timing to decipher interaural cues. Microglia arise early in brainstem development and may contribute to maturation of auditory pathways. Together these studies demonstrate the importance of non-neuronal cells in the assembly of specialized auditory brainstem circuits.

  1. Long Latency Auditory Evoked Potentials during Meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telles, Shirley; Deepeshwar, Singh; Naveen, Kalkuni Visweswaraiah; Pailoor, Subramanya

    2015-10-01

    The auditory sensory pathway has been studied in meditators, using midlatency and short latency auditory evoked potentials. The present study evaluated long latency auditory evoked potentials (LLAEPs) during meditation. Sixty male participants, aged between 18 and 31 years (group mean±SD, 20.5±3.8 years), were assessed in 4 mental states based on descriptions in the traditional texts. They were (a) random thinking, (b) nonmeditative focusing, (c) meditative focusing, and (d) meditation. The order of the sessions was randomly assigned. The LLAEP components studied were P1 (40-60 ms), N1 (75-115 ms), P2 (120-180 ms), and N2 (180-280 ms). For each component, the peak amplitude and peak latency were measured from the prestimulus baseline. There was significant decrease in the peak latency of the P2 component during and after meditation (Pmeditation facilitates the processing of information in the auditory association cortex, whereas the number of neurons recruited was smaller in random thinking and non-meditative focused thinking, at the level of the secondary auditory cortex, auditory association cortex and anterior cingulate cortex. © EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ECNS) 2014.

  2. Speech Evoked Auditory Brainstem Response in Stuttering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Tahaei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Auditory processing deficits have been hypothesized as an underlying mechanism for stuttering. Previous studies have demonstrated abnormal responses in subjects with persistent developmental stuttering (PDS at the higher level of the central auditory system using speech stimuli. Recently, the potential usefulness of speech evoked auditory brainstem responses in central auditory processing disorders has been emphasized. The current study used the speech evoked ABR to investigate the hypothesis that subjects with PDS have specific auditory perceptual dysfunction. Objectives. To determine whether brainstem responses to speech stimuli differ between PDS subjects and normal fluent speakers. Methods. Twenty-five subjects with PDS participated in this study. The speech-ABRs were elicited by the 5-formant synthesized syllable/da/, with duration of 40 ms. Results. There were significant group differences for the onset and offset transient peaks. Subjects with PDS had longer latencies for the onset and offset peaks relative to the control group. Conclusions. Subjects with PDS showed a deficient neural timing in the early stages of the auditory pathway consistent with temporal processing deficits and their abnormal timing may underlie to their disfluency.

  3. Investigating bottom-up auditory attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Merve Kaya

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Bottom-up attention is a sensory-driven selection mechanism that directs perception towards a subset of the stimulus that is considered salient, or attention-grabbing. Most studies of bottom-up auditory attention have adapted frameworks similar to visual attention models whereby local or global contrast is a central concept in defining salient elements in a scene. In the current study, we take a more fundamental approach to modeling auditory attention; providing the first examination of the space of auditory saliency spanning pitch, intensity and timbre; and shedding light on complex interactions among these features. Informed by psychoacoustic results, we develop a computational model of auditory saliency implementing a novel attentional framework, guided by processes hypothesized to take place in the auditory pathway. In particular, the model tests the hypothesis that perception tracks the evolution of sound events in a multidimensional feature space, and flags any deviation from background statistics as salient. Predictions from the model corroborate the relationship between bottom-up auditory attention and statistical inference, and argues for a potential role of predictive coding as mechanism for saliency detection in acoustic scenes.

  4. Endodontic management of permanent mandibular left first molar with six root canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The endodontic treatment of a mandibular molar with aberrant canal configuration can be diagnostically and clinically challenging. This case report presents the treatment of a mandibular first molar with six root canals, of which three canals were located in the mesial root and three in distal root. Third canals were found between the two main root canals. This case presents a rare anatomic configuration and points to the importance of expecting and searching for additional canals.

  5. Visibility of the central canal on MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petit-Lacour, M.C.; Lasjaunias, P.; Iffenecker, C.; Benoudiba, F.; Hadj Rabia, M.; Doyon, D. [Service de Neuroradiologie, Faculte de Paris Sud (France); Hurth, M. [Department of Neurosurgery, Faculte Paris Sud, Kremlin-Bicetre (France)

    2000-10-01

    The central canal of the spinal cord is present at birth and becomes progressively obliterated. Cadaver studies have shown that it may persiste partially or completely. To our knowledge, this entity has not been described on MRI. We reviewed 794 MRI studies of the spinal cord, and found 12 patients (aged 14 to 65 years) who had an intramedullary cavity. The cavity was at the junction of the ventral {sup 1}/{sub 3} and dorsal {sup 2}/{sub 3} of the spinal cord, except at the level of the lumbar enlargement, where it was central. It was filiform in most cases, although sometimes fusiform (3 to 4 mm in diameter), and had regular contours. The cavity were thoracic in 69 % of cases. The clinical features were totally unrelated to the image, and there were no anatomical factors (Chiari malformation, dysraphism) predisposing to syringomyelia. The images were perfectly compatible with a persistent central canal, which we interpret as a variant of normal anatomy. Therefore it is important to regard these findings as normal, to avoid unnecessary treatment and follow-up. (orig.)

  6. Root canals-from concretion to patency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakar Chaman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Teeth with calcification provide an endodontic treatment challenge; traumatized teeth usually develop partial or total pulpal obliteration which is characterized by apparent loss of the pulp space radiographically and a yellow discoloration of the clinical crown. Since only 7-27% of such teeth develop pulp necrosis with radiographic signs of apical periodontitis, it is difficult to decide whether to treat these teeth immediately upon detection of the pulpal obliteration or to wait until signs and symptoms of pulp and/or apical periodontitis occur. This article reviews the etiology, prevalence, classification, mechanism, diagnosis as well as treatment options for teeth with pulp obliteration and the various management approaches and treatment strategies for overcoming potential complications. A search of articles from "PubMed" and "Medline" from 1965 to present was done with the keywords dental trauma, discoloration, pathfinding instruments, pulp canal obliteration, and root canal treatment was conducted. A total of 94 abstracts were collected, of which 70 relevant articles were read and 31 most relevant articles were included in this article.

  7. Assessment of three root canal preparation techniques on root canal geometry using micro-computed tomography: In vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikha M Al-Ali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the effects of three root canal preparation techniques on canal volume and surface area using three-dimensionally reconstructed root canals in extracted human maxillary molars. Materials and Methods: Thirty extracted Human Maxillary Molars having three separate roots and similar root shape were randomly selected from a pool of extracted teeth for this study and stored in normal saline solution until used. A computed tomography scanner (Philips Brilliance CT 64-slice was used to analyze root canals in extracted maxillary molars. Specimens were scanned before and after canals were prepared using stainless steel K-Files, Ni-Ti rotary ProTaper and rotary SafeSiders instruments. Differences in dentin volume removed, the surface area, the proportion of unchanged area and canal transportation were calculated using specially developed software. Results: Instrumentation of canals increased volume and surface area. Statistical analysis found a statistically significant difference among the 3 groups in total change in volume (P = 0.001 and total change in surface area (P = 0.13. Significant differences were found when testing both groups with group III (SafeSiders. Significant differences in change of volume were noted when grouping was made with respect to canal type (in MB and DB (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The current study used computed tomography, an innovative and non destructive technique, to illustrate changes in canal geometry. Overall, there were few statistically significant differences between the three instrumentation techniques used. SafeSiders stainless steel 40/0.02 instruments exhibit a greater cutting efficiency on dentin than K-Files and ProTaper. CT is a new and valuable tool to study root canal geometry and changes after preparation in great details. Further studies with 3D-techniques are required to fully understand the biomechanical aspects of root canal preparation.

  8. Endodontic management of mandibular canine with two canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Shrivastava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endodontic treatment may sometimes fail because morphological features of the tooth adversely affect the treatment procedures. Many investigators have reported the anatomical variations associated with mandibular canines. Mandibular canines are recognized as usually having one root and one root canal in most cases. This case report describes a clinical case of mandibular canine with two canals. Human mandibular canines do not present internal anatomy as simple as could be expected; there are such canines with a single root and two canals, two roots or fused roots. The existence of mandibular canines with more than one root canal is a fact that clinicians ought to keep in mind, in order to avoid failure during endodontic treatment. In spite of the low incidence of lower canines with one root and two canals, this possibility cannot be forgotten, inasmuch as the presence of a second canal in these teeth leads to difficulties in endodontic treatment. The precise knowledge of the dental endocanalicular system′s anatomy is essential in the success of the root canal therapy, because the failure to detect the accessories canals and the incomplete radicular obturation leads to the infection of the periapical space, which will ultimately result in the loss of the tooth.

  9. Technical quality of root canal treatment in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chueh, L-H; Chen, S-C; Lee, C-M; Hsu, Y-Y; Pai, S-F; Kuo, M-L; Chen, C-S; Duh, B-R; Yang, S-F; Tung, Y-L; Hsiao, Chuhsing Kate

    2003-06-01

    To evaluate the current technical quality of root canal treatment (RCT) in Taiwan. A total of 1085 RCT cases, randomly selected from a large sample and representative of the Taiwanese population from April to September 2000, were evaluated by eight endodontic specialists. The qualitative evaluation of RCT cases was based on two variables: length of the root filling and density of the obturation. A root canal with both adequate filling length (the apical termination of the root filling within 2 mm of the radiographic apex) and complete obturation (no lateral or apical canal lumen visible in the apical one-third of the root canal) was defined as having good-quality endodontic work (GQEW). A tooth was defined as having a GQEW when all its canals were categorized as GQEW. From a total of 1867 root canals, overfilling occurred in 235 (12.6%), adequate filling length in 1152 (61.7%), underfilling in 466 (25.0%) and no filling in 12 (0.6%). Of the 1867 root canals, 710 (38.0%) demonstrated complete obturation and 1157 (62%) demonstrated incomplete obturation. GQEW was found in 650 (34.8%) root canals and 329 (30.3%) teeth. The percentage of teeth with GQEW in hospital cases (38.1%) was significantly greater (P RCT in Taiwan were either of inadequate filling length or sealing density.

  10. Lateral line canal morphology and signal to noise ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Adrian; Herzog, Hendrik; Bleckmann, Horst

    2011-04-01

    The lateral line system of fish is important for many behaviors, including spatial orientation, prey detection, shoaling, intra specific communication and entraining. The smallest sensory unit of the lateral line is the neuromast that occurs free standing on the skin and in fluid filled canals. With aid of the lateral line fish perceive minute water motions. In their natural habitat fish are not only faced with biotic water motion but also with the abiotic fluctuations caused by various inanimate sources. The detection of meaningful signals is crucial for survival, and therefore animals should be able to separate meaningful signals from noise. Fishes live in various habitats (e.g. in still water or in running water). Therefore it is not surprising that the number and distribution of neuromasts as well as canal dimension, canal shape and canal branching patterns differ among fish species. We studied how lateral line canal parameters influence the filter properties of lateral line canals. To do so we exposed artificial lateral line canals, equipped with artificial neuromasts (sensors), to the vortex street shed by a submerged cylinder and to air bubble noise. We found that certain canal parameters significantly can enhance the signal to noise ratio.

  11. 33 CFR 117.769 - Black Rock Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Black Rock Canal. 117.769 Section 117.769 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York § 117.769 Black Rock Canal. The draws of the...

  12. 33 CFR 117.159 - Grant Line Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grant Line Canal. 117.159 Section 117.159 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.159 Grant Line Canal. The draw of the...

  13. Segmental carpal canal pressure in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Kazuo; Osamura, Naoki; Tomita, Katsuro

    2006-01-01

    To clarify which part of the median nerve is the most compressed and to compare carpal canal pressure with the latency of the sensory nerve potential and the duration of symptoms. Fifteen patients with idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome were studied using a pressure guidewire system to record canal pressure. The wire was introduced from the distal end of the carpal canal to 2 cm proximal to the distal wrist crease (DWC) and then retracted in 5-mm increments using an image intensifier to guide the progress. A nerve conduction study was performed, and all patients were asked how long the symptoms lasted. Carpal canal pressure was significantly higher 5 to 15 mm distal to the DWC. The most compressed point was 10 mm distal to the DWC, with a pressure of 44.9 +/- 26.4 mm Hg. The correlation coefficient between the highest canal pressure and the latency was 0.393 and between highest canal pressure and duration of symptoms was 0.402. Our study showed that the most compressed part of the median nerve in the carpal canal is 10 mm distal to the DWC. The carpal canal pressure was related to the latency and to the duration of symptoms.

  14. Sexual dimorphism in cervical vertebral canal measurements of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sexual dimorphism in cervical vertebral canal measurements of human foetuses. ... Anatomy Journal of Africa ... Cervical parts of vertebral canal in 30 normal human foetuses was exposed in coronal plane and were divided in groups 1 and 2 which correspond with 2nd and 3rd trimester of pregnancy respectively. Groups 1 ...

  15. Morphology of root canals in lower human premolars | Baroudi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background The knowledge of the root canal morphology and the possible anatomical variations of mandibular premolars are important for the successful endodontic treatment of such cases. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of two or three root canals in extracted first and second mandibular premolars ...

  16. Reform in Indian canal irrigation: does technology matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Narain, V.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of technology - the design of canal irrigation for irrigation management reform. With reference to two different design systems in Indian irrigation - shejpali and warabandi - it shows that the potential for reform varies with the design of canal irrigation.

  17. Predictive coding of visual-auditory and motor-auditory events: An electrophysiological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stekelenburg, J.J.; Vroomen, J.

    2015-01-01

    The amplitude of auditory components of the event-related potential (ERP) is attenuated when sounds are self-generated compared to externally generated sounds. This effect has been ascribed to internal forward modals predicting the sensory consequences of one’s own motor actions. Auditory potentials

  18. Amygdala and auditory cortex exhibit distinct sensitivity to relevant acoustic features of auditory emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannese, Alessia; Grandjean, Didier; Frühholz, Sascha

    2016-12-01

    Discriminating between auditory signals of different affective value is critical to successful social interaction. It is commonly held that acoustic decoding of such signals occurs in the auditory system, whereas affective decoding occurs in the amygdala. However, given that the amygdala receives direct subcortical projections that bypass the auditory cortex, it is possible that some acoustic decoding occurs in the amygdala as well, when the acoustic features are relevant for affective discrimination. We tested this hypothesis by combining functional neuroimaging with the neurophysiological phenomena of repetition suppression (RS) and repetition enhancement (RE) in human listeners. Our results show that both amygdala and auditory cortex responded differentially to physical voice features, suggesting that the amygdala and auditory cortex decode the affective quality of the voice not only by processing the emotional content from previously processed acoustic features, but also by processing the acoustic features themselves, when these are relevant to the identification of the voice's affective value. Specifically, we found that the auditory cortex is sensitive to spectral high-frequency voice cues when discriminating vocal anger from vocal fear and joy, whereas the amygdala is sensitive to vocal pitch when discriminating between negative vocal emotions (i.e., anger and fear). Vocal pitch is an instantaneously recognized voice feature, which is potentially transferred to the amygdala by direct subcortical projections. These results together provide evidence that, besides the auditory cortex, the amygdala too processes acoustic information, when this is relevant to the discrimination of auditory emotions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Traditional and contemporary techniques for optimizing root canal irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Richard; Alani, Aws

    2014-01-01

    Canal irrigation during root canal treatment is an important component of chemo-mechanical debridement of the root canal system. Traditional syringe irrigation can be enhanced by activating the irrigant to provide superior cleaning properties. This activation can be achieved by simple modifications in current technique or by contemporary automated devices. Novel techniques are also being developed, such as the Self-adjusting File (Re-Dent-Nova, Ra'anana, Israel), Ozone (Healozone, Dental Ozone, London, UK), Photoactivated Disinfection and Ultraviolet Light Disinfection. This paper reviews the techniques available to enhance traditional syringe irrigation, contemporary irrigation devices and novel techniques, citing their evidence base, advantages and disadvantages. Recent advances in irrigation techniques and canal disinfection and debridement are relevant to practitioners carrying out root canal treatment.

  20. Hydrology and environmental aspects of Erie Canal (1817-99)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langbein, Walter Basil

    1976-01-01

    As the first major water project in the United States, the old Erie Canal provides an example of the hydrological and environmental consequences of water development. The available record shows that the project aroused environmental fears that the canal might be impaired by the adverse hydrologic effects of land development induced by the canal. Water requirements proved greater than anticipated, and problems of floods and hydraulic inefficiencies beset navigation throughout its history. The Erie Canal proved the practicality of major hydraulic works to the extent that operations and maintenance could cope with the burdens of deficiencies in design. The weight of prior experience that upland streams, such as the Potomac and Mohawk Rivers, had proved unsatisfactory for dependable navigation, led to a decision to build an independent canal which freed the location from the constraints of river channels and made possible a cross-country water route directly to Lake Erie. The decision on dimensioning the canal prism--chiefly width and depth-involved balance between a fear of building too small and thus not achieving the economic potentials, and a fear of building too expensively. The constraints proved effective, and for the first part of its history the revenues collected were sufficient to repay all costs. So great was the economic advantage of the canal that the rising trend in traffic soon induced an enlargement of the canal cross section, based upon a new but riskier objective-build as large as the projected trend in toll revenues would finance. The increased revenues did not materialize. Water supplies were a primary concern for both the planners and the operators of the canal. Water required for lockage, although the most obvious to the planners, proved to be a relatively minor item compared with the amounts of water that were required to compensate for leakage through the bed and banks of the canal. Leakage amounted to about 8 inches of depth per day. The total

  1. VARIATION OF MAXILLARY FIRST PREMOLAR WITH THREE ROOT CANALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Kirilova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Successful endodontic treatment requires effective biomechanical preparation of the root canals and three-dimensional obturation of the root canal system. This can be achieved only by knowing and identifying the variations in the root canal system of the endodontically treated teeth. The Aim: The aim of this article is to present cases of endodontic treatment of maxillary first premolar with three root canals – different types. Material and Methods: Five clinical cases of successful endodontic treatment of patients with maxillary first premolar and three root canals are described. Result and Discussion: It is noted that good endodontic practice requires good knowledge of dental anatomy and possible variations, accurate X-ray images, as well as use of magnifying equipment. Conclusion: Knowledge of dental anatomy is fundamental for good endodontic practice.

  2. Efficacy of auditory training in elderly subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Albuquerque Morais

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Auditory training (AT  has been used for auditory rehabilitation in elderly individuals and is an effective tool for optimizing speech processing in this population. However, it is necessary to distinguish training-related improvements from placebo and test-retest effects. Thus, we investigated the efficacy of short-term auditory training (acoustically controlled auditory training - ACAT in elderly subjects through behavioral measures and P300. Sixteen elderly individuals with APD received an initial evaluation (evaluation 1 - E1 consisting of behavioral and electrophysiological tests (P300 evoked by tone burst and speech sounds to evaluate their auditory processing. The individuals were divided into two groups. The Active Control Group [ACG (n=8] underwent placebo training. The Passive Control Group [PCG (n=8] did not receive any intervention. After 12 weeks, the subjects were  revaluated (evaluation 2 - E2. Then, all of the subjects underwent ACAT. Following another 12 weeks (8 training sessions, they underwent the final evaluation (evaluation 3 – E3. There was no significant difference between E1 and E2 in the behavioral test [F(9.6=0,.6 p=0.92, λ de Wilks=0.65] or P300 [F(8.7=2.11, p=0.17, λ de Wilks=0.29] (discarding the presence of placebo effects and test-retest. A significant improvement was observed between the pre- and post-ACAT conditions (E2 and E3 for all auditory skills according to the behavioral methods [F(4.27=0.18, p=0.94, λ de Wilks=0.97]. However, the same result was not observed for P300 in any condition. There was no significant difference between P300 stimuli. The ACAT improved the behavioral performance of the elderly for all auditory skills and was an effective method for hearing rehabilitation.

  3. Auditory sustained field responses to periodic noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keceli Sumru

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Auditory sustained responses have been recently suggested to reflect neural processing of speech sounds in the auditory cortex. As periodic fluctuations below the pitch range are important for speech perception, it is necessary to investigate how low frequency periodic sounds are processed in the human auditory cortex. Auditory sustained responses have been shown to be sensitive to temporal regularity but the relationship between the amplitudes of auditory evoked sustained responses and the repetitive rates of auditory inputs remains elusive. As the temporal and spectral features of sounds enhance different components of sustained responses, previous studies with click trains and vowel stimuli presented diverging results. In order to investigate the effect of repetition rate on cortical responses, we analyzed the auditory sustained fields evoked by periodic and aperiodic noises using magnetoencephalography. Results Sustained fields were elicited by white noise and repeating frozen noise stimuli with repetition rates of 5-, 10-, 50-, 200- and 500 Hz. The sustained field amplitudes were significantly larger for all the periodic stimuli than for white noise. Although the sustained field amplitudes showed a rising and falling pattern within the repetition rate range, the response amplitudes to 5 Hz repetition rate were significantly larger than to 500 Hz. Conclusions The enhanced sustained field responses to periodic noises show that cortical sensitivity to periodic sounds is maintained for a wide range of repetition rates. Persistence of periodicity sensitivity below the pitch range suggests that in addition to processing the fundamental frequency of voice, sustained field generators can also resolve low frequency temporal modulations in speech envelope.

  4. Superior Canal Dehiscence Syndrome Affecting 3 Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidenreich, Katherine D; Kileny, Paul R; Ahmed, Sameer; El-Kashlan, Hussam K; Melendez, Tori L; Basura, Gregory J; Lesperance, Marci M

    2017-07-01

    Superior canal dehiscence syndrome (SCDS) is an increasingly recognized cause of hearing loss and vestibular symptoms, but the etiology of this condition remains unknown. To describe 7 cases of SCDS across 3 families. This retrospective case series included 7 patients from 3 different families treated at a neurotology clinic at a tertiary academic medical center from 2010 to 2014. Patients were referred by other otolaryngologists or were self-referred. Each patient demonstrated unilateral or bilateral SCDS or near dehiscence. Clinical evaluation involved body mass index calculation, audiometry, cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential testing, electrocochleography, and multiplanar computed tomographic (CT) scan of the temporal bones. Zygosity testing was performed on twin siblings. The diagnosis of SCDS was made if bone was absent over the superior semicircular canal on 2 consecutive CT images, in addition to 1 physiologic sign consistent with labyrinthine dehiscence. Near dehiscence was defined as absent bone on only 1 CT image but with symptoms and at least 1 physiologic sign of labyrinthine dehiscence. A total of 7 patients (5 female and 2 male; age range, 8-49 years) from 3 families underwent evaluation. Family A consisted of 3 adult first-degree relatives, of whom 2 were diagnosed with SCDS and 1 with near dehiscence. Family B included a mother and her child, both of whom were diagnosed with unilateral SCDS. Family C consisted of adult monozygotic twins, each of whom was diagnosed with unilateral SCDS. For all cases, dehiscence was located at the arcuate eminence. Obesity alone did not explain the occurrence of SCDS because 5 of the 7 cases had a body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) less than 30.0. Superior canal dehiscence syndrome is a rare, often unrecognized condition. This report of 3 multiplex families with SCDS provides evidence in support of a potential genetic contribution to the etiology

  5. Using Auditory Steady-State Responses for Measuring Hearing Protector Attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentin, Olivier; John, Sasha M.; Laville, Frédéric

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Present methods of measuring the attenuation of hearing protection devices (HPDs) have limitations. Objective measurements such as field microphone in real-ear do not assess bone-conducted sound. Psychophysical measurements such as real-ear attenuation at threshold (REAT) are biased due to the low frequency masking effects from test subjects’ physiological noise and the variability of measurements based on subjective responses. An auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs) procedure is explored as a technique which might overcome these limitations. Subjects and Methods: Pure tone stimuli (500 and 1000 Hz), amplitude modulated at 40 Hz, are presented to 10 normal-hearing adults through headphones at three levels in 10 dB steps. Two conditions were assessed: unoccluded ear canal and occluded ear canal. ASSR amplitude data as a function of the stimulation level are linearized using least-square regressions. The “physiological attenuation” is then calculated as the average difference between the two measurements. The technical feasibility of measuring earplug attenuation is demonstrated for the group average attenuation across subjects. Results: No significant statistical difference is found between the average REAT attenuation and the average ASSR-based attenuation. Conclusion: Feasibility is not yet demonstrated for individual subjects since differences between the estimates occurred for some subjects. PMID:28164933

  6. Effects of otitis on hearing in dogs characterised by brainstem auditory evoked response testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eger, C E; Lindsay, P

    1997-09-01

    Hearing function was measured in normal dogs and in dogs with otitis using brainstem auditory evoked response testing. Data were obtained from 86 normal ears and from 105 ears with otitis, categorised into four degrees of severity. The data were analysed to illustrate the differences between the hearing function in the normal and abnormal ears and to estimate the degree of impairment associated with differing degrees of pathology. While severe hearing loss seemed to be present in the dogs with more severe otitis, only two individuals were identified as being totally deaf in the affected ears and no dogs were identified in which the cleaning and examination processes had caused damage to hearing function. Cleaning the ear canal produced measurable improvements in hearing in several dogs, indicating the profound effect of physical obstruction of the external ear canal by debris. It is concluded that most dogs with chronic otitis externa are not totally deaf and that the hearing impairment that does occur has the characteristics of conductive hearing loss.

  7. Using Auditory Steady-State Responses for Measuring Hearing Protector Attenuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Valentin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Present methods of measuring the attenuation of hearing protection devices (HPDs have limitations. Objective measurements such as field microphone in real-ear do not assess bone-conducted sound. Psychophysical measurements such as real-ear attenuation at threshold (REAT are biased due to the low frequency masking effects from test subjects’ physiological noise and the variability of measurements based on subjective responses. An auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs procedure is explored as a technique which might overcome these limitations. Subjects and Methods: Pure tone stimuli (500 and 1000 Hz, amplitude modulated at 40 Hz, are presented to 10 normal-hearing adults through headphones at three levels in 10 dB steps. Two conditions were assessed: unoccluded ear canal and occluded ear canal. ASSR amplitude data as a function of the stimulation level are linearized using least-square regressions. The “physiological attenuation” is then calculated as the average difference between the two measurements. The technical feasibility of measuring earplug attenuation is demonstrated for the group average attenuation across subjects. Results: No significant statistical difference is found between the average REAT attenuation and the average ASSR-based attenuation. Conclusion: Feasibility is not yet demonstrated for individual subjects since differences between the estimates occurred for some subjects.

  8. Auditory and motor imagery modulate learning in music performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel M.; Palmer, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Skilled performers such as athletes or musicians can improve their performance by imagining the actions or sensory outcomes associated with their skill. Performers vary widely in their auditory and motor imagery abilities, and these individual differences influence sensorimotor learning. It is unknown whether imagery abilities influence both memory encoding and retrieval. We examined how auditory and motor imagery abilities influence musicians' encoding (during Learning, as they practiced novel melodies), and retrieval (during Recall of those melodies). Pianists learned melodies by listening without performing (auditory learning) or performing without sound (motor learning); following Learning, pianists performed the melodies from memory with auditory feedback (Recall). During either Learning (Experiment 1) or Recall (Experiment 2), pianists experienced either auditory interference, motor interference, or no interference. Pitch accuracy (percentage of correct pitches produced) and temporal regularity (variability of quarter-note interonset intervals) were measured at Recall. Independent tests measured auditory and motor imagery skills. Pianists' pitch accuracy was higher following auditory learning than following motor learning and lower in motor interference conditions (Experiments 1 and 2). Both auditory and motor imagery skills improved pitch accuracy overall. Auditory imagery skills modulated pitch accuracy encoding (Experiment 1): Higher auditory imagery skill corresponded to higher pitch accuracy following auditory learning with auditory or motor interference, and following motor learning with motor or no interference. These findings suggest that auditory imagery abilities decrease vulnerability to interference and compensate for missing auditory feedback at encoding. Auditory imagery skills also influenced temporal regularity at retrieval (Experiment 2): Higher auditory imagery skill predicted greater temporal regularity during Recall in the presence of

  9. Auditory and motor imagery modulate learning in music performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel M; Palmer, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Skilled performers such as athletes or musicians can improve their performance by imagining the actions or sensory outcomes associated with their skill. Performers vary widely in their auditory and motor imagery abilities, and these individual differences influence sensorimotor learning. It is unknown whether imagery abilities influence both memory encoding and retrieval. We examined how auditory and motor imagery abilities influence musicians' encoding (during Learning, as they practiced novel melodies), and retrieval (during Recall of those melodies). Pianists learned melodies by listening without performing (auditory learning) or performing without sound (motor learning); following Learning, pianists performed the melodies from memory with auditory feedback (Recall). During either Learning (Experiment 1) or Recall (Experiment 2), pianists experienced either auditory interference, motor interference, or no interference. Pitch accuracy (percentage of correct pitches produced) and temporal regularity (variability of quarter-note interonset intervals) were measured at Recall. Independent tests measured auditory and motor imagery skills. Pianists' pitch accuracy was higher following auditory learning than following motor learning and lower in motor interference conditions (Experiments 1 and 2). Both auditory and motor imagery skills improved pitch accuracy overall. Auditory imagery skills modulated pitch accuracy encoding (Experiment 1): Higher auditory imagery skill corresponded to higher pitch accuracy following auditory learning with auditory or motor interference, and following motor learning with motor or no interference. These findings suggest that auditory imagery abilities decrease vulnerability to interference and compensate for missing auditory feedback at encoding. Auditory imagery skills also influenced temporal regularity at retrieval (Experiment 2): Higher auditory imagery skill predicted greater temporal regularity during Recall in the presence of

  10. [The effect of left bacteria in the root canal on prognosis of the root canal therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin-mei; Bian, Zhuan; Fan, Ming-wen; Fan, Bing

    2004-06-01

    To study the effect of the left bacteria on the root canal therapy. 50 single-rooted teeth with chronic apical periodontitis were divided into two groups, one was instrumented with step-back technique and 2.5%NaOCl ultrasonic irrigation for 3 min, then filled with Thermafil. Samples were taken after instrumentation to culture. The other was treated with traditional RCT at three visits. In 24 months the apical radiolucency were greatly reduced in all cases. There weren't significant relationship among the postoperative pain and the left bacteria, the degree of the obturation or the pre-operative symptoms (P > 0.05). The effect of left bacteria in root canal filled with Thermafil wasn't observed.

  11. Experience and information loss in auditory and visual memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloede, Michele E; Paulauskas, Emily E; Gregg, Melissa K

    2017-07-01

    Recent studies show that recognition memory for sounds is inferior to memory for pictures. Four experiments were conducted to examine the nature of auditory and visual memory. Experiments 1-3 were conducted to evaluate the role of experience in auditory and visual memory. Participants received a study phase with pictures/sounds, followed by a recognition memory test. Participants then completed auditory training with each of the sounds, followed by a second memory test. Despite auditory training in Experiments 1 and 2, visual memory was superior to auditory memory. In Experiment 3, we found that it is possible to improve auditory memory, but only after 3 days of specific auditory training and 3 days of visual memory decay. We examined the time course of information loss in auditory and visual memory in Experiment 4 and found a trade-off between visual and auditory recognition memory: Visual memory appears to have a larger capacity, while auditory memory is more enduring. Our results indicate that visual and auditory memory are inherently different memory systems and that differences in visual and auditory recognition memory performance may be due to the different amounts of experience with visual and auditory information, as well as structurally different neural circuitry specialized for information retention.

  12. Current status of auditory aging and anti-aging research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Qingwei; Ma, Cheng; Zhang, Ruxin; Yu, Zhuowei

    2014-01-01

    The development of presbycusis, or age-related hearing loss, is determined by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The auditory periphery exhibits a progressive bilateral, symmetrical reduction of auditory sensitivity to sound from high to low frequencies. The central auditory nervous system shows symptoms of decline in age-related cognitive abilities, including difficulties in speech discrimination and reduced central auditory processing, ultimately resulting in auditory perceptual abnormalities. The pathophysiological mechanisms of presbycusis include excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation, aging and oxidative stress-induced DNA damage that results in apoptosis in the auditory pathway. However, the originating signals that trigger these mechanisms remain unclear. For instance, it is still unknown whether insulin is involved in auditory aging. Auditory aging has preclinical lesions, which manifest as asymptomatic loss of periphery auditory nerves and changes in the plasticity of the central auditory nervous system. Currently, the diagnosis of preclinical, reversible lesions depends on the detection of auditory impairment by functional imaging, and the identification of physiological and molecular biological markers. However, despite recent improvements in the application of these markers, they remain under-utilized in clinical practice. The application of antisenescent approaches to the prevention of auditory aging has produced inconsistent results. Future research will focus on the identification of markers for the diagnosis of preclinical auditory aging and the development of effective interventions. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  13. Perceptual Plasticity for Auditory Object Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heald, Shannon L. M.; Van Hedger, Stephen C.; Nusbaum, Howard C.

    2017-01-01

    In our auditory environment, we rarely experience the exact acoustic waveform twice. This is especially true for communicative signals that have meaning for listeners. In speech and music, the acoustic signal changes as a function of the talker (or instrument), speaking (or playing) rate, and room acoustics, to name a few factors. Yet, despite this acoustic variability, we are able to recognize a sentence or melody as the same across various kinds of acoustic inputs and determine meaning based on listening goals, expectations, context, and experience. The recognition process relates acoustic signals to prior experience despite variability in signal-relevant and signal-irrelevant acoustic properties, some of which could be considered as “noise” in service of a recognition goal. However, some acoustic variability, if systematic, is lawful and can be exploited by listeners to aid in recognition. Perceivable changes in systematic variability can herald a need for listeners to reorganize perception and reorient their attention to more immediately signal-relevant cues. This view is not incorporated currently in many extant theories of auditory perception, which traditionally reduce psychological or neural representations of perceptual objects and the processes that act on them to static entities. While this reduction is likely done for the sake of empirical tractability, such a reduction may seriously distort the perceptual process to be modeled. We argue that perceptual representations, as well as the processes underlying perception, are dynamically determined by an interaction between the uncertainty of the auditory signal and constraints of context. This suggests that the process of auditory recognition is highly context-dependent in that the identity of a given auditory object may be intrinsically tied to its preceding context. To argue for the flexible neural and psychological updating of sound-to-meaning mappings across speech and music, we draw upon examples

  14. Perceptual Plasticity for Auditory Object Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon L. M. Heald

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In our auditory environment, we rarely experience the exact acoustic waveform twice. This is especially true for communicative signals that have meaning for listeners. In speech and music, the acoustic signal changes as a function of the talker (or instrument, speaking (or playing rate, and room acoustics, to name a few factors. Yet, despite this acoustic variability, we are able to recognize a sentence or melody as the same across various kinds of acoustic inputs and determine meaning based on listening goals, expectations, context, and experience. The recognition process relates acoustic signals to prior experience despite variability in signal-relevant and signal-irrelevant acoustic properties, some of which could be considered as “noise” in service of a recognition goal. However, some acoustic variability, if systematic, is lawful and can be exploited by listeners to aid in recognition. Perceivable changes in systematic variability can herald a need for listeners to reorganize perception and reorient their attention to more immediately signal-relevant cues. This view is not incorporated currently in many extant theories of auditory perception, which traditionally reduce psychological or neural representations of perceptual objects and the processes that act on them to static entities. While this reduction is likely done for the sake of empirical tractability, such a reduction may seriously distort the perceptual process to be modeled. We argue that perceptual representations, as well as the processes underlying perception, are dynamically determined by an interaction between the uncertainty of the auditory signal and constraints of context. This suggests that the process of auditory recognition is highly context-dependent in that the identity of a given auditory object may be intrinsically tied to its preceding context. To argue for the flexible neural and psychological updating of sound-to-meaning mappings across speech and music, we

  15. Anatomical Pathways for Auditory Memory in Primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Munoz-Lopez

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Episodic memory or the ability to store context-rich information about everyday events depends on the hippocampal formation (entorhinal cortex, subiculum, presubiculum, parasubiculum, hippocampus proper, and dentate gyrus. A substantial amount of behavioral-lesion and anatomical studies have contributed to our understanding of the organization of how visual stimuli are retained in episodic memory. However, whether auditory memory is organized similarly is still unclear. One hypothesis is that, like the ‘visual ventral stream’ for which the connections of the inferior temporal gyrus with the perirhinal cortex are necessary for visual recognition in monkeys, direct connections between the auditory association areas of the superior temporal gyrus and the hippocampal formation and with the parahippocampal region (temporal pole, perhirinal, and posterior parahippocampal cortices might also underlie recognition memory for sounds. Alternatively, the anatomical organization of memory could be different in audition. This alternative ‘indirect stream’ hypothesis posits that, unlike the visual association cortex, the majority of auditory association cortex makes one or more synapses in intermediate, polymodal areas, where they may integrate information from other sensory modalities, before reaching the medial temporal memory system. This review considers anatomical studies that can support either one or both hypotheses – focusing on anatomical studies on the primate brain that have reported not only direct auditory association connections with medial temporal areas, but, importantly, also possible indirect pathways for auditory information to reach the medial temporal lobe memory system.

  16. Facilitated auditory detection for speech sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine eSignoret

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available If it is well known that knowledge facilitates higher cognitive functions, such as visual and auditory word recognition, little is known about the influence of knowledge on detection, particularly in the auditory modality. Our study tested the influence of phonological and lexical knowledge on auditory detection. Words, pseudo words and complex non phonological sounds, energetically matched as closely as possible, were presented at a range of presentation levels from sub threshold to clearly audible. The participants performed a detection task (Experiments 1 and 2 that was followed by a two alternative forced choice recognition task in Experiment 2. The results of this second task in Experiment 2 suggest a correct recognition of words in the absence of detection with a subjective threshold approach. In the detection task of both experiments, phonological stimuli (words and pseudo words were better detected than non phonological stimuli (complex sounds, presented close to the auditory threshold. This finding suggests an advantage of speech for signal detection. An additional advantage of words over pseudo words was observed in Experiment 2, suggesting that lexical knowledge could also improve auditory detection when listeners had to recognize the stimulus in a subsequent task. Two simulations of detection performance performed on the sound signals confirmed that the advantage of speech over non speech processing could not be attributed to energetic differences in the stimuli.

  17. The Harmonic Organization of Auditory Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqin eWang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental structure of sounds encountered in the natural environment is the harmonicity. Harmonicity is an essential component of music found in all cultures. It is also a unique feature of vocal communication sounds such as human speech and animal vocalizations. Harmonics in sounds are produced by a variety of acoustic generators and reflectors in the natural environment, including vocal apparatuses of humans and animal species as well as music instruments of many types. We live in an acoustic world full of harmonicity. Given the widespread existence of the harmonicity in many aspects of the hearing environment, it is natural to expect that it be reflected in the evolution and development of the auditory systems of both humans and animals, in particular the auditory cortex. Recent neuroimaging and neurophysiology experiments have identified regions of non-primary auditory cortex in humans and non-human primates that have selective responses to harmonic pitches. Accumulating evidence has also shown that neurons in many regions of the auditory cortex exhibit characteristic responses to harmonically related frequencies beyond the range of pitch. Together, these findings suggest that a fundamental organizational principle of auditory cortex is based on the harmonicity. Such an organization likely plays an important role in music processing by the brain. It may also form the basis of the preference for particular classes of music and voice sounds.

  18. The harmonic organization of auditory cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqin

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental structure of sounds encountered in the natural environment is the harmonicity. Harmonicity is an essential component of music found in all cultures. It is also a unique feature of vocal communication sounds such as human speech and animal vocalizations. Harmonics in sounds are produced by a variety of acoustic generators and reflectors in the natural environment, including vocal apparatuses of humans and animal species as well as music instruments of many types. We live in an acoustic world full of harmonicity. Given the widespread existence of the harmonicity in many aspects of the hearing environment, it is natural to expect that it be reflected in the evolution and development of the auditory systems of both humans and animals, in particular the auditory cortex. Recent neuroimaging and neurophysiology experiments have identified regions of non-primary auditory cortex in humans and non-human primates that have selective responses to harmonic pitches. Accumulating evidence has also shown that neurons in many regions of the auditory cortex exhibit characteristic responses to harmonically related frequencies beyond the range of pitch. Together, these findings suggest that a fundamental organizational principle of auditory cortex is based on the harmonicity. Such an organization likely plays an important role in music processing by the brain. It may also form the basis of the preference for particular classes of music and voice sounds. PMID:24381544

  19. Effects of Caffeine on Auditory Brainstem Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleheh Soleimanian

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Blocking of the adenosine receptor in central nervous system by caffeine can lead to increasing the level of neurotransmitters like glutamate. As the adenosine receptors are present in almost all brain areas like central auditory pathway, it seems caffeine can change conduction in this way. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of caffeine on latency and amplitude of auditory brainstem response(ABR.Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial study 43 normal 18-25 years old male students were participated. The subjects consumed 0, 2 and 3 mg/kg BW caffeine in three different sessions. Auditory brainstem responses were recorded before and 30 minute after caffeine consumption. The results were analyzed by Friedman and Wilcoxone test to assess the effects of caffeine on auditory brainstem response.Results: Compared to control group the latencies of waves III,V and I-V interpeak interval of the cases decreased significantly after 2 and 3mg/kg BW caffeine consumption. Wave I latency significantly decreased after 3mg/kg BW caffeine consumption(p<0.01. Conclusion: Increasing of the glutamate level resulted from the adenosine receptor blocking brings about changes in conduction in the central auditory pathway.

  20. Closing a chapter on Love Canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-11-01

    The toxic wastes that were dumped in the 1950s at Love Canal in New York and then seeped into groundwater and the basements of local residents in the late 1970s are to be finally incinerated, according to a plan recently announced by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This last, five-year stage in the cleanup will entail the building of an incinerator for burning 35,000 cubic yards of dioxin-contaminated sediment dredged from creeks and sewers in the area at a cost of up to $31 million. The incinerated residue - which will be purified of detectable levels of dioxin, says EPA - will be returned to the site and spread several feet deep.

  1. 8. Le TGV et le canal

    OpenAIRE

    Fortier, Agnès

    2013-01-01

    7. Le TGV près du Creusot Une double rame du tgv Sud-Est se dirige vers Paris. Elle vient de franchir le viaduc du canal du Centre qui longe l’un de ses réservoirs d’alimentation, l’étang de Longpendu, visible sur la droite. Elle croise la voie « plm » dont on note le discret ballast en avant de l’étang. Plusieurs lignes à très haute tension partent d’un important équipement de répartition tout proche. L’une d’elles sert notamment à l’alimentation du tgv. La photographie est prise d’un des ra...

  2. Seismically observed seiching in the Panama Canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, D.E.; Ringler, A.T.; Hutt, C.R.; Gee, L.S.

    2011-01-01

    A large portion of the seismic noise spectrum is dominated by water wave energy coupled into the solid Earth. Distinct mechanisms of water wave induced ground motions are distinguished by their spectral content. For example, cultural noise is generally Panama Canal there is an additional source of long-period noise generated by standing water waves, seiches, induced by disturbances such as passing ships and wind pressure. We compare seismic waveforms to water level records and relate these observations to changes in local tilt and gravity due to an oscillating seiche. The methods and observations discussed in this paper provide a first step toward quantifying the impact of water inundation as recorded by seismometers. This type of quantified understanding of water inundation will help in future estimates of similar phenomena such as the seismic observations of tsunami impact. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. A mathematical analysis of the peripheral auditory system mechanics in the goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finneran, J J; Hastings, M C

    2000-09-01

    The dynamic response of the goldfish peripheral auditory system has been analyzed using lumped-parameter mechanical and fluid system models for the swimbladder, Weberian apparatus, and saccule. The swimbladder is treated as a two degree-of-freedom mechanical system consisting of two coupled mass-spring-damper arrangements. The swimbladder is coupled to the Weberian ossicles using a phenomenological analysis of the anterior swimbladder tunica externa which permits both stretching and sliding. Analysis of the saccule features only a single degree of freedom, corresponding to the direction of orientation of the ciliary bundles. Inputs to the saccule consist of the transverse canal fluid motion and the motion of the animal's head (assumed to match the local acoustic particle motion). Mechanical properties required for the system equations were estimated from published literature, direct measurements, and curve fits to experimental data for the motions of the swimbladders. The results indicate that the Weberian apparatus has a significant impact on hearing ability over the entire auditory bandwidth, not just at higher frequencies, and that the saccule functions as a displacement sensor above approximately 300 Hz.

  4. MANAGEMENT OF LUMBAR SPINAL CANAL STENOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhergee G. S

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Spinal stenosis is one of the most common conditions in the elderly. It is defined as a narrowing of the spinal canal. The term stenosis is derived from the Greek word for narrow, which is “Stenos”. The first description of this condition is attributed to Antoine portal in 1803. Verbiest is credited with coining the term spinal stenosis and the associated narrowing of the spinal canal as its potential cause. [1-10] Kirkaldy–Willis subsequently described the degenerative cascade in the lumbar spine as the cause for the altered anatomy and pathophysiology in spinal stenosis. [11-15] If compression does not occur, the canal should be described as narrow but not stenotic. Some studies defined lumbar spinal stenosis as a “narrowing of the osteoligamentous vertebral canal and/or the intervertebral foramina causing compression of the thecal sac and/or the caudal nerve roots; at a single vertebral level, narrowing may affect the whole canal or part of it” (Postacchini 1983. This definition distinguished between disc herniation and stenosis. [16] . The most common type of spinal stenosis is caused by degenerative arthritis of the spine. Hypertrophy and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament which usually are confined to the cervical spine, and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH syndrome also may result in an acquired form of spinal stenosis. Congenital forms caused by disorders such as achondroplasia and dysplastic spondylolisthesis are much less common. Congenital spinal stenosis usually is central and is evident or imaging studies. Idiopathic congenital narrowing usually involves the anteroposterior dimension of the canal secondary to short pedicles; the patient otherwise is normal. In contrast, in achondroplasia, the canal is narrowed in the anteroposterior plane owing to shortened pedicles and in lateral dimension because of diminished interpedicular distance. Acquired forms of spinal stenosis usually are

  5. [Latest treatment of lumbar canal stenosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyongsong; Isu, Toyohiko

    2009-06-01

    Lumbar canal stenosis (LCS) is a degenerative disease involving the lumbar vertebrae, discs, and ligamentum flavum that result in neurological deficit to some extent. The natural history of symptoms of LCS is highly important because they do not necessarily worsen with progressive degeneration. Therefore, a observation therapy is adopted for the treatment of this condition. Although invasive treatment is required for some patients, surgery cannot be performed solely on the basis of radiological findings and careful evaluation of neurological symptoms is necessary. In the event that spinal surgery is required, it is important to minimize degree of invasiveness; various devices and operative approaches and methods have been developed to this end. Our strategy for the surgical treatment of LCS involves microscopic decompression via a posterior approach. In our method, modified bilateral decompression via the splitting of the spinous process using an ultrasonic bone curette (SONOPET), and the results of this approach have been excellent. Our method is less invasive, facilitates the preservation of the paraspinal muscle, and represents a useful approach to posterior spinal elements. Our findings indicate that this method involves less muscle damage as compared to other methods. LCS should be differentiated from conditions other than those involving the spinal canal such as foraminal stenosis and far-out syndrome, piriformis syndrome, and tarsal tunnel syndrome. The incidence of these conditions is higher than appreciated and they present with neurological deficits similar to observed in LCS. Here, we report our criteria of operative indications for surger and the procedures that we developed for the treatment of LCS, based on a review of the available literature.

  6. Comparison of two canal preparation techniques using mtwo rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamze, Faeze; Honardar, Kiamars; Nazarimoghadam, Kiumars

    2011-01-01

    Root canal preparation is an important process in endodontic therapy. Nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary file system can be used in single length technique (simultaneous technique) without early coronal enlargement, as well as in crown-down method. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare single length with crown-down methods' shaping ability using Mtwo NiTi files. Fifteen acrylic-resin blocks containing simulated canals were divided into two experimental groups. In group A, single length technique was used and in group B root canals were prepared by crown-down technique. Pre- and post-preparation canals were photographed in a standardized manner and were superimposed. The inner and outer walls of canal curvature were evaluated at three points (apical, middle and coronal) to determine the greatest change. The data was statistically analyzed using the Student t-test by Statistical Analysis System (SAS) software. Statistical analysis revealed that in group B, dentine was equally removed within the canal coronal to the curvature, whereas in group A, the inner wall was predominantly removed (Plength method and crown-down technique using Mtwo for preparation of apical and middle portion of canal curvature.

  7. Laser scanning dental probe for endodontic root canal treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Molly A. B.; Friedrich, Michal; Hamilton, Jeffrey D.; Lee, Peggy; Berg, Joel; Seibel, Eric J.

    2011-03-01

    Complications that arise during endodontic procedures pose serious threats to the long-term integrity and health of the tooth. Potential complexities of root canals include residual pulpal tissue, cracks, mesial-buccal 2 and accessory canals. In the case of a failed root canal, a successful apicoectomy can be jeopardized by isthmuses, accessory canals, and root microfracture. Confirming diagnosis using a small imaging probe would allow proper treatment and prevent retreatment of endodontic procedures. An ultrathin and flexible laser scanning endoscope of 1.2 to 1.6mm outer diameter was used in vitro to image extracted teeth with varied root configurations. Teeth were opened using a conventional bur and high speed drill. Imaging within the opened access cavity clarified the location of the roots where canal filing would initiate. Although radiographs are commonly used to determine the root canal size, position, and shape, the limited 2D image perspective leaves ambiguity that could be clarified if used in conjunction with a direct visual imaging tool. Direct visualization may avoid difficulties in locating the root canal and reduce the number of radiographs needed. A transillumination imaging device with the separated illumination and light collection functions rendered cracks visible in the prepared teeth that were otherwise indiscernible using reflected visible light. Our work demonstrates that a small diameter endoscope with high spatial resolution may significantly increase the efficiency and success of endodontic procedures.

  8. Management of middle mesial canal in mandibular second molar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J V Karunakaran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of endodontic therapy is to achieve a three-dimensional obturation of the root canal space after adequate preparation of the canal space to remove the tissue debris, microorganisms, and their byproducts. Anatomical variations have frequently been encountered in endodontic practice and have to be adequately managed by the clinician. Missed roots and canals are a major reason for failure of therapy. Technological advances have given the clinician ample opportunity to identify and treat these aberrations successfully. The present report describes a left mandibular second permanent molar requiring root canal treatment, found to have three separate canals in the mesial root. This case demonstrates a rare anatomical configuration and emphasizes the need for the clinician to be aware of and look out for such variations and use adequate diagnostic methodologies prior to and during therapy to detect such variations. The possibility of additional canals, whenever in doubt, should be explored with the assistance of technologies such as those of magnification and illumination and various diagnostic aids. Operator experience has also shown to be a key factor in negotiation and management of these aberrant canal configurations.

  9. Variations in the Anatomical Structures of the Guyon Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadel, Zahir T; Samargandi, Osama A; Tang, David T

    2017-05-01

    Compression neuropathy of the ulnar nerve at the Guyon canal is commonly seen by hand surgeons. Different anatomical variations of structures related to the Guyon canal have been reported in the literature. A thorough knowledge of the normal contents and possible variations is essential during surgery and exploration. To review the recognized anatomical variations within and around the Guyon canal. This study is a narrative review in which relevant papers, clinical studies, and anatomical studies were selected by searching electronic databases (PubMed and EMBASE). Extensive manual review of references of the included studies was performed. We also describe a case report of an aberrant muscle crossing the Guyon canal. This study identified several variations in the anatomical structures of the Guyon canal reported in the literature. Variations of the ulnar nerve involved its course, branching pattern, deep motor branch, superficial sensory branch, dorsal cutaneous branch, and the communication with the median nerve. Ulnar artery variations involved its course, branching pattern, the superficial ulnar artery, and the dorsal perforating artery. Aberrant muscles crossing the Guyon canal were found to originate from the antebrachial fascia, pisiform bone, flexor retinaculum, the tendon of palmaris longus, flexor carpi ulnaris, or flexor carpi radialis; these muscles usually fuse with the hypothenar group. The diverse variations of the contents of the Guyon canal were adequately described in the literature. Taking these variations into consideration is important in preventing clinical misinterpretation and avoiding potential surgical complications.

  10. Modeling and measurement of root canal using stereo digital radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analoui, Mostafa; Krisnamurthy, Satthya; Brown, Cecil

    2000-04-01

    Determining root canal length is a crucial step in success of root canal treatment. Root canal length is commonly estimated based on pre-operation intraoral radiography. 2D depiction of a 3D object is the primary source of error in this approach. Techniques based on impedance measurement are more accurate than radiographic approaches, but do not offer a method for depicting the shape of canal. In this study, we investigated a stererotactic approach for modeling and measurement of root canal of human dentition. A weakly perspective model approximated the projectional geometry. A series of computer-simulated objects was used to test accuracy of this model as the first step. The, to assess the clinical viability of such an approach, endodontic files inserted in the root canal phantoms were fixed on an adjustable platform between a radiographic cone and an image receptor. Parameters of projection matrix were computed based on the relative positions of image receptors, focal spot, and test objects. Rotating the specimen platform from 0 to 980 degrees at 5-degree intervals set relative angulations for stereo images. Root canal is defined as the intersection of two surfaces defined by each projection. Computation of error for length measurement indicates that for angulations greater than 40 degrees the error is within clinically acceptable ranges.

  11. Source reliability in auditory health persuasion : Its antecedents and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbert, Sarah P.; Dijkstra, Arie

    2015-01-01

    Persuasive health messages can be presented through an auditory channel, thereby enhancing the salience of the source, making it fundamentally different from written or pictorial information. We focused on the determinants of perceived source reliability in auditory health persuasion by

  12. The effect of background music in auditory health persuasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbert, Sarah; Dijkstra, Arie

    2013-01-01

    In auditory health persuasion, threatening information regarding health is communicated by voice only. One relevant context of auditory persuasion is the addition of background music. There are different mechanisms through which background music might influence persuasion, for example through mood

  13. The role of temporal coherence in auditory stream segregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Simon Krogholt

    The ability to perceptually segregate concurrent sound sources and focus one’s attention on a single source at a time is essential for the ability to use acoustic information. While perceptual experiments have determined a range of acoustic cues that help facilitate auditory stream segregation......, it is not clear how the auditory system realizes the task. This thesis presents a study of the mechanisms involved in auditory stream segregation. Through a combination of psychoacoustic experiments, designed to characterize the influence of acoustic cues on auditory stream formation, and computational models...... of auditory processing, the role of auditory preprocessing and temporal coherence in auditory stream formation was evaluated. The computational model presented in this study assumes that auditory stream segregation occurs when sounds stimulate non-overlapping neural populations in a temporally incoherent...

  14. Auditory filters at low-frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orellana, Carlos Andrés Jurado; Pedersen, Christian Sejer; Møller, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Prediction and assessment of low-frequency noise problems requires information about the auditory filter characteristics at low-frequencies. Unfortunately, data at low-frequencies is scarce and practically no results have been published for frequencies below 100 Hz. Extrapolation of ERB results...... from previous studies suggests the filter bandwidth keeps decreasing below 100 Hz, although at a relatively lower rate than at higher frequencies. Main characteristics of the auditory filter were studied from below 100 Hz up to 1000 Hz. Center frequencies evaluated were 50, 63, 125, 250, 500, and 1000...... Hz. The notched-noise method was used, with the noise masker at 40 dB spectral density. A rounded exponential auditory filter model (roex(p,r)) was used to fit the masking data. Preliminary data on 1 subject is discussed. Considering the system as a whole (e.g. without removing the assumed middle...

  15. Antibacterial activity of different root canal sealers against Enterococcus faecalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trovati, Federico; Ceci, Matteo; Colombo, Marco; Pietrocola, Giampiero

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to compare in vitro the antimicrobial activity of different root canal sealers against Enterococcus faecalis, prior and subsequent to setting. Material and Methods Agar diffusion test (ADT) was used for evaluating the antibacterial activity of non-set sealer while the direct contact test (DCT) was used for after setting. Results ADT: Except for TotalFill BC Sealer all the others sealers tested showed antibacterial activity. BioRoot™RCS, MTA Fillapex and Sealapex Root Canal Sealer showed the lowest antibacterial activity, a significant increase in antibacterial effect for both Pulp Canal Sealer™ and AH plus sealers were found. Significantly higher were the mean diameters of the bacterial inhibition zone by both EasySeal or N2 sealers. DCT: AH plus and Sealapex Root Canal Sealer doesn’t show any bactericidal effect after 6 min of contact. After 15 and 60 min of contact a significant increment for AH plus and for Sealapex Root Canal Sealer of the bactericidal effect was found. Significantly much higher was the antibacterial effect of Sealapex Root Canal Sealer compare to that observed for AH plus. BioRootTMRCS, MTA Fillapex, Pulp Canal Sealer™ and N2 showed at least means of the number of colonies formed in milliliter after 6 min of contact. Except for N2, a significant increase in bactericidal effect after 15 and 60 min for the other compared sealers (BioRootTMRCS, MTA Fillapex and Pulp Canal Sealer™). Conclusions For every contact times considered, both TotalFill BC Sealer and EasySeal were bactericidal against E. faecalis and killed all bacteria. Key words:Agar diffusion test, antibacterial activity, direct contact test, Enterococcus faecalis, root canal sealer. PMID:28638549

  16. Auditory Alterations in Children Infected by Human Immunodeficiency Virus Verified Through Auditory Processing Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Ana Carla Leite; Alfaya, Lívia Marangoni; Gonçales, Alina Sanches; Frizzo, Ana Claudia Figueiredo; Isaac, Myriam de Lima

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The auditory system of HIV-positive children may have deficits at various levels, such as the high incidence of problems in the middle ear that can cause hearing loss. Objective The objective of this study is to characterize the development of children infected by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in the Simplified Auditory Processing Test (SAPT) and the Staggered Spondaic Word Test. Methods We performed behavioral tests composed of the Simplified Auditory Processing Test and the Portuguese version of the Staggered Spondaic Word Test (SSW). The participants were 15 children infected by HIV, all using antiretroviral medication. Results The children had abnormal auditory processing verified by Simplified Auditory Processing Test and the Portuguese version of SSW. In the Simplified Auditory Processing Test, 60% of the children presented hearing impairment. In the SAPT, the memory test for verbal sounds showed more errors (53.33%); whereas in SSW, 86.67% of the children showed deficiencies indicating deficit in figure-ground, attention, and memory auditory skills. Furthermore, there are more errors in conditions of background noise in both age groups, where most errors were in the left ear in the Group of 8-year-olds, with similar results for the group aged 9 years. Conclusion The high incidence of hearing loss in children with HIV and comorbidity with several biological and environmental factors indicate the need for: 1) familiar and professional awareness of the impact on auditory alteration on the developing and learning of the children with HIV, and 2) access to educational plans and follow-up with multidisciplinary teams as early as possible to minimize the damage caused by auditory deficits.

  17. Auditory and motor imagery modulate learning in music performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M. Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Skilled performers such as athletes or musicians can improve their performance by imagining the actions or sensory outcomes associated with their skill. Performers vary widely in their auditory and motor imagery abilities, and these individual differences influence sensorimotor learning. It is unknown whether imagery abilities influence both memory encoding and retrieval. We examined how auditory and motor imagery abilities influence musicians’ encoding (during Learning, as they practiced novel melodies, and retrieval (during Recall of those melodies. Pianists learned melodies by listening without performing (auditory learning or performing without sound (motor learning; following Learning, pianists performed the melodies from memory with auditory feedback (Recall. During either Learning (Experiment 1 or Recall (Experiment 2, pianists experienced either auditory interference, motor interference, or no interference. Pitch accuracy (percentage of correct pitches produced and temporal regularity (variability of quarter-note interonset intervals were measured at Recall. Independent tests measured auditory and motor imagery skills. Pianists’ pitch accuracy was higher following auditory learning than following motor learning and lower in motor interference conditions (Experiments 1 and 2. Both auditory and motor imagery skills improved pitch accuracy overall. Auditory imagery skills modulated pitch accuracy encoding (Experiment 1: Higher auditory imagery skill corresponded to higher pitch accuracy following auditory learning with auditory or motor interference, and following motor learning with motor or no interference. These findings suggest that auditory imagery abilities decrease vulnerability to interference and compensate for missing auditory feedback at encoding. Auditory imagery skills also influenced temporal regularity at retrieval (Experiment 2: Higher auditory imagery skill predicted greater temporal regularity during Recall in the

  18. Auditory-Perceptual Learning Improves Speech Motor Adaptation in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Shiller, Douglas M.; Rochon, Marie-Lyne

    2014-01-01

    Auditory feedback plays an important role in children’s speech development by providing the child with information about speech outcomes that is used to learn and fine-tune speech motor plans. The use of auditory feedback in speech motor learning has been extensively studied in adults by examining oral motor responses to manipulations of auditory feedback during speech production. Children are also capable of adapting speech motor patterns to perceived changes in auditory feedback, however it...

  19. A virtual auditory environment for investigating the auditory signal processing of realistic sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Favrot, Sylvain Emmanuel

    A loudspeaker-based virtual auditory environment (VAE) has been developed to provide a realistic versatile research environment for investigating the auditory signal processing in real environments, i.e., considering multiple sound sources and room reverberation. The VAE allows a full control...... of the acoustic scenario in order to systematically study the auditory processing of reverberant sounds. It is based on the ODEON software, which is state-of-the-art software for room acoustic simulations developed at Acoustic Technology, DTU. First, a MATLAB interface to the ODEON software has been developed...

  20. Auditory Perception of Statistically Blurred Sound Textures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McWalter, Richard Ian; MacDonald, Ewen; Dau, Torsten

    Sound textures have been identified as a category of sounds which are processed by the peripheral auditory system and captured with running timeaveraged statistics. Although sound textures are temporally homogeneous, they offer a listener with enough information to identify and differentiate...... sources. This experiment investigated the ability of the auditory system to identify statistically blurred sound textures and the perceptual relationship between sound textures. Identification performance of statistically blurred sound textures presented at a fixed blur increased over those presented...... as a gradual blur. The results suggests that the correct identification of sound textures is influenced by the preceding blurred stimulus. These findings draw parallels to the recognition of blurred images....

  1. Auditory processing in autism spectrum disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlaskamp, Chantal; Oranje, Bob; Madsen, Gitte Falcher

    2017-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often show changes in (automatic) auditory processing. Electrophysiology provides a method to study auditory processing, by investigating event-related potentials such as mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a-amplitude. However, findings on MMN in autism...... a hyper-responsivity at the attentional level. In addition, as similar MMN deficits are found in schizophrenia, these MMN results may explain some of the frequently reported increased risk of children with ASD to develop schizophrenia later in life. Autism Res 2017, 10: 1857–1865....

  2. The many facets of auditory display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blattner, Meera M.

    1995-01-01

    In this presentation we will examine some of the ways sound can be used in a virtual world. We make the case that many different types of audio experience are available to us. A full range of audio experiences include: music, speech, real-world sounds, auditory displays, and auditory cues or messages. The technology of recreating real-world sounds through physical modeling has advanced in the past few years allowing better simulation of virtual worlds. Three-dimensional audio has further enriched our sensory experiences.

  3. Auditory brain-stem responses in adrenomyeloneuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, A M; Elks, M L; Grunberger, G; Pikus, A M

    1983-09-01

    We studied three patients with adrenomyeloneuropathy. Complete audiologic assessment was obtained: two patients showed unimpaired peripheral hearing and one showed a mild high-frequency hearing loss. Auditory brain-stem responses were abnormal in both ears of all subjects, with one subject showing no response above wave I, and the other two having significant wave I to III and wave III to V interval prolongations. We concluded that auditory brain-stem response testing provides a simple, valid, reliable method for demonstrating neurologic abnormality in adrenomyeloneuropathy even prior to evidence of clinical signs.

  4. Rhythmic walking interaction with auditory feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maculewicz, Justyna; Jylhä, Antti; Serafin, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    We present an interactive auditory display for walking with sinusoidal tones or ecological, physically-based synthetic walking sounds. The feedback is either step-based or rhythmic, with constant or adaptive tempo. In a tempo-following experiment, we investigate different interaction modes...... and auditory feedback, based on the MSE between the target and performed tempo, and the stability of the latter. The results indicate that the MSE with ecological sounds is comparable to that with the sinusoidal tones, yet ecological sounds are considered more natural. Adaptive conditions result in stable...

  5. [Effect of quality of root canal obturation on the long-term results of root canal therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ya-ping; Zhu, Ya-qin; Fan, Lin-feng; DU, Rong; Gu, Ying-xin; Qin, Feng

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the quality of obturation affecting the long-term results of root canal therapy (RCT) by radiographic evaluation. Teeth of RCT for 2 or more than 2 years were chosen, and periapical radiographs were taken with paralleling technique. The patients' age, gender, etiology, the time of therapy were recorded. The current apical periodontal status of these endodontically treated teeth were examined and recorded. The data were subjected to univariate and multivariate analysis with SPSS13.0 software package. This study investigated 215 cases with 376 endodontically treated teeth. The success rate was 54.79%. If counted by root canal, there were 513 root canals, the success rate was 61.4%. The quality of obturation including obturation position and obturation density affected significantly the results of root canal therapy (Pobturation position for successful treated canals was 0.5-2mm from the radiographic apex. The success rate was higher for a good obturation density, especially in the apical third. No statistically significant differences were found based on gender, age and obturation time. The quality of root canal obturation significantly affected the long-term results of root canal therapy.

  6. A scanning electron microscopy evaluation of the cleanliness of un-instrumented areas of canal walls after root canal preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah J Dohaithem

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cleanliness of the canal space is the ultimate goal of its preparation. Nevertheless, some portion of the canal walls are left un-instrumented during preparation. Therefore, the aim of this ex vivo study was to evaluate the cleanliness of un-instrumented canal walls after root canal preparation for the presence or absence of debris and smear layer. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 single-rooted extracted teeth were prepared with the crown-down technique using Protaper universal rotary file system. Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT was used to scan the specimens before and after instrumentation. The un-instrumented area was measured and localized. The roots were split longitudinally and then subjected to scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The presence of debris and smear layer in the instrumented and un-instrumented areas of the canal were evaluated by analysing the SEM images with a five-score evaluation system based on the reference photographs. Results: High levels of root canal cleanliness (≤ score 2 were found for the instrumented areas were detected (P = 0.003. Conclusions: Under the condition of this study, un-instrumented areas of the canal were less clean in comparison to instrumented portion.

  7. AN EVALUATION OF AUDITORY LEARNING IN FILIAL IMPRINTING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOLHUIS, JJ; VANKAMPEN, HS

    The characteristics of auditory learning in filial imprinting in precocial birds are reviewed. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the addition of an auditory stimulus improves following of a visual stimulus. This paper evaluates whether there is genuine auditory imprinting, i.e. the formation

  8. Should Children with Auditory Processing Disorders Receive Services in Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucker, Jay R.

    2012-01-01

    Many children with problems learning in school can have educational deficits due to underlying auditory processing disorders (APD). For these children, they can be identified as having auditory learning disabilities. Furthermore, auditory learning disabilities is identified as a specific learning disability (SLD) in the IDEA. Educators and…

  9. 21 CFR 874.1090 - Auditory impedance tester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Auditory impedance tester. 874.1090 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 874.1090 Auditory impedance tester. (a) Identification. An auditory impedance tester is a device that is intended to change the air pressure in the...

  10. Auditory Temporal Processing as a Specific Deficit among Dyslexic Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fostick, Leah; Bar-El, Sharona; Ram-Tsur, Ronit

    2012-01-01

    The present study focuses on examining the hypothesis that auditory temporal perception deficit is a basic cause for reading disabilities among dyslexics. This hypothesis maintains that reading impairment is caused by a fundamental perceptual deficit in processing rapid auditory or visual stimuli. Since the auditory perception involves a number of…

  11. 76 FR 61655 - Definition of Part 15 Auditory Assistance Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 15 Definition of Part 15 Auditory Assistance Device AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This document proposes to amend the definition of ``auditory... definition restricts the use of part 15 auditory assistance devices that operate in the 72.0-73.0 MHz, 74.6...

  12. Investigation of a novel completely-in-the-canal direct-drive hearing device: a temporal bone study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboubi, Hossein; Paulick, Peyton; Kiumehr, Saman; Merlo, Mark; Bachman, Mark; Djalilian, Hamid Reza

    2013-01-01

    Whether a prototype direct-drive hearing device (DHD) is effective in driving the tympanic membrane (TM) in a temporal bone specimen to enable it to potentially treat moderate-to-severe hearing loss. Patient satisfaction with air conduction hearing aids has been low because of sound distortion, occlusion effect, and feedback issues. Implantable hearing aids provide a higher quality sound but require surgery for placement. The DHD was designed to combine the ability of driving the ossicular chain with placement in the external auditory canal. DHD is a 3.5-mm wide device that could fit entirely into the bony ear canal and directly drive the TM rather than use a speaker. A cadaveric temporal bone was prepared. The device developed in our laboratory was coupled to the external surface of the TM and against the malleus. Frequency sweeps between 300 Hz to 12 kHz were performed in 2 different coupling methods at 104 and 120 dB, and the DHD was driven with various levels of current. Displacements of the posterior crus of the stapes were measured using a laser Doppler vibrometer. The DHD showed a linear frequency response from 300 Hz to 12 kHz. Placement against the malleus showed higher amplitudes and lower power requirements than when the device was placed on the TM. DHD is a small completely-in-the-canal device that mechanically drives the TM. This novel device has a frequency output wider than most air conduction devices. Findings of the current study demonstrated that the DHD had the potential of being incorporated into a hearing aid in the future.

  13. Plasma membrane calcium ATPase required for semicircular canal formation and otolith growth in the zebrafish inner ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Shelly; Shiao, Jen-Chieh; Liao, Bo-Kai; Huang, Chang-Jen; Hwang, Pung-Pung

    2009-03-01

    Fish otoliths consist of >90% calcium carbonate, the accretion of which depends on acellular endolymph. This study confirms the presence of plasma membrane calcium ATPase 1a isoform (Atp2b1a) in the auditory and vestibular system of a teleost fish. As shown by in situ hybridization, zebrafish atp2b1a is expressed mainly in larval otic placode and lateral-line neuromast as well as in the hair cells within the adult zebrafish inner ear chamber. Zebrafish atp2b1a knockdown by antisense morpholinos reduced the number of hair cells and produced malformation of semicircular canals and smaller otoliths. These defects coincide with unbalanced body orientation. The formation of smaller otoliths in atp2b1a morphants may stem from an impairment of calcium supply in the endolymph. However, otolith formation persists in most morphants, suggesting that other zebrafish Atp2b isoforms or paracellular pathways may also transport calcium into the endolymph. These results suggest that Atp2b1a plays an important role for normal development of the auditory and vestibular system as well as calcium transport in the inner ear of zebrafish.

  14. Comparison of antimicrobial substantivity of root canal irrigants in instrumented root canals up to 72 h: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M N Shahani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Disinfection of the root canal system is one of the primary aims of root canal treatment. This can be achieved through the use of various antimicrobial agents in the form of irrigants and medicaments. The antimicrobial substantivity of 2% chlorhexidine gluconate, 1% povidone iodine, 2.5% hydrogen peroxide followed by 2% sodium hypochlorite, and 2% sodium hypochlorite alone as irrigants was assessed in instrumented root canals. 2% chlorhexidine showed antimicrobial substantivity lasting up to 72 h, followed by 1% povidone iodine, and 2% sodium hypochlorite. Thus 2% chlorhexidine should be used as a final rinse irrigant in endodontic treatment protocols.

  15. Functional outcome of surgical management of degenerative lumbar canal stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Nath

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Operative treatment in patients of degenerative lumbar canal stenosis yields excellent results as observed on the basis of JOA scoring system. No patient got recurrence of symptoms of nerve compression.

  16. Scanning electron microscopic evaluation of root canal surfaces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-07-15

    50. How to cite this article: Hema BS, Chandu GS, Shiraguppi VL. Scanning electron microscopic evaluation of root canal surfaces prepared with three rotary endodontic systems: Lightspeed, ProTaper and EndoWave. Niger J.

  17. Research progress of antagonistic interactions among root canal irrigations disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen QU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Root canal therapy is the most effective way to treat various pulposis and periapical disease. Simple mechanical apparatus can not clean root canal thoroughly, but may affect tight filling instead. It can achieve a satisfactory cleansing effect only when it is combined with a chemical solution. Irrigation fluid for root canal should possess the properties of tissue dissolution, antimicrobial, lubrication, and removal of smear layer. So far, no solution is able to fulfill all these functions. Therefore, a combined use of multiple irrigation solutions is suggested. It can not only achieve good effect in cleaning and disinfection, also it can lower the concentration of different solutions, thus reducing the side effects. Nevertheless, some experiments proved that antagonism existed among the chemicals used for irrigations. The purpose of present article is to review the antagonistic effect among the chemicals used for irrigation when they are used together for root canal treatment.

  18. Comparison of Two Canal Preparation Techniques Using Mtwo Rotary Instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Hamze, Faeze; Honardar, Kiamars; Nazarimoghadam, Kiumars

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Root canal preparation is an important process in endodontic therapy. Nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary file system can be used in single length technique (simultaneous technique) without early coronal enlargement, as well as in crown-down method. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare single length with crown-down methods’ shaping ability using Mtwo NiTi files. MATERIALS AND METHODS Fifteen acrylic-resin blocks containing simulated canals were divided into two experimenta...

  19. A Successful Endodontic Outcome with Non-Obturated Canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, Saeed; Fazlyab, Mahta

    2015-01-01

    This case report represents the outcome of endodontic treatment in an infected mandibular molar with periradicular periodontitis and inherent poor prognosis of root canal treatment due to severe root curvature. The tooth was successfully treated by leaving the mesial root non-obturated, the canal orifices were coronally sealed with calcium enriched mixture cement and a definitive coronal amalgam restoration, was placed at the subsequent visit. PMID:26213546

  20. Nanodiamond?Gutta Percha Composite Biomaterials for Root Canal Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Dong-Keun; Kim, Sue Vin; Limansubroto, Adelheid Nerisa; Yen, Albert; Soundia, Akrivoula; Wang, Cun-Yu; Shi, Wenyuan; Hong, Christine; Tetradis, Sotirios; Kim, Yong; Park, No-Hee; Kang, Mo K.; Ho, Dean

    2015-01-01

    Root canal therapy (RCT) represents a standard of treatment that addresses infected pulp tissue in teeth and protects against future infection. RCT involves removing dental pulp comprising blood vessels and nerve tissue, decontaminating residually infected tissue through biomechanical instrumentation, and root canal obturation using a filler material to replace the space that was previously composed of dental pulp. Gutta percha (GP) is typically used as the filler material, as it is malleable...