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Sample records for auditory brainstem responses

  1. Auditory brainstem response in dolphins.

    OpenAIRE

    Ridgway, S. H.; Bullock, T H; Carder, D.A.; Seeley, R L; Woods, D.; Galambos, R

    1981-01-01

    We recorded the auditory brainstem response (ABR) in four dolphins (Tursiops truncatus and Delphinus delphis). The ABR evoked by clicks consists of seven waves within 10 msec; two waves often contain dual peaks. The main waves can be identified with those of humans and laboratory mammals; in spite of a much longer path, the latencies of the peaks are almost identical to those of the rat. The dolphin ABR waves increase in latency as the intensity of a sound decreases by only 4 microseconds/dec...

  2. Auditory brain-stem responses in syphilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenhall, U; Roupe, G

    1981-01-01

    Analysis of auditory brain-stem electrical responses (BSER) provides an effective means of detecting lesions in the auditory pathways. In the present study the wave patterns were analysed in 11 patients with secondary or latent syphilis with no clinical symptoms referrable to the central nervous system and in two patients with congenital syphilis and general paralysis. Decreased amplitudes and prolonged latencies occurred frequently in patients with secondary and with advanced syphilis. This ...

  3. Effects of Caffeine on Auditory Brainstem Response

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    Saleheh Soleimanian

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Blocking of the adenosine receptor in central nervous system by caffeine can lead to increasing the level of neurotransmitters like glutamate. As the adenosine receptors are present in almost all brain areas like central auditory pathway, it seems caffeine can change conduction in this way. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of caffeine on latency and amplitude of auditory brainstem response(ABR.Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial study 43 normal 18-25 years old male students were participated. The subjects consumed 0, 2 and 3 mg/kg BW caffeine in three different sessions. Auditory brainstem responses were recorded before and 30 minute after caffeine consumption. The results were analyzed by Friedman and Wilcoxone test to assess the effects of caffeine on auditory brainstem response.Results: Compared to control group the latencies of waves III,V and I-V interpeak interval of the cases decreased significantly after 2 and 3mg/kg BW caffeine consumption. Wave I latency significantly decreased after 3mg/kg BW caffeine consumption(p<0.01. Conclusion: Increasing of the glutamate level resulted from the adenosine receptor blocking brings about changes in conduction in the central auditory pathway.

  4. Speech Evoked Auditory Brainstem Response in Stuttering

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    Ali Akbar Tahaei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Auditory processing deficits have been hypothesized as an underlying mechanism for stuttering. Previous studies have demonstrated abnormal responses in subjects with persistent developmental stuttering (PDS at the higher level of the central auditory system using speech stimuli. Recently, the potential usefulness of speech evoked auditory brainstem responses in central auditory processing disorders has been emphasized. The current study used the speech evoked ABR to investigate the hypothesis that subjects with PDS have specific auditory perceptual dysfunction. Objectives. To determine whether brainstem responses to speech stimuli differ between PDS subjects and normal fluent speakers. Methods. Twenty-five subjects with PDS participated in this study. The speech-ABRs were elicited by the 5-formant synthesized syllable/da/, with duration of 40 ms. Results. There were significant group differences for the onset and offset transient peaks. Subjects with PDS had longer latencies for the onset and offset peaks relative to the control group. Conclusions. Subjects with PDS showed a deficient neural timing in the early stages of the auditory pathway consistent with temporal processing deficits and their abnormal timing may underlie to their disfluency.

  5. Auditory Brainstem Response Improvements in Hyperbillirubinemic Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Farzaneh Zamiri; Manchaiah, Vinaya; Lotfi, Yones

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Hyperbillirubinemia in infants have been associated with neuronal damage including in the auditory system. Some researchers have suggested that the bilirubin-induced auditory neuronal damages may be temporary and reversible. This study was aimed at investigating the auditory neuropathy and reversibility of auditory abnormalities in hyperbillirubinemic infants. Subjects and Methods The study participants included 41 full term hyperbilirubinemic infants (mean age 39.24 days) with normal birth weight (3,200-3,700 grams) that admitted in hospital for hyperbillirubinemia and 39 normal infants (mean age 35.54 days) without any hyperbillirubinemia or other hearing loss risk factors for ruling out maturational changes. All infants in hyperbilirubinemic group had serum bilirubin level more than 20 milligram per deciliter and undergone one blood exchange transfusion. Hearing evaluation for each infant was conducted twice: the first one after hyperbilirubinemia treatment and before leaving hospital and the second one three months after the first hearing evaluation. Hearing evaluations included transient evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE) screening and auditory brainstem response (ABR) threshold tracing. Results The TEOAE and ABR results of control group and TEOAE results of the hyperbilirubinemic group did not change significantly from the first to the second evaluation. However, the ABR results of the hyperbilirubinemic group improved significantly from the first to the second assessment (p=0.025). Conclusions The results suggest that the bilirubin induced auditory neuronal damage can be reversible over time so we suggest that infants with hyperbilirubinemia who fail the first hearing tests should be reevaluated after 3 months of treatment. PMID:27144228

  6. Brainstem reflexes and brainstem auditory evoked responses in Huntington's chorea.

    OpenAIRE

    Bollen, E; Arts, R.J.; Roos, R A; van der Velde, E A; Buruma, O J

    1986-01-01

    Blink reflex, corneal reflex, jaw reflex, exteroceptive suppression in masseter muscles and brainstem auditory evoked potentials were measured in 20 patients with Huntington's chorea and 12 controls. A significantly increased latency of the second component of the homolateral and heterolateral blink reflex was found in the patient group as compared with the controls. The other investigations revealed no significant differences between patients and controls except for some facilitation of the ...

  7. Modeling auditory evoked brainstem responses to transient stimuli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønne, Filip Munch; Dau, Torsten; Harte, James;

    2012-01-01

    A quantitative model is presented that describes the formation of auditory brainstem responses (ABR) to tone pulses, clicks and rising chirps as a function of stimulation level. The model computes the convolution of the instantaneous discharge rates using the “humanized” nonlinear auditory-nerve ...

  8. The Impact of Maternal Smoking on Fast Auditory Brainstem Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Kable, Julie A.; Coles, Claire D.; Lynch, Mary Ellen; Carroll, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Deficits in auditory processing have been posited as one of the underlying neurodevelopmental consequences of maternal smoking during pregnancy that leads to later language and reading deficits. Fast auditory brainstem responses were used to assess differences in the sensory processing of auditory stimuli among infants with varying degrees of prenatal cigarette exposure. Maternal report of consumption of cigarettes and blood samples were collected in the hospital to assess exposure levels and...

  9. The auditory brainstem response in two lizard species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brittan-Powell, Elizabeth F; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Tang, Yezhong;

    2010-01-01

    Although lizards have highly sensitive ears, it is difficult to condition them to sound, making standard psychophysical assays of hearing sensitivity impractical. This paper describes non-invasive measurements of the auditory brainstem response (ABR) in both Tokay geckos (Gekko gecko; nocturnal...... in most bird species....

  10. Auditory Brainstem Evoked Responses in Newborns with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittler, Phyllis M.; Phan, Ha T. T.; Gardner, Judith M.; Miroshnichenko, Inna; Gordon, Anne; Karmel, Bernard Z.

    2009-01-01

    Auditory brainstem evoked responses (ABRs) were compared in 15 newborns with Down syndrome and 15 sex-, age-, and weight-matched control newborns. Participants had normal ABRs based upon values specific to 32- to 42-weeks postconceptional age. Although Wave III and Wave V component latencies and the Wave I-III interpeak latency (IPL) were shorter…

  11. Automatic hearing loss detection system based on auditory brainstem response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldonate, J.; Mercuri, C.; Reta, J.; Biurrun, J.; Bonell, C.; Gentiletti, G.; Escobar, S.; Acevedo, R.

    2007-11-01

    Hearing loss is one of the pathologies with the highest prevalence in newborns. If it is not detected in time, it can affect the nervous system and cause problems in speech, language and cognitive development. The recommended methods for early detection are based on otoacoustic emissions (OAE) and/or auditory brainstem response (ABR). In this work, the design and implementation of an automated system based on ABR to detect hearing loss in newborns is presented. Preliminary evaluation in adults was satisfactory.

  12. Automatic hearing loss detection system based on auditory brainstem response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hearing loss is one of the pathologies with the highest prevalence in newborns. If it is not detected in time, it can affect the nervous system and cause problems in speech, language and cognitive development. The recommended methods for early detection are based on otoacoustic emissions (OAE) and/or auditory brainstem response (ABR). In this work, the design and implementation of an automated system based on ABR to detect hearing loss in newborns is presented. Preliminary evaluation in adults was satisfactory

  13. The impact of severity of hypertension on auditory brainstem responses

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    Gurdev Lal Goyal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Auditory brainstem response is an objective electrophysiological method for assessing the auditory pathways from the auditory nerve to the brainstem. The aim of this study was to correlate and to assess the degree of involvement of peripheral and central regions of brainstem auditory pathways with increasing severity of hypertension, among the patients of essential hypertension. Method: This study was conducted on 50 healthy age and sex matched controls (Group I and 50 hypertensive patients (Group II. Later group was further sub-divided into - Group IIa (Grade 1 hypertension, Group IIb (Grade 2 hypertension, and Group IIc (Grade 3 hypertension, as per WHO guidelines. These responses/potentials were recorded by using electroencephalogram electrodes on a root-mean-square electromyography, EP MARC II (PC-based machine and data were statistically compared between the various groups by way of one-way ANOVA. The parameters used for analysis were the absolute latencies of Waves I through V, interpeak latencies (IPLs and amplitude ratio of Wave V/I. Result: The absolute latency of Wave I was observed to be significantly increased in Group IIa and IIb hypertensives, while Wave V absolute latency was highly significantly prolonged among Group IIb and IIc, as compared to that of normal control group. All the hypertensives, that is, Group IIa, IIb, and IIc patients were found to have highly significant prolonged III-V IPL as compared to that of normal healthy controls. Further, intergroup comparison among hypertensive patients revealed a significant prolongation of Wave V absolute latency and III-V IPL in Group IIb and IIc patients as compared to Group IIa patients. These findings suggest a sensory deficit along with synaptic delays, across the auditory pathways in all the hypertensives, the deficit being more markedly affecting the auditory processing time at pons to midbrain (IPL III-V region of auditory pathways among Grade 2 and 3

  14. Effects of Hyperbilirubinemia on Auditory Brainstem Response of Neonates Treated with Phototherapy

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    Negin Salehi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion:  The results of this study underline the importance of the Auditory Brainstem Response Test as an efficient tool for monitoring the auditory brainstem pathway in neonates who are at risk of neurotoxicity and for diagnosing the earliest stages of auditory damage caused by high levels of bilirubin.

  15. Effects of Hyperbilirubinemia on Auditory Brainstem Response of Neonates Treated with Phototherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Salehi, Negin; Bagheri, Fereshte; Ramezani Farkhani, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: One of the most common pathologies in neonates is hyperbilirubinemia, which is a good marker for damage to the central nervous system. The sensitivity of the auditory system to bilirubin has been previously documented, with much discrepancy in its effects on Auditory Brainstem Response results. Thus the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of hyperbilirubinemia on Auditory Brainstem Response of neonates treated with phototherapy. Materials and Methods: Forty-two t...

  16. EVALUATION OF AUDITORY & BRAINSTEM RESPONSES IN HYPERBILIRUBINEMIC INFANTS

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    Bhagya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Jaundice is a common finding in neonates affecting 70% of term and 80% of preterm neonates during the first week of life. So the objective of this study is to evaluate auditory and brainstem responses in hyper bilirubinemic infants and to see if there is any statistically significant increase in latencies of wave I and V waves. To initiate rehabilitative procedure as early in life as possible a screening method to detect auditory disabilities in hyper bilirubinemic infants is of great importance. So the present study is done to know the incidence of hearing loss in hyper bilirubinemic infants & to evaluate the waves I and V in those subjects. METHODS: 45 Infants with hyper bilirubinemia>12mg% & with no other risk factor who visited pediatric OPD of Bapuji Child Health Centre were evaluated using RMS EMG. EP MARK –II machine. Latencies of Waves I and V and interpeak latency of I-V were recorded. RESULTS: On one sample t-test, latency of wave I and IPL I-V were significantly increased (p-value <0.001, latency of V was prolonged which was statistically significant (p-value <0.01. Hearing impairment in the affected infants and complete deafness where none of the waves were recorded signify that it is a risk factor for deafness. CONCLUSION: Since hyper bilirubinemia is a risk factor for hearing impairment, their hearing screening by BERA at the earliest will help in their earliest initiation of rehabilitation when the brain is sensitive to the development of speech & language.

  17. Spectrotemporal resolution tradeoff in auditory processing as revealed by human auditory brainstem responses and psychophysical indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidelman, Gavin M; Syed Khaja, Ameenuddin

    2014-06-20

    Auditory filter theory dictates a physiological compromise between frequency and temporal resolution of cochlear signal processing. We examined neurophysiological correlates of these spectrotemporal tradeoffs in the human auditory system using auditory evoked brain potentials and psychophysical responses. Temporal resolution was assessed using scalp-recorded auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) elicited by paired clicks. The inter-click interval (ICI) between successive pulses was parameterized from 0.7 to 25 ms to map ABR amplitude recovery as a function of stimulus spacing. Behavioral frequency difference limens (FDLs) and auditory filter selectivity (Q10 of psychophysical tuning curves) were obtained to assess relations between behavioral spectral acuity and electrophysiological estimates of temporal resolvability. Neural responses increased monotonically in amplitude with increasing ICI, ranging from total suppression (0.7 ms) to full recovery (25 ms) with a temporal resolution of ∼3-4 ms. ABR temporal thresholds were correlated with behavioral Q10 (frequency selectivity) but not FDLs (frequency discrimination); no correspondence was observed between Q10 and FDLs. Results suggest that finer frequency selectivity, but not discrimination, is associated with poorer temporal resolution. The inverse relation between ABR recovery and perceptual frequency tuning demonstrates a time-frequency tradeoff between the temporal and spectral resolving power of the human auditory system. PMID:24793771

  18. Simultaneous extratympanic electrocochleography and auditory brainstem responses revisited

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    Carlos Minaya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to revisit the two-channel, simultaneous click-evoked extratympanic electrocochleography and auditory brainstem response (ECoG/ABR recording technique for clinical use in normal hearing participants. Recording the compound action potential (AP of the ECoG simultaneously with ABR may be useful when Wave I of the ABR is small or diminished in patients with sensorineural or retrocochlear disorder and minimizes overall test time. In contrast to some previous studies that used the extratympanic electrode both as non-inverting electrode for the ECoG and inverting electrode for ABR, this study maintained separate recording channel montages unique to conventional click-evoked ECoG and ABR recordings. That is, the ABR was recorded using a vertical channel (Cz to ipsilateral earlobe, while the ECoG with custom extratympanic electrode was recorded using a horizontal channel (tympanic membrane to contralateral earlobe. The extratympanic electrode is easy to fabricate inhouse, or can be purchased commercially. Maintaining the conventional ABR montage permits continued use of traditional normative data. Broadband clicks at a fixed level of 85 dB nHL were presented with alternating polarity at stimulus rates of 9.3, 11.3, and 15.3/s. Different stimulation rates were explored to identify the most efficient rate without sacrificing time or waveform morphology. Results revealed larger ECoG AP than ABR Wave I, as expected, and no significant difference across stimulation rate and no interaction effect. Extratympanic electrode placement takes little additional clinic time and may improve the neurodiagnostic utility of the ABR.

  19. Cochlear Responses and Auditory Brainstem Response Functions in Adults with Auditory Neuropathy/ Dys-Synchrony and Individuals with Normal Hearing

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    Zahra Jafari

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Physiologic measures of cochlear and auditory nerve function may be of assis¬tance in distinguishing between hearing disorders due primarily to auditory nerve impairment from those due primarily to cochlear hair cells dysfunction. The goal of present study was to measure of co-chlear responses (otoacoustic emissions and cochlear microphonics and auditory brainstem response in some adults with auditory neuropathy/ dys-synchrony and subjects with normal hearing. Materials and Methods: Patients were 16 adults (32 ears in age range of 14-30 years with auditory neu¬ropathy/ dys-synchrony and 16 individuals in age range of 16-30 years from both sexes. The results of transient otoacoustic emissions, cochlear microphonics and auditory brainstem response measures were compared in both groups and the effects of age, sex, ear and degree of hearing loss were studied. Results: The pure-tone average was 48.1 dB HL in auditory neuropathy/dys-synchrony group and the fre¬quency of low tone loss and flat audiograms were higher among other audiogram's shapes. Transient oto¬acoustic emissions were shown in all auditory neuropathy/dys-synchrony people except two cases and its average was near in both studied groups. The latency and amplitude of the biggest reversed co-chlear microphonics response were higher in auditory neuropathy/dys-synchrony patients than control peo¬ple significantly. The correlation between cochlear microphonics amplitude and degree of hearing loss was not significant, and age had significant effect in some cochlear microphonics measures. Audi-tory brainstem response had no response in auditory neuropathy/dys-synchrony patients even with low stim¬uli rates. Conclusion: In adults with speech understanding worsen than predicted from the degree of hearing loss that suspect to auditory neuropathy/ dys-synchrony, the frequency of low tone loss and flat audiograms are higher. Usually auditory brainstem response is absent in

  20. Abnormal auditory forward masking pattern in the brainstem response of individuals with Asperger syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Källstrand, Johan; Olsson, Olle; Nehlstedt, Sara Fristedt; Ling, Mia; Nielzén, Sören

    2010-01-01

    Abnormal auditory information processing has been reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In the present study auditory processing was investigated by recording auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) elicited by forward masking in adults diagnosed with Asperger syndrome (AS). Sixteen AS subjects were included in the forward masking experiment and compared to three control groups consisting of healthy individuals (n = 16), schizophrenic patients (n = 16) and attention defici...

  1. Abnormal auditory forward masking pattern in the brainstem response of individuals with Asperger syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Nielzen, Soren

    2010-01-01

    Johan Källstrand1, Olle Olsson2, Sara Fristedt Nehlstedt1, Mia Ling Sköld1, Sören Nielzén21SensoDetect AB, Lund, Sweden; 2Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Section of Psychiatry, Lund University, Lund, SwedenAbstract: Abnormal auditory information processing has been reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In the present study auditory processing was investigated by recording auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) elicited by forward...

  2. Brainstem auditory evoked responses and ophthalmic findings in llamas and alpacas in eastern Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Webb, Aubrey A.; Cullen, Cheryl L.; Lamont, Leigh A.

    2006-01-01

    Seventeen llamas and 23 alpacas of various coat and iris colors were evaluated for: 1) deafness by using brainstem auditory evoked response testing; and 2) for ocular abnormalities via complete ophthalmic examination. No animals were deaf. The most common ocular abnormalities noted were iris-to-iris persistent pupillary membranes and incipient cataracts.

  3. Modelling the level-dependent latency of the auditory brainstem response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønne, Filip Munch; Dau, Torsten; Harte, James;

    2011-01-01

    Auditory brainstem responses (ABR) are used for both clinical and research purposes to objectively assess human hearing. A prominent feature of the transient evoked ABR is the level-dependent latency of the distinct peaks in its waveform. The latency of the most prominent peak, wave-V, is about 8...

  4. Auditory Brainstem Response to Complex Sounds Predicts Self-Reported Speech-in-Noise Performance

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    Anderson, Samira; Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; White-Schwoch, Travis; Kraus, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the ability of the auditory brainstem response to complex sounds (cABR) to predict subjective ratings of speech understanding in noise on the Speech, Spatial, and Qualities of Hearing Scale (SSQ; Gatehouse & Noble, 2004) relative to the predictive ability of the Quick Speech-in-Noise test (QuickSIN; Killion, Niquette,…

  5. Selective attention modulates human auditory brainstem responses: relative contributions of frequency and spatial cues.

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    Alexandre Lehmann

    Full Text Available Selective attention is the mechanism that allows focusing one's attention on a particular stimulus while filtering out a range of other stimuli, for instance, on a single conversation in a noisy room. Attending to one sound source rather than another changes activity in the human auditory cortex, but it is unclear whether attention to different acoustic features, such as voice pitch and speaker location, modulates subcortical activity. Studies using a dichotic listening paradigm indicated that auditory brainstem processing may be modulated by the direction of attention. We investigated whether endogenous selective attention to one of two speech signals affects amplitude and phase locking in auditory brainstem responses when the signals were either discriminable by frequency content alone, or by frequency content and spatial location. Frequency-following responses to the speech sounds were significantly modulated in both conditions. The modulation was specific to the task-relevant frequency band. The effect was stronger when both frequency and spatial information were available. Patterns of response were variable between participants, and were correlated with psychophysical discriminability of the stimuli, suggesting that the modulation was biologically relevant. Our results demonstrate that auditory brainstem responses are susceptible to efferent modulation related to behavioral goals. Furthermore they suggest that mechanisms of selective attention actively shape activity at early subcortical processing stages according to task relevance and based on frequency and spatial cues.

  6. Clinical Experience of Auditory Brainstem Response Testing on Pediatric Patients in the Operating Room

    OpenAIRE

    Wheaton Hinchion; Briana Dornan; Guangwei Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To review our experience of conducting auditory brainstem response (ABR) test on children in the operating room and discuss the benefits versus limitations of this practice. Methods. Retrospective review study conducted in a pediatric tertiary care facility. A total of 267 patients identified with usable data, including ABR results, medical and surgical notes, and follow-up evaluation. Results. Hearing status successfully determined in all patients based on the ABR results form th...

  7. Frequency difference beyond behavioral limen reflected by frequency following response of human auditory Brainstem

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Qin; Gong, Qin

    2014-01-01

    Background The present study investigated whether the frequency-following response (FFR) of the auditory brainstem can represent individual frequency-discrimination ability. Method We measured behavioral frequency-difference limens (FDLs) in normal hearing young adults. Then FFRs were evoked by two pure tones, whose frequency difference was no larger than behavioral FDL. Discrimination of FFRs to individual frequencies was conducted as the neural representation of stimulus frequency differenc...

  8. Short GSM mobile phone exposure does not alter human auditory brainstem response

    OpenAIRE

    Thuróczy György; Kubinyi Györgyi; Molnár Ferenc; Kellényi Lóránd; Stefanics Gábor; Hernádi István

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background There are about 1.6 billion GSM cellular phones in use throughout the world today. Numerous papers have reported various biological effects in humans exposed to electromagnetic fields emitted by mobile phones. The aim of the present study was to advance our understanding of potential adverse effects of the GSM mobile phones on the human hearing system. Methods Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) was recorded with three non-polarizing Ag-AgCl scalp electrodes in thirty young ...

  9. Using Concha Electrodes to Measure Cochlear Microphonic Waveforms and Auditory Brainstem Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ming

    2010-01-01

    During electrocochleography, that is, ECochG or ECoG, a recording electrode can be placed in the ear canal lateral to the tympanic membrane. We designed a concha electrode to record both sinusoidal waveforms of cochlear microphonics (CMs) and auditory brainstem responses (ABRs). The amplitudes of CM waveforms and Wave I or compound action potentials (CAPs) recorded at the concha were greater than those recorded at the mastoid but slightly lower than those recorded at the ear canal. Wave V amp...

  10. Comparison of cochlear delay estimates using otoacoustic emissions and auditory brainstem responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harte, James; Pigasse, Gilles; Dau, Torsten

    2009-01-01

    Different attempts have been made to directly measure frequency specific basilar membrane (BM) delays in animals, e.g., laser velocimetry of BM vibrations and auditory nerve fiber recordings. The present study uses otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) and auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) to estimate B...... synaptic delays. This allows a comparison between individual OAE and BM delays over a large frequency range in the same subjects, and offers support to the theory that OAEs are reflected from a tonotopic place and carried back to the cochlear base via a reverse traveling wave....

  11. Effect of Infant Prematurity on Auditory Brainstem Response at Preschool Age

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    Sara Hasani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Preterm birth is a risk factor for a number of conditions that requires comprehensive examination. Our study was designed to investigate the impact of preterm birth on the processing of auditory stimuli and brain structures at the brainstem level at a preschool age.   Materials and Methods: An auditory brainstem response (ABR test was performed with low rates of stimuli in 60 children aged 4 to 6 years. Thirty subjects had been born following a very preterm labor or late-preterm labor and 30 control subjects had been born following a full-term labor.   Results: Significant differences in the ABR test result were observed in terms of the inter-peak intervals of the I–III and III–V waves, and the absolute latency of the III wave (P

  12. Auditory Brainstem Responses in Young Males with Fragile X Syndrome

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    Roberts, Joanne; Hennon, Elizabeth A.; Anderson, Kathleen; Roush, Jackson; Gravel, Judith; Skinner, Martie; Misenheimer, Jan; Reitz, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common inherited cause of mental retardation resulting in developmental delays in males. Atypical outer ear morphology is characteristic of FXS and may serve as a marker for abnormal auditory function. Despite this abnormality, studies of the hearing of young males with FXS are generally lacking. A few studies…

  13. Abnormal auditory forward masking pattern in the brainstem response of individuals with Asperger syndrome

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    Johan Källstrand

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Johan Källstrand1, Olle Olsson2, Sara Fristedt Nehlstedt1, Mia Ling Sköld1, Sören Nielzén21SensoDetect AB, Lund, Sweden; 2Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Section of Psychiatry, Lund University, Lund, SwedenAbstract: Abnormal auditory information processing has been reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. In the present study auditory processing was investigated by recording auditory brainstem responses (ABRs elicited by forward masking in adults diagnosed with Asperger syndrome (AS. Sixteen AS subjects were included in the forward masking experiment and compared to three control groups consisting of healthy individuals (n = 16, schizophrenic patients (n = 16 and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patients (n = 16, respectively, of matching age and gender. The results showed that the AS subjects exhibited abnormally low activity in the early part of their ABRs that distinctly separated them from the three control groups. Specifically, wave III amplitudes were significantly lower in the AS group than for all the control groups in the forward masking condition (P < 0.005, which was not the case in the baseline condition. Thus, electrophysiological measurements of ABRs to complex sound stimuli (eg, forward masking may lead to a better understanding of the underlying neurophysiology of AS. Future studies may further point to specific ABR characteristics in AS individuals that separate them from individuals diagnosed with other neurodevelopmental diseases.Keywords: asperger syndrome, auditory brainstem response, forward masking, psychoacoustics

  14. Continued Maturation of the Click-Evoked Auditory Brainstem Response in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, Emily; White-Schwoch, Travis; Carr, Kali Woodruff; Skoe, Erika; Kraus, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Background Click-evoked auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) are a valuable tool for probing auditory system function and development. Although it has long been thought that the human auditory brainstem is fully mature by age 2 yr, recent evidence indicates a prolonged developmental trajectory. Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the time course of ABR maturation in a preschool population and fill a gap in the knowledge of development. Research Design Using a cross-sectional design, we investigated the effect of age on absolute latencies, interwave latencies, and amplitudes (waves I, III, V) of the click-evoked ABR. Study Sample A total of 71 preschoolers (ages 3.12–4.99 yr) participated in the study. All had normal peripheral auditory function and IQ. Data Collection and Analysis ABRs to a rarefaction click stimulus presented at 31/sec and 80 dB SPL (73 dB nHL) were recorded monaurally using clinically-standard recording and filtering procedures while the participant sat watching a movie. Absolute latencies, interwave latencies, and amplitudes were then correlated to age. Results Developmental changes were restricted to absolute latencies. Wave V latency decreased significantly with age, whereas wave I and III latencies remained stable, even in this restricted age range. Conclusions The ABR does not remain static after age 2 yr, as seen by a systematic decrease in wave V latency between ages 3 and 5 yr. This finding suggests that the human brainstem has a continued developmental time course during the preschool years. Latency changes in the age 3–5 yr range should be considered when using ABRs as a metric of hearing health. PMID:25597458

  15. Infant temperament and the brainstem auditory evoked response in later childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, S A; McManis, M H; Kagan, J; Deldin, P; Snidman, N; Lewis, M; Kahn, V

    2001-07-01

    Brainstem auditory evoked responses (BAERs) were evaluated on 10-12-year-old children (N = 56) who had been classified as high or low reactive to unfamiliar stimuli at 4 months of age. BAER measurement was selected because high reactive infants tend to become inhibited or fearful young children, and adult introverts have a faster latency to wave V of the BAER than do extroverts. Children previously classified as high reactive at 4 months had larger wave V components than did low reactive children, a finding that possibly suggests greater excitability in projections to the inferior colliculus. The fact that a fundamental feature of brainstem activity differentiated preadolescent children belonging to two early temperamental groups supports the value of gathering physiological data in temperament research. PMID:11444488

  16. Comparison of Auditory Brainstem Response in Noise Induced Tinnitus and Non-Tinnitus Control Subjects

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    Ghassem Mohammadkhani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Tinnitus is an unpleasant sound which can cause some behavioral disorders. According to evidence the origin of tinnitus is not only in peripheral but also in central auditory system. So evaluation of central auditory system function is necessary. In this study Auditory brainstem responses (ABR were compared in noise induced tinnitus and non-tinnitus control subjects.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional, descriptive and analytic study is conducted in 60 cases in two groups including of 30 noise induced tinnitus and 30 non-tinnitus control subjects. ABRs were recorded ipsilateraly and contralateraly and their latencies and amplitudes were analyzed.Results: Mean interpeak latencies of III-V (p= 0.022, I-V (p=0.033 in ipsilatral electrode array and mean absolute latencies of IV (p=0.015 and V (p=0.048 in contralatral electrode array were significantly increased in noise induced tinnitus group relative to control group. Conclusion: It can be concluded from that there are some decrease in neural transmission time in brainstem and there are some sign of involvement of medial nuclei in olivery complex in addition to lateral lemniscus.

  17. Auditory brainstem responses in a Rhesus Macaque model of neuro-AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, L A; Wallace, D; Berman, N E; Marcario, J; Foresman, L; Joag, S V; Raghavan, R; Narayan, O; Cheney, P D

    1998-10-01

    Nine rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were inoculated with a combination of two passaged strains of SIVmac (R71 and 17E), both of which are known to be neurovirulent. Auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) were recorded at regular intervals from these animals both before and after inoculation. Increases in ABR peak and interpeak latency were observed corresponding to progression of SIV disease. Post-inoculation increases in latency were observed for all five peaks of the ABR and for interpeak intervals I-V and III-V. The largest increases in latency were associated with end-stage disease. Within 14 weeks of inoculation, all but two animals developed end-stage simian AIDS and were euthanized. Histopathological examination revealed multifocal lesions in the cerebral gray and white matter as well as in the auditory structures of the brainstem. In most animals, ABR changes were accompanied by evidence of underlying neuropathology. However, cases of severe neuropathology with no ABR abnormalities and vice versa were also noted. Though in a much shorter time frame, SIVmac R71/17E produced both physiological and histopathological abnormalities similar to those associated with HIV disease in humans. These results further support the SIVmac R71/17E infected rhesus macaque as an animal model of HIV related neurological disease in humans. PMID:9839648

  18. Short GSM mobile phone exposure does not alter human auditory brainstem response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuróczy György

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are about 1.6 billion GSM cellular phones in use throughout the world today. Numerous papers have reported various biological effects in humans exposed to electromagnetic fields emitted by mobile phones. The aim of the present study was to advance our understanding of potential adverse effects of the GSM mobile phones on the human hearing system. Methods Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR was recorded with three non-polarizing Ag-AgCl scalp electrodes in thirty young and healthy volunteers (age 18–26 years with normal hearing. ABR data were collected before, and immediately after a 10 minute exposure to 900 MHz pulsed electromagnetic field (EMF emitted by a commercial Nokia 6310 mobile phone. Fifteen subjects were exposed to genuine EMF and fifteen to sham EMF in a double blind and counterbalanced order. Possible effects of irradiation was analyzed by comparing the latency of ABR waves I, III and V before and after genuine/sham EMF exposure. Results Paired sample t-test was conducted for statistical analysis. Results revealed no significant differences in the latency of ABR waves I, III and V before and after 10 minutes of genuine/sham EMF exposure. Conclusion The present results suggest that, in our experimental conditions, a single 10 minute exposure of 900 MHz EMF emitted by a commercial mobile phone does not produce measurable immediate effects in the latency of auditory brainstem waves I, III and V.

  19. Identifying the Threshold of Iron Deficiency in the Central Nervous System of the Rat by the Auditory Brainstem Response

    OpenAIRE

    Greminger, Allison R.; Mayer-Pröschel, Margot

    2015-01-01

    The deleterious effects of anemia on auditory nerve (AN) development have been well investigated; however, we have previously reported that significant functional consequences in the auditory brainstem response (ABR) can also occur as a consequence of marginal iron deficiency (ID). As the ABR has widespread clinical use, we evaluated the ability of this electrophysiological method to characterize the threshold of tissue ID in rats by examining the relationship between markers of tissue ID and...

  20. Effect of sex and rate of stimulus on auditory brainstem responses of children with history of preterm birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara hasani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Preterm birth is one of the risk factors need comprehensive audiological assessment. In this study, the effect of sex and rate of stimulation on response of children with history of preterm birth was investigated by auditory brainstem response (ABR. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted using convinience sampling. Click-evoked a uditory brainstem response test with both low (21.1 c/s and high (51.1 c/s stimulus rates was recorded in 30 children with a history of preterm birth and 30 ones with history of term labor, as controls. Results: Significant differences were observed in inter-peak latencies of I-III in both rates, III-V in the low rate, I-V in the high rate, and absolute latency of III wave between high and low stimulus rates (p<0.05 for all. Rate of stimulus affect on auditory brainstem response of preterm birth group was more than controls. Sex also affected on some parameters of auditory brainstem response test. Conclusion: Preterm birth group showed longer latencies than normal group in both rates. Rate of stimulus had significant effect on results of children with history of preterm birth compared normal group. These findings may reflect the negative effect of preterm birth on neural synchronization function in response to transient stimuli.

  1. Processamento auditivo e potenciais evocados auditivos de tronco cerebral (BERA Auditory precessing and auditory brainstem response (ABR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Pfeiffer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar relação existente entre os potenciais auditivos de tronco cerebral e a avaliação comportamental do processamento auditivo. MÉTODOS: foi realizada em um grupo de 60 meninas residentes de Paraíba do Sul na idade de nove a 12 anos com limiares tonais dentro dos padrões de normalidade e timpanometria tipo A com presença dos reflexos acústicos. Os testes utilizados para a avaliação comportamental do processamento auditivo foram: avaliação simplificada do processamento auditivo, teste de fala no ruído, teste de dissílabos alternados e teste dicótico não verbal. Após a avaliação do processamento auditivo, as crianças foram subdivididas em dois grupos, G1 (sem alteração no processamento auditivo e G2 (com alteração no processamento auditivo e submetidas aos potenciais auditivos de tronco cerebral. Os parâmetros utilizados na comparação dos dois grupos foram: latência absoluta das ondas I, III e V; latência interpicos das ondas I-III, I-V, III-V; diferença interaural da latência interpico I-V; e diferença interaural da latência da onda V. RESULTADOS: foram encontradas diferenças estatísticas nos parâmetros de latência interpico das ondas I-V na orelha esquerda (p=0,009, diferença interaural da latência interpico de ondas I-V (p=0,020 e diferença da latência interpico de ondas I e V da orelha direita para a esquerda entre os grupos G1 e G2 (p=0,025. CONCLUSÃO: foi possível encontrar relação dos potenciais evocados auditivos de tronco cerebral com a avaliação comportamental do processamento auditivo nos parâmetros de latência interpico entre as ondas I e V da orelha esquerda e diferença interaural da latência interpico I-V na orelha esquerda.PURPOSE: to investigate the correlation of auditory brainstem response (ABR and behavioral auditory processing evaluation. METHODS: sixty girls, from Paraíba do Sul, ranging from 9 to 12-year-old were evaluated. In order to take part in the study

  2. Auditory Brainstem Response Wave Amplitude Characteristics as a Diagnostic Tool in Children with Speech Delay with Unknown Causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadi, Susan; Khanbabaee, Ghamartaj; Sheibani, Kourosh

    2016-09-01

    Speech delay with an unknown cause is a problem among children. This diagnosis is the last differential diagnosis after observing normal findings in routine hearing tests. The present study was undertaken to determine whether auditory brainstem responses to click stimuli are different between normally developing children and children suffering from delayed speech with unknown causes. In this cross-sectional study, we compared click auditory brainstem responses between 261 children who were clinically diagnosed with delayed speech with unknown causes based on normal routine auditory test findings and neurological examinations and had >12 months of speech delay (case group) and 261 age- and sex-matched normally developing children (control group). Our results indicated that the case group exhibited significantly higher wave amplitude responses to click stimuli (waves I, III, and V) than did the control group (P=0.001). These amplitudes were significantly reduced after 1 year (P=0.001); however, they were still significantly higher than those of the control group (P=0.001). The significant differences were seen regardless of the age and the sex of the participants. There were no statistically significant differences between the 2 groups considering the latency of waves I, III, and V. In conclusion, the higher amplitudes of waves I, III, and V, which were observed in the auditory brainstem responses to click stimuli among the patients with speech delay with unknown causes, might be used as a diagnostic tool to track patients' improvement after treatment. PMID:27582591

  3. Development of a Chirp Stimulus PC-Based Auditory Brainstem Response Audiometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali AL-Afsaa

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Hearing losses during infancy and childhood have many negative future effects and impacts on the child life and productivity. The earlier detection of hearing losses, the earlier medical intervention and then the greater benefit of remediation will be. During this research a PC-based audiometer is designed and, currently, the audiometer prototype is in its final development steps. It is based on the auditory brainstem response (ABR method. Chirp stimuli instead of traditional click stimuli will be used to invoke the ABR signal. The stimulus is designed to synchronize the hair cells movement when it spreads out over the cochlea. In addition to the available hardware utilization (PC and PCI board, the efforts confined to design and implement a hardware prototype and to develop a software package that enables the system to behave as ABR audiometer. By using such a method and chirp stimulus, it is expected to be able to detect hearing impairment (sensorineural in the first few days of the life and conduct hearing test at low frequency of stimulus. Currently, the intended chirp stimulus has been successfully generated and the implemented module is able to amplify a signal (on the order of ABR signal to a recordable level. Moreover, a NI-DAQ data acquisition board has been chosen to implement the PC-prototype interface.

  4. DEVELOPING ‘STANDARD NOVEL ‘VAD’ TECHNIQUE’ AND ‘NOISE FREE SIGNALS’ FOR SPEECH AUDITORY BRAINSTEM RESPONSES FOR HUMAN SUBJECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Ranganadh Narayanam*

    2016-01-01

    In this research as a first step we have concentrated on collecting non-intra cortical EEG data of Brainstem Speech Evoked Potentials from human subjects in an Audiology Lab in University of Ottawa. The problems we have considered are the most advanced and most essential problems of interest in Auditory Neural Signal Processing area in the world: The first problem is the Voice Activity Detection (VAD) in Speech Auditory Brainstem Responses (ABR); The second problem is to identify the best De-...

  5. Enhanced auditory brainstem response and parental bonding style in children with gastrointestinal symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shizuka Seino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The electrophysiological properties of the brain and influence of parental bonding in childhood irritable bowel syndrome (IBS are unclear. We hypothesized that children with chronic gastrointestinal (GI symptoms like IBS may show exaggerated brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP responses and receive more inadequate parental bonding. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Children aged seven and their mothers (141 pairs participated. BAEP was measured by summation of 1,000 waves of the electroencephalogram triggered by 75 dB click sounds. The mothers completed their Children's Somatization Inventory (CSI and Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI. CSI results revealed 66 (42% children without GI symptoms (controls and 75 (58% children with one or more GI symptoms (GI group. The III wave in the GI group (median 4.10 interquartile range [3.95-4.24] ms right, 4.04 [3.90-4.18] ms left had a significantly shorter peak latency than controls (4.18 [4.06-4.34] ms right, p = 0.032, 4.13 [4.02-4.24] ms left, p = 0.018. The female GI group showed a significantly shorter peak latency of the III wave (4.00 [3.90-4.18] ms than controls (4.18 [3.97-4.31] ms, p = 0.034 in the right side. BAEP in the male GI group did not significantly differ from that in controls. GI scores showed a significant correlation with the peak latency of the III wave in the left side (rho = -0.192, p = 0.025. The maternal care PBI scores in the GI group (29 [26]-[33] were significantly lower than controls (31 [28.5-33], p = 0.010, while the maternal over-protection PBI scores were significantly higher in the GI group (16 [12]-[17] than controls (13 [10.5-16], p = 0.024. Multiple regression analysis in females also supported these findings. CONCLUSIONS: It is suggested that children with chronic GI symptoms have exaggerated brainstem responses to environmental stimuli and inadequate parental behaviors aggravate these symptoms.

  6. In-air hearing of a diving duck: A comparison of psychoacoustic and auditory brainstem response thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Sara E; Wells-Berlin, Alicia M; Therrien, Ronald E; Yannuzzi, Sally E; Carr, Catherine E

    2016-05-01

    Auditory sensitivity was measured in a species of diving duck that is not often kept in captivity, the lesser scaup. Behavioral (psychoacoustics) and electrophysiological [the auditory brainstem response (ABR)] methods were used to measure in-air auditory sensitivity, and the resulting audiograms were compared. Both approaches yielded audiograms with similar U-shapes and regions of greatest sensitivity (2000-3000 Hz). However, ABR thresholds were higher than psychoacoustic thresholds at all frequencies. This difference was least at the highest frequency tested using both methods (5700 Hz) and greatest at 1000 Hz, where the ABR threshold was 26.8 dB higher than the behavioral measure of threshold. This difference is commonly reported in studies involving many different species. These results highlight the usefulness of each method, depending on the testing conditions and availability of the animals. PMID:27250191

  7. Neonatal hearing screening of high-risk infants using automated auditory brainstem response: a retrospective analysis of referral rates.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGurgan, I J

    2013-10-07

    The past decade has seen the widespread introduction of universal neonatal hearing screening (UNHS) programmes worldwide. Regrettably, such a programme is only now in the process of nationwide implementation in the Republic of Ireland and has been largely restricted to one screening modality for initial testing; namely transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE). The aim of this study is to analyse the effects of employing a different screening protocol which utilises an alternative initial test, automated auditory brainstem response (AABR), on referral rates to specialist audiology services.

  8. Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials Suggest a Role for the Ventral Cochlear Nucleus in Tinnitus

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Jianwen Wendy; Herrmann, Barbara S.; Levine, Robert A.; Melcher, Jennifer R.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated elevated spontaneous and sound-evoked brainstem activity in animal models of tinnitus, but data on brainstem function in people with this common clinical condition are sparse. Here, auditory nerve and brainstem function in response to sound was assessed via auditory brainstem responses (ABR) in humans with tinnitus and without. Tinnitus subjects showed reduced wave I amplitude (indicating reduced auditory nerve activity) but enhanced wave V (reflecting eleva...

  9. Brainstem auditory evoked response characteristics in normal-hearing subjects with chronic tinnitus and in non-tinnitus group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadman Nemati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: While most of the people with tinnitus have some degrees of hearing impairment, a small percent of patients admitted to ear, nose and throat clinics or hearing evaluation centers are those who complain of tinnitus despite having normal hearing thresholds. This study was performed to better understanding of the reasons of probable causes of tinnitus and to investigate possible changes in the auditory brainstem function in normal-hearing patients with chronic tinnitus.Methods: In this comparative cross-sectional, descriptive and analytic study, 52 ears (26 with and 26 without tinnitus were examined. Components of the auditory brainstem response (ABR including wave latencies and wave amplitudes were determined in the two groups and analyzed using appropriate statistical methods.Results: The mean differences between the absolute latencies of waves I, III and V was less than 0.1 ms between the two groups that was not statistically significant. Also, the interpeak latency values of waves I-III, III-V and I-V in both groups had no significant difference. Only, the V/I amplitude ratio in the tinnitus group was significantly higher (p=0.04.Conclusion: The changes observed in amplitude of waves, especially in the latter ones, can be considered as an indication of plastic changes in neuronal activity and its possible role in generation of tinnitus in normal-hearing patients.

  10. Evaluation of auditory brain-stem evoked response in middle: Aged type 2 diabetes mellitus with normal hearing subjects

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    Debadatta Mahallik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM is commonly metabolic disorders of carbohydrate in which blood glucose levels are abnormally high due to relative or absolute insulin deficiency. In addition, it is characterized by abnormal metabolism of fat, protein resulting from insulin deficit or insulin action, or both. There are two broad categories of DM are designated as type 1 and type 2. Type 2 diabetes is due to predominantly insulin resistance with relative insulin deficiency noninsulin-dependent DM. Type 2 diabetes is much more common than insulin-dependent DM. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess, if there is any abnormality in neural conduction in auditory brain-stem pathway in type 2 DM patients having normal hearing sensitivity when compared to age-matched healthy populations. Materials and Methods: This study included middle - aged 25 subjects having normal hearing with diabetes type 2 mellitus. All were submitted to the full audiological history taking, otological examination, basic audiological evaluation and auditory brain-stem response audiometry which was recorded in both ears, followed by calculation of the absolute latencies of wave I, III and V, as well as interpeak latencies I-III, III-V, I-V. Results: Type 2 DM patients showed significant prolonged absolute latencies of I, III (P = 0.001 and interpeak latencies I-III, III-V and I-V in left ear (P = 0.001 and absolute latencies of I, V (P = 0.001, interpeak latencies III-V was statistically significant in right ear. Conclusions: The prolonged absolute latencies and interpeak latencies suggests abnormal neural firing synchronization or in the transmission in the auditory pathways in normal hearing type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

  11. Auditory brain-stem response, CT and MR imaging in a family with classical type Pelizaeus-Merzbacher Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A family in which 5 males in successive generations were clinically suspected to be affected with the classical X-linked recessive form of Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) is presented. Two brothers and their maternal uncle were examined by one of the author (MS). In two brothers, aged 3 years and 2 years, the disease became obvious within a month after birth with nystagmus and head tremor. Head control and sitting were achieved at the age of 18 months at which time they began to speak. They could not stand nor walk without support. They had dysmetria, weakness and hyper-reflexia of lower extremities, and mild mental retardation. Their maternal uncle, aged 37 years, showed psychomotor retardation from birth and subsequently developed spastic paraplegia. He had been able to walk with crutches until adolescence. He had dysmetria, scanning speech, athetoid posture of fingers and significant intellectual deficits. Auditory brainstem response in both brothers revealed well defined waves I and II, low amplitude wave III and an absence of all subsequent components. CT demonstrated mild cerebral atrophy in the elder brother and was normal in the younger brother, but in their uncle, CT showed atrophy of the brainstem, cerebellum and cerebrum, and low density of the white matter of the centrum semiovale. MRI was performed in both brothers. Although the brainstem, the internal capsule and the thalamus were myelinated, the myelination in the subcortical white matter was restricted to periventricular regions on IR sequence scans. On SE sequence, the subcortical white matter was imaged as a brighter area than the cerebral cortex. These results demonstrate that the degree of myelination in these patients was roughly equal to that of 3-to 6-month old infants. (J.P.N.)

  12. Auditory brain-stem response, CT and MR imaging in a family with classical type Pelizaeus-Merzbacher Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiomi, M.; Ookuni, H.; Sugita, T.

    1987-05-01

    A family in which 5 males in successive generations were clinically suspected to be affected with the classical X-linked recessive form of Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) is presented. Two brothers and their maternal uncle were examined by one of the authors (MS). In two brothers, aged 3 years and 2 years, the disease became obvious within a month after birth with nystagmus and head tremor. Head control and sitting were achieved at the age of 18 months at which time they began to speak. They could not stand nor walk without support. They had dysmetria, weakness and hyper-reflexia of lower extremities, and mild mental retardation. Their maternal uncle, aged 37 years, showed psychomotor retardation from birth and subsequently developed spastic paraplegia. He had been able to walk with crutches until adolescence. He had dysmetria, scanning speech, athetoid posture of fingers and significant intellectual deficits. Auditory brainstem response in both brothers revealed well defined waves I and II, low amplitude wave III and an absence of all subsequent components. CT demonstrated mild cerebral atrophy in the elder brother and was normal in the younger brother, but in their uncle, CT showed atrophy of the brainstem, cerebellum and cerebrum, and low density of the white matter of the centrum semiovale. MRI was performed in both brothers. Although the brainstem, the internal capsule and the thalamus were myelinated, the myelination in the subcortical white matter was restricted to periventricular regions on IR sequence scans. On SE sequence, the subcortical white matter was imaged as a brighter area than the cerebral cortex. These results demonstrate that the degree of myelination in these patients was roughly equal to that of 3-to 6-month old infants.

  13. Identifying the threshold of iron deficiency in the central nervous system of the rat by the auditory brainstem response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greminger, Allison R; Mayer-Pröschel, Margot

    2015-01-01

    The deleterious effects of anemia on auditory nerve (AN) development have been well investigated; however, we have previously reported that significant functional consequences in the auditory brainstem response (ABR) can also occur as a consequence of marginal iron deficiency (ID). As the ABR has widespread clinical use, we evaluated the ability of this electrophysiological method to characterize the threshold of tissue ID in rats by examining the relationship between markers of tissue ID and severity of ABR latency defects. To generate various levels of ID, female Long-Evans rats were exposed to diets containing sufficient, borderline, or deficient iron (Fe) concentrations throughout gestation and offspring lifetime. We measured hematological indices of whole body iron stores in dams and offspring to assess the degree of ID. Progression of AN ID in the offspring was measured as ferritin protein levels at different times during postnatal development to complement ABR functional measurements. The severity of ABR deficits correlated with the level of Fe restriction in each diet. The sufficient Fe diet did not induce AN ID and consequently did not show an impaired ABR latency response. The borderline Fe diet, which depleted AN Fe stores but did not cause systemic anemia resulted in significantly increased ABR latency isolated to Peak I.The low Fe diet, which induced anemia and growth retardation, significantly increased ABR latencies of Peaks I to IV. Our findings indicate that changes in the ABR could be related to various degrees of ID experienced throughout development. PMID:25732706

  14. Air pollution is associated with brainstem auditory nuclei pathology and delayed brainstem auditory evoked potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; D’Angiulli, Amedeo; Kulesza, Randy J.; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Osnaya, Norma; Romero, Lina; Keefe, Sheyla; Herritt, Lou; Brooks, Diane M.; Avila-Ramirez, Jose; Delgado-Chávez, Ricardo; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; González-González, Luis Oscar

    2011-01-01

    We assessed brainstem inflammation in children exposed to air pollutants by comparing brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) and blood inflammatory markers in children age 96.3± 8.5 months from highly polluted (n=34) versus a low polluted city (n=17). The brainstems of nine children with accidental deaths were also examined. Children from the highly polluted environment had significant delays in wave III (t(50)=17.038; p

  15. Effects of glutamate on distortion-product otoacoustic emissions and auditory brainstem responses in guinea pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Qing; SUN Jian-he; SHAN Xi-zheng; LI Xing-qi

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate changes in evoked potentials and structure of the guinea pig cochleae during whole cochlear perfusion with glutamate. Methods CM, CAP, DPOAE, and ABR were recorded as indicators of cochlear functions during whole cochlear perfusion. The morphology of the cochlea was studied via transmission electron microscopy. Results There were no significant changes in DPOAE amplitude before and after glutamate perfusion. CM I/O function remained nonlinear during perfusion. ABR latencies were delayed following glutamate perfusion. The average CAP threshold was elevated 35 dB SPL following glutamate perfusion.. The OHCs appeared normal, but the IHCs and afferent dendrites showed cytoplasmic blebs after glutamate perfusion. Conclusions While being a primary amino acid neurotransmitter at the synapses between hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons, excessive glutamate is neurotoxic and can destroy IHCs and spiral ganglion neurons. The technique used in this study can also be used to build an animal model of auditory neuropathy.

  16. The influence of cochlear traveling wave and neural adaptation on auditory brainstem responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junius, D.; Dau, Torsten

    2005-01-01

    B SPL), disparities occurred between the responses, reflecting a nonlinearity in the processing when neural activity is integrated across frequency. In the third experiment, the effect of within-train rate on wave-V response was investigated. The response to the chirp presented at a within-train rate of...

  17. Searching for the optimal stimulus eliciting auditory brainstem responses in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fobel, Oliver; Dau, Torsten

    2004-01-01

    frequency-dependent neural delays exist which are not reflected in the design of these chirps. (iii) The A-chirp produced the largest responses, particularly at low stimulation levels. This chirp might therefore be valuable for clinical applications, particularly in tests where the click stimulus has been...

  18. Brain-stem auditory evoked responses during microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia: Predicting post-operative hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramnarayan Ramachandran

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The importance of brainstem auditory evoked potential monitoring in reducing hearing loss during microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia is now accepted. However the extent of the changes in the pattern of these potentials and the safe limits to which these changes are relevant in reducing postoperative hearing loss have not been established. Aims: The aim of this study is to quantify these changes and relate these to the postoperative hearing loss. Settings and Design: This study was done at the Walton Centre for neurology and neurosurgery, Liverpool, United Kingdom. The study was designed to give a measure of the change in the wave pattern following microvascular decompression and relate it to postoperative hearing loss. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five patients undergoing microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia had preoperative and postoperative hearing assessments and intraoperative brainstem auditory evoked potential monitoring. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square tests. Results: It was found that the wave V latency was increased by more than 0.9ms in nine patients, eight of whom suffered significant postoperative hearing loss as demonstrated by audiometry. It was also seen that progressive decrease in amplitude of wave V showed progressive hearing loss with 25% loss when amplitude fell by 50 and 100% loss when wave V was lost completely. However most of the patients did not have a clinically manifest hearing loss. Conclusions: A per-operative increase in the latency of wave V greater than 0.9 ms and a fall of amplitude of wave V of more than 50% indicates a risk to hearing.

  19. Potenciais evocados auditivos de tronco encefálico em frentistas Auditory brainstem response in gas station attendants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenita da Silva Quevedo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A ototoxidade dos solventes orgânicos pode atingir o sistema auditivo a nível coclear e retrococlear. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a integridade neurofisiológica do sistema auditivo até tronco cerebral por meio do PEATE. MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo. Estudados frentistas de três postos de gasolina da cidade de Santa Maria/RS. A amostra ficou composta por 21 sujeitos, que foram avaliados por meio de potenciais evocados auditivos de tronco encefálico. RESULTADOS: Alteração nas latências absolutas das ondas I e III e em todas as latências interpicos, na orelha direita. Na orelha esquerda houve alteração na latência absoluta de todas as ondas, e em todos os intervalos interpicos. Alteração na diferença interaural da onda V foi verificada em 19% dos sujeitos. No grupo exposto há mais de cinco anos, foram estatisticamente significantes o número de sujeitos com alteração: no intervalo interpico I-V da orelha direita; na latência absoluta da onda I e no intervalo interpico III-V da orelha esquerda. CONCLUSÃO: A exposição a combustíveis pode causar alterações no sistema auditivo central.Ototoxicity of organic solvents can affect the hearing system up to the cochlea level and the central structures of hearing. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the neurophysiological integrity of the hearing system in subjects exposed to fuels using ABR. METHOD: Prospective study. We evaluated attendants from three gas stations in Santa Maria/RS. The sample had 21 subjects, who were evaluated by auditory brainstem response. RESULTS: We found an alteration in the absolute latencies of Waves I and III and in all the interpeak latencies, in the right ear. In the left ear there was a change in the absolute latencies of all Waves, and in all the interpeak intervals. A change in the interaural difference of Wave V was found in 19% of the individuals. In the group exposed for more than five years, there were subjects with a statistically significant changes: in the I

  20. A Cochlear Implant Performance Prognostic Test Based on Electrical Field Interactions Evaluated by eABR (Electrical Auditory Brainstem Responses)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, Nicolas; Hoen, Michel; Truy, Eric; Gallego, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Background Cochlear implants (CIs) are neural prostheses that have been used routinely in the clinic over the past 25 years. They allow children who were born profoundly deaf, as well as adults affected by hearing loss for whom conventional hearing aids are insufficient, to attain a functional level of hearing. The “modern” CI (i.e., a multi-electrode implant using sequential coding strategies) has yielded good speech comprehension outcomes (recognition level for monosyllabic words about 50% to 60%, and sentence comprehension close to 90%). These good average results however hide a very important interindividual variability as scores in a given patients’ population often vary from 5 to 95% in comparable testing conditions. Our aim was to develop a prognostic model for patients with unilateral CI. A novel method of objectively measuring electrical and neuronal interactions using electrical auditory brainstem responses (eABRs) is proposed. Methods and Findings The method consists of two measurements: 1) eABR measurements with stimulation by a single electrode at 70% of the dynamic range (four electrodes distributed within the cochlea were tested), followed by a summation of these four eABRs; 2) Measurement of a single eABR with stimulation from all four electrodes at 70% of the dynamic range. A comparison of the eABRs obtained by these two measurements, defined as the monaural interaction component (MIC), indicated electrical and neural interactions between the stimulation channels. Speech recognition performance without lip reading was measured for each patient using a logatome test (64 "vowel-consonant-vowel"; VCV; by forced choice of 1 out of 16). eABRs were measured in 16 CI patients (CIs with 20 electrodes, Digisonic SP; Oticon Medical ®, Vallauris, France). Significant correlations were found between speech recognition performance and the ratio of the amplitude of the V wave of the eABRs obtained with the two measurements (Pearson's linear regression

  1. A Cochlear Implant Performance Prognostic Test Based on Electrical Field Interactions Evaluated by eABR (Electrical Auditory Brainstem Responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Guevara

    Full Text Available Cochlear implants (CIs are neural prostheses that have been used routinely in the clinic over the past 25 years. They allow children who were born profoundly deaf, as well as adults affected by hearing loss for whom conventional hearing aids are insufficient, to attain a functional level of hearing. The "modern" CI (i.e., a multi-electrode implant using sequential coding strategies has yielded good speech comprehension outcomes (recognition level for monosyllabic words about 50% to 60%, and sentence comprehension close to 90%. These good average results however hide a very important interindividual variability as scores in a given patients' population often vary from 5 to 95% in comparable testing conditions. Our aim was to develop a prognostic model for patients with unilateral CI. A novel method of objectively measuring electrical and neuronal interactions using electrical auditory brainstem responses (eABRs is proposed.The method consists of two measurements: 1 eABR measurements with stimulation by a single electrode at 70% of the dynamic range (four electrodes distributed within the cochlea were tested, followed by a summation of these four eABRs; 2 Measurement of a single eABR with stimulation from all four electrodes at 70% of the dynamic range. A comparison of the eABRs obtained by these two measurements, defined as the monaural interaction component (MIC, indicated electrical and neural interactions between the stimulation channels. Speech recognition performance without lip reading was measured for each patient using a logatome test (64 "vowel-consonant-vowel"; VCV; by forced choice of 1 out of 16. eABRs were measured in 16 CI patients (CIs with 20 electrodes, Digisonic SP; Oticon Medical ®, Vallauris, France. Significant correlations were found between speech recognition performance and the ratio of the amplitude of the V wave of the eABRs obtained with the two measurements (Pearson's linear regression model, parametric correlation: r

  2. THE EFFECTS OF SALICYLATE ON AUDITORY EVOKED POTENTIAL AMPLITWDE FROM THE AUDITORY CORTEX AND AUDITORY BRAINSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brian Sawka; SUN Wei

    2014-01-01

    Tinnitus has often been studied using salicylate in animal models as they are capable of inducing tempo-rary hearing loss and tinnitus. Studies have recently observed enhancement of auditory evoked responses of the auditory cortex (AC) post salicylate treatment which is also shown to be related to tinnitus like behavior in rats. The aim of this study was to observe if enhancements of the AC post salicylate treatment are also present at structures in the brainstem. Four male Sprague Dawley rats with AC implanted electrodes were tested for both AC and auditory brainstem response (ABR) recordings pre and post 250 mg/kg intraperitone-al injections of salicylate. The responses were recorded as the peak to trough amplitudes of P1-N1 (AC), ABR wave V, and ABR waveⅡ. AC responses resulted in statistically significant enhancement of ampli-tude at 2 hours post salicylate with 90 dB stimuli tone bursts of 4, 8, 12, and 20 kHz. Wave V of ABR re-sponses at 90 dB resulted in a statistically significant reduction of amplitude 2 hours post salicylate and a mean decrease of amplitude of 31%for 16 kHz. WaveⅡamplitudes at 2 hours post treatment were signifi-cantly reduced for 4, 12, and 20 kHz stimuli at 90 dB SPL. Our results suggest that the enhancement chang-es of the AC related to salicylate induced tinnitus are generated superior to the level of the inferior colliculus and may originate in the AC.

  3. Noise-Induced “Toughening” Effect in Wistar Rats: Enhanced Auditory Brainstem Responses Are Related to Calretinin and Nitric Oxide Synthase Upregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Juan C.; Fuentes-Santamaría, Verónica; Gabaldón-Ull, María C.; Jareño-Flores, Tania; Miller, Josef M.; Juiz, José M.

    2016-01-01

    An appropriate conditioning noise exposure may reduce a subsequent noise-induced threshold shift. Although this “toughening” effect helps to protect the auditory system from a subsequent traumatic noise exposure, the mechanisms that regulate this protective process are not fully understood yet. Accordingly, the goal of the present study was to characterize physiological processes associated with “toughening” and to determine their relationship to metabolic changes in the cochlea and cochlear nucleus (CN). Auditory brainstem responses (ABR) were evaluated in Wistar rats before and after exposures to a sound conditioning protocol consisting of a broad-band white noise of 118 dB SPL for 1 h every 72 h, four times. After the last ABR evaluation, animals were perfused and their cochleae and brains removed and processed for the activity markers calretinin (CR) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). Toughening was demonstrated by a progressively faster recovery of the threshold shift, as well as wave amplitudes and latencies over time. Immunostaining revealed an increase in CR and nNOS levels in the spiral ganglion, spiral ligament, and CN in noise-conditioned rats. Overall, these results suggest that the protective mechanisms of the auditory toughening effect initiate in the cochlea and extend to the central auditory system. Such phenomenon might be in part related to an interplay between CR and nitric oxide signaling pathways, and involve an increased cytosolic calcium buffering capacity induced by the noise conditioning protocol. PMID:27065815

  4. Auditory assessment of children with severe hearing loss using behavioural observation audiometry and brainstem evoked response audiometry

    OpenAIRE

    Rakhi Kumari; Priyanko Chakraborty; Jain, R K; Dhananjay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Early detection of hearing loss has been a long-standing priority in the field of audiology. Currently available auditory testing methods include both behavioural and non-behavioural or objective tests of hearing. This study was planned with an objective to assess hearing loss in children using behavioural observation audiometry and brain stem evoked response audiometry. Methods: A total of 105 cases suffering from severe to profound hearing loss were registered. After proper h...

  5. Preparation and Culture of Chicken Auditory Brainstem Slices

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez, Jason T.; Seidl, Armin H.; Rubel, Edwin W.; Barria, Andres

    2011-01-01

    The chicken auditory brainstem is a well-established model system that has been widely used to study the anatomy and physiology of auditory processing at discreet periods of development 1-4 as well as mechanisms for temporal coding in the central nervous system 5-7.

  6. 孤独症患儿听性脑干反应结果分析%Auditory Brainstem Responses in Children with Autism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晶; 刘维荣; 曾祥丽

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨孤独症患儿听性脑干反应(ABR)的特点.方法 对12例孤独症患儿分别进行声导抗、畸变产物耳声发射(DPOAE)、40 Hz相关电位及听性脑干反应(ABR)测试,并对其中3例ABR异常者进行分析.结果 12例双耳均为A型鼓室导抗图,双耳同侧及对侧声反射均可引出,DPOAE均可正常引出,40 Hz相关电位500、1000 Hz阈值均≤25 dB nHL;12例ABR反应阈均正常,其中9例波形分化好,重复性好,各波潜伏期及波间期正常;3例ABR表现异常:1例双耳波Ⅱ以后各波潜伏期延长;1例双耳Ⅰ-Ⅲ波间期延长;1例双耳波Ⅰ潜伏期正常,波Ⅲ后各波潜伏期、波间期缩短.结论 部分孤独症患儿虽中耳及耳蜗功能正常,但其脑干及下丘之间中枢听传导通路可能异常,故对孤独症患者应常规行听功能检测.%Objective To study the characteristics of auditory brainstem responses (ABR) in children with Autism. Methods Acoustic impedance, otoacoustic emission(OAE) > 40 Hz auditory event related potential and auditory brainstem responses were recorded in 12 children with autism. Among of these, 3 cases of ABR were abnormal. Results The Type A tympanograms were found in 12 children. The ipsilateral and contralateral acoustic reflexes and distortion product acoustic emission(DPOAE) were elicited. The thresholds of ABR were normal. The incubation period and wave interphase of all waves was normal. 3 cases of ABR were abnormal. 1 case of incubation periods of all waves were prolonged after wave II. 1 case of I-III wave interphase was prolonged. 1 case of incubation period of wave I was normal, incubation periods and wave interphases of all waves were prolonged after wave III were shorter. Conclusion Although middle ears and cochlea of Autistic children may be normal, the auditory pathway of those children may be abnormal. Therefore, appropriate central auditory processing testing may be needed.

  7. Effect of neonatal asphyxia on the impairment of the auditory pathway by recording auditory brainstem responses in newborn piglets: a new experimentation model to study the perinatal hypoxic-ischemic damage on the auditory system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Jose Alvarez

    Full Text Available Hypoxia-ischemia (HI is a major perinatal problem that results in severe damage to the brain impairing the normal development of the auditory system. The purpose of the present study is to study the effect of perinatal asphyxia on the auditory pathway by recording auditory brain responses in a novel animal experimentation model in newborn piglets.Hypoxia-ischemia was induced to 1.3 day-old piglets by clamping 30 minutes both carotid arteries by vascular occluders and lowering the fraction of inspired oxygen. We compared the Auditory Brain Responses (ABRs of newborn piglets exposed to acute hypoxia/ischemia (n = 6 and a control group with no such exposure (n = 10. ABRs were recorded for both ears before the start of the experiment (baseline, after 30 minutes of HI injury, and every 30 minutes during 6 h after the HI injury.Auditory brain responses were altered during the hypoxic-ischemic insult but recovered 30-60 minutes later. Hypoxia/ischemia seemed to induce auditory functional damage by increasing I-V latencies and decreasing wave I, III and V amplitudes, although differences were not significant.The described experimental model of hypoxia-ischemia in newborn piglets may be useful for studying the effect of perinatal asphyxia on the impairment of the auditory pathway.

  8. Relations between perceptual measures of temporal processing, auditory-evoked brainstem responses and speech intelligibility in noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papakonstantinou, Alexandra; Strelcyk, Olaf; Dau, Torsten

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates behavioural and objective measures of temporal auditory processing and their relation to the ability to understand speech in noise. The experiments were carried out on a homogeneous group of seven hearing-impaired listeners with normal sensitivity at low frequencies (up to...

  9. Brainstem auditory evoked potential abnormalities in type 2 diabetes mellitus

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    Sharat Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus represents a syndrome complex in which multiple organ systems, including the central nervous system, are affected. Aim: The study was conducted to determine the changes in the brainstem auditory evoked potentials in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on 126 diabetic males, aged 35-50 years, and 106 age-matched, healthy male volunteers. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials were recorded and the results were analyzed statistically using student′s unpaired t-test. The data consisted of wave latencies I, II, III, IV, V and interpeak latencies I-III, III-V and I-V, separately for both ears. Results: The latency of wave IV was significantly delayed only in the right ear, while the latency of waves III, V and interpeak latencies III-V, I-V showed a significant delay bilaterally in diabetic males. However, no significant difference was found between diabetic and control subjects as regards to the latency of wave IV unilaterally in the left ear and the latencies of waves I, II and interpeak latency I-III bilaterally. Conclusion: Diabetes patients have an early involvement of central auditory pathway, which can be detected with fair accuracy with auditory evoked potential studies.

  10. Detection of Perinatal Cytomegalovirus Infection and Sensorineural Hearing Loss in Belgian Infants by Measurement of Automated Auditory Brainstem Response▿

    OpenAIRE

    Verbeeck, Jannick; Van Kerschaver, Erwin; Wollants, Elke; Beuselinck, Kurt; Stappaerts, Luc; Van Ranst, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Since auditory disability causes serious problems in the development of speech and in the total development of a child, it is crucial to diagnose possible hearing impairment as soon as possible after birth. This study evaluates the neonatal hearing screening program in Flanders, Belgium. The auditory ability of 118,438 babies was tested using the automated auditory brainstem response. We selected 194 babies with indicative hearing impairment and 332 matched controls to investigate the associa...

  11. Auditory Rehabilitation in Rhesus Macaque Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with Auditory Brainstem Implants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-Min Wang; Zhi-Jun Yang; Fu Zhao; Bo Wang; Xing-Chao Wang; Pei-Ran Qu; Pi-Nan Liu

    2015-01-01

    Background:The auditory brainstem implants (ABIs) have been used to treat deafness for patients with neurofibromatosis Type 2 and nontumor patients.The lack of an appropriate animal model has limited the study of improving hearing rehabilitation by the device.This study aimed to establish an animal model of ABI in adult rhesus macaque monkey (Macaca mulatta).Methods:Six adult rhesus macaque monkeys (M.mulatta) were included.Under general anesthesia,a multichannel ABI was implanted into the lateral recess of the fourth ventricle through the modified suboccipital-retrosigmoid (RS) approach.The electrical auditory brainstem response (EABR) waves were tested to ensure the optimal implant site.After the operation,the EABR and computed tomography (CT) were used to test and verify the effectiveness via electrophysiology and anatomy,respectively.The subjects underwent behavioral observation for 6 months,and the postoperative EABR was tested every two weeks from the 1st month after implant surgery.Result:The implant surgery lasted an average of 5.2 h,and no monkey died or sacrificed.The averaged latencies of peaks Ⅰ,Ⅱ and Ⅳ were 1.27,2.34 and 3.98 ms,respectively in the ABR.One-peak EABR wave was elicited in the operation,and one-or two-peak waves were elicited during the postoperative period.The EABR wave latencies appeared to be constant under different stimulus intensities;however,the amplitudes increased as the stimulus increased within a certain scope.Conclusions:It is feasible and safe to implant ABIs in rhesus macaque monkeys (M.mulatta) through a modified suboccipital RS approach,and EABR and CT are valid tools for animal model establishment.In addition,this model should be an appropriate animal model for the electrophysiological and behavioral study of rhesus macaque monkey with ABI.

  12. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials in children with lead exposure

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    Katia de Freitas Alvarenga

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Earlier studies have demonstrated an auditory effect of lead exposure in children, but information on the effects of low chronic exposures needs to be further elucidated. Objective: To investigate the effect of low chronic exposures of the auditory system in children with a history of low blood lead levels, using an auditory electrophysiological test. Methods: Contemporary cross-sectional cohort. Study participants underwent tympanometry, pure tone and speech audiometry, transient evoked otoacoustic emissions, and brainstem auditory evoked potentials, with blood lead monitoring over a period of 35.5 months. The study included 130 children, with ages ranging from 18 months to 14 years, 5 months (mean age 6 years, 8 months ± 3 years, 2 months. Results: The mean time-integrated cumulative blood lead index was 12 µg/dL (SD ± 5.7, range:2.433. All participants had hearing thresholds equal to or below 20 dBHL and normal amplitudes of transient evoked otoacoustic emissions. No association was found between the absolute latencies of waves I, III, and V, the interpeak latencies I-III, III-V, and I-V, and the cumulative lead values. Conclusion: No evidence of toxic effects from chronic low lead exposures was observed on the auditory function of children living in a lead contaminated area.

  13. BAER - brainstem auditory evoked response

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a sign of hearing loss , multiple sclerosis , acoustic neuroma , or stroke. Abnormal results may also be due ... Butterworth-Heinemann; 2012:chap 32A. Read More Acoustic neuroma Central pontine myelinolysis Hearing loss Multiple sclerosis Stroke ...

  14. Effect of early onset otitis media on brainstem and cortical auditory processing

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    Mannarukrishnaiah Jayaram

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Otitis media (OM leads to significant reduction in the hearing sensitivity. The reduced auditory input, if in the early years of life when the auditory neural system is still maturing, may adversely influence the structural as well as functional development of the system. Past research has reported abnormalities in both the structure and function of brainstem nuclei following auditory deprivation, but, it has not necessarily focused on children who had OM in their first year of life. It can also be said that if auditory processing is affected at the brainstem level because of early onset OM (reduced auditory input in the crucial periods of neural development, then, it may be said that auditory processing is also affected at the cortical level because it receives distorted input from the brainstem. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to document the effects of early onset OM on auditory processing, if any, at the brainstem as well as at cortical levels. A related purpose of the study was to investigate the persistence of the effects of early onset OM, if any, on auditory processing. Methods A cross sectional approach and a standard group comparison design was used in the study. Thirty children, who had OM between 6 and 12 months of age and who were in the age range of 3.1 – 5.6 years participated in the study. Children with OM were divided into 3 groups based on their age. Click evoked auditory brainstem responses (ABRs and late latency responses (LLRs were recorded from these children, and the responses were compared with those from age and gender matched normal children without any history of OM. The data from the 2 groups was statistically analyzed through independent t test. Pearson's Product Moment correlation was computed to examine the relationship between results of ABR and LLR in children with early onset OM. Results The mean central conduction time was significantly increased and the mean amplitude of wave I

  15. Application of auditory brainstem response and pure tone audiometry in early diagnosis of acoustic neuroma%听性脑干反应和纯音听阈在听神经瘤早期诊断中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵赋; 武丽; 王博; 杨智君; 王振民; 王兴朝; 李朋; 张晶; 刘丕楠

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨采用听性脑干反应和纯音听阈对早期诊断听神经瘤的临床应用价值.方法 回顾性分析了111例听神经瘤患者的临床资料、纯音听阈、听性脑干反应及增强磁共振结果,采用线性回归分析纯音听阈均值与肿瘤体积、病程是否存在相关性,采用卡方检验分析不同肿瘤体积在听性脑干反应异常发生率上是否存在差异.结果 听神经瘤引起感音神经性耳聋,纯音听阈均值与病程存在显著地相关性(P=0.000);听性脑干反应诊断听神经瘤的敏感度和特异度分别为98.2%和93.6%,肿瘤最大径>3 cm与≤3 cm两组,在患侧和对侧Ⅲ~Ⅳ波间期异常发生率上,差异均具有统计学意义(P值分别为0.038和0.045).结论 听性脑干反应联合纯音测听是早期诊断听神经瘤的有效方法.%Objective To investigate the clinical application value of using auditory brainstem response and pure tone audiometry for early diagnosis of acoustic neuroma.Methods The clinical data,the results of pure tone audiometry,auditory brainstem response,and enhanced MRI in 111 patients with acoustic neuroma were analyzed retrospectively.Linear regression analysis was used to analyze the correlation between the nean value of pure tone audiometry and the neuroma volune or course of disease.Chi-squared test was used to analyze the whether there were differences in the different neuroma volumes on the incidence of abnormal auditory brainstem response.Results Acoustic neuroma caused sensorineural deafness.There was a significant correlation between the mean value of pure tone audiometry and the course of disease (P =0.000).The sensitivity and specificity of auditory brainstem response for the diagnosis of acoustic neuroma were 98.2% and 93.6% respectively.The maximum diameters of neuromas were divided into 2 groups:> 3 cm or ≤3 cm.There were significant differences on the abnormal incidence of the Ⅲ to Ⅴ wave intervals of the

  16. The role of the auditory brainstem in processing musically-relevant pitch

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    Gavin M. Bidelman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging work has shed light on the cerebral architecture involved in processing the melodic and harmonic aspects of music. Here, recent evidence is reviewed illustrating that subcortical auditory structures contribute to the early formation and processing of musically-relevant pitch. Electrophysiological recordings from the human brainstem and population responses from the auditory nerve reveal that nascent features of tonal music (e.g., consonance/dissonance, pitch salience, harmonic sonority are evident at early, subcortical levels of the auditory pathway. The salience and harmonicity of brainstem activity is strongly correlated with listeners’ perceptual preferences and perceived consonance for the tonal relationships of music. Moreover, the hierarchical ordering of pitch intervals/chords described by the Western music practice and their perceptual consonance is well-predicted by the salience with which pitch combinations are encoded in subcortical auditory structures. While the neural correlates of consonance can be tuned and exaggerated with musical training, they persist even in the absence of musicianship or long-term enculturation. As such, it is posited that the structural foundations of musical pitch might result from innate processing performed by the central auditory system. A neurobiological predisposition for consonant, pleasant sounding pitch relationships may be one reason why these pitch combinations have been favored by composers and listeners for centuries. It is suggested that important perceptual dimensions of music emerge well before the auditory signal reaches cerebral cortex and prior to attentional engagement. While cortical mechanisms are no doubt critical to the perception, production, and enjoyment of music, the contribution of subcortical structures implicates a more integrated, hierarchically organized network underlying music processing within the brain.

  17. Organization of the auditory brainstem in a lizard, Gekko gecko. I. Auditory nerve, cochlear nuclei, and superior olivary nuclei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Y. Z.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Carr, C. E.

    2012-01-01

    We used tract tracing to reveal the connections of the auditory brainstem in the Tokay gecko (Gekko gecko). The auditory nerve has two divisions, a rostroventrally directed projection of mid- to high best-frequency fibers to the nucleus angularis (NA) and a more dorsal and caudal projection of low...

  18. Multi-sensory integration in brainstem and auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basura, Gregory J; Koehler, Seth D; Shore, Susan E

    2012-11-16

    Tinnitus is the perception of sound in the absence of a physical sound stimulus. It is thought to arise from aberrant neural activity within central auditory pathways that may be influenced by multiple brain centers, including the somatosensory system. Auditory-somatosensory (bimodal) integration occurs in the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), where electrical activation of somatosensory regions alters pyramidal cell spike timing and rates of sound stimuli. Moreover, in conditions of tinnitus, bimodal integration in DCN is enhanced, producing greater spontaneous and sound-driven neural activity, which are neural correlates of tinnitus. In primary auditory cortex (A1), a similar auditory-somatosensory integration has been described in the normal system (Lakatos et al., 2007), where sub-threshold multisensory modulation may be a direct reflection of subcortical multisensory responses (Tyll et al., 2011). The present work utilized simultaneous recordings from both DCN and A1 to directly compare bimodal integration across these separate brain stations of the intact auditory pathway. Four-shank, 32-channel electrodes were placed in DCN and A1 to simultaneously record tone-evoked unit activity in the presence and absence of spinal trigeminal nucleus (Sp5) electrical activation. Bimodal stimulation led to long-lasting facilitation or suppression of single and multi-unit responses to subsequent sound in both DCN and A1. Immediate (bimodal response) and long-lasting (bimodal plasticity) effects of Sp5-tone stimulation were facilitation or suppression of tone-evoked firing rates in DCN and A1 at all Sp5-tone pairing intervals (10, 20, and 40 ms), and greater suppression at 20 ms pairing-intervals for single unit responses. Understanding the complex relationships between DCN and A1 bimodal processing in the normal animal provides the basis for studying its disruption in hearing loss and tinnitus models. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Tinnitus Neuroscience

  19. Auditory Brainstem Circuits That Mediate the Middle Ear Muscle Reflex

    OpenAIRE

    Mukerji, Sudeep; Windsor, Alanna Marie; Lee, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    The middle ear muscle (MEM) reflex is one of two major descending systems to the auditory periphery. There are two middle ear muscles (MEMs): the stapedius and the tensor tympani. In man, the stapedius contracts in response to intense low frequency acoustic stimuli, exerting forces perpendicular to the stapes superstructure, increasing middle ear impedance and attenuating the intensity of sound energy reaching the inner ear (cochlea). The tensor tympani is believed to contract in response to ...

  20. The relationship between acceptable noise level and electrophysiologic auditory brainstem and cortical signal to noise ratios

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    Hemanth N. Shetty

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The following objectives of the study were formulated: i to investigate differences in measured signal to noise ratios while recording speech-evoked auditory brainstem response (cABR and cortical late latency response (LLR in low and high acceptable noise level (ANL groups; and ii to compare peak to peak amplitude of cABR (V-A and LLR (N1-P2 in low and high ANL groups. A total of 23 normal hearing participants was included in the study. One shot replicative and partly exploratory research design was utilized to study the effect of signal to noise ratio in a recorded waveform on afferent mechanism, assessed by cABR and LLR on participants having values of ANL of ≤7 (low ANL group and ≥13 (high ANL group. There were no differences in signal to noise ratio in the recorded waveforms of cABR and LLR between low and high ANL groups at both brainstem and cortical levels. However, the peak to peak amplitude of V-A of cABR and N1-P2 of LLR were both statistically larger in the high ANL group compared to their counterpart. The signal to noise ratio in recorded waveforms did not differentiated cABR (V-A or LLR (N1-P2 in low and high ANL groups. However, Larger peak to peak amplitudes in the high ANL group suggests differences higher processing centers in the upper brainstem to the auditory cortex. The findings of the study may be useful in determining the patient acceptability of noise.

  1. Brainstem auditory-evoked potential in Boxer dogs

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    Mariana Isa Poci Palumbo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Brainstem auditory-evoked potential (BAEP has been widely used for different purposes in veterinary practice and is commonly used to identify inherited deafness and presbycusis. In this study, 43 Boxer dogs were evaluated using the BAEP. Deafness was diagnosed in 3 dogs (2 bilateral and 1 unilateral allowing the remaining 40 Boxers to be included for normative data analysis including an evaluation on the influence of age on the BAEP. The animals were divided into 2 groups of 20 Boxers each based on age. The mean age was 4.54 years (range, 1-8 in group I, and 9.83 years (range, 8.5-12 in group II. The mean latency for I, III, and V waves were 1.14 (±0.07, 2.64 (±0.11, and 3.48 (±0.10 ms in group I, and 1.20 (±0.12, 2.73 (±0.15, and 3.58 (±0.22 ms in group II, respectively. The mean inter-peak latencies for the I-III, III-V and I-V intervals were 1.50 (±0.15, 0.84 (±0.15, and 2.34 (±0.11 ms in group I, and 1.53 (±0.16, 0.85 (±0.15, and 2.38 (±0.19 ms in group II, respectively. Latencies of waves I and III were significant different between group I and II. For the I-III, III-V and I-V intervals, no significant differences were observed between the 2 groups. As far as we know, this is the first normative study of BAEP obtained from Boxer dogs.

  2. The representation of conspecific sounds in the auditory brainstem of teleost fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysocki, Lidia Eva; Ladich, Friedrich

    2003-07-01

    Temporal patterns of sounds are thought to be the most important carriers of acoustic information in teleost fishes. In order to investigate how conspecific sounds are processed by the auditory system, auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) elicited by conspecific sounds were recorded in five species of teleosts. In the catfishes Platydoras costatus and Pimelodus pictus, the loach Botia modesta and the labyrinth fish Trichopsis vittata, all of which are hearing specialists, each pulse within the sounds elicited a separate brainwave that closely followed the temporal structure. The ABRs of P. costatus and B. modesta also represent amplitude patterns of conspecific sounds. By contrast, ABRs of the sunfish Lepomis gibbosus, a hearing non-specialist, consisted of long series of waves that could not be attributed to specific sound pulses. A more detailed analysis, however, indicated that each stimulus pulse contributed to the compound ABR waveform. Spectral analysis of low-pitched drumming sounds of P. pictus and corresponding ABRs showed peaks in the ABR spectra at the harmonics of the sound. Our results indicate that, besides temporal patterns, amplitude fluctuations and the frequency content of sounds can be represented in the auditory system and help the fish to extract important information for acoustic communication. PMID:12771172

  3. Diffusion tensor imaging of the inferior colliculus and brainstem auditory-evoked potentials in preterm infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preterm and low-birth-weight infants have an increased risk of sensorineural hearing loss. Brainstem auditory-evoked potentials (BAEP) are an effective method to detect subtle deficits in impulse conduction in the auditory pathway. Abnormalities on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have been shown to be associated with perinatal white-matter injury and reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) has been reported in patients with sensorineural hearing loss. To evaluate the possibility of a correlation between BAEP and DTI of the inferior colliculus in preterm infants. DTI at term age and BAEP measurements were performed on all very-low-birth-weight or very preterm study infants (n=56). FA and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of the inferior colliculus were measured from the DTI. Shorter BAEP wave I, III, and V latencies and I-III and I-V intervals and higher wave V amplitude correlated with higher FA of the inferior colliculus. The association between the DTI findings of the inferior colliculus and BAEP responses suggests that DTI can be used to assess the integrity of the auditory pathway in preterm infants. (orig.)

  4. A rapid form of activity-dependent recovery from short-term synaptic depression in the intensity pathway of the auditory brainstem

    OpenAIRE

    MacLeod, Katrina M.; Horiuchi, Timothy K.

    2011-01-01

    Short-term synaptic plasticity acts as a time- and firing rate-dependent filter that mediates the transmission of information across synapses. In the avian auditory brainstem, specific forms of plasticity are expressed at different terminals of the same auditory nerve fibers and contribute to the divergence of acoustic timing and intensity information. To identify key differences in the plasticity properties, we made patch-clamp recordings from neurons in the cochlear nucleus responsible for ...

  5. Audiometria de tronco encefálico (abr: o uso do mascaramento na avaliação de indivíduos portadores de perda auditiva unilateral Auditory brainstem response (abr: use of masking in unilateral hearing loss patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa M. T. Toma

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A necessidade do mascaramento na avaliação da audição por meio da ABR ainda é um assunto consideravelmente debatido (Durrant & Ferraro, 2001. OBJETIVO: O presente estudo propôs investigar a necessidade do mascaramento contralateral, empregado na orelha normal, ao realizar a ABR em indivíduos portadores de perda auditiva neurossensorial unilateral. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Clínico prospectivo. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: A amostra constituiu-se de 22 indivíduos portadores de perda auditiva neurossensorial unilateral de grau profundo, sendo 10 do sexo feminino e 12 do sexo masculino, com idades variando entre 9 e 44 anos. Todos os indivíduos foram submetidos a: audiometria tonal liminar, logoaudiometria (SRT, IPRF e SDT, medidas de imitância acústica (incluindo a pesquisa dos reflexos acústicos - modo ipsilateral e contralateral e audiometria de tronco encefálico na ausência e na presença do mascaramento. RESULTADOS: Todos os indivíduos apresentaram perda auditiva neurossensorial unilateral de grau profundo e curvas timpanométricas do tipo A bilateralmente. Na avaliação da ABR, 100% da amostra apresentou presença da Onda V na orelha comprometida, sendo que ao introduzir o mascaramento contralateral tais respostas não foram observadas. CONCLUSÕES: O mascaramento é um procedimento necessário para a avaliação da audição por meio da ABR em indivíduos portadores de perdas auditivas unilaterais, visando a obtenção de resultados fidedignos. Na ABR, a atenuação interaural para clicks foi maior (65 dB do que a observada na audiometria tonal liminar, sendo necessário, portanto, uma menor intensidade de mascaramento para eliminar a resposta da via auditiva contralateral.The need of masking in auditory brainstem response (ABR evaluation is still considerably debated issue (Durrant and Ferraro, 2001. AIM: In addition, the present study was to investigate the need of masking in ABR with unilateral hearing loss. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical

  6. Assembly of the auditory circuitry by a Hox genetic network in the mouse brainstem.

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    Maria Di Bonito

    Full Text Available Rhombomeres (r contribute to brainstem auditory nuclei during development. Hox genes are determinants of rhombomere-derived fate and neuronal connectivity. Little is known about the contribution of individual rhombomeres and their associated Hox codes to auditory sensorimotor circuitry. Here, we show that r4 contributes to functionally linked sensory and motor components, including the ventral nucleus of lateral lemniscus, posterior ventral cochlear nuclei (VCN, and motor olivocochlear neurons. Assembly of the r4-derived auditory components is involved in sound perception and depends on regulatory interactions between Hoxb1 and Hoxb2. Indeed, in Hoxb1 and Hoxb2 mutant mice the transmission of low-level auditory stimuli is lost, resulting in hearing impairments. On the other hand, Hoxa2 regulates the Rig1 axon guidance receptor and controls contralateral projections from the anterior VCN to the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body, a circuit involved in sound localization. Thus, individual rhombomeres and their associated Hox codes control the assembly of distinct functionally segregated sub-circuits in the developing auditory brainstem.

  7. Brainstem auditory evoked potential testing in Dalmatian dogs in Brazil

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    M.I.P. Palumbo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The brain stem auditory-evoked potential (BAEP is an electrophysiologic test that detects and records the electrical activity in the auditory system from cochlea to midbrain, generated after an acoustic stimulus applied to the external ear. The aim of this study is to obtain normative data for BAEP in Dalmatian dogs in order to apply this to the evaluation of deafness and other neurologic disorders. BAEP were recorded from 30 Dalmatian dogs for a normative Brazilian study. Mean latencies for waves I, III, and V were 1.14 (±0.09, 2.62 (±0.10, and 3.46 (±0.14 ms, respectively. Mean inter-peak latencies for I-III, III-V, and I-V intervals were 1.48 (±0.17, 0.84 (±0.12, and 2.31 (±0.18 ms, respectively. Unilateral abnormalities were found in 16.7% of animals and bilateral deafness was seen in one dog. The normative data obtained in this paper is compatible with other published data. As far as we know this is the first report of deafness occurrence in Dalmatian dogs in Brazil.

  8. Characteristics of brainstem auditory evoked potentials of students studying folk dance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunxiang Li; Yuzhen Zhu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Previous experiments have demonstrated that brainstem auditory evoked potential is affected by exercise,exercise duration,and frequency. OBJECTIVE:Comparing the brainstem auditory evoked potential of students studying folk dance to students studying other subjects.DESIGN:Observational contrast study. SETTING:Physical Education College,Shandong Normal University PARTICIPANTS:Fifty-five female students were enrolled at Shandong Normal University between September and December in 2005,including 21 students that studied folk dance and 34 students that studied other subjects.The age of the folk dance students averaged(19±1)years and dance training length was(6.0 ±1.5)years.The students that studied other subjects had never taken part in dance training or other physical training,and their age averaged(22±1)years,body height averaged(162±5)cm,body mass averaged(51 ±6)kg.All subjects had no prior ear disease or history of other neurological disorders.All students provided informed consent for the experimental project. METHODS:The neural electricity tester,NDI-200(Shanghai Poseidon Medical Electronic Instrument Factory)was used to examine and record Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potential values of the subjects during silence,as well as to transversally analyze the Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potential values.The electrode positions were cleaned and degreased with soapy water,followed by ethanol.The selected bipolar electrodes were situated on the head:recording electrodes were placed at the Baihui acupoint,and the reference electrode was placed at the mastoid of the measured ear,with grounding electrodes in the center of the forehead.Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potential values were elicited by monaural stimulation of a "click" though an earphone; the other ear was sheltered by the white noise.The click intensity was 102 db,the stimulation frequency was 30 Hz,the bandpass filters were 1 000-3 000 Hz,the sensitivity was 5 μV,and a total of 2 000 sweeps were

  9. EFFICIENT DE-NOISING PERFORMANCE OF A COMBINED ALGORITHM OF “TRANSLATION INVARIANT (TI WAVELETS AND INDEPENDENT COMPONENT ANALYSIS” OVER “TI WAVELETS” FOR SPEECH-AUDITORY BRAINSTEM RESPONSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranganadh Narayanam

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have presented a research for de-noising the EEG collected Brainstem Speech Evoked Potentials data collected in an audiology lab in University of Ottawa, from 10 different human subjects. Here the de-noising techniques we have considered are Yule-Walker Multiband Filter, Cascaded Yule-Walker-Comb Filter, Conventional Wavelet Transform estimation filters: Daubechies, Symlet, Coiflet Wavelet families, Translation Invariant (TI Wavelet Transform estimation filter, FAST Independent Component Analysis (FASTICA De-noising Technique, Combined algorithm of “Translation Invariant (TI Wavelets and Independent Component Analysis” De-noising technique. The performance measures we have considered are Mean Square Error (MSE and Signal-to-Noise-Ratio (SNR values. Out of these techniques we found that cascading of Yule-Walker filter and Comb-Peak filter gave better De-noising performance than Yule-Walker Multiband Filter. Then conventional Wavelets performed far better than the cascaded filter, in those Daubechies family of wavelets worked better than all. Then FASTICA Algorithm worked near to the performance of Conventional Wavelets but far better than cascaded filter. Then we have utilized Translation Invariant (TI wavelet algorithm which provided the excellent performance than above all. Then we have utilized combined Algorithm of “Translation Invariant (TI Wavelets and Independent Component Analysis - CSTIICA” algorithm which found to be, it may perform better than TI wavelets algorithm. Ultimately TI and CSTIICA algorithms are found to be may be the best auditory artifact removal techniques and can be highly useful in auditory EEG data analysis to the best.

  10. The auditory cross-section (AXS) test battery: A new way to study afferent/efferent relations linking body periphery (ear, voice, heart) with brainstem and cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauter, Judith

    2002-05-01

    Several noninvasive methods are available for studying the neural bases of human sensory-motor function, but their cost is prohibitive for many researchers and clinicians. The auditory cross section (AXS) test battery utilizes relatively inexpensive methods, yet yields data that are at least equivalent, if not superior in some applications, to those generated by more expensive technologies. The acronym emphasizes access to axes-the battery makes it possible to assess dynamic physiological relations along all three body-brain axes: rostro-caudal (afferent/efferent), dorso-ventral, and right-left, on an individually-specific basis, extending from cortex to the periphery. For auditory studies, a three-level physiological ear-to-cortex profile is generated, utilizing (1) quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG); (2) the repeated evoked potentials version of the auditory brainstem response (REPs/ABR); and (3) otoacoustic emissions (OAEs). Battery procedures will be explained, and sample data presented illustrating correlated multilevel changes in ear, voice, heart, brainstem, and cortex in response to circadian rhythms, and challenges with substances such as antihistamines and Ritalin. Potential applications for the battery include studies of central auditory processing, reading problems, hyperactivity, neural bases of voice and speech motor control, neurocardiology, individually-specific responses to medications, and the physiological bases of tinnitus, hyperacusis, and related treatments.

  11. 耳鸣掩蔽对耳鸣患者脑干听觉诱发电位波幅的影响%Effect of tinnitus masking on auditory brainstem response wave amplitude in patients with tinnitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘淑芳; 祝威; 闻雨婷

    2006-01-01

    背景:研究发现耳鸣患者常伴有脑干听觉诱发电位波幅大Ⅲ小Ⅴ波的变化,耳鸣掩蔽是耳鸣治疗中的一种方法,在耳鸣掩蔽的治疗过程中耳鸣患者脑干听觉诱发电位将会如何变化?目的:观察耳鸣患者的脑干听觉诱发电位变化特点,以及耳鸣掩蔽后脑干听觉诱发电位变化规律.设计:病例-对照及自身前后对照.单位:吉林大学第一医院耳鼻咽喉-头颈外科.对象:持续性耳鸣组:63例(68耳),为1999-03/2001-10吉林大学第一医院门诊收治;对照组:听力正常的青年人(20~23岁)10例(20耳).所有受试者自愿接受检测及治疗.方法:耳鸣患者首先进行脑干听觉诱发电位检查(采用额部乳突部引导方法记录),然后进行耳鸣检查及耳鸣掩蔽试验(掩蔽5 min),随后立刻做脑干听觉诱发电位检查,并与对照组进行对比观察.主要观察指标:①耳鸣患者脑干听觉诱发电位的特点.②耳鸣掩蔽后对脑干听觉诱发电位波幅的影响,分为后效抑制试验阳性和阴性2组进行分析.结果:83例全部进入结果分析.①听力正常青年人的脑干听觉诱发电位波幅为小Ⅲ波大Ⅴ波,而63例(68耳)中有22耳(312%)脑干听觉诱发电位为大Ⅲ波小Ⅴ波,其中17耳后效抑制试验阳性,5耳阴性.②后效抑制试验阳性17耳经耳鸣掩蔽治疗后10耳由大Ⅲ波小Ⅴ波转为小Ⅲ波大Ⅴ波,3耳Ⅲ波幅度减小;阴性5耳经耳鸣掩蔽治疗后有2耳转为小Ⅲ波大Ⅴ波,其余3耳无改变.结论:耳鸣掩蔽能使耳鸣患者异常的脑干听觉诱发电位波幅恢复至正常,此结果有望作为后效抑制阳性判定的客观指标.%BACKGROUND: Research shows that the auditory brainstem response (ABR) wave amplitude of tinnitus patients often act as big Ⅲ small Ⅴ.Tinnitus masking is a therapy of tinnitus, then how dose the ABR change in the process of tinnitus masking?OBJECTIVE: To observe the changing characteristics of ABR in patients

  12. Cross-Domain Effects of Music and Language Experience on the Representation of Pitch in the Human Auditory Brainstem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidelman, Gavin M.; Gandour, Jackson T.; Krishnan, Ananthanarayan

    2011-01-01

    Neural encoding of pitch in the auditory brainstem is known to be shaped by long-term experience with language or music, implying that early sensory processing is subject to experience-dependent neural plasticity. In language, pitch patterns consist of sequences of continuous, curvilinear contours; in music, pitch patterns consist of relatively…

  13. Three-channel Lissajous' trajectories of auditory brainstem evoked potentials: contribution of fast and slow components to planar segment formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, H; Bleich, N; Feingold, K

    1990-01-01

    Three-Channel Lissajous' Trajectories (3CLT) of Auditory Brainstem Evoked Potentials (ABEP) to clicks were obtained after finite impulse response filtering in three frequency bands. These bands were chosen to replicate the widely used passband (100-3000 Hz) and to selectively enhance the definition of the 'pedestal' (10-240 Hz) or the first, third and fifth components (240-483 Hz). Quantitative measures of 3CLT were calculated to describe apex latencies, planar segment orientations, durations, trajectory amplitude peaks and their latencies. In addition, dipole moments at the latencies of apical points along 3-CLT were calculated. The planarity of ABEP 3-CLT segments persisted after selective enhancement of the 'pedestal' or the first, third and fifth components. These results rule out the suggestion that planarity of ABEP segments results from the interaction of the 'pedestal' with the superimposed faster components. These results demonstrate summation of 3-CLT planar segments ('a' 'c' and 'e' with the 'pedestal') to form new segments (wide-band 'a', 'c' and 'e'). With the exception of 'c', planar segments and the equivalent dipole moments associated with apexes did not change orientations across passbands. The effects of passband on the orientation of planar segment 'c' and the dipole moment of its apex are explained by its superimposition on the 'pedestal' in the wide-band records. A similar analysis of ABEP to clicks as compared to low-frequency stimuli (high-pass masked clicks) revealed no change in planarity nor in plane parameters. These results are compatible with the suggestion that the generators of the first, third and fifth ABEP components are curved fiber tracts. The planarity of the slow 'pedestal' may be due to the summation of slow synaptic potentials in auditory brainstem nuclei. These findings indicate that the generators of ABEP are composites that may be separated by selective lesion studies. PMID:2312411

  14. 40 Hz auditory steady state response to linguistic features of stimuli during auditory hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Jun; Yan, Zheng; Gao, Xiao-rong

    2013-10-01

    The auditory steady state response (ASSR) may reflect activity from different regions of the brain, depending on the modulation frequency used. In general, responses induced by low rates (≤40 Hz) emanate mostly from central structures of the brain, and responses from high rates (≥80 Hz) emanate mostly from the peripheral auditory nerve or brainstem structures. Besides, it was reported that the gamma band ASSR (30-90 Hz) played an important role in working memory, speech understanding and recognition. This paper investigated the 40 Hz ASSR evoked by modulated speech and reversed speech. The speech was Chinese phrase voice, and the noise-like reversed speech was obtained by temporally reversing the speech. Both auditory stimuli were modulated with a frequency of 40 Hz. Ten healthy subjects and 5 patients with hallucination symptom participated in the experiment. Results showed reduction in left auditory cortex response when healthy subjects listened to the reversed speech compared with the speech. In contrast, when the patients who experienced auditory hallucinations listened to the reversed speech, the auditory cortex of left hemispheric responded more actively. The ASSR results were consistent with the behavior results of patients. Therefore, the gamma band ASSR is expected to be helpful for rapid and objective diagnosis of hallucination in clinic. PMID:24142731

  15. Study of the correlation of brainstem auditory evoked potentials and magnetic resonance imaging in children with spastic cerebral palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fobe, Lisete Pessoa de Oliveira [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina]. E-mail: lispessoa@yahoo.com

    1999-12-01

    Central auditory evaluation in 21 children with cerebral palsy was done with brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) and correlated with brain magnetic resonance imaging findings (MRI); 12 boys and 9 girls between 5 and 12 years old were studied. All children had follow-up at the Institute of Orthopedics and Traumatology of Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo. The control group was done with 17 children, 10 boys and 7 girls (mean age 8.06 years, SD 2.27 years). The BAEP abnormalities were: decrease of latency of wave V; decrease of latency III-V and I-IV intervals at the right side. All patients has MRI supratentorial abnormalities and 11 had brainstem atrophy. The MRI pathologic findings were: ventricular enlargement (n=17 or 80.95%), cortical/subcortical atrophy (n=15 or 71.42%), left brainstem atrophy (n=11 or 52.38%), periventricular leukomalacia (n=10 or 47.61%), infarction in the left middle cerebral artery territory (n=6 or 28.57%), and malformations such as schizencephaly and colpocephaly (n=5 or 23.80%). The findings of the decrease latencies in children with cerebral palsy suggest the contribution of decussating auditory fibers at the lower and upper pons and midbrain, the lack of homogeneity of the surrounding volume of the conductor fibres and the presence of several concurrently active potential generators sources, should be facilitating mechanisms for the nervous input to brainstem. (author)

  16. Study of the correlation of brainstem auditory evoked potentials and magnetic resonance imaging in children with spastic cerebral palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Central auditory evaluation in 21 children with cerebral palsy was done with brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) and correlated with brain magnetic resonance imaging findings (MRI); 12 boys and 9 girls between 5 and 12 years old were studied. All children had follow-up at the Institute of Orthopedics and Traumatology of Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo. The control group was done with 17 children, 10 boys and 7 girls (mean age 8.06 years, SD 2.27 years). The BAEP abnormalities were: decrease of latency of wave V; decrease of latency III-V and I-IV intervals at the right side. All patients has MRI supratentorial abnormalities and 11 had brainstem atrophy. The MRI pathologic findings were: ventricular enlargement (n=17 or 80.95%), cortical/subcortical atrophy (n=15 or 71.42%), left brainstem atrophy (n=11 or 52.38%), periventricular leukomalacia (n=10 or 47.61%), infarction in the left middle cerebral artery territory (n=6 or 28.57%), and malformations such as schizencephaly and colpocephaly (n=5 or 23.80%). The findings of the decrease latencies in children with cerebral palsy suggest the contribution of decussating auditory fibers at the lower and upper pons and midbrain, the lack of homogeneity of the surrounding volume of the conductor fibres and the presence of several concurrently active potential generators sources, should be facilitating mechanisms for the nervous input to brainstem. (author)

  17. Correlation between auditory brainstem recordings and morphology as seen through the scanning electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hultcrantz, M.

    1988-09-01

    Pregnant CBA/CBA mice were exposed to 0.5, 1 and 2 Grey (Gy), (1 Gy = 100 rad) in single doses with whole body gamma-irradiation on the 12th, 13th and 16th gestational days, respectively. The animals were tested at an age of one month for vestibular and cochlear function. Thereafter the inner ears were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy. A morphological analysis with cytocochleograms was performed. Morphological changes in the vestibular part showed gross malformations in the cristae ampullares. Hair cells of type I seemed to be more severely changed than hair cells type II. The macula utriculi also showed malformations of the otoconia. All these changes were more pronounced when the irradiation was given early during pregnancy and with the highest doses used, except the otoconia which were more injured when irradiated day 16 of gestation. No disturbances of the equilibrium reflexes were noted. In the cochlea a dose-dependent, time-related damage pattern was demonstrated with pathological changes of outer (OHC) and inner (IHC) hair cells. When tested electrophysiologically for auditory function with auditory brainstem recordings (ABR), elevated thresholds were revealed different in shape depending on when during pregnancy irradiation took place. A good correlation existed between the morphological changes as seen in the cytocochleograms and the functional changes documented with the ABR.

  18. Correlation between auditory brainstem recordings and morphology as seen through the scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pregnant CBA/CBA mice were exposed to 0.5, 1 and 2 Grey (Gy), (1 Gy = 100 rad) in single doses with whole body gamma-irradiation on the 12th, 13th and 16th gestational days, respectively. The animals were tested at an age of one month for vestibular and cochlear function. Thereafter the inner ears were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy. A morphological analysis with cytocochleograms was performed. Morphological changes in the vestibular part showed gross malformations in the cristae ampullares. Hair cells of type I seemed to be more severely changed than hair cells type II. The macula utriculi also showed malformations of the otoconia. All these changes were more pronounced when the irradiation was given early during pregnancy and with the highest doses used, except the otoconia which were more injured when irradiated day 16 of gestation. No disturbances of the equilibrium reflexes were noted. In the cochlea a dose-dependent, time-related damage pattern was demonstrated with pathological changes of outer (OHC) and inner (IHC) hair cells. When tested electrophysiologically for auditory function with auditory brainstem recordings (ABR), elevated thresholds were revealed different in shape depending on when during pregnancy irradiation took place. A good correlation existed between the morphological changes as seen in the cytocochleograms and the functional changes documented with the ABR

  19. Graded and discontinuous EphA-ephrinB expression patterns in the developing auditory brainstem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Matthew M; Harris, J Aaron; Brubaker, Donald Q; Klotz, Caitlyn A; Gabriele, Mark L

    2016-05-01

    Eph-ephrin interactions guide topographic mapping and pattern formation in a variety of systems. In contrast to other sensory pathways, their precise role in the assembly of central auditory circuits remains poorly understood. The auditory midbrain, or inferior colliculus (IC) is an intriguing structure for exploring guidance of patterned projections as adjacent subdivisions exhibit distinct organizational features. The central nucleus of the IC (CNIC) and deep aspects of its neighboring lateral cortex (LCIC, Layer 3) are tonotopically-organized and receive layered inputs from primarily downstream auditory sources. While less is known about more superficial aspects of the LCIC, its inputs are multimodal, lack a clear tonotopic order, and appear discontinuous, terminating in modular, patch/matrix-like distributions. Here we utilize X-Gal staining approaches in lacZ mutant mice (ephrin-B2, -B3, and EphA4) to reveal EphA-ephrinB expression patterns in the nascent IC during the period of projection shaping that precedes hearing onset. We also report early postnatal protein expression in the cochlear nuclei, the superior olivary complex, the nuclei of the lateral lemniscus, and relevant midline structures. Continuous ephrin-B2 and EphA4 expression gradients exist along frequency axes of the CNIC and LCIC Layer 3. In contrast, more superficial LCIC localization is not graded, but confined to a series of discrete ephrin-B2 and EphA4-positive Layer 2 modules. While heavily expressed in the midline, much of the auditory brainstem is devoid of ephrin-B3, including the CNIC, LCIC Layer 2 modular fields, the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL), as well as much of the superior olivary complex and cochlear nuclei. Ephrin-B3 LCIC expression appears complementary to that of ephrin-B2 and EphA4, with protein most concentrated in presumptive extramodular zones. Described tonotopic gradients and seemingly complementary modular/extramodular patterns suggest Eph

  20. EFFICIENT DE-NOISING PERFORMANCE OF A COMBINED ALGORITHM OF “TRANSLATION INVARIANT (TI) WAVELETS AND INDEPENDENT COMPONENT ANALYSIS” OVER “TI WAVELETS” FOR SPEECH-AUDITORY BRAINSTEM RESPONSES

    OpenAIRE

    Ranganadh Narayanam*

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we have presented a research for de-noising the EEG collected Brainstem Speech Evoked Potentials data collected in an audiology lab in University of Ottawa, from 10 different human subjects. Here the de-noising techniques we have considered are Yule-Walker Multiband Filter, Cascaded Yule-Walker-Comb Filter, Conventional Wavelet Transform estimation filters: Daubechies, Symlet, Coiflet Wavelet families, Translation Invariant (TI) Wavelet Transform estimation filter, F...

  1. Electroencephalogram and brainstem auditory evoked potential in 539 patients with central coordination disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huijia Zhang; Hua Yan; Paoqiu Wang; Jihong Hu; Hongtao Zhou; Rong Qin

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Electroencephalogram (EEG) and brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) are objective non-invasive means of measuring brain electrophysiology.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the value of EEG and BAEP in early diagnosis, treatment and prognostic evaluation of central coordination disorder.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: This case analysis study was performed at the Rehabilitation Center of Hunan Children's Hospital from January 2002 to January 2006.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 593 patients with severe central coordination disorder, comprising 455 boys and 138 girls, aged 1--6 months were enrolled for this study.METHODS: EEG was monitored using electroencephalography. BAEP was recorded using a Keypoint electromyogram device. Intelligence was tested by professionals using the Gesell scale.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: (1) The rate of abnormal EEG and BAEP, (2) correlation of abnormalities of EEG and BAEP with associated injuries, (3) correlation of abnormalities of EEG and BAEP with high risk factors.RESULTS: The rate of abnormal EEG was 68.6% (407/593 patients), and was increased in patients who also had mental retardation (P < 0.05). The rate of abnormal BAEP was 21.4% (127/593 patients). These 127 patients included 67 patients (52.8%) with peripheral auditory damage and 60 patients (47.2%) with central and mixed auditory damage. The rate of abnormal BAEP was significantly increased in patients who also had mental retardation (P < 0.01). Logistic regression analysis showed that asphyxia (P < 0.05), jaundice,preterm delivery, low birth weight and the umbilical cord around the neck were closely correlated with abnormal EEG in patients with central coordination disorder. Intracranial hemorrhage, jaundice (P < 0.05),low birth weight and intrauterine infection (P < 0.05) were closely correlated with abnormal BAEP in patients with central coordination disorder.CONCLUSION: Central coordination disorder is often associated with abnormal EEG and BAEP. The rate of EEG or BAEP abnormality

  2. Brainstem evoked potentials in panic disorder.

    OpenAIRE

    Knott, V J; Bakish, D; Barkley, J.

    1994-01-01

    Patient reports and laboratory tests support the notion that panic attacks are generated by stimulation of brainstem nuclei. Scalp-recorded brainstem auditory evoked potentials may serve as a unique measurement strategy for the noninvasive assessment of the role of brainstem functioning in panic disorder. Ipsilateral and contralateral BSAEP recordings were examined in response to separate left and right ear click stimulation in 28 patients with a diagnosis of panic disorder and in 18 normal c...

  3. The effect of lead on brainstem auditory evoked potentials in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹朝春; 赵正言; 唐兰芳; 陈志敏; 杜立中

    2003-01-01

    Objective To determine whether lead affects brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) in low-to-moderate lead exposed children. Methods BAEPs were recorded from 114 asymptomatic children aged 1-6 years. Average values were calculated for peak latency (PL) and amplitude (Amp). Whole blood lead (PbB) levels were assessed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy. Based on their PbB levels, subjects were divided into low lead (PbB<100 μg/L) and high lead subgroups (PbB ≥100 μg/L). Results The PbB levels of the 114 subjects ranged from 32.0 to 380.0 μg/L in a positively skewed distribution. The median of PbB levels was 90.0 μg/L while the arithmetic average was 88.0 μg/L. Of the subjects, 43.0% (49/114) had levels equal to or greater than 100 μg/L. Bilateral PLs Ⅰ, Ⅴ, and Ⅲ of the left ear in the high lead subgroup were significantly longer than those in the low lead subgroup (P<0.05). A positive correlation was found between PbB levels and bilateral PLs Ⅰ, Ⅴ and Ⅲ of the left ear (P<0.05), after controlling for age and gender as confounding factors. A significant and positive correlation between PbB levels and PL Ⅰ of the left ear, even when PbB levels were lower than 100 μg/L, in the low subgroup (r=0.295, P=0.019) was also found.Conclusions Lead poisoning in children younger than 6 years old is a very serious problem to which close attention should be paid. The indications that lead prolongs partial PLs may imply that lead, even at PbB levels lower than 100 μg/L, impairs both the peripheral and the central portions of the auditory system. BAEPs may be a sensitive detector of subclinical lead exposure effects on the nervous system in children.

  4. Psychophysiological responses to auditory change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuen, Lorraine; Sears, David; McAdams, Stephen

    2016-06-01

    A comprehensive characterization of autonomic and somatic responding within the auditory domain is currently lacking. We studied whether simple types of auditory change that occur frequently during music listening could elicit measurable changes in heart rate, skin conductance, respiration rate, and facial motor activity. Participants heard a rhythmically isochronous sequence consisting of a repeated standard tone, followed by a repeated target tone that changed in pitch, timbre, duration, intensity, or tempo, or that deviated momentarily from rhythmic isochrony. Changes in all parameters produced increases in heart rate. Skin conductance response magnitude was affected by changes in timbre, intensity, and tempo. Respiratory rate was sensitive to deviations from isochrony. Our findings suggest that music researchers interpreting physiological responses as emotional indices should consider acoustic factors that may influence physiology in the absence of induced emotions. PMID:26927928

  5. Characteristics of brainstem auditory evoked potential of neonates with mild or moderate hyperbilirubinemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) has been widely used to evaluate the functional integrity and development of injured auditory system and brain, especially to objectively evaluate the function of auditory system and brain stem of very young babies, such as neonates and sick babies.OBJECTIVE: To observe the changes of BAEP of neonates with hyperbilirubinemia, and to investigate the relationship of bilirubin concentration and BAEP.DESIGN: An observation experiment.SETTING: Department of Pediatrics, the 309 Clinical Division, General Hospital of Chinese PLA.PARTICIPANTS: Fifty-eight neonates with mild or moderate hyperbilirubinemia exhibiting jaundice within 24 hours after born, who received the treatment in the Department of Pediatrics, the 309 Clinical Division, General Hospital of Chinese PLA between January 2004 and May 2007, were recruited in this study. The involved neonates, 31 boys and 27 girls, had gestational age of 37 to 46 weeks. They had no history of birth asphyxia, and were scored 8 to 10 points when born. Written informed consents of examination and treatment were obtained from the guardians of the neonates. This study was approved by the Hospital Ethics Committee. According to serum total bilirubin value, the neonates were assigned into 3 groups: low-concentration bilirubin group (n =16), moderate-concentration bilirubin group (n =27) and high-concentration bilirubin group (n =15). According to mean daily bilirubin increase, the subjects were sub-assigned into bilirubin rapid increase group (n =39) and bilirubin slow increase group (n =19).METHODS: After admission, all the neonates received drug treatment. Meanwhile, their 116 ears were examined with a myoelectricity evoked potential equipment (KEYPOINT) in latency, wave duration,amplitude and wave shape differentiation of each wave of BAEP. BAEP abnormal type was observed and abnormal rate of BAEP was calculated.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ① Abnormal rate and abnormal type of BAEP

  6. Brainstem evoked potentials in infantile spasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In ten patients with infantile spasms, brainstem evoked potentials and MRI examinations were performed to evaluate the brainstem involvement. The result of short latency somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) following the right median nerve stimulation revealed abnormal findings including the absence or low amplitudes of the waves below wave P3 and delayed central conduction time in 7 of the ten patients. The result of auditory brainstem responses (ABR) revealed abnormal findings including low amplitudes of wave V, prolonged interpeak latency of waves I-V and absence of the waves below wave IV in 5 of the ten patients. The result of the MRI examinations revealed various degrees of the brainstem atrophy in 6 of the ten patients, all of whom showed abnormal brainstem evoked potentials. The result of this study demonstrates that patients with infantile spasms are frequently associated with brainstem dysfunction and raises the possibility that brainstem atrophy might be a cause of infantile spasms. (author)

  7. Neuronal differentiation and extensive migration of human neural precursor cells following co-culture with rat auditory brainstem slices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Novozhilova

    Full Text Available Congenital or acquired hearing loss is often associated with a progressive degeneration of the auditory nerve (AN in the inner ear. The AN is composed of processes and axons of the bipolar spiral ganglion neurons (SGN, forming the connection between the hair cells in the inner ear cochlea and the cochlear nuclei (CN in the brainstem (BS. Therefore, replacement of SGNs for restoring the AN to improve hearing function in patients who receive a cochlear implantation or have severe AN malfunctions is an attractive idea. A human neural precursor cell (HNPC is an appropriate donor cell to investigate, as it can be isolated and expanded in vitro with maintained potential to form neurons and glia. We recently developed a post-natal rodent in vitro auditory BS slice culture model including the CN and the central part of the AN for initial studies of candidate cells. Here we characterized the survival, distribution, phenotypic differentiation, and integration capacity of HNPCs into the auditory circuitry in vitro. HNPC aggregates (spheres were deposited adjacent to or on top of the BS slices or as a monoculture (control. The results demonstrate that co-cultured HNPCs compared to monocultures (1 survive better, (2 distribute over a larger area, (3 to a larger extent and in a shorter time-frame form mature neuronal and glial phenotypes. HNPC showed the ability to extend neurites into host tissue. Our findings suggest that the HNPC-BS slice co-culture is appropriate for further investigations on the integration capacity of HNPCs into the auditory circuitry.

  8. Auditory brain-stem evoked potentials in cat after kainic acid induced neuronal loss. I. Superior olivary complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaaroor, M; Starr, A

    1991-01-01

    Auditory brain-stem potentials (ABRs) were studied in cats for up to 45 days after kainic acid had been injected unilaterally or bilaterally into the superior olivary complex (SOC) to produce neuronal destruction while sparing fibers of passage and the terminals of axons of extrinsic origin connecting to SOC neurons. The components of the ABR in cat were labeled by their polarity at the vertex (P, for positive) and their order of appearance (the arabic numerals 1, 2, etc.). Component P1 can be further subdivided into 2 subcomponents labeled P1a and P1b. The correspondences we have assumed between the ABR components in cat and man are indicated by providing a Roman numeral designation for the human component in parentheses following the feline notation, e.g., P4 (V). With bilateral SOC destruction, there was a significant and marked attenuation of waves P2 (III), P3 (IV), P4 (V), P5 (VI), and the sustained potential shift (SPS) amounting to as much as 80% of preoperative values. Following unilateral SOC destruction the attenuation of many of these same ABR components, in response to stimulation of either ear, was up to 50%. No component of the ABR was totally abolished even when the SOC was lesioned 100% bilaterally. In unilaterally lesioned cats with extensive neuronal loss (greater than 75%) the latencies of the components beginning at P3 (IV) were delayed to stimulation of the ear ipsilateral to the injection site but not to stimulation of the ear contralateral to the injection. Binaural interaction components of the ABR were affected in proportion to the attenuation of the ABR. These results are compatible with multiple brain regions contributing to the generation of the components of the ABR beginning with P2 (III) and that components P3 (IV), P4 (V), and P5 (VI) and the sustained potential shift depend particularly on the integrity of the neurons of the SOC bilaterally. The neurons of the lateral subdivision (LSO) and the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body

  9. Corticofugal modulation of peripheral auditory responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Hinckley Delano

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The auditory efferent system originates in the auditory cortex and projects to the medial geniculate body, inferior colliculus, cochlear nucleus and superior olivary complex reaching the cochlea through olivocochlear fibers. This unique neuronal network is organized in several afferent-efferent feedback loops including: the (i colliculo-thalamic-cortico-collicular, (ii cortico-(collicular-olivocochlear and (iii cortico-(collicular-cochlear nucleus pathways. Recent experiments demonstrate that blocking ongoing auditory-cortex activity with pharmacological and physical methods modulates the amplitude of cochlear potentials. In addition, auditory-cortex microstimulation independently modulates cochlear sensitivity and the strength of the olivocochlear reflex. In this mini-review, anatomical and physiological evidence supporting the presence of a functional efferent network from the auditory cortex to the cochlear receptor is presented. Special emphasis is given to the corticofugal effects on initial auditory processing, that is, on cochlear nucleus, auditory nerve and cochlear responses. A working model of three parallel pathways from the auditory cortex to the cochlea and auditory nerve is proposed.

  10. Corticofugal modulation of peripheral auditory responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terreros, Gonzalo; Delano, Paul H

    2015-01-01

    The auditory efferent system originates in the auditory cortex and projects to the medial geniculate body (MGB), inferior colliculus (IC), cochlear nucleus (CN) and superior olivary complex (SOC) reaching the cochlea through olivocochlear (OC) fibers. This unique neuronal network is organized in several afferent-efferent feedback loops including: the (i) colliculo-thalamic-cortico-collicular; (ii) cortico-(collicular)-OC; and (iii) cortico-(collicular)-CN pathways. Recent experiments demonstrate that blocking ongoing auditory-cortex activity with pharmacological and physical methods modulates the amplitude of cochlear potentials. In addition, auditory-cortex microstimulation independently modulates cochlear sensitivity and the strength of the OC reflex. In this mini-review, anatomical and physiological evidence supporting the presence of a functional efferent network from the auditory cortex to the cochlear receptor is presented. Special emphasis is given to the corticofugal effects on initial auditory processing, that is, on CN, auditory nerve and cochlear responses. A working model of three parallel pathways from the auditory cortex to the cochlea and auditory nerve is proposed. PMID:26483647

  11. Changes in neuronal activity and gene expression in guinea-pig auditory brainstem after unilateral partial hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, S; Mulders, W H A M; Rodger, J; Robertson, D

    2009-03-31

    Spontaneous neural hyperactivity in the central auditory pathway is often associated with deafness, the most common form of which is partial hearing loss. We quantified both peripheral hearing loss and spontaneous activity in single neurons of the contralateral inferior colliculus in a guinea-pig model 1 week after a unilateral partial deafness induced by cochlear mechanical lesion. We also measured mRNA levels of candidate genes in the same animals using quantitative real-time PCR. Spontaneous hyperactivity was most marked in the frequency region of the peripheral hearing loss. Expression of glutamate decarboxylase 1 (GAD1), GABA-A receptor subunit alpha-1 (GABRA1), and potassium channel subfamily K member 15 (KCNK15) was decreased ipsilaterally in the cochlear nucleus and bilaterally in the inferior colliculus. A member of RAB family of small GTPase (RAB3A) was decreased in both ipsilateral cochlear nucleus and contralateral inferior colliculus. RAB3 GTPase activating protein subunit 1 (RAB3GAP1) and glycine receptor subunit alpha-1 (GLRA1) were reduced ipsilaterally in the cochlear nucleus only. These results suggest that a decrease in inhibitory neurotransmission and an increase in membrane excitability may contribute to elevated neuronal spontaneous activity in the auditory brainstem following unilateral partial hearing loss. PMID:19356697

  12. A role for inhibition in deafness-induced plasticity of the avian auditory brainstem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Briana J; Hyson, Richard L

    2016-07-01

    To better understand the effects of deafness on the brain, these experiments examine how disrupted balance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission following the loss of excitatory input from the auditory nerve alters the central auditory system. In the avian cochlear nucleus, nucleus magnocellularis (NM), deprivation of excitatory input induced by deafness triggers neuronal death. While this neuronal death was previously accredited to the loss of excitatory drive, the present experiments examine an alternative hypothesis: that inhibitory input to NM, which may also be affected by deafness, contributes to neuronal death in NM. Using an in vitro slice preparation in which excitatory input from the auditory nerve is absent, we pharmacologically altered GABA receptor activation in NM, and assayed an early marker of neuronal health, antigenicity for the ribosomal antibody Y10B (Y10B-ir). We found that GABA decreases Y10B-ir, and that GABAA activation is necessary for the GABA-induced effect. We further found that endogenous GABAA activation similarly decreases Y10B-ir and this decrease requires extracellular Ca(2+). Our results suggest that, in the absence of excitatory input, endogenous activation of ionotropic GABAA receptors is detrimental to NM neurons. PMID:27095711

  13. Valores de latencia y respuestas electrofisiológicas de los diferentes componentes de los potenciales evocados auditivos del tallo cerebral en mono rhesus a diferentes intensidades (70-30 dB Latency values and electrophysiological responses of the different components of the brainstem auditory evoked potentials in rhesus monkeys at different intensities (70-30 dB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ibáñez-Contreras

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El registro de los Potenciales Evocados Auditivos de Tallo Cerebral (PEATC es sensible a las diferencias en los parámetros de estimulación, condiciones del registro y características de la especie utilizada, por lo que es imprescindible poseer valores de normalidad para cada laboratorio. El objetivo de este estudio fue obtener datos normativos acerca de los valores de latencia y de las respuestas electrofisiológicas de los diferentes componentes de los PEATC en el mono rhesus, en diferentes intensidades (70-30 dB. Se utilizaron 14 monos rhesus (Macaca mulatta con una edad promedio de siete años, divididos en siete machos con un peso promedio de 7 kg y siete hembras con un peso aproximado de 5 kg. Los PEATC se obtuvieron mediante la estimulación de los oídos con "clicks" de rarefacción a 70, 50 y 30 dB de intensidad. La actividad eléctrica cerebral fue recogida por medio de electrodos de disco, colocados en las derivaciones Cz (+, A1, A2 (- y Fz como tierra, según el sistema 10/20 internacional. Se observaron cuatro ondas constantes y definidas en las diferentes intensidades utilizadas, tanto en machos como en hembras. Debido a que no se encontraron diferencias significativas en t de Student por aferencias separadas, se unificaron las aferencias, evaluando las latencias absolutas de las cuatro ondas obtenidas, así como los intervalos I-II, II-IV y I-IV en los 14 sujetos, en las diferentes intensidades.The records of the Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials (BAEPs are sensitive to differences in stimulation parameters, conditions of registration and characteristics of the species, so it is essential to have normal values for each laboratory. The aim of our study was to obtain normative data on the latency values and electrophysiological responses of the different components of the BAEPs in the rhesus monkey, at different intensities (70-30 dB. This study was performed using 14 non-human primates of the Macaca mulatta species, with an

  14. 正常听力耳鸣患者听尼特TM检测及高刺激率听觉脑干反应结果及分析%Tinni TestTM and high stimulus rate auditory brainstem response in patients with normal hearing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹效平; 王天生; 顾东胜; 黄爱萍

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical characteristics of tinnitus and the relationship between inner ear micro-circulation and tinnitus by examining tinnitus pitch-matching, loudnessin-matching, Feldmann masking curves and high stimulus rat ABR in tinnitus patients with normal hearing. Methods 162 patients with normal hearing and 140 tinnitus patients were enrolled. Tinnitus measurements consisted of pitch-matching, loudnessin-matching, Feldmann masking curves, and high stimulus rat auditory brainstem response (ABR). Results The tinnitus pitch-matched frequencies of tinnitus patients with normal hearing ranged from 125 Hz to 8 000 Hz, in which 57. 3% of them located between 3 000 Hz ~ 8 000 Hz. The tinnitus loudness-matched frequencies ranged form 0 dB to 2 0 dB, in which 45. 6% of them were 5 ~ 10 dB. There was no difference in I ~ V interval between the tinnitus ears and normal ears. Conclusion The clinical characterisitics of 162 tinnitus patients with normal hearing were identified in order to facilitate the further management. The relationship between the inner ear micro-circulation and tinnitus could not be attributed to the tinnitus in patients with normal hearing.%目的 观察正常听力耳鸣患者的耳鸣音调、响度、掩蔽曲线及高刺激率听觉脑干反应(ABR)检测结果,探讨耳呜的临床特征及发病机制.方法 选取162例正常听力耳鸣患者,对其进行耳鸣音调、响度匹配,同时选取其中140例单侧耳鸣患者,对140患耳与对侧140健耳,分别进行高、低刺激率ABR检测,比较不同刺激率下PL差值(△PL)、IPL差值(△IPL).结果 听力正常耳鸣的耳鸣音调分布从125~8000 Hz,以4000 ~8000 Hz高频为主;耳鸣响度从0~20 dB,5~ 10 dB最多;佛德曼曲线以汇聚型为主;患耳与健侧耳高、低刺激率ABRⅠ~Ⅴ△IPL差值>0.28 ms的耳数分别为16耳及12耳,差值无显著意义(P>0.05).结论 总结162例听力正常耳鸣患者的临床特征,为进一步的

  15. Dopamine in the Auditory Brainstem and Midbrain: Co-localization with Amino Acid Neurotransmitters and Gene Expression following Cochlear Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avril Genene eHolt

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine (DA modulates the effects of amino acid neurotransmitters, including GABA and glutamate, in motor, visual, olfactory and reward systems (Hnasko et al., 2010; Stuber et al., 2010; Hnasko and Edwards, 2012. The results suggest that DA may play a similar modulatory role in the auditory pathways. Previous studies have shown that deafness results in decreased GABA release, changes in excitatory neurotransmitter levels, and increased spontaneous neuronal activity within brainstem regions related to auditory function. Modulation of the expression and localization of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH; the rate limiting enzyme in the production of DA in the IC following cochlear trauma has been previously reported (Tong et al., 2005. In the current study the possibility of co-localization of TH with amino acid neurotransmitters (AANs was examined. Changes in the gene expression of TH were compared with changes in the gene expression of markers for AANs in the cochlear nucleus (CN and IC to determine whether those deafness related changes occur concurrently. The results indicate that bilateral cochlear ablation significantly reduced TH gene expression in the CN after two months while in the IC the reduction in TH was observed at both three days and two months following ablation. Furthermore, in the CN, glycine transporter 2 (GlyT2 and the GABA transporter (GABAtp were also significantly reduced only after two months. However, in the IC, DA receptor 1 (DRDA1, vesicular glutamate transporters 2 and 3 (vGluT2, vGluT3, GABAtp and GAD67 were reduced in expression both at the three day and two month time points. A close relationship between the distribution of TH and several of the AANs was determined in both the CN and the IC. In addition, GlyT2 and vGluT3 each co-localized with TH within IC somata and dendrites. Therefore, the results of the current study suggest that DA is spatially well positioned to influence the effects of AANs on auditory neurons.

  16. 窒息新生儿脑干诱发电位的检测价值%The Value of Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potential in Asphyxia Neonatorum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秋玲

    2011-01-01

    围生期窒息后可引起听神经通路细胞的缺血/再灌注损伤,从而影响听觉功能.脑干听觉诱发电位可反映脑神经和脑听觉通路不同部位所引起的生物电活动,因其客观、准确、重复性好、无损伤性、受干扰因素少而受到儿科工作者重视.对可能累及到中枢神经系统功能失调及听力障碍的儿科疾病具有早期诊断和判断预后的临床参考价值.%The ischemic reperfusion of injury of nerve cell in auditory pathway can be caued by perinatal asphyxia. And the injury can affect hearing. Brainstem auditory evoked potential can reflect the bioelectric activity of cranial nerves and cerebral auditory pathway. Because it have not only good objectivity, precision and reproducibility , but also it have no damage and few interference factors, brainstem auditory evoked potential was thought highly by pediatrician. It has the clinical reference value of early diagnosis and the judgment of prognosis in pediatrie disease of central dysautonomia and dysacusis.

  17. The Value of Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials in High Risk Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Malekzadeh

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available In this retrospective study 100 out of 2000 brain stem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs recording, chosen randomly from BAEPs file of takhti children's hospital in Tehran (March 1993-March 1996, are reviewed. Indications for BAEPs recording were: Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia leading to blood exchange transfusion and/or very low birth weight (<1500 g, CNS infections, ataxia, history of asphyxia, head and neck anomalies, coma, psychomotor or language delay, and suspicious hearing loss. Infants with very low birth weight associated with hyperbilirubinemia had the highest frequency of abnormal BAEPs. The second group consisted of children with neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. BAEPs recording is suggested to be used as a screening test in high-risk pediatric patients for early detection of hearing loss.

  18. Cooperative dynamics in auditory brain response

    CERN Document Server

    Kwapien, J; Liu, L C; Ioannides, A A

    1998-01-01

    Simultaneous estimates of the activity in the left and right auditory cortex of five normal human subjects were extracted from Multichannel Magnetoencephalography recordings. Left, right and binaural stimulation were used, in separate runs, for each subject. The resulting time-series of left and right auditory cortex activity were analysed using the concept of mutual information. The analysis constitutes an objective method to address the nature of inter-hemispheric correlations in response to auditory stimulations. The results provide a clear evidence for the occurrence of such correlations mediated by a direct information transport, with clear laterality effects: as a rule, the contralateral hemisphere leads by 10-20ms, as can be seen in the average signal. The strength of the inter-hemispheric coupling, which cannot be extracted from the average data, is found to be highly variable from subject to subject, but remarkably stable for each subject.

  19. Auditory brain-stem evoked potentials in cat after kainic acid induced neuronal loss. II. Cochlear nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaaroor, M; Starr, A

    1991-01-01

    Auditory brain-stem potentials (ABRs) were studied in cats for up to 6 weeks after kainic acid had been injected unilaterally into the cochlear nucleus (CN) producing extensive neuronal destruction. The ABR components were labeled by the polarity at the vertex (P, for positive) and their order of appearance (the arabic numerals 1, 2, etc.). Component P1 can be further subdivided into 2 subcomponents, P1a and P1b. The assumed correspondence between the ABR components in cat and man is indicated by providing human Roman numeral designations in parentheses following the feline notation, e.g., P2 (III). To stimulation of the ear ipsilateral to the injection, the ABR changes consisted of a loss of components P2 (III) and P3 (IV), and an attenuation and prolongation of latency of components P4 (V) and P5 (VI). The sustained potential shift from which the components arose was not affected. Wave P1a (I) was also slightly but significantly attenuated compatible with changes of excitability of nerve VIII in the cochlea secondary to cochlear nucleus destruction. Unexpectedly, to stimulation of the ear contralateral to the injection side, waves P2 (III), P3 (IV), and P4 (V) were also attenuated and delayed in latency but to a lesser degree than to stimulation of the ear ipsilateral to the injection. Changes in binaural interaction of the ABR following cochlear nucleus lesions were similar to those produced in normal animals by introducing a temporal delay of the input to one ear. The results of the present set of studies using kainic acid to induce neuronal loss in auditory pathway when combined with prior lesion and recording experiments suggest that each of the components of the ABR requires the integrity of an anatomically diffuse system comprising a set of neurons, their axons, and the neurons on which they terminate. Disruption of any portion of the system will alter the amplitude and/or the latency of that component. PMID:1716569

  20. Analysis of brain-stem auditory evoked potential and visual evoked potential in patients with Parkinson disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiaorong Deng; Jianzhong Deng; Yanmin Zhao; Xiaohai Yan; Pin Chen

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With the development of neuroelectrophysiology, it had been identified that all kinds of evoked potentials might reflect the functional status of corresponding pathway. Evoked potentials recruited in the re search of PD, it can be known whether other functional pathway of nervous system is impaired. OBJECTIVE: To observe whether brainstem auditory and visual passageway are impaired in patients with Parkinson disease (PD), and compare with non-PD patients concurrently. DESIGN: A non-randomized concurrent controlled observation. SETTINGS: Henan Provincial Tumor Hospital; Anyang District Hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-two cases of PD outpatients and inpatients, who registered in the Department of Neurology, Anyang District Hospital from October 1997 to February 2006, were enrolled as the PD group, including 20 males and 12 females, aged 50-72 years old. Inclusive criteria: In accordance with the diagnostic criteria of PD recommended by the dyskinesia and PD group of neurology branch of Chinese Medical Association. Patients with diseases that could cause Parkinson syndrome were excluded by CT scanning or MRI examination. Meanwhile, 30 cases with non-neurological disease were selected from the Department of Internal Medicine of our hospital as the control group, including 19 males and 11 females, aged 45-70 years old. Including criteria: Without history of neurological disease or psychiatric disease; showing normal image on CT. And PD, Parkinson syndrome and Parkinsonism-plus were excluded by professional neurologist. All the patients were informed and agreed with the examination and clinical observation. METHODS: The electrophysiological examination and clinical observation of the PD patients and controls were conducted. The Reporter type 4-channel evoked potential machine (Italy) was used to check brain-stem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) and visual evoked potential (VEP). Why to be examined was explained to test taker. BAEP recording electrode was plac

  1. Inhibitory glycinergic neurotransmission in the mammalian auditory brainstem upon prolonged stimulation: short-term plasticity and synaptic reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Franke

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Short-term plasticity plays a key role in synaptic transmission and has been extensively investigated for excitatory synapses. Much less is known about inhibitory synapses. Here we analyze the performance of glycinergic connections between the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB and the lateral superior olive (LSO in the auditory brainstem, where high spike rates as well as fast and precise neurotransmission are hallmarks. Analysis was performed in acute mouse slices shortly after hearing onset (postnatal day (P11 and eight days later (P19. Stimulation was done at 37°C with 1–400 Hz for 40 s. Moreover, in a novel approach named marathon experiments, a very prolonged stimulation protocol was employed, comprising 10 trials of 1-min challenge and 1-min recovery periods at 50 Hz and 1 Hz, respectively, thus lasting up to 20 min and amounting to > 30,000 stimulus pulses. IPSC peak amplitudes displayed short-term depression (STD and synaptic attenuation in a frequency-dependent manner. No facilitation was observed. STD in the MNTB-LSO connections was less pronounced than reported in the upstream calyx of Held-MNTB connections. At P11, the STD level and the failure rate were slightly lower within the ms-to-s range than at P19. During prolonged stimulation periods lasting 40 s, P19 connections sustained virtually failure-free transmission up to frequencies of 100 Hz, whereas P11 connections did so only up to 50 Hz. In marathon experiments, P11 synapses recuperated reproducibly from synaptic attenuation during all recovery periods, demonstrating a robust synaptic machinery at hearing onset. At 26°C, transmission was severely impaired and comprised abnormally high amplitudes after minutes of silence, indicative of imprecisely regulated vesicle pools. Our study takes a fresh look at synaptic plasticity and stability by extending conventional stimulus periods in the ms-to-s range to minutes. It also provides a framework for future analyses of

  2. Sex differences and endocrine regulation of auditory-evoked, neural responses in African clawed frogs (Xenopus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Ian C; Woolley, Sarah M N; Kwong-Brown, Ursula; Kelley, Darcy B

    2016-01-01

    Mating depends on the accurate detection of signals that convey species identity and reproductive state. In African clawed frogs, Xenopus, this information is conveyed by vocal signals that differ in temporal patterns and spectral features between sexes and across species. We characterized spectral sensitivity using auditory-evoked potentials (AEPs), commonly known as the auditory brainstem response, in males and females of four Xenopus species. In female X. amieti, X. petersii, and X. laevis, peripheral auditory sensitivity to their species own dyad-two, species-specific dominant frequencies in the male advertisement call-is enhanced relative to males. Males were most sensitive to lower frequencies including those in the male-directed release calls. Frequency sensitivity was influenced by endocrine state; ovariectomized females had male-like auditory tuning while dihydrotestosterone-treated, ovariectomized females maintained female-like tuning. Thus, adult, female Xenopus demonstrate an endocrine-dependent sensitivity to the spectral features of conspecific male advertisement calls that could facilitate mating. Xenopus AEPs resemble those of other species in stimulus and level dependence, and in sensitivity to anesthetic (MS222). AEPs were correlated with body size and sex within some species. A frequency following response, probably encoded by the amphibian papilla, might facilitate dyad source localization via interaural time differences. PMID:26572136

  3. 新一代事件相关电位认知功能评定和监测系统的实验方法建立--脑干听觉反应的临床应用%Establishment and application of experimental method of a new generation of event related potential cognitive function assessment and monitoring system---clinical application of auditory brainstem response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任清涛; 刘情情; 张勤峰; 宗文斌; 陈兴时; 张群峰; 茅顺明; 杨武庆; 刘群

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the characteristics of auditory brainstem response ( ABR) in patients with depression disorder and schizophrenia . Methods The ABR measurement were carried out in 43 patients with depressive disorders ( the depression group ) , 43 patients with schizophrenias ( the schizophrenia group ) , and 50 normal controls ( the control group ) by using the NTS-2000 type ERP instrument . Results The differences between three groups in the absolute latency wave V ( Pz brain area ) , the absolute amplitude wave Ⅲ ( Pz brain area ) and wave V ( Pz brain area ) were significant ( all P<0.01 ) .Compared with that in the control group and the depression group , the schizophrenia group had significantly delayed the absolute latency wave V ( Pz brain area ) ( all P<0.01 ) as well as significantly decreased absolute wave amplitude Ⅲ( Pz brain area ) and absolute wave Ⅴ( Pz brain area ) . Conclusion ABR is of value for clinical differentiate the depression disorder and schizophrenia .%目的:探讨抑郁症患者和精神分裂症患者的脑干听觉反应( ABR)的特点。方法应用NTS-2000型ERP仪及Click短声刺激,测查43例抑郁症(抑郁症组)、43例精神分裂症(精神分裂症组)和50名健康成人对照(对照组)的ABR。结果抑郁症组、精神分裂症组及对照组在绝对潜伏期波Ⅴ( Pz脑区)、绝对波幅波Ⅲ( Pz脑区)、波Ⅴ( Pz脑区)上的差异有显著统计学意义(P均<0.01)。与对照组和抑郁症组相比,精神分裂症组的绝对潜伏期波Ⅴ(Pz脑区)显著延迟(P均<0.01),绝对波幅波Ⅲ( Pz脑区)和绝对波幅波Ⅴ( Pz脑区)亦显著降低。结论 ABR对临床鉴别抑郁症和精神分裂症有参考价值。

  4. Referências anatômicas na cirurgia do implante auditivo de tronco cerebral Anatomical landmarks in auditory brainstem implant surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Vuono Brito Neto

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O implante auditivo de tronco cerebral é uma opção os pacientes surdos que não têm a integridade das vias auditivas preservada. A cirurgia, por sua complexidade anatômica e funcional, requer treinamento específico em laboratório de anatomia por parte do cirurgião. OBJETIVOS: Estudar a anatomia cirúrgica da cirurgia do implante auditivo de tronco cerebral. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Estudo anatômico. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Neste estudo dissecamos cadáver fresco preparado com solução corante injetada nas artérias e veias intra-cranianas. O local de inserção do eletrodo do implante auditivo de tronco cerebral foi estudado através do acesso translabiríntico. RESULTADOS: A técnica cirúrgica utilizada para a implantação do eletrodo de tronco cerebral é semelhante à utilizada na remoção do shwannoma vestibular. O complexo de núcleo coclear, composto pelo núcleo coclear ventral e dorsal, é o local para a colocação do eletrodo. O núcleo coclear ventral é o principal núcleo de transmissão de impulsos neurais do VIII par e seus axônios formam a principal via ascendente do nervo coclear. Tanto o núcleo ventral como o dorsal não são visíveis durante a cirurgia e sua localização depende de identificação de estruturas anatômicas adjacentes. CONCLUSÃO: A região de implantação do eletrodo do implante auditivo de tronco cerebral apresenta referências anatômicas que permitem sua fácil identificação durante a cirurgia.Auditory brainstem implant (ABI is an option for deaf patients who do not have the whole auditory pathways preserved. The surgery, because of its anatomical and functional complexity, requires specific training of the surgeon in an anatomy lab. AIM: To study the surgical anatomy of the auditory brainstem implant surgery. STUDY DESIGN: Anatomic study. MATERIAL AND METHOD: In the present study, we dissected a fresh cadaver prepared with a dye solution injected into the arteries and intracranial veins. The

  5. Potenciais evocados auditivos de tronco encefálico em usuários de crack e múltiplas drogas Auditory brainstem evoked potentials in crack and multiple drugs addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretta Fabianni Nigri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar os potenciais evocados auditivos de tronco encefálico em usuários de crack e múltiplas drogas, bem como levantar as possíveis queixas auditivas e de equilíbrio nesta população. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 40 usuários de drogas (20 com uso há mais de cinco anos e 20 há menos de cinco anos e 20 não usuários, do sexo masculino, com idades entre 19 e 46 anos, com limiares auditivos dentro da normalidade. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferenças significativas dos potenciais evocados auditivos de tronco encefálico dos usuários de drogas quando comparados ao grupo controle. CONCLUSÃO: Os potenciais evocados auditivos de tronco encefálico dos usuários de drogas não diferiram significantemente do grupo controle. As queixas apresentadas pelos usuários de drogas foram hiperacusia, alucinação auditiva, zumbido e alteração de equilíbrio.PURPOSE: To study the findings of auditory brainstem evoked potentials in crack and multiple drugs users, as well as to raise possible auditory and balance complaints in this population. METHODS: A total of 40 drugs addicts (20 who had been using drugs for over five years and 20 for less than five years and 20 non-users were evaluated. Subjects were all male, with ages ranging from 19 to 46 years, and had auditory thresholds within normal. RESULTS: No significant statistical differences were found regarding the auditory brainstem evoked potentials findings of the addicts group, when compared to the non-users. CONCLUSION: Auditory brainstem evoked potentials in crack and multiple drugs users did not differ significantly from the control group. Complaints presented by drugs addicts were hyperacusis, auditory hallucination, tinnitus and altered balance.

  6. Corticofugal modulation of peripheral auditory responses

    OpenAIRE

    Terreros, Gonzalo; Delano, Paul H.

    2015-01-01

    The auditory efferent system originates in the auditory cortex and projects to the medial geniculate body (MGB), inferior colliculus (IC), cochlear nucleus (CN) and superior olivary complex (SOC) reaching the cochlea through olivocochlear (OC) fibers. This unique neuronal network is organized in several afferent-efferent feedback loops including: the (i) colliculo-thalamic-cortico-collicular; (ii) cortico-(collicular)-OC; and (iii) cortico-(collicular)-CN pathways. Recent experiments demonstr...

  7. Corticofugal modulation of peripheral auditory responses

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Hinckley Delano

    2015-01-01

    The auditory efferent system originates in the auditory cortex and projects to the medial geniculate body, inferior colliculus, cochlear nucleus and superior olivary complex reaching the cochlea through olivocochlear fibers. This unique neuronal network is organized in several afferent-efferent feedback loops including: the (i) colliculo-thalamic-cortico-collicular, (ii) cortico-(collicular)-olivocochlear and (iii) cortico-(collicular)-cochlear nucleus pathways. Recent experiments demonstrate...

  8. Cortical influences on brainstem circuitry responsible for conditioned pain modulation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Andrew M; Macefield, Vaughan G; Henderson, Luke A

    2016-07-01

    Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) is a powerful endogenous analgesic mechanism which can completely inhibit incoming nociceptor signals at the primary synapse. The circuitry responsible for CPM lies within the brainstem and involves the subnucleus reticularis dorsalis (SRD). While the brainstem is critical for CPM, the cortex can significantly modulate its expression, likely via the brainstem circuitry critical for CPM. Since higher cortical regions such as the anterior, mid-cingulate, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices are activated by noxious stimuli and show reduced activations during other analgesic responses, we hypothesized that these regions would display reduced responses during CPM analgesia. Furthermore, we hypothesized that functional connectivity strength between these cortical regions and the SRD would be stronger in those that express CPM analgesia compared with those that do not. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to determine sites recruited during CPM expression and their influence on the SRD. A lack of CPM analgesia was associated with greater signal intensity increases during each test stimulus in the presence of the conditioning stimulus compared to test stimuli alone in the mid-cingulate and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices and increased functional connectivity with the SRD. In contrast, those subjects exhibiting CPM analgesia showed no change in the magnitude of signal intensity increases in these cortical regions or strength of functional connectivity with the SRD. These data suggest that during multiple or widespread painful stimuli, engagement of the prefrontal and cingulate cortices prevents the generation of CPM analgesia, raising the possibility altered responsiveness in these cortical regions underlie the reduced CPM observed in individuals with chronic pain. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2630-2644, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27104478

  9. Auditory steady state response in hearing assessment in infants with cytomegalovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Polo C. Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To report an infant with congenital cytomegalovirus and progressive sensorineural hearing loss, who was assessed by three methods of hearing evaluation. CASE DESCRIPTION: In the first audiometry, at four months of age, the infant showed abnormal response in Otoacoustic Emissions and normal Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR, with electrophysiological threshold in 30dBnHL, in both ears. With six months of age, he showed bilateral absence of the ABR at 100dBnHL. The behavioral observational audiometry was impaired due to the delay in neuropsychomotor development. At eight months of age, he was submitted to Auditory Steady State Response (ASSR and the thresholds were 50, 70, absent in 110 and in 100dB, respectively for 500, 1,000, 2,000 and 4,000Hz in the right ear, and 70, 90, 90 and absent in 100dB, respectively for 500, 1,000, 2,000 and 4,000Hz in the left ear. COMMENTS: In the first evaluation, the infant had abnormal Otoacoustic Emission and normal ABR, which became altered at six months of age. The hearing loss severity could be identified only by the ASSR, which allowed the best procedure for hearing aids adaptation. The case description highlights the importance of the hearing status follow-up for children with congenital cytomegalovirus.

  10. Correlation between baseline blood pressure and the brainstem FMRI response to isometric forearm contraction in human volunteers: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulson, J M; Murphy, K; Harris, A D; Fjodorova, M; Cockcroft, J R; Wise, R G

    2015-07-01

    It has been shown previously that changes in brainstem neural activity correlate with changes in both mean arterial pressure (MAP) and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during static handgrip (SHG). However, the relationship between baseline MAP and brainstem neural activity is unclear. We investigated changes in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal induced by SHG in 12 young adults using BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI). An estimation of the blood pressure response to SHG was obtained in seven subjects during a session outside the MRI scanner and was used to model the blood pressure response to SHG inside the scanner. SHG at 40% of maximum grip increased MAP (mean ± s.d.) at the end of the 180-s squeeze from 85 ± 6 mm Hg to 108 ± 15 mm Hg, P = 0.0001. The brainstem BOLD signal change associated with SHG was localised to the ventrolateral medulla. This regional BOLD signal change negatively correlated with baseline MAP, r = -0.61, P = 0.01. This relationship between baseline MAP and brainstem FMRI responses to forearm contraction is suggestive of a possible role for brainstem activity in the control of MAP and may provide mechanistic insights into neurogenic hypertension. PMID:25391759

  11. An auditory-periphery model of the effects of acoustic trauma on auditory nerve responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Ian C.; Sachs, Murray B.; Young, Eric D.

    2003-01-01

    Acoustic trauma degrades the auditory nerve's tonotopic representation of acoustic stimuli. Recent physiological studies have quantified the degradation in responses to the vowel eh and have investigated amplification schemes designed to restore a more correct tonotopic representation than is achieved with conventional hearing aids. However, it is difficult from the data to quantify how much different aspects of the cochlear pathology contribute to the impaired responses. Furthermore, extensive experimental testing of potential hearing aids is infeasible. Here, both of these concerns are addressed by developing models of the normal and impaired auditory peripheries that are tested against a wide range of physiological data. The effects of both outer and inner hair cell status on model predictions of the vowel data were investigated. The modeling results indicate that impairment of both outer and inner hair cells contribute to degradation in the tonotopic representation of the formant frequencies in the auditory nerve. Additionally, the model is able to predict the effects of frequency-shaping amplification on auditory nerve responses, indicating the model's potential suitability for more rapid development and testing of hearing aid schemes.

  12. Sex-specific response to hypoxia in a reduced brainstem preparation from Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Jean-Philippe; Fournier, Stéphanie; Kinkead, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Respiratory reflexes and tolerance to hypoxia show significant sexual dimorphism. However, the data supporting this notion originates exclusively from mammals. To determine whether this concept is limited to this group of vertebrates, we examined the sex-specific response to acute hypoxia in an adult reduced brainstem preparation from Xenopus laevis. Within the first 5min of exposure to hypoxic aCSF (98% N2/2% CO2), recordings of respiratory-related activity show a stronger increase in fictive breathing frequency in males than females. This initial response was followed by a decrease in respiratory-related activity; this depression occurred 6min sooner in males than females. These results represent new evidences of sexual dimorphism in respiratory control in amphibians and provide potential insight in understanding the homology with other groups of vertebrates, including mammals. PMID:26528898

  13. Weak responses to auditory feedback perturbation during articulation in persons who stutter: evidence for abnormal auditory-motor transformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanqing Cai

    Full Text Available Previous empirical observations have led researchers to propose that auditory feedback (the auditory perception of self-produced sounds when speaking functions abnormally in the speech motor systems of persons who stutter (PWS. Researchers have theorized that an important neural basis of stuttering is the aberrant integration of auditory information into incipient speech motor commands. Because of the circumstantial support for these hypotheses and the differences and contradictions between them, there is a need for carefully designed experiments that directly examine auditory-motor integration during speech production in PWS. In the current study, we used real-time manipulation of auditory feedback to directly investigate whether the speech motor system of PWS utilizes auditory feedback abnormally during articulation and to characterize potential deficits of this auditory-motor integration. Twenty-one PWS and 18 fluent control participants were recruited. Using a short-latency formant-perturbation system, we examined participants' compensatory responses to unanticipated perturbation of auditory feedback of the first formant frequency during the production of the monophthong [ε]. The PWS showed compensatory responses that were qualitatively similar to the controls' and had close-to-normal latencies (∼150 ms, but the magnitudes of their responses were substantially and significantly smaller than those of the control participants (by 47% on average, p<0.05. Measurements of auditory acuity indicate that the weaker-than-normal compensatory responses in PWS were not attributable to a deficit in low-level auditory processing. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that stuttering is associated with functional defects in the inverse models responsible for the transformation from the domain of auditory targets and auditory error information into the domain of speech motor commands.

  14. The auditory characteristics of children with inner auditory canal stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Yu; Xu, Lei; Li, Li; Li, Jianfeng; Luo, Jianfen; Wang, Mingming; Fan, Zhaomin; Wang, Haibo

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions This study shows that the prevalence of auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) in the children with inner auditory canal (IAC) stenosis is much higher than those without IAC stenosis, regardless of whether they have other inner ear anomalies. In addition, the auditory characteristics of ANSD with IAC stenosis are significantly different from those of ANSD without any middle and inner ear malformations. Objectives To describe the auditory characteristics in children with IAC stenosis as well as to examine whether the narrow inner auditory canal is associated with ANSD. Method A total of 21 children, with inner auditory canal stenosis, participated in this study. A series of auditory tests were measured. Meanwhile, a comparative study was conducted on the auditory characteristics of ANSD, based on whether the children were associated with isolated IAC stenosis. Results Wave V in the ABR was not observed in all the patients, while cochlear microphonic (CM) response was detected in 81.1% ears with stenotic IAC. Sixteen of 19 (84.2%) ears with isolated IAC stenosis had CM response present on auditory brainstem responses (ABR) waveforms. There was no significant difference in ANSD characteristics between the children with and without isolated IAC stenosis. PMID:26981851

  15. Modeling of Auditory Neuron Response Thresholds with Cochlear Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic Venail

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of the prosthetic-neural interface is a critical point for cochlear implant efficiency. It depends not only on technical and anatomical factors such as electrode position into the cochlea (depth and scalar placement, electrode impedance, and distance between the electrode and the stimulated auditory neurons, but also on the number of functional auditory neurons. The efficiency of electrical stimulation can be assessed by the measurement of e-CAP in cochlear implant users. In the present study, we modeled the activation of auditory neurons in cochlear implant recipients (nucleus device. The electrical response, measured using auto-NRT (neural responses telemetry algorithm, has been analyzed using multivariate regression with cubic splines in order to take into account the variations of insertion depth of electrodes amongst subjects as well as the other technical and anatomical factors listed above. NRT thresholds depend on the electrode squared impedance (β = −0.11 ± 0.02, P<0.01, the scalar placement of the electrodes (β = −8.50 ± 1.97, P<0.01, and the depth of insertion calculated as the characteristic frequency of auditory neurons (CNF. Distribution of NRT residues according to CNF could provide a proxy of auditory neurons functioning in implanted cochleas.

  16. Modeling of Auditory Neuron Response Thresholds with Cochlear Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venail, Frederic; Mura, Thibault; Akkari, Mohamed; Mathiolon, Caroline; Menjot de Champfleur, Sophie; Piron, Jean Pierre; Sicard, Marielle; Sterkers-Artieres, Françoise; Mondain, Michel; Uziel, Alain

    2015-01-01

    The quality of the prosthetic-neural interface is a critical point for cochlear implant efficiency. It depends not only on technical and anatomical factors such as electrode position into the cochlea (depth and scalar placement), electrode impedance, and distance between the electrode and the stimulated auditory neurons, but also on the number of functional auditory neurons. The efficiency of electrical stimulation can be assessed by the measurement of e-CAP in cochlear implant users. In the present study, we modeled the activation of auditory neurons in cochlear implant recipients (nucleus device). The electrical response, measured using auto-NRT (neural responses telemetry) algorithm, has been analyzed using multivariate regression with cubic splines in order to take into account the variations of insertion depth of electrodes amongst subjects as well as the other technical and anatomical factors listed above. NRT thresholds depend on the electrode squared impedance (β = -0.11 ± 0.02, P electrodes (β = -8.50 ± 1.97, P < 0.01), and the depth of insertion calculated as the characteristic frequency of auditory neurons (CNF). Distribution of NRT residues according to CNF could provide a proxy of auditory neurons functioning in implanted cochleas. PMID:26236725

  17. Middle components of the auditory evoked response in bilateral temporal lobe lesions. Report on a patient with auditory agnosia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, A; Salomon, G; Elberling, Claus;

    1980-01-01

    An investigation of the middle components of the auditory evoked response (10--50 msec post-stimulus) in a patient with auditory agnosia is reported. Bilateral temporal lobe infarctions were proved by means of brain scintigraphy, CAT scanning, and regional cerebral blood flow measurements. The mi...

  18. Auditory Neuropathy/Dyssynchrony in Biotinidase Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghini, Omid

    2016-01-01

    Biotinidase deficiency is a disorder inherited autosomal recessively showing evidence of hearing loss and optic atrophy in addition to seizures, hypotonia, and ataxia. In the present study, a 2-year-old boy with Biotinidase deficiency is presented in which clinical symptoms have been reported with auditory neuropathy/auditory dyssynchrony (AN/AD). In this case, transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions showed bilaterally normal responses representing normal function of outer hair cells. In contrast, acoustic reflex test showed absent reflexes bilaterally, and visual reinforcement audiometry and auditory brainstem responses indicated severe to profound hearing loss in both ears. These results suggest AN/AD in patients with Biotinidase deficiency. PMID:27144235

  19. Prenatal valproic acid exposure disrupts tonotopic c-Fos expression in the rat brainstem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubiel, A; Kulesza, R J

    2016-06-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of neurodevelopmental conditions characterized by difficulties in communication and social interactions, restricted, repetitive behaviors and sensory abnormalities. Notably, the vast majority of individuals with ASD experience some degree of auditory dysfunction and we have recently reported consistent hypoplasia and dysmorphology in auditory brainstem centers in individuals with ASD. Prenatal exposure to the antiepileptic drug valproic acid (VPA) is associated with an increased risk of ASD. In rodents, prenatal exposure to VPA is employed as an animal model of ASD and is associated with a number of anatomical, physiological and behavioral deficits, including hypoplasia and dysmorphology of auditory brainstem centers. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that such dysmorphology in VPA-exposed animals would translate into abnormal neuronal activity in brainstem circuits and irregular tonotopic maps. Herein, we have subjected control and VPA-exposed animals to 4- or 16-kHz tones and examined neuronal activation with immunohistochemistry for c-Fos. After these exposures, we identified significantly more c-Fos-positive neurons in the auditory brainstem of VPA-exposed animals. Additionally, we observed a larger dispersion of c-Fos-positive neurons and shifted tonotopic bands in VPA-exposed rats. We interpret these findings to suggest hyper-responsiveness to sounds and disrupted mapping of sound frequencies after prenatal VPA exposure. Based on these findings, we suggest that such abnormal patterns of activation may play a role in auditory processing deficits in ASD. PMID:27094734

  20. Prenatal valproic acid exposure disrupts tonotopic c-Fos expression in the rat brainstem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubiel, A; Kulesza, R J

    2015-12-17

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by difficulties with communication and social interactions, restricted, repetitive behaviors and sensory abnormalities. Additionally, the vast majority of subjects with ASD suffer some degree of auditory dysfunction and we have previously identified significant hypoplasia and dysmorphology in auditory brainstem centers in individuals with ASD. Prenatal exposure to the antiepileptic drug valproic acid (VPA) is associated with an increased risk of ASD. In rodents, prenatal exposure to VPA is utilized as an animal model of ASD and is associated with a number of anatomical, physiological and behavioral deficits, including hypoplasia and dysmorphology in the auditory brainstem. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that such dysmorphology in VPA-exposed animals would translate into abnormal activity in brainstem circuits and irregular tonotopic maps. Herein, we have subjected control and VPA-exposed animals to 4 or 16 kHz tones and examined neuronal activation with immunohistochemistry for c-Fos. After these sound exposures, we found significantly more c-Fos-positive neurons in the auditory brainstem of VPA-exposed animals. Further, we found a larger dispersion of c-Fos-positive neurons and shifted tonotopic bands in VPA-exposed rats. We interpret these findings to suggest hyper-responsiveness to sounds and disrupted mapping of sound frequencies after prenatal VPA exposure. Based on these findings, we suggest that such abnormal patterns of activation may play a role in auditory processing deficits in ASD. PMID:26518464

  1. Biological changes in auditory function following training in children with autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicol Trent

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD, such as children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD, often show auditory processing deficits related to their overarching language impairment. Auditory training programs such as Fast ForWord Language may potentially alleviate these deficits through training-induced improvements in auditory processing. Methods To assess the impact of auditory training on auditory function in children with ASD, brainstem and cortical responses to speech sounds presented in quiet and noise were collected from five children with ASD who completed Fast ForWord training. Results Relative to six control children with ASD who did not complete Fast ForWord, training-related changes were found in brainstem response timing (three children and pitch-tracking (one child, and cortical response timing (all five children after Fast ForWord use. Conclusions These results provide an objective indication of the benefit of training on auditory function for some children with ASD.

  2. Measuring the dynamics of neural responses in primary auditory cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Depireux, Didier A; Simon, Jonathan Z.; Shamma, Shihab A.

    1998-01-01

    We review recent developments in the measurement of the dynamics of the response properties of auditory cortical neurons to broadband sounds, which is closely related to the perception of timbre. The emphasis is on a method that characterizes the spectro-temporal properties of single neurons to dynamic, broadband sounds, akin to the drifting gratings used in vision. The method treats the spectral and temporal aspects of the response on an equal footing.

  3. The afferent signaling complex: Regulation of type I spiral ganglion neuron responses in the auditory periphery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijntjes, Daniël O J; Pyott, Sonja J

    2016-06-01

    The spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) are the first action potential generating neurons in the auditory pathway. The type I SGNs contact the sensory inner hair cells via their peripheral dendrites and relay auditory information to the brainstem via their central axon fibers. Individual afferent fibers show differences in response properties that are essential for normal hearing. The mechanisms that give rise to the heterogeneity of afferent responses are very poorly understood but are likely already in place at the peripheral dendrites where synapses are formed and action potentials are generated. To identify these molecular mechanisms, this review synthesizes a variety of literature and comprehensively outlines the cellular and molecular components positioned to regulate SGN afferent dendrite excitability, especially following glutamate release. These components include 1) proteins of the SGN postsynapses and neighboring supporting cells that together shape glutamatergic signaling, 2) the ion channels and transporters that determine the intrinsic excitability of the SGN afferent dendrites, and 3) the neurotransmitter receptors that extrinsically modify this excitability via synaptic input from the lateral olivocochlear efferents. This cellular and molecular machinery, together with presynaptic specializations of the inner hair cells, can be collectively referred to as the type I afferent signaling complex. As this review underscores, interactions of this signaling complex determine excitability of the SGN afferent dendrites and the afferent fiber responses. Moreover, this complex establishes the environmental milieu critical for the development and maintenance of the SGN afferent dendrites and synapses. Motivated by these important functions, this review also indicates areas of future research to elucidate the contributions of the afferent signaling complex to both normal hearing and also hearing loss. PMID:27018296

  4. Mitochondrial bioenergetics and oxidative status disruption in brainstem of weaned rats: Immediate response to maternal protein restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Diorginis José Soares; da Silva Pedroza, Anderson Apolônio; Braz, Glauber Ruda Feitoza; da Silva-Filho, Reginaldo Correia; Lima, Talitta Arruda; Fernandes, Mariana Pinheiro; Doi, Sonia Q; Lagranha, Claudia Jacques

    2016-07-01

    Mitochondrial bioenergetics dysfunction has been postulated as an important mechanism associated to a number of cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. One of the hypotheses is that this is caused by the metabolic challenge generated by the mismatch between prenatal predicted and postnatal reality. Perinatal low-protein diet produces several effects that are manifested in the adult animal, including altered sympathetic tone, increased arterial blood pressure and oxidative stress in the brainstem. The majority of the studies related to nutritional programming postulates that the increased risk levels for non-communicable diseases are associated with the incompatibility between prenatal and postnatal environment. However, little is known about the immediate effects of maternal protein restriction on the offspring's brainstem. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that a maternal low-protein diet causes tissue damage immediately after exposure to the nutritional insult that can be assessed in the brainstem of weaned offspring. In this regard, a series of assays was conducted to measure the mitochondrial bioenergetics and oxidative stress biomarkers in the brainstem, which is the brain structure responsible for the autonomic cardiovascular control. Pregnant Wistar rats were fed ad libitum with normoprotein (NP; 17% casein) or low-protein (LP; 8% casein) diet throughout pregnancy and lactation periods. At weaning, the male offsprings were euthanized and the brainstem was quickly removed to assess the mitochondria function, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, mitochondrial membrane electric potential (ΔΨm), oxidative biomarkers, antioxidant defense and redox status. Our data demonstrated that perinatal LP diet induces an immediate mitochondrial dysfunction. Furthermore, the protein restriction induced a marked increase in ROS production, with a decrease in antioxidant defense and redox status. Altogether, our findings suggest that LP-fed animals may be at

  5. The role of vowel perceptual cues in compensatory responses to perturbations of speech auditory feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Reilly, Kevin J.; Dougherty, Kathleen E.

    2013-01-01

    The perturbation of acoustic features in a speaker's auditory feedback elicits rapid compensatory responses that demonstrate the importance of auditory feedback for control of speech output. The current study investigated whether responses to a perturbation of speech auditory feedback vary depending on the importance of the perturbed feature to perception of the vowel being produced. Auditory feedback of speakers' first formant frequency (F1) was shifted upward by 130 mels in randomly selecte...

  6. Auditory Evoked Potential Response and Hearing Loss: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Paulraj, M. P; Subramaniam, Kamalraj; Yaccob, Sazali Bin; Adom, Abdul H. Bin; Hema, C.R.

    2015-01-01

    Hypoacusis is the most prevalent sensory disability in the world and consequently, it can lead to impede speech in human beings. One best approach to tackle this issue is to conduct early and effective hearing screening test using Electroencephalogram (EEG). EEG based hearing threshold level determination is most suitable for persons who lack verbal communication and behavioral response to sound stimulation. Auditory evoked potential (AEP) is a type of EEG signal emanated from the brain scalp...

  7. Unstable Prefrontal Response to Emotional Conflict and Activation of Lower Limbic Structures and Brainstem in Remitted Panic Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Chechko, Natalya; Wehrle, Renate; Erhardt, Angelika; Holsboer, Florian; Czisch, Michael; Sämann, Philipp G

    2009-01-01

    Background The neural mechanisms of panic disorder (PD) are only incompletely understood. Higher sensitivity of patients to unspecific fear cues and similarities to conditioned fear suggest involvement of lower limbic and brainstem structures. We investigated if emotion perception is altered in remitted PD as a trait feature. Methodology/Principal Findings We used blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study neural and behavioural responses of...

  8. Time-variant fMRI activity in the brainstem and higher structures in response to acupuncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napadow, Vitaly; Dhond, Rupali; Park, Kyungmo; Kim, Jieun; Makris, Nikos; Kwong, Kenneth K; Harris, Richard E; Purdon, Patrick L; Kettner, Norman; Hui, Kathleen K S

    2009-08-01

    Acupuncture modulation of activity in the human brainstem is not well known. This structure is plagued by physiological artifact in neuroimaging experiments. In addition, most studies have used short (30 min) stimulation with verum (VA, electro-stimulation at acupoint ST-36) or sham point (SPA, non-acupoint electro-stimulation) acupuncture. Our results provide evidence that acupuncture modulates brainstem nuclei important to endogenous monoaminergic and opioidergic systems. Specifically, VA modulated activity in the substantia nigra (SN), nucleus raphe magnus, locus ceruleus, nucleus cuneiformis, and periaqueductal gray (PAG). Activation in the ventrolateral PAG was greater for VA compared to SPA. Linearly decreasing time-variant activation, suggesting classical habituation, was found in response to both VA and SPA in sensorimotor (SII, posterior insula, premotor cortex) brain regions. However, VA also produced linearly time-variant activity in limbic regions (amygdala, hippocampus, and SN), which was bimodal and not likely habituation--consisting of activation in early blocks, and deactivation by the end of the run. Thus, acupuncture induces different brain response early, compared to 20-30 min after stimulation. We attribute the fMRI differences between VA and SPA to more varied and stronger psychophysical response induced by VA. Our study demonstrates that acupuncture modulation of brainstem structures can be studied non-invasively in humans, allowing for comparison to animal studies. Our protocol also demonstrates a fMRI approach to study habituation and other time-variant phenomena over longer time durations. PMID:19345268

  9. AN EFFICIENT PEAK VALLEY DETECTION BASED VAD ALGORITHM FOR ROBUST DETECTION OF SPEECH AUDITORY BRAINSTEM RESPONSES

    OpenAIRE

    Ranganadh Narayanam*

    2013-01-01

    Voice Activity Detection (VAD) problem considers detecting the presence of speech in a noisy signal. The speech/non-speech classification task is not as trivial as it appears, and most of the VAD algorithms fail when the level of background noise increases. In this research we are presenting a new technique for Voice Activity Detection (VAD) in EEG collected brain stem speech evoked potentials data [7, 8, 9]. This one is spectral subtraction method in which we have developed ou...

  10. AN EFFICIENT PEAK VALLEY DETECTION BASED VAD ALGORITHM FOR ROBUST DETECTION OF SPEECH AUDITORY BRAINSTEM RESPONSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranganadh Narayanam

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Voice Activity Detection (VAD problem considers detecting the presence of speech in a noisy signal. The speech/non-speech classification task is not as trivial as it appears, and most of the VAD algorithms fail when the level of background noise increases. In this research we are presenting a new technique for Voice Activity Detection (VAD in EEG collected brain stem speech evoked potentials data [7, 8, 9]. This one is spectral subtraction method in which we have developed our own mathematical formula for the peak valley detection (PVD of the frequency spectra to detect the voice activity [1]. The purpose of this research is to compare the performance of this SNR based PVD (SNRPVD method over Zero-Crossing rate detector [5] and statistical analysis based algorithms [10]. We have put into application of these three algorithms on these particular data sets of this experiment [7, 8, 9] and VAD is verified and compared the results of these three. MATLAB routines were developed on these particular methodologies. Finally we concluded that the method of SNRPVD surely performing better than the ZCR and statistical algorithms.

  11. Auditory ERP response to successive stimuli in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ao; Peter, Varghese; Burnham, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Background. Auditory Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) are useful for understanding early auditory development among infants, as it allows the collection of a relatively large amount of data in a short time. So far, studies that have investigated development in auditory ERPs in infancy have mainly used single sounds as stimuli. Yet in real life, infants must decode successive rather than single acoustic events. In the present study, we tested 4-, 8-, and 12-month-old infants' auditory ERPs to musical melodies comprising three piano notes, and examined ERPs to each individual note in the melody. Methods. Infants were presented with 360 repetitions of a three-note melody while EEG was recorded from 128 channels on the scalp through a Geodesic Sensor Net. For each infant, both latency and amplitude of auditory components P1 and N2 were measured from averaged ERPs for each individual note. Results. Analysis was restricted to response collected at frontal central site. For all three notes, there was an overall reduction in latency for both P1 and N2 over age. For P1, latency reduction was significant from 4 to 8 months, but not from 8 to 12 months. N2 latency, on the other hand, decreased significantly from 4 to 8 to 12 months. With regard to amplitude, no significant change was found for either P1 or N2. Nevertheless, the waveforms of the three age groups were qualitatively different: for the 4-month-olds, the P1-N2 deflection was attenuated for the second and the third notes; for the 8-month-olds, such attenuation was observed only for the middle note; for the 12-month-olds, the P1 and N2 peaks show relatively equivalent amplitude and peak width across all three notes. Conclusion. Our findings indicate that the infant brain is able to register successive acoustic events in a stream, and ERPs become better time-locked to each composite event over age. Younger infants may have difficulties in responding to late occurring events in a stream, and the onset response to the

  12. Neural responses to complex auditory rhythms: the role of attending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HeatherLChapin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the role of attention in pulse and meter perception using complex rhythms. We used a selective attention paradigm in which participants attended to either a complex auditory rhythm or a visually presented word list. Performance on a reproduction task was used to gauge whether participants were attending to the appropriate stimulus. We hypothesized that attention to complex rhythms – which contain no energy at the pulse frequency – would lead to activations in motor areas involved in pulse perception. Moreover, because multiple repetitions of a complex rhythm are needed to perceive a pulse, activations in pulse related areas would be seen only after sufficient time had elapsed for pulse perception to develop. Selective attention was also expected to modulate activity in sensory areas specific to the modality. We found that selective attention to rhythms led to increased BOLD responses in basal ganglia, and basal ganglia activity was observed only after the rhythms had cycled enough times for a stable pulse percept to develop. These observations suggest that attention is needed to recruit motor activations associated with the perception of pulse in complex rhythms. Moreover, attention to the auditory stimulus enhanced activity in an attentional sensory network including primary auditory, insula, anterior cingulate, and prefrontal cortex, and suppressed activity in sensory areas associated with attending to the visual stimulus.

  13. Differences in Brainstem Fiber Tract Response to Radiation: A Longitudinal Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine whether radiation-induced changes in white matter tracts are uniform across the brainstem. Methods and Materials: We analyzed serial diffusion tensor imaging data, acquired before radiation therapy and over 48 to 72 months of follow-up, from 42 pediatric patients (age 6-20 years) with medulloblastoma. FSL software (FMRIB, Oxford, UK) was used to calculate fractional anisotropy (FA) and axial, radial, and mean diffusivities. For a consistent identification of volumes of interest (VOIs), the parametric maps of each patient were transformed to a standard brain space (MNI152), on which we identified VOIs including corticospinal tract (CST), medial lemniscus (ML), transverse pontine fiber (TPF), and middle cerebellar peduncle (MCP) at the level of pons. Temporal changes of DTI parameters in VOIs were compared using a linear mixed effect model. Results: Radiation-induced white matter injury was marked by a decline in FA after treatment. The decline was often accompanied by decreased axial diffusivity, increased radial diffusivity, or both. This implied axonal damage and demyelination. We observed that the magnitude of the changes was not always uniform across substructures of the brainstem. Specifically, the changes in DTI parameters for TPF were more pronounced than in other regions (P.093 for all parameters). Conclusions: Changes in the structural integrity of white matter tracts, assessed by DTI, were not uniform across the brainstem after radiation therapy. These results support a role for tract-based assessment in radiation treatment planning and determination of brainstem tolerance

  14. STANDARDIZNG OF BRAINSTEM EVOKED RESPONSE AUDIOMETRY VALUES PRELIMINARY TO STARTING BERA LAB IN A HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivaprasad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The subjective assessment of hearing is primarily done by pure tone audiometry. It is commonly undertaken test which can tell us the hearing acuity of a person when carried under ideal conditions. However, not infrequently the otologists encounter a difficulty to do subjective audiometry or in those circumstances where the test results are not correlating with the disease in question. Hence they have to depend upon the objective tests to get a workable knowledge about the patients hearing threshold. Of the various objective tests available the most popular are Brain stem evoked response audiometry –non-invasive and more standardized parameter, Electro-cochleography, auditory steady state response. Otoacoustic Emission test (OAE Otoacoustic emission doesn’t measure the hearing acuity, it gives us an idea whether there is any deafness or not. But BERA is useful in detecting and quantification of deafness in the difficult-to-test patients like infants, mentally retarded people, malingers, deeply sedated and anaesthetized patients. It determines objectively the nature of deafness (i.e., whether sensory or neural in difficult-to-test patients. It helps to locate the site of lesion in retro-cochlear pathologies (in an area from spiral ganglion of the cochlear nerve to midbrain (inferior colliculus. Study of central auditory disorders is possible. Study of maturity of central nervous system in newborns, objective identification of brain death, assessing prognosis in comatose patients are other uses. Before starting a BERA lab in a hospital it is mandatory to standardize the normal values in a randomly selected group of persons with certain criteria like; normal ears with intact T.M and without any complaints of loss of hearing. Persons aged between 05 to 60 years are taken for this study. The study group included both males and females. The aim of this study is to assess the hearing pathway in normal hearing individuals and compare

  15. Cholinergic modulation of auditory steady-state response in the auditory cortex of the freely moving rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Ma, L; Li, W; Yang, P; Qin, L

    2016-06-01

    As disturbance in auditory steady-state response (ASSR) has been consistently found in many neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia, there is considerable interest in the development of translational rat models to elucidate the underlying neural and neurochemical mechanisms involved in ASSR. This is the first study to investigate the effects of the non-selective muscarinic antagonist scopolamine and the cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil (also in combination with scopolamine) on ASSR. We recorded the local field potentials through the chronic microelectrodes implanted in the auditory cortex of freely moving rat. ASSRs were recorded in response to auditory stimuli delivered over a range of frequencies (10-80Hz) and averaged over 60 trials. We found that a single dose of scopolamine produced a temporal attenuation in response to auditory stimuli; the most attenuation occurred at 40Hz. Time-frequency analysis revealed deficits in both power and phase-locking to 40Hz. Donepezil augmented 40-Hz steady-state power and phase-locking. Scopolamine combined with donepezil had an enhanced effect on the phase-locking, but not power of ASSR. These changes induced by cholinergic drugs suggest an involvement of muscarinic neurotransmission in auditory processing and provide a rodent model investigating the neurochemical mechanism of neurophysiological deficits seen in patients. PMID:26964684

  16. Differences in Brainstem Fiber Tract Response to Radiation: A Longitudinal Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uh, Jinsoo, E-mail: jinsoo.uh@stjude.org [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Merchant, Thomas E. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Li, Yimei; Feng, Tianshu [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Gajjar, Amar [Department of Oncology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Ogg, Robert J.; Hua, Chiaho [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: To determine whether radiation-induced changes in white matter tracts are uniform across the brainstem. Methods and Materials: We analyzed serial diffusion tensor imaging data, acquired before radiation therapy and over 48 to 72 months of follow-up, from 42 pediatric patients (age 6-20 years) with medulloblastoma. FSL software (FMRIB, Oxford, UK) was used to calculate fractional anisotropy (FA) and axial, radial, and mean diffusivities. For a consistent identification of volumes of interest (VOIs), the parametric maps of each patient were transformed to a standard brain space (MNI152), on which we identified VOIs including corticospinal tract (CST), medial lemniscus (ML), transverse pontine fiber (TPF), and middle cerebellar peduncle (MCP) at the level of pons. Temporal changes of DTI parameters in VOIs were compared using a linear mixed effect model. Results: Radiation-induced white matter injury was marked by a decline in FA after treatment. The decline was often accompanied by decreased axial diffusivity, increased radial diffusivity, or both. This implied axonal damage and demyelination. We observed that the magnitude of the changes was not always uniform across substructures of the brainstem. Specifically, the changes in DTI parameters for TPF were more pronounced than in other regions (P<.001 for FA) despite similarities in the distribution of dose. We did not find a significant difference among CST, ML, and MCP in these patients (P>.093 for all parameters). Conclusions: Changes in the structural integrity of white matter tracts, assessed by DTI, were not uniform across the brainstem after radiation therapy. These results support a role for tract-based assessment in radiation treatment planning and determination of brainstem tolerance.

  17. Unstable prefrontal response to emotional conflict and activation of lower limbic structures and brainstem in remitted panic disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Chechko

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The neural mechanisms of panic disorder (PD are only incompletely understood. Higher sensitivity of patients to unspecific fear cues and similarities to conditioned fear suggest involvement of lower limbic and brainstem structures. We investigated if emotion perception is altered in remitted PD as a trait feature. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to study neural and behavioural responses of 18 remitted PD patients and 18 healthy subjects to the emotional conflict paradigm that is based on the presentation of emotionally congruent and incongruent face/word pairs. We observed that patients showed stronger behavioural interference and lower adaptation to interference conflict. Overall performance in patients was slower but not less accurate. In the context of preceding congruence, stronger dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC activation during conflict detection was found in patients. In the context of preceding incongruence, controls expanded dACC activity and succeeded in reducing behavioural interference. In contrast, patients demonstrated a dropout of dACC and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC recruitment but activation of the lower limbic areas (including right amygdala and brainstem. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides evidence that stimulus order in the presentation of emotional stimuli has a markedly larger influence on the brain's response in remitted PD than in controls, leading to abnormal responses of the dACC/dmPFC and lower limbic structures (including the amygdala and brainstem. Processing of non-panic related emotional stimuli is disturbed in PD patients despite clinical remission.

  18. Auditory ERP response to successive stimuli in infancy

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ao; Peter, Varghese; Burnham, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Background. Auditory Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) are useful for understanding early auditory development among infants, as it allows the collection of a relatively large amount of data in a short time. So far, studies that have investigated development in auditory ERPs in infancy have mainly used single sounds as stimuli. Yet in real life, infants must decode successive rather than single acoustic events. In the present study, we tested 4-, 8-, and 12-month-old infants’ auditory ERPs to m...

  19. Detection of brainstem involvemetn in multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Gradient Refocusing Technique, which seppresses the influence of cerebrospinal fluis (GSF) and vascular motion artifact on MRI sensitivity, is applied combined with Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials (BAEPs) and median Somatosensory Evoked Potentials (SEPs) in the evaluation of the brainstem in 30 MS patients with clinical signs of involvement of this structure in order to reevaluate the sensitivity of these techniques. (Author). 2 refs.; 1 tab

  20. Modeling auditory-nerve responses to electrical stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joshi, Suyash Narendra; Dau, Torsten; Epp, Bastian

    2014-01-01

    Cochlear implants (CI) directly stimulate the auditory nerve (AN), bypassing the mechano-electricaltransduction in the inner ear. Trains of biphasic, charge-balanced pulses (anodic and cathodic) areused as stimuli to avoid damage of the tissue. The pulses of either polarity are capable of producing...... andcathodic stimulation of the AN of cat [4]. The models' responses to the electrical pulses of variousshapes [5] were also analyzed. It was found that, while the models can account for the ring rates inresponse to various biphasic pulse shapes, they fail to correctly describe the timing of AP in response to...... monophasic pulses. Strategies for improving the model performance with respect to correct AP timing are discussed. Eventually, a model that is able to account for correct spike timing in electrichearing will be useful for objective evaluation and improvement of CI stimulation strategies....

  1. Implante auditivo de tronco cerebral: técnica cirúrgica e resultados auditivos precoces em pacientes com neurofibromatose tipo 2 Auditory Brainstem Implant: surgical technique and early audiological results in patients with neurofibromatosis type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ferreira Bento

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O implante auditivo de tronco cerebral foi desenvolvido para restaurar alguma audição útil em pacientes que apresentam ausência de nervo coclear bilateralmente. OBJETIVOS: Discutir a indicação, cirurgia e resultados em quatro pacientes submetidos à cirurgia para colocação de implante auditivo de tronco cerebral. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODOS: Quatro pacientes com diagnóstico de schwannomas vestibulares bilaterais foram submetidos à cirurgia para colocação de Implante Auditivo de Tronco Cerebral durante o mesmo ato cirúrgico utilizado para a exérese de um dos tumores. Aspectos clínicos e técnicos e as referências anatômicas da cirurgia e os resultados auditivos foram analisados. RESULTADOS: Em todos os casos foram identificados as referências anatômicas ao forame de Luschka. As complicações cirúrgicas se resumiram à fístula liquórica em dois pacientes. Os eletrodos foram bem posicionados e a sensação auditiva foi suficiente para reconhecimento de sons e auxílio à leitura labial. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados auditivos de nossos pacientes abrem uma perspectiva importante aos pacientes com surdez profunda bilateral sem integridade anatômica das vias auditivas centrais.Auditory Brainstem Implants were developed to partially restore the hearing capabilities of patients without cochlear nerves bilaterally. AIM: this paper aims to discuss the clinical and surgical findings of four ABI patients. MATERIALS AND METHOD: four patients diagnosed with bilateral schwannomas received auditory brainstem implants (ABI and had one of their tumors resected in the same surgical procedure. Clinical aspects, surgical technique, anatomic landmarks, and outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS: the anatomic landmarks were identified in all four patients in relation to the foramina of Luschka. Two patients had CSF leaks. The electrodes were well positioned and hearing sensation was good enough to allow for sound recognition and assist patients perform lip

  2. Brainstem disconnection

    OpenAIRE

    Duffield, Curtis; Jocson, Jennifer; Wootton-Gorges, Sandra L.

    2009-01-01

    Brainstem disconnection is a very rare neonatal abnormality, with only seven cases reported. We report a unique case of a neonate who presented at delivery with hypertonia, dysmorphic facial features, and respiratory distress, as well as numerous musculoskeletal and genitourinary abnormalities. MRI of the brain showed disconnection between the pons and medulla with cerebellar hypoplasia and absent cerebellar peduncles. It aided in the description of the neurological and vascular anomalies ass...

  3. Brainstem disconnection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffield, Curtis; Wootton-Gorges, Sandra L. [University of California Davis, Medical Center and UC Davis Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Sacramento, CA (United States); Jocson, Jennifer [University of California Davis, Medical Center and UC Davis Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Brainstem disconnection is a very rare neonatal abnormality, with only seven cases reported. We report a unique case of a neonate who presented at delivery with hypertonia, dysmorphic facial features, and respiratory distress, as well as numerous musculoskeletal and genitourinary abnormalities. MRI of the brain showed disconnection between the pons and medulla with cerebellar hypoplasia and absent cerebellar peduncles. It aided in the description of the neurological and vascular anomalies associated with this diagnosis. (orig.)

  4. Brainstem hemorrhage following clipping of anterior communicating aneurysm: Is lumbar drain responsible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arindom Kakati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Remote brainstem hemorrhage is an extremely rare complication following supratentorial surgery. We describe here a 55-year-old patient with ruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysm, who underwent an uneventful clipping of the aneurysm, and had a lumbar drainage intra-operatively to facilitate brain relaxation. In the postoperative period, he developed pontomesencephalic hemorrhage, and had a fatal outcome. The potential causative factors are discussed, and the relevant literature reviewed. This is probably the first reported case of this complication in the literature.

  5. Maturational differences in thalamocortical white matter microstructure and auditory evoked response latencies in autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Timothy P. L.; Lanza, Matthew R.; Dell, John; Qasmieh, Saba; Hines, Katherine; Blaskey, Lisa; Zarnow, Deborah M.; Levy, Susan E; Edgar, J. Christopher; Berman, Jeffrey I.

    2013-01-01

    White matter diffusion anisotropy in the acoustic radiations was characterized as a function of development in autistic and typically developing children. Auditory-evoked neuromagnetic fields were also recorded from the same individuals and the latency of the left and right middle latency superior temporal gyrus auditory ~50ms response (M50)1 was measured. Group differences in structural and functional auditory measures were examined, as were group differences in associations between white ma...

  6. Hemodynamic responses in human multisensory and auditory association cortex to purely visual stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baumann Simon

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent findings of a tight coupling between visual and auditory association cortices during multisensory perception in monkeys and humans raise the question whether consistent paired presentation of simple visual and auditory stimuli prompts conditioned responses in unimodal auditory regions or multimodal association cortex once visual stimuli are presented in isolation in a post-conditioning run. To address this issue fifteen healthy participants partook in a "silent" sparse temporal event-related fMRI study. In the first (visual control habituation phase they were presented with briefly red flashing visual stimuli. In the second (auditory control habituation phase they heard brief telephone ringing. In the third (conditioning phase we coincidently presented the visual stimulus (CS paired with the auditory stimulus (UCS. In the fourth phase participants either viewed flashes paired with the auditory stimulus (maintenance, CS- or viewed the visual stimulus in isolation (extinction, CS+ according to a 5:10 partial reinforcement schedule. The participants had no other task than attending to the stimuli and indicating the end of each trial by pressing a button. Results During unpaired visual presentations (preceding and following the paired presentation we observed significant brain responses beyond primary visual cortex in the bilateral posterior auditory association cortex (planum temporale, planum parietale and in the right superior temporal sulcus whereas the primary auditory regions were not involved. By contrast, the activity in auditory core regions was markedly larger when participants were presented with auditory stimuli. Conclusion These results demonstrate involvement of multisensory and auditory association areas in perception of unimodal visual stimulation which may reflect the instantaneous forming of multisensory associations and cannot be attributed to sensation of an auditory event. More importantly, we are able

  7. On the Relevance of Natural Stimuli for the Study of Brainstem Correlates: The Example of Consonance Perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Cousineau

    Full Text Available Some combinations of musical tones sound pleasing to Western listeners, and are termed consonant, while others sound discordant, and are termed dissonant. The perceptual phenomenon of consonance has been traced to the acoustic property of harmonicity. It has been repeatedly shown that neural correlates of consonance can be found as early as the auditory brainstem as reflected in the harmonicity of the scalp-recorded frequency-following response (FFR. "Neural Pitch Salience" (NPS measured from FFRs-essentially a time-domain equivalent of the classic pattern recognition models of pitch-has been found to correlate with behavioral judgments of consonance for synthetic stimuli. Following the idea that the auditory system has evolved to process behaviorally relevant natural sounds, and in order to test the generalizability of this finding made with synthetic tones, we recorded FFRs for consonant and dissonant intervals composed of synthetic and natural stimuli. We found that NPS correlated with behavioral judgments of consonance and dissonance for synthetic but not for naturalistic sounds. These results suggest that while some form of harmonicity can be computed from the auditory brainstem response, the general percept of consonance and dissonance is not captured by this measure. It might either be represented in the brainstem in a different code (such as place code or arise at higher levels of the auditory pathway. Our findings further illustrate the importance of using natural sounds, as a complementary tool to fully-controlled synthetic sounds, when probing auditory perception.

  8. Auditory Cortex Basal Activity Modulates Cochlear Responses in Chinchillas

    OpenAIRE

    León, Alex; Elgueda, Diego; Silva, María A.; Hamamé, Carlos M.; Delano, Paul H.

    2012-01-01

    Background The auditory efferent system has unique neuroanatomical pathways that connect the cerebral cortex with sensory receptor cells. Pyramidal neurons located in layers V and VI of the primary auditory cortex constitute descending projections to the thalamus, inferior colliculus, and even directly to the superior olivary complex and to the cochlear nucleus. Efferent pathways are connected to the cochlear receptor by the olivocochlear system, which innervates outer hair cells and auditory...

  9. Using Cortical Auditory Evoked Potentials as a predictor of speech perception ability in Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder and conditions with ANSD-like clinical presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Stirling, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder (ANSD) is diagnosed by the presence of outer hair cell function, and absence or severe abnormality of the auditory brainstem response (ABR). Within the spectrum of ANSD, level of severity varies greatly in two domains: hearing thresholds can range from normal levels to a profound hearing loss, and degree of speech perception impairment also varies. The latter gives a meaningful indication of severity in ANSD. As the ABR does not relate to functional perfo...

  10. Comparison of sensitivity of magnetic resonance imaging and evoked potentials in the detection of brainstem involvement in multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison was made of the sensitivity of magnetic resonance imaging and the combined use of Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potential and Median Somatosensory Evoked Potential in the detection of brainstem dysfunction in 54 multiple sclerosis patients. 10 refs.; 2 tabs

  11. Pitch-induced responses in the right auditory cortex correlate with musical ability in normal listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puschmann, Sebastian; Özyurt, Jale; Uppenkamp, Stefan; Thiel, Christiane M

    2013-10-23

    Previous work compellingly shows the existence of functional and structural differences in human auditory cortex related to superior musical abilities observed in professional musicians. In this study, we investigated the relationship between musical abilities and auditory cortex activity in normal listeners who had not received a professional musical education. We used functional MRI to measure auditory cortex responses related to auditory stimulation per se and the processing of pitch and pitch changes, which represents a prerequisite for the perception of musical sequences. Pitch-evoked responses in the right lateral portion of Heschl's gyrus were correlated positively with the listeners' musical abilities, which were assessed using a musical aptitude test. In contrast, no significant relationship was found for noise stimuli, lacking any musical information, and for responses induced by pitch changes. Our results suggest that superior musical abilities in normal listeners are reflected by enhanced neural encoding of pitch information in the auditory system. PMID:23995293

  12. Evaluation of peripheral compression and auditory nerve fiber intensity coding using auditory steady-state responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Encina Llamas, Gerard; M. Harte, James; Epp, Bastian

    2015-01-01

    . Evaluation of these properties provides information about the health state of the system. It has been shown that a loss of outer hair cells leads to a reduction in peripheral compression. It has also recently been shown in animal studies that noise over-exposure, producing temporary threshold shifts, can......The compressive nonlinearity of the auditory system is assumed to be an epiphenomenon of a healthy cochlea and, particularly, of outer-hair cell function. Another ability of the healthy auditory system is to enable communication in acoustical environments with high-level background noises...

  13. Effects of glutamate receptor agonists on the P13 auditory evoked potential and startle response in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EdgarGarcia-Rill

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The P13 potential is the rodent equivalent of the P50 potential, which is an evoked response recorded at the vertex (Vx 50 msec following an auditory stimulus in humans. Both the P13 and P50 potentials are only present during waking and rapid eye movement (REM sleep, and are considered to be measures of level of arousal. The source of the P13 and P50 potentials appears to be the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN, a brainstem nucleus with indirect ascending projections to the cortex through the intralaminar thalamus (ILT, mediating arousal, and descending inhibitory projections to the caudal pontine reticular formation (CPRF, which mediates the auditory startle response (SR. We tested the hypothesis that intracranial microinjection (ICM of glutamate (GLU or GLU receptor agonists will increase the activity of PPN neurons, resulting in an increased P13 potential response, and decreased SR due to inhibitory projections from the PPN to the CPRF, in freely moving animals. Cannulae were inserted into the PPN to inject neuroactive agents, screws were inserted into the Vx in order to record the P13 potential, and electrodes inserted into the dorsal nuchal muscle to record electromyograms (EMGs and SR amplitude. Our results showed that ICM of GLU into the PPN dose-dependently increased the amplitude of the P13 potential and decreased the amplitude of the SR. Similarly, ICM of NMDA or KA into the PPN increased the amplitude of the P13 potential. These findings indicate that glutamatergic input to the PPN plays a role in arousal control in vivo, and changes in glutamatergic input, or excitability of PPN neurons, could be implicated in a number of neuropsychiatric disorders with the common symptoms of hyperarousal and REM sleep dysregulation.

  14. Speech motor learning changes the neural response to both auditory and somatosensory signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takayuki; Coppola, Joshua H.; Ostry, David J.

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper, we present evidence for the idea that speech motor learning is accompanied by changes to the neural coding of both auditory and somatosensory stimuli. Participants in our experiments undergo adaptation to altered auditory feedback, an experimental model of speech motor learning which like visuo-motor adaptation in limb movement, requires that participants change their speech movements and associated somatosensory inputs to correct for systematic real-time changes to auditory feedback. We measure the sensory effects of adaptation by examining changes to auditory and somatosensory event-related responses. We find that adaptation results in progressive changes to speech acoustical outputs that serve to correct for the perturbation. We also observe changes in both auditory and somatosensory event-related responses that are correlated with the magnitude of adaptation. These results indicate that sensory change occurs in conjunction with the processes involved in speech motor adaptation. PMID:27181603

  15. Potenciales evocados auditivos del tallo cerebral en monos rhesus (Macaca mulatta en diferentes etapas fisiológicas en condiciones de cautiverio Brainstem's auditory evoked potentials in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta in different physiologic stages under captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ibáñez-Contreras

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La audición juega un papel importante en el desarrollo de conductas más elaboradas en los organismos a medida en que se asciende en la escala filogenética. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la respuesta de la vía auditiva en la especie Macaca mulatta, en diferentes etapas fisiológicas, a través de los Potenciales Evocados Auditivos del Tallo Cerebral (PEATC. Se utilizaron 30 primates no humanos de la especie Macaca mulatta divididos en dos grupos de 15 machos y 15 hembras. Cada grupo estuvo constituido por 3 machos y 3 hembras: Grupo 1 (0,1-3,1 años; Grupo 2 (3,2-6,1 años; Grupo 3 (6,2-9,1 años; Grupo 4 (9,2-12,1 años y Grupo 5 (12,2-27,1 años. Los PEATC se obtuvieron mediante la estimulación de los oídos con “clicks” de rarefacción a 50 dB de intensidad. La actividad eléctrica cerebral fue recogida por medio de electrodos de disco, colocados en las derivaciones Cz (+, A1, A2 (- y Fz como tierra, según el sistema 10/20 internacional. Se observaron cuatro ondas; debido a que no se encontraron diferencias significativas en t de student por aferencias separadas, se realizó ANOVAs con las aferencias unidas. Se observó que los grupos 1 y 5 presentan diferencias significativas en todas las ondas evaluadas, presentando las latencias más alargadas en relación a los demás grupos. Se concluye que a través de los PEATC es posible conocer los cambios que se generan a partir del desarrollo, maduración y envejecimiento de los monos rhesus.In the phylogenetic scale, audition plays a very important role in the development of elaborated behaviors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the auditive response in the Macaca mulatta species at different physiologic stages, through brainstem's auditory evoked potentials (BAEP. 30 non-human primates Macaca mulatta were allotted into two groups of 15 males and 15 females distributed in five age-dependant groups of 2 males and 2 females as follows: Group 1 (0,1-3,1 year old; Group 2 (3

  16. Reduced object related negativity response indicates impaired auditory scene analysis in adults with autistic spectrum disorder

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    Veema Lodhia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Auditory Scene Analysis provides a useful framework for understanding atypical auditory perception in autism. Specifically, a failure to segregate the incoming acoustic energy into distinct auditory objects might explain the aversive reaction autistic individuals have to certain auditory stimuli or environments. Previous research with non-autistic participants has demonstrated the presence of an Object Related Negativity (ORN in the auditory event related potential that indexes pre-attentive processes associated with auditory scene analysis. Also evident is a later P400 component that is attention dependent and thought to be related to decision-making about auditory objects. We sought to determine whether there are differences between individuals with and without autism in the levels of processing indexed by these components. Electroencephalography (EEG was used to measure brain responses from a group of 16 autistic adults, and 16 age- and verbal-IQ-matched typically-developing adults. Auditory responses were elicited using lateralized dichotic pitch stimuli in which inter-aural timing differences create the illusory perception of a pitch that is spatially separated from a carrier noise stimulus. As in previous studies, control participants produced an ORN in response to the pitch stimuli. However, this component was significantly reduced in the participants with autism. In contrast, processing differences were not observed between the groups at the attention-dependent level (P400. These findings suggest that autistic individuals have difficulty segregating auditory stimuli into distinct auditory objects, and that this difficulty arises at an early pre-attentive level of processing.

  17. Modeling of Auditory Neuron Response Thresholds with Cochlear Implants

    OpenAIRE

    Frederic Venail; Thibault Mura; Mohamed Akkari; Caroline Mathiolon; Sophie Menjot de Champfleur; Jean Pierre Piron; Marielle Sicard; Françoise Sterkers-Artieres; Michel Mondain; Alain Uziel

    2015-01-01

    The quality of the prosthetic-neural interface is a critical point for cochlear implant efficiency. It depends not only on technical and anatomical factors such as electrode position into the cochlea (depth and scalar placement), electrode impedance, and distance between the electrode and the stimulated auditory neurons, but also on the number of functional auditory neurons. The efficiency of electrical stimulation can be assessed by the measurement of e-CAP in cochlear implant users. In the ...

  18. Sensory Responses during Sleep in Primate Primary and Secondary Auditory Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Issa, Elias B.; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2008-01-01

    Most sensory stimuli do not reach conscious perception during sleep. It has been thought that the thalamus prevents the relay of sensory information to cortex during sleep, but the consequences for cortical responses to sensory signals in this physiological state remain unclear. We recorded from two auditory cortical areas downstream of the thalamus in naturally sleeping marmoset monkeys. Single neurons in primary auditory cortex either increased or decreased their responses during sleep comp...

  19. Auditory evoked potentials: predicting speech therapy outcomes in children with phonological disorders

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    Renata Aparecida Leite

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study investigated whether neurophysiologic responses (auditory evoked potentials differ between typically developed children and children with phonological disorders and whether these responses are modified in children with phonological disorders after speech therapy. METHODS: The participants included 24 typically developing children (Control Group, mean age: eight years and ten months and 23 children clinically diagnosed with phonological disorders (Study Group, mean age: eight years and eleven months. Additionally, 12 study group children were enrolled in speech therapy (Study Group 1, and 11 were not enrolled in speech therapy (Study Group 2. The subjects were submitted to the following procedures: conventional audiological, auditory brainstem response, auditory middle-latency response, and P300 assessments. All participants presented with normal hearing thresholds. The study group 1 subjects were reassessed after 12 speech therapy sessions, and the study group 2 subjects were reassessed 3 months after the initial assessment. Electrophysiological results were compared between the groups. RESULTS: Latency differences were observed between the groups (the control and study groups regarding the auditory brainstem response and the P300 tests. Additionally, the P300 responses improved in the study group 1 children after speech therapy. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that children with phonological disorders have impaired auditory brainstem and cortical region pathways that may benefit from speech therapy.

  20. Auditory agnosia due to long-term severe hydrocephalus caused by spina bifida - specific auditory pathway versus nonspecific auditory pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Kaga, Kimitaka; Hayashi, Akimasa

    2011-07-01

    A 27-year-old female showed auditory agnosia after long-term severe hydrocephalus due to congenital spina bifida. After years of hydrocephalus, she gradually suffered from hearing loss in her right ear at 19 years of age, followed by her left ear. During the time when she retained some ability to hear, she experienced severe difficulty in distinguishing verbal, environmental, and musical instrumental sounds. However, her auditory brainstem response and distortion product otoacoustic emissions were largely intact in the left ear. Her bilateral auditory cortices were preserved, as shown by neuroimaging, whereas her auditory radiations were severely damaged owing to progressive hydrocephalus. Although she had a complete bilateral hearing loss, she felt great pleasure when exposed to music. After years of self-training to read lips, she regained fluent ability to communicate. Clinical manifestations of this patient indicate that auditory agnosia can occur after long-term hydrocephalus due to spina bifida; the secondary auditory pathway may play a role in both auditory perception and hearing rehabilitation. PMID:21413843

  1. Speech sound discrimination training improves auditory cortex responses in a rat model of autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal T Engineer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Children with autism often have language impairments and degraded cortical responses to speech. Extensive behavioral interventions can improve language outcomes and cortical responses. Prenatal exposure to the antiepileptic drug valproic acid (VPA increases the risk for autism and language impairment. Prenatal exposure to VPA also causes weaker and delayed auditory cortex responses in rats. In this study, we document speech sound discrimination ability in VPA exposed rats and document the effect of extensive speech training on auditory cortex responses. VPA exposed rats were significantly impaired at consonant, but not vowel, discrimination. Extensive speech training resulted in both stronger and faster anterior auditory field responses compared to untrained VPA exposed rats, and restored responses to control levels. This neural response improvement generalized to non-trained sounds. The rodent VPA model of autism may be used to improve the understanding of speech processing in autism and contribute to improving language outcomes.

  2. A study of brainstem evoked response audiometry in high-risk infants and children under 10 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramanathan Thirunavukarasu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To evaluate the hearing threshold and find the incidence of hearing loss in infants and children belonging to high-risk category and analyze the common risk factors. Subjects and Methods: Totally, 125 infants and children belonging to high-risk category were subjected to brainstem evoked response audiometry. Clicks were given at the rate of 11.1 clicks/s. Totally, 2000 responses were averaged. The intensity at which wave V just disappears was established as hearing the threshold. Degree of impairment and risk factors were analyzed. Results: Totally, 44 (35.2% were found to have sensorineural hearing loss. Totally, 30 children with hearing loss (68% belonged to age group 1-5 years. Consanguineous marriage was the most commonly associated risk factor. Majority (34 had profound hearing loss. Conclusion: Newborn screening is mandatory to identify hearing loss in the prelinguistic period to reduce the burden of handicap in the community. The need of the hour is health education and genetic counseling to decrease the hereditary hearing loss, as hearing impairment due to perinatal factors has reduced due to recent medical advancements.

  3. Evaluation of Auditory Brain Stems Evoked Response in Newborns With Pathologic Hyperbilirubinemia in Mashhad, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Okhravi, Tooba; Tarvij Eslami, Saeedeh; Hushyar Ahmadi, Ali; Nassirian, Hossain; Najibpour, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Neonatal jaundice is a common cause of sensorneural hearing loss in children. Objectives: We aimed to detect the neurotoxic effects of pathologic hyperbilirubinemia on brain stem and auditory tract by auditory brain stem evoked response (ABR) which could predict early effects of hyperbilirubinemia. Patients and Methods: This case-control study was performed on newborns with pathologic hyperbilirubinemia. The inclusion criteria were healthy term and near term (35 - 37 weeks) newbor...

  4. Psychophysical Responses Comparison in Spatial Visual, Audiovisual, and Auditory BCI-Spelling Paradigms

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Moonjeong; Nishikawa, Nozomu; Cai, Zhenyu; Makino, Shoji; Rutkowski, Tomasz M.

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a pilot study conducted with spatial visual, audiovisual and auditory brain-computer-interface (BCI) based speller paradigms. The psychophysical experiments are conducted with healthy subjects in order to evaluate a difficulty and a possible response accuracy variability. We also present preliminary EEG results in offline BCI mode. The obtained results validate a thesis, that spatial auditory only paradigm performs as good as the traditional visual and audiovisual speller B...

  5. 广泛性焦虑与强迫症患者脑干听觉诱发电位的比较%Comparison of brainstem auditory evoked potentials in generalized anxiety disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆加文; 李长安; 施和勋; 钱桂碧; 唐云翔; 崔轶

    2011-01-01

    背景 强迫症(Obsessive Conpulsive Disorder,OCD)患者常伴有焦虑症状,但尚不明确两种状态下患者脑功能是否相似.假设:广泛性焦虑(Generalized Anxiety Disorder,GAD)患者与OCD患者的脑予听觉诱发电位(Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials,BAEP)存在差异.方法:按照中国精神障碍分类与诊断标准第3版诊断标准,纳入门诊或住院的41例GAD患者以及69例OCD患者,并选取58名健康对照者.使用Nicolet Bravo脑诱发电位仪,用"Click"短声刺激,测查上述对象的BAEP.结果:NC组,OCD组及GAD组的波V绝对潜伏期依次为6.2(0.7)ms、7.6(0.4)ms以及6.8(0.5)ms(F=92.31,PGAD>NC);波V绝对波幅依次为0.55(0.23)μV、0.20(0.14)μV以及0.16(0.09)μV(F=88.11,POCD,GAD);波Ⅲ绝对波幅依次为0.34(0.18)μV、0.17(0.09)μV以及0.16(0.09)μV(F=36.81,POCD,GAD).结论:OCD与GAD患者的BAEP参数与健康对照者不同,但是两种疾病患者的BEAP参数差异极少.%Background: Anxiety symptoms are often seen in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) patients, but it is unknown whether or not the underlying functioning of the brain is similar in the two conditions.Hypothesis: There are significant differences in the brainstem auditory evoked potentials(BAEP) of patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) compared to those of patients with OCD.Method: Using criteria specified in the 3rd edition of the Chinese Classification of Mental Disorders, 41 GAD patients and 69 OCD patients were identified from inpatient and outpatient services. Using Nicolet Bravo instruments, a short “click”was used to elicit the BAEP from these patients and from 58 normal control subjects.Results: The mean (SD) latency of wave V for the normal controls, OCD patients and GAD patents were 6.2(0.7) ms, 7.6(0.4) ms, and 6.8(0.5) ms, respectively ( F = 92.31, P < 0.001; multiple comparisons: OCD > GAD > normals). The mean amplitude of wave V in the three groups were 0.55 (0.23) μV, 0.20 (0.14) μV, and 0

  6. Neuroimaging brainstem circuitry supporting cardiovagal response to pain: a combined heart rate variability/ultrahigh-field (7 T) functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclocco, Roberta; Beissner, Florian; Desbordes, Gaelle; Polimeni, Jonathan R; Wald, Lawrence L; Kettner, Norman W; Kim, Jieun; Garcia, Ronald G; Renvall, Ville; Bianchi, Anna M; Cerutti, Sergio; Napadow, Vitaly; Barbieri, Riccardo

    2016-05-13

    Central autonomic control nuclei in the brainstem have been difficult to evaluate non-invasively in humans. We applied ultrahigh-field (7 T) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and the improved spatial resolution it affords (1.2 mm isotropic), to evaluate putative brainstem nuclei that control and/or sense pain-evoked cardiovagal modulation (high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV) instantaneously estimated through a point-process approach). The time-variant HF-HRV signal was used to guide the general linear model analysis of neuroimaging data. Sustained (6 min) pain stimulation reduced cardiovagal modulation, with the most prominent reduction evident in the first 2 min. Brainstem nuclei associated with pain-evoked HF-HRV reduction were previously implicated in both autonomic regulation and pain processing. Specifically, clusters consistent with the rostral ventromedial medulla, ventral nucleus reticularis (Rt)/nucleus ambiguus (NAmb) and pontine nuclei (Pn) were found when contrasting sustained pain versus rest. Analysis of the initial 2-min period identified Rt/NAmb and Pn, in addition to clusters consistent with the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus/nucleus of the solitary tract and locus coeruleus. Combining high spatial resolution fMRI and high temporal resolution HF-HRV allowed for a non-invasive characterization of brainstem nuclei, suggesting that nociceptive afference induces pain-processing brainstem nuclei to function in concert with known premotor autonomic nuclei in order to affect the cardiovagal response to pain. PMID:27044996

  7. Diminished Auditory Responses during NREM Sleep Correlate with the Hierarchy of Language Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman-Haran, Edna; Arzi, Anat; Levkovitz, Yechiel; Malach, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Natural sleep provides a powerful model system for studying the neuronal correlates of awareness and state changes in the human brain. To quantitatively map the nature of sleep-induced modulations in sensory responses we presented participants with auditory stimuli possessing different levels of linguistic complexity. Ten participants were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the waking state and after falling asleep. Sleep staging was based on heart rate measures validated independently on 20 participants using concurrent EEG and heart rate measurements and the results were confirmed using permutation analysis. Participants were exposed to three types of auditory stimuli: scrambled sounds, meaningless word sentences and comprehensible sentences. During non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, we found diminishing brain activation along the hierarchy of language processing, more pronounced in higher processing regions. Specifically, the auditory thalamus showed similar activation levels during sleep and waking states, primary auditory cortex remained activated but showed a significant reduction in auditory responses during sleep, and the high order language-related representation in inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) cortex showed a complete abolishment of responses during NREM sleep. In addition to an overall activation decrease in language processing regions in superior temporal gyrus and IFG, those areas manifested a loss of semantic selectivity during NREM sleep. Our results suggest that the decreased awareness to linguistic auditory stimuli during NREM sleep is linked to diminished activity in high order processing stations. PMID:27310812

  8. Diminished Auditory Responses during NREM Sleep Correlate with the Hierarchy of Language Processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meytal Wilf

    Full Text Available Natural sleep provides a powerful model system for studying the neuronal correlates of awareness and state changes in the human brain. To quantitatively map the nature of sleep-induced modulations in sensory responses we presented participants with auditory stimuli possessing different levels of linguistic complexity. Ten participants were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during the waking state and after falling asleep. Sleep staging was based on heart rate measures validated independently on 20 participants using concurrent EEG and heart rate measurements and the results were confirmed using permutation analysis. Participants were exposed to three types of auditory stimuli: scrambled sounds, meaningless word sentences and comprehensible sentences. During non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep, we found diminishing brain activation along the hierarchy of language processing, more pronounced in higher processing regions. Specifically, the auditory thalamus showed similar activation levels during sleep and waking states, primary auditory cortex remained activated but showed a significant reduction in auditory responses during sleep, and the high order language-related representation in inferior frontal gyrus (IFG cortex showed a complete abolishment of responses during NREM sleep. In addition to an overall activation decrease in language processing regions in superior temporal gyrus and IFG, those areas manifested a loss of semantic selectivity during NREM sleep. Our results suggest that the decreased awareness to linguistic auditory stimuli during NREM sleep is linked to diminished activity in high order processing stations.

  9. Auditory Long Latency Responses to Tonal and Speech Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swink, Shannon; Stuart, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The effects of type of stimuli (i.e., nonspeech vs. speech), speech (i.e., natural vs. synthetic), gender of speaker and listener, speaker (i.e., self vs. other), and frequency alteration in self-produced speech on the late auditory cortical evoked potential were examined. Method: Young adult men (n = 15) and women (n = 15), all with…

  10. Brainstem evaluation in children with primary nocturnal enuresis.

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    Unal M

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the brainstem integrity in children with primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE using auditory brainstem responses (ABR, blink reflex and exteroceptive suppression of the masseter muscle. We examined 23 children with PNE (16 male, 7 female; mean age: 10.4 years and 19 control subjects (11 male, 8 female; mean age: 11.8 years. ABR parameters such as wave latencies, amplitudes and interpeak latencies and blink reflex parameters such as R1 and R2 amplitude and latencies were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Although S2 parameters of the exteroceptive suppression of the masseter muscle were easily and completely obtained from the control subjects, in the PNE group S2 onset latency and duration were not recorded in 26% of the study children (n = 6 (P = 0.01. S2 duration time was significantly lowered in the enuretic group (left side: P = 0.001 and right side: P = 0.003. S2 duration time changes in the enuretic group supports a possible brainstem dysfunction in children with PNE.

  11. 帕金森病模型大鼠脑干听觉诱发电位的研究%Brainstem auditory evoked potential in Parkinson's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王铭维; 顾平; 赵慧新; 李艳敏; 郭记宏; 孙丽君; 孙海民

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the changes in and the regularity of brainstem evoked potentials (BA-EPs) in Parkiuson's disease (PD) as an objective criterion for early diagnosis and assessment. Methods Thirty-five healthy SD rats were divided into two groups at random. Twenty-two rats were in the experimental group and 13 in the control group. The rats were injected with 8 μg of 6-OHDA solution in the right substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and the right ventral tegmentum area (VTA) to create a PD model. The BAEPs of the rats in the experimental group were recorded in a quiet shielded room before the 6-OHDA injection, and one week and two weeks after injec-tion. The control group rats were injected with saline (Ns) and their BAEPs were recorded at the corresponding times. One week and two weeks later, the model rats were injected with apomorphine (APO) and their rotating cycles were counted. Results The Ⅱ , Ⅳ, andV PLs and the Ⅲ-Ⅴ IPLs on the fight ears of the experimental group were prolonged significantly compared with the control group one week after APO injection. There was no significant differ-ence in the BAEPs of the left ears after the first week. After two weeks, the Ⅱ , Ⅳ, and Ⅴ PLs and the Ⅲ-Ⅴ, and Ⅰ-Ⅴ IPLs of the right ears in the experimental group were prolonged significantly compared with the controls and the Ⅳ, and Ⅴ PLs and the Ⅲ -Ⅴ , and Ⅰ-Ⅴ IPLs on their left ears were prolonged significantly. Conclusion In the early course of a PD model in rats, their BAEPs show abnormal changes, which indicates that BAEP could be an ob-jective criterion for early diagnosis and assessment of PD. BAEP may serve as one index of damage in PD. The Ⅲ-Ⅴ PL and Ⅰ-Ⅴ iPL are sensitive indices of PD.%目的 检测帕金森病(PD)大鼠成模前、后的脑干听觉诱发电位(BAEP),探讨BAEP作为PD早期诊断、病情评定的客观指标的价值.方法 35只SD大鼠随机分为PD模型组和假手术组.记

  12. Can place-specific cochlear dispersion be represented by auditory steady-state responses?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paredes Gallardo, Andreu; Epp, Bastian; Dau, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated to what extent properties of local cochlear dispersion can be objectively assessed through auditory steady-state responses (ASSR). The hypothesis was that stimuli compensating for the phase response at a particular cochlear location generate a maximally modulated...... basilar membrane (BM) response at that BM position, due to the large "within-channel" synchrony of activity. This would lead, in turn, to a larger ASSR amplitude than other stimuli of corresponding intensity and bandwidth. Two stimulus types were chosen: 1] Harmonic tone complexes consisting of equal......-amplitude tones with a starting phase following an algorithm developed by Schroeder [IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 16, 85-89 (1970)] that have earlier been considered in behavioral studies to estimate human auditory filter phase responses; and 2] simulations of auditory-filter impulse responses (IR). In both cases...

  13. Perinatal exposure to a noncoplanar polychlorinated biphenyl alters tonotopy, receptive fields, and plasticity in rat primary auditory cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Kenet, T; Froemke, R. C.; Schreiner, C. E.; Pessah, I N; Merzenich, M. M.

    2007-01-01

    Noncoplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widely dispersed in human environment and tissues. Here, an exemplar noncoplanar PCB was fed to rat dams during gestation and throughout three subsequent nursing weeks. Although the hearing sensitivity and brainstem auditory responses of pups were normal, exposure resulted in the abnormal development of the primary auditory cortex (A1). A1 was irregularly shaped and marked by internal nonresponsive zones, its topographic organization was grossl...

  14. Brainstem neurons responsible for postural, masseter or pharyngeal muscle atonia during paradoxical sleep in freely-moving cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, K; Neuzeret, P-C

    2011-12-01

    In this mini review, we summarize our findings regarding the brainstem neurons responsible for the postural, masseter, or pharyngeal muscle atonia observed during paradoxical sleep (PS) in freely moving cats. Both the pons and medulla contain neurons showing tonic activation selective to PS and atonia, referred to as PS/atonia-on-neurons. The PS/atonia-on neurons, characterized by their most slow conducting property and located in the peri-locus coeruleus alpha (peri-LCa) and adjacent LCa of the mediodorsal pontine tegmentum, play a critical executive role in the somatic and orofacial muscle atonia observed during PS. Slow conducting medullary PS/atonia-on neurons located in the nuclei reticularis magnocellularis (Mc) and parvocellularis (Pc) may play a critical executive role in the generation of, respectively, antigravity or orofacial muscle atonia during PS. In addition, either tonic or phasic cessation of activity of medullary serotonergic neurons may play an important role in the atonia of genioglossus muscles during PS via a mechanism of disfacilitation. PMID:22205587

  15. Padronização do potencial evocado auditivo de tronco encefálico utilizando um novo equipamento Standardization of brainstem auditory evoked potential using a new device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilka do Amaral Soares

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available TEMA: padronização do Potencial Evocado Auditivo de Tronco Encefálico (PEATE utilizando um novo equipamento. OBJETIVO: padronizar as respostas do PEATE utilizando de um novo equipamento desenvolvido (NED no Brasil. MÉTODOS: análise das latências absolutas, interpicos e das amplitudes das ondas do PEATE, por meio de um novo equipamento desenvolvido para estudar grupos de ouvintes normais (91 adultos e outro com perda neurossensorial (15 adultos com perda auditiva neurossensorial bilateral entre o equipamento EP15 / Interacoustis e o NED. Utilizando o clique não filtrado, com duração de 100 microssegundo (µs, totalizando 2.000 estímulos, na polaridade rarefeita, frequência de estimulação de 13,1 cliques/s, intensidade de 80 decibels de nível de audição normalizado (dB NAn, com janela de 10 milissegundos e filtro passa-banda entre 100 e 3000 Hertz (Hz. Nível de significância de 0,05. RESULTADOS: as médias das latências absolutas e interpicos em 76 ouvintes normais no NED foram: onda I=1,50, III=3,57, V=5,53, I-III=2,06, III-V=1,96 e I-V=4,02. Ao separar por gênero houve diferença estatisticamente significante para as latências absolutas das ondas III e V e nos interpicos I-III e I-V. Valor médio da amplitude da onda I=0,384 microvolt (μV e da onda V=0,825 μV. Não existiu diferença estatisticamente significante ao comparar as latências absolutas e interpicos entre dois equipamentos no mesmo indivíduo. CONCLUSÃO: os componentes do PEATE com o NED em ouvintes normais foram similares quanto às orelhas, com latências menores estatisticamente significantes nas mulheres. As latências do PEATE no mesmo indivíduo com o NED foram semelhantes às obtidas com o EP15 / Interacoustis. Foram obtidos os valores de normalidade para o PEATE em adultos ouvintes normais.BACKGROUND: standardization of Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potential (BAEP using a new device. AIM: to standardize BAEP responses using a new device developed (NDD in

  16. Cortical contributions to the auditory frequency-following response revealed by MEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Emily B J; Herholz, Sibylle C; Chepesiuk, Alexander M P; Baillet, Sylvain; Zatorre, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    The auditory frequency-following response (FFR) to complex periodic sounds is used to study the subcortical auditory system, and has been proposed as a biomarker for disorders that feature abnormal sound processing. Despite its value in fundamental and clinical research, the neural origins of the FFR are unclear. Using magnetoencephalography, we observe a strong, right-asymmetric contribution to the FFR from the human auditory cortex at the fundamental frequency of the stimulus, in addition to signal from cochlear nucleus, inferior colliculus and medial geniculate. This finding is highly relevant for our understanding of plasticity and pathology in the auditory system, as well as higher-level cognition such as speech and music processing. It suggests that previous interpretations of the FFR may need re-examination using methods that allow for source separation. PMID:27009409

  17. Spinal-, brainstem- and cerebrally mediated responses at- and below-level of a spinal cord contusion in rats: evaluation of pain-like behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baastrup, Cathrine; Maersk-Moller, Camilla Charlotte; Nyengaard, Jens Randel; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Finnerup, Nanna Brix

    2010-12-01

    Pain is a frequent consequence of spinal cord injury (SCI) which may profoundly impair the patients' quality of life. Valid experimental models and methods are therefore desirable in the search for better treatments. Usually, experimental pain assays depend on stimulus-evoked withdrawal responses; however, this spinal-mediated reflex response may be particularly problematic when evaluating below-level SCI pain due to the development of hyperactive reflex circuitries. In this study, we applied and compared assays measuring cold (acetone), static (von Frey filaments), and dynamic mechanical (soft brush) hypersensitivity at different levels of the neuroaxis at and below the level of injury in a rat model of SCI. We induced an experimental SCI (MASCIS 25 mm weight-drop) and evaluated the development of spinal reflexes (withdrawal), spinal-brainstem-spinal reflexes (licking, guarding, struggling, vocalizing, jumping, and biting) and cerebral-dependent behavior (place escape/avoidance paradigm (PEAP)). We demonstrated increased brainstem reflexes and cerebrally mediated aversive reactions to stimuli applied at the level of SCI, suggesting development of at-level evoked pain behavior. Furthermore, stimulation below-level increased innate reflex responses without increasing brainstem reflexes or aversive behavior in the PEAP, suggesting development of the spasticity syndrome rather than pain-like behavior. While spinal reflex measures are acceptable for studying changes in the spinal reflex pathways and spinal cord, they are not suited as nociceptive behavioral measures. Measuring brainstem organized responses eliminates the bias associated with the spastic syndrome, but pain requires cortical involvement. Methods depending on cortical structures, as the PEAP, are therefore optimal endpoints in animal models of central pain. PMID:20863621

  18. Auditory-neurophysiological responses to speech during early childhood: Effects of background noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White-Schwoch, Travis; Davies, Evan C; Thompson, Elaine C; Woodruff Carr, Kali; Nicol, Trent; Bradlow, Ann R; Kraus, Nina

    2015-10-01

    Early childhood is a critical period of auditory learning, during which children are constantly mapping sounds to meaning. But this auditory learning rarely occurs in ideal listening conditions-children are forced to listen against a relentless din. This background noise degrades the neural coding of these critical sounds, in turn interfering with auditory learning. Despite the importance of robust and reliable auditory processing during early childhood, little is known about the neurophysiology underlying speech processing in children so young. To better understand the physiological constraints these adverse listening scenarios impose on speech sound coding during early childhood, auditory-neurophysiological responses were elicited to a consonant-vowel syllable in quiet and background noise in a cohort of typically-developing preschoolers (ages 3-5 yr). Overall, responses were degraded in noise: they were smaller, less stable across trials, slower, and there was poorer coding of spectral content and the temporal envelope. These effects were exacerbated in response to the consonant transition relative to the vowel, suggesting that the neural coding of spectrotemporally-dynamic speech features is more tenuous in noise than the coding of static features-even in children this young. Neural coding of speech temporal fine structure, however, was more resilient to the addition of background noise than coding of temporal envelope information. Taken together, these results demonstrate that noise places a neurophysiological constraint on speech processing during early childhood by causing a breakdown in neural processing of speech acoustics. These results may explain why some listeners have inordinate difficulties understanding speech in noise. Speech-elicited auditory-neurophysiological responses offer objective insight into listening skills during early childhood by reflecting the integrity of neural coding in quiet and noise; this paper documents typical response

  19. Brainstem encoding of speech and musical stimuli in congenital amusia: Evidence from Cantonese speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital amusia is a neurodevelopmental disorder of musical processing that also impacts subtle aspects of speech processing. It remains debated at what stage(s of auditory processing deficits in amusia arise. In this study, we investigated whether amusia originates from impaired subcortical encoding of speech (in quiet and noise and musical sounds in the brainstem. Fourteen Cantonese-speaking amusics and 14 matched controls passively listened to six Cantonese lexical tones in quiet, two Cantonese tones in noise (signal-to-noise ratios at 0 and 20 dB, and two cello tones in quiet while their frequency-following responses (FFRs to these tones were recorded. All participants also completed a behavioral lexical tone identification task. The results indicated normal brainstem encoding of pitch in speech (in quiet and noise and musical stimuli in amusics relative to controls, as measured by FFR pitch strength, pitch error, and stimulus-to-response correlation. There was also no group difference in neural conduction time or FFR amplitudes. Both groups demonstrated better FFRs to speech (in quiet and noise than to musical stimuli. However, a significant group difference was observed for tone identification, with amusics showing significantly lower accuracy than controls. Analysis of the tone confusion matrices suggested that amusics were more likely than controls to confuse between tones that shared similar acoustic features. Interestingly, this deficit in lexical tone identification was not coupled with brainstem abnormality for either speech or musical stimuli. Together, our results suggest that the amusic brainstem is not functioning abnormally, although higher-order linguistic pitch processing is impaired in amusia. This finding has significant implications for theories of central auditory processing, requiring further investigations into how different stages of auditory processing interact in the human brain.

  20. Visual-induced expectations modulate auditory cortical responses

    OpenAIRE

    van Wassenhove, Virginie; Grzeczkowski, Lukasz

    2015-01-01

    Active sensing has important consequences on multisensory processing (Schroeder et al., 2010). Here, we asked whether in the absence of saccades, the position of the eyes and the timing of transient color changes of visual stimuli could selectively affect the excitability of auditory cortex by predicting the “where” and the “when” of a sound, respectively. Human participants were recorded with magnetoencephalography (MEG) while maintaining the position of their eyes on the left, right, or cen...

  1. A model of auditory nerve responses to electrical stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joshi, Suyash Narendra; Dau, Torsten; Epp, Bastian

    peripheral for the cathodic phase. This results in an average difference of 200 μs in spike latency for AP generated by anodic vs cathodic pulses. It is hypothesized here that this difference is large enough to corrupt the temporal coding in the AN. To quantify effects of pulse polarity on auditory...... as a framework to test various stimulation strategies and to quantify their effect on the performance of CI listeners in psychophysical tasks....

  2. (Amusicality in Williams syndrome: Examining relationships among auditory perception, musical skill, and emotional responsiveness to music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam eLense

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Williams syndrome (WS, a genetic, neurodevelopmental disorder, is of keen interest to music cognition researchers because of its characteristic auditory sensitivities and emotional responsiveness to music. However, actual musical perception and production abilities are more variable. We examined musicality in WS through the lens of amusia and explored how their musical perception abilities related to their auditory sensitivities, musical production skills, and emotional responsiveness to music. In our sample of 73 adolescents and adults with WS, 11% met criteria for amusia, which is higher than the 4% prevalence rate reported in the typically developing population. Amusia was not related to auditory sensitivities but was related to musical training. Performance on the amusia measure strongly predicted musical skill but not emotional responsiveness to music, which was better predicted by general auditory sensitivities. This study represents the first time amusia has been examined in a population with a known neurodevelopmental genetic disorder with a range of cognitive abilities. Results have implications for the relationships across different levels of auditory processing, musical skill development, and emotional responsiveness to music, as well as the understanding of gene-brain-behavior relationships in individuals with WS and typically developing individuals with and without amusia.

  3. Auditory cortical and hippocampal-system mismatch responses to duration deviants in urethane-anesthetized rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Ruusuvirta

    Full Text Available Any change in the invariant aspects of the auditory environment is of potential importance. The human brain preattentively or automatically detects such changes. The mismatch negativity (MMN of event-related potentials (ERPs reflects this initial stage of auditory change detection. The origin of MMN is held to be cortical. The hippocampus is associated with a later generated P3a of ERPs reflecting involuntarily attention switches towards auditory changes that are high in magnitude. The evidence for this cortico-hippocampal dichotomy is scarce, however. To shed further light on this issue, auditory cortical and hippocampal-system (CA1, dentate gyrus, subiculum local-field potentials were recorded in urethane-anesthetized rats. A rare tone in duration (deviant was interspersed with a repeated tone (standard. Two standard-to-standard (SSI and standard-to-deviant (SDI intervals (200 ms vs. 500 ms were applied in different combinations to vary the observability of responses resembling MMN (mismatch responses. Mismatch responses were observed at 51.5-89 ms with the 500-ms SSI coupled with the 200-ms SDI but not with the three remaining combinations. Most importantly, the responses appeared in both the auditory-cortical and hippocampal locations. The findings suggest that the hippocampus may play a role in (cortical manifestation of MMN.

  4. Modulation of auditory cortex response to pitch variation following training with microtonal melodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatorre, Robert J; Delhommeau, Karine; Zarate, Jean Mary

    2012-01-01

    We tested changes in cortical functional response to auditory patterns in a configural learning paradigm. We trained 10 human listeners to discriminate micromelodies (consisting of smaller pitch intervals than normally used in Western music) and measured covariation in blood oxygenation signal to increasing pitch interval size in order to dissociate global changes in activity from those specifically associated with the stimulus feature that was trained. A psychophysical staircase procedure with feedback was used for training over a 2-week period. Behavioral tests of discrimination ability performed before and after training showed significant learning on the trained stimuli, and generalization to other frequencies and tasks; no learning occurred in an untrained control group. Before training the functional MRI data showed the expected systematic increase in activity in auditory cortices as a function of increasing micromelody pitch interval size. This function became shallower after training, with the maximal change observed in the right posterior auditory cortex. Global decreases in activity in auditory regions, along with global increases in frontal cortices also occurred after training. Individual variation in learning rate was related to the hemodynamic slope to pitch interval size, such that those who had a higher sensitivity to pitch interval variation prior to learning achieved the fastest learning. We conclude that configural auditory learning entails modulation in the response of auditory cortex to the trained stimulus feature. Reduction in blood oxygenation response to increasing pitch interval size suggests that fewer computational resources, and hence lower neural recruitment, is associated with learning, in accord with models of auditory cortex function, and with data from other modalities. PMID:23227019

  5. Modulation of auditory cortex response to pitch variation following training with microtonal melodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Zatorre

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We tested changes in cortical functional response to auditory configural learning by training ten human listeners to discriminate micromelodies (consisting of smaller pitch intervals than normally used in Western music. We measured covariation in blood oxygenation signal to increasing pitch-interval size in order to dissociate global changes in activity from those specifically associated with the stimulus feature of interest. A psychophysical staircase procedure with feedback was used for training over a two-week period. Behavioral tests of discrimination ability performed before and after training showed significant learning on the trained stimuli, and generalization to other frequencies and tasks; no learning occurred in an untrained control group. Before training the functional MRI data showed the expected systematic increase in activity in auditory cortices as a function of increasing micromelody pitch-interval size. This function became shallower after training, with the maximal change observed in the right posterior auditory cortex. Global decreases in activity in auditory regions, along with global increases in frontal cortices also occurred after training. Individual variation in learning rate was related to the hemodynamic slope to pitch-interval size, such that those who had a higher sensitivity to pitch-interval variation prior to learning achieved the fastest learning. We conclude that configural auditory learning entails modulation in the response of auditory cortex specifically to the trained stimulus feature. Reduction in blood oxygenation response to increasing pitch-interval size suggests that fewer computational resources, and hence lower neural recruitment, is associated with learning, in accord with models of auditory cortex function, and with data from other modalities.

  6. Reevaluation of the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap Using Item Response Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hospers, J. Mirjam Boeschen; Smits, Niels; Smits, Cas; Stam, Mariska; Terwee, Caroline B.; Kramer, Sophia E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We reevaluated the psychometric properties of the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap (AIADH; Kramer, Kapteyn, Festen, & Tobi, 1995) using item response theory. Item response theory describes item functioning along an ability continuum. Method: Cross-sectional data from 2,352 adults with and without hearing…

  7. Electrophysiological Auditory Responses and Language Development in Infants with Periventricular Leukomalacia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avecilla-Ramirez, G. N.; Ruiz-Correa, S.; Marroquin, J. L.; Harmony, T.; Alba, A.; Mendoza-Montoya, O.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents evidence suggesting that electrophysiological responses to language-related auditory stimuli recorded at 46 weeks postconceptional age (PCA) are associated with language development, particularly in infants with periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). In order to investigate this hypothesis, electrophysiological responses to a set…

  8. Mismatch responses in the awake rat: evidence from epidural recordings of auditory cortical fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabienne Jung

    Full Text Available Detecting sudden environmental changes is crucial for the survival of humans and animals. In the human auditory system the mismatch negativity (MMN, a component of auditory evoked potentials (AEPs, reflects the violation of predictable stimulus regularities, established by the previous auditory sequence. Given the considerable potentiality of the MMN for clinical applications, establishing valid animal models that allow for detailed investigation of its neurophysiological mechanisms is important. Rodent studies, so far almost exclusively under anesthesia, have not provided decisive evidence whether an MMN analogue exists in rats. This may be due to several factors, including the effect of anesthesia. We therefore used epidural recordings in awake black hooded rats, from two auditory cortical areas in both hemispheres, and with bandpass filtered noise stimuli that were optimized in frequency and duration for eliciting MMN in rats. Using a classical oddball paradigm with frequency deviants, we detected mismatch responses at all four electrodes in primary and secondary auditory cortex, with morphological and functional properties similar to those known in humans, i.e., large amplitude biphasic differences that increased in amplitude with decreasing deviant probability. These mismatch responses significantly diminished in a control condition that removed the predictive context while controlling for presentation rate of the deviants. While our present study does not allow for disambiguating precisely the relative contribution of adaptation and prediction error processing to the observed mismatch responses, it demonstrates that MMN-like potentials can be obtained in awake and unrestrained rats.

  9. Pediatric central auditory processing disorder showing elevated threshold on pure tone audiogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Yukihide; Nakagawa, Atsuko; Nagayasu, Rie; Sugaya, Akiko; Omichi, Ryotaro; Kariya, Shin; Fukushima, Kunihiro; Nishizaki, Kazunori

    2016-10-01

    Central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) is a condition in which dysfunction in the central auditory system causes difficulty in listening to conversations, particularly under noisy conditions, despite normal peripheral auditory function. Central auditory testing is generally performed in patients with normal hearing on the pure tone audiogram (PTA). This report shows that diagnosis of CAPD is possible even in the presence of an elevated threshold on the PTA, provided that the normal function of the peripheral auditory pathway was verified by distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE), auditory brainstem response (ABR), and auditory steady state response (ASSR). Three pediatric cases (9- and 10-year-old girls and an 8-year-old boy) of CAPD with elevated thresholds on PTAs are presented. The chief complaint was difficulty in listening to conversations. PTA showed elevated thresholds, but the responses and thresholds for DPOAE, ABR, and ASSR were normal, showing that peripheral auditory function was normal. Significant findings of central auditory testing such as dichotic speech tests, time compression of speech signals, and binaural interaction tests confirmed the diagnosis of CAPD. These threshold shifts in PTA may provide a new concept of a clinical symptom due to central auditory dysfunction in CAPD. PMID:26922127

  10. Distraction task rather than focal attention modulates gamma activity associated with auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griskova-Bulanova, Inga; Ruksenas, Osvaldas; Dapsys, Kastytis; Maciulis, Valentinas; Arnfred, Sidse Marie Hemmingsen

    2011-01-01

    To explore the modulation of auditory steady-state response (ASSR) by experimental tasks, differing in attentional focus and arousal level.......To explore the modulation of auditory steady-state response (ASSR) by experimental tasks, differing in attentional focus and arousal level....

  11. Is the auditory evoked P2 response a biomarker of learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Kelly L; Ross, Bernhard; Inoue, Kayo; McClannahan, Katrina; Collet, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Even though auditory training exercises for humans have been shown to improve certain perceptual skills of individuals with and without hearing loss, there is a lack of knowledge pertaining to which aspects of training are responsible for the perceptual gains, and which aspects of perception are changed. To better define how auditory training impacts brain and behavior, electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) have been used to determine the time course and coincidence of cortical modulations associated with different types of training. Here we focus on P1-N1-P2 auditory evoked responses (AEP), as there are consistent reports of gains in P2 amplitude following various types of auditory training experiences; including music and speech-sound training. The purpose of this experiment was to determine if the auditory evoked P2 response is a biomarker of learning. To do this, we taught native English speakers to identify a new pre-voiced temporal cue that is not used phonemically in the English language so that coinciding changes in evoked neural activity could be characterized. To differentiate possible effects of repeated stimulus exposure and a button-pushing task from learning itself, we examined modulations in brain activity in a group of participants who learned to identify the pre-voicing contrast and compared it to participants, matched in time, and stimulus exposure, that did not. The main finding was that the amplitude of the P2 auditory evoked response increased across repeated EEG sessions for all groups, regardless of any change in perceptual performance. What's more, these effects are retained for months. Changes in P2 amplitude were attributed to changes in neural activity associated with the acquisition process and not the learned outcome itself. A further finding was the expression of a late negativity (LN) wave 600-900 ms post-stimulus onset, post-training exclusively for the group that learned to identify the pre-voiced contrast

  12. Is the auditory evoked P2 response a biomarker of learning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly eTremblay

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Even though auditory training exercises for humans have been shown to improve certain perceptual skills of individuals with and without hearing loss, there is a lack of knowledge pertaining to which aspects of training are responsible for the perceptual gains, and which aspects of perception are changed. To better define how auditory training impacts brain and behavior, electroencephalography and magnetoencephalography have been used to determine the time course and coincidence of cortical modulations associated with different types of training. Here we focus on P1-N1-P2 auditory evoked responses (AEP, as there are consistent reports of gains in P2 amplitude following various types of auditory training experiences; including music and speech-sound training. The purpose of this experiment was to determine if the auditory evoked P2 response is a biomarker of learning. To do this, we taught native English speakers to identify a new pre-voiced temporal cue that is not used phonemically in the English language so that coinciding changes in evoked neural activity could be characterized. To differentiate possible effects of repeated stimulus exposure and a button-pushing task from learning itself, we examined modulations in brain activity in a group of participants who learned to identify the pre-voicing contrast and compared it to participants, matched in time, and stimulus exposure, that did not. The main finding was that the amplitude of the P2 auditory evoked response increased across repeated EEG sessions for all groups, regardless of any change in perceptual performance. What’s more, these effects were retained for months. Changes in P2 amplitude were attributed to changes in neural activity associated with the acquisition process and not the learned outcome itself. A further finding was the expression of a late negativity (LN wave 600-900 ms post-stimulus onset, post-training, exclusively for the group that learned to identify the pre

  13. A Cochlear Implant Performance Prognostic Test Based on Electrical Field Interactions Evaluated by eABR (Electrical Auditory Brainstem Responses)

    OpenAIRE

    Guevara, Nicolas; Hoen, Michel; Truy, Eric; Gallego, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Background Cochlear implants (CIs) are neural prostheses that have been used routinely in the clinic over the past 25 years. They allow children who were born profoundly deaf, as well as adults affected by hearing loss for whom conventional hearing aids are insufficient, to attain a functional level of hearing. The “modern” CI (i.e., a multi-electrode implant using sequential coding strategies) has yielded good speech comprehension outcomes (recognition level for monosyllabic words about 50% ...

  14. ANALYSE DE L'ENCODAGE DES SIGNAUX DE PAROLE DANS LE TRONC CEREBRAL (SPEECH AUDITORY BRAINSTEM RESPONSE)

    OpenAIRE

    Akhoun, Idrick

    2008-01-01

    Les Speech ABR sont un outil prometteur d'exploration fonctionnelle auditive, qui pourrait à terme être implémenté en routine clinique afin de dépister la surdité et d'évaluer l'efficacité des techniques de réhabilitation auditive. Dans la Partie 1, nous présentons d'abord (i) une étude paramétrique quantifiant les effets de l'artefact électromagnétique, issu du couplage entre la chaine de stimulation et d'acquisition, sur le Speech ABR. Puis nous discutons (ii) les avantages de la représenta...

  15. Effects of Aging on Inner Ear Morphology in Dogs in Relation to Brainstem Responses to Toneburst Auditory Stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Haar, G.; de Groot, J. C. M. J.; Venker-van Haagen, A. J.; van Sluijs, F. J.; Smoorenburg, G. F.

    2009-01-01

    Age-related hearing loss (ARHL) is the most common form of hearing loss in humans and is increasingly recognized in dogs. Cochlear lesions in dogs with ARHL are similar to those in humans and the severity of the histological changes is reflected in tone audiograms. Ten geriatric dogs (mean age: 12.7

  16. Auditory cues increase the hippocampal response to unimodal virtual reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreano, Joseph; Liang, Kevin; Kong, Lingjun; Hubbard, David; Wiederhold, Brenda K; Wiederhold, Mark D

    2009-06-01

    Previous research suggests that the effectiveness of virtual reality exposure therapy should increase as the experience becomes more immersive. However, the neural mechanisms underlying the experience of immersion are not yet well understood. To address this question, neural activity during exposure to two virtual worlds was measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Two levels of immersion were used: unimodal (video only) and multimodal (video plus audio). The results indicated increased activity in both auditory and visual sensory cortices during multimodal presentation. Additionally, multimodal presentation elicited increased activity in the hippocampus, a region well known to be involved in learning and memory. The implications of this finding for exposure therapy are discussed. PMID:19500000

  17. Pediatric brainstem glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-four pediatric patients, twenty with presumed and fourteen with biopsy or autopsy proven brainstem gliomas were imaged by CT and MR before radiation therapy. Twenty-eight patients received radiotherapy. Of these, eighteen fit the protocol for combined clinical and MR post-treatment evaluation. No cases of radionecrosis were seen at autopsy. This study shows that MR can demonstrate tumor response to radiation therapy, tumor progression prior to clinical deterioration, post-treatment cyst formation and hemorrhage. Although MR clinical correlation was not optimal on six week post-treatment evaluation, 4-10 months post-treatment MR scanning correlated well with clinical evaluation. MR appears useful in post-therapeutic monitoring of tumor response. (orig.)

  18. Can auditory stady-state responses reflect place-specific cochlear dispersion?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paredes Gallardo, Andreu; Epp, Bastian; Dau, Torsten

    . Previous studies showed the applicability of auditory evoked potentials (AEP) to investigate cochlear dispersion along the basilar membrane (BM) (e.g. Dau et al., 2000). In contrast to those studies, the present study maximizes the response in a given frequency region, aiming to objectively estimate local...

  19. Altered auditory BOLD response to conspecific birdsong in zebra finches with stuttered syllables.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning U Voss

    Full Text Available How well a songbird learns a song appears to depend on the formation of a robust auditory template of its tutor's song. Using functional magnetic resonance neuroimaging we examine auditory responses in two groups of zebra finches that differ in the type of song they sing after being tutored by birds producing stuttering-like syllable repetitions in their songs. We find that birds that learn to produce the stuttered syntax show attenuated blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD responses to tutor's song, and more pronounced responses to conspecific song primarily in the auditory area field L of the avian forebrain, when compared to birds that produce normal song. These findings are consistent with the presence of a sensory song template critical for song learning in auditory areas of the zebra finch forebrain. In addition, they suggest a relationship between an altered response related to familiarity and/or saliency of song stimuli and the production of variant songs with stuttered syllables.

  20. Improved Electrically Evoked Auditory Steady-State Response Thresholds in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmann, Michael; Wouters, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Electrically evoked auditory steady-state responses (EASSRs) are EEG potentials in response to periodic electrical stimuli presented through a cochlear implant. For low-rate pulse trains in the 40-Hz range, electrophysiological thresholds derived from response amplitude growth functions correlate well with behavioral T levels at these rates. The aims of this study were: (1) to improve the correlation between electrophysiological thresholds and behavioral T levels at 900 pps by using amplitude...

  1. Processing Complex Sounds Passing through the Rostral Brainstem: The New Early Filter Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, John E.; Campbell, Tom A.

    2016-01-01

    The rostral brainstem receives both “bottom-up” input from the ascending auditory system and “top-down” descending corticofugal connections. Speech information passing through the inferior colliculus of elderly listeners reflects the periodicity envelope of a speech syllable. This information arguably also reflects a composite of temporal-fine-structure (TFS) information from the higher frequency vowel harmonics of that repeated syllable. The amplitude of those higher frequency harmonics, bearing even higher frequency TFS information, correlates positively with the word recognition ability of elderly listeners under reverberatory conditions. Also relevant is that working memory capacity (WMC), which is subject to age-related decline, constrains the processing of sounds at the level of the brainstem. Turning to the effects of a visually presented sensory or memory load on auditory processes, there is a load-dependent reduction of that processing, as manifest in the auditory brainstem responses (ABR) evoked by to-be-ignored clicks. Wave V decreases in amplitude with increases in the visually presented memory load. A visually presented sensory load also produces a load-dependent reduction of a slightly different sort: The sensory load of visually presented information limits the disruptive effects of background sound upon working memory performance. A new early filter model is thus advanced whereby systems within the frontal lobe (affected by sensory or memory load) cholinergically influence top-down corticofugal connections. Those corticofugal connections constrain the processing of complex sounds such as speech at the level of the brainstem. Selective attention thereby limits the distracting effects of background sound entering the higher auditory system via the inferior colliculus. Processing TFS in the brainstem relates to perception of speech under adverse conditions. Attentional selectivity is crucial when the signal heard is degraded or masked: e

  2. Neurofibromatosis type 2 and auditory brainstem implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Hong-jun; Dennis K.K. Au; Yau Hui; Chun-kuen Chow; Yiu-wah Fan; William Ignace Wei

    2007-01-01

    @@ Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF-2) is one of the most common single gene disorders in the nervous system.For approximately 96% of patients with NF-2 present with bilateral Schwannomas involving the eighth cranial nerves, which may be accompanied by Schwannomas involving other cranial, spinal or peripheral nerves, NF-2 is also referred to as "bilateral acoustic neuromas".

  3. Attention and response control in ADHD. Evaluation through integrated visual and auditory continuous performance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-García, Inmaculada; Delgado-Pardo, Gracia; Roldán-Blasco, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    This study assesses attention and response control through visual and auditory stimuli in a primary care pediatric sample. The sample consisted of 191 participants aged between 7 and 13 years old. It was divided into 2 groups: (a) 90 children with ADHD, according to diagnostic (DSM-IV-TR) (APA, 2002) and clinical (ADHD Rating Scale-IV) (DuPaul, Power, Anastopoulos, & Reid, 1998) criteria, and (b) 101 children without a history of ADHD. The aims were: (a) to determine and compare the performance of both groups in attention and response control, (b) to identify attention and response control deficits in the ADHD group. Assessments were carried out using the Integrated Visual and Auditory Continuous Performance Test (IVA/CPT, Sandford & Turner, 2002). Results showed that the ADHD group had visual and auditory attention deficits, F(3, 170) = 14.38; p ADHD showed inattention, mental processing speed deficits, and loss of concentration with visual stimuli. Both groups yielded a better performance in attention with auditory stimuli. PMID:25734571

  4. Using auditory steady state responses to outline the functional connectivity in the tinnitus brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winfried Schlee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tinnitus is an auditory phantom perception that is most likely generated in the central nervous system. Most of the tinnitus research has concentrated on the auditory system. However, it was suggested recently that also non-auditory structures are involved in a global network that encodes subjective tinnitus. We tested this assumption using auditory steady state responses to entrain the tinnitus network and investigated long-range functional connectivity across various non-auditory brain regions. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using whole-head magnetoencephalography we investigated cortical connectivity by means of phase synchronization in tinnitus subjects and healthy controls. We found evidence for a deviating pattern of long-range functional connectivity in tinnitus that was strongly correlated with individual ratings of the tinnitus percept. Phase couplings between the anterior cingulum and the right frontal lobe and phase couplings between the anterior cingulum and the right parietal lobe showed significant condition x group interactions and were correlated with the individual tinnitus distress ratings only in the tinnitus condition and not in the control conditions. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge this is the first study that demonstrates existence of a global tinnitus network of long-range cortical connections outside the central auditory system. This result extends the current knowledge of how tinnitus is generated in the brain. We propose that this global extend of the tinnitus network is crucial for the continuos perception of the tinnitus tone and a therapeutical intervention that is able to change this network should result in relief of tinnitus.

  5. Electrically evoked auditory nerve responses in the cochlea with normal outer hair cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Tianying; Guo, Menghe; He, Wenxuan; Miller, Josef M.; Nuttall, Alfred L.

    2009-01-01

    As hybrid cochlear implant devices are increasingly used for restoring hearing in patients with residual hearing it is important to understand electrically evoked responses in cochleae having functional hair cells. To test the hypothesis that extracochlear electrical stimulation (EES) from sinusoidal current can provoke an auditory nerve response with normal frequency selectivity, the EES-evoked compound action potential (ECAP) was investigated in this study. Brief sinusoidal electrical curre...

  6. Restoration of auditory evoked responses by human ES-cell-derived otic progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Jongkamonwiwat, Nopporn; Abbas, Leila; Eshtan, Sarah Jacob; Johnson, Stuart L; Kuhn, Stephanie; Milo, Marta; Thurlow, Johanna K; Andrews, Peter W; Marcotti, Walter; Moore, Harry D; Rivolta, Marcelo N

    2012-10-11

    Deafness is a condition with a high prevalence worldwide, produced primarily by the loss of the sensory hair cells and their associated spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs). Of all the forms of deafness, auditory neuropathy is of particular concern. This condition, defined primarily by damage to the SGNs with relative preservation of the hair cells, is responsible for a substantial proportion of patients with hearing impairment. Although the loss of hair cells can be circumvented partially by a cochlear implant, no routine treatment is available for sensory neuron loss, as poor innervation limits the prospective performance of an implant. Using stem cells to recover the damaged sensory circuitry is a potential therapeutic strategy. Here we present a protocol to induce differentiation from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) using signals involved in the initial specification of the otic placode. We obtained two types of otic progenitors able to differentiate in vitro into hair-cell-like cells and auditory neurons that display expected electrophysiological properties. Moreover, when transplanted into an auditory neuropathy model, otic neuroprogenitors engraft, differentiate and significantly improve auditory-evoked response thresholds. These results should stimulate further research into the development of a cell-based therapy for deafness. PMID:22972191

  7. Near-infrared spectroscopic imaging of stimulus-related hemodynamic responses on the neonatal auditory cortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotilahti, Kalle; Nissila, Ilkka; Makela, Riikka; Noponen, Tommi; Lipiainen, Lauri; Gavrielides, Nasia; Kajava, Timo; Huotilainen, Minna; Fellman, Vineta; Merilainen, Pekka; Katila, Toivo

    2005-04-01

    We have used near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to study hemodynamic auditory evoked responses on 7 full-term neonates. Measurements were done simultaneously above both auditory cortices to study the distribution of speech and music processing between hemispheres using a 16-channel frequency-domain instrument. The stimulation consisted of 5-second samples of music and speech with a 25-second silent interval. In response to stimulation, a significant increase in the concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin ([HbO2]) was detected in 6 out of 7 subjects. The strongest responses in [HbO2] were seen near the measurement location above the ear on both hemispheres. The mean latency of the maximum responses was 9.42+/-1.51 s. On the left hemisphere (LH), the maximum amplitude of the average [HbO2] response to the music stimuli was 0.76+/- 0.38 μ M (mean+/-std.) and to the speech stimuli 1.00+/- 0.45 μ+/- μM. On the right hemisphere (RH), the maximum amplitude of the average [HbO2] response was 1.29+/- 0.85 μM to the music stimuli and 1.23+/- 0.93 μM to the speech stimuli. The results indicate that auditory information is processed on both auditory cortices, but LH is more concentrated to process speech than music information. No significant differences in the locations and the latencies of the maximum responses relative to the stimulus type were found.

  8. [Central auditory prosthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenarz, T; Lim, H; Joseph, G; Reuter, G; Lenarz, M

    2009-06-01

    Deaf patients with severe sensory hearing loss can benefit from a cochlear implant (CI), which stimulates the auditory nerve fibers. However, patients who do not have an intact auditory nerve cannot benefit from a CI. The majority of these patients are neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) patients who developed neural deafness due to growth or surgical removal of a bilateral acoustic neuroma. The only current solution is the auditory brainstem implant (ABI), which stimulates the surface of the cochlear nucleus in the brainstem. Although the ABI provides improvement in environmental awareness and lip-reading capabilities, only a few NF2 patients have achieved some limited open set speech perception. In the search for alternative procedures our research group in collaboration with Cochlear Ltd. (Australia) developed a human prototype auditory midbrain implant (AMI), which is designed to electrically stimulate the inferior colliculus (IC). The IC has the potential as a new target for an auditory prosthesis as it provides access to neural projections necessary for speech perception as well as a systematic map of spectral information. In this paper the present status of research and development in the field of central auditory prostheses is presented with respect to technology, surgical technique and hearing results as well as the background concepts of ABI and AMI. PMID:19517084

  9. Neural Hyperactivity of the Central Auditory System in Response to Peripheral Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is increasingly appreciated that cochlear pathology is accompanied by adaptive responses in the central auditory system. The cause of cochlear pathology varies widely, and it seems that few commonalities can be drawn. In fact, despite intricate internal neuroplasticity and diverse external symptoms, several classical injury models provide a feasible path to locate responses to different peripheral cochlear lesions. In these cases, hair cell damage may lead to considerable hyperactivity in the central auditory pathways, mediated by a reduction in inhibition, which may underlie some clinical symptoms associated with hearing loss, such as tinnitus. Homeostatic plasticity, the most discussed and acknowledged mechanism in recent years, is most likely responsible for excited central activity following cochlear damage.

  10. Auditory Neuropathy: Findings of Behavioral, Physiological and Neurophysiological Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Farhadi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Auditory neuropathy (AN can be diagnosed by abnormal auditory brainstem response (ABR, in the presence of normal cochlear microphonic (CM and otoacoustic emissions (OAEs.The aim of this study was to investigate the ABR and other electrodiagnostic test results of 6 patients suspicious to AN with problems in speech recognition. Materials and Methods: this cross sectional study was conducted on 6 AN patients with different ages evaluated by pure tone audiometry, speech discrimination score (SDS , immittance audiometry. ElectroCochleoGraphy , ABR, middle latency response (MLR, Late latency response (LLR, and OAEs. Results: Behavioral pure tone audiometric tests showed moderate to profound hearing loss. SDS was so poor which is not in accordance with pure tone thresholds. All patients had normal tympanogram but absent acoustic reflexes. CMs and OAEs were within normal limits. There was no contra lateral suppression of OAEs. None of cases had normal ABR or MLR although LLR was recorded in 4. Conclusion: All patients in this study are typical cases of auditory neuropathy. Despite having abnormal input, LLR remains normal that indicates differences in auditory evoked potentials related to required neural synchrony. These findings show that auditory cortex may play a role in regulating presentation of deficient signals along auditory pathways in primary steps.

  11. The Effect of Objective Room Acoustic Parameters on Auditory Steady-State Responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zapata Rodriguez, Valentina; M. Harte, James; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Brunskog, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Verification that Hearing Aids (HA) have been fitted correctly in pre-lingual infants and hard-to-test adults is an important emerging application in technical audiology. These test subjects are unable to undergo reliable behavioral testing, so an objective method is required. Auditory steady-state...... responses (ASSR), recorded in a sound field is a promising technology to verify the hearing aid fitting. The test involves the presentation of the auditory stimuli via a loudspeaker, unlike the usual procedure of delivering via insert earphones. Room reverberation clearly may significantly affect the...... features of the stimulus important for eliciting a strong electrophysiological response, and thus complicate its detection. This study investigates the effect of different room acoustic conditions on recorded ASSRs via an auralisation approach using insert earphones. Fifteen normal-hearing listeners were...

  12. Pinpointing brainstem mechanisms responsible for autonomic dysfunction in Rett syndrome: therapeutic perspectives for 5-HT1A agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdala, Ana P; Bissonnette, John M; Newman-Tancredi, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Rett syndrome is a neurological disorder caused by loss of function of methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2). Reduced function of this ubiquitous transcriptional regulator has a devastating effect on the central nervous system. One of the most severe and life-threatening presentations of this syndrome is brainstem dysfunction, which results in autonomic disturbances such as breathing deficits, typified by episodes of breathing cessation intercalated with episodes of hyperventilation or irregular breathing. Defects in numerous neurotransmitter systems have been observed in Rett syndrome both in animal models and patients. Here we dedicate special attention to serotonin due to its role in promoting regular breathing, increasing vagal tone, regulating mood, alleviating Parkinsonian-like symptoms and potential for therapeutic translation. A promising new symptomatic strategy currently focuses on regulation of serotonergic function using highly selective serotonin type 1A (5-HT1A) "biased agonists." We address this newly emerging therapy for respiratory brainstem dysfunction and challenges for translation with a holistic perspective of Rett syndrome, considering potential mood and motor effects. PMID:24910619

  13. Prediction of hearing thresholds: Comparison of cortical evoked response audiometry and auditory steady state response audiometry techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, LLN; Yeung, KNK

    2007-01-01

    The present study evaluated how well auditory steady state response (ASSR) and tone burst cortical evoked response audiometry (CERA) thresholds predict behavioral thresholds in the same participants. A total of 63 ears were evaluated. For ASSR testing, 100% amplitude modulated and 10% frequency modulated tone stimuli at a modulation frequency of 40Hz were used. Behavioral thresholds were closer to CERA thresholds than ASSR thresholds. ASSR and CERA thresholds were closer to behavioral thresho...

  14. Altered Neural Responses to Sounds in Primate Primary Auditory Cortex during Slow-Wave Sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Issa, Elias B.; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2011-01-01

    How sounds are processed by the brain during sleep is an important question for understanding how we perceive the sensory environment in this unique behavioral state. While human behavioral data have indicated selective impairments of sound processing during sleep, brain imaging and neurophysiology studies have reported that overall neural activity in auditory cortex during sleep is surprisingly similar to that during wakefulness. This responsiveness to external stimuli leaves open the questi...

  15. Restoration of auditory evoked responses by human ES cell-derived otic progenitors

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Wei; Jongkamonwiwat, Nopporn; Abbas, Leila; Eshtan, Sarah Jacob; Johnson, Stuart L.; Kuhn, Stephanie; Milo, Marta; Thurlow, Johanna K.; Peter W Andrews; Marcotti, Walter; Moore, Harry D.; Rivolta, Marcelo N

    2012-01-01

    Deafness is a condition with a high prevalence worldwide, produced primarily by the loss of the sensory hair cells and their associated spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs). Of all the forms of deafness, auditory neuropathy is of a particular concern. This condition, defined primarily by damage to the SGNs with relative preservation of the hair cells 1 , is responsible for a substantial proportion of patients with hearing impairment 2 . While the loss of hair cells can be circumvented partially by ...

  16. The olivocochlear reflex strength and cochlear sensitivity are independently modulated by auditory cortex microstimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragicevic, Constantino D; Aedo, Cristian; León, Alex; Bowen, Macarena; Jara, Natalia; Terreros, Gonzalo; Robles, Luis; Delano, Paul H

    2015-04-01

    In mammals, efferent projections to the cochlear receptor are constituted by olivocochlear (OC) fibers that originate in the superior olivary complex. Medial and lateral OC neurons make synapses with outer hair cells and with auditory nerve fibers, respectively. In addition to the OC system, there are also descending projections from the auditory cortex that are directed towards the thalamus, inferior colliculus, cochlear nucleus, and superior olivary complex. Olivocochlear function can be assessed by measuring a brainstem reflex mediated by auditory nerve fibers, cochlear nucleus neurons, and OC fibers. Although it is known that the OC reflex is activated by contralateral acoustic stimulation and produces a suppression of cochlear responses, the influence of cortical descending pathways in the OC reflex is largely unknown. Here, we used auditory cortex electrical microstimulation in chinchillas to study a possible cortical modulation of cochlear and auditory nerve responses to tones in the absence and presence of contralateral noise. We found that cortical microstimulation produces two different peripheral modulations: (i) changes in cochlear sensitivity evidenced by amplitude modulation of cochlear microphonics and auditory nerve compound action potentials and (ii) enhancement or suppression of the OC reflex strength as measured by auditory nerve responses, which depended on the intersubject variability of the OC reflex. Moreover, both corticofugal effects were not correlated, suggesting the presence of two functionally different efferent pathways. These results demonstrate that auditory cortex electrical microstimulation independently modulates the OC reflex strength and cochlear sensitivity. PMID:25663383

  17. Brain stem auditory evoked responses in human infants and adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecox, K.; Galambos, R.

    1974-01-01

    Brain stem evoked potentials were recorded by conventional scalp electrodes in infants (3 weeks to 3 years of age) and adults. The latency of one of the major response components (wave V) is shown to be a function both of click intensity and the age of the subject; this latency at a given signal strength shortens postnatally to reach the adult value (about 6 msec) by 12 to 18 months of age. The demonstrated reliability and limited variability of these brain stem electrophysiological responses provide the basis for an optimistic estimate of their usefulness as an objective method for assessing hearing in infants and adults.

  18. Directionality of auditory nerve fiber responses to pure tone stimuli in the grassfrog, Rana temporaria. I. Spike rate responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, M B; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J

    1997-01-01

    We studied the directionality of spike rate responses of auditory nerve fibers of the grassfrog, Rana temporaria, to pure tone stimuli. All auditory fibers showed spike rate directionality. The strongest directionality was seen at low frequencies (200-400 Hz), where the spike rate could change by...

  19. Auditory responses in the amygdala to social vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadziola, Marie A.

    The underlying goal of this dissertation is to understand how the amygdala, a brain region involved in establishing the emotional significance of sensory input, contributes to the processing of complex sounds. The general hypothesis is that communication calls of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) transmit relevant information about social context that is reflected in the activity of amygdalar neurons. The first specific aim analyzed social vocalizations emitted under a variety of behavioral contexts, and related vocalizations to an objective measure of internal physiological state by monitoring the heart rate of vocalizing bats. These experiments revealed a complex acoustic communication system among big brown bats in which acoustic cues and call structure signal the emotional state of a sender. The second specific aim characterized the responsiveness of single neurons in the basolateral amygdala to a range of social syllables. Neurons typically respond to the majority of tested syllables, but effectively discriminate among vocalizations by varying the response duration. This novel coding strategy underscores the importance of persistent firing in the general functioning of the amygdala. The third specific aim examined the influence of acoustic context by characterizing both the behavioral and neurophysiological responses to natural vocal sequences. Vocal sequences differentially modify the internal affective state of a listening bat, with lower aggression vocalizations evoking the greatest change in heart rate. Amygdalar neurons employ two different coding strategies: low background neurons respond selectively to very few stimuli, whereas high background neurons respond broadly to stimuli but demonstrate variation in response magnitude and timing. Neurons appear to discriminate the valence of stimuli, with aggression sequences evoking robust population-level responses across all sound levels. Further, vocal sequences show improved discrimination among stimuli

  20. Reversible Inactivation of the Auditory Thalamus Disrupts HPA Axis Habituation to Repeated Loud Noise Stress Exposures

    OpenAIRE

    DAY, HEIDI E. W.; Masini, Cher V.; Campeau, Serge

    2009-01-01

    Although habituation to stress is a widely observed adaptive mechanism in response to repeated homotypic challenge exposure, its brain location and mechanism of plasticity remains elusive. And while habituation-related plasticity has been suggested to take place in central limbic regions, recent evidence suggests that sensory sites may provide the underlying substrate for this function. For instance, several brainstem, midbrain, thalamic, and/or cortical auditory processing areas, among other...

  1. Activated Notch Causes Deafness by Promoting a Supporting Cell Phenotype in Developing Auditory Hair Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Grace Savoy-Burke; Felicia A Gilels; Wei Pan; Diana Pratt; Jianwen Que; Lin Gan; White, Patricia M.; Kiernan, Amy E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether activated Notch can promote a supporting cell fate during sensory cell differentiation in the inner ear. Methods An activated form of the Notch1 receptor (NICD) was expressed in early differentiating hair cells using a Gfi1-Cre mouse allele. To determine the effects of activated Notch on developing hair cells, Gfi1-NICD animals and their littermate controls were assessed at 5 weeks for hearing by measuring auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) and distortion product...

  2. Auditory event-related responses to diphthongs in different attention conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, David J; Steinmetzger, Kurt; Tøndering, John

    2016-07-28

    The modulation of auditory event-related potentials (ERP) by attention generally results in larger amplitudes when stimuli are attended. We measured the P1-N1-P2 acoustic change complex elicited with synthetic overt (second formant, F2Δ=1000Hz) and subtle (F2Δ=100Hz) diphthongs, while subjects (i) attended to the auditory stimuli, (ii) ignored the auditory stimuli and watched a film, and (iii) diverted their attention to a visual discrimination task. Responses elicited by diphthongs where F2 values rose and fell were found to be different and this precluded their combined analysis. Multivariate analysis of ERP components from the rising F2 changes showed main effects of attention on P2 amplitude and latency, and N1-P2 amplitude. P2 amplitude decreased by 40% between the attend and ignore conditions, and by 60% between the attend and divert conditions. The effect of diphthong magnitude was significant for components from a broader temporal window which included P1 latency and N1 amplitude. N1 latency did not vary between attention conditions, a finding that may be related to stimulation with a continuous vowel. These data show that a discernible P1-N1-P2 response can be observed to subtle vowel quality transitions, even when the attention of a subject is diverted to an unrelated visual task. PMID:27158036

  3. Brainstem Cavernous Angioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in significant, and potentially life-threatening, symptoms. The nerves that transverse the brainstem control basic, involuntary functions such as respiration, gag reflex, heartbeat regulation, body temperature, pain and heat sensation, ...

  4. Early changes of auditory brain stem evoked response after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma - a prospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, S.K.; Wei, W.I.; Sham, J.S.T.; Choy, D.T.K.; Hui, Y. (Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong (Hong Kong))

    1992-10-01

    A prospective study of the effect of radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma on hearing was carried out on 49 patients who had pure tone, impedance audiometry and auditory brain stem evoked response (ABR) recordings before, immediately, three, six and 12 months after radiotherapy. Fourteen patients complained of intermittent tinnitus after radiotherapy. We found that 11 initially normal ears of nine patients developed a middle ear effusion, three to six months after radiotherapy. There was mixed sensorineural and conductive hearing impairment after radiotherapy. Persistent impairment of ABR was detected immediately after completion of radiotherapy. The waves I-III and I-V interpeak latency intervals were significantly prolonged one year after radiotherapy. The study shows that radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma impairs hearing by acting on the middle ear, the cochlea and the brain stem auditory pathway. (Author).

  5. The Effect of Low Omega-3/Omega-6 Ratio on Auditory Nerve Conduction in Rat Pups.

    OpenAIRE

    Saeid Farahani; Masoud Motasaddi Zarandy; Gholamreza Hassanzadeh; Farzad Shidfar; Shohreh Jalaie; Vida Rahimi

    2015-01-01

    The biological effects of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are determined by their mutual interactions. This interaction extremely affects various functions. Lower consumption of omega-3 during gestation leads to various disorders, even in hearing. We aimed to assess the effect of low omega-3/omega-6 ratios on auditory nerve conduction. In this experimental study, the auditory brainstem response test was performed on 24-day-old rat (n=14). The rats were divided into case (low omega-3/omega-6 r...

  6. 职业性噪声聋患者听觉诱发电位的初步研究%Study on brainstem auditory evoked potentials of patients with occupational noise deaf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓龙刚; 杨寅秋; 李美娟; 何烈纯; 侯旭东

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the correlation between auditor}1 evoked potential (AEP) and occupational noise deaf. Methods 45 cases of patients with occupational noise deaf (24 case with mild deafness, 21 cases with moderate deafness) and 25 individuals with normal healing (control group) were detected by pure tone audiometry (PTA), auditory sieady-siate evoked responses (ASSR), bralnstem auditor)" evoked potentials (BAEP) and 40 Hz auditory event-related potentials (40 Hz AEP) test. The tests results of the two groups were compared. Results There were significant difference in PTA, ASSR, BAEP and 40 Hz AEP test results between the control group and mild, moderate deafness group (P < 0.05); PTA was positively correlated with AEP reacting values (r - 0.722, 0.670, 0.835). Conclusion ASSR, BAEP, 40 Hz AEP tests can provide objective and impartial basis for the diagnosis of occupational noise deaf.%目的 探讨听觉诱发电位与噪声性聋易感性的关系.方法 使用纯音测听(PTA)、多频稳态诱发电位(ASSR)、脑干诱发电位(BAEP)、40 Hz听觉诱发电位(40 Hz AEP)检测45例职业性噪声聋患者(轻度聋24例,中度聋21例)和25例听力正常者(对照组),对PTA结果与ASSR、BAEP、40 Hz AEP反应阈检测结果进行对比研究.结果 对照组PTA、ASSR、BAEP、40 Hz AEP值与轻度和中度噪声聋比较,差异均有统计学意义(均P<0.05),FTA阈值与各听觉诱发电位反应值均存在正相关关系(r=0.722、0.670、0.835).结论 ASSR、BAEP、40 Hz AEP检测能为职业性听力损伤的诊断提供客观、公正的依据.

  7. Missing and delayed auditory responses in young and older children with autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Christopher Edgar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The development of left and right superior temporal gyrus (STG 50ms (M50 and 100ms (M100 auditory responses in typically developing children (TD and in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD was examined. It was hypothesized that (1 M50 responses would be observed equally often in younger and older children, (2 M100 responses would be observed more often in older than younger children indicating later development of secondary auditory areas, and (3 M100 but not M50 would be observed less often in ASD than TD in both age groups, reflecting slower maturation of later developing auditory areas in ASD. Methods: 35 typically developing controls, 63 ASD without language impairment (ASD-LI, and 38 ASD with language impairment (ASD+LI were recruited.The presence or absence of a STG M50 and M100 was scored. Subjects were grouped into younger (6 to 10-years-old and older groups (11 to 15-years-old. Results: Although M50 responses were observed equally often in older and younger subjects and equally often in TD and ASD, left and right M50 responses were delayed in ASD-LI and ASD+LI. Group comparisons showed that in younger subjects M100 responses were observed more often in TD than ASD+LI (90% vs 66%, p=0.04, with no differences between TD and ASD-LI (90% vs 76% p=0.14 or between ASD-LI and ASD+LI (76% vs 66%, p=0.53. In older subjects, whereas no differences were observed between TD and ASD+LI, responses were observed more often in ASD-LI than ASD+LI. Conclusions: Although present in all groups, M50 responses were delayed in ASD, suggesting delayed development of earlier developing auditory areas. Examining the TD data, findings indicated that by 11 years a right M100 should be observed in 100% of subjects and a left M100 in 80% of subjects. Thus, by 11years, lack of a left and especially right M100 offers neurobiological insight into sensory processing that may underlie language or cognitive impairment.

  8. Source analysis of magnetic field responses from the human auditory cortex elicited by short speech sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriki, S; Okita, Y; Hirata, Y

    1995-01-01

    We made a detailed source analysis of the magnetic field responses that were elicited in the human brain by different monosyllabic speech sounds, including vowel, plosive, fricative, and nasal speech. Recordings of the magnetic field responses from a lateral area of the left hemisphere of human subjects were made using a multichannel SQUID magnetometer, having 37 field-sensing coils. A single source of the equivalent current dipole of the field was estimated from the spatial distribution of the evoked responses. The estimated sources of an N1m wave occurring at about 100 ms after the stimulus onset of different monosyllables were located close to each other within a 10-mm-sided cube in the three-dimensional space of the brain. Those sources registered on the magnetic resonance images indicated a restricted area in the auditory cortex, including Heschl's gyri in the superior temporal plane. In the spatiotemporal domain the sources exhibited apparent movements, among which anterior shift with latency increase on the anteroposterior axis and inferior shift on the inferosuperior axis were common in the responses to all monosyllables. However, selective movements that depended on the type of consonants were observed on the mediolateral axis; the sources of plosive and fricative responses shifted laterally with latency increase, but the source of the vowel response shifted medially. These spatiotemporal movements of the sources are discussed in terms of dynamic excitation of the cortical neurons in multiple areas of the human auditory cortex. PMID:7621933

  9. Stress and Auditory Responses of the Otophysan Fish, Cyprinella venusta, to Road Traffic Noise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna A Crovo

    Full Text Available Noise pollution from anthropogenic sources is an increasingly problematic challenge faced by many taxa, including fishes. Recent studies demonstrate that road traffic noise propagates effectively from bridge crossings into surrounding freshwater ecosystems; yet, its effect on the stress response and auditory function of freshwater stream fishes is unexamined. The blacktail shiner (Cyprinella venusta was used as a model to investigate the degree to which traffic noise impacts stress and hearing in exposed fishes. Fish were exposed to an underwater recording of traffic noise played at approximately 140 dB re 1 μPa. Waterborne cortisol samples were collected and quantified using enzyme immunoassay (EIA. Auditory thresholds were assessed in control and traffic exposed groups by measuring auditory evoked potentials (AEPs. After acute exposure to traffic noise, fish exhibited a significant elevation in cortisol levels. Individuals exposed to 2 hours of traffic noise playback had elevated hearing thresholds at 300 and 400 Hz, corresponding to the most sensitive bandwidth for this species.

  10. Loss of auditory sensitivity from inner hair cell synaptopathy can be centrally compensated in the young but not old brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möhrle, Dorit; Ni, Kun; Varakina, Ksenya; Bing, Dan; Lee, Sze Chim; Zimmermann, Ulrike; Knipper, Marlies; Rüttiger, Lukas

    2016-08-01

    A dramatic shift in societal demographics will lead to rapid growth in the number of older people with hearing deficits. Poorer performance in suprathreshold speech understanding and temporal processing with age has been previously linked with progressing inner hair cell (IHC) synaptopathy that precedes age-dependent elevation of auditory thresholds. We compared central sound responsiveness after acoustic trauma in young, middle-aged, and older rats. We demonstrate that IHC synaptopathy progresses from middle age onward and hearing threshold becomes elevated from old age onward. Interestingly, middle-aged animals could centrally compensate for the loss of auditory fiber activity through an increase in late auditory brainstem responses (late auditory brainstem response wave) linked to shortening of central response latencies. In contrast, old animals failed to restore central responsiveness, which correlated with reduced temporal resolution in responding to amplitude changes. These findings may suggest that cochlear IHC synaptopathy with age does not necessarily induce temporal auditory coding deficits, as long as the capacity to generate neuronal gain maintains normal sound-induced central amplitudes. PMID:27318145

  11. Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment Display Reduced Auditory Event-Related Delta Oscillatory Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Kurt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Event-related oscillations (ERO may provide a useful tool for the identification of cognitive deficits in mild cognitive impairment (MCI and Alzheimer's disease (AD. In the present study, we investigate peak-to-peak amplitude of auditory event-related delta oscillations of MCI subjects. Method. The study included twenty-two consecutive patients with MCI recruited in neurology clinic and 21 age- and education-matched normal elderly controls. A classical auditory oddball paradigm was used in the experiments. EEG was recorded from F3, Fz, F4, C3, Cz, C4, P3, Pz, P4, O1, Oz, and O2 locations. The maximum peak-to-peak amplitudes for each subject’s averaged delta response (0.5–2.2 Hz were measured. Results. The amplitudes between groups differed significantly at the frontal and mid-centroparietal locations. ANOVA on delta responses revealed a significant effect for groups (F(1.41 = 4.84, P=0.033, indicating a larger delta response for healthy controls than MCI subjects. Post hoc comparisons revealed that peak-to-peak delta response was significantly larger for healthy controls than for MCI over electrode sites F3, Fz, F4, Cz, C4, and Pz. Discussion. Event-related delta frequency band seems to be the most affected oscillatory response in cognitive impairment due to AD. Therefore, it deserves to be investigated as a candidate electrophysiological biomarker in further studies.

  12. Is the effect of tinnitus on auditory steady-state response amplitude mediated by attention?

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    Eugen eDiesch

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The amplitude of the auditory steady-state response (ASSR is enhanced in tinnitus. As ASSR ampli¬tude is also enhanced by attention, the effect of tinnitus on ASSR amplitude could be interpreted as an effect of attention mediated by tinnitus. As attention effects on the N1 are signi¬fi¬cantly larger than those on the ASSR, if the effect of tinnitus on ASSR amplitude were due to attention, there should be similar amplitude enhancement effects in tinnitus for the N1 component of the auditory evoked response. Methods: MEG recordings of auditory evoked responses which were previously examined for the ASSR (Diesch et al. 2010 were analysed with respect to the N1m component. Like the ASSR previously, the N1m was analysed in the source domain (source space projection. Stimuli were amplitude-modulated tones with one of three carrier fre¬quen¬cies matching the tinnitus frequency or a surrogate frequency 1½ octaves above the audio¬metric edge frequency in con¬trols, the audiometric edge frequency, and a frequency below the audio¬metric edgeResults: In the earlier ASSR study (Diesch et al., 2010, the ASSR amplitude in tinnitus patients, but not in controls, was significantly larger in the (surrogate tinnitus condition than in the edge condition. In the present study, both tinnitus patients and healthy controls show an N1m-amplitude profile identical to the one of ASSR amplitudes in healthy controls. N1m amplitudes elicited by tonal frequencies located at the audiometric edge and at the (surrogate tinnitus frequency are smaller than N1m amplitudes elicited by sub-edge tones and do not differ among each other.Conclusions: There is no N1-amplitude enhancement effect in tinnitus. The enhancement effect of tinnitus on ASSR amplitude cannot be accounted for in terms of attention induced by tinnitus.

  13. Task-specific modulation of human auditory evoked responses in a delayed-match-to-sample task

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    Feng eRong

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we focus our investigation on task-specific cognitive modulation of early cortical auditory processing in human cerebral cortex. During the experiments, we acquired whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG data while participants were performing an auditory delayed-match-to-sample (DMS task and associated control tasks. Using a spatial filtering beamformer technique to simultaneously estimate multiple source activities inside the human brain, we observed a significant DMS-specific suppression of the auditory evoked response to the second stimulus in a sound pair, with the center of the effect being located in the vicinity of the left auditory cortex. For the right auditory cortex, a non-invariant suppression effect was observed in both DMS and control tasks. Furthermore, analysis of coherence revealed a beta band (12 ~ 20 Hz DMS-specific enhanced functional interaction between the sources in left auditory cortex and those in left inferior frontal gyrus, which has been shown to involve in short-term memory processing during the delay period of DMS task. Our findings support the view that early evoked cortical responses to incoming acoustic stimuli can be modulated by task-specific cognitive functions by means of frontal-temporal functional interactions.

  14. Habituation of Auditory Steady State Responses Evoked by Amplitude-Modulated Acoustic Signals in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado-Gutierrez, Pavel; Castro-Fariñas, Anisleidy; Morgado-Rodriguez, Lisbet; Velarde-Reyes, Ernesto; Martínez, Agustín D.; Martínez-Montes, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Generation of the auditory steady state responses (ASSR) is commonly explained by the linear combination of random background noise activity and the stationary response. Based on this model, the decrease of amplitude that occurs over the sequential averaging of epochs of the raw data has been exclusively linked to the cancelation of noise. Nevertheless, this behavior might also reflect the non-stationary response of the ASSR generators. We tested this hypothesis by characterizing the ASSR time course in rats with different auditory maturational stages. ASSR were evoked by 8-kHz tones of different supra-threshold intensities, modulated in amplitude at 115 Hz. Results show that the ASSR amplitude habituated to the sustained stimulation and that dishabituation occurred when deviant stimuli were presented. ASSR habituation increased as animals became adults, suggesting that the ability to filter acoustic stimuli with no-relevant temporal information increased with age. Results are discussed in terms of the current model of the ASSR generation and analysis procedures. They might have implications for audiometric tests designed to assess hearing in subjects who cannot provide reliable results in the psychophysical trials. PMID:26557360

  15. Habituation of auditory steady state responses evoked by amplitudemodulated acoustic signals in rats

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    Pavel Prado-Gutierrez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Generation of the auditory steady state responses (ASSR is commonly explained by the linear combination of random background noise activity and the stationary response. Based on this model, the decrease of amplitude that occurs over the sequential averaging of epochs of the raw data has been exclusively linked to the cancelation of noise. Nevertheless, this behavior might also reflect the non-stationary response of the ASSR generators. We tested this hypothesis by characterizing the ASSR time course in rats with different auditory maturational stages. ASSR were evoked by 8-kHz tones of different supra-threshold intensities, modulated in amplitude at 115 Hz. Results show that the ASSR amplitude habituated to the sustained stimulation and that dishabituation occurred when deviant stimuli were presented. ASSR habituation increased as animals became adults, suggesting that the ability to filter acoustic stimuli with no-relevant temporal information increased with age. Results are discussed in terms of the current model of the ASSR generation and analysis procedures. They might have implications for audiometric tests designed to assess hearing in subjects who cannot provide reliable results in the psychophysical trials.

  16. Early postnatal development of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) expression, TRH receptor binding, and TRH responses in neurons of rat brainstem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, D A; Viana, F; Kanter, R K; Szymeczek-Seay, C L; Berger, A J; Millhorn, D E

    1994-02-01

    We investigated the postnatal development of the thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)-containing raphe system in the brainstem of neonatal rats. Postnatal changes in TRH expression in nucleus (n.) raphe obscurus (ROb) and n. raphe pallidus (RPa) were evaluated by in situ hybridization using an 35S-labeled oligonucleotide probe complementary to TRH precursor mRNA. TRH mRNA expression was low at birth [postnatal day 0 (P0)], but was clearly evident by P7 and increased from that time to reach sustained high levels from P14 to P28. Consistent with this postnatal increase in TRH expression, we found increases in the density of TRH-immunoreactive (IR) fibers, which are derived from ROb and RPa, in the hypoglossal nucleus (nXII). TRH-IR fibers in nXII were very sparse at P0, but increased markedly over the first 2 postnatal weeks. The change in TRH innervation of nXII was closely matched by concomitant increases in 3H-methyl-TRH binding in nXII; specific TRH binding increased from very low levels at birth to high levels of P14. Finally, we recorded intracellularly the electrophysiological responses to TRH of hypoglossal motoneurons (HMs; n = 42) of neonatal rats (P0-P21) in a brainstem slice preparation. The response of neonatal HMs to TRH, in contrast to adult HMs, was highly variable. In some neonatal HMs, even at P0, TRH caused a depolarization with a decrease in input conductance (GN) that was characteristic of the response of all adult HMs. However, in other neonatal HMs, TRH was either without effect or caused a slight depolarization with no apparent change in GN, responses that were unlike those of adult HMs. A response was considered typical (i.e., "adult-like") if GN decreased to < 85% of control. The percentage of cells responding in a typical manner increased progressively from 25% at P0-P2 to 100% after P11. In addition, we found that the density of TRH-sensitive current (normalized to cell capacitance) increased with postnatal age in HMs that responded in a

  17. Auditory steady-state responses in cochlear implant users: Effect of modulation frequency and stimulation artifacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gransier, Robin; Deprez, Hanne; Hofmann, Michael; Moonen, Marc; van Wieringen, Astrid; Wouters, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that objective measures based on stimulation with low-rate pulse trains fail to predict the threshold levels of cochlear implant (CI) users for high-rate pulse trains, as used in clinical devices. Electrically evoked auditory steady-state responses (EASSRs) can be elicited by modulated high-rate pulse trains, and can potentially be used to objectively determine threshold levels of CI users. The responsiveness of the auditory pathway of profoundly hearing-impaired CI users to modulation frequencies is, however, not known. In the present study we investigated the responsiveness of the auditory pathway of CI users to a monopolar 500 pulses per second (pps) pulse train modulated between 1 and 100 Hz. EASSRs to forty-three modulation frequencies, elicited at the subject's maximum comfort level, were recorded by means of electroencephalography. Stimulation artifacts were removed by a linear interpolation between a pre- and post-stimulus sample (i.e., blanking). The phase delay across modulation frequencies was used to differentiate between the neural response and a possible residual stimulation artifact after blanking. Stimulation artifacts were longer than the inter-pulse interval of the 500pps pulse train for recording electrodes ipsilateral to the CI. As a result the stimulation artifacts could not be removed by artifact removal on the bases of linear interpolation for recording electrodes ipsilateral to the CI. However, artifact-free responses could be obtained in all subjects from recording electrodes contralateral to the CI, when subject specific reference electrodes (Cz or Fpz) were used. EASSRs to modulation frequencies within the 30-50 Hz range resulted in significant responses in all subjects. Only a small number of significant responses could be obtained, during a measurement period of 5 min, that originate from the brain stem (i.e., modulation frequencies in the 80-100 Hz range). This reduced synchronized activity of brain stem

  18. (A)musicality in Williams syndrome: examining relationships among auditory perception, musical skill, and emotional responsiveness to music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lense, Miriam D.; Shivers, Carolyn M.; Dykens, Elisabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS), a genetic, neurodevelopmental disorder, is of keen interest to music cognition researchers because of its characteristic auditory sensitivities and emotional responsiveness to music. However, actual musical perception and production abilities are more variable. We examined musicality in WS through the lens of amusia and explored how their musical perception abilities related to their auditory sensitivities, musical production skills, and emotional responsiveness to music. In our sample of 73 adolescents and adults with WS, 11% met criteria for amusia, which is higher than the 4% prevalence rate reported in the typically developing (TD) population. Amusia was not related to auditory sensitivities but was related to musical training. Performance on the amusia measure strongly predicted musical skill but not emotional responsiveness to music, which was better predicted by general auditory sensitivities. This study represents the first time amusia has been examined in a population with a known neurodevelopmental genetic disorder with a range of cognitive abilities. Results have implications for the relationships across different levels of auditory processing, musical skill development, and emotional responsiveness to music, as well as the understanding of gene-brain-behavior relationships in individuals with WS and TD individuals with and without amusia. PMID:23966965

  19. Optogenetic stimulation of the cochlear nucleus using channelrhodopsin-2 evokes activity in the central auditory pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrow, Keith N.; Slama, Michaël C. C.; Owoc, Maryanna; Kozin, Elliott; Hancock, Kenneth; Kempfle, Judith; Edge, Albert; Lacour, Stephanie; Boyden, Edward; Polley, Daniel; Brown, M. Christian; Lee, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Optogenetics has become an important research tool and is being considered as the basis for several neural prostheses. However, few studies have applied optogenetics to the auditory brainstem. This study explored whether optical activation of the cochlear nucleus (CN) elicited responses in neurons in higher centers of the auditory pathway, and it measured the evoked response to optical stimulation. Viral-mediated gene transfer was used to express channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) in the mouse CN. Blue light was delivered via an optical fiber placed near the surface of the infected CN and recordings were made in higher-level centers. Optical stimulation evoked excitatory multiunit spiking activity throughout the tonotopic axis of central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (IC) and the auditory cortex (Actx). The pattern and magnitude of IC activity elicited by optical stimulation was comparable to that obtained with a 50 dB SPL acoustic click stimulus. This broad pattern of activity was consistent with histological confirmation of GFP label of cell bodies and axons throughout the CN. Increasing pulse rates up to 320 Hz did not significantly affect threshold or bandwidth of the IC responses, but rates higher than 50 Hz resulted in desynchronized activity. Optical stimulation also evoked an auditory brainstem response, which had a simpler waveform than the response to acoustic stimulation. Control cases showed no responses to optical stimulation. These data suggest that optogenetic control of central auditory neurons is feasible, but opsins with faster channel kinetics will be necessary to convey information in rates typical of many auditory signals. PMID:25481416

  20. Pediatric brainstem oligodendroglioma

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    Sandeep Mohindra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors present the first report of pediatric brainstem oligodendroglioma, infiltrating midbrain, and medulla oblongata. The report details clinical features, radiological findings, and surgical steps. As this entity is exceedingly uncommon, the overall epidemiology, prognosis, and long-term outcome remain far from established.

  1. The cat's meow: A high-field fMRI assessment of cortical activity in response to vocalizations and complex auditory stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Amee J; Butler, Blake E; Lomber, Stephen G

    2016-02-15

    Sensory systems are typically constructed in a hierarchical fashion such that lower level subcortical and cortical areas process basic stimulus features, while higher level areas reassemble these features into object-level representations. A number of anatomical pathway tracing studies have suggested that the auditory cortical hierarchy of the cat extends from a core region, consisting of the primary auditory cortex (A1) and the anterior auditory field (AAF), to higher level auditory fields that are located ventrally. Unfortunately, limitations on electrophysiological examination of these higher level fields have resulted in an incomplete understanding of the functional organization of the auditory cortex. Thus, the current study uses functional MRI in conjunction with a variety of simple and complex auditory stimuli to provide the first comprehensive examination of function across the entire cortical hierarchy. Auditory cortex function is shown to be largely lateralized to the left hemisphere, and is concentrated bilaterally in fields surrounding the posterior ectosylvian sulcus. The use of narrowband noise stimuli enables the visualization of tonotopic gradients in the posterior auditory field (PAF) and ventral posterior auditory field (VPAF) that have previously been unverifiable using fMRI and pure tones. Furthermore, auditory fields that are inaccessible to more invasive techniques, such as the insular (IN) and temporal (T) cortices, are shown to be selectively responsive to vocalizations. Collectively, these data provide a much needed functional correlate for anatomical examinations of the hierarchy of cortical structures within the cat auditory cortex. PMID:26658927

  2. Effects of auditory training in individuals with high-frequency hearing loss

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    Renata Beatriz Fernandes Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of a formal auditory training program on the behavioral, electrophysiological and subjective aspects of auditory function in individuals with bilateral high-frequency hearing loss. METHOD: A prospective study of seven individuals aged 46 to 57 years with symmetric, moderate high-frequency hearing loss ranging from 3 to 8 kHz was conducted. Evaluations of auditory processing (sound location, verbal and non-verbal sequential memory tests, the speech-in-noise test, the staggered spondaic word test, synthetic sentence identification with competitive ipsilateral and contralateral competitive messages, random gap detection and the standard duration test, auditory brainstem response and long-latency potentials and the administration of the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit questionnaire were performed in a sound booth before and immediately after formal auditory training. RESULTS: All of the participants demonstrated abnormal pre-training long-latency characteristics (abnormal latency or absence of the P3 component and these abnormal characteristics were maintained in six of the seven individuals at the post-training evaluation. No significant differences were found between ears in the quantitative analysis of auditory brainstem responses or long-latency potentials. However, the subjects demonstrated improvements on all behavioral tests. For the questionnaire, the difference on the background noise subscale achieved statistical significance. CONCLUSION: Auditory training in adults with high-frequency hearing loss led to improvements in figure-background hearing skills for verbal sounds, temporal ordination and resolution, and communication in noisy environments. Electrophysiological changes were also observed because, after the training, some long latency components that were absent pre-training were observed during the re-evaluation.

  3. Auditory steady-state evoked response in diagnosing and evaluating hearing in infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Mai; Xiaozhuang Zhang; Qunxin Lai; Yanfei Wu; Nanping Liao; Yi Ye; Zhenghui Zhong

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Auditory steady-state evoked response (ASSR) is one of the new objective electrophysiological methods to test hearing in infants. It can provide a reliable and complete audiogram with specific frequency to help the hearing diagnosis and rehabilitation of hearing and languaging following auditory screening.OBJECTIVE: To compare the response threshold of ASSR with auditory threshold of visual reinforcement audiometry (VRA) in infants failed in the hearing screening for investigating their hearing loss.DESIGN: A comparative observation.SETTINGS: Maternal and child health care hospitals of Guangdong province, Shunde city, Nanhai city and Huadu district.PARTICIPANTS: Totally 321 infants of 0-3 years undergoing ASSR test were selected from the Hearing Center of Guangdong Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital from January 2002 to December 2004.Informed consents were obtained from their guardians. There were 193 cases (60.2%) of 0-6 months, 31 cases (9.7%) of 7-12 months, 17 cases (5.3%) of 13-18 months, 14 cases (4.4%) of 19-24 months, 33 cases of 25-30 months, and 33 cases (10.2%) of 31-36 months.METHODS: ① The 321 infants failed in the hearing screening were tested under sleeping status, the ranges of response threshold distribution in ASSR of different frequencies were analyzed in each age group. ② The infants above 2 years old were also tested with VRA, and their response thresholds were compared between VRA and ASSR. ③ Evaluative standards: The response threshold was < 30 dB for normal hearing, 31-50 dB for mild hearing loss, 51-70 dB for moderate hearing loss, 71-90 dB for severe hearing loss, and > 91 dB for extremely severe hearing loss.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ① ASSR results of the infants failed in the screening; ② Proportion of cases of each response threshold in each age group; ③ Comparison of ASSR response thresholds and VRA auditory thresholds in the infants of 2-3 years old.RESULTS: ①The response threshold was < 30 dB in 47

  4. Distinct features of auditory steady-state responses as compared to transient event-related potentials.

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    Li Zhang

    Full Text Available Transient event-related potentials (ERPs and steady-state responses (SSRs have been popularly employed to investigate the function of the human brain, but their relationship still remains a matter of debate. Some researchers believed that SSRs could be explained by the linear summation of successive transient ERPs (superposition hypothesis, while others believed that SSRs were the result of the entrainment of a neural rhythm driven by the periodic repetition of a sensory stimulus (oscillatory entrainment hypothesis. In the present study, taking auditory modality as an example, we aimed to clarify the distinct features of SSRs, evoked by the 40-Hz and 60-Hz periodic auditory stimulation, as compared to transient ERPs, evoked by a single click. We observed that (1 SSRs were mainly generated by phase synchronization, while late latency responses (LLRs in transient ERPs were mainly generated by power enhancement; (2 scalp topographies of LLRs in transient ERPs were markedly different from those of SSRs; (3 the powers of both 40-Hz and 60-Hz SSRs were significantly correlated, while they were not significantly correlated with the N1 power in transient ERPs; (4 whereas SSRs were dominantly modulated by stimulus intensity, middle latency responses (MLRs were not significantly modulated by both stimulus intensity and subjective loudness judgment, and LLRs were significantly modulated by subjective loudness judgment even within the same stimulus intensity. All these findings indicated that high-frequency SSRs were different from both MLRs and LLRs in transient ERPs, thus supporting the possibility of oscillatory entrainment hypothesis to the generation of SSRs. Therefore, SSRs could be used to explore distinct neural responses as compared to transient ERPs, and help us reveal novel and reliable neural mechanisms of the human brain.

  5. Correlation of auditory brain stem response and the MRI measurements in neuro-degenerative disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamei, Hidekazu (Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1989-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to elucidate correlations of several MRI measurements of the cranium and brain, functioning as a volume conductor, to the auditory brain stem response (ABR) in neuro-degenerative disorders. The subjects included forty-seven patients with spinocerebellar degeneration (SCD) and sixteen of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Statistically significant positive correlations were found between I-V and III-V interpeak latencies (IPLs) and the area of cranium and brain in the longitudinal section of SCD patients, and between I-III and III-V IPLs and the area in the longitudinal section of those with ALS. And, also there were statistically significant correlations between the amplitude of the V wave and the area of brain stem as well as that of the cranium in the longitudinal section of SCD patients, and between the amplitude of the V wave and the area of the cerebrum in the longitudinal section of ALS. In conclusion, in the ABR, the IPLs were prolonged and the amplitude of the V wave was decreased while the MRI size of the cranium and brain increased. When the ABR is applied to neuro-degenerative disorders, it might be important to consider not only the conduction of the auditory tracts in the brain stem, but also the correlations of the size of the cranium and brain which act as a volume conductor. (author).

  6. Correlation of auditory brain stem response and the MRI measurements in neuro-degenerative disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to elucidate correlations of several MRI measurements of the cranium and brain, functioning as a volume conductor, to the auditory brain stem response (ABR) in neuro-degenerative disorders. The subjects included forty-seven patients with spinocerebellar degeneration (SCD) and sixteen of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Statistically significant positive correlations were found between I-V and III-V interpeak latencies (IPLs) and the area of cranium and brain in the longitudinal section of SCD patients, and between I-III and III-V IPLs and the area in the longitudinal section of those with ALS. And, also there were statistically significant correlations between the amplitude of the V wave and the area of brain stem as well as that of the cranium in the longitudinal section of SCD patients, and between the amplitude of the V wave and the area of the cerebrum in the longitudinal section of ALS. In conclusion, in the ABR, the IPLs were prolonged and the amplitude of the V wave was decreased while the MRI size of the cranium and brain increased. When the ABR is applied to neuro-degenerative disorders, it might be important to consider not only the conduction of the auditory tracts in the brain stem, but also the correlations of the size of the cranium and brain which act as a volume conductor. (author)

  7. Linguistic category structure influences early auditory processing: Converging evidence from mismatch responses and cortical oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharinger, Mathias; Monahan, Philip J; Idsardi, William J

    2016-03-01

    While previous research has established that language-specific knowledge influences early auditory processing, it is still controversial as to what aspects of speech sound representations determine early speech perception. Here, we propose that early processing primarily depends on information propagated top-down from abstractly represented speech sound categories. In particular, we assume that mid-vowels (as in 'bet') exert less top-down effects than the high-vowels (as in 'bit') because of their less specific (default) tongue height position as compared to either high- or low-vowels (as in 'bat'). We tested this assumption in a magnetoencephalography (MEG) study where we contrasted mid- and high-vowels, as well as the low- and high-vowels in a passive oddball paradigm. Overall, significant differences between deviants and standards indexed reliable mismatch negativity (MMN) responses between 200 and 300ms post-stimulus onset. MMN amplitudes differed in the mid/high-vowel contrasts and were significantly reduced when a mid-vowel standard was followed by a high-vowel deviant, extending previous findings. Furthermore, mid-vowel standards showed reduced oscillatory power in the pre-stimulus beta-frequency band (18-26Hz), compared to high-vowel standards. We take this as converging evidence for linguistic category structure to exert top-down influences on auditory processing. The findings are interpreted within the linguistic model of underspecification and the neuropsychological predictive coding framework. PMID:26780574

  8. Top-down modulation of the auditory steady-state response in a task-switch paradigm

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    Nadia Müller

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Auditory selective attention is an important mechanism for top-down selection of the vast amount of auditory information our perceptual system is exposed to. In the present study, the impact of attention on auditory steady-state responses - previously shown to be generated in primary auditory regions - was investigated. This issue is still a matter of debate and recent findings point to a complex pattern of attentional effects on the aSSR. The present study aimed at shedding light on the involvement of ipsilateral and contralateral activations to the attended sound taking into account hemispheric differences and a possible dependency on modulation frequency. In aid of this, a dichotic listening experiment was designed using amplitude-modulated tones that were presented to the left and right ear simultaneously. Participants had to detect target tones in a cued ear while their brain activity was assessed using MEG. Thereby, a modulation of the aSSR by attention could be revealed, interestingly restricted to the left hemisphere and 20 Hz responses: Contralateral activations were enhanced while ipsilateral activations turned out to be reduced. Thus, our findings support and extend recent findings, showing that auditory attention can influence the aSSR, but only under specific circumstances and in a complex pattern regarding the different effects for ipsilateral and contralateral activations.

  9. Scalp-recorded induced γ-band responses to auditory stimulation and its correlations with saccadic muscle-activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuval-Greenberg, Shlomit; Deouell, Leon Y

    2011-03-01

    We previously showed that the transient broadband induced gamma-band response in EEG (iGBRtb) appearing around 200-300 ms following a visual stimulus reflects the contraction of extra-ocular muscles involved in the execution of saccades, rather than neural oscillations. Several previous studies reported induced gamma-band responses also following auditory stimulation. It is still an open question whether, similarly to visual paradigms, such auditory paradigms are also sensitive to the saccadic confound. In the current study we address this question using simultaneous eye-tracking and EEG recordings during an auditory oddball paradigm. Subjects were instructed to respond to a rare target defined by sound source location, while fixating on a central screen. Results show that, similar to what was found in visual paradigms, saccadic rate displayed typical temporal dynamics including a post-stimulus decrease followed by an increase. This increase was more moderate, had a longer latency, and was less consistent across subjects than was found in the visual case. Crucially, the temporal dynamics of the induced gamma response were similar to those of saccadic-rate modulation. This suggests that the auditory induced gamma-band responses recorded on the scalp may also be affected by saccadic muscle activity. PMID:20665099

  10. Electrophysiological mismatch response recorded in awake pigeons from the avian functional equivalent of the primary auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schall, Ulrich; Müller, Bernhard W; Kärgel, Christian; Güntürkün, Onur

    2015-03-25

    The neural response to occasional variations in acoustic stimuli in a regular sequence of sounds generates an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-modulated event-related potential in primates and rodents in the primary auditory cortex known as mismatch negativity (MMN). The current study investigated MMN in pigeons (Columba livia L) through intracranial recordings from Field L of the caudomedial nidopallium, the avian functional equivalent of the mammalian primary auditory cortex. Auditory evoked field potentials were recorded from awake birds using a low-frequency (800 Hz) and high-frequency (1400 Hz) deviant auditory oddball procedure with deviant-as-standard (flip-flop design) and multiple-standard control conditions. An MMN-like field potential was recorded and blocked with systemic 5 mg/kg ketamine administration. Our results are similar to human and rodent findings of an MMN-like event-related potential in birds suggestive of similar auditory sensory memory mechanisms in birds and mammals that are homologue from a common ancestor 300 million years ago or resulted from convergent evolution. PMID:25646582

  11. Auditory Learning. Dimensions in Early Learning Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigmond, Naomi K.; Cicci, Regina

    The monograph discusses the psycho-physiological operations for processing of auditory information, the structure and function of the ear, the development of auditory processes from fetal responses through discrimination, language comprehension, auditory memory, and auditory processes related to written language. Disorders of auditory learning…

  12. Effects of ZNF804A on auditory P300 response in schizophrenia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donoghue, T

    2014-01-01

    The common variant rs1344706 within the zinc-finger protein gene ZNF804A has been strongly implicated in schizophrenia (SZ) susceptibility by a series of recent genetic association studies. Although associated with a pattern of altered neural connectivity, evidence that increased risk is mediated by an effect on cognitive deficits associated with the disorder has been equivocal. This study investigated whether the same ZNF804A risk allele was associated with variation in the P300 auditory-evoked response, a cognitively relevant putative endophenotype for SZ. We compared P300 responses in carriers and noncarriers of the ZNF804A risk allele genotype groups in Irish patients and controls (n=97). P300 response was observed to vary according to genotype in this sample, such that risk allele carriers showed relatively higher P300 response compared with noncarriers. This finding accords with behavioural data reported by our group and others. It is also consistent with the idea that ZNF804A may have an impact on cortical efficiency, reflected in the higher levels of activations required to achieve comparable behavioural accuracy on the task used.

  13. Hypotensive response in spontaneously hypertensive rats following microinjection of α-methylnoradrenaline in the caudal brain-stem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandberg, P.; Jong, Wybren de

    1979-01-01

    Local microinjection of 1.25 nmol (-)-α-methylnoradrenaline in the A2-region of the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) caused a decrease of blood pressure and heart rate in both spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto (W/K) rats. Although the maximal responses in both strains did not diffe

  14. Spectral and Temporal Acoustic Features Modulate Response Irregularities within Primary Auditory Cortex Columns.

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    Andres Carrasco

    Full Text Available Assemblies of vertically connected neurons in the cerebral cortex form information processing units (columns that participate in the distribution and segregation of sensory signals. Despite well-accepted models of columnar architecture, functional mechanisms of inter-laminar communication remain poorly understood. Hence, the purpose of the present investigation was to examine the effects of sensory information features on columnar response properties. Using acute recording techniques, extracellular response activity was collected from the right hemisphere of eight mature cats (felis catus. Recordings were conducted with multichannel electrodes that permitted the simultaneous acquisition of neuronal activity within primary auditory cortex columns. Neuronal responses to simple (pure tones, complex (noise burst and frequency modulated sweeps, and ecologically relevant (con-specific vocalizations acoustic signals were measured. Collectively, the present investigation demonstrates that despite consistencies in neuronal tuning (characteristic frequency, irregularities in discharge activity between neurons of individual A1 columns increase as a function of spectral (signal complexity and temporal (duration acoustic variations.

  15. The Reduced Cochlear Output and the Failure to Adapt the Central Auditory Response Causes Tinnitus in Noise Exposed Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Rüttiger, Lukas; Singer, Wibke; Panford-Walsh, Rama; Matsumoto, Masahiro; Lee, Sze Chim; Zuccotti, Annalisa; Zimmermann, Ulrike; Jaumann, Mirko; Rohbock, Karin; Xiong, Hao; Knipper, Marlies

    2013-01-01

    Tinnitus is proposed to be caused by decreased central input from the cochlea, followed by increased spontaneous and evoked subcortical activity that is interpreted as compensation for increased responsiveness of central auditory circuits. We compared equally noise exposed rats separated into groups with and without tinnitus for differences in brain responsiveness relative to the degree of deafferentation in the periphery. We analyzed (1) the number of CtBP2/RIBEYE-positive particles in ribbo...

  16. Randomized, Prospective, Three-Arm Study to Confirm the Auditory Safety and Efficacy of Artemether-Lumefantrine in Colombian Patients with Uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum Malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Carrasquilla, Gabriel; Barón, Clemencia; Monsell, Edwin M; Cousin, Marc; Walter, Verena; Lefèvre, Gilbert; Sander, Oliver; Fisher, Laurel M.

    2012-01-01

    The safety of artemether-lumefantrine in patients with acute, uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria was investigated prospectively using the auditory brainstem response (ABR) and pure-tone thresholds. Secondary outcomes included polymerase chain reaction-corrected cure rates. Patients were randomly assigned in a 3:1:1 ratio to either artemether-lumefantrine (N = 159), atovaquone-proguanil (N = 53), or artesunate-mefloquine (N = 53). The null hypothesis (primary outcome), claiming that t...

  17. Auditory responses of engrailed and invected-expressing Johnston's Organ neurons in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeline Pézier

    Full Text Available The roles of the transcription factor Engrailed (En, and its paralogue Invected (Inv, in adult Drosophila Johnston's Organ sensory neurons are unknown. We used en-GAL4 driven CD8-GFP and antibody staining to characterize these neurons in the pedicel (second antennal segment. The majority of En and Inv-expressing Johnston's Organ neurons (En-JONs are located in the ventral part of the posterior group of JONs, with only a few in the medial group. Anatomical classification of En-JON axon projections shows they are mainly type A and E, with a few type B. Extracellular recording of sound-evoked potentials (SEPs from the antennal nerve was used along with Kir2.1 silencing to assess the contribution that En-JONs make to the auditory response to pure-tone sound stimuli. Silencing En-JONs reduces the SEP amplitude at the onset of the stimulus by about half at 100, 200 and 400 Hz, and also reduces the steady-state response to 200 Hz. En-JONs respond to 82 dB and 92 dB sounds but not 98 dB. Despite their asymmetrical distribution in the Johnston's Organ they respond equally strongly to both directions of movement of the arista. This implies that individual neurons are excited in both directions, a conclusion supported by reanalysis of the morphology of the pedicel-funicular joint. Other methods of silencing the JONs were also used: RNAi against the voltage-gated Na⁺ channel encoded by the para gene, expression of attenuated diphtheria toxin, and expression of a modified influenza toxin M2(H37A. Only the latter was found to be more effective than Kir2.1. Three additional JON subsets were characterized using Flylight GAL4 lines. inv-GAL4 88B12 and Gycβ100B-GAL4 12G03 express in different subsets of A group neurons and CG12484-GAL4 91G04 is expressed in B neurons. All three contribute to the auditory response to 200 Hz tones.

  18. Cochlear and brainstem audiologic findings in normal hearing tinnitus subjects in comparison with non-tinnitus control group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadman Nemati

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available While most tinnitus cases have some degree of hearing impairment, a small percent of the patients admitted to Ear, Nose and Throat Clinics or Hearing Evaluation Centers are those who complain of tinnitus despite having normal hearing thresholds. Present study was performed in order to better understanding of the probable causes of tinnitus and to investigate possible changes in the cochlear and auditory brainstem function in normal hearing patients with chronic tinnitus. Altogether, 63 ears (31 ears with tinnitus and 32 ears without tinnitus were examined. The prevalence of transient evoked otoacoustic emissions and characteristics of the auditory brainstem response components including wave latencies and wave amplitudes was determined in the two groups and analyzed with appropriate statistical methods. There was no difference between the prevalence of transient evoked emissions in the two groups. The mean difference between absolute latencies of waves I, III and V was less than 0.1 ms between the two groups that were not statistically significant. Also, the interpeak latency values of I-III, III-V and I-V in both groups had no significant difference. Only the V/I amplitude ratio in the tinnitus group was significantly larger than the other group (p =0.04. The changes observed in amplitude of waves, especially in the later ones, can be considered as an Audiologic finding in normal hearing tinnitus subjects and its possible role in generation of tinnitus in these patients must be investigated.

  19. Auditory stimulation with music influences the geometric indices of heart rate variability in response to the postural change maneuver

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    Bianca C. R. de Castro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is poor in the literature the behavior of the geometric indices of heart rate variability (HRV during the musical auditory stimulation. The objective is to investigate the acute effects of classic musical auditory stimulation on the geometric indexes of HRV in women in response to the postural change maneuver (PCM. We evaluated 11 healthy women between 18 and 25 years old. We analyzed the following indices: Triangular index, Triangular interpolation of RR intervals and Poincarι plot (standard deviation of the instantaneous variability of the beat-to beat heart rate [SD1], standard deviation of long-term continuous RR interval variability and Ratio between the short - and long-term variations of RR intervals [SD1/SD2] ratio. HRV was recorded at seated rest for 10 min. The women quickly stood up from a seated position in up to 3 s and remained standing still for 15 min. HRV was recorded at the following periods: Rest, 0-5 min, 5-10 min and 10-15 min during standing. In the second protocol, the subject was exposed to auditory musical stimulation (Pachelbel-Canon in D for 10 min at seated position before standing position. Shapiro-Wilk to verify normality of data and ANOVA for repeated measures followed by the Bonferroni test for parametric variables and Friedman′s followed by the Dunn′s posttest for non-parametric distributions. In the first protocol, all indices were reduced at 10-15 min after the volunteers stood up. In the protocol musical auditory stimulation, the SD1 index was reduced at 5-10 min after the volunteers stood up compared with the music period. The SD1/SD2 ratio was decreased at control and music period compared with 5-10 min after the volunteers stood up. Musical auditory stimulation attenuates the cardiac autonomic responses to the PCM.

  20. Hearing aid fitting results in a case of a patient with auditory neuropathy

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    Dell´Aringa, Ana Helena Bannwart

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Auditory Neuropathy is described recently as a hearing loss characterized by the preservation of outer hair cells and absence of auditory brainstem responses. Objective: To present a case report of hearing aid fitting in a patient with Auditory Neuropathy. Case Report: S.A.P., male, 32 years old, sought the Otorhinolaryngology Service after five years of Guillain-Barré syndrome, complaining of progressive and bilateral tinnitus auditory loss in both ears. The audiological evaluation resulted in: severe sensorioneural hearing deficiency with bilateral irregular configuration; speech recognition rate of 0% and speech detection rate in 35dB in both ears; type A tympanometric curve and absent ipsilateral, bilateral and contralateral reflexes; absence of waves and presence of cochlear microphonics in both ears in the auditory evoked potential and present bilateral distortion product-evoked otoacoustic emissions. The speech perception test was performed with polysyllabic words and lip reading, and presented 44% of hit with hearing aid and 12% without it. Final Comments: Despite the differences in the process of hearing aid habilitation and rehabilitation, we conclude that sound amplification brought benefits to the patient with auditory neuropathy.

  1. Early Hearing-Impairment Results in Crossmodal Reorganization of Ferret Core Auditory Cortex

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    M. Alex Meredith

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous investigations of cortical crossmodal plasticity, most often in congenital or early-deaf subjects, have indicated that secondary auditory cortical areas reorganize to exhibit visual responsiveness while the core auditory regions are largely spared. However, a recent study of adult-deafened ferrets demonstrated that core auditory cortex was reorganized by the somatosensory modality. Because adult animals have matured beyond their critical period of sensory development and plasticity, it was not known if adult-deafening and early-deafening would generate the same crossmodal results. The present study used young, ototoxically-lesioned ferrets (n=3 that, after maturation (avg. = 173 days old, showed significant hearing deficits (avg. threshold = 72 dB SPL. Recordings from single-units (n=132 in core auditory cortex showed that 72% were activated by somatosensory stimulation (compared to 1% in hearing controls. In addition, tracer injection into early hearing-impaired core auditory cortex labeled essentially the same auditory cortical and thalamic projection sources as seen for injections in the hearing controls, indicating that the functional reorganization was not the result of new or latent projections to the cortex. These data, along with similar observations from adult-deafened and adult hearing-impaired animals, support the recently proposed brainstem theory for crossmodal plasticity induced by hearing loss.

  2. Gap prepulse inhibition of the auditory late response in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Yunseo; Ahn, Joong Woo; Kwon, Chiheon; Suh, Myung-Whan; Lee, Jun Ho; Oh, Seung Ha; Kim, Hee Chan

    2015-11-01

    The gap-startle paradigm has been used as a behavioral method for tinnitus screening in animal studies. This study aimed to investigate gap prepulse inhibition (GPI) of the auditory late response (ALR) as the objective response of the gap-intense sound paradigm in humans. ALRs were recorded in response to gap-intense and no-gap-intense sound stimuli in 27 healthy subjects. The amplitudes of the baseline-to-peak (N1, P2, and N2) and the peak-to-peak (N1P2 and P2N2) were compared between two averaged ALRs. The variations in the inhibition ratios of N1P2 and P2N2 during the experiment were analyzed by increasing stimuli repetitions. The effect of stimulus parameter adjustments on GPI ratios was evaluated. No-gap-intense sound stimuli elicited greater peak amplitudes than gap-intense sound stimuli, and significant differences were found across all peaks. The overall mean inhibition ratios were significantly lower than 1.0, where the value 1.0 indicates that there were no differences between gap-intense and no-gap-intense sound responses. The initial decline in GPI ratios was shown in N1P2 and P2N2 complexes, and this reduction was nearly complete after 100 stimulus repetitions. Significant effects of gap length and interstimulus interval on GPI ratios were observed. We found significant inhibition of ALR peak amplitudes in performing the gap-intense sound paradigm in healthy subjects. The N1P2 complex represented GPI well in terms of suppression degree and test-retest reliability. Our findings offer practical information for the comparative study of healthy subjects and tinnitus patients using the gap-intense sound paradigm with the ALR. PMID:26272085

  3. Klinefelter syndrome has increased brain responses to auditory stimuli and motor output, but not to visual stimuli or Stroop adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallentin, Mikkel; Skakkebæk, Anne; Bojesen, Anders; Fedder, Jens; Laurberg, Peter; Østergaard, John R; Hertz, Jens Michael; Pedersen, Anders Degn; Gravholt, Claus Højbjerg

    2016-01-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (47, XXY) (KS) is a genetic syndrome characterized by the presence of an extra X chromosome and low level of testosterone, resulting in a number of neurocognitive abnormalities, yet little is known about brain function. This study investigated the fMRI-BOLD response from KS relative to a group of Controls to basic motor, perceptual, executive and adaptation tasks. Participants (N: KS = 49; Controls = 49) responded to whether the words "GREEN" or "RED" were displayed in green or red (incongruent versus congruent colors). One of the colors was presented three times as often as the other, making it possible to study both congruency and adaptation effects independently. Auditory stimuli saying "GREEN" or "RED" had the same distribution, making it possible to study effects of perceptual modality as well as Frequency effects across modalities. We found that KS had an increased response to motor output in primary motor cortex and an increased response to auditory stimuli in auditory cortices, but no difference in primary visual cortices. KS displayed a diminished response to written visual stimuli in secondary visual regions near the Visual Word Form Area, consistent with the widespread dyslexia in the group. No neural differences were found in inhibitory control (Stroop) or in adaptation to differences in stimulus frequencies. Across groups we found a strong positive correlation between age and BOLD response in the brain's motor network with no difference between groups. No effects of testosterone level or brain volume were found. In sum, the present findings suggest that auditory and motor systems in KS are selectively affected, perhaps as a compensatory strategy, and that this is not a systemic effect as it is not seen in the visual system. PMID:26958463

  4. Klinefelter syndrome has increased brain responses to auditory stimuli and motor output, but not to visual stimuli or Stroop adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkel Wallentin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Klinefelter syndrome (47, XXY (KS is a genetic syndrome characterized by the presence of an extra X chromosome and low level of testosterone, resulting in a number of neurocognitive abnormalities, yet little is known about brain function. This study investigated the fMRI-BOLD response from KS relative to a group of Controls to basic motor, perceptual, executive and adaptation tasks. Participants (N: KS = 49; Controls = 49 responded to whether the words “GREEN” or “RED” were displayed in green or red (incongruent versus congruent colors. One of the colors was presented three times as often as the other, making it possible to study both congruency and adaptation effects independently. Auditory stimuli saying “GREEN” or “RED” had the same distribution, making it possible to study effects of perceptual modality as well as Frequency effects across modalities. We found that KS had an increased response to motor output in primary motor cortex and an increased response to auditory stimuli in auditory cortices, but no difference in primary visual cortices. KS displayed a diminished response to written visual stimuli in secondary visual regions near the Visual Word Form Area, consistent with the widespread dyslexia in the group. No neural differences were found in inhibitory control (Stroop or in adaptation to differences in stimulus frequencies. Across groups we found a strong positive correlation between age and BOLD response in the brain's motor network with no difference between groups. No effects of testosterone level or brain volume were found. In sum, the present findings suggest that auditory and motor systems in KS are selectively affected, perhaps as a compensatory strategy, and that this is not a systemic effect as it is not seen in the visual system.

  5. Auditory Processing Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auditory Processing Disorders Auditory processing disorders (APDs) are referred to by many names: central auditory processing disorders , auditory perceptual disorders , and central auditory disorders . APDs ...

  6. Auditory nerve synapses persist in ventral cochlear nucleus long after loss of acoustic input in mice with early-onset progressive hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Brian; Fiorillo, Benjamin; Ryugo, David K; Lauer, Amanda M

    2015-04-24

    Perceptual performance in persons with hearing loss, especially those using devices to restore hearing, is not fully predicted by traditional audiometric measurements designed to evaluate the status of peripheral function. The integrity of auditory brainstem synapses may vary with different forms of hearing loss, and differential effects on the auditory nerve-brain interface may have particularly profound consequences for the transfer of sound from ear to brain. Loss of auditory nerve synapses in ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) has been reported after acoustic trauma, ablation of the organ of Corti, and administration of ototoxic compounds. The effects of gradually acquired forms deafness on these synapses are less well understood. We investigated VCN gross morphology and auditory nerve synapse integrity in DBA/2J mice with early-onset progressive sensorineural hearing loss. Hearing status was confirmed using auditory brainstem response audiometry and acoustic startle responses. We found no change in VCN volume, number of macroneurons, or number of VGLUT1-positive auditory nerve terminals between young adult and older, deaf DBA/2J. Cell-type specific analysis revealed no difference in the number of VGLUT1 puncta contacting bushy and multipolar cell body profiles, but the terminals were smaller in deaf DBA/2J mice. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the presence of numerous healthy, vesicle-filled auditory nerve synapses in older, deaf DBA/2J mice. The present results suggest that synapses can be preserved over a relatively long time-course in gradually acquired deafness. Elucidating the mechanisms supporting survival of central auditory nerve synapses in models of acquired deafness may reveal new opportunities for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25686750

  7. Dynamic faces speed up the onset of auditory cortical spiking responses during vocal detection

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrasekaran, Chandramouli; Lemus, Luis; Asif A Ghazanfar

    2013-01-01

    We combine facial motion with voices to help us hear better, but the role that low-level sensory areas such as the auditory cortex may play in this process is unclear. We combined a vocalization detection task with auditory cortical physiology in monkeys to bridge this epistemic gap. Surprisingly, and contrary to previous assumptions and hypotheses, changes in firing rate had no clear relationship to the detection advantage that dynamic faces provided when listening for vocalizations. Instead...

  8. Control of phasic firing by a background leak current in avian forebrain auditory neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Andreotti Dagostin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Central neurons express a variety of neuronal types and ion channels that promote firing heterogeneity among their distinct neuronal populations. Action potential (AP phasic firing, produced by low-threshold voltage activated potassium currents (VAKCs, is commonly observed in mammalian brainstem neurons involved in the processing of temporal properties of the acoustic information. The avian caudomedial nidopallium (NCM is an auditory area analogous to portions of the mammalian auditory cortex that is involved in the perceptual discrimination and memorization of birdsong and shows complex responses to auditory stimuli We performed in vitro whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in brain slices from adult zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata and observed that half of NCM neurons fire APs phasically in response to membrane depolarizations, while the rest fire transiently or tonically. Phasic neurons fired APs faster and with more temporal precision than tonic and transient neurons. These neurons had similar membrane resting potentials, but phasic neurons had lower membrane input resistance and time constant. Surprisingly phasic neurons did not express low-threshold VAKCs, which curtailed firing in phasic mammalian brainstem neurons, having similar VAKCs than the other NCM neurons. The phasic firing was determined not by VAKCs, but by the potassium background leak conductances, which was more prominently expressed in phasic neurons, a result corroborated by pharmacological, dynamic-clamp and modeling experiments. These results reveal a new role for leak currents in generating firing diversity in central neurons.

  9. Control of Phasic Firing by a Background Leak Current in Avian Forebrain Auditory Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagostin, André A; Lovell, Peter V; Hilscher, Markus M; Mello, Claudio V; Leão, Ricardo M

    2015-01-01

    Central neurons express a variety of neuronal types and ion channels that promote firing heterogeneity among their distinct neuronal populations. Action potential (AP) phasic firing, produced by low-threshold voltage-activated potassium currents (VAKCs), is commonly observed in mammalian brainstem neurons involved in the processing of temporal properties of the acoustic information. The avian caudomedial nidopallium (NCM) is an auditory area analogous to portions of the mammalian auditory cortex that is involved in the perceptual discrimination and memorization of birdsong and shows complex responses to auditory stimuli We performed in vitro whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in brain slices from adult zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) and observed that half of NCM neurons fire APs phasically in response to membrane depolarizations, while the rest fire transiently or tonically. Phasic neurons fired APs faster and with more temporal precision than tonic and transient neurons. These neurons had similar membrane resting potentials, but phasic neurons had lower membrane input resistance and time constant. Surprisingly phasic neurons did not express low-threshold VAKCs, which curtailed firing in phasic mammalian brainstem neurons, having similar VAKCs to other NCM neurons. The phasic firing was determined not by VAKCs, but by the potassium background leak conductances, which was more prominently expressed in phasic neurons, a result corroborated by pharmacological, dynamic-clamp, and modeling experiments. These results reveal a new role for leak currents in generating firing diversity in central neurons. PMID:26696830

  10. Peak latency prolongation of Ⅴ wave in brainstem auditory evoked potential during intraoperative monitoring of acoustic neuroma surgery%脑干听觉诱发电位的Ⅴ波PL延长在听神经瘤手术监护中的应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包国庆; 朱沂; 李建新; 杨小朋

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨BAEP的Ⅴ波PL延长在听神经瘤手术中的应用价值. 方法 回顾性分析55例听神经瘤手术患者行BAEP术前检查、术中监护及术后疗效评估,分析Ⅴ波PL延长不同指标的监测结果. 结果 以Ⅴ波PL延长>0.6 ms为标准,脑干或听神经损伤的灵敏度100%,特异度95.3%,误诊率4.7%,漏诊率0%,符合率96.4%.以Ⅴ波PL延长>1.0 ms为标准,灵敏度58.3%,特异度97.7%,误诊率2.3%,漏诊率41.7%,符合率89.1%. 结论 BAEP监护听神经瘤手术中,V波PL延长>0.6 ms有较高的敏感度和特异度,作为术中监护报警指标更合适.%Objective To explore the applied value of peak latency (PL) prolongation of Ⅴ wave in brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) during intraoperative monitoring of acoustic neuroma surgery. Methods The preoperative BAEP examination data,intraoperative monitoring and postoperative evaluation data in 55 patients with acoustic neuroma were retrospectively analyzed; the monitoring results under the circumstance that different degrees of prolongation of PL of Ⅴ wave were chosen were analyzed. Results The PL prolongation of Ⅴ wave >0.6 ms was used as the baseline,the sensitivity of diagnosing the brainstem or acoustic nerve injury was 100%,the specificity was 95.3%,the misdiagnosis rate was 4.7%,the missed diagnosis rate was 0% and the accordance rate was 96.4%.The PL prolongation of Ⅴ wave >1.0 ms was used as the baseline,the sensitivity of diagnosing the brainstem or acoustic nerve injury was 58.3%,the specificity was 97.7%,the misdiagnosis rate was 2.3%,the missed diagnosis rate was 41.7% and the accordance rate was 89.1%. Conclusion It is more suitable that using thePL prolongation of Ⅴ wave >0.6 ms as the baseline,enjoying high sensitivity and specificity,during the intraoperative monitoring of acoustic neuroma.

  11. Changes of brainstem-auditory evoked potential in rat model with brain injury by lateral head rotation%大鼠头颅侧向旋转脑损伤模型脑干听觉诱发电位的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺晓生; 章翔; 费舟

    2007-01-01

    目的 探讨头颅侧向旋转致脑损伤大鼠模型脑干听觉诱发电位(BAEP)的变化及机制.方法 成年大鼠20只,制作头颅瞬间侧向旋转脑损伤模型,测量头颅旋转前及旋转后6 h的BAEP,测量电极置于颅顶左侧C2点,左耳予短暂click声刺激,右耳持续予噪声掩蔽,经1 000次叠加平均,记录BAEP各波形的潜伏期、波间期和波幅值.结果 大鼠头颅旋转后6 h和Ⅴ波潜伏期、Ⅰ~Ⅲ和Ⅲ~Ⅴ波波间期明显较旋转前延长,Ⅰ和Ⅴ波波幅较旋转前明显降低,而旋转前后Ⅰ波潜伏期、Ⅰ~Ⅴ波波间期以及Ⅰ波波幅无显著差异.结论 头颅瞬间侧向旋转可引起BAEP异常,此与脑干内特殊传导通路的破坏有关,其结构基础为脑干广泛神经轴索损伤.%Objective To study the change and mechanism of brainstem-auditory evoked potential (BAEP) in rat model with brain injury by lateral head rotation. Methods The model of brain injury by lateral head rotation was produced with 20 adult rats. The rats'BAEP was measured before rotation and at 6 h after rotation. The test electrode was placed at the left C2 on the head. The short click sound was given to the left ear and continual sheltering was sent to the right ear. One thousand test results were added and then averaged. The latent period, wave-to-wave interval and amplitude of all waves in BAEP were recorded.Results Compared with the BAEP before head rotation, the latent period of wave Ⅰ , Ⅴ and the wave-towave interval of Ⅰ~Ⅲ, Ⅲ~Ⅴ were apparently prolonged, and the amplitude of wave Ⅲ, Ⅴ was markedly reduced at 6 h after rotation; on the other hand, no significant difference was found in the latent period of wave Ⅰ , wave-to-wave interval of Ⅰ , Ⅴ and amplitude of wave Ⅰ . Conclusion Lateral head rotation leads to abnormal BAEP. It is related to the damage of special conductive pathways in brainstem. The diffusely-scattered axonal injury in brainstem is the pathological

  12. Modeling the Anti-masking Effects of the Olivocochlear Reflex in Auditory Nerve Responses to Tones in Sustained Noise

    OpenAIRE

    Chintanpalli, Ananthakrishna; Jennings, Skyler G.; Heinz, Michael G.; Strickland, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    The medial olivocochlear reflex (MOCR) has been hypothesized to provide benefit for listening in noise. Strong physiological support for an anti-masking role for the MOCR has come from the observation that auditory nerve (AN) fibers exhibit reduced firing to sustained noise and increased sensitivity to tones when the MOCR is elicited. The present study extended a well-established computational model for normal-hearing and hearing-impaired AN responses to demonstrate that these anti-masking ef...

  13. 40 Hz Auditory Steady-State Response Is a Pharmacodynamic Biomarker for Cortical NMDA Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivarao, Digavalli V; Chen, Ping; Senapati, Arun; Yang, Yili; Fernandes, Alda; Benitex, Yulia; Whiterock, Valerie; Li, Yu-Wen; Ahlijanian, Michael K

    2016-08-01

    Schizophrenia patients exhibit dysfunctional gamma oscillations in response to simple auditory stimuli or more complex cognitive tasks, a phenomenon explained by reduced NMDA transmission within inhibitory/excitatory cortical networks. Indeed, a simple steady-state auditory click stimulation paradigm at gamma frequency (~40 Hz) has been reproducibly shown to reduce entrainment as measured by electroencephalography (EEG) in patients. However, some investigators have reported increased phase locking factor (PLF) and power in response to 40 Hz auditory stimulus in patients. Interestingly, preclinical literature also reflects this contradiction. We investigated whether a graded deficiency in NMDA transmission can account for such disparate findings by administering subanesthetic ketamine (1-30 mg/kg, i.v.) or vehicle to conscious rats (n=12) and testing their EEG entrainment to 40 Hz click stimuli at various time points (~7-62 min after treatment). In separate cohorts, we examined in vivo NMDA channel occupancy and tissue exposure to contextualize ketamine effects. We report a robust inverse relationship between PLF and NMDA occupancy 7 min after dosing. Moreover, ketamine could produce inhibition or disinhibition of the 40 Hz response in a temporally dynamic manner. These results provide for the first time empirical data to understand how cortical NMDA transmission deficit may lead to opposite modulation of the auditory steady-state response (ASSR). Importantly, our findings posit that 40 Hz ASSR is a pharmacodynamic biomarker for cortical NMDA function that is also robustly translatable. Besides schizophrenia, such a functional biomarker may be of value to neuropsychiatric disorders like bipolar and autism spectrum where 40 Hz ASSR deficits have been documented. PMID:26837462

  14. Neonatal brainstem function and 4-month arousal-modulated attention are jointly associated with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Ira L; Gardner, Judith M; Karmel, Bernard Z; Phan, Ha T T; Kittler, Phyllis; Gomez, Tina Rovito; Gonzalez, Maripaz G; Lennon, Elizabeth M; Parab, Santosh; Barone, Anthony

    2013-02-01

    The authors evaluated the contribution of initially abnormal neonatal auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) and 4-month arousal-modulated attention visual preference to later autism spectrum disorder (ASD) behaviors in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) graduates. A longitudinal study design was used to compare NICU graduates with normal ABRs (n = 28) to those with initially abnormal ABRs (n = 46) that later resolved. At 4 months postterm age, visual preference (measured after feeding) for a random check pattern flashing at 1, 3, or 8 Hz and gestational age (GA) served as additional predictors. Outcome measures were PDD Behavior Inventory (PDDBI) scores at 3.4 years (standard deviation = 1.2), and developmental quotients (DQ) obtained around the same age with the Griffiths Mental Development Scales (GMDS). Preferences for higher rates of stimulation at 4 months were highly correlated with PDDBI scores (all P-values measure most associated with a diagnosis of autism. For those with abnormal ABRs, increases in preference for higher rates of stimulation as infants were linked to nonlinear increases in severity of ASD at 3 years and to an ASD diagnosis. Abnormal ABRs were associated with later reports of repetitive and ritualistic behaviors irrespective of 4-month preference for stimulation. The joint occurrence of initially abnormal neonatal ABRs and preference for more stimulation at 4 months, both indices of early brainstem dysfunction, may be a marker for the development of autism in this cohort. PMID:23165989

  15. Comparação dos estímulos clique e CE-chirp® no registro do Potencial Evocado Auditivo de Tronco Encefálico Comparison of click and CE-chirp® stimuli on Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potential recording

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Ribeiro Ivo Rodrigues

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar as latências e as amplitudes da onda V no registro do Potencial Evocado Auditivo de Tronco Encefálico (PEATE com os estímulos clique e CE-chirp® e a presença ou ausência das ondas I, III e V em fortes intensidades. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com 12 adultos com limiares audiométricos PURPOSE: To compare the latencies and amplitudes of wave V on the Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potential (BAEP recording obtained with click and CE-chirp® stimuli and the presence or absence of waves I, III and V in high intensities. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 12 adults with audiometric thresholds <15 dBHL (24 ears and mean age of 27 years. The parameters used for the recording with both stimuli in intensities of 80, 60, 40, 20 dBnHL were alternate polarity and repetition rate of 27.1 Hz. RESULTS: The CE-chirp® latencies for wave V were longer than click latencies at low intensity levels (20 and 40 dBnHL. At high intensity levels (60 and 80 dBnHL, the opposite occurred. Larger wave V amplitudes were observed with CE-chirp® in all intensity levels, except at 80 dBnHL. CONCLUSION: The CE-chirp® showed shorter latencies than those observed with clicks at high intensity levels and larger amplitudes at all intensity levels, except at 80 dBnHL. The waves I and III tended to disappear with CE-chirp® stimulation.

  16. The Theoretical Distribution of Evoked Brainstem Activity in Preterm, High-Risk, and Healthy Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamy, A.

    1981-01-01

    Determines the frequency distribution of Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potential variables (BAEP) for premature babies at different stages of development--normal newborns, infants, young children, and adults. The author concludes that the assumption of normality underlying most "standard" statistical analyses can be met for many BAEP measures.…

  17. Pain inhibits pain; human brainstem mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, A M; Macefield, V G; Henderson, L A

    2016-01-01

    Conditioned pain modulation is a powerful analgesic mechanism, occurring when a painful stimulus is inhibited by a second painful stimulus delivered at a different body location. Reduced conditioned pain modulation capacity is associated with the development of some chronic pain conditions and the effectiveness of some analgesic medications. Human lesion studies show that the circuitry responsible for conditioned pain modulation lies within the caudal brainstem, although the precise nuclei in humans remain unknown. We employed brain imaging to determine brainstem sites responsible for conditioned pain modulation in 54 healthy individuals. In all subjects, 8 noxious heat stimuli (test stimuli) were applied to the right side of the mouth and brain activity measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging. This paradigm was then repeated. However, following the fourth noxious stimulus, a separate noxious stimulus, consisting of an intramuscular injection of hypertonic saline into the leg, was delivered (conditioning stimulus). During this test and conditioning stimulus period, 23 subjects displayed conditioned pain modulation analgesia whereas 31 subjects did not. An individual's analgesic ability was not influenced by gender, pain intensity levels of the test or conditioning stimuli or by psychological variables such as pain catastrophizing or fear of pain. Brain images were processed using SPM8 and the brainstem isolated using the SUIT toolbox. Significant increases in signal intensity were determined during each test stimulus and compared between subjects that did and did not display CPM analgesia (pmechanisms responsible for the maintenance of persistent pain conditions thought to involve altered analgesic circuitry. PMID:26343321

  18. Evolutionary adaptations for the temporal processing of natural sounds by the anuran peripheral auditory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrode, Katrina M; Bee, Mark A

    2015-03-01

    Sensory systems function most efficiently when processing natural stimuli, such as vocalizations, and it is thought that this reflects evolutionary adaptation. Among the best-described examples of evolutionary adaptation in the auditory system are the frequent matches between spectral tuning in both the peripheral and central auditory systems of anurans (frogs and toads) and the frequency spectra of conspecific calls. Tuning to the temporal properties of conspecific calls is less well established, and in anurans has so far been documented only in the central auditory system. Using auditory-evoked potentials, we asked whether there are species-specific or sex-specific adaptations of the auditory systems of gray treefrogs (Hyla chrysoscelis) and green treefrogs (H. cinerea) to the temporal modulations present in conspecific calls. Modulation rate transfer functions (MRTFs) constructed from auditory steady-state responses revealed that each species was more sensitive than the other to the modulation rates typical of conspecific advertisement calls. In addition, auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) to paired clicks indicated relatively better temporal resolution in green treefrogs, which could represent an adaptation to the faster modulation rates present in the calls of this species. MRTFs and recovery of ABRs to paired clicks were generally similar between the sexes, and we found no evidence that males were more sensitive than females to the temporal modulation patterns characteristic of the aggressive calls used in male-male competition. Together, our results suggest that efficient processing of the temporal properties of behaviorally relevant sounds begins at potentially very early stages of the anuran auditory system that include the periphery. PMID:25617467

  19. Engineered deafness reveals that mouse courtship vocalizations do not require auditory experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahrt, Elena J; Perkel, David J; Tong, Ling; Rubel, Edwin W; Portfors, Christine V

    2013-03-27

    Auditory experience during development is necessary for normal language acquisition in humans. Although songbirds, some cetaceans, and maybe bats may also be vocal learners, vocal learning has yet to be well established for a laboratory mammal. Mice are potentially an excellent model organism for studying mechanisms underlying vocal communication. Mice vocalize in different social contexts, yet whether they learn their vocalizations remains unresolved. To address this question, we compared ultrasonic courtship vocalizations emitted by chronically deaf and normal hearing adult male mice. We deafened CBA/CaJ male mice, engineered to express diphtheria toxin (DT) receptors in hair cells, by systemic injection of DT at postnatal day 2 (P2). By P9, almost all inner hair cells were absent and by P16 all inner and outer hair cells were absent in DTR mice. These mice did not show any auditory brainstem responses as adults. Wild-type littermates, also treated with DT at P2, had normal hair cells and normal auditory brainstem responses. We compared the temporal structure of vocalization bouts, the types of vocalizations, the patterns of syllables, and the acoustic features of each syllable type emitted by hearing and deaf males in the presence of a female. We found that almost all of the vocalization features we examined were similar in hearing and deaf animals. These findings indicate that mice do not need auditory experience during development to produce normal ultrasonic vocalizations in adulthood. We conclude that mouse courtship vocalizations are not acquired through auditory feedback-dependent learning. PMID:23536072

  20. 79例语言障碍儿童脑干听觉诱发电位的结果分析%Analysis of Results of Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potential In 79 Cases of Language-Impaired Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈静

    2009-01-01

    目的 研究脑干听觉诱发电位(BAEP)在语言障碍儿童中的变化规律及应用价值.方法 采用丹麦维迪KEY-POINT诱发电位仪,对我院2006年8月~2008年12月间79例语言障碍儿童进行BAEP检测结果 分析.结果 患儿BAEP总异常率为64.6%,其中15.7%为双侧BAEP各波消失;11.8%为单侧BAEP各波消失,伴另侧BAEP各波异常;72.5%为各波潜伏期(PL)、波间期(IPL)异常.结论 BAEP是一种简便、无创性、阈值稳定、结果 可靠、重复性强的检查方法 ,对于语言障碍儿童听力损害及神经传导通路的异常可为临床提供有价值的客观指标.%Objective To study the change and its application of the brain stem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) in language -impaired children. Methods We used evoked potentials Denmark Wedy Keypoint device to analysis the BAEP test results of the 79 cases of children in our hospital from August 2006 to December 2008. Rsults The total rate of BAEP abnormalities in children was 64.6% , of which 15.7% for one of the bilateral BAEP wave disappeared, 11.8% for the unilateral BAEP wave disappeared with the other side of the wave being abnormal BAEP,and 72.5% for the wave latency (PL) and wave interphase (IPL) abnomal. Conclusion BAEP is a sim-ple, noninvasive, threshold stability, results reliable and reproducible method of examination. For language -impaired children of hearing damage and abnormal neural pathway ,it can provide valuable objective indicators.

  1. Abnormal mRNA splicing but normal auditory brainstem response (ABR) in mice with the prestin (SLC26A5) IVS2-2A>G mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Liu, Ziyi; Chang, Aoshuang; Fang, Jie; Men, Yuqin; Tian, Yong; Ouyang, Xiaomei; Yan, Denise; Zhang, Aizhen; Sun, Xiaoyang; Tang, Jie; Liu, Xuezhong; Zuo, Jian; Gao, Jiangang

    2016-08-01

    Prestin is critical to OHC somatic motility and hearing sensitivity in mammals. Several mutations of the human SLC26A5 gene have been associated with deafness. However, whether the IVS2-2A>G mutation in the human SLC26A5 gene causes deafness remains controversial. In this study, we created a mouse model in which the IVS2-2A>G mutation was introduced into the mouse Slc26a5 gene by gene targeting. The homozygous Slc26a5 mutant mice were viable and fertile and displayed normal hearing sensitivity by ABR threshold analysis. Whole-mount immunostaining using prestin antibody demonstrated that prestin was correctly targeted to the lateral wall of OHCs, and no obvious hair cell loss occurred in mutant mice. No significant difference in the amount of prestin protein was observed between mutants and controls using western blot analysis. In OHCs isolated from mutants, the NLC was also normal. However, we observed a splicing abnormality in the Slc26a5 mRNA of the mutant mice. Eleven nucleotides were missing from the 5' end of exon 3 in Slc26a5 mRNA, but the normal ATG start codon in exon 3 was still detected. Thus, the IVS2-2A>G mutation in the Slc26a5 gene is insufficient to cause hearing loss in mice. PMID:27232762

  2. Neuroglobin Expression in the Mammalian Auditory System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuss, Stefan; Banica, Ovidiu; Elgurt, Mirra; Mitz, Stephanie; Disque-Kaiser, Ursula; Riemann, Randolf; Hill, Marco; Jaquish, Dawn V; Koehrn, Fred J; Burmester, Thorsten; Hankeln, Thomas; Woolf, Nigel K

    2016-04-01

    The energy-yielding pathways that provide the large amounts of metabolic energy required by inner ear sensorineural cells are poorly understood. Neuroglobin (Ngb) is a neuron-specific hemoprotein of the globin family, which is suggested to be involved in oxidative energy metabolism. Here, we present quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR, in situ hybridization, immunohistochemical, and Western blot evidence that neuroglobin is highly expressed in the mouse and rat cochlea. For primary cochlea neurons, Ngb expression is limited to the subpopulation of type I spiral ganglion cells, those which innervate inner hair cells, while the subpopulation of type II spiral ganglion cells which innervate the outer hair cells do not express Ngb. We further investigated Ngb distribution in rat, mouse, and human auditory brainstem centers, and found that the cochlear nuclei and superior olivary complex (SOC) also express considerable amounts of Ngb. Notably, the majority of olivocochlear neurons, those which provide efferent innervation of outer hair cells as identified by neuronal tract tracing, were Ngb-immunoreactive. We also observed that neuroglobin in the SOC frequently co-localized with neuronal nitric oxide synthase, the enzyme responsible for nitric oxide production. Our findings suggest that neuroglobin is well positioned to play an important physiologic role in the oxygen homeostasis of the peripheral and central auditory nervous system, and provides the first evidence that Ngb signal differentiates the central projections of the inner and outer hair cells. PMID:25636685

  3. Evaluation of New Methods for Artifacts Rejection in Evoked Auditory Steady-State Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyndi González Alfonso

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two alternative methods to the traditional method of artifact rejectionequipment currently used in evoked potential recording steady state (ASSR in order to improveefficiency based on the use of a larger number of individual records. The first method proposedis to replace the traditional use of rejection threshold amplitude, while the second version is afaster implementation of the weighted averaging used today, which is applicable also in thetransient Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR. These changes have been made in order toimplement these methods in a real time microprocessor.

  4. Space distribution of EEG responses to hanoi-moving visual and auditory stimulation with Fourier Independent Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijun eLi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: The relationship between EEG source signals and action-related visual and auditory stimulation is still not well understood. The objective of this study was to identify EEG source signals and their associated action-related visual and auditory responses, especially independent components of EEG.Methods: A hand-moving-Hanoi video paradigm was used to study neural correlates of the action-related visual and auditory information processing determined by mu rhythm (8-12 Hz in 16 healthy young subjects. Independent component analysis (ICA was applied to identify separate EEG sources, and further computed in the frequency domain by applying-Fourier transform ICA (F-ICA.Results: F-ICA found more sensory stimuli-related independent components located within the sensorimotor region than ICA did. The total number of independent components of interest from F-ICA was 768, twice that of 384 from traditional time-domain ICA (p0.05.Conclusions: These results support the hypothesis that mu rhythm was sensitive to detection of the cognitive expression, which could be reflected by the function in the parietal lobe sensory-motor region. The results of this study could potentially be applied into early diagnosis for those with visual and hearing impairments in the future.

  5. Functional imaging of the human brainstem during somatosensory input and autonomic output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Anthony Henderson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the past half a century, many experimental animal investigations have explored the role of various brainstem regions in a variety of conditions. Despite the accumulation of a considerable body of knowledge in primarily anaesthetized preparations, relatively few investigations have explored brainstem function in awake humans. It is important that human brainstem function is explored given that many neurological conditions, from obstructive sleep apnea, chronic pain and hypertension, likely involve significant changes in the processing of information within the brainstem. Recent advances in the collection and processing of magnetic resonance images, has resulted in the possibility of exploring brainstem activity changes in awake healthy individuals and in those with various clinical conditions. We and others have begun to explore changes in brainstem activity in humans during a number of challenges, including during cutaneous and muscle pain, as well as during challenges that evoke increases in sympathetic activity. More recently we have successfully recorded sympathetic nerve activity concurrently with fMRI of the brainstem, which will allow us, for the first time to explore brainstem sites directly responsible for conditions such as hypertension. Since many conditions will involve changes in brainstem function and structure, defining brainstem changes will likely result in a greater ability to develop more effective treatment regimes.

  6. Auditory Display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    volume. The conference's topics include auditory exploration of data via sonification and audification; real time monitoring of multivariate date; sound in immersive interfaces and teleoperation; perceptual issues in auditory display; sound in generalized computer interfaces; technologies supporting...

  7. Validation of fetal auditory evoked cortical responses to enhance the assessment of early brain development using fetal MEG measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The maturation of fetal auditory evoked cortical responses (fAECRs) is an important aspect of developmental medicine, but their reliable identification is limited due to the technical restrictions in prenatal diagnosis. The signal-to-noise ratio of the fAECRs extracted exclusively from fetal magnetoencephalography is a known issue which limits their analysis as markers of brain development. The objective of this work was to develop a signal analysis strategy to address these problems and find appropriate processing steps. In this study, a group of 147 normal fetuses with gestations between 26 and 41 weeks underwent auditory evoked response testing. We combine different approaches that address data cleaning, fAECR determination and statistical fAECR validation to reduce the uncertainty in the detection of the auditory evoked responses. For the statistical validation of the evoked responses, we use parameters computed from bootstrap-based test statistics and the correlation between different averaging modes. Appropriate thresholds for those parameters are identified using linear regression analyses by looking at the maximum correlation coefficients. The results show that by using different validation parameters, the selected fAECRs conduct to similar regression slopes with an average of −13.6 ms/week gestational age which agree with previous studies. Our novel processing framework provides an objective way to identify and eliminate non-physiological variation in the data induced by artifacts. This approach has the potential to produce more reliable data needed in clinical studies for fetal brain maturation as well as extending the investigations to high-risk groups

  8. The response properties of neurons in different fields of the auditory cortex in the rat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Profant, Oliver; Burianová, Jana; Syka, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 296, February (2013), s. 51-59. ISSN 0378-5955 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/12/1347; GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : auditory cortex * fequency representation * axon terminals Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.848, year: 2013

  9. Electrophysiological Responses to Auditory Novelty in Temperamentally Different 9-Month-Old Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Peter J.; Reeb, Bethany C.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral reactivity to novel stimuli in the first half-year of life has been identified as a key aspect of early temperament and a significant precursor of approach and withdrawal tendencies to novelty in later infancy and early childhood. The current study examines the neural signatures of reactivity to novel auditory stimuli in 9-month-old…

  10. Auditory Neuropathy in Two Patients with Generalized Neuropathic Disorder: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Ahmadi

    2008-06-01

    Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR, Auditory Middle Latency Response (AMLR and Auditory Late Response (ALR. The results of these examinations for these two siblings are discussed and compared with the results of other studies. Conclusion: Distinguishing auditory neuropathy from other speech perception disorders can be performed by conducting audiologic evaluations as a battery of tests. The probability of generalized neuropathy must be considered in patients with auditory neuropathy symptoms.

  11. A STUDY OF HEARING EVALUATION FOR NEONATES WITH HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA USING OTOACOUSTIC EMISSION AND BRAIN STEM AUDITORY EVOKED RESPONSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poornima

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Jaundice is one of the most common problems occurring in newborns. Although most of jaundiced patients are normal; because of the bilirubin toxicity, high serum levels can lead to kernicterus. It is important to identify and evaluate the jaundice early to prevent complications like bilirubin encephalopathy leading to hearing loss. Such early detection is possible only if some form of routine screening is used, one of which is otoacoustic emission. By detecting the hearing loss in time with screening methods we can ensure normal language development by appropriate intervention like hearing aids and infant stimulation. In this study otoacoustic emission will be followed by brain stem auditory evoked response and the results will be analyzed to look for the effectiveness of using otoacoustic emission for mass screening. METHODOLOGY: after obtaining approval and clearance from the institutional ethics committee this study included 105 children which satisfied the inclusion criteria. A standard case record was maintained for each subject. The neonate was subjected to otoacoustic emission just before discharge from the hospital. Otoacoustic emission was followed by brain stem auditory evoked response and the results compiled. Result of brain stem auditory evoked response was taken as gold standard and the results were analyzed. RESULTS: Abnormal OAE changes were seen in 6 and abnormal BERA was seen in 9 babies out of a total of 105 babies tested with hyperbilirubinemia. CONCLUSION: use of otoacoustic emissions as initial screening test provides as easy, cost effective and quick method to detect infants with hearing loss. As it is less invasive and less time consuming than BERA, dpOAE can be used as initial screening method for hearing loss in infants with BERA being reserved for infants that fail dpOAE.

  12. Electrically evoked hearing perception by functional neurostimulation of the central auditory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatagiba, M; Gharabaghi, A

    2005-01-01

    Perceptional benefits and potential risks of electrical stimulation of the central auditory system are constantly changing due to ongoing developments and technical modifications. Therefore, we would like to introduce current treatment protocols and strategies that might have an impact on functional results of auditory brainstem implants (ABI) in profoundly deaf patients. Patients with bilateral tumours as a result of neurofibromatosis type 2 with complete dysfunction of the eighth cranial nerves are the most frequent candidates for auditory brainstem implants. Worldwide, about 300 patients have already received an ABI through a translabyrinthine or suboccipital approach supported by multimodality electrophysiological monitoring. Patient selection is based on disease course, clinical signs, audiological, radiological and psycho-social criteria. The ABI provides the patients with access to auditory information such as environmental sound awareness together with distinct hearing cues in speech. In addition, this device markedly improves speech reception in combination with lip-reading. Nonetheless, there is only limited open-set speech understanding. Results of hearing function are correlated with electrode design, number of activated electrodes, speech processing strategies, duration of pre-existing deafness and extent of brainstem deformation. Functional neurostimulation of the central auditory system by a brainstem implant is a safe and beneficial procedure, which may considerably improve the quality of life in patients suffering from deafness due to bilateral retrocochlear lesions. The auditory outcome may be improved by a new generation of microelectrodes capable of penetrating the surface of the brainstem to access more directly the auditory neurons. PMID:15986735

  13. Benefits and detriments of unilateral cochlear implant use on bilateral auditory development in children who are deaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen A. Gordon

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We have explored both the benefits and detriments of providing electrical input through a cochlear implant in one ear to the auditory system of young children. A cochlear implant delivers electrical pulses to stimulate the auditory nerve, providing children who are deaf with access to sound. The goals of implantation are to restrict reorganization of the deprived immature auditory brain and promote development of hearing and spoken language. It is clear that limiting the duration of deprivation is a key factor. Additional considerations are the onset, etiology, and use of residual hearing as each of these can have unique effects on auditory development in the pre-implant period. New findings show that many children receiving unilateral cochlear implants are developing mature-like brainstem and thalamo-cortical responses to sound with long term use despite these sources of variability; however, there remain considerable abnormalities in cortical function. The most apparent, determined by implanting the other ear and measuring responses to acute stimulation, is a loss of normal cortical response from the deprived ear. Recent data reveal that this can be avoided in children by early implantation of both ears simultaneously or with limited delay. We conclude that auditory development requires input early in development and from both ears.

  14. Tmc gene therapy restores auditory function in deaf mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askew, Charles; Rochat, Cylia; Pan, Bifeng; Asai, Yukako; Ahmed, Hena; Child, Erin; Schneider, Bernard L; Aebischer, Patrick; Holt, Jeffrey R

    2015-07-01

    Genetic hearing loss accounts for up to 50% of prelingual deafness worldwide, yet there are no biologic treatments currently available. To investigate gene therapy as a potential biologic strategy for restoration of auditory function in patients with genetic hearing loss, we tested a gene augmentation approach in mouse models of genetic deafness. We focused on DFNB7/11 and DFNA36, which are autosomal recessive and dominant deafnesses, respectively, caused by mutations in transmembrane channel-like 1 (TMC1). Mice that carry targeted deletion of Tmc1 or a dominant Tmc1 point mutation, known as Beethoven, are good models for human DFNB7/11 and DFNA36. We screened several adeno-associated viral (AAV) serotypes and promoters and identified AAV2/1 and the chicken β-actin (Cba) promoter as an efficient combination for driving the expression of exogenous Tmc1 in inner hair cells in vivo. Exogenous Tmc1 or its closely related ortholog, Tmc2, were capable of restoring sensory transduction, auditory brainstem responses, and acoustic startle reflexes in otherwise deaf mice, suggesting that gene augmentation with Tmc1 or Tmc2 is well suited for further development as a strategy for restoration of auditory function in deaf patients who carry TMC1 mutations. PMID:26157030

  15. Acoustic trauma-induced auditory cortex enhancement and tinnitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Erin Laundrie; Wei Sun

    2014-01-01

    There is growing evidence suggests that noise-induced cochlear damage may lead to hyperexcitability in the central auditory system (CAS) which may give rise to tinnitus. However, the correlation between the onset of the neurophysiological changes in the CAS and the onset of tinnitus has not been well studied. To investigate this relationship, chronic electrodes were implanted into the auditory cortex (AC) and sound evoked activities were measured from awake rats before and after noise exposure. The auditory brainstem response (ABR) was used to assess the degree of noise-induced hearing loss. Tinnitus was evaluated by measuring gap-induced prepulse inhibition (gap-PPI). Rats were exposed monaurally to a high-intensity narrowband noise centered at 12 kHz at a level of 120 dB SPL for 1 h. After the noise exposure, all the rats developed either permanent (>2 weeks) or temporary (<3 days) hearing loss in the exposed ear(s). The AC amplitudes increased significantly 4 h after the noise exposure. Most of the exposed rats also showed decreased gap-PPI. The post-exposure AC enhancement showed a positive correlation with the amount of hearing loss. The onset of tinnitus-like behavior was happened after the onset of AC enhancement.

  16. Visual–auditory spatial processing in auditory cortical neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Bizley, Jennifer K.; King, Andrew J

    2008-01-01

    Neurons responsive to visual stimulation have now been described in the auditory cortex of various species, but their functions are largely unknown. Here we investigate the auditory and visual spatial sensitivity of neurons recorded in 5 different primary and non-primary auditory cortical areas of the ferret. We quantified the spatial tuning of neurons by measuring the responses to stimuli presented across a range of azimuthal positions and calculating the mutual information (MI) between the ...

  17. Effect of human auditory efferent feedback on cochlear gain and compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Ifat; Drga, Vit; Plack, Christopher J

    2014-11-12

    The mammalian auditory system includes a brainstem-mediated efferent pathway from the superior olivary complex by way of the medial olivocochlear system, which reduces the cochlear response to sound (Warr and Guinan, 1979; Liberman et al., 1996). The human medial olivocochlear response has an onset delay of between 25 and 40 ms and rise and decay constants in the region of 280 and 160 ms, respectively (Backus and Guinan, 2006). Physiological studies with nonhuman mammals indicate that onset and decay characteristics of efferent activation are dependent on the temporal and level characteristics of the auditory stimulus (Bacon and Smith, 1991; Guinan and Stankovic, 1996). This study uses a novel psychoacoustical masking technique using a precursor sound to obtain a measure of the efferent effect in humans. This technique avoids confounds currently associated with other psychoacoustical measures. Both temporal and level dependency of the efferent effect was measured, providing a comprehensive measure of the effect of human auditory efferents on cochlear gain and compression. Results indicate that a precursor (>20 dB SPL) induced efferent activation, resulting in a decrease in both maximum gain and maximum compression, with linearization of the compressive function for input sound levels between 50 and 70 dB SPL. Estimated gain decreased as precursor level increased, and increased as the silent interval between the precursor and combined masker-signal stimulus increased, consistent with a decay of the efferent effect. Human auditory efferent activation linearizes the cochlear response for mid-level sounds while reducing maximum gain. PMID:25392499

  18. Pleasurable Emotional Response to Music: A Case of Neurodegenerative Generalized Auditory Agnosia

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, Brandy R.; Chang, Chiung-Chih; May, Mary; Engstrom, John; Bruce L. Miller

    2009-01-01

    Recent functional neuroimaging studies implicate the network of mesolimbic structures known to be active in reward processing as the neural substrate of pleasure associated with listening to music. Psychoacoustic and lesion studies suggest that there is a widely distributed cortical network involved in processing discreet musical variables. Here we present the case of a young man with auditory agnosia as the consequence of cortical neurodegeneration who continues to experience pleasure when e...

  19. Responses of mink to auditory stimuli: Prerequisites for applying the ‘cognitive bias’ approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Pernille Maj; Malmkvist, Jens; Halekoh, Ulrich;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine and validate prerequisites for applying a cognitive (judgement) bias approach to assessing welfare in farmed mink (Neovison vison). We investigated discrimination ability and associative learning ability using auditory cues. The mink (n = 15 females) were...... farmed mink in a judgement bias approach would thus appear to be feasible. However several specific issues are to be considered in order to successfully adapt a cognitive bias approach to mink, and these are discussed....

  20. A temperature rise reduces trial-to-trial variability of locust auditory neuron responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhard, Monika J B; Schleimer, Jan-Hendrik; Schreiber, Susanne; Ronacher, Bernhard

    2015-09-01

    The neurophysiology of ectothermic animals, such as insects, is affected by environmental temperature, as their body temperature fluctuates with ambient conditions. Changes in temperature alter properties of neurons and, consequently, have an impact on the processing of information. Nevertheless, nervous system function is often maintained over a broad temperature range, exhibiting a surprising robustness to variations in temperature. A special problem arises for acoustically communicating insects, as in these animals mate recognition and mate localization typically rely on the decoding of fast amplitude modulations in calling and courtship songs. In the auditory periphery, however, temporal resolution is constrained by intrinsic neuronal noise. Such noise predominantly arises from the stochasticity of ion channel gating and potentially impairs the processing of sensory signals. On the basis of intracellular recordings of locust auditory neurons, we show that intrinsic neuronal variability on the level of spikes is reduced with increasing temperature. We use a detailed mathematical model including stochastic ion channel gating to shed light on the underlying biophysical mechanisms in auditory receptor neurons: because of a redistribution of channel-induced current noise toward higher frequencies and specifics of the temperature dependence of the membrane impedance, membrane potential noise is indeed reduced at higher temperatures. This finding holds under generic conditions and physiologically plausible assumptions on the temperature dependence of the channels' kinetics and peak conductances. We demonstrate that the identified mechanism also can explain the experimentally observed reduction of spike timing variability at higher temperatures. PMID:26041833

  1. Are Auditory Steady-State Responses Useful to Evaluate Severe-to-Profound Hearing Loss in Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasel, Signe Schuster; de Almeida, Edigar Rezende; Beck, Roberto Miquelino de Oliveira; Goffi-Gomez, Maria Valéria Schmidt; Ramos, Henrique Faria; Rossi, Amanda Costa; Koji Tsuji, Robinson; Bento, Ricardo Ferreira; de Brito, Rubens

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate Auditory Steady-State Responses (ASSR) at high intensities in pediatric cochlear implant candidates and to compare the results to behavioral tests responses. Methods. This prospective study evaluated 42 children with suspected severe-to-profound hearing loss, aged from 3 to 72 months. All had absent ABR and OAE responses. ASSR were evoked using binaural single frequency stimuli at 110 dB HL with a 10 dB down-seeking procedure. ASSR and behavioral test results were compared. Results. Forty-two subjects completed both ASSR and behavioral evaluation. Eleven children (26.2%) had bilateral responses. Four (9.5%) showed unilateral responses in at least two frequencies, all confirmed by behavioral results. Overall 61 ASSR responses were obtained, most (37.7%) in 500 Hz. Mean thresholds were between 101.3 and 104.2 dB HL. Among 27 subjects with absent ASSR, fifteen had no behavioral responses. Seven subjects showed behavioral responses with absent ASSR responses. No spurious ASSR responses were observed at 100 or 110 dB HL. Conclusion. ASSR is a valuable tool to detect residual hearing. No false-positive ASSR results were observed among 42 children, but in seven cases with absent ASSR, the test underestimated residual hearing as compared to the behavioral responses. PMID:26557677

  2. Auditory agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slevc, L Robert; Shell, Alison R

    2015-01-01

    Auditory agnosia refers to impairments in sound perception and identification despite intact hearing, cognitive functioning, and language abilities (reading, writing, and speaking). Auditory agnosia can be general, affecting all types of sound perception, or can be (relatively) specific to a particular domain. Verbal auditory agnosia (also known as (pure) word deafness) refers to deficits specific to speech processing, environmental sound agnosia refers to difficulties confined to non-speech environmental sounds, and amusia refers to deficits confined to music. These deficits can be apperceptive, affecting basic perceptual processes, or associative, affecting the relation of a perceived auditory object to its meaning. This chapter discusses what is known about the behavioral symptoms and lesion correlates of these different types of auditory agnosia (focusing especially on verbal auditory agnosia), evidence for the role of a rapid temporal processing deficit in some aspects of auditory agnosia, and the few attempts to treat the perceptual deficits associated with auditory agnosia. A clear picture of auditory agnosia has been slow to emerge, hampered by the considerable heterogeneity in behavioral deficits, associated brain damage, and variable assessments across cases. Despite this lack of clarity, these striking deficits in complex sound processing continue to inform our understanding of auditory perception and cognition. PMID:25726291

  3. Deficit of auditory temporal processing in children with dyslexia-dysgraphia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Tajik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Auditory temporal processing reveals an important aspect of auditory performance, in which a deficit can prevent the child from speaking, language learning and reading. Temporal resolution, which is a subgroup of temporal processing, can be evaluated by gap-in-noise detection test. Regarding the relation of auditory temporal processing deficits and phonologic disorder of children with dyslexia-dysgraphia, the aim of this study was to evaluate these children with the gap-in-noise (GIN test.Methods: The gap-in-noise test was performed on 28 normal and 24 dyslexic-dysgraphic children, at the age of 11-12 years old. Mean approximate threshold and percent of corrected answers were compared between the groups.Results: The mean approximate threshold and percent of corrected answers of the right and left ear had no significant difference between the groups (p>0.05. The mean approximate threshold of children with dyslexia-dysgraphia (6.97 ms, SD=1.09 was significantly (p<0.001 more than that of the normal group (5.05 ms, SD=0.92. The mean related frequency of corrected answers (58.05, SD=4.98% was less than normal group (69.97, SD=7.16% (p<0.001.Conclusion: Abnormal temporal resolution was found in children with dyslexia-dysgraphia based on gap-in-noise test. While the brainstem and auditory cortex are responsible for auditory temporal processing, probably the structural and functional differences of these areas in normal and dyslexic-dysgraphic children lead to abnormal coding of auditory temporal information. As a result, auditory temporal processing is inevitable.

  4. Detection Rates of Cortical Auditory Evoked Potentials at Different Sensation Levels in Infants with Sensory/Neural Hearing Loss and Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner-Berry, Kirsty; Chang, Hsiuwen; Ching, Teresa Y C; Hou, Sanna

    2016-02-01

    With the introduction of newborn hearing screening, infants are being diagnosed with hearing loss during the first few months of life. For infants with a sensory/neural hearing loss (SNHL), the audiogram can be estimated objectively using auditory brainstem response (ABR) testing and hearing aids prescribed accordingly. However, for infants with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) due to the abnormal/absent ABR waveforms, alternative measures of auditory function are needed to assess the need for amplification and evaluate whether aided benefit has been achieved. Cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs) are used to assess aided benefit in infants with hearing loss; however, there is insufficient information regarding the relationship between stimulus audibility and CAEP detection rates. It is also not clear whether CAEP detection rates differ between infants with SNHL and infants with ANSD. This study involved retrospective collection of CAEP, hearing threshold, and hearing aid gain data to investigate the relationship between stimulus audibility and CAEP detection rates. The results demonstrate that increases in stimulus audibility result in an increase in detection rate. For the same range of sensation levels, there was no difference in the detection rates between infants with SNHL and ANSD. PMID:27587922

  5. Profile of Minocycline Neuroprotection in Bilirubin-Induced Auditory System Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, Ann C.; Chiou, Victoria; Zuckoff, Sarah B; Shapiro, Steven M

    2010-01-01

    Excessive hyperbilirubinemia in human neonates can cause permanent dysfunction of the auditory system, as assessed with brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs). Jaundiced Gunn rat pups (jjs) exhibit similar BAEP abnormalities as hyperbilirubinemic neonates. Sulfadimethoxine (sulfa) administration to jjs, which displaces bilirubin from serum albumin into tissues including brain, exacerbates acute toxicity. Minocycline administered prior to sulfa in jjs protects against BAEP abnormalities....

  6. Prospects for Replacement of Auditory Neurons by Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Fuxin; Edge, Albert S. B.

    2013-01-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss is caused by degeneration of hair cells or auditory neurons. Spiral ganglion cells, the primary afferent neurons of the auditory system, are patterned during development and send out projections to hair cells and to the brainstem under the control of largely unknown guidance molecules. The neurons do not regenerate after loss and even damage to their projections tends to be permanent. The genesis of spiral ganglion neurons and their synapses forms a basis for regene...

  7. Proposed mechanisms for coincidence detection in the auditory brainstem

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maršálek, Petr; Lánský, Petr

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 92, č. 6 (2005), s. 445-451. ISSN 0340-1200 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET400110401 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : neuronal modeling * coincidence detection * hearing Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.398, year: 2005

  8. Cerebral Responses to Vocal Attractiveness and Auditory Hallucinations in Schizophrenia: A Functional MRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michihiko eKoeda

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Impaired self-monitoring and abnormalities of cognitive bias have been implicated as cognitive mechanisms of hallucination; regions fundamental to these processes including inferior frontal gyrus (IFG and superior temporal gyrus (STG are abnormally activated in individuals that hallucinate. A recent study showed activation in IFG-STG to be modulated by auditory attractiveness, but no study has investigated whether these IFG-STG activations are impaired in schizophrenia. We aimed to clarify the cerebral function underlying the perception of auditory attractiveness in schizophrenia patients. Cerebral activation was examined in 18 schizophrenia patients and 18 controls when performing Favourability Judgment Task (FJT and Gender Differentiation Task (GDT for pairs of greetings using event-related functional MRI. A full-factorial analysis revealed that the main effect of task was associated with activation of left IFG and STG. The main effect of Group revealed less activation of left STG in schizophrenia compared with controls, whereas significantly greater activation in schizophrenia than in controls was revealed at the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG, right temporo-parietal junction (TPJ, right occipital lobe, and right amygdala (p<0.05, FDR-corrected. A significant positive correlation was observed at the right TPJ and right MFG between cerebral activation under FJT minus GDT contrast and the score of hallucinatory behaviour on the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale. Findings of hypo-activation in the left STG could designate brain dysfunction in accessing vocal attractiveness in schizophrenia, whereas hyper-activation in the right TPJ and MFG may reflect the process of mentalizing other person’s behaviour by auditory hallucination by abnormality of cognitive bias.

  9. Characterization of the blood-oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response in cat auditory cortex using high-field fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Trecia A; Joanisse, Marc F; Gati, Joseph S; Hughes, Sarah M; Nixon, Pam L; Menon, Ravi S; Lomber, Stephen G

    2013-01-01

    Much of what is known about the cortical organization for audition in humans draws from studies of auditory cortex in the cat. However, these data build largely on electrophysiological recordings that are both highly invasive and provide less evidence concerning macroscopic patterns of brain activation. Optical imaging, using intrinsic signals or dyes, allows visualization of surface-based activity but is also quite invasive. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) overcomes these limitations by providing a large-scale perspective of distributed activity across the brain in a non-invasive manner. The present study used fMRI to characterize stimulus-evoked activity in auditory cortex of an anesthetized (ketamine/isoflurane) cat, focusing specifically on the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal time course. Functional images were acquired for adult cats in a 7 T MRI scanner. To determine the BOLD signal time course, we presented 1s broadband noise bursts between widely spaced scan acquisitions at randomized delays (1-12 s in 1s increments) prior to each scan. Baseline trials in which no stimulus was presented were also acquired. Our results indicate that the BOLD response peaks at about 3.5s in primary auditory cortex (AI) and at about 4.5 s in non-primary areas (AII, PAF) of cat auditory cortex. The observed peak latency is within the range reported for humans and non-human primates (3-4 s). The time course of hemodynamic activity in cat auditory cortex also occurs on a comparatively shorter scale than in cat visual cortex. The results of this study will provide a foundation for future auditory fMRI studies in the cat to incorporate these hemodynamic response properties into appropriate analyses of cat auditory cortex. PMID:23000258

  10. Cystic hemangioblastoma of the brainstem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Agrawal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemangioblastomas are very highly vascular neoplasm with benign characteristics and; in comparison to cerebellar hemangioblastoma; cases of cystic hemangioblastoma of the brain stem are rare with only a few case reports available in the literature. We report the case of a 43-year-old-female with cystic hemagioblastoma of the brainstem managed successfully and review the relevant literature.

  11. Cystic hemangioblastoma of the brainstem

    OpenAIRE

    Amit Agrawal; Anand Kakani; Vagh, Sunita J; Hiwale, Kishore M; Gaurav Kolte

    2010-01-01

    Hemangioblastomas are very highly vascular neoplasm with benign characteristics and; in comparison to cerebellar hemangioblastoma; cases of cystic hemangioblastoma of the brain stem are rare with only a few case reports available in the literature. We report the case of a 43-year-old-female with cystic hemagioblastoma of the brainstem managed successfully and review the relevant literature.

  12. Hypnotizability and Placebo Analgesia in Waking and Hypnosis as Modulators of Auditory Startle Responses in Healthy Women: An ERP Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pascalis, Vilfredo; Scacchia, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the influence of hypnotizability, pain expectation, placebo analgesia in waking and hypnosis on tonic pain relief. We also investigated how placebo analgesia affects somatic responses (eye blink) and N100 and P200 waves of event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by auditory startle probes. Although expectation plays an important role in placebo and hypnotic analgesia, the neural mechanisms underlying these treatments are still poorly understood. We used the cold cup test (CCT) to induce tonic pain in 53 healthy women. Placebo analgesia was initially produced by manipulation, in which the intensity of pain induced by the CCT was surreptitiously reduced after the administration of a sham analgesic cream. Participants were then tested in waking and hypnosis under three treatments: (1) resting (Baseline); (2) CCT-alone (Pain); and (3) CCT plus placebo cream for pain relief (Placebo). For each painful treatment, we assessed pain and distress ratings, eye blink responses, N100 and P200 amplitudes. We used LORETA analysis of N100 and P200 waves, as elicited by auditory startle, to identify cortical regions sensitive to pain reduction through placebo and hypnotic analgesia. Higher pain expectation was associated with higher pain reductions. In highly hypnotizable participants placebo treatment produced significant reductions of pain and distress perception in both waking and hypnosis condition. P200 wave, during placebo analgesia, was larger in the frontal left hemisphere while placebo analgesia, during hypnosis, involved the activity of the left hemisphere including the occipital region. These findings demonstrate that hypnosis and placebo analgesia are different processes of top-down regulation. Pain reduction was associated with larger EMG startle amplitudes, N100 and P200 responses, and enhanced activity within the frontal, parietal, and anterior and posterior cingulate gyres. LORETA results showed that placebo analgesia modulated pain-responsive areas

  13. A temporal predictive code for voice motor control: Evidence from ERP and behavioral responses to pitch-shifted auditory feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behroozmand, Roozbeh; Sangtian, Stacey; Korzyukov, Oleg; Larson, Charles R

    2016-04-01

    The predictive coding model suggests that voice motor control is regulated by a process in which the mismatch (error) between feedforward predictions and sensory feedback is detected and used to correct vocal motor behavior. In this study, we investigated how predictions about timing of pitch perturbations in voice auditory feedback would modulate ERP and behavioral responses during vocal production. We designed six counterbalanced blocks in which a +100cents pitch-shift stimulus perturbed voice auditory feedback during vowel sound vocalizations. In three blocks, there was a fixed delay (500, 750 or 1000ms) between voice and pitch-shift stimulus onset (predictable), whereas in the other three blocks, stimulus onset delay was randomized between 500, 750 and 1000ms (unpredictable). We found that subjects produced compensatory (opposing) vocal responses that started at 80ms after the onset of the unpredictable stimuli. However, for predictable stimuli, subjects initiated vocal responses at 20ms before and followed the direction of pitch shifts in voice feedback. Analysis of ERPs showed that the amplitudes of the N1 and P2 components were significantly reduced in response to predictable compared with unpredictable stimuli. These findings indicate that predictions about temporal features of sensory feedback can modulate vocal motor behavior. In the context of the predictive coding model, temporally-predictable stimuli are learned and reinforced by the internal feedforward system, and as indexed by the ERP suppression, the sensory feedback contribution is reduced for their processing. These findings provide new insights into the neural mechanisms of vocal production and motor control. PMID:26835556

  14. Investigation into the response of the auditory and acoustic communications systems in the Beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) of the St. Lawrence River Estuary to noise, using vocal classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheifele, Peter Martin

    2003-06-01

    Noise pollution has only recently become recognized as a potential danger to marine mammals in general, and to the Beluga Whale (Delphinapterus leucas) in particular. These small gregarious Odontocetes make extensive use of sound for social communication and pod cohesion. The St. Lawrence River Estuary is habitat to a small, critically endangered population of about 700 Beluga whales who congregate in four different sites in its upper estuary. The population is believed to be threatened by the stress of high-intensity, low frequency noise. One way to determine whether noise is having an effect on an animal's auditory ability might be to observe a natural and repeatable response of the auditory and vocal systems to varying noise levels. This can be accomplished by observing changes in animal vocalizations in response to auditory feedback. A response such as this observed in humans and some animals is known as the Lombard Vocal Response, which represents a reaction of the auditory system directly manifested by changes in vocalization level. In this research this population of Beluga Whales was tested to determine whether a vocalization-as-a-function-of-noise phenomenon existed by using Hidden Markhov "classified" vocalizations as targets for acoustical analyses. Correlation and regression analyses indicated that the phenomenon does exist and results of a human subjects experiment along with results from other animal species known to exhibit the response strongly implicate the Lombard Vocal Response in the Beluga.

  15. Auditory Evoked M100 Response Latency is Delayed in Children with 16p11.2 Deletion but not 16p11.2 Duplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Julian; Chow, Vivian; Blaskey, Lisa; Kuschner, Emily; Qasmieh, Saba; Gaetz, Leah; Edgar, J Christopher; Mukherjee, Pratik; Buckner, Randall; Nagarajan, Srikantan S; Chung, Wendy K; Spiro, John E; Sherr, Elliott H; Berman, Jeffrey I; Roberts, Timothy P L

    2016-05-01

    Individuals with the 16p11.2 BP4-BP5 copy number variant (CNV) exhibit a range of behavioral phenotypes that may include mild impairment in cognition and clinical diagnoses of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To better understand auditory processing impairments in populations with this chromosomal variation, auditory evoked responses were examined in children with the 16p11.2 deletion, 16p11.2 duplication, and age-matched controls. Stimuli consisted of sinusoidal binaural tones presented passively while children underwent recording with magnetoencephalography (MEG). The primary indicator of auditory processing impairment was the latency of the ∼100-ms "M100" auditory response detected by MEG, with the 16p11.2 deletion population exhibiting profoundly delayed M100 latencies relative to controls. This delay remained even after controlling for potential confounds such as age and cognitive ability. No significant difference in M100 latency was observed between 16p11.2 duplication carriers and controls. Additionally, children meeting diagnostic criteria for ASD (16p11.2 deletion carriers) exhibited nonsignificant latency delays when compared with the corresponding CNV carriers not meeting criteria for ASD. Present results indicate that 16p11.2 deletion is associated with auditory processing delays analogous to (but substantially more pronounced than) those previously reported in "idiopathic" ASD. PMID:25678630

  16. Estimating loudness growth from tone-burst evoked responses

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Ikaro; Epstein, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have investigated the relationship between click-evoked auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) and loudness growth in human listeners. While some of these studies have reported promising results, showing a correlative relationship between click ABR and loudness growth as a function of level, additional studies are necessary to determine if similar results can be obtained with frequency-specific stimuli and more specific details of the loudness function can be derived from ABR rec...

  17. Adaptation in the auditory system: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    David ePérez-González; Malmierca, Manuel S.

    2014-01-01

    The early stages of the auditory system need to preserve the timing information of sounds in order to extract the basic features of acoustic stimuli. At the same time, different processes of neuronal adaptation occur at several levels to further process the auditory information. For instance, auditory nerve fiber responses already experience adaptation of their firing rates, a type of response that can be found in many other auditory nuclei and may be useful for emphasizing the onset of the s...

  18. Auditory degeneration after exposure to toluene in two genotypes of mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Hasheng (Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Physiology 2); Johnson, A.C.; Hoeglund, G. (Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Physiology 2 National Inst. of Occupational Health, Solna (Sweden). Dept. of Neuromedicine); Borg, E. (Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Physiology Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Audiology Oerebro Medical Center Hospital (Sweden). Dept. of Audiology)

    1992-07-01

    Two inbred strains of mice, CBA/Ca (with a moderate hearing loss starting late in life) and C57BL/6J (with an early onset of spontaneous auditory degeneration), were exposed to toluene by inhalation (1000 ppm, 12 h/day, 7 days) at either 1 or 6 months of age. Thresholds of auditory brainstem response (ABR) were measured 3-5 days after exposure and assessed repeatedly up to the age of 16 months (C57) or 23 months (CBA). Both strains of mice exposed to toluene at 1 month of age showed a mild loss of sensitivity at a high frequency (31.5 kHz) shortly after exposure. With increasing age, toluene exposure had little effect on the aging process of the auditory system in CBA mice but accelerated age-related hearing loss in C57 mice. The results indicate that toluene exposure can aggravate auditory deterioration only in mice with a strong genetic predisposition to spontaneously precocious age-related hearing loss. (orig.).

  19. Assessment of auditory evoked potential in long-term mobile phone users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevi, E Chandra; Kumar, P Sai; Mariam, Yasmin

    2014-01-01

    Mobile phones emit strong electromagnetic wave which causes structural and functional changes in the cell membrane within the central nervous system especially auditory system. The effect of duration of mobile phone use on auditory function was examined One hundred and seventy three long-term mobile phone users aged around 17-39 yrs (both male and female) were recruited in this study. The subjects were divided into three groups according to their age Group I (17-19 yrs), Group II (20-29 yrs), Group III (30-39 yrs). After getting informed consent the subjects were instructed to fill the questionnaire for the history related to our study, conduction deafness auditory brainstem response in both the ears were assessed. Significant difference was observed among three groups in their duration of mobile phone use. Latency of Waves in three groups showed significant difference. The average latency (both right and left ear) of waves I-V was found to be prolonged in Group II when compared to Group I and Group III. Interpeak latencies I-V and I-III showed differences among three groups. The findings of present study showed abnormalities in the conduction of electrical signals in different levels of auditory pathway. PMID:26215013

  20. Simultaneous measurement of auditory-steady-state responses and otoacoustic emissions to estimate peripheral compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez Lopez, Raul; Epp, Bastian

    2016-01-01

    outer hair cells in the inner ear play an important role in the compressive nonlinearity, it is desirable to selectively obtain information about the inner ear. In the current study, the signal in the ear canal present during ASSR measurements is utilized to extract sinusoidally-amplitude modulated...... otoacoustic emissions (SAMOAEs). It is hypothesized that the stimulus used to evoke ASSRs will cause acoustic energy to be reflected back from the inner ear into the ear canal, where it can be picked up as an otoacoustic emission (OAE) and provide information about cochlear processing. Results indicate that...... SAMOAE in connection with ASSR may be possible by a proposed method to minimize the distortion. The ability to evaluate SAMOAE over a large input level range during ASSR measurement will provide information about the state of the peripheral auditory system without the need of additional measurement time....

  1. Abnormal auditory mismatch response in tinnitus sufferers with high-frequency hearing loss is associated with subjective distress level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berg Patrick

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tinnitus is an auditory sensation frequently following hearing loss. After cochlear injury, deafferented neurons become sensitive to neighbouring intact edge-frequencies, guiding an enhanced central representation of these frequencies. As psychoacoustical data 123 indicate enhanced frequency discrimination ability for edge-frequencies that may be related to a reorganization within the auditory cortex, the aim of the present study was twofold: 1 to search for abnormal auditory mismatch responses in tinnitus sufferers and 2 relate these to subjective indicators of tinnitus. Results Using EEG-mismatch negativity, we demonstrate abnormalities (N = 15 in tinnitus sufferers that are specific to frequencies located at the audiometrically normal lesion-edge as compared to normal hearing controls (N = 15. Groups also differed with respect to the cortical locations of mismatch responsiveness. Sources in the 90–135 ms latency window were generated in more anterior brain regions in the tinnitus group. Both measures of abnormality correlated with emotional-cognitive distress related to tinnitus (r ~ .76. While these two physiological variables were uncorrelated in the control group, they were correlated in the tinnitus group (r = .72. Concerning relationships with parameters of hearing loss (depth and slope, slope turned out to be an important variable. Generally, the steeper the hearing loss is the less distress related to tinnitus was reported. The associations between slope and the relevant neurophysiological variables are in agreement with this finding. Conclusions The present study is the first to show near-to-complete separation of tinnitus sufferers from a normal hearing control group based on neurophysiological variables. The finding of lesion-edge specific effects and associations with slope of hearing loss corroborates the assumption that hearing loss is the basis for tinnitus development. It is likely that some central

  2. Assessment of Electrically Evoked Auditory Brain Stem Response of 30 Implanted Patients With Nucleus Multichannel Cochlear Implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Soqrat Faghihzadeh

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Methods and Materials: Investigation of electrically evoked auditory brain stem response (EABR is a new issue, especially in implanted patients. Experiments were performed in C.I Center of Iranian Institute for Science and research expansion,1996 on 30 implanted patients with 22 spectra and MSP cochlear implant system and 30 normal subjects with the range of 3-33 years. Findings: I- EABR was obtained in the implanted patients. 2- Absolute latency of EABR waves is 1-1.5 ms shorter than ABR waves ‘P<0.05. 3-Absolute latency of wave V decreases as a function of electric stimulus magnitude (P<0.05. 4- No significant difference was observed in IPL Ill-V between ABR and EABR.

  3. Auditory sensory processing deficits in sensory gating and mismatch negativity-like responses in the social isolation rat model of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witten, Louise; Oranje, Bob; Mørk, Arne;

    2014-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia exhibit disturbances in information processing. These disturbances can be investigated with different paradigms of auditory event related potentials (ERP), such as sensory gating in a double click paradigm (P50 suppression) and the mismatch negativity (MMN) component i...... current study supports the face validity of the SI reared rat model for schizophrenia.......Patients with schizophrenia exhibit disturbances in information processing. These disturbances can be investigated with different paradigms of auditory event related potentials (ERP), such as sensory gating in a double click paradigm (P50 suppression) and the mismatch negativity (MMN) component in...... an auditory oddball paradigm. The aim of the current study was to test if rats subjected to social isolation, which is believed to induce some changes that mimic features of schizophrenia, displays alterations in sensory gating and MMN-like response. Male Lister-Hooded rats were separated into two...

  4. Lyme disease of the brainstem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyme disease is a multisystem infectious disease caused by the tick-borne spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement typically causes local inflammation, most commonly meningitis, but rarely parenchymal brain involvement. We describe a patient who presented with clinical findings suggesting a brainstem process. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) suggested a brainstem neoplasm. Prior to biopsy, laboratory evaluation led to the diagnosis of Lyme disease. Clinical and imaging abnormalities improved markedly following antimicrobial therapy. We describe Lyme disease involvement of the cerebellar peduncles with hypermetabolism on PET. Although MRI is the primary imaging modality for most suspected CNS pathology, the practical applications of PET continue to expand. (orig.)

  5. Lyme disease of the brainstem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalina, Peter [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States); Decker, Andrew [Northern Westchester Hospital Center, Department of Neurology, Mt. Kisco, NY (United States); Kornel, Ezriel [Northern Westchester Hospital Center, Division of Neurosurgery, Mt. Kisco, NY (United States); Halperin, John J. [North Shore University Hospital, Department of Neurology, Manhasset, NY (United States)

    2005-12-01

    Lyme disease is a multisystem infectious disease caused by the tick-borne spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement typically causes local inflammation, most commonly meningitis, but rarely parenchymal brain involvement. We describe a patient who presented with clinical findings suggesting a brainstem process. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) suggested a brainstem neoplasm. Prior to biopsy, laboratory evaluation led to the diagnosis of Lyme disease. Clinical and imaging abnormalities improved markedly following antimicrobial therapy. We describe Lyme disease involvement of the cerebellar peduncles with hypermetabolism on PET. Although MRI is the primary imaging modality for most suspected CNS pathology, the practical applications of PET continue to expand. (orig.)

  6. Pilomyxoid astrocytoma of the brainstem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Zanini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A pilomyxoid astrocytoma is a recently described tumor that occurs predominantly in the hypothalamic-chiasmatic region and is rarely found elsewhere. It has similar features as pilocytic astrocytomas, but has distinct histological characteristics and a poorer prognosis. A pilomyxoid astrocytoma is an aggressive tumor, and increased awareness is necessary with a suspect case. We present the first case of a pilomyxoid astrocytoma of the brainstem described after the newest World Health Organization classification of central nervous system tumors.

  7. Pilomyxoid astrocytoma of the brainstem

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Antonio Zanini; Ducati Gustavo Luis; Roberto Colichio Gabarra; Adriana Yuki Mello; Ismael Augusto Lombardi; Flavio Ramalho Romero; Francisco Otavio Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A pilomyxoid astrocytoma is a recently described tumor that occurs predominantly in the hypothalamic-chiasmatic region and is rarely found elsewhere. It has similar features as pilocytic astrocytomas, but has distinct histological characteristics and a poorer prognosis. A pilomyxoid astrocytoma is an aggressive tumor, and increased awareness is necessary with a suspect case. We present the first case of a pilomyxoid astrocytoma of the brainstem described after the newest World Health...

  8. Auditory cortical responses evoked by pure tones in healthy and sensorineural hearing loss subjects: functional MRI and magnetoencephalography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yun-ting; GENG Zuo-jun; ZHANG Quan; LI Wei; ZHANG Jing

    2006-01-01

    hearing loss and the healthy subjects, the most evident audio evoked fields activated by pure tone were N100m,which located precisely on the Heschl's gyms. Compared with the hearing loss subjects, N100m of the healthy subjects was stronger and had longer latencies in fight hemisphere.Conclusions Under proper pure tone stimulus the activation of auditory cortex can be elicited both in the healthy and the sensorineural hearing loss subjects. Either at objective equivalent stimuli or at subjectively perceived equivalent stimuli, the auditory responses were more intensive in healthy subjects than hearing loss subjects. The tone stimuli were processed in a network in human brain and there was an intrinsic relation between the auditory and visual cortex. Blood oxygen level dependent fMRI and magnetoencephalography could reinforce each other.

  9. Auditory Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... field differ in their opinions about the potential benefits of hearing aids, cochlear implants, and other technologies for people with auditory neuropathy. Some professionals report that hearing aids and personal listening devices such as frequency modulation (FM) systems are ...

  10. Gamma Knife Treatment of Brainstem Metastases

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Halloran E.; Larson, Erik W.; Fairbanks, Robert K; Mackay, Alexander R.; Lamoreaux, Wayne T.; Call, Jason A.; Carlson, Jonathan D.; Ling, Benjamin C; Demakas, John J.; Cooke, Barton S; Ben Peressini; Lee, Christopher M

    2014-01-01

    The management of brainstem metastases is challenging. Surgical treatment is usually not an option, and chemotherapy is of limited utility. Stereotactic radiosurgery has emerged as a promising palliative treatment modality in these cases. The goal of this study is to assess our single institution experience treating brainstem metastases with Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS). This retrospective chart review studied 41 patients with brainstem metastases treated with GKRS. The most common primary...

  11. Bayesian segmentation of brainstem structures in MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iglesias, Juan Eugenio; Van Leemput, Koen; Bhatt, Priyanka;

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a method to segment four brainstem structures (midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata and superior cerebellar peduncle) from 3D brain MRI scans. The segmentation method relies on a probabilistic atlas of the brainstem and its neighboring brain structures. To build the atlas, w...... is able to detect differential effects of AD on the brainstem structures. The method will be implemented as part of the popular neuroimaging package FreeSurfer....

  12. Brainstem haematoma due to presumed cryptic telangiectasia.

    OpenAIRE

    Howard, R S

    1986-01-01

    Three patients with primary brainstem haematoma are reported. The clinical presentation suggested an initial diagnosis of pontine tumour in two and demyelination in one patient. The subacute course is characteristic of brainstem haematoma due to presumed cryptic telangiectasia, the abnormal vessels being destroyed by the haemorrhage. These findings emphasise the importance of considering haematoma due to cryptic telangiectasia in the differential diagnosis of subacute brainstem lesions.

  13. Expression and function of scleraxis in the developing auditory system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe F Mann

    Full Text Available A study of genes expressed in the developing inner ear identified the bHLH transcription factor Scleraxis (Scx in the developing cochlea. Previous work has demonstrated an essential role for Scx in the differentiation and development of tendons, ligaments and cells of chondrogenic lineage. Expression in the cochlea has been shown previously, however the functional role for Scx in the cochlea is unknown. Using a Scx-GFP reporter mouse line we examined the spatial and temporal patterns of Scx expression in the developing cochlea between embryonic day 13.5 and postnatal day 25. Embryonically, Scx is expressed broadly throughout the cochlear duct and surrounding mesenchyme and at postnatal ages becomes restricted to the inner hair cells and the interdental cells of the spiral limbus. Deletion of Scx results in hearing impairment indicated by elevated auditory brainstem response (ABR thresholds and diminished distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE amplitudes, across a range of frequencies. No changes in either gross cochlear morphology or expression of the Scx target genes Col2A, Bmp4 or Sox9 were observed in Scx(-/- mutants, suggesting that the auditory defects observed in these animals may be a result of unidentified Scx-dependent processes within the cochlea.

  14. The Effect of Otic Melanocyte Destruction on Auditory and Vestibular Function: a Study on Vitiligo Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Parvane; Amali, Amin; Ruzbahani, Masoumeh; Pourbakht, Akram; Mahdavi, Asadollah

    2016-02-01

    The hallmark of vitiligo is the disappearance of melanocytes from the skin. As a result, of melanocytes presence in the auditory and vestibular apparatus, the involvement of these systems in vitiligo which targets the melanocytes of the whole body is possible; suggesting that vitiligo is a systemic disease rather than a purely cutaneous problem. A total of 21 patients with vitiligo were enrolled in this study. A group of 20 healthy subjects served as a control group. Pure tone audiometry (PTA), auditory brainstem responses (ABR) and vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) were carried out in all participants. High frequency sensory neural hearing loss was seen in 8 (38.09%) patients. ABR analysis revealed 10 (47.61%) had an abnormal increase in latency of wave III, and 6 (28.57%) had an abnormal prolongation of IPL I-III, however, regarding our VEMP findings, there were no recorded responses on left ear of 1 (4.76%) patient and latency of p13 was prolonged in 5(23.80%) patients. There was no correlation between ages, duration of disease, and any of the recorded parameters (P>0.05). In the present survey, we highlighted the auditory and vestibular involvement in vitiligo patients. PMID:26997595

  15. The Effect of Otic Melanocyte Destruction on Auditory and Vestibular Function: a Study on Vitiligo Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvane Mahdi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The hallmark of vitiligo is the disappearance of melanocytes from the skin. As a result, of melanocytes presence in the auditory and vestibular apparatus, the involvement of these systems in vitiligo which targets the melanocytes of the whole body is possible; suggesting that vitiligo is a systemic disease rather than a purely cutaneous problem. A total of 21 patients with vitiligo were enrolled in this study. A group of 20 healthy subjects served as a control group. Pure tone audiometry (PTA, auditory brainstem responses (ABR and vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP were carried out in all participants. High frequency sensory neural hearing loss was seen in 8 (38.09% patients. ABR analysis revealed 10 (47.61% had an abnormal increase in latency of wave III, and 6 (28.57% had an abnormal prolongation of IPL I-III, however, regarding our VEMP findings, there were no recorded responses on left ear of 1 (4.76% patient and latency of p13 was prolonged in 5(23.80% patients. There was no correlation between ages, duration of disease, and any of the recorded parameters (P>0.05. In the present survey, we highlighted the auditory and vestibular involvement in vitiligo patients.

  16. The role of GTF2IRD1 in the auditory pathology of Williams-Beuren Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canales, Cesar P; Wong, Ann C Y; Gunning, Peter W; Housley, Gary D; Hardeman, Edna C; Palmer, Stephen J

    2015-06-01

    Williams-Beuren Syndrome (WBS) is a rare genetic condition caused by a hemizygous deletion involving up to 28 genes within chromosome 7q11.23. Among the spectrum of physical and neurological defects in WBS, it is common to find a distinctive response to sound stimuli that includes extreme adverse reactions to loud, or sudden sounds and a fascination with certain sounds that may manifest as strengths in musical ability. However, hearing tests indicate that sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is frequently found in WBS patients. The functional and genetic basis of this unusual auditory phenotype is currently unknown. Here, we investigated the potential involvement of GTF2IRD1, a transcription factor encoded by a gene located within the WBS deletion that has been implicated as a contributor to the WBS assorted neurocognitive profile and craniofacial abnormalities. Using Gtf2ird1 knockout mice, we have analysed the expression of the gene in the inner ear and examined hearing capacity by evaluating the auditory brainstem response (ABR) and the distortion product of otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE). Our results show that Gtf2ird1 is expressed in a number of cell types within the cochlea, and Gtf2ird1 null mice showed higher auditory thresholds (hypoacusis) in both ABR and DPOAE hearing assessments. These data indicate that the principal hearing deficit in the mice can be traced to impairments in the amplification process mediated by the outer hair cells and suggests that similar mechanisms may underpin the SNHL experienced by WBS patients. PMID:25248400

  17. A case of Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Youn Kim

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis (BBE is a rare disease diagnosed by specific clinical features such as 'progressive, relatively symmetric external ophthalmoplegia and ataxia by 4 weeks' and 'disturbance of consciousness or hyperreflexia' after the exclusion of other diseases involving the brain stem. Anti-ganglioside antibodies (GM, GD and GQ in the serum or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF are sometimes informative for the diagnosis of BBE because of the rarity of positive findings in other diagnositic methods: brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, routine CSF examination, motor nerve conduction study, and needle electromyography. We report a rare case of childhood BBE with elevated anti-GM1 antibodies in the serum, who had specific clinical symptoms such as a cranial polyneuropathy presenting as ophthalmoplegia, dysarthria, dysphagia, and facial weakness; progressive motor weakness; altered mental status; and ataxia. However, the brain MRI, routine CSF examination, nerve conduction studies, electromyography, somatosensory evoked potentials, and brainstem auditory evoked potentials were normal. BBE was suspected and the patient was successfully treated with intravenous immunoglobulins.

  18. Surgical management of spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal Krishna Shrestha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage is the spontaneous brainstem hemorrhage associated with long term hypertension but not having definite focal or objective lesion. It is a catastrophic event which has a poor prognosis and usually managed conservatively. It is not uncommon, especially in eastern Asian populations, accounting approximately for 10% of the intracerebral hemorrhage. Before the advent of computed tomography, the diagnosis of brainstem hemorrhage was usually based on the clinical picture or by autopsy and believed to be untreatable via surgery. The introduction of computed tomography permitted to categorize the subtypes of brainstem hemorrhage with more predicted outcome. Continuous ongoing developments in the stereotactic surgery and microsurgery have added more specific surgical management in these patients. However, whether to manage conservatively or promptly with surgical evacuation of hematoma is still a controversy. Studies have shown that an accurate prognostic assessment based on clinical and radiological features on admission is critical for establishing a reasonable therapeutic approach. Some authors have advocate conservative management, whereas others have suggested the efficacy of surgical treatment in brainstem hemorrhage. With the widening knowledge in microsurgical techniques as well as neuroimaging technology, there seems to have more optimistic hope of surgical management of spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage for better prognosis. Here we present five cases of severe spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage patients who had undergone surgery; and explore the possibilities of surgical management in patients with the spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage.

  19. Neonatal Heart-Rate Response to Tactile, Auditory, and Vestibular Stimulation in Different States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerleau-Malcuit, Andree; Clifton, Rachel K.

    1973-01-01

    Newborn cardiac activity was analyzed in the context of the orienting response before and after a feeding, while sleeping and awake. Newborns tended to respond to stimuli with less variability when tested before feeding. The newborn's cardiac response to stimuli in different modalities is affected by arousal state and feeding condition. (ST)

  20. Functional Ear (A)Symmetry in Brainstem Neural Activity Relevant to Encoding of Voice Pitch: A Precursor for Hemispheric Specialization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Ananthanarayan; Gandour, Jackson T.; Ananthakrishnan, Saradha; Bidelman, Gavin M.; Smalt, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    Pitch processing is lateralized to the right hemisphere; linguistic pitch is further mediated by left cortical areas. This experiment investigates whether ear asymmetries vary in brainstem representation of pitch depending on linguistic status. Brainstem frequency-following responses (FFRs) were elicited by monaural stimulation of the left and…

  1. Analysis of brainstem auditory evoked potential changes and follow-up outcomes in children with severe hand-foot-mouth disease%重症手足口病脑干听觉诱发电位变化及随访结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆彦; 汤昔康; 刘春华

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the application value of brainstem auditory evoked potential (BA-EP)in children diagnosed with severe hand-foot-mouth disease by assessing the BAEP changes and follow-up outcomes. Methods Eighty six children with severe hand-foot-mouth disease were assigned into the observa-tion group,and 50 children undergoing physical examination were recruited into the control group. The BAEPs were statistically compared between two groups. According to the Hall classification of the BAEPs upon admis-sion,86 affected children were divided into the normal and abnormal BAEP groups. The children in the abnor-mal BAEP group were further classified into the early and late recovery groups based upon the re-examination results at the 2nd week of course of diseases. Clinical features and prognosis were statistically compared among all groups. Results Among 86 children with severe hand-foot-mouth disease,32 cases (37%)were manifes-ted as abnormal BAEPs including 23 of brain stem type,5 of inner ear type and 4 of mixed type. Compared with the control group,the PL ofⅠ,Ⅲ,Ⅴwave and IPL ofⅠ~Ⅲ,Ⅲ~Ⅴand Ⅰ~Ⅴwere significantly prolonged (all P0.05 ). The incidence of nervous system sequela and abnormal rate of head MRI in the late recovery group was considerably higher compared with that in the early recovery group (both P0.05 ). Conclusions A majority of children with hand-foot-mouth disease are complicated with abnormal BAEP. Those complicated with BAEP abnormality present with severe clinical mani-festations. Along with the alleviation of the disease,BAEP may return to normal level in most cases. For those with persistent BAEP abnormality,the incidence of neurological sequela is relatively high.%目的:通过检测脑干听觉诱发电位(BAEP)在重症手足口病的变化及随访结果,评价BAEP在重症手足口病的应用价值。方法收集重症手足口病患儿86例为观察组,以同期50名健康体检儿童为对照组,比较2

  2. A unique cellular scaling rule in the avian auditory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corfield, Jeremy R; Long, Brendan; Krilow, Justin M; Wylie, Douglas R; Iwaniuk, Andrew N

    2016-06-01

    Although it is clear that neural structures scale with body size, the mechanisms of this relationship are not well understood. Several recent studies have shown that the relationship between neuron numbers and brain (or brain region) size are not only different across mammalian orders, but also across auditory and visual regions within the same brains. Among birds, similar cellular scaling rules have not been examined in any detail. Here, we examine the scaling of auditory structures in birds and show that the scaling rules that have been established in the mammalian auditory pathway do not necessarily apply to birds. In galliforms, neuronal densities decrease with increasing brain size, suggesting that auditory brainstem structures increase in size faster than neurons are added; smaller brains have relatively more neurons than larger brains. The cellular scaling rules that apply to auditory brainstem structures in galliforms are, therefore, different to that found in primate auditory pathway. It is likely that the factors driving this difference are associated with the anatomical specializations required for sound perception in birds, although there is a decoupling of neuron numbers in brain structures and hair cell numbers in the basilar papilla. This study provides significant insight into the allometric scaling of neural structures in birds and improves our understanding of the rules that govern neural scaling across vertebrates. PMID:26002617

  3. Central organization of eighth nerve and mechanosensory lateral line systems in the brainstem of ictalurid catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, T E; Tong, S L

    1984-10-10

    The octavolateral sensory systems in teleost fish comprise at least four distinct hair-cell sensory modalities which are processed separately within the CNS. Two of these modalities, the mechanosensory lateral line system and the eighth nerve auditory system, have been implicated in the animal's ability to detect and localize underwater vibrations. Distinct mechanosensory lateral line and auditory nuclei are present within the torus semicircularis, the midbrain homologue of the inferior colliculus. The present study utilized horseradish peroxidase tracing techniques to delineate those areas of the lower brainstem which are involved in auditory as opposed to mechanosensory lateral line processes. The primary mechanosensory nucleus of the medulla, n. medialis, projects directly to the optic tectum and to the mechanosensory nucleus of the torus semicircularis. Nucleus medialis receives input from primary lateral line nerve fibers as well as from a number of sites within the CNS: n. praeeminentialis pars ventralis, and the eminentia granularis and lobus caudalis of the cerebellum. The n. praeeminentialis itself receives a descending input from the mechanosensory nucleus of the torus semicircularis. These mechanosensory lateral line pathways are parallel to, but distinct from, those of the electrosensory lateral line system. Auditory signals reach the midbrain via an entirely separate route. The octaval nerve terminates in a column of five medullary nuclei. Of these, only the anterior and descending octaval nuclei maintain a direct but sparse projection to the auditory nucleus of the midbrain. The bulk of the auditory input to the midbrain involves a newly described medullary nucleus, the medial auditory nucleus of the medulla. This nucleus receives input from the descending octaval nucleus and projects bilaterally to the auditory nucleus of the torus semicircularis. It is suggested that the medial auditory nucleus of the medulla is homologous to portions of the

  4. The Effect of Low Omega-3/Omega-6 Ratio on Auditory Nerve Conduction in Rat Pups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Farahani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The biological effects of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are determined by their mutual interactions. This interaction extremely affects various functions. Lower consumption of omega-3 during gestation leads to various disorders, even in hearing. We aimed to assess the effect of low omega-3/omega-6 ratios on auditory nerve conduction. In this experimental study, the auditory brainstem response test was performed on 24-day-old rat (n=14. The rats were divided into case (low omega-3/omega-6 ratio during gestation and lactation and control groups. Variables such as P1, P3, and P4 absolute latency period, interpeaks (P3-P4, P1-P3, and P1-P4, and P4/P1 amplitude ratio were measured. We found an increased P4 omega-3/omega-6 ratio in the group with a low omega-3/omega-6 ratio (P0.05.  Also, no significant difference was observed between the groups with respect to the P1-P3 interpeak latency (IPL periods (P>0.05; while the P1-P4 and P3-P4 IPLs were significantly increased in the group with a low omega-3/omega-6 ratio (P<0.05. The P4/P1 amplitude ratio significantly decreased in the group with a low omega-3/omega-6 ratio (P<0.05. Results confirmed the negative effects of low omega-3/omega-6 ratio on the auditory system and hearing.

  5. Imaging of adult brainstem gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •BSG are classified on MRI into diffuse low-grade, malignant, focal tectal and exophytic subtypes. •Their prognosis and treatment is variable and is almost similar to adult supratentorial gliomas. •This article illustrates the imaging of adult BSGs on MRI and FET-PET. •We also describe prognostic factors and the treatment options of these tumours. -- Abstract: Brainstem gliomas (BSGs) are uncommon in adults accounting for about 2% of all intracranial neoplasms. They are often phenotypically low-grade as compared to their more common paediatric counterparts. Since brainstem biopsies are rarely performed, these tumours are commonly classified according to their MR imaging characteristics into 4 subgroups: (a) diffuse intrinsic low-grade gliomas, (b) enhancing malignant gliomas, (c) focal tectal gliomas and (d) exophytic gliomas/other subtypes. The prognosis and treatment is variable for the different types and is almost similar to adult supratentorial gliomas. Radiotherapy (RT) with adjuvant chemotherapy is the standard treatment of diffuse low-grade and malignant BSGs, whereas, surgical resection is limited to the exophytic subtypes. Review of previous literature shows that the detailed imaging of adult BSGs has not received significant attention. This review illustrates in detail the imaging features of adult BSGs using conventional and advanced MR techniques like diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), MR perfusion weighted imaging (PWI), MR spectroscopy (MRS), as well as 18F-fluoro-ethyl-tyrosine positron emission tomography (18F-FET/PET). We have discussed the pertinent differences between childhood and adult BSGs, imaging mimics, prognostic factors and briefly reviewed the treatment options of these tumours

  6. Imaging of adult brainstem gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purohit, Bela, E-mail: purohitbela@yahoo.co.in; Kamli, Ali A.; Kollias, Spyros S.

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: •BSG are classified on MRI into diffuse low-grade, malignant, focal tectal and exophytic subtypes. •Their prognosis and treatment is variable and is almost similar to adult supratentorial gliomas. •This article illustrates the imaging of adult BSGs on MRI and FET-PET. •We also describe prognostic factors and the treatment options of these tumours. -- Abstract: Brainstem gliomas (BSGs) are uncommon in adults accounting for about 2% of all intracranial neoplasms. They are often phenotypically low-grade as compared to their more common paediatric counterparts. Since brainstem biopsies are rarely performed, these tumours are commonly classified according to their MR imaging characteristics into 4 subgroups: (a) diffuse intrinsic low-grade gliomas, (b) enhancing malignant gliomas, (c) focal tectal gliomas and (d) exophytic gliomas/other subtypes. The prognosis and treatment is variable for the different types and is almost similar to adult supratentorial gliomas. Radiotherapy (RT) with adjuvant chemotherapy is the standard treatment of diffuse low-grade and malignant BSGs, whereas, surgical resection is limited to the exophytic subtypes. Review of previous literature shows that the detailed imaging of adult BSGs has not received significant attention. This review illustrates in detail the imaging features of adult BSGs using conventional and advanced MR techniques like diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), MR perfusion weighted imaging (PWI), MR spectroscopy (MRS), as well as {sup 18}F-fluoro-ethyl-tyrosine positron emission tomography ({sup 18}F-FET/PET). We have discussed the pertinent differences between childhood and adult BSGs, imaging mimics, prognostic factors and briefly reviewed the treatment options of these tumours.

  7. Positron Emission Tomography Imaging Reveals Auditory and Frontal Cortical Regions Involved with Speech Perception and Loudness Adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Berding

    Full Text Available Considerable progress has been made in the treatment of hearing loss with auditory implants. However, there are still many implanted patients that experience hearing deficiencies, such as limited speech understanding or vanishing perception with continuous stimulation (i.e., abnormal loudness adaptation. The present study aims to identify specific patterns of cerebral cortex activity involved with such deficiencies. We performed O-15-water positron emission tomography (PET in patients implanted with electrodes within the cochlea, brainstem, or midbrain to investigate the pattern of cortical activation in response to speech or continuous multi-tone stimuli directly inputted into the implant processor that then delivered electrical patterns through those electrodes. Statistical parametric mapping was performed on a single subject basis. Better speech understanding was correlated with a larger extent of bilateral auditory cortex activation. In contrast to speech, the continuous multi-tone stimulus elicited mainly unilateral auditory cortical activity in which greater loudness adaptation corresponded to weaker activation and even deactivation. Interestingly, greater loudness adaptation was correlated with stronger activity within the ventral prefrontal cortex, which could be up-regulated to suppress the irrelevant or aberrant signals into the auditory cortex. The ability to detect these specific cortical patterns and differences across patients and stimuli demonstrates the potential for using PET to diagnose auditory function or dysfunction in implant patients, which in turn could guide the development of appropriate stimulation strategies for improving hearing rehabilitation. Beyond hearing restoration, our study also reveals a potential role of the frontal cortex in suppressing irrelevant or aberrant activity within the auditory cortex, and thus may be relevant for understanding and treating tinnitus.

  8. Positron Emission Tomography Imaging Reveals Auditory and Frontal Cortical Regions Involved with Speech Perception and Loudness Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berding, Georg; Wilke, Florian; Rode, Thilo; Haense, Cathleen; Joseph, Gert; Meyer, Geerd J; Mamach, Martin; Lenarz, Minoo; Geworski, Lilli; Bengel, Frank M; Lenarz, Thomas; Lim, Hubert H

    2015-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in the treatment of hearing loss with auditory implants. However, there are still many implanted patients that experience hearing deficiencies, such as limited speech understanding or vanishing perception with continuous stimulation (i.e., abnormal loudness adaptation). The present study aims to identify specific patterns of cerebral cortex activity involved with such deficiencies. We performed O-15-water positron emission tomography (PET) in patients implanted with electrodes within the cochlea, brainstem, or midbrain to investigate the pattern of cortical activation in response to speech or continuous multi-tone stimuli directly inputted into the implant processor that then delivered electrical patterns through those electrodes. Statistical parametric mapping was performed on a single subject basis. Better speech understanding was correlated with a larger extent of bilateral auditory cortex activation. In contrast to speech, the continuous multi-tone stimulus elicited mainly unilateral auditory cortical activity in which greater loudness adaptation corresponded to weaker activation and even deactivation. Interestingly, greater loudness adaptation was correlated with stronger activity within the ventral prefrontal cortex, which could be up-regulated to suppress the irrelevant or aberrant signals into the auditory cortex. The ability to detect these specific cortical patterns and differences across patients and stimuli demonstrates the potential for using PET to diagnose auditory function or dysfunction in implant patients, which in turn could guide the development of appropriate stimulation strategies for improving hearing rehabilitation. Beyond hearing restoration, our study also reveals a potential role of the frontal cortex in suppressing irrelevant or aberrant activity within the auditory cortex, and thus may be relevant for understanding and treating tinnitus. PMID:26046763

  9. A Comparison of Thresholds in Auditory Steady - State Response with Pure Tone Audiometry in Subjects with Normal Hearing and Those with Mild and Moderate Sensorineural Hearing los

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Jafarzadeh

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Among all auditory assessment tools, auditory steady state response (ASSR is a modern test. Modulation frequency for this test is usually 80 Hz. The purpose of this study, was to examined adult subjects with 40 Hz and 80 Hz ASSR and compare the results.Materials and Methods: Thirty adult (60 ears were evaluated by ASSR and PTA test, Results were divided into three groups: normal hearing, mild and moderate sensorineural hearing loss. Results: In all groups, forty hertz ASSR thresholds were relatively closer to behavioral threshold than those of 80 Hz ASSR(p<0.05. Besides, the more severe hearing loss, the lower the difference between those two thresholds. Correlation coefficients were also higher in 40 Hz ASSR(p<0.05. Conclusion: Frequency modulation thresholds with 40 Hz are more likely to be closer to the behavioral thresholds. Moreover, it has better results than the thresholds with 80 Hz.

  10. Physiological Measures of Auditory Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmeier, Birger; Riedel, Helmut; Mauermann, Manfred; Uppenkamp, Stefan

    When acoustic signals enter the ears, they pass several processing stages of various complexities before they will be perceived. The auditory pathway can be separated into structures dealing with sound transmission in air (i.e. the outer ear, ear canal, and the vibration of tympanic membrane), structures dealing with the transformation of sound pressure waves into mechanical vibrations of the inner ear fluids (i.e. the tympanic membrane, ossicular chain, and the oval window), structures carrying mechanical vibrations in the fluid-filled inner ear (i.e. the cochlea with basilar membrane, tectorial membrane, and hair cells), structures that transform mechanical oscillations into a neural code, and finally several stages of neural processing in the brain along the pathway from the brainstem to the cortex.

  11. A NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801 impairs consolidating extinction of auditory conditioned fear responses in a Pavlovian model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Li Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In auditory fear conditioning, repeated presentation of the tone in the absence of shock leads to extinction of the acquired fear responses. The glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR is thought to be involved in the extinction of the conditioned fear responses, but its detailed role in initiating and consolidating or maintaining the fear extinction memory is unclear. Here we investigated this issue by using a NMDAR antagonist, MK-801. METHODS/MAIN FINDINGS: The effects of immediate (beginning at 10 min after the conditioning and delayed (beginning at 24 h after conditioning extinctions were first compared with the finding that delayed extinction caused a better and long-lasting (still significant on the 20(th day after extinction depression on the conditioned fear responses. In a second experiment, MK-801 was intraperitoneally (i.p. injected at 40 min before, 4 h or 12 h after the delayed extinction, corresponding to critical time points for initiating, consolidating or maintaining the fear extinction memory. i.p. injection of MK-801 at either 40 min before or 4 h after delayed extinction resulted in an impairment of initiating and consolidating fear extinction memory, which caused a long lasting increased freezing score that was still significant on the 7th day after extinction, compared with extinction group. However, MK-801 administered at 12 h after the delayed extinction, when robust consolidation has been occurred and stabilized, did not affect the established extinction memory. Furthermore, the changed freezing behaviors was not due to an alteration in general anxiety levels, since MK-801 treatment had no effect on the percentage of open-arm time or open-arm entries in an Elevated Plus Maze (EPM task. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggested that the activation of NMDARs plays important role in initiation and consolidation but not maintenance of fear extinction memory. Together with the fact that NMDA receptor is

  12. Sensitivity of cortical auditory evoked potential detection for hearing-impaired infants in response to short speech sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram Van Dun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs are an emerging tool for hearing aid fitting evaluation in young children who cannot provide reliable behavioral feedback. It is therefore useful to determine the relationship between the sensation level of speech sounds and the detection sensitivity of CAEPs.

    Design and methods: Twenty-five sensorineurally hearing impaired infants with an age range of 8 to 30 months were tested once, 18 aided and 7 unaided. First, behavioral thresholds of speech stimuli /m/, /g/, and /t/ were determined using visual reinforcement orientation audiometry (VROA. Afterwards, the same speech stimuli were presented at 55, 65, and 75 dB SPL, and CAEP recordings were made. An automatic statistical detection paradigm was used for CAEP detection.

    Results: For sensation levels above 0, 10, and 20 dB respectively, detection sensitivities were equal to 72 ± 10, 75 ± 10, and 78 ± 12%. In 79% of the cases, automatic detection p-values became smaller when the sensation level was increased by 10 dB.

    Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that the presence or absence of CAEPs can provide some indication of the audibility of a speech sound for infants with sensorineural hearing loss. The detection of a CAEP provides confidence, to a degree commensurate with the detection probability, that the infant is detecting that sound at the level presented. When testing infants where the audibility of speech sounds has not been established behaviorally, the lack of a cortical response indicates the possibility, but by no means a certainty, that the sensation level is 10 dB or less.

  13. Adaptation in the auditory system: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pérez-González

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The early stages of the auditory system need to preserve the timing information of sounds in order to extract the basic features of acoustic stimuli. At the same time, different processes of neuronal adaptation occur at several levels to further process the auditory information. For instance, auditory nerve fiber responses already experience adaptation of their firing rates, a type of response that can be found in many other auditory nuclei and may be useful for emphasizing the onset of the stimuli. However, it is at higher levels in the auditory hierarchy where more sophisticated types of neuronal processing take place. For example, stimulus-specific adaptation, where neurons show adaptation to frequent, repetitive stimuli, but maintain their responsiveness to stimuli with different physical characteristics, thus representing a distinct kind of processing that may play a role in change and deviance detection. In the auditory cortex, adaptation takes more elaborate forms, and contributes to the processing of complex sequences, auditory scene analysis and attention. Here we review the multiple types of adaptation that occur in the auditory system, which are part of the pool of resources that the neurons employ to process the auditory scene, and are critical to a proper understanding of the neuronal mechanisms that govern auditory perception.

  14. Brainstem involvement in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The parieto-occipital region of the brain is most frequently and severely affected in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE. The basal ganglia, cerebellum and corpus callosum are less commonly involved. Brainstem involvement is rarely described in SSPE, and usually there is involvement of other regions of the brain. We describe a patient with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis with brain magnetic resonance imaging showing extensive brainstem involvement without significant involvement of other cortical structures. Though rarely described in SSPE, one should be aware of such brainstem and cerebellum involvement, and SSPE should be kept in mind when brainstem signal changes are seen in brain MRI with or without involvement of other regions of brain to avoid erroneous reporting.

  15. Prospects for replacement of auditory neurons by stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Fuxin; Edge, Albert S B

    2013-03-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss is caused by degeneration of hair cells or auditory neurons. Spiral ganglion cells, the primary afferent neurons of the auditory system, are patterned during development and send out projections to hair cells and to the brainstem under the control of largely unknown guidance molecules. The neurons do not regenerate after loss and even damage to their projections tends to be permanent. The genesis of spiral ganglion neurons and their synapses forms a basis for regenerative approaches. In this review we critically present the current experimental findings on auditory neuron replacement. We discuss the latest advances with a focus on (a) exogenous stem cell transplantation into the cochlea for neural replacement, (b) expression of local guidance signals in the cochlea after loss of auditory neurons, (c) the possibility of neural replacement from an endogenous cell source, and (d) functional changes from cell engraftment. PMID:23370457

  16. Reduced response to chronic mild stress in PACAP mutant mice is associated with blunted FosB expression in limbic forebrain and brainstem centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormos, Viktória; Gáspár, László; Kovács, László Á; Farkas, József; Gaszner, Tamás; Csernus, Valér; Balogh, András; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Reglődi, Dóra; Helyes, Zsuzsanna; Gaszner, Balázs

    2016-08-25

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) has been implicated in stress adaptation with potential relevance in mood disorder management. PACAP deficient (KO) mice on CD1 background were shown to have depression-like phenotype. Here we aimed at investigating effects of chronic variable mild stress (CVMS) in non-injected, vehicle and imipramine-treated KO mice vs. wildtype (WT) counterparts. We hypothesized reduced FosB neuronal activity in stress-related centers, altered activity and peptide/neurotransmitter content of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) cells of the oval (ovBST) bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BST), urocortin 1 (Ucn1) neurons of centrally projecting Edinger-Westphal nucleus (cpEW) and serotonin (5HT) cells of dorsal raphe (DR) in PACAP deficiency. CVMS caused decreased body weight and increased adrenal size, corticosterone (CORT) titers and depression-like behavior in WT mice, in contrast to KO animals. CVMS increased FosB in the central (CeA) and medial amygdala, dorsomedial (dmBST), ventral (vBST), ovBST, CA1 area, dentate gyrus (DG), ventral lateral septum, parvo- (pPVN) and magnocellular paraventricular nucleus, lateral periaqueductal gray, cpEW and DR. Lack of PACAP blunted the CVMS-induced FosB rise in the CeA, ovBST, dmBST, vBST, CA1 area, pPVN and DR. The CVMS-induced FosB expression in ovBST-CRF and cpEW-Ucn1 neurons was abolished in KO mice. Although CVMS did not induce FosB in 5HT-DR neurons, PACAP KO mice had increased 5HT cell counts and 5HT content. We conclude that PACAP deficiency affects neuronal reactivity in a brain area-specific manner in stress centers, as well as in ovBST-CRF, cpEW-Ucn1 and 5HT-DR neurons leading to reduced CVMS response and altered depression level. PMID:27282087

  17. Brainstem Circuits Regulating Gastric Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travagli, R. Alberto; Hermann, Gerlinda E.; Browning, Kirsteen N.; Rogers, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    Brainstem parasympathetic circuits that modulate digestive functions of the stomach are comprised of afferent vagal fibers, neurons of the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), and the efferent fibers originating in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV). A large body of evidence has shown that neuronal communications between the NTS and the DMV are plastic and are regulated by the presence of a variety of neurotransmitters and circulating hormones as well as the presence, or absence, of afferent input to the NTS. These data suggest that descending central nervous system inputs as well as hormonal and afferent feedback resulting from the digestive process can powerfully regulate vago-vagal reflex sensitivity. This paper first reviews the essential “static” organization and function of vago-vagal gastric control neurocircuitry. We then present data on the opioidergic modulation of NTS connections with the DMV as an example of the “gating” of these reflexes, i.e., how neurotransmitters, hormones, and vagal afferent traffic can make an otherwise static autonomic reflex highly plastic. PMID:16460274

  18. Seeing the song: left auditory structures may track auditory-visual dynamic alignment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia A Mossbridge

    Full Text Available Auditory and visual signals generated by a single source tend to be temporally correlated, such as the synchronous sounds of footsteps and the limb movements of a walker. Continuous tracking and comparison of the dynamics of auditory-visual streams is thus useful for the perceptual binding of information arising from a common source. Although language-related mechanisms have been implicated in the tracking of speech-related auditory-visual signals (e.g., speech sounds and lip movements, it is not well known what sensory mechanisms generally track ongoing auditory-visual synchrony for non-speech signals in a complex auditory-visual environment. To begin to address this question, we used music and visual displays that varied in the dynamics of multiple features (e.g., auditory loudness and pitch; visual luminance, color, size, motion, and organization across multiple time scales. Auditory activity (monitored using auditory steady-state responses, ASSR was selectively reduced in the left hemisphere when the music and dynamic visual displays were temporally misaligned. Importantly, ASSR was not affected when attentional engagement with the music was reduced, or when visual displays presented dynamics clearly dissimilar to the music. These results appear to suggest that left-lateralized auditory mechanisms are sensitive to auditory-visual temporal alignment, but perhaps only when the dynamics of auditory and visual streams are similar. These mechanisms may contribute to correct auditory-visual binding in a busy sensory environment.

  19. Seeing the song: left auditory structures may track auditory-visual dynamic alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossbridge, Julia A; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2013-01-01

    Auditory and visual signals generated by a single source tend to be temporally correlated, such as the synchronous sounds of footsteps and the limb movements of a walker. Continuous tracking and comparison of the dynamics of auditory-visual streams is thus useful for the perceptual binding of information arising from a common source. Although language-related mechanisms have been implicated in the tracking of speech-related auditory-visual signals (e.g., speech sounds and lip movements), it is not well known what sensory mechanisms generally track ongoing auditory-visual synchrony for non-speech signals in a complex auditory-visual environment. To begin to address this question, we used music and visual displays that varied in the dynamics of multiple features (e.g., auditory loudness and pitch; visual luminance, color, size, motion, and organization) across multiple time scales. Auditory activity (monitored using auditory steady-state responses, ASSR) was selectively reduced in the left hemisphere when the music and dynamic visual displays were temporally misaligned. Importantly, ASSR was not affected when attentional engagement with the music was reduced, or when visual displays presented dynamics clearly dissimilar to the music. These results appear to suggest that left-lateralized auditory mechanisms are sensitive to auditory-visual temporal alignment, but perhaps only when the dynamics of auditory and visual streams are similar. These mechanisms may contribute to correct auditory-visual binding in a busy sensory environment. PMID:24194873

  20. Geometric scaling factors for the pediatric brainstem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danelson, Kerry A; Yu, Mao; Gayzik, F Scott; Geer, Carol P; Slice, Dennis E; Stitzel, Joel D

    2008-01-01

    Injuries caused by motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) are the leading cause of death for children in the United States as well as the leading cause of head injury. Improved finite element models that integrate the correct shape of the pediatric brain with current injury prediction metrics would improve occupant response prediction for the pediatric occupant. The focus of this study is the improvement of geometric scaling factors for the brainstem to adapt current adult brain models to a pediatric model. The method used to assess shape change for this study was a geometric morphometric analysis technique. A sliding landmark form of a general Procrustes analysis was selected for its ability to compare curved structures with few true landmarks. The dataset consisted of fifty-nine individuals ranging in age from newborn to twenty-one years of age with groups specified at newborn, three months, six months, one year, three years, six years, ten years, fifteen years, and twenty-one years of age. Data was collected by outlining the structure on transverse and sagittal scans of magnetic resonance images and then creating a landmark dataset with a user-defined number of points for each individual. Once all individuals had the same number of landmarks, these points are allowed to slide on planes tangent to the surface until a value described as bending energy is minimized relative to an iteratively computed mean configuration from a Generalized Procrustes Analysis. A General Procrustes Analysis was completed for this data set to determine the shape differences between the age groups. Then, the coordinate locations were regressed onto age, and this analysis resulted in a model that predicted landmark locations based on age. From this model, the dimensions of the brainstem were calculated using the specified age groups. The final step was taking the dimensions of the predicted twenty-one year old model as the base and calculating a geometric scaling factor for shape, without

  1. The brainstem efferent acoustic chiasm in pigmented and albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuss, Stefan; Closhen-Gabrisch, Stefanie; Closhen, Christina

    2016-02-01

    The present study examined whether structural peculiarities in the brain-efferent pathway to the organ of Corti may underlie functional differences in hearing between pigmented and albino individuals of the same mammalian species. Pigmented Brown-Norway rats and albino Wistar rats received unilateral injections of an aqueous solution of the retrograde neuronal tracer Fluorogold (FG) into the scala tympani of the cochlea to identify olivocochlear neurons (OCN) in the brainstem superior olivary complex. After five days, brains were perfusion-fixed and brainstem sections were cut and analyzed with respect to retrogradely labeled neurons. Intrinsic neurons of the lateral system were located exclusively in the ipsilateral lateral superior olive (LSO) in both groups. Shell neurons surrounding the LSO and in periolivary regions, which made up only 5-8% of all OCN, were more often contralaterally located in albino than in pigmented animals. A striking difference was observed in the laterality of neurons of the medial olivocochlear (MOC) system, which provided more than one third of all OCN. These neurons, located in the rostral periolivary region and in the ventral nucleus of the trapezoid body, were observed contralateral to 45% in pigmented and to 68% in albino animals. Our study, the first to compare the origin of the olivocochlear bundle in pigmented and albino rats, provides evidence for differences in the crossing pattern of the olivocochlear pathway. These were found predominantly in the MOC system providing the direct efferent innervation of cochlear outer hair cells. Our findings may account for the alterations in auditory perception observed in albino mammals including man. PMID:26657095

  2. IMAGING WHITE MATTER IN HUMAN BRAINSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia A Ford

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The human brainstem is critical for the control of many life-sustaining functions, such as consciousness, respiration, sleep, and transfer of sensory and motor information between the brain and the spinal cord. Most of our knowledge about structure and organization of white and gray matter within the brainstem is derived from ex vivo dissection and histology studies. However, these methods cannot be applied to study structural architecture in live human participants. Tractography from diffusion-weighted MRI may provide valuable insights about white matter organization within the brainstem in vivo. However, this method presents technical challenges in vivo due to susceptibility artifacts, functionally dense anatomy, as well as pulsatile and respiratory motion. To investigate the limits of MR tractography, we present results from high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI of an intact excised human brainstem performed at 11.1T using isotropic resolution of 0.333, 1, and 2 mm, with the latter reflecting resolution currently used clinically. At the highest resolution, the dense fiber architecture of the brainstem is evident, but the definition of structures degrades as resolution decreases. In particular, the inferred corticopontine/corticospinal tracts (CPT/CST, superior (SCP and middle cerebellar peduncle (MCP, and medial lemniscus (ML pathways are clearly discernable and follow known anatomical trajectories at the highest spatial resolution. At lower resolutions, the CST/CPT, SCP, and MCP pathways are artificially enlarged due to inclusion of collinear and crossing fibers not inherent to these three pathways. The inferred ML pathways appear smaller at lower resolutions, indicating insufficient spatial information to successfully resolve smaller fiber pathways. Our results suggest that white matter tractography maps derived from the excised brainstem can be used to guide the study of the brainstem architecture using diffusion MRI in vivo.

  3. Brainstem response and state-trait variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, Kirby

    1988-01-01

    A series of investigations are summarized from a personality research program that have relevance for mental state estimation. Of particular concern are those personality variables that are believed to have either a biological or perceptual basis and their relationship to human task performance and psychophysiology. These variables are among the most robust personality measures and include such dimensions as extraversion-introversion, sensation seeking, and impulsiveness. These dimensions also have the most distinct link to performance and psychophysiology. Through the course of many of these investigations two issues have emerged repeatedly: these personality dimensions appear to mediate mental state, and mental state appears to influence measures of performance or psychophysiology.

  4. The Calyx of Held Synapse : From Model Synapse to Auditory Relay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, J. Gerard G.; van Hoeve, John Soria; Julius, D; Clapham, DE

    2012-01-01

    The calyx of Held is an axosomatic terminal in the auditory brainstem that has attracted anatomists because of its giant size and physiologists because of its accessibility to patch-clamp recordings. The calyx allows the principal neurons in the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) to provide

  5. Auditory short-term memory in the primate auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Brian H; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2016-06-01

    Sounds are fleeting, and assembling the sequence of inputs at the ear into a coherent percept requires auditory memory across various time scales. Auditory short-term memory comprises at least two components: an active ׳working memory' bolstered by rehearsal, and a sensory trace that may be passively retained. Working memory relies on representations recalled from long-term memory, and their rehearsal may require phonological mechanisms unique to humans. The sensory component, passive short-term memory (pSTM), is tractable to study in nonhuman primates, whose brain architecture and behavioral repertoire are comparable to our own. This review discusses recent advances in the behavioral and neurophysiological study of auditory memory with a focus on single-unit recordings from macaque monkeys performing delayed-match-to-sample (DMS) tasks. Monkeys appear to employ pSTM to solve these tasks, as evidenced by the impact of interfering stimuli on memory performance. In several regards, pSTM in monkeys resembles pitch memory in humans, and may engage similar neural mechanisms. Neural correlates of DMS performance have been observed throughout the auditory and prefrontal cortex, defining a network of areas supporting auditory STM with parallels to that supporting visual STM. These correlates include persistent neural firing, or a suppression of firing, during the delay period of the memory task, as well as suppression or (less commonly) enhancement of sensory responses when a sound is repeated as a ׳match' stimulus. Auditory STM is supported by a distributed temporo-frontal network in which sensitivity to stimulus history is an intrinsic feature of auditory processing. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. PMID:26541581

  6. The Role of Auditory and Kinaesthetic Feedback Mechanisms on Phonatory Stability in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Rathna Kumar, S. B.; Azeem, Suhail; Choudhary, Abhishek Kumar; Prakash, S. G. R.

    2012-01-01

    Auditory feedback plays an important role in phonatory control. When auditory feedback is disrupted, various changes are observed in vocal motor control. Vocal intensity and fundamental frequency (F0) levels tend to increase in response to auditory masking. Because of the close reflexive links between the auditory and phonatory systems, it is likely that phonatory stability may be disrupted when auditory feedback is disrupted or altered. However, studies on phonatory stability under auditory ...

  7. The sensory channel of presentation alters subjective ratings and autonomic responses towards disgusting stimuli -Blood pressure, heart rate and skin conductance in response to visual, auditory, haptic and olfactory presented disgusting stimuli-

    OpenAIRE

    Ilona eCroy; Kerstin eLaqua; Frank eSuess; Peter eJoraschky; Tjalf eZiemssen; Thomas eHummel

    2013-01-01

    Disgust causes specific reaction patterns, observable in mimic responses and body reactions. Most research on disgust deals with visual stimuli. However, pictures may cause another disgust experience than sounds, odors or tactile stimuli. Therefore disgust experience evoked by four different sensory channels was compared.A total of 119 participants received 3 different disgusting and one control stimulus, each presented through the visual, auditory, tactile and olfactory channel. Ratings of e...

  8. The sensory channel of presentation alters subjective ratings and autonomic responses toward disgusting stimuli – Blood pressure, heart rate and skin conductance in response to visual, auditory, haptic and olfactory presented disgusting stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Croy, Ilona; Laqua, Kerstin; Süß, Frank; Joraschky, Peter; Ziemssen, Tjalf; Hummel, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Disgust causes specific reaction patterns, observable in mimic responses and body reactions. Most research on disgust deals with visual stimuli. However, pictures may cause another disgust experience than sounds, odors, or tactile stimuli. Therefore, disgust experience evoked by four different sensory channels was compared. A total of 119 participants received 3 different disgusting and one control stimulus, each presented through the visual, auditory, tactile, and olfactory channel. Ratings ...

  9. [Fisher Syndrome and Bickerstaff Brainstem Encephalitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, Satoshi

    2015-11-01

    Fisher syndrome has been regarded as a peculiar inflammatory neuropathy with ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and areflexia, whereas Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis has been considered a pure central nervous system disease characterized by ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and consciousness disturbance. Both disorders share common features including preceding infection, albumin-cytological dissociation, and association with Guillain-Barré syndrome. The discovery of anti-GQ1b IgG antibodies further supports the view that the two disorders represent a single disease spectrum. The lesions in Fisher syndrome and Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis are presumably determined by the expression of ganglioside GQ1b in the human peripheral and central nervous systems. Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis is likely to represent a variant of Fisher syndrome with central nervous system involvement. PMID:26560952

  10. Brainstem tumors: Current management and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo F Recinos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumors arising in the brainstem comprise 10-20% of all pediatric central nervous system (CNS tumors and account for a small percentage in adults. The prognosis for these tumors was considered uniformly poor prior to the era of modern neuroimaging and the location was fraught with disaster being considered a ′no man′s land′ for neurosurgeons. Following the introduction of advanced imaging modalities and neurophysiological monitoring, striking progress has occurred in the management of these lesions. Brainstem tumors are presently classified based on their anatomic location, focality, and histopathology. This article reviews the current classification of brainstem tumors, current management options, and future directions in the treatment for these rare tumors.

  11. Comparison of peripheral compression estimates using auditory steady-state responses (ASSR) and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Encina Llamas, Gerard; Epp, Bastian; Dau, Torsten

    The healthy auditory system shows a compressive input/output (I/O) function as a result of healthy outer-hair cell function. Hearing impairment often leads to a decrease in sensitivity and a reduction of compression, mainly caused by loss of inner and/or outer hair cells. Compression is commonly...... (DPOAEs) recordings. Results show compressive ASSR I/O functions for NH subjects. For HI subjects, ASSR reveal the loss of sensitivity at low stimulus levels. Growth slopes are smaller (more compressive) in ASSR than in DPOAE I/O functions....

  12. Information processing becomes slower and predominantly serial in aging: Characterization of response-related brain potentials in an auditory-visual distraction-attention task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid-Fernández, Susana; Lindín, Mónica; Díaz, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aging and attentional capture provoked by novel auditory stimuli on behavior (reaction time [RT], hits) and on response-related brain potentials (preRFP, CRN, postRFP, parietalRP) to target visual stimuli. Twenty-two young, 27 middle-aged, and 24 old adults performed an auditory-visual distraction-attention task. The RTs and latencies of preRFP, postRFP and parietalRT were longer in old and middle-aged than in young participants, reflecting the well-established age-related slowing of processing and performance. The inter-peak latencies (P3b-preRFP, preRFP-parietalRP, parietalRP-postRFP) were also longer in old and middle-aged than in young participants, further indicating an age-related tendency to increased predominance of serial (rather than parallel) processing of information, and that preRFP, CRN, postRFP, and parietalRP represent different cognitive processes from those indexed by the stimulus-related P3b. Finally, a distraction effect in performance (all three groups) and in postRFP latency (only middle-aged group) was also observed. PMID:26589359

  13. Bayesian Modeling of the Dynamics of Phase Modulations and their Application to Auditory Evoked Responses at Different Loudness Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab eMortezapouraghdam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the effect of long-term habituation signatures of auditory selective attention reflected in the instantaneous phase information of the auditory event-related potentials (ERPs at four distinct stimuli levels of 60dB SPL, 70dB SPL, 80dB SPL and 90dB SPL. The analysis is based on the single-trial level. The effect of habituation can be observed in terms of the changes (jitter in the instantaneous phase information of ERPs. In particular, the absence of habituation is correlated with a consistently high phase synchronization over ERP trials.We estimate the changes in phase concentration over trials using a Bayesian approach, in which the phase is modeled as being drawn from a von Mises distribution with a concentration parameter which varies smoothly over trials. The smoothness assumption reflects the fact that habituation is a gradual process.We differentiate between different stimuli based on the relative changes and absolute values of the estimated concentration parameter using the proposed Bayesian model.

  14. Central mechanisms II: pharmacology of brainstem pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolser, D C

    2009-01-01

    Following systemic administration, centrally acting antitussive drugs are generally assumed to act in the brainstem to inhibit cough. However, recent work in humans has raised the possibility of suprapontine sites of action for cough suppressants. For drugs that may act in the brainstem, the specific locations, types of neurones affected, and receptor specificities of the compounds represent important issues regarding their cough-suppressant actions. Two medullary areas that have received the most attention regarding the actions of antitussive drugs are the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) and the caudal ventrolateral respiratory column. Studies that have implicated these two medullary areas have employed both microinjection and in vitro recording methods to control the location of action of the antitussive drugs. Other brainstem regions contain neurones that participate in the production of cough and could represent potential sites of action of antitussive drugs. These regions include the raphe nuclei, pontine nuclei, and rostral ventrolateral medulla. Specific receptor subtypes have been associated with the suppression of cough at central sites, including 5-HT1A, opioid (mu, kappa, and delta), GABA-B, tachykinin neurokinin-1 (NK-1) and neurokinin-2, non-opioid (NOP-1), cannabinoid, dopaminergic, and sigma receptors. Aside from tachykinin NK-1 receptors in the NTS, relatively little is known regarding the receptor specificity of putative antitussive drugs in particular brainstem regions. Our understanding of the mechanisms of action of antitussive drugs would be significantly advanced by further work in this area. PMID:18825342

  15. Ondine′s curse after brainstem infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Pedroso Jose; Baiense Robson; Scalzaretto Ana; Neto Pedro; Teixeira de Gois Aecio; Ferraz Maria

    2009-01-01

    This report describes a rare case of acquired Ondine′s curse. The patient developed central sleep apnea syndrome named Ondine′s curse after a brainstem infarction. Lesions involving the descending medullocervical pathways that subserve automatic breathing can result in this syndrome.

  16. Neuromyelitis Optica Lesion Mimicking Brainstem Glioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A 12-year-old girl who presented with weakness of the left extremities and right sided sixth cranial nerve palsy had neuromyelitis optica (NMO mistaken for brainstem glioma on MRI, in a report from Brain Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine,Seoul, Republic of KoreaNeuromyelitis Optica, Optic-Spinal Syndrome, Spectroscopy.

  17. Brainstem Encephalitis and ADEM Following Mumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinical manifestations of brainstem encephalitis (BSE with fever, decreased level of consciousness, and left facial and abducens paralysis developed 1 week after bilateral parotitis and mumps in a 4 year-old female child and were followed by symptoms of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM within 20 days of recovery from BSE.

  18. Neural Correlates of an Auditory Afterimage in Primary Auditory Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Noreña, A. J.; Eggermont, J. J.

    2003-01-01

    The Zwicker tone (ZT) is defined as an auditory negative afterimage, perceived after the presentation of an appropriate inducer. Typically, a notched noise (NN) with a notch width of 1/2 octave induces a ZT with a pitch falling in the frequency range of the notch. The aim of the present study was to find potential neural correlates of the ZT in the primary auditory cortex of ketamine-anesthetized cats. Responses of multiunits were recorded simultaneously with two 8-electrode arrays during 1 s...

  19. Application of Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potential in the Diagnosis of Children with Post-traumatic Brain Syndrome%脑干听觉诱发电位在儿童脑外伤后综合征诊断中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田明琴; 李国良; 李振光

    2012-01-01

    [Objcctivc]To explore the diagnostic value of brainstcm auditory evoked potential(BAEP) in patients with post-traumatic brain syndromc(PTBS). [Methods! The differences of peak latcncy(PL) of wave I , H and HI and intcrpcak latcncy(IPL) of wave I ~ El and HI ~ V of BAEP in 24 children with PTBS and 24 normal children were compared and analyzed. [Results! There was no significant difference in PL of wave I of BAEP between PTBS group and control group( P >0. 05). PL and IPL of other waves of BEAP prolonged, and there were significant differences between PTBS group and control group( P 0.05).BAEP其他波PL及IPL均延长,与对照组有显著差异(P<0.05).[结论]BAEP筛查有助于PTBS患儿的早期发现.

  20. Prenatal IV Cocaine: Alterations in Auditory Information Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles F. Mactutus

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available One clue regarding the basis of cocaine-induced deficits in attentional processing is provided by the clinical findings of changes in the infants’ startle response; observations buttressed by neurophysiological evidence of alterations in brainstem transmission time. Using the IV route of administration and doses that mimic the peak arterial levels of cocaine use in humans, the present study examined the effects of prenatal cocaine on auditory information processing via tests of the acoustic startle response (ASR, habituation, and prepulse inhibition (PPI in the offspring. Nulliparous Long-Evans female rats, implanted with an IV access port prior to breeding, were administered saline, 0.5, 1.0, or 3.0 mg/kg/injection of cocaine HCL (COC from gestation day (GD8-20 (1x/day-GD8-14, 2x/day-GD15-20. COC had no significant effects on maternal/litter parameters or growth of the offspring. At 18-20 days of age, one male and one female, randomly selected from each litter displayed an increased ASR (>30% for males at 1.0 mg/kg and >30% for females at 3.0 mg/kg. When reassessed in adulthood (D90-100, a linear dose-response increase was noted on response amplitude. At both test ages, within-session habituation was retarded by prenatal cocaine treatment. Testing the females in diestrus vs. estrus did not alter the results. Prenatal cocaine altered the PPI response function across interstimulus interval (ISI and induced significant sex-dependent changes in response latency. Idazoxan, an alpha2-adrenergic receptor antagonist, significantly enhanced the ASR, but less enhancement was noted with increasing doses of prenatal cocaine. Thus, in utero exposure to cocaine, when delivered via a protocol designed to capture prominent features of recreational usage, causes persistent, if not permanent, alterations in auditory information processing, and suggests dysfunction of the central noradrenergic circuitry modulating, if not mediating, these responses.

  1. Effects of I(h) and I(KLT) on the response of the auditory nerve to electrical stimulation in a stochastic Hodgkin-Huxley model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negm, Mohamed H; Bruce, Ian C

    2008-01-01

    An accurate model of auditory nerve fibers (ANFs) would help in improving cochlear implant (CI) functionality. Previous studies have shown that the original Hodgkin-Huxley (1952) model (with kinetics adjusted for mammalian body temperature) may be better at describing nodes of Ranvier in ANFs than models for other mammalian axon types. However, the HH model is still unable to explain a number of phenomena observed in auditory nerve responses to CI stimulation such as long-term accommodation, adaptation and the time-course of relative refractoriness. Recent physiological investigations of spiral ganglion cells have shown the presence of a number of ion channel types not considered in the previous modeling studies, including low-threshold potassium (I(KLT)) channels and hyperpolarization-activated cation (I(h)) channels. In this paper we investigate inclusion of these ion channel types in a stochastic HH model. For single biphasic charge-balanced pulse, an increase in spike threshold was typically produced by inclusion of one or both of these channel types. The addition of I(KLT) increases random threshold fluctuations in the stochastic model, particularly for longer pulse widths. Pulse-train responses were investigated for pulse rates of 200, 800, and 2000 pulse/s. Initial results suggests that both the I(KLT) channels and I(h) channels can produce adaptation in the spike rate. However, the adaptation due to I(KLT) is restricted to higher stimulation rates, whereas the adaptation due to I(h) is observed across all stimulation rates. PMID:19163972

  2. Suppression Measured from Chinchilla Auditory-Nerve-Fiber Responses Following Noise-Induced Hearing Loss: Adaptive-Tracking and Systems-Identification Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayles, Mark; Walls, Michael K; Heinz, Michael G

    2016-01-01

    The compressive nonlinearity of cochlear signal transduction, reflecting outer-hair-cell function, manifests as suppressive spectral interactions; e.g., two-tone suppression. Moreover, for broadband sounds, there are multiple interactions between frequency components. These frequency-dependent nonlinearities are important for neural coding of complex sounds, such as speech. Acoustic-trauma-induced outer-hair-cell damage is associated with loss of nonlinearity, which auditory prostheses attempt to restore with, e.g., "multi-channel dynamic compression" algorithms.Neurophysiological data on suppression in hearing-impaired (HI) mammals are limited. We present data on firing-rate suppression measured in auditory-nerve-fiber responses in a chinchilla model of noise-induced hearing loss, and in normal-hearing (NH) controls at equal sensation level. Hearing-impaired (HI) animals had elevated single-fiber excitatory thresholds (by ~ 20-40 dB), broadened frequency tuning, and reduced-magnitude distortion-product otoacoustic emissions; consistent with mixed inner- and outer-hair-cell pathology. We characterized suppression using two approaches: adaptive tracking of two-tone-suppression threshold (62 NH, and 35 HI fibers), and Wiener-kernel analyses of responses to broadband noise (91 NH, and 148 HI fibers). Suppression-threshold tuning curves showed sensitive low-side suppression for NH and HI animals. High-side suppression thresholds were elevated in HI animals, to the same extent as excitatory thresholds. We factored second-order Wiener-kernels into excitatory and suppressive sub-kernels to quantify the relative strength of suppression. We found a small decrease in suppression in HI fibers, which correlated with broadened tuning. These data will help guide novel amplification strategies, particularly for complex listening situations (e.g., speech in noise), in which current hearing aids struggle to restore intelligibility. PMID:27080669

  3. Central auditory masking by an illusory tone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Plack

    Full Text Available Many natural sounds fluctuate over time. The detectability of sounds in a sequence can be reduced by prior stimulation in a process known as forward masking. Forward masking is thought to reflect neural adaptation or neural persistence in the auditory nervous system, but it has been unclear where in the auditory pathway this processing occurs. To address this issue, the present study used a "Huggins pitch" stimulus, the perceptual effects of which depend on central auditory processing. Huggins pitch is an illusory tonal sensation produced when the same noise is presented to the two ears except for a narrow frequency band that is different (decorrelated between the ears. The pitch sensation depends on the combination of the inputs to the two ears, a process that first occurs at the level of the superior olivary complex in the brainstem. Here it is shown that a Huggins pitch stimulus produces more forward masking in the frequency region of the decorrelation than a noise stimulus identical to the Huggins-pitch stimulus except with perfect correlation between the ears. This stimulus has a peripheral neural representation that is identical to that of the Huggins-pitch stimulus. The results show that processing in, or central to, the superior olivary complex can contribute to forward masking in human listeners.

  4. Auditory Connections and Functions of Prefrontal Cortex

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    BethanyPlakke

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The functional auditory system extends from the ears to the frontal lobes with successively more complex functions occurring as one ascends the hierarchy of the nervous system. Several areas of the frontal lobe receive afferents from both early and late auditory processing regions within the temporal lobe. Afferents from the early part of the cortical auditory system, the auditory belt cortex, which are presumed to carry information regarding auditory features of sounds, project to only a few prefrontal regions and are most dense in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC. In contrast, projections from the parabelt and the rostral superior temporal gyrus (STG most likely convey more complex information and target a larger, widespread region of the prefrontal cortex. Neuronal responses reflect these anatomical projections as some prefrontal neurons exhibit responses to features in acoustic stimuli, while other neurons display task-related responses. For example, recording studies in non-human primates indicate that VLPFC is responsive to complex sounds including vocalizations and that VLPFC neurons in area 12/47 respond to sounds with similar acoustic morphology. In contrast, neuronal responses during auditory working memory involve a wider region of the prefrontal cortex. In humans, the frontal lobe is involved in auditory detection, discrimination, and working memory. Past research suggests that dorsal and ventral subregions of the prefrontal cortex process different types of information with dorsal cortex processing spatial/visual information and ventral cortex processing non-spatial/auditory information. While this is apparent in the non-human primate and in some neuroimaging studies, most research in humans indicates that specific task conditions, stimuli or previous experience may bias the recruitment of specific prefrontal regions, suggesting a more flexible role for the frontal lobe during auditory cognition.

  5. A test method comparison on the brainstem auditory evoked potentials and the audiometry methods testing aircraft noise - induced hearing losses%飞机噪声性听力损伤的脑干听觉诱发电位及电测听方法比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任力; 刘英; 叶舜华

    2002-01-01

    目的对飞机噪声暴露人群同时进行脑干听觉诱发电位(Brainstem anditory evoked potentials,BAEP)及电测听检查,比较两种方法检测听力损伤的价值.方法①对60名飞机维修保养人员及120名对照人群同时用脑干听觉诱发电位及电测听方法进行听力损伤检测.②用相关性分析及主成分分析等统计方法对该两种方法检测听力损伤的价值进行比较.结果①职业接触人群的BAEP潜伏期值与电测听1、2、4、6、8 KHz等频率及PTA、HPTA上的听觉阈值呈正相关,且与高频听觉阈值的相关性好.②用电测听4 kHz频率上的听觉阈值与BAEP的Ⅰ~Ⅴ波的峰间潜伏期做主成分分析:4 kHz频率上的听觉阈值的贡献率为78.9%,BAEP的Ⅰ~Ⅴ波的峰间潜伏期的贡献率为21.1%.结论电测听方法能反映主要的听力损伤状况,BAEP数据可预测飞机噪声对听力的早期影响,作为敏感性指标,对飞机噪声危害引起的听力损伤的早期发现具有较大价值.

  6. Characterization of auditory synaptic inputs to gerbil perirhinal cortex

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    Vibhakar C Kotak

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The representation of acoustic cues involves regions downstream from the auditory cortex (ACx. One such area, the perirhinal cortex (PRh, processes sensory signals containing mnemonic information. Therefore, our goal was to assess whether PRh receives auditory inputs from the auditory thalamus (MG and ACx in an auditory thalamocortical brain slice preparation and characterize these afferent-driven synaptic properties. When the MG or ACx was electrically stimulated, synaptic responses were recorded from the PRh neurons. Blockade of GABA-A receptors dramatically increased the amplitude of evoked excitatory potentials. Stimulation of the MG or ACx also evoked calcium transients in most PRh neurons. Separately, when fluoro ruby was injected in ACx in vivo, anterogradely labeled axons and terminals were observed in the PRh. Collectively, these data show that the PRh integrates auditory information from the MG and ACx and that auditory driven inhibition dominates the postsynaptic responses in a non-sensory cortical region downstream from the auditory cortex.

  7. Brain responses and looking behaviour during audiovisual speech integration in infants predict auditory speech comprehension in the second year of life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ElenaVKushnerenko

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of visual cues during the processing of audiovisual speech is known to be less efficient in children and adults with language difficulties and difficulties are known to be more prevalent in children from low-income populations. In the present study, we followed an economically diverse group of thirty-seven infants longitudinally from 6-9 months to 14-16 months of age. We used eye-tracking to examine whether individual differences in visual attention during audiovisual processing of speech in 6 to 9 month old infants, particularly when processing congruent and incongruent auditory and visual speech cues, might be indicative of their later language development. Twenty-two of these 6-9 month old infants also participated in an event-related potential (ERP audiovisual task within the same experimental session. Language development was then followed-up at the age of 14-16 months, using two measures of language development, the Preschool Language Scale (PLS and the Oxford Communicative Development Inventory (CDI. The results show that those infants who were less efficient in auditory speech processing at the age of 6-9 months had lower receptive language scores at 14-16 months. A correlational analysis revealed that the pattern of face scanning and ERP responses to audio-visually incongruent stimuli at 6-9 months were both significantly associated with language development at 14-16 months. These findings add to the understanding of individual differences in neural signatures of audiovisual processing and associated looking behaviour in infants.

  8. Brain responses and looking behavior during audiovisual speech integration in infants predict auditory speech comprehension in the second year of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnerenko, Elena; Tomalski, Przemyslaw; Ballieux, Haiko; Potton, Anita; Birtles, Deidre; Frostick, Caroline; Moore, Derek G.

    2013-01-01

    The use of visual cues during the processing of audiovisual (AV) speech is known to be less efficient in children and adults with language difficulties and difficulties are known to be more prevalent in children from low-income populations. In the present study, we followed an economically diverse group of thirty-seven infants longitudinally from 6–9 months to 14–16 months of age. We used eye-tracking to examine whether individual differences in visual attention during AV processing of speech in 6–9 month old infants, particularly when processing congruent and incongruent auditory and visual speech cues, might be indicative of their later language development. Twenty-two of these 6–9 month old infants also participated in an event-related potential (ERP) AV task within the same experimental session. Language development was then followed-up at the age of 14–16 months, using two measures of language development, the Preschool Language Scale and the Oxford Communicative Development Inventory. The results show that those infants who were less efficient in auditory speech processing at the age of 6–9 months had lower receptive language scores at 14–16 months. A correlational analysis revealed that the pattern of face scanning and ERP responses to audiovisually incongruent stimuli at 6–9 months were both significantly associated with language development at 14–16 months. These findings add to the understanding of individual differences in neural signatures of AV processing and associated looking behavior in infants. PMID:23882240

  9. The peripheral auditory characteristics of noctuid moths: responses to the search-phase echolocation calls of bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters; Jones

    1996-01-01

    The noctuid moths Agrotis segetum and Noctua pronuba show peak auditory sensitivity between 15 and 25 kHz, and a maximum sensitivity of 35 dB SPL. A. segetum shows a temporal integration time of 69 ms. It is predicted that bats using high-frequency and short-duration calls will be acoustically less apparent to these moths. Short-duration frequency-modulated (FM) calls of Plecotus auritus are not significantly less acoustically apparent than those of other FM bats with slightly longer call durations, based on their combined frequency and temporal structure alone. Long-duration, high-frequency, constant-frequency (CF) calls of Rhinolophus hipposideros at 113 kHz are significantly less apparent than those of the FM bats tested. The predicted low call apparency of the 83 kHz CF calls of R. ferrumequinum appears to be counteracted by their long duration. It is proposed that two separate mechanisms are exploited by bats to reduce their call apparency, low intensity in FM bats and high frequency in CF bats. Within the FM bats tested, shorter-duration calls do not significantly reduce the apparency of the call at the peripheral level, though they may limit the amount of information available to the central nervous system. PMID:9318627

  10. Prevalence of auditory changes in newborns in a teaching hospital

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    Guimarães, Valeriana de Castro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The precocious diagnosis and the intervention in the deafness are of basic importance in the infantile development. The loss auditory and more prevalent than other joined riots to the birth. Objective: Esteem the prevalence of auditory alterations in just-born in a hospital school. Method: Prospective transversal study that evaluated 226 just-been born, been born in a public hospital, between May of 2008 the May of 2009. Results: Of the 226 screened, 46 (20.4% had presented absence of emissions, having been directed for the second emission. Of the 26 (56.5% children who had appeared in the retest, 8 (30.8% had remained with absence and had been directed to the Otolaryngologist. Five (55.5% had appeared and had been examined by the doctor. Of these, 3 (75.0% had presented normal otoscopy, being directed for evaluation of the Evoked Potential Auditory of Brainstem (PEATE. Of the total of studied children, 198 (87.6% had had presence of emissions in one of the tests and, 2 (0.9% with deafness diagnosis. Conclusion: The prevalence of auditory alterations in the studied population was of 0,9%. The study it offers given excellent epidemiologists and it presents the first report on the subject, supplying resulted preliminary future implantation and development of a program of neonatal auditory selection.

  11. The sensory channel of presentation alters subjective ratings and autonomic responses towards disgusting stimuli -Blood pressure, heart rate and skin conductance in response to visual, auditory, haptic and olfactory presented disgusting stimuli-

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    Ilona eCroy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Disgust causes specific reaction patterns, observable in mimic responses and body reactions. Most research on disgust deals with visual stimuli. However, pictures may cause another disgust experience than sounds, odors or tactile stimuli. Therefore disgust experience evoked by four different sensory channels was compared.A total of 119 participants received 3 different disgusting and one control stimulus, each presented through the visual, auditory, tactile and olfactory channel. Ratings of evoked disgust as well as responses of the autonomic nervous system (heart rate, skin conductance level, systolic blood pressure were recorded and the effect of stimulus labeling and of repeated presentation was analyzed. Ratings suggested that disgust could be evoked through all senses; they were highest for visual stimuli. However, autonomic reaction towards disgusting stimuli differed according to the channel of presentation. In contrast to the other, olfactory disgust stimuli provoked a strong decrease of systolic blood pressure. Additionally, labeling enhanced disgust ratings and autonomic reaction for olfactory and tactile, but not for visual and auditory stimuli. Repeated presentation indicated that participant’s disgust rating diminishes to all but olfactory disgust stimuli. Taken together we argue that the sensory channel through which a disgust reaction is evoked matters.

  12. Auditory imagery: empirical findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Timothy L

    2010-03-01

    The empirical literature on auditory imagery is reviewed. Data on (a) imagery for auditory features (pitch, timbre, loudness), (b) imagery for complex nonverbal auditory stimuli (musical contour, melody, harmony, tempo, notational audiation, environmental sounds), (c) imagery for verbal stimuli (speech, text, in dreams, interior monologue), (d) auditory imagery's relationship to perception and memory (detection, encoding, recall, mnemonic properties, phonological loop), and (e) individual differences in auditory imagery (in vividness, musical ability and experience, synesthesia, musical hallucinosis, schizophrenia, amusia) are considered. It is concluded that auditory imagery (a) preserves many structural and temporal properties of auditory stimuli, (b) can facilitate auditory discrimination but interfere with auditory detection, (c) involves many of the same brain areas as auditory perception, (d) is often but not necessarily influenced by subvocalization, (e) involves semantically interpreted information and expectancies, (f) involves depictive components and descriptive components, (g) can function as a mnemonic but is distinct from rehearsal, and (h) is related to musical ability and experience (although the mechanisms of that relationship are not clear). PMID:20192565

  13. Laterality of pain in migraine distinguished by interictal rates of habituation of electrodermal responses to visual and auditory stimuli.

    OpenAIRE

    Gruzelier, J. H.; Nicolaou, T; Connolly, J. F.; Peatfield, R. C.; Davies, P T; Clifford-Rose, F

    1987-01-01

    Support is provided for a primary neural factor in migraine by studies in autonomic responsiveness to sensory stimuli in relation to the laterality of pain. Migraineurs with consistently lateralised headaches were found in two studies to exhibit extremes of autonomic responsiveness to sensory stimuli during the interictal phase. The direction of responsiveness was predictive of the laterality of pain; left-sided pain was associated with under-responsiveness and fast habituation, right-sided p...

  14. Transient and steady-state auditory gamma-band responses in first-degree relatives of people with autism spectrum disorder

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    Rojas Donald C

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stimulus-related γ-band oscillations, which may be related to perceptual binding, are reduced in people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. The purpose of this study was to examine auditory transient and steady-state γ-band findings in first-degree relatives of people with ASD to assess the potential familiality of these findings in ASD. Methods Magnetoencephalography (MEG recordings in 21 parents who had a child with an autism spectrum disorder (pASD and 20 healthy adult control subjects (HC were obtained. Gamma-band phase locking factor (PLF, and evoked and induced power to 32, 40 and 48 Hz amplitude-modulated sounds were measured for transient and steady-state responses. Participants were also tested on a number of behavioral and cognitive assessments related to the broad autism phenotype (BAP. Results Reliable group differences were seen primarily for steady-state responses. In the left hemisphere, pASD subjects exhibited lower phase-locked steady-state power in all three conditions. Total γ-band power, including the non-phase-locked component, was also reduced in the pASD group. In addition, pASD subjects had significantly lower PLF than the HC group. Correlations were seen between MEG measures and BAP measures. Conclusions The reduction in steady-state γ-band responses in the pASD group is consistent with previous results for children with ASD. Steady-state responses may be more sensitive than transient responses to phase-locking errors in ASD. Together with the lower PLF and phase-locked power in first-degree relatives, correlations between γ-band measures and behavioral measures relevant to the BAP highlight the potential of γ-band deficits as a potential new autism endophenotype.

  15. Electrophysiological correlates of auditory change detection and change deafness in complex auditory scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puschmann, Sebastian; Sandmann, Pascale; Ahrens, Janina; Thorne, Jeremy; Weerda, Riklef; Klump, Georg; Debener, Stefan; Thiel, Christiane M

    2013-07-15

    Change deafness describes the failure to perceive even intense changes within complex auditory input, if the listener does not attend to the changing sound. Remarkably, previous psychophysical data provide evidence that this effect occurs independently of successful stimulus encoding, indicating that undetected changes are processed to some extent in auditory cortex. Here we investigated cortical representations of detected and undetected auditory changes using electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings and a change deafness paradigm. We applied a one-shot change detection task, in which participants listened successively to three complex auditory scenes, each of them consisting of six simultaneously presented auditory streams. Listeners had to decide whether all scenes were identical or whether the pitch of one stream was changed between the last two presentations. Our data show significantly increased middle-latency Nb responses for both detected and undetected changes as compared to no-change trials. In contrast, only successfully detected changes were associated with a later mismatch response in auditory cortex, followed by increased N2, P3a and P3b responses, originating from hierarchically higher non-sensory brain regions. These results strengthen the view that undetected changes are successfully encoded at sensory level in auditory cortex, but fail to trigger later change-related cortical responses that lead to conscious perception of change. PMID:23466938

  16. Auditory implant research at the House Ear Institute 1989-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Robert V

    2015-04-01

    The House Ear Institute (HEI) had a long and distinguished history of auditory implant innovation and development. Early clinical innovations include being one of the first cochlear implant (CI) centers, being the first center to implant a child with a cochlear implant in the US, developing the auditory brainstem implant, and developing multiple surgical approaches and tools for Otology. This paper reviews the second stage of auditory implant research at House - in-depth basic research on perceptual capabilities and signal processing for both cochlear implants and auditory brainstem implants. Psychophysical studies characterized the loudness and temporal perceptual properties of electrical stimulation as a function of electrical parameters. Speech studies with the noise-band vocoder showed that only four bands of tonotopically arrayed information were sufficient for speech recognition, and that most implant users were receiving the equivalent of 8-10 bands of information. The noise-band vocoder allowed us to evaluate the effects of the manipulation of the number of bands, the alignment of the bands with the original tonotopic map, and distortions in the tonotopic mapping, including holes in the neural representation. Stimulation pulse rate was shown to have only a small effect on speech recognition. Electric fields were manipulated in position and sharpness, showing the potential benefit of improved tonotopic selectivity. Auditory training shows great promise for improving speech recognition for all patients. And the Auditory Brainstem Implant was developed and improved and its application expanded to new populations. Overall, the last 25 years of research at HEI helped increase the basic scientific understanding of electrical stimulation of hearing and contributed to the improved outcomes for patients with the CI and ABI devices. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled . PMID:25449009

  17. Randomized, prospective, three-arm study to confirm the auditory safety and efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine in Colombian patients with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasquilla, Gabriel; Barón, Clemencia; Monsell, Edwin M; Cousin, Marc; Walter, Verena; Lefèvre, Gilbert; Sander, Oliver; Fisher, Laurel M

    2012-01-01

    The safety of artemether-lumefantrine in patients with acute, uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria was investigated prospectively using the auditory brainstem response (ABR) and pure-tone thresholds. Secondary outcomes included polymerase chain reaction-corrected cure rates. Patients were randomly assigned in a 3:1:1 ratio to either artemether-lumefantrine (N = 159), atovaquone-proguanil (N = 53), or artesunate-mefloquine (N = 53). The null hypothesis (primary outcome), claiming that the percentage of patients with a baseline to Day-7 ABR Wave III latency increase of > 0.30 msec is ≥ 15% after administration of artemether-lumefantrine, was rejected; 2.6% of patients (95% confidence interval: 0.7-6.6) exceeded 0.30 msec, i.e., significantly below 15% (P 95% to Day 42. The results support the continued safe and efficacious use of artemether-lumefantrine in uncomplicated falciparum malaria. PMID:22232454

  18. Experience-dependent learning of auditory temporal resolution: evidence from Carnatic-trained musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Srikanta K; Panda, Manasa R

    2014-01-22

    Musical training and experience greatly enhance the cortical and subcortical processing of sounds, which may translate to superior auditory perceptual acuity. Auditory temporal resolution is a fundamental perceptual aspect that is critical for speech understanding in noise in listeners with normal hearing, auditory disorders, cochlear implants, and language disorders, yet very few studies have focused on music-induced learning of temporal resolution. This report demonstrates that Carnatic musical training and experience have a significant impact on temporal resolution assayed by gap detection thresholds. This experience-dependent learning in Carnatic-trained musicians exhibits the universal aspects of human perception and plasticity. The present work adds the perceptual component to a growing body of neurophysiological and imaging studies that suggest plasticity of the peripheral auditory system at the level of the brainstem. The present work may be intriguing to researchers and clinicians alike interested in devising cross-cultural training regimens to alleviate listening-in-noise difficulties. PMID:24264076

  19. Brainstem: neglected locus in neurodegenerative diseases

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    LeaTGrinberg

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The most frequent neurodegenerative diseases (NDs are Alzheimer’s disease (AD, Parkinson’s disease (PD, and frontotemporal lobar degeneration associated with protein TDP-43 (FTLD-TDP. Neuropathologically, NDs are characterized by abnormal intracellular and extracellular protein deposits and by disease-specific neuronal death. Practically all terminal stages of NDs are clinically associated with dementia. Therefore, major attention was directed to protein deposits and neuron loss in supratentorial (telencephalic brain regions in the course of NDs. This was also true for PD, although the pathological hallmark of PD is degeneration of pigmented neurons of the brainstem’s substantia nigra. However, PD pathophysiology was explained by dopamine depletion in the telencephalic basal ganglia due to insufficiency and degeneration of the projection neurons located in substantia nigra. In a similar line of argumentation AD- and FTLD-related clinical deficits were exclusively explained by supratentorial allo- and neocortical laminar neuronal necrosis. Recent comprehensive studies in AD and PD early stages found considerable and unexpected involvement of brainstem nuclei, which could have the potential to profoundly change our present concepts on origin, spread, and early clinical diagnosis of these diseases. In contrast with PD and AD, few studies addressed brainstem involvement in the course of the different types of FTLD-TDP. Some of the results, including ours, disclosed a higher and more widespread pathology than anticipated. The present review will focus mainly on the impact of brainstem changes during the course of the most frequent NDs including PD, AD, and FTLD-TDP, with special emphasis on the need for more comprehensive research on FTLDs.

  20. Estudo dos potenciais evocados auditivos em autismo Study of auditory evoked potentials in autism

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    Fernanda Cristina Leite Magliaro

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available TEMA: avaliação eletrofisiológica da audição em indivíduos com autismo. OBJETIVO: caracterizar os achados das avaliações eletrofisiológicas da audição em indivíduos com autismo, bem como comparar seus resultados aos obtidos em indivíduos com desenvolvimento típico da mesma faixa etária. MÉTODO: foram realizadas anamnese, audiometria tonal, logoaudiometria, medidas de imitância acústica, potenciais evocados auditivos de tronco encefálico (PEATE e de média latência (PEAML, e potencial cognitivo (P300, em 16 indivíduos com autismo (grupo pesquisa e 25 normais (grupo controle, com idades entre oito e 20 anos. RESULTADOS: o grupo pesquisa apresentou resultados alterados em todos os potenciais evocados auditivos, havendo diferença estatisticamente significante quando comparado ao grupo controle. Foi observada uma maior ocorrência de alteração do tipo tronco encefálico baixo no PEATE, do tipo Ambas no PEAML, e ausência de resposta no P300, para o grupo pesquisa. Na análise dos dados quantitativos, verificou-se que apenas para o PEATE ocorreu diferença estatisticamente significante entre os grupos, com relação às latências das ondas III e V e interpicos I-III e I-V. CONCLUSÃO: indivíduos com autismo apresentam alterações no PEATE e P300, sugerindo comprometimento da via auditiva em tronco encefálico, áreas subcorticais e corticais.BACKGROUND: electrophysiological assessment of hearing in autistic individuals. AIM: to characterize the findings obtained in the electrophysiological assessments of autistic individuals, as well as to compare these to the results obtained for individuals of the same age who present typical development. METHOD: 16 individuals with autism (study group and 25 normal individuals (control group, ranging in age from eight to 20 years underwent anamnesis, pure tone audiometry, speech audiometry, acoustic immitance measures, brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP, middle latency response

  1. Cortical perfusion response to an electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve in profoundly deaf patients: Study with technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime single photon emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Scao, Y.; Robier, A.; Beuter, P. (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 37 - Tours (France). Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology); Baulieu, J.L.; Pourcelot, L. (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 37 - Tours (France). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine)

    1992-04-01

    Brain activation procedures associated with single photon emission tomography (SPET) have recently been developed in healthy controls and diseased patients in order to help in their diagnosis and treatment. We investigated the effects of a promontory test (PT) on the cerebral distribution of technetium-99m hexamethyl-propylene amine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO) in 7 profoundly deaf patients, 6 PT+ and PT-. The count variation in the temporal lobe was calculated on 6 coronal slices using the ratio (R{sub stimulation}-R{sub deprivation})/R{sub deprivation} where R=counts in the temporal lobe was observed in all patients and was higher in all patients with PT+ than in the patient with PT-. The problems of head positioning and resolution of the system were taken into account, and we considered that the maximal count increment was related to the auditory cortex response to the stimulus. Further clinical investigations with high-resolution systems have to be performed in order to validate this presurgery test in cochlear implant assessment. (orig.).

  2. Cortical perfusion response to an electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve in profoundly deaf patients: Study with technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime single photon emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brain activation procedures associated with single photon emission tomography (SPET) have recently been developed in healthy controls and diseased patients in order to help in their diagnosis and treatment. We investigated the effects of a promontory test (PT) on the cerebral distribution of technetium-99m hexamethyl-propylene amine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO) in 7 profoundly deaf patients, 6 PT+ and PT-. The count variation in the temporal lobe was calculated on 6 coronal slices using the ratio (Rstimulation-Rdeprivation)/Rdeprivation where R=counts in the temporal lobe was observed in all patients and was higher in all patients with PT+ than in the patient with PT-. The problems of head positioning and resolution of the system were taken into account, and we considered that the maximal count increment was related to the auditory cortex response to the stimulus. Further clinical investigations with high-resolution systems have to be performed in order to validate this presurgery test in cochlear implant assessment. (orig.)

  3. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor modulates auditory function in the hearing cochlea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sly, David J; Hampson, Amy J; Minter, Ricki L; Heffer, Leon F; Li, Jack; Millard, Rodney E; Winata, Leon; Niasari, Allen; O'Leary, Stephen J

    2012-02-01

    Neurotrophins prevent spiral ganglion neuron (SGN) degeneration in animal models of ototoxin-induced deafness and may be used in the future to improve the hearing of cochlear implant patients. It is increasingly common for patients with residual hearing to undergo cochlear implantation. However, the effect of neurotrophin treatment on acoustic hearing is not known. In this study, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was applied to the round window membrane of adult guinea pigs for 4 weeks using a cannula attached to a mini-osmotic pump. SGN survival was first assessed in ototoxically deafened guinea pigs to establish that the delivery method was effective. Increased survival of SGNs was observed in the basal and middle cochlear turns of deafened guinea pigs treated with BDNF, confirming that delivery to the cochlea was successful. The effects of BDNF treatment in animals with normal hearing were then assessed using distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs), pure tone, and click-evoked auditory brainstem responses (ABRs). DPOAE assessment indicated a mild deficit of 5 dB SPL in treated and control groups at 1 and 4 weeks after cannula placement. In contrast, ABR evaluation showed that BDNF lowered thresholds at specific frequencies (8 and 16 kHz) after 1 and 4 weeks posttreatment when compared to the control cohort receiving Ringer's solution. Longer treatment for 4 weeks not only widened the range of frequencies ameliorated from 2 to 32 kHz but also lowered the threshold by at least 28 dB SPL at frequencies ≥16 kHz. BDNF treatment for 4 weeks also increased the amplitude of the ABR response when compared to either the control cohort or prior to treatment. We show that BDNF applied to the round window reduces auditory thresholds and could potentially be used clinically to protect residual hearing following cochlear implantation. PMID:22086147

  4. MRI findings of multiple sclerosis involving the brainstem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe MRI findings of multiple sclerosis involving the brainstem. Among 35 cases of clinically definite multiple sclerosis, the authors retrospectively analysed 20 in which the brainstem was involved. MR images were analysed with regard to involvement sites in the brainstem or other locations, signal intensity, multiplicity, shape, enhancement pattern, and contiguity of brainstem lesions with cisternal or ventricular CSF space. The brainstem was the only site of involvement in five cases (25%), while simultaneous involvement of the brainstem and other sites was observed in 15 cases (75%). No case involved only the midbrain or medulla oblongata, and simultaneous involvement of the midbrain, pons and medulla oblongata was noted in 12 cases (60%). The most frequently involved region of the brainstem was the medulla oblongata (n=13; 90%), followed by the pons (n=17; 85%) and the midbrain (n=16; 80%). Compared with normal white matter, brainstem lesions showed low signal intensity on T1 weighted images, and high signal intensity on T2 weighted, proton density weighted, and FLAIR images. In 17 cases (85%), multiple intensity was observed, and the shape of lesions varied: oval, round, elliptical, patchy, crescentic, confluent or amorphous were seen on axial MR images, and in 14 cases (82%), coronal or sagittal scanning showed that lesions were long and tubular. Contiguity between brainstem lesions and cisternal or ventricular CSF space was seen in all cases (100%) involving midbrain (16/16) and medulla oblongata (18/18) and in 15 of 17 (88%) involving the pons. Contrast enhancement was apparent in 7 of 12 cases (58%). In the brainstem, MRI demonstrated partial or total contiguity between lesions and cisternal or ventricular CSF space, and coronal or sagittal images showed that lesions were long and tubuler

  5. Auditory Neural Prostheses – A Window to the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Kameshwaran

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hearing loss is one of the commonest congenital anomalies to affect children world-over. The incidence of congenital hearing loss is more pronounced in developing countries like the Indian sub-continent, especially with the problems of consanguinity. Hearing loss is a double tragedy, as it leads to not only deafness but also language deprivation. However, hearing loss is the only truly remediable handicap, due to remarkable advances in biomedical engineering and surgical techniques. Auditory neural prostheses help to augment or restore hearing by integration of an external circuitry with the peripheral hearing apparatus and the central circuitry of the brain. A cochlear implant (CI is a surgically implantable device that helps restore hearing in patients with severe-profound hearing loss, unresponsive to amplification by conventional hearing aids. CIs are electronic devices designed to detect mechanical sound energy and convert it into electrical signals that can be delivered to the coch­lear nerve, bypassing the damaged hair cells of the coch­lea. The only true prerequisite is an intact auditory nerve. The emphasis is on implantation as early as possible to maximize speech understanding and perception. Bilateral CI has significant benefits which include improved speech perception in noisy environments and improved sound localization. Presently, the indications for CI have widened and these expanded indications for implantation are related to age, additional handicaps, residual hearing, and special etiologies of deafness. Combined electric and acoustic stimulation (EAS / hybrid device is designed for individuals with binaural low-frequency hearing and severe-to-profound high-frequency hearing loss. Auditory brainstem implantation (ABI is a safe and effective means of hearing rehabilitation in patients with retrocochlear disorders, such as neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2 or congenital cochlear nerve aplasia, wherein the cochlear nerve is damaged

  6. Phase-locking index and power of 40-Hz auditory steady-state response are not related to major personality trait dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korostenskaja, Milena; Ruksenas, Osvaldas; Pipinis, Evaldas; Griskova-Bulanova, Inga

    2016-03-01

    Although a number of studies have demonstrated state-related dependence of auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs), the investigations assessing trait-related ASSR changes are limited. Five consistently identified major trait dimensions, also referred to as "big five" (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness), are considered to account for virtually all personality variances in both healthy people and those with psychiatric disorders. The purpose of the present study was, for the first time, to establish the link between 40-Hz ASSR and "big five" major personality trait dimensions in young healthy adults. Ninety-four young healthy volunteers participated (38 males and 56 females; mean age ± SD 22.180 ± 2.75). The 40-Hz click trains were presented for each subject 30 times with an inter-train interval of 1-1.5 s. The EEG responses were recorded from F3, Fz, F4, C3, Cz, C4, P3, Pz and P4 locations according to 10/20 electrode placement system. Phase-locking index (PLI) and event-related power perturbation (ERSP) were calculated, each providing the following characteristics: peak time, entrainment frequency, peak value and mean value. For assessing "big five" personality traits, NEO Personality Inventory Revised (NEO-PI-R) was used. No significant correlation between 40-Hz ASSR PLI or ERSP and "big five" personality traits was observed. Our results indicate that there is no dependence between 40-Hz ASSR entrainment and personality traits, demonstrating low individual 40-Hz variability in this domain. Our results support further development of 40-Hz ASSR as a neurophysiological marker allowing distinguishing between healthy population and patients with psychiatric disorders. PMID:26586270

  7. Klinefelter syndrome has increased brain responses to auditory stimuli and motor output, but not to visual stimuli or Stroop adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallentin, Mikkel; Skakkebæk, Anne; Bojesen, Anders;

    2016-01-01

    widespread dyslexia in the group. No neural differences were found in inhibitory control (Stroop) or in adaptation to differences in stimulus frequencies. Across groups we found a strong positive correlation between age and BOLD response in the brain’s motor network with no difference between groups. No...

  8. Age-related cochlear synaptopathy: an early-onset contributor to auditory functional decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeyenko, Yevgeniya; Lall, Kumud; Liberman, M Charles; Kujawa, Sharon G

    2013-08-21

    Aging listeners experience greater difficulty understanding speech in adverse listening conditions and exhibit degraded temporal resolution, even when audiometric thresholds are normal. When threshold evidence for peripheral involvement is lacking, central and cognitive factors are often cited as underlying performance declines. However, previous work has uncovered widespread loss of cochlear afferent synapses and progressive cochlear nerve degeneration in noise-exposed ears with recovered thresholds and no hair cell loss (Kujawa and Liberman 2009). Here, we characterize age-related cochlear synaptic and neural degeneration in CBA/CaJ mice never exposed to high-level noise. Cochlear hair cell and neuronal function was assessed via distortion product otoacoustic emissions and auditory brainstem responses, respectively. Immunostained cochlear whole mounts and plastic-embedded sections were studied by confocal and conventional light microscopy to quantify hair cells, cochlear neurons, and synaptic structures, i.e., presynaptic ribbons and postsynaptic glutamate receptors. Cochlear synaptic loss progresses from youth (4 weeks) to old age (144 weeks) and is seen throughout the cochlea long before age-related changes in thresholds or hair cell counts. Cochlear nerve loss parallels the synaptic loss, after a delay of several months. Key functional clues to the synaptopathy are available in the neural response; these can be accessed noninvasively, enhancing the possibilities for translation to human clinical characterization. PMID:23966690

  9. Auditory-motor learning influences auditory memory for music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel M; Palmer, Caroline

    2012-05-01

    In two experiments, we investigated how auditory-motor learning influences performers' memory for music. Skilled pianists learned novel melodies in four conditions: auditory only (listening), motor only (performing without sound), strongly coupled auditory-motor (normal performance), and weakly coupled auditory-motor (performing along with auditory recordings). Pianists' recognition of the learned melodies was better following auditory-only or auditory-motor (weakly coupled and strongly coupled) learning than following motor-only learning, and better following strongly coupled auditory-motor learning than following auditory-only learning. Auditory and motor imagery abilities modulated the learning effects: Pianists with high auditory imagery scores had better recognition following motor-only learning, suggesting that auditory imagery compensated for missing auditory feedback at the learning stage. Experiment 2 replicated the findings of Experiment 1 with melodies that contained greater variation in acoustic features. Melodies that were slower and less variable in tempo and intensity were remembered better following weakly coupled auditory-motor learning. These findings suggest that motor learning can aid performers' auditory recognition of music beyond auditory learning alone, and that motor learning is influenced by individual abilities in mental imagery and by variation in acoustic features. PMID:22271265

  10. Estudo de caso: neuropatia auditiva Auditory neuropathy: a study case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane M. Parra

    2003-03-01

    patient with auditory neuropathy attended at "Centro de Docência e Pesquisa em Fonoaudiologia da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo", correlating the study data with literature. The patient described is a 24 year-old person, with auditory neuropathy diagnosis, evaluated in our center in 2001. Interview, tonal audiometry thresholds, speech recognition, timpanometry, otoacustic emissions (OAEs and auditory brainstem responses (ABR were applied. In this case we observed incompatible results in the tonal audiometric threshold and speech recognition tests, with objectives tests like OAEs and ABR, in which we found a hearing loss with important changes in the speech recognition test, of OAEs present and abnormal ABR. These data suggest a normal cochlear function and abnormal neural synchrony.

  11. Cell-based neurotrophin treatment supports long-term auditory neuron survival in the deaf guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Lisa N; Zanin, Mark P; Shepherd, Robert K

    2015-01-28

    The cochlear implant provides auditory cues to profoundly deaf patients by electrically stimulating the primary auditory neurons (ANs) of the cochlea. However, ANs degenerate in deafness; the preservation of a robust AN target population, in combination with advances in cochlear implant technology, may provide improved hearing outcomes for cochlear implant patients. The exogenous delivery of neurotrophins such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 is well known to support AN survival in deafness, and cell-based therapies provide a potential clinically viable option for delivering neurotrophins into the deaf cochlea. This study utilized cells that were genetically modified to express BDNF and encapsulated in alginate microspheres, and investigated AN survival in the deaf guinea pig following (a) cell-based neurotrophin treatment in conjunction with chronic electrical stimulation from a cochlear implant, and (b) long-term cell-based neurotrophin delivery. In comparison to deafened controls, there was significantly greater AN survival following the cell-based neurotrophin treatment, and there were ongoing survival effects for at least six months. In addition, functional benefits were observed following cell-based neurotrophin treatment and chronic electrical stimulation, with a statistically significant decrease in electrically evoked auditory brainstem response thresholds observed during the experimental period. This study demonstrates that cell-based therapies, in conjunction with a cochlear implant, shows potential as a clinically transferable means of providing neurotrophin treatment to support AN survival in deafness. This technology also has the potential to deliver other therapeutic agents, and to be used in conjunction with other biomedical devices for the treatment of a variety of neurodegenerative conditions. PMID:25481440

  12. The amplitude and phase precision of 40 Hz auditory steady-state response depend on the level of arousal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griskova, Inga; Morup, Morten; Parnas, Josef; Ruksenas, Osvaldas; Arnfred, Sidse M

    2007-01-01

    level of arousal, but the findings are somewhat controversial. Generally, ASSR is diminished in sleep but it may be increased in drowsiness. Besides, ASSR reduction has been observed in schizophrenia. However, schizophrenic patients are known to have a disturbance of arousal level, what makes it...... pertinent to know the effects of fluctuations in arousal on passive response to gamma-range stimulation. In nine healthy volunteers trains of 40 Hz click stimuli were applied during two conditions: in the "high arousal" condition subjects were sitting upright silently reading a book of interest; in the "low...

  13. A brainstem variant of reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome (RPLS) is caused by various heterogeneous factors, the commonest being hypertension, followed by nonhypertensive causes such as eclampsia, renal diseases and immunosuppressive therapy. Patients with RPLS exhibit bilateral white and gray matter abnormalities in the posterior aspects of the cerebral hemispheres. However, this syndrome may affect the brainstem predominantly, and these cases are designated as hypertensive brainstem encephalopathy. We present here two patients with reversible brainstem encephalopathy: one with hypertension and the other without hypertension. These patients presented with swelling and diffuse hyperintensities of the brainstem in fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) and T2-weighted MRI, but with relatively mild clinical symptoms. They recovered without major neurological deficits, but had residual lacunar lesions in the pons. Reversible brainstem encephalopathy with characteristic MRI features was found in both hypertensive and nonhypertensive patients. These patients were diagnosed with a brainstem variant of RPLS, which is potentially fully reversible after an adequate treatment, and therefore should be carefully differentiated from other brainstem disease conditions. (orig.)

  14. Repetitive Diving in Trained Rats Still Increases Fos Production in Brainstem Neurons after Bilateral Sectioning of the Anterior Ethmoidal Nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, Paul F.; Warren, Erik A.; DiNovo, Karyn M.

    2016-01-01

    This research was designed to investigate the role of the anterior ethmoidal nerve (AEN) during repetitive trained diving in rats, with specific attention to activation of afferent and efferent brainstem nuclei that are part of this reflexive response. The AEN innervates the nose and nasal passages and is thought to be an important component of the afferent limb of the diving response. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (N = 24) were trained to swim and dive through a 5 m underwater maze. Some rats (N = 12) had bilateral sectioning of the AEN, others a Sham surgery (N = 12). Twelve rats (6 AEN cut and 6 Sham) had 24 post-surgical dive trials over 2 h to activate brainstem neurons to produce Fos, a neuronal activation marker. Remaining rats were non-diving controls. Diving animals had significantly more Fos-positive neurons than non-diving animals in the caudal pressor area, ventral medullary dorsal horn, ventral paratrigeminal nucleus, nucleus tractus solitarius, rostral ventrolateral medulla, Raphe nuclei, A5, Locus Coeruleus, and Kölliker-Fuse area. There were no significant differences in brainstem Fos labeling in rats diving with and without intact AENs. Thus, the AENs are not required for initiation of the diving response. Other nerve(s) that innervate the nose and nasal passages, and/or suprabulbar activation of brainstem neurons, may be responsible for the pattern of neuronal activation observed during repetitive trained diving in rats. These results help define the central neuronal circuitry of the mammalian diving response. PMID:27148082

  15. Isolated Brainstem Involvement in Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarkan Ergün

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES is a clinical and radiologic entity characterized by headache, variable mental status, epilepsy, visual disturbances, and typical transient changes in the posterior cerebral perfusion. Parieto-occipital region the most commonly involved site. Less commonly, brainstem, basal ganglia, and cerebellum are involved besides the supratentorial white matter areas. However, isolated brainstem involvement is very rare. We here present a case of isolated brainstem involvement in posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome which was diagnosed by diffusion-weighted MR imaging.

  16. Auditory Integration Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Jafari

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Auditory integration training (AIT is a hearing enhancement training process for sensory input anomalies found in individuals with autism, attention deficit hyperactive disorder, dyslexia, hyperactivity, learning disability, language impairments, pervasive developmental disorder, central auditory processing disorder, attention deficit disorder, depressin, and hyperacute hearing. AIT, recently introduced in the United States, and has received much notice of late following the release of The Sound of a Moracle, by Annabel Stehli. In her book, Mrs. Stehli describes before and after auditory integration training experiences with her daughter, who was diagnosed at age four as having autism.

  17. Musicians and Tone-Language Speakers Share Enhanced Brainstem Encoding but Not Perceptual Benefits for Musical Pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidelman, Gavin M.; Gandour, Jackson T.; Krishnan, Ananthanarayan

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral and neurophysiological transfer effects from music experience to language processing are well-established but it is currently unclear whether or not linguistic expertise (e.g., speaking a tone language) benefits music-related processing and its perception. Here, we compare brainstem responses of English-speaking musicians/non-musicians…

  18. Feedback in the brainstem: an excitatory disynaptic pathway for control of whisking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, David W; Deschênes, Martin; Furuta, Takahiro; Moore, Jeffrey D; Wang, Fan; Karten, Harvey J; Kleinfeld, David

    2015-04-15

    Sensorimotor processing relies on hierarchical neuronal circuits to mediate sensory-driven behaviors. In the mouse vibrissa system, trigeminal brainstem circuits are thought to mediate the first stage of vibrissa scanning control via sensory feedback that provides reflexive protraction in response to stimulation. However, these circuits are not well defined. Here we describe a complete disynaptic sensory receptor-to-muscle circuit for positive feedback in vibrissa movement. We identified a novel region of trigeminal brainstem, spinal trigeminal nucleus pars muralis, which contains a class of vGluT2+ excitatory projection neurons involved in vibrissa motor control. Complementary single- and dual-labeling with traditional and virus tracers demonstrate that these neurons both receive primary inputs from vibrissa sensory afferent fibers and send monosynaptic connections to facial nucleus motoneurons that directly innervate vibrissa musculature. These anatomical results suggest a general role of disynaptic architecture in fast positive feedback for motor output that drives active sensation. PMID:25503925

  19. Enterovirus 71 Brainstem Encephalitis and Cognitive and Motor Deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Follow-up studies were conducted in 63 previously healthy children with enterovirus 71 brainstem encephalitis (49 stage II, 7 stage Ilia, and 7 stage Illb at National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan.

  20. Overriding auditory attentional capture

    OpenAIRE

    Dalton, Polly; Lavie, Nilli

    2007-01-01

    Attentional capture by color singletons during shape search can be eliminated when the target is not a feature singleton (Bacon & Egeth, 1994). This suggests that a "singleton detection" search strategy must be adopted for attentional capture to occur. Here we find similar effects on auditory attentional capture. Irrelevant high-intensity singletons interfered with an auditory search task when the target itself was also a feature singleton. However, singleton interference was eliminated when ...

  1. The otic gasbladder as an ancillary auditory structure in a mormyrid fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, H Y; Curtsinger, W S

    2000-06-01

    Mormyrid fishes use acoustic signals for long-distance communication and a weakly electric field for short-distance interaction. Mormyrids are unique in having an otic gasbladder attached directly to the saccule on each side of the inner ear. Karl von Frisch (1938) hypothesized that the tightly coupled otic gasbladder might aid mormyrid hearing. Using the mormyrid fish (Brienomyrus brachyistius), this study manipulated gas in the otic gasbladder to test this hypothesis and histological sections were made to examine the anatomical relationship between the gasbladder and inner ear. The hearing sensitivity curves (audiograms) were obtained with the auditory brainstem response protocol. Audiograms were obtained from normal fish and from fish in which gas was withdrawn from either one or two otic gasbladders. Removal of gas from one otic gasbladder did not result in a significant change in either hearing ability or acoustically evoked brainwaves as compared to the control fish. Bilateral deflation of the otic gasbladders led to significant threshold changes. Histological sections revealed a particularly close coupling between the otic gasbladder and the saccule chamber. These results support von Frisch's hypothesis that the otic gasbladders of mormyrids assist in underwater sound detection. PMID:10947242

  2. Auditory evoked potentials in the West Indian Manatee (Sirenia: Trichechus manatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Theodore H.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; McClune, Michael C.

    1982-01-01

    Potentials evoked by clicks and tone pips were recorded by fine wires inserted extracranially in four West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) in air. Sounds were delivered via padded ear phones. Averaging a few thousand trials at 20/s reveals early peaks at N5.4 (‘vertex’ negativity to a frontal reference, at 5.4 ms), P7.6, N8.8, P9.5 — probably equivalent to waves IV and VII of the typical mammalian auditory brainstem response (ABR). Averaging 100 trials at Using tone pips with a rise and fall time of 2–5 ms the carrier frequency becomes important. Evoked potential wave forms are not the same at different frequencies, bringing out the fact that frequency is not a scalar that can be compensated for by intensity. Therefore the method was not used to obtain audiograms; however the largest EPs occur in the range of 1–1.5 kHz. EPs are found up to 35 kHz; almost no evoked potential is discernible at 40 kHz but the undistorted intensity available was limited. This is in reasonable agreement with the theoretical expectation for the upper limit of behavioral hearing from Heffner and Masterton based on head size and aquatic medium.

  3. Keeping returns optimal: gain control exerted through sensitivity adjustments in the harbour porpoise auditory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnenschmidt, Meike; Beedholm, Kristian; Wahlberg, Magnus; Højer-Kristensen, Jakob; Nachtigall, Paul E

    2012-06-01

    Animals that use echolocation (biosonar) listen to acoustic signals with a large range of intensities, because echo levels vary with the fourth power of the animal's distance to the target. In man-made sonar, engineers apply automatic gain control to stabilize the echo energy levels, thereby rendering them independent of distance to the target. Both toothed whales and bats vary the level of their echolocation clicks to compensate for the distance-related energy loss. By monitoring the auditory brainstem response (ABR) during a psychophysical task, we found that a harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), in addition to adjusting the sound level of the outgoing signals up to 5.4 dB, also reduces its ABR threshold by 6 dB when the target distance doubles. This self-induced threshold shift increases the dynamic range of the biosonar system and compensates for half of the variation of energy that is caused by changes in the distance to the target. In combination with an increased source level as a function of target range, this helps the porpoise to maintain a stable echo-evoked ABR amplitude irrespective of target range, and is therefore probably an important tool enabling porpoises to efficiently analyse and classify received echoes. PMID:22279169

  4. Age-related changes in cochlear and brainstem auditory functions in Fischer 344 rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Popelář, Jiří; Groh, Daniel; Pelánová, Jana; Canlon, B.; Syka, Josef

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 3 (2006), s. 490-500. ISSN 0197-4580 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/04/1074; GA MZd NR8113 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Fischer 344 rats * Hearing threshold * Otoacoustic emissions Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 5.599, year: 2006

  5. Prolonged sound exposure has different effects on increasing neuronal size in the auditory cortex and brainstem

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lu, H. P.; Syka, Josef; Chiu, T. W.; Poon, P. W. F.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 314, AUG 2014 (2014), s. 42-50. ISSN 0378-5955 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GCP303/11/J005; GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/12/1342 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : inferior colliculus * cochlear nucleus * neocortical neurons Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.968, year: 2014

  6. Habituation and dis-habituation to changes in stimulus identity and location in the auditory system of awake, behaving songbirds.

    OpenAIRE

    Smulders, Tom V.; Erich Jarvis

    2012-01-01

    Repeated exposure to an auditory stimulus leads to habituation of the electrophysiological and immediate-early-gene (IEG) expression response in the auditory system. A novel auditory stimulus reinstates this response in a form of dis-habituation (Chew et al. 1995). This has been interpreted as the start of new memory formation for this novel stimulus. Changes in the location of an otherwise identical auditory stimulus can also dis-habituate the IEG expression response (Kruse et al. 2004). ...

  7. Neuronal activity in primate auditory cortex during the performance of audiovisual tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosch, Michael; Selezneva, Elena; Scheich, Henning

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed at a deeper understanding of which cognitive and motivational aspects of tasks affect auditory cortical activity. To this end we trained two macaque monkeys to perform two different tasks on the same audiovisual stimulus and to do this with two different sizes of water rewards. The monkeys had to touch a bar after a tone had been turned on together with an LED, and to hold the bar until either the tone (auditory task) or the LED (visual task) was turned off. In 399 multiunits recorded from core fields of auditory cortex we confirmed that during task engagement neurons responded to auditory and non-auditory stimuli that were task-relevant, such as light and water. We also confirmed that firing rates slowly increased or decreased for several seconds during various phases of the tasks. Responses to non-auditory stimuli and slow firing changes were observed during both the auditory and the visual task, with some differences between them. There was also a weak task-dependent modulation of the responses to auditory stimuli. In contrast to these cognitive aspects, motivational aspects of the tasks were not reflected in the firing, except during delivery of the water reward. In conclusion, the present study supports our previous proposal that there are two response types in the auditory cortex that represent the timing and the type of auditory and non-auditory elements of a auditory tasks as well the association between elements. PMID:25728179

  8. Panic and the brainstem: clues from neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Giampaolo; Guerriero, Giuseppe; Brambilla, Paolo; Caldirola, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    One of the most influential theories has conceived unexpected panic attack (PA) as a primal defensive reaction to threat within the internal milieu of the body. This theory is based on findings suggesting the involvement of dysfunctional respiratory regulation and/or abnormally sensitive central neural network of carbon dioxide (CO2)/hydrogen ion (H+) chemoreception in PA. Thus, unexpected PA may be related to phylogenetically older brain structures, including the brainstem areas, which process basic functions related to the organism's internal milieu. The brainstem represents a crucial area for homeostatic regulation, including chemoreception and cardio-respiratory control. In addition, the midbrain dorsal periaqueductal gray may be involved in the unconditioned defense reactions to proximal threats, including internal physical stimuli. Our aim was to specifically consider the potential involvement of the brainstem in panic disorder (PD) by a comprehensive review of the available neuroimaging studies. Available data are limited and potentially affected by several limitations. However, preliminary evidence of a role of the brainstem in PD can be found and, secondly, the brainstem serotonergic system seems to be involved in panic modulation with indications of both altered serotonergic receptors and 5-HT transporter bindings. In conclusion, our review suggests that the brainstem may be involved in psychopathology of PD and supports the relevant role of subcortical serotonergic system in panic pathogenesis. PMID:24923341

  9. Lateralized auditory brain function in children with normal reading ability and in children with dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Blake W; McArthur, Genevieve; Hautus, Michael; Reid, Melanie; Brock, Jon; Castles, Anne; Crain, Stephen

    2013-03-01

    We examined central auditory processing in typically- and atypically-developing readers. Concurrent EEG and MEG brain measurements were obtained from a group of 16 children with dyslexia aged 8-12 years, and a group of 16 age-matched children with normal reading ability. Auditory responses were elicited using 500ms duration broadband noise. These responses were strongly lateralized in control children. Children with dyslexia showed significantly less lateralisation of auditory cortical functioning, and a different pattern of development of auditory lateralization with age. These results provide further evidence that the core neurophysiological deficit of dyslexia is a problem in the balance of auditory function between the two hemispheres. PMID:23333528

  10. Auditory distraction transmitted by a cochlear implant alters allocation of attentional resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, Mareike; Sandmann, Pascale; Kopp, Bruno; Lenarz, Thomas; Büchner, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Cochlear implants (CIs) are auditory prostheses which restore hearing via electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve. The successful adaptation of auditory cognition to the CI input depends to a substantial degree on individual factors. We pursued an electrophysiological approach toward an analysis of cortical responses that reflect perceptual processing stages and higher-level responses to CI input. Performance and event-related potentials on two cross-modal discrimination-following-distraction (DFD) tasks from CI users and normal-hearing (NH) individuals were compared. The visual-auditory distraction task combined visual distraction with following auditory discrimination performance. Here, we observed similar cortical responses to visual distractors (Novelty-N2) and slowed, less accurate auditory discrimination performance in CI users when compared to NH individuals. Conversely, the auditory-visual distraction task was used to combine auditory distraction with visual discrimination performance. In this task we found attenuated cortical responses to auditory distractors (Novelty-P3), slowed visual discrimination performance, and attenuated cortical P3-responses to visual targets in CI users compared to NH individuals. These results suggest that CI users process auditory distractors differently than NH individuals and that the presence of auditory CI input has an adverse effect on the processing of visual targets and the visual discrimination ability in implanted individuals. We propose that this attenuation of the visual modality occurs through the allocation of neural resources to the CI input. PMID:25798083

  11. Volumetric comparison of auditory brain nuclei in ear-tufted Araucanas with those in other chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frahm, H D; Rehkämper, G

    1998-01-01

    Domestic chickens of the breed Araucana have ear-tufts, which affect the structure of the ear canal. Volumes of auditory brainstem nuclei were measured in three chicken breeds in order to evaluate whether the characteristics described for ear-tufted individuals of the Araucana chicken breed (alterations in the outer and middle ear anatomy) are associated with changes in the size of the relevant auditory nuclei. Allometric comparison reveals no size reductions of the angular, laminar and superior olivary nuclei in Araucanas, compared to Japanese Bantams and Brown Leghorns, but a slight increase in the size of the magnocellular nucleus. PMID:9672109

  12. Auditory-nerve responses to varied inter-phase gap and phase duration of the electric pulse stimulus as predictors for neuronal degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramekers, Dyan; Versnel, Huib; Strahl, Stefan B; Smeets, Emma M; Klis, Sjaak F L; Grolman, Wilko

    2014-04-01

    After severe hair cell loss, secondary degeneration of spiral ganglion cells (SGCs) is observed-a gradual process that spans years in humans but only takes weeks in guinea pigs. Being the target for cochlear implants (CIs), the physiological state of the SGCs is important for the effectiveness of a CI. For assessment of the nerve's state, focus has generally been on its response threshold. Our goal was to add a more detailed characterization of SGC functionality. To this end, the electrically evoked compound action potential (eCAP) was recorded in normal-hearing guinea pigs and guinea pigs that were deafened 2 or 6 weeks prior to the experiments. We evaluated changes in eCAP characteristics when the phase duration (PD) and inter-phase gap (IPG) of a biphasic current pulse were varied. We correlated the magnitude of these changes to quantified histological measures of neurodegeneration (SGC packing density and SGC size). The maximum eCAP amplitude, derived from the input-output function, decreased after deafening, and increased with both PD and IPG. The eCAP threshold did not change after deafening, and decreased with increasing PD and IPG. The dynamic range was wider for the 6-weeks-deaf animals than for the other two groups. Excitability increased with IPG (steeper slope of the input-output function and lower stimulation level at the half-maximum eCAP amplitude), but to a lesser extent for the deafened animals than for normal-hearing controls. The latency was shorter for the 6-weeks-deaf animals than for the other two groups. For several of these eCAP characteristics, the effect size of IPG correlated well with histological measures of degeneration, whereas effect size of PD did not. These correlations depend on the use of high current levels, which could limit clinical application. Nevertheless, their potential of these correlations towards assessment of the condition of the auditory nerve may be of great benefit to clinical diagnostics and prognosis in cochlear

  13. [The auditory pathway: levels of integration of information and principal neurotransmitters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Zamora, Edgar; Poblano, Adrián

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we studied the central auditory pathway (CAP) from an anatomical, physiological and neurochemical standpoint, from the inner ear, brainstem, thalamus to the temporal auditory cortex. The characteristics of the spiral ganglion of Corti, auditory nerve, cochlear nuclei, superior olivary complex, lateral lemniscus, inferior colliculus, medial geniculate body, and auditory cortex, including the auditory efferent pathway, are given. CAP is described as the electrical impulses, travelling through axons, allowing ions to enter a neuron and vesicles with neurotransmitters (NT) and then released into synaptic space. The NT changes the functioning of the cells; when attached to specific receptors on the next nerve cell, NT-receiver union causes input of ions through Gap sites, resulting in a postsynaptic potential that is spread over all CAP. In addition, the effects of the NT are not limited to the transmission, but as trophic agents that promote the formation of new neural networks. Even the anatomy, physiology, neurochemical aspects, and the different types of synapses are not fully understood to comprehend the organization of the CAP, but remain under investigation because of the relevance for the treatment of various central auditory disorders. PMID:25275847

  14. Hyperactive auditory processing in Williams syndrome: Evidence from auditory evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarchi, Omer; Avni, Chen; Attias, Josef; Frisch, Amos; Carmel, Miri; Michaelovsky, Elena; Green, Tamar; Weizman, Abraham; Gothelf, Doron

    2015-06-01

    The neurophysiologic aberrations underlying the auditory hypersensitivity in Williams syndrome (WS) are not well defined. The P1-N1-P2 obligatory complex and mismatch negativity (MMN) response were investigated in 18 participants with WS, and the results were compared with those of 18 age- and gender-matched typically developing (TD) controls. Results revealed significantly higher amplitudes of both the P1-N1-P2 obligatory complex and the MMN response in the WS participants than in the TD controls. The P1-N1-P2 complex showed an age-dependent reduction in the TD but not in the WS participants. Moreover, high P1-N1-P2 complex was associated with low verbal comprehension scores in WS. This investigation demonstrates that central auditory processing is hyperactive in WS. The increase in auditory brain responses of both the obligatory complex and MMN response suggests aberrant processes of auditory encoding and discrimination in WS. Results also imply that auditory processing may be subjected to a delayed or diverse maturation and may affect the development of high cognitive functioning in WS. PMID:25603839

  15. Late Maturation of Auditory Perceptual Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyck, Julia Jones; Wright, Beverly A.

    2011-01-01

    Adults can improve their performance on many perceptual tasks with training, but when does the response to training become mature? To investigate this question, we trained 11-year-olds, 14-year-olds and adults on a basic auditory task (temporal-interval discrimination) using a multiple-session training regimen known to be effective for adults. The…

  16. Auditory Model Identification Using REVCOR Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamia Bouafif

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Auditory models are very useful in many applications such as speech coding and compression, cochlea prosthesis, and audio watermarking. In this paper we will develop a new auditory model based on the REVCOR method. This technique is based on the estimation of the impulse response of a suitable filter characterizing the auditory neuron and the cochlea. The first step of our study is focused on the development of a mathematical model based on the gammachirp system. This model is then programmed, implemented and simulated under Matlab. The obtained results are compared with the experimental values (REVCOR experiments for the validation and a better optimization of the model parameters. Two objective criteria are used in order to optimize the audio model estimation which are the SNR (signal to noise ratio and the MQE (mean quadratic error. The simulation results demonstrated that for the auditory model, only a reduced number of channels are excited (from 3 to 6. This result is very interesting for auditory implants because only significant channels will be stimulated. Besides, this simplifies the electronic implementation and medical intervention.

  17. Encoding frequency contrast in primate auditory cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Malone, Brian J.; Scott, Brian H.; Semple, Malcolm N.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in amplitude and frequency jointly determine much of the communicative significance of complex acoustic signals, including human speech. We have previously described responses of neurons in the core auditory cortex of awake rhesus macaques to sinusoidal amplitude modulation (SAM) signals. Here we report a complementary study of sinusoidal frequency modulation (SFM) in the same neurons. Responses to SFM were analogous to SAM responses in that changes in multiple parameters defining SFM...

  18. An evoked auditory response fMRI study of the effects of rTMS on putative AVH pathways in healthy volunteers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tracy, D K

    2010-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are the most prevalent symptom in schizophrenia. They are associated with increased activation within the temporoparietal cortices and are refractory to pharmacological and psychological treatment in approximately 25% of patients. Low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the temporoparietal cortex has been demonstrated to be effective in reducing AVH in some patients, although results have varied. The cortical mechanism by which rTMS exerts its effects remain unknown, although data from the motor system is suggestive of a local cortical inhibitory effect. We explored neuroimaging differences in healthy volunteers between application of a clinically utilized rTMS protocol and a sham rTMS equivalent when undertaking a prosodic auditory task.

  19. Cochlear injury and adaptive plasticity of the auditory cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANNA R. eFETONI

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence suggests that cochlear stressors as noise exposure and aging can induce homeostatic/maladaptive changes in the central auditory system from the brainstem to the cortex. Studies centered on such changes have revealed several mechanisms that operate in the context of sensory disruption after insult (noise trauma, drug- or age-related injury. The oxidative stress is central to current theories of induced sensory neural hearing loss and aging, and interventions to attenuate the hearing loss are based on antioxidant agent. The present review addresses the recent literature on the alterations in hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons due to noise-induced oxidative stress in the cochlea, as well on the impact of cochlear damage on the auditory cortex neurons. The emerging image emphasizes that noise-induced deafferentation and upward spread of cochlear damage is associated with the altered dendritic architecture of auditory pyramidal neurons. The cortical modifications may be reversed by treatment with antioxidants counteracting the cochlear redox imbalance. These findings open new therapeutic approaches to treat the functional consequences of the cortical reorganization following cochlear damage.

  20. Cochlear injury and adaptive plasticity of the auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetoni, Anna Rita; Troiani, Diana; Petrosini, Laura; Paludetti, Gaetano

    2015-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that cochlear stressors as noise exposure and aging can induce homeostatic/maladaptive changes in the central auditory system from the brainstem to the cortex. Studies centered on such changes have revealed several mechanisms that operate in the context of sensory disruption after insult (noise trauma, drug-, or age-related injury). The oxidative stress is central to current theories of induced sensory-neural hearing loss and aging, and interventions to attenuate the hearing loss are based on antioxidant agent. The present review addresses the recent literature on the alterations in hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons due to noise-induced oxidative stress in the cochlea, as well on the impact of cochlear damage on the auditory cortex neurons. The emerging image emphasizes that noise-induced deafferentation and upward spread of cochlear damage is associated with the altered dendritic architecture of auditory pyramidal neurons. The cortical modifications may be reversed by treatment with antioxidants counteracting the cochlear redox imbalance. These findings open new therapeutic approaches to treat the functional consequences of the cortical reorganization following cochlear damage. PMID:25698966

  1. High frequency bone conduction auditory evoked potentials in the guinea pig: Assessing cochlear injury after ossicular chain manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergin, M J; Bird, P A; Vlajkovic, S M; Thorne, P R

    2015-12-01

    Permanent high frequency (>4 kHz) sensorineural hearing loss following middle ear surgery occurs in up to 25% of patients. The aetiology of this loss is poorly understood and may involve transmission of supra-physiological forces down the ossicular chain to the cochlea. Investigating the mechanisms of this injury using animal models is challenging, as evaluating cochlear function with evoked potentials is confounded when ossicular manipulation disrupts the normal air conduction (AC) pathway. Bone conduction (BC) using clinical bone vibrators in small animals is limited by poor transducer output at high frequencies sensitive to trauma. The objectives of the present study were firstly to evaluate a novel high frequency bone conduction transducer with evoked auditory potentials in a guinea pig model, and secondly to use this model to investigate the impact of middle ear surgical manipulation on cochlear function. We modified a magnetostrictive device as a high frequency BC transducer and evaluated its performance by comparison with a calibrated AC transducer at frequencies up to 32 kHz using the auditory brainstem response (ABR), compound action potential (CAP) and summating potential (SP). To mimic a middle ear traumatising stimulus, a rotating bur was brought in to contact with the incudomalleal complex and the effect on evoked cochlear potentials was observed. BC-evoked potentials followed the same input-output function pattern as AC potentials for all ABR frequencies. Deterioration in CAP and SP thresholds was observed after ossicular manipulation. It is possible to use high frequency BC to evoke responses from the injury sensitive basal region of the cochlea and so not rely on AC with the potential confounder of conductive hearing loss. Ongoing research explores how these findings evolve over time, and ways in which injury may be reduced and the cochlea protected during middle ear surgery. PMID:26493491

  2. Overriding auditory attentional capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Polly; Lavie, Nilli

    2007-02-01

    Attentional capture by color singletons during shape search can be eliminated when the target is not a feature singleton (Bacon & Egeth, 1994). This suggests that a "singleton detection" search strategy must be adopted for attentional capture to occur. Here we find similar effects on auditory attentional capture. Irrelevant high-intensity singletons interfered with an auditory search task when the target itself was also a feature singleton. However, singleton interference was eliminated when the target was not a singleton (i.e., when nontargets were made heterogeneous, or when more than one target sound was presented). These results suggest that auditory attentional capture depends on the observer's attentional set, as does visual attentional capture. The suggestion that hearing might act as an early warning system that would always be tuned to unexpected unique stimuli must therefore be modified to accommodate these strategy-dependent capture effects. PMID:17557587

  3. Auditory and Visual Sensations

    CERN Document Server

    Ando, Yoichi

    2010-01-01

    Professor Yoichi Ando, acoustic architectural designer of the Kirishima International Concert Hall in Japan, presents a comprehensive rational-scientific approach to designing performance spaces. His theory is based on systematic psychoacoustical observations of spatial hearing and listener preferences, whose neuronal correlates are observed in the neurophysiology of the human brain. A correlation-based model of neuronal signal processing in the central auditory system is proposed in which temporal sensations (pitch, timbre, loudness, duration) are represented by an internal autocorrelation representation, and spatial sensations (sound location, size, diffuseness related to envelopment) are represented by an internal interaural crosscorrelation function. Together these two internal central auditory representations account for the basic auditory qualities that are relevant for listening to music and speech in indoor performance spaces. Observed psychological and neurophysiological commonalities between auditor...

  4. Tinnitus intensity dependent gamma oscillations of the contralateral auditory cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa van der Loo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Non-pulsatile tinnitus is considered a subjective auditory phantom phenomenon present in 10 to 15% of the population. Tinnitus as a phantom phenomenon is related to hyperactivity and reorganization of the auditory cortex. Magnetoencephalography studies demonstrate a correlation between gamma band activity in the contralateral auditory cortex and the presence of tinnitus. The present study aims to investigate the relation between objective gamma-band activity in the contralateral auditory cortex and subjective tinnitus loudness scores. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In unilateral tinnitus patients (N = 15; 10 right, 5 left source analysis of resting state electroencephalographic gamma band oscillations shows a strong positive correlation with Visual Analogue Scale loudness scores in the contralateral auditory cortex (max r = 0.73, p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Auditory phantom percepts thus show similar sound level dependent activation of the contralateral auditory cortex as observed in normal audition. In view of recent consciousness models and tinnitus network models these results suggest tinnitus loudness is coded by gamma band activity in the contralateral auditory cortex but might not, by itself, be responsible for tinnitus perception.

  5. Resizing Auditory Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzfeldt, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Heard through the ears of the Canadian composer and music teacher R. Murray Schafer the ideal auditory community had the shape of a village. Schafer’s work with the World Soundscape Project in the 70s represent an attempt to interpret contemporary environments through musical and auditory...... of sound as an active component in shaping urban environments. As urban conditions spreads globally, new scales, shapes and forms of communities appear and call for new distinctions and models in the study and representation of sonic environments. Particularly so, since urban environments...

  6. Formation of associations in auditory cortex by slow changes of tonic firing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosch, Michael; Selezneva, Elena; Scheich, Henning

    2011-01-01

    We review event-related slow firing changes in the auditory cortex and related brain structures. Two types of changes can be distinguished, namely increases and decreases of firing, lasting in the order of seconds. Triggering events can be auditory stimuli, reinforcers, and behavioral responses. Slow firing changes terminate with reinforcers and possibly with auditory stimuli and behavioral responses. A necessary condition for the emergence of slow firing changes seems to be that subjects have learnt that consecutive sensory or behavioral events are contingent on reinforcement. They disappear when the contingencies are no longer present. Slow firing changes in auditory cortex bear similarities with slow changes of neuronal activity that have been observed in subcortical parts of the auditory system and in other non-sensory brain structures. We propose that slow firing changes in auditory cortex provide a neuronal mechanism for anticipating, memorizing, and associating events that are related to hearing and of behavioral relevance. This may complement the representation of the timing and types of auditory and auditory-related events which may be provided by phasic responses in auditory cortex. The presence of slow firing changes indicates that many more auditory-related aspects of a behavioral procedure are reflected in the neuronal activity of auditory cortex than previously assumed. PMID:20488230

  7. The Basal Forebrain and Motor Cortex Provide Convergent yet Distinct Movement-Related Inputs to the Auditory Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Anders; Mooney, Richard

    2016-05-01

    Cholinergic inputs to the auditory cortex from the basal forebrain (BF) are important to auditory processing and plasticity, but little is known about the organization of these synapses onto different auditory cortical neuron types, how they influence auditory responsiveness, and their activity patterns during various behaviors. Using intersectional tracing, optogenetic circuit mapping, and in vivo calcium imaging, we found that cholinergic axons arising from the caudal BF target major excitatory and inhibitory auditory cortical cell types, rapidly modulate auditory cortical tuning, and display fast movement-related activity. Furthermore, the BF and the motor cortex-another source of movement-related activity-provide convergent input onto some of the same auditory cortical neurons. Cholinergic and motor cortical afferents to the auditory cortex display distinct activity patterns and presynaptic partners, indicating that the auditory cortex integrates bottom-up cholinergic signals related to ongoing movements and arousal with top-down information concerning impending movements and motor planning. PMID:27112494

  8. Neurophysiological assessment of auditory, peripheral nerve, somatosensory, and visual system function after developmental exposure to gasoline, E15, and E85 vapors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, David W; Freeborn, Danielle L; Degn, Laura; Martin, Sheppard A; Ortenzio, Jayna; Pantlin, Lara; Hamm, Charles W; Boyes, William K

    2016-01-01

    The use of gasolines blended with a range of ethanol concentrations may result in inhalation of vapors containing a variable combination of ethanol with other volatile gasoline constituents. The possibility of exposure and potential interactions between vapor constituents suggests the need to evaluate the possible risks of this complex mixture. Previously we evaluated the effects of developmental exposure to ethanol vapors on neurophysiological measures of sensory function as a component of a larger project evaluating developmental ethanol toxicity. Here we report an evaluation using the same battery of sensory function testing in offspring of pregnant dams exposed during gestation to condensed vapors of gasoline (E0), gasoline blended with 15% ethanol (E15) or gasoline blended with 85% ethanol (E85). Pregnant Long-Evans rats were exposed to target concentrations 0, 3000, 6000, or 9000ppm total hydrocarbon vapors for 6.5h/day over GD9 - GD20. Sensory evaluations of male offspring began as adults. The electrophysiological testing battery included tests of: peripheral nerve (compound action potentials, nerve conduction velocity [NCV]), somatosensory (cortical and cerebellar evoked potentials), auditory (brainstem auditory evoked responses), and visual functions. Visual function assessment included pattern elicited visual evoked potentials (VEP), VEP contrast sensitivity, dark-adapted (scotopic) electroretinograms (ERGs), light-adapted (photopic) ERGs, and green flicker ERGs. The results included sporadic statistically significant effects, but the observations were not consistently concentration-related and appeared to be statistical Type 1 errors related to multiple dependent measures evaluated. The exposure concentrations were much higher than can be reasonably expected from typical exposures to the general population during refueling or other common exposure situations. Overall the results indicate that gestational exposure of male rats to ethanol/gasoline vapor

  9. On the comparison of VR-responses, as performance measures in prospective memory, with auditory P300 responses in MCI detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnanas, Ioannis; Laskaris, Nikos; Tsolaki, Magda

    2012-01-01

    Patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment are at high risk for developing Alzheimer's disease. Besides episodic memory dysfunction they show deficits in accessing contextual knowledge that further specifies a general spatial navigation task or an executive function (EF) virtual action planning. There has been only one previous work with virtual reality and the use of a virtual action planning supermarket for the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment. The authors of that study examined the feasibility and the validity of the virtual action planning supermarket (VAP-S) for the diagnosis of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and found that the VAP-S is a viable tool to assess EF deficits. In our study we employed the in-house platform of virtual action planning museum (VAP-M) and a sample of 25 MCI and 25 controls, in order to investigate deficits in spatial navigation, prospective memory and executive function. In addition, we used the morphology of late components in event-related potential (ERP) responses, as a marker for cognitive dysfunction. The related measurements were fed to a common classification scheme facilitating the direct comparison of both approaches. Our results indicate that both the VAP-M and ERP averages were able to differentiate between healthy elders and patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and agree with the findings of the virtual action planning supermarket (VAP-S). The sensitivity (specificity) was 100% (98%) for the VAP-M data and 87%(90%) for the ERP responses. Considering that ERPs have proven to advance the early detection and diagnosis of "presymptomatic AD", the suggested VAP-M platform appears as an appealing alternative. PMID:22954847

  10. Vestibular myogenic and acoustical brainstem evoked potentials in neurological practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Korepina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with the inspection of acoustical cortex and brainstem EP in neurologic, otoneurologic and audiologic practice recently start to use so-called vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP. It is shown, that at ear stimulation by a loud sound and record of sterno-cleidomastoid contraction is possible to estimate function of the inferior vestibular nerve and vestibulospinal pathways, a sacculo-cervical reflex. In article some methodical and clinical questions of application of these kinds are presented. Combine research acoustic brainstem EP and VEMP allows to confirm effectively lesions of acoustical and vestibular ways at brainstem. The conclusion becomes, that this kind of inspection is important for revealing demielinisation and defeats in vestibulospinal tract, that quite often happens at MS, and at estimation of efficiency of treatment

  11. Shaping the aging brain: Role of auditory input patterns in the emergence of auditory cortical impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brishna Soraya Kamal

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Age-related impairments in the primary auditory cortex (A1 include poor tuning selectivity, neural desynchronization and degraded responses to low-probability sounds. These changes have been largely attributed to reduced inhibition in the aged brain, and are thought to contribute to substantial hearing impairment in both humans and animals. Since many of these changes can be partially reversed with auditory training, it has been speculated that they might not be purely degenerative, but might rather represent negative plastic adjustments to noisy or distorted auditory signals reaching the brain. To test this hypothesis, we examined the impact of exposing young adult rats to 8 weeks of low-grade broadband noise on several aspects of A1 function and structure. We then characterized the same A1 elements in aging rats for comparison. We found that the impact of noise exposure on A1 tuning selectivity, temporal processing of auditory signal and responses to oddball tones was almost indistinguishable from the effect of natural aging. Moreover, noise exposure resulted in a reduction in the population of parvalbumin inhibitory interneurons and cortical myelin as previously documented in the aged group. Most of these changes reversed after returning the rats to a quiet environment. These results support the hypothesis that age-related changes in A1 have a strong activity-dependent component and indicate that the presence or absence of clear auditory input patterns might be a key factor in sustaining adult A1 function.

  12. Clinical features of predominantly sensory stroke due to brainstem infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report 13 patients presenting with predominantly sensory strokes due to brainstem infarction, without any other brainstem symptoms such as hemiparesis, dysarthria or vertigo. All of them had lacunar infarctions localized at the medial lemniscus and/or spinothalamic tract, at the pontine (12 patients) or midbrain (1 patient) tegmentum. The presenting symptom was dysesthesia with a variety of distributions for all cases, and a thalamic-pain-like unpleasant dysesthesia persisted in 4 patients. The lesion on brain MRI was usually very small, and was sometimes overlooked by radiological evaluation, which led to a long delay in the correct diagnosis of a stroke in two cases. Median nerve somatosensory evoked potentials showed a depressed N20 amplitude or a loss of the P15 potential unilaterally with preserved P13/14 potential in 7 out of 10 cases examined, and was useful in localizing the lesion intracranially. During the 4-year study period, 10 patients with brainstem infarctions were admitted to our department as acute sensory stroke cases (2.1% of all acute strokes), whereas 11 patients with thalamic infarctions (2.3%) were admitted due to similar symptoms. Cases with brainstem infarctions had sensory symptoms localized below the neck more frequently (5/10) than cases with thalamic infarctions (1/11), thus would be more likely to be confused with cervical or peripheral nerve disorders. The relative frequency of brainstem infarction as compared to thalamic infarction was higher than that in previous reports, implying that some cases with brainstem infarction might have been overlooked due to difficulty in obtaining the correct diagnosis. One should always keep this syndrome in mind when assessing patients with acute-onset sensory symptoms. (author)

  13. Effects of Fish Oil Supplementation during the Suckling Period on Auditory Neural Conduction in n-3 Fatty Acid-Deficient Rat Pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    vida rahimi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Omega 3 fatty acid especially in the form of fish oil, has structural and biological role in the body's various systems especially nervous system. Numerous studies have tried to research about it. Auditory is one of the affected systems. Omega 3 deficiency can have devastating effects on the nervous system and auditory. This study aimed to evaluate neural conduction in n-3 fatty acid-deficient rat pups following the supplementation of fish oil consumption during the suckling period Materials and Methods: In this interventional and experimental study, one sources of omega3 fatty acid (fish oil were fed to rat pups of n-3 PUFA-deficient dams to compare changes in their auditory neural conduction with that of control and n-3 PUFA-deficient groups, using Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR. The parameters of interest were P1, P3, P4 absolute latency, P1-P3, P1-P4 and P3-P4 IPL , P4/P1 amplitude ratio . The rat pups were given oral fish oil, 5 Ml /g weight for 17 days, between the age of 5 and 21 days. Results There were no significant group differences in P1 and P3 absolute latency (p > 0.05. but the result in P4 was significant(P ≤ 0.05 . The n-3 PUFA deficient +vehicle had the most prolonged (the worst P1-P4 IPL and P3-P4 IPL compared with control and n-3 PUFA deficient + FO groups. There was no significant difference in P1-P4 IPL and P3-P4 IPL between n-3 PUFA deficient + FO and control groups (p > 0.05.There was a significant effect of diet on P1-P4 IPL and P3-P4 IPL between groups (P ≤ 0.05. Conclusion: The results of present study showed the effect of omega3 deficiency on auditory neural structure during pregnancy and lactation period. Additionally, we observed the reduced devastating effects on neural conduction in n-3 fatty acid-deficient rat pups following the supplementation of fish oil during the suckling period

  14. The Essential Complexity of Auditory Receptive Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorson, Ivar L; Liénard, Jean; David, Stephen V

    2015-12-01

    Encoding properties of sensory neurons are commonly modeled using linear finite impulse response (FIR) filters. For the auditory system, the FIR filter is instantiated in the spectro-temporal receptive field (STRF), often in the framework of the generalized linear model. Despite widespread use of the FIR STRF, numerous formulations for linear filters are possible that require many fewer parameters, potentially permitting more efficient and accurate model estimates. To explore these alternative STRF architectures, we recorded single-unit neural activity from auditory cortex of awake ferrets during presentation of natural sound stimuli. We compared performance of > 1000 linear STRF architectures, evaluating their ability to predict neural responses to a novel natural stimulus. Many were able to outperform the FIR filter. Two basic constraints on the architecture lead to the improved performance: (1) factorization of the STRF matrix into a small number of spectral and temporal filters and (2) low-dimensional parameterization of the factorized filters. The best parameterized model was able to outperform the full FIR filter in both primary and secondary auditory cortex, despite requiring fewer than 30 parameters, about 10% of the number required by the FIR filter. After accounting for noise from finite data sampling, these STRFs were able to explain an average of 40% of A1 response variance. The simpler models permitted more straightforward interpretation of sensory tuning properties. They also showed greater benefit from incorporating nonlinear terms, such as short term plasticity, that provide theoretical advances over the linear model. Architectures that minimize parameter count while maintaining maximum predictive power provide insight into the essential degrees of freedom governing auditory cortical function. They also maximize statistical power available for characterizing additional nonlinear properties that limit current auditory models. PMID:26683490

  15. CHD7 mutational analysis and clinical considerations for auditory rehabilitation in deaf patients with CHARGE syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mee Hyun Song

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Otologic manifestations are one of the most consistent findings of CHARGE syndrome found in more than 90%. Since genetic analysis of the CHD7 gene has rarely been performed in previous reports dealing with ear abnormalities, the genotypic spectrum of CHD7 mutations was analyzed in deaf patients with CHARGE syndrome, and the clinical considerations concerning auditory rehabilitation were investigated. METHODS: Nine Korean patients with CHARGE syndrome showing profound hearing loss and semicircular canal aplasia were included. All 38 exons of CHD7 were analyzed by direct sequencing. For splice site variations, in silico and exon-trapping analyses were performed to verify the pathogenicity of nucleotide variations. Clinical features and the outcome of auditory rehabilitation were also analyzed. RESULTS: Eight of 9 patients revealed alterations of the CHD7 gene including 3 frameshift, 2 nonsense, 2 splice site, and 1 missense mutations. Five of 9 patients were clinically diagnosed as atypical CHARGE syndrome but demonstrated various mutations of the CHD7 gene. One familial case showed intra-familial variability. Radiologic findings suggesting cochleovestibular nerve deficiency were identified in most of the patients. Of the 8 patients who underwent cochlear implantation, 5 patients demonstrated favorable outcome. Larger diameter of the cochleovestibular nerve on imaging and absence of severe mental retardation were factors related to better outcome after cochlear implantation rather than the type of CHD7 mutations. Auditory brainstem implantation was performed in two patients who did not benefit from cochlear implantation. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic analysis of the CHD7 gene should be performed in cases with semicircular canal aplasia even when other typical features of CHARGE syndrome are absent. For auditory rehabilitation in CHARGE syndrome, cochlear implantation should be strongly recommended in selected cases with favorable prognostic

  16. Incorporating Midbrain Adaptation to Mean Sound Level Improves Models of Auditory Cortical Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Harper, NS; Willmore, BDB; Schnupp, JWH; King, AJ; Schoppe, O

    2016-01-01

    Adaptation to stimulus statistics, such as the mean level and contrast of recently- heard sounds, has been demonstrated at various levels of the auditory pathway. It allows the nervous system to operate over the wide range of intensities and contrasts found in the natural world. Yet, current standard models of the response properties of auditory neurons do not incorporate such adaptation. Here, we present a model of neural responses in the ferret auditory cortex (the I...

  17. Auditory distraction transmitted by a cochlear implant alters allocation of attentional resources

    OpenAIRE

    Finke, Mareike; Sandmann, Pascale; Kopp, Bruno; Lenarz, Thomas; Büchner, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Cochlear implants (CIs) are auditory prostheses which restore hearing via electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve. The successful adaptation of auditory cognition to the CI input depends to a substantial degree on individual factors. We pursued an electrophysiological approach toward an analysis of cortical responses that reflect perceptual processing stages and higher-level responses to CI input. Performance and event-related potentials on two cross-modal discrimination-following-distra...

  18. Role of creatine in sensitivity and function of the auditory and vestibular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Moradi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Creatine plays an important role in the regulation of cellular energy in high energy demand organs such as the inner ear. It is also believed to play a protective role. This article reviewed the mechanisms and effects of creatine on the auditory and vestibular systems.Recent Findings: Creatine transporters and creatine kinase enzymes are involved in converting creatine to creatine phosphate. Phosphate is a fuel cell available in the cochlear and vestibular hair cells and the protective cells, striavascularis, peripheral and central neural pathways to the auditory cortex. It provides essential ATP for auditory and vestibular system performance. Creatine kinase prevents cochlear damage by regulating the metabolism of energy in marginal layers of the striavascularis and preventing free radical production in stressful situations. It also plays an important role in vestibular compensation. Creatine kinase dysfunction leads to an increase in the threshold of auditory brainstem potentials and a reduction in vestibular performance. The use of creatine improves vestibular evoked myogenic potentials and neurologic symptoms.Conclusion: Creatine and creatine kinase protein is essential for normal hearing and balance function and sensitivity. Creatine kinase deficiency impairs the functioning of these two systems; however, creatine consumption may boost the sensitivity of the vestibular system and neurological performance. Effects of the creatine consumption on the auditory system have not yet been examined.

  19. Neck muscle afferents influence oromotor and cardiorespiratory brainstem neural circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, I J; Lall, V K; Paton, J F; Yanagawa, Y; Szabo, G; Deuchars, S A; Deuchars, J

    2015-01-01

    Sensory information arising from the upper neck is important in the reflex control of posture and eye position. It has also been linked to the autonomic control of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Whiplash associated disorders (WAD) and cervical dystonia, which involve disturbance to the neck region, can often present with abnormalities to the oromotor, respiratory and cardiovascular systems. We investigated the potential neural pathways underlying such symptoms. Simulating neck afferent activity by electrical stimulation of the second cervical nerve in a working heart brainstem preparation (WHBP) altered the pattern of central respiratory drive and increased perfusion pressure. Tracing central targets of these sensory afferents revealed projections to the intermedius nucleus of the medulla (InM). These anterogradely labelled afferents co-localised with parvalbumin and vesicular glutamate transporter 1 indicating that they are proprioceptive. Anterograde tracing from the InM identified projections to brain regions involved in respiratory, cardiovascular, postural and oro-facial behaviours--the neighbouring hypoglossal nucleus, facial and motor trigeminal nuclei, parabrachial nuclei, rostral and caudal ventrolateral medulla and nucleus ambiguus. In brain slices, electrical stimulation of afferent fibre tracts lateral to the cuneate nucleus monosynaptically excited InM neurones. Direct stimulation of the InM in the WHBP mimicked the response of second cervical nerve stimulation. These results provide evidence of pathways linking upper cervical sensory afferents with CNS areas involved in autonomic and oromotor control, via the InM. Disruption of these neuronal pathways could, therefore, explain the dysphagic and cardiorespiratory abnormalities which may accompany cervical dystonia and WAD. PMID:24595534

  20. Localization of the brainstem GABAergic neurons controlling paradoxical (REM sleep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Sapin

    Full Text Available Paradoxical sleep (PS is a state characterized by cortical activation, rapid eye movements and muscle atonia. Fifty years after its discovery, the neuronal network responsible for the genesis of PS has been only partially identified. We recently proposed that GABAergic neurons would have a pivotal role in that network. To localize these GABAergic neurons, we combined immunohistochemical detection of Fos with non-radioactive in situ hybridization of GAD67 mRNA (GABA synthesis enzyme in control rats, rats deprived of PS for 72 h and rats allowed to recover after such deprivation. Here we show that GABAergic neurons gating PS (PS-off neurons are principally located in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG and the dorsal part of the deep mesencephalic reticular nucleus immediately ventral to it (dDpMe. Furthermore, iontophoretic application of muscimol for 20 min in this area in head-restrained rats induced a strong and significant increase in PS quantities compared to saline. In addition, we found a large number of GABAergic PS-on neurons in the vlPAG/dDPMe region and the medullary reticular nuclei known to generate muscle atonia during PS. Finally, we showed that PS-on neurons triggering PS localized in the SLD are not GABAergic. Altogether, our results indicate that multiple populations of PS-on GABAergic neurons are distributed in the brainstem while only one population of PS-off GABAergic neurons localized in the vlPAG/dDpMe region exist. From these results, we propose a revised model for PS control in which GABAergic PS-on and PS-off neurons localized in the vlPAG/dDPMe region play leading roles.

  1. Subdivisions of the auditory midbrain (n. mesencephalicus lateralis, pars dorsalis in zebra finches using calcium-binding protein immunocytochemistry.

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    Priscilla Logerot

    Full Text Available The midbrain nucleus mesencephalicus lateralis pars dorsalis (MLd is thought to be the avian homologue of the central nucleus of the mammalian inferior colliculus. As such, it is a major relay in the ascending auditory pathway of all birds and in songbirds mediates the auditory feedback necessary for the learning and maintenance of song. To clarify the organization of MLd, we applied three calcium binding protein antibodies to tissue sections from the brains of adult male and female zebra finches. The staining patterns resulting from the application of parvalbumin, calbindin and calretinin antibodies differed from each other and in different parts of the nucleus. Parvalbumin-like immunoreactivity was distributed throughout the whole nucleus, as defined by the totality of the terminations of brainstem auditory afferents; in other words parvalbumin-like immunoreactivity defines the boundaries of MLd. Staining patterns of parvalbumin, calbindin and calretinin defined two regions of MLd: inner (MLd.I and outer (MLd.O. MLd.O largely surrounds MLd.I and is distinct from the surrounding intercollicular nucleus. Unlike the case in some non-songbirds, however, the two MLd regions do not correspond to the terminal zones of the projections of the brainstem auditory nuclei angularis and laminaris, which have been found to overlap substantially throughout the nucleus in zebra finches.

  2. Glycinergic transmission modulates GABAergic inhibition in the avian auditory pathway

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    Matthew J Fischl

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available For all neurons, a proper balance of synaptic excitation and inhibition is crucial to effect computational precision. Achievement of this balance is remarkable when one considers factors that modulate synaptic strength operate on multiple overlapping time scales and affect both pre- and postsynaptic elements. Recent studies have shown that inhibitory transmitters, glycine and GABA, are co-released in auditory nuclei involved in the computation of interaural time disparities (ITDs, a cue used to process sound source location. The co-release expressed at these synapses is heavily activity dependent, and generally occurs when input rates are high. This circuitry, in both birds and mammals, relies on inhibitory input to maintain the temporal precision necessary for ITD encoding. Studies of co-release in other brain regions suggest that GABA and glycine receptors (GlyRs interact via cross-suppressive modulation of receptor conductance. We performed in vitro whole-cell recordings in several nuclei of the chicken brainstem auditory circuit to assess whether this cross-suppressive phenomenon was evident in the avian brainstem. We evaluated the effect of pressure-puff applied glycine on synaptically evoked inhibitory currents in nucleus magnocellularis (NM and the superior olivary nucleus (SON. Glycine pre-application reduced the amplitude of inhibitory postsynaptic currents evoked during a 100Hz train stimulus in both nuclei. This apparent glycinergic modulation was blocked in the presence of strychnine. Further experiments showed that this modulation did not depend on postsynaptic biochemical interactions such as phosphatase activity, or direct interactions between GABA and glycine receptor proteins. Rather, voltage clamp experiments in which we manipulated Cl- flux during agonist application suggest that activation of one receptor will modulate the conductance of the other via local changes in Cl- ion concentration within microdomains of the

  3. Repetitive Diving in Trained Rats Still Increases Fos Production in Brainstem Neurons after Bilateral Sectioning of the Anterior Ethmoidal Nerve

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    Paul F Mcculloch

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research was designed to investigate the role of the anterior ethmoidal nerve (AEN during repetitive trained diving in rats, with specific attention to activation of afferent and efferent brainstem nuclei that are part of this reflexive response. The AEN innervates the nose and nasal passages and is thought to be an important component of the afferent limb of the diving response. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (N=24 were trained to swim and dive through a 5 m underwater maze. Some rats (N=12 had bilateral sectioning of the AEN, others a Sham surgery (N=12. Twelve rats (6 AEN cut and 6 Sham had 24 post-surgical dive trials over 2 hrs to activate brainstem neurons to produce Fos, a neuronal activation marker. Remaining rats were non-diving controls. Diving animals had significantly more Fos-positive neurons than non-diving animals in the caudal pressor area, ventral medullary dorsal horn, ventral paratrigeminal nucleus, nucleus tractus solitarius, rostral ventrolateral medulla, Raphe nuclei, A5, Locus Coeruleus, and Kölliker-Fuse area. There were no significant differences in brainstem Fos labeling in rats diving with and without intact AENs. Thus the AENs are not required for initiation of the diving response. Other nerve(s that innervate the nose and nasal passages, and/or suprabulbar activation of brainstem neurons, may be responsible for the pattern of neuronal activation observed during repetitive trained diving in rats. These results help define the central neuronal circuitry of the mammalian diving response.

  4. INFLUENCE OF ACUPUNCTURE ("JIN'S SAN ZHEN") ON BRAINSTEM EVOKED POTENTIALS IN MENTAL RETARDATION CHILDREN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Qing; MA Ruiling; JIN Rui

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of acupuncture ("JIN's San Zhen") on infantile mental retardation (MR) .Methods: 44 cases of MR children were attributed to treatment group and 39 normal children to control group.P3(event-related potential) and brainstem evoked potentials were used as the indexes. Acupoints "Si-shen Zhen","Head Zhi San Zhen", "Hand Zhi San Zhen", "Foot Zhi San Zhen" were punctured with filiform needles, and stimulated by manipulating the needle once every 5 minutes with uniform reinforcing-reducing method. The treatment was conducted once daily, 6 times every week, with 4 months being a therapeutic course. Results: In comparison with normal children, the latency of P3 was longer and its amplitude lower in MR children. After 4 months' acupuncture treatment,the latency was shortened and the amplitude increased significantly in comparison with pre-treatment ( P<0.01,0.05). Results of the total inteiiigence quotient (TIQ) evaluation showed a 70.3% coincidence rate compared with improvement of P3. Conclusion: Changes of P3 and BAEP(brain auditory evoked potential) after acupuncture treatment may be related to the effect of "JIN's San Zhen" in bettering clinical symptoms and signs of MR infantile patients.

  5. AUDITORY REACTION TIME IN BASKETBALL PLAYERS AND HEALTHY CONTROLS

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    Ghuntla Tejas P.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Reaction is purposeful voluntary response to different stimuli as visual or auditory stimuli. Auditory reaction time is time required to response to auditory stimuli. Quickness of response is very important in games like basketball. This study was conducted to compare auditory reaction time of basketball players and healthy controls. The auditory reaction time was measured by the reaction time instrument in healthy controls and basketball players. Simple reaction time and choice reaction time measured. During the reaction time testing, auditory stimuli were given for three times and minimum reaction time was taken as the final reaction time for that sensory modality of that subject. The results were statistically analyzed and were recorded as mean + standard deviation and student’s unpaired t-test was applied to check the level of significance. The study shows that basketball players have shorter reaction time than healthy controls. As reaction time gives the information how fast a person gives a response to sensory stimuli, it is a good indicator of performance in reactive sports like basketball. Sportsman should be trained to improve their reaction time to improve their performance.

  6. Music and the auditory brain: where is the connection?

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    Israel eNelken

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Sound processing by the auditory system is understood in unprecedented details, even compared with sensory coding in the visual system. Nevertheless, we don't understand yet the way in which some of the simplest perceptual properties of sounds are coded in neuronal activity. This poses serious difficulties for linking neuronal responses in the auditory system and music processing, since music operates on abstract representations of sounds. Paradoxically, although perceptual representations of sounds most probably occur high in auditory system or even beyond it, neuronal responses are strongly affected by the temporal organization of sound streams even in subcortical stations. Thus, to the extent that music is organized sound, it is the organization, rather than the sound, which is represented first in the auditory brain.

  7. Functional neuroimaging of the oculomotor brainstem network in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linzenbold, Walter; Lindig, Tobias; Himmelbach, Marc

    2011-08-01

    The cortical systems involved in eye movement control in humans have been investigated extensively using fMRI. In contrast, there is virtually no data concerning the functional status of the human oculomotor brainstem nuclei. This lack of evidence has usually been explained by technical constraints of EPI based imaging and anatomical characteristics of the brainstem. Against this assumption, we successfully localised nuclei of the oculomotor system using high-resolution fMRI based on standard EPI sequences in a group of healthy subjects executing reflexive horizontal saccades. A random-effects group analysis revealed task-related BOLD increases in the superior colliculus, the oculomotor nucleus, the abducens nucleus and in the paramedian pontine reticular formation. This group analysis was complemented by individual positive findings in up to 94% of single subject analyses. A visual control paradigm led to increased signal levels in the superior colliculus consistent with its visual properties but no corresponding signal changes in other brainstem nuclei. These results are consistent with findings in animal studies and demonstrate the feasibility to detect BOLD signal increases associated with oculomotor tasks even in the human brainstem using conventional EPI imaging techniques. PMID:21640192

  8. Stance disturbance in multiple sclerosis: brainstem lesions and posturographic assessment

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    Peter Schalek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Background. Balance disorders are commonly evidenced during the course of multiple sclerosis (MS. The aim of this study is to report characteristics of MS patient stance control disorders, measured by means of posturography and related to the brainstem lesions.

    Methods. Thirty-eight patients affected by MS, mildly to moderately disable according to Kurtzke’s Expanded Disability Status Scale, underwent a complete clinical neurological and vestibular evaluation and brain MRI scanning. All patients were then tested on a static posturography platform (Tetrax, Israel in four conditions: eyes open and closed standing on a firm surface and on a foam pad.

    Results. Clinical and/or MRI evidence of brainstem involvement was observed in 55.3 % of patients. When brainstem lesion was detected, Fourier analysis showed a typical pattern characterized by inversion of the  0- 0.1 Hz and  0.1 - 0.25 Hz. frequency bands.

    Conclusions. MS leads to pervasive postural disturbances in the majority of subjects, including the visuo-vestibular loops and proprioception involving vestibulo-spinal pathways in at least 55.3 % of patients. Our results may also suggest the presence of Fourier inversion in patients with brainstem lesions.


  9. Intraparenchymal papillary meningioma of brainstem: case report and literature review

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    Jiang Xiao-Bing

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Both intraparenchymal papillary meningioma and papillary meningioma with cyst formation of brainstem have never been reported. The authors present an extremely rare case of patient with intraparenchymal papillary meningioma of brainstem. A 23-year-old Chinese male presented with a 4-month history of progressive left upper limb and facial nerve palsy. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a cystic-solid, heterogeneously enhancing mass in pons and right cerebral peduncle with no dural attachment. The tumor was totally removed via subtemporal approach. During surgery, the lesion was found to be completely intraparenchymal. Histological and immunohistochemical examinations were compatible with the diagnosis of papillary meningioma. The lesion recurred nine months after primary surgery, a second surgery followed by radiotherapy was performed. Till to now (nearly 2 years after the treatment, the patient is tumor free survival. Intraparenchymal meningioma of brainstem with cystic formation is very rare, however, it should be considered as a differential diagnosis of a brainstem neoplasm. The present case strongly recommended that postoperative radiotherapy was essential for the patients with papillary meningiomas.

  10. Neural Effects of Auditory Distraction on Visual Attention in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Smucny, Jason; Rojas, Donald C.; Eichman, Lindsay C.; Tregellas, Jason R.

    2013-01-01

    Sensory flooding, particularly during auditory stimulation, is a common problem for patients with schizophrenia. The functional consequences of this impairment during cross-modal attention tasks, however, are unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine how auditory distraction differentially affects task-associated response during visual attention in patients and healthy controls. To that end, 21 outpatients with schizophrenia and 23 healthy comparison subjects performed a visual attent...

  11. A rabbit model of graded primary mechanical injury to brainstem

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    YU Yong-min

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To introduce a new animal model of graded mechanical primary brainstem injury (BSI. Methods: Altogether 45 rabbits were subjected to BSI by type II biological impact machine designed by the Third Military Medical University. The animals were divided into 4 experimental groups (n=10 and 1 control group (n=5 ac-cording to different magnitudes of impact pressure imposed on the occipital nodule: Group 1, 500-520 kPa; Group 2, 520-540 kPa; Group 3, 540-560 kPa; Group 4, 560-580 kPa and Group 5, 0 kPa with 20 kPa increase in each grade. The im-pact depth was a constant 0.5 cm. After injury, the clinical symptoms and signs as well as pathological changes were observed. Results: Rabbits in Group 1 revealed mild physiologi-cal reaction of BSI. They had localized cerebral contusion with punctate hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH was limited to the peripheral tissues at the impact area. In Group 2, obvious physiological reaction was observed. Local pathological lesions reached the superfi-cial layer of brainstem tissues; focal hemorrhage and girdle-shaped SAH in basilar pon were observed under microscope. In Group 3, BSI was more severe with a long respiratory depression. Pathological lesions reached the inner portion of brainstem with massive hemorrhage and the whole brainstem was wrapped by subarachnoid hematoma. In Group 4, most rabbits died due to severe BSI. Pathological lesions deepened to the central brainstem with wide patho-logical change, rapture of the medulla oblongata central canal. Group 5 was the control group, with normal brainstem structure and no lesion observed. Conclusion: This model successfully simulates differ-ent levels of brainstem mechanical injury and clearly shows the subsequent pathological changes following injury. It takes two external parameters (impact pressure and depth and has a similar injury mechanism to clinical accelerating BSI. Moreover it is reproducible and stable, thus being be

  12. Spatial auditory processing in pinnipeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Marla M.

    . Results showed that males produce calls that were highly directional that together with social status influenced the response of receivers. Results from the playback study were able to confirm that the isolated acoustic components of this display resulted in similar responses among males. These three chapters provide further information about comparative aspects of spatial auditory processing in pinnipeds.

  13. Spatial processing in the auditory cortex of the macaque monkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recanzone, Gregg H.

    2000-10-01

    The patterns of cortico-cortical and cortico-thalamic connections of auditory cortical areas in the rhesus monkey have led to the hypothesis that acoustic information is processed in series and in parallel in the primate auditory cortex. Recent physiological experiments in the behaving monkey indicate that the response properties of neurons in different cortical areas are both functionally distinct from each other, which is indicative of parallel processing, and functionally similar to each other, which is indicative of serial processing. Thus, auditory cortical processing may be similar to the serial and parallel "what" and "where" processing by the primate visual cortex. If "where" information is serially processed in the primate auditory cortex, neurons in cortical areas along this pathway should have progressively better spatial tuning properties. This prediction is supported by recent experiments that have shown that neurons in the caudomedial field have better spatial tuning properties than neurons in the primary auditory cortex. Neurons in the caudomedial field are also better than primary auditory cortex neurons at predicting the sound localization ability across different stimulus frequencies and bandwidths in both azimuth and elevation. These data support the hypothesis that the primate auditory cortex processes acoustic information in a serial and parallel manner and suggest that this may be a general cortical mechanism for sensory perception.

  14. [Auditory hallucinations in lesions of the brain stem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambier, J; Decroix, J P; Masson, C

    1987-01-01

    Since the publication by Jean Lhermitte in 1922 of his paper on hallucinosis, the peduncular type has been described as a purely visual phenomenon. However, limited brain stem lesions can give rise to analogous manifestations in the auditory field. Five cases of auditory hallucinosis are reviewed, the first four resulting from a lesion of tegmentum of pons responsible for contralateral hemi-anesthesia and homolateral facial palsy with paralysis of laterality. Central type hypoacusis and a severe disorder of localization of sounds revealed a lesion of trapezoid body. The fifth case resulted from a peduncular lesion in region supplied by superior cerebellar artery, the auditory deficit being related to a lesion of inferior corpus quadrigeminum. In one patient, the auditory hallucinosis was followed by a period of visual hallucinations and oneiric delusions. Both auditory and visual hallucinosis can be related to hypnagogic hallucinations. Dream mechanisms (the geniculo-occipital spikes system) escape from normal inhibitory control exerted by the raphe nuclei. Auditory deafferentation could predispose to auditory hallucinosis. PMID:3629075

  15. The Structural, Functional and Molecular Organization of the Brainstem

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    Rudolf eNieuwenhuys

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available According to Wilhelm His (1891, 1893 the brainstem consists of two longitudinal zones, the dorsal alar plate (sensory in nature and the ventral basal plate (motor in nature. Johnston and Herrick indicated that both plates can be subdivided into separate somatic and visceral zones, distinguishing somatosensory and viscerosensory zones within the alar plate, and visceromotor and somatomotor zones within the basal plate. To test the validity of this ‘four-functional-zones’ concept, I developed a topological procedure, surveying the spatial relationships of the various cell masses in the brainstem in a single figure. Brainstems of 16 different anamniote species were analyzed, and revealed that the brainstems are clearly divisible into four morphological zones, which correspond largely with the functional zones of Johnston and Herrick. Exceptions include (1 the magnocellular vestibular nucleus situated in the viscerosensory zone; (2 the basal plate containing a number of evidently non-motor centres (superior and inferior olives. Nevertheless the ‘functional zonal model’ has explanatory value. Thus, it is possible to interpret certain brain specializations related to particular behavioural profiles, as ‘local hypertrophies’ of one or two functional columns. Recent developmental molecular studies on brains of birds and mammals confirmed the presence of longitudinal zones, and also showed molecularly defined transverse bands or neuromeres throughout development. The intersecting boundaries of the longitudinal zones and the transverse bands appeared to delimit radially arranged histogenetic domains. Because neuromeres have been observed in embryonic and larval stages of numerous anamniote species, it may be hypothesized that the brainstems of all vertebrates share a basic organizational plan, in which intersecting longitudinal and transverse zones form fundamental histogenetic and genoarchitectonic units.

  16. Tone and call responses of units in the auditory nerve and dorsal medullary nucleus of Xenopus laevis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elliott, Taffeta M.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Kelley, Darcy B.

    2007-01-01

    The clawed frog Xenopus laevis produces vocalizations consisting of distinct patterns of clicks. This study provides the first description of spontaneous, pure-tone and communication-signal evoked discharge properties of auditory nerve (n.VIII) fibers and dorsal medullary nucleus (DMN) cells in an...... those in partially terrestrial anurans. Broad tuning exists across characteristic frequencies (CFs). Threshold minima are -101 dB re 1 mm/s at 675 Hz; -87 dB at 1,600 Hz; and -61 dB at 3,000 Hz (-90, -77, and -44 dB re 1 Pa, respectively), paralleling the peak frequency of vocalizations at 1.2-1.6 k...

  17. Development of the N1-P2 auditory evoked response to amplitude rise time and rate of formant transition of speech sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Allen L; Shahin, Antoine J

    2013-06-01

    We investigated the development of weighting strategies for acoustic cues by examining the morphology of the N1-P2 auditory evoked potential (AEP) to changes in amplitude rise time (ART) and rate of formant transition (RFT) of consonant-vowel (CV) pairs in 4-6-year olds and adults. In the AEP session, individuals listened passively to the CVs /ba/, /wa/, and a /ba/ with a superimposed slower-rising /wa/ envelope (/ba/(wa)). In the behavioral session, individuals listened to the same stimuli and judged whether they heard a /ba/ or /wa/. We hypothesized that a developmental shift in weighting strategies should be reflected in a change in the morphology of the N1-P2 AEP. In 6-year olds and adults, the N1-P2 amplitude at the vertex reflected a change in RFT but not in ART. In contrast, in the 4-5-year olds, the vertex N1-P2 did not show specificity to changes in ART or RFT. In all groups, the N1-P2 amplitude at channel C4 (right hemisphere) reflected a change in ART but not in RFT. Behaviorally, 6-year olds and adults predominately utilized RFT cues (classified /ba/(wa) as /ba/) during phonetic judgments, as opposed to 4-5-year olds which utilized both cues equally. Our findings suggest that both ART and RFT are encoded in the auditory cortex, but an N1-P2 shift toward the vertex following age 4-5 indicates a shift toward an adult-like weighting strategy, such that, to utilize RFT to a greater extent. PMID:23570734

  18. Cross-Modal Functional Reorganization of Visual and Auditory Cortex in Adult Cochlear Implant Users Identified with fNIRS

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    Ling-Chia Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cochlear implant (CI users show higher auditory-evoked activations in visual cortex and higher visual-evoked activation in auditory cortex compared to normal hearing (NH controls, reflecting functional reorganization of both visual and auditory modalities. Visual-evoked activation in auditory cortex is a maladaptive functional reorganization whereas auditory-evoked activation in visual cortex is beneficial for speech recognition in CI users. We investigated their joint influence on CI users’ speech recognition, by testing 20 postlingually deafened CI users and 20 NH controls with functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS. Optodes were placed over occipital and temporal areas to measure visual and auditory responses when presenting visual checkerboard and auditory word stimuli. Higher cross-modal activations were confirmed in both auditory and visual cortex for CI users compared to NH controls, demonstrating that functional reorganization of both auditory and visual cortex can be identified with fNIRS. Additionally, the combined reorganization of auditory and visual cortex was found to be associated with speech recognition performance. Speech performance was good as long as the beneficial auditory-evoked activation in visual cortex was higher than the visual-evoked activation in the auditory cortex. These results indicate the importance of considering cross-modal activations in both visual and auditory cortex for potential clinical outcome estimation.

  19. Natural history and management of brainstem gliomas in adults. A retrospective Italian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmaggi, A; Fariselli, L; Milanesi, I; Lamperti, E; Silvani, A; Bizzi, A; Maccagnano, E; Trevisan, E; Laguzzi, E; Rudà, R; Boiardi, A; Soffietti, R

    2008-02-01

    Brainstem gliomas in adults are rare tumors, with heterogeneous clinical course; only a few studies in the MRI era describe the features in consistent groups of patients. In this retrospective study, we report clinical features at onset, imaging characteristics and subsequent course in a group of 34 adult patients with either histologically proven or clinico-radiologically diagnosed brainstem gliomas followed at two centers in Northern Italy. Of the patients 18 were male, 14 female, with a median age of 31. In 21 of the patients histology was obtained and in 20 it was informative (2 pilocytic astrocytoma, 9 low-grade astrocytoma, 8 anaplastic astrocytoma and 1 glioblastoma). Contrast enhancement at MRI was present in 14 patients. In all of the 9 patients who were investigated with MR spectroscopy, the Cho/NAA ratio was elevated at diagnosis. In 8 of the patients, an initial watch and wait policy was adopted, while 24 were treated shortly after diagnosis with either radiotherapy alone [4] or radiotherapy and chemotherapy [20] (mostly temozolomide). Only minor radiological responses were observed after treatments; in a significant proportion of patients (9 out of 15) clinical improvement during therapy occurred in the context of radiologically (MRI) stable disease. Grade III or IV myelotoxicity was observed in 6 patients. After a follow-up ranging from 9 to 180 months, all but 2 patients have progressed and 14 have died (12 for disease progression, 2 for pulmonary embolism). Median overall survival time was of 59 months. Investigation of putative prognostically relevant parameters showed that a short time between disease onset and diagnosis was related to a shorter survival. Compared with literature data, our study confirms the clinical and radiological heterogeneity of adult brainstem gliomas and underscores the need for multicenter trials in order to assess the efficacy of treatments in these tumors. PMID:18293027

  20. Chronic exposure to hypergravity affects thyrotropin-releasing hormone levels in rat brainstem and cerebellum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daunton, N. G.; Tang, F.; Corcoran, M. L.; Fox, R. A.; Man, S. Y.

    1998-01-01

    In studies to determine the neurochemical mechanisms underlying adaptation to altered gravity we have investigated changes in neuropeptide levels in brainstem, cerebellum, hypothalamus, striatum, hippocampus, and cerebral cortex by radioimmunoassay. Fourteen days of hypergravity (hyperG) exposure resulted in significant increases in thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) content of brainstem and cerebellum, but no changes in levels of other neuropeptides (beta-endorphin, cholecystokinin, met-enkephalin, somatostatin, and substance P) examined in these areas were found, nor were TRH levels significantly changed in any other brain regions investigated. The increase in TRH in brainstem and cerebellum was not seen in animals exposed only to the rotational component of centrifugation, suggesting that this increase was elicited by the alteration in the gravitational environment. The only other neuropeptide affected by chronic hyperG exposure was met-enkephalin, which was significantly decreased in the cerebral cortex. However, this alteration in met-enkephalin was found in both hyperG and rotation control animals and thus may be due to the rotational rather than the hyperG component of centrifugation. Thus it does not appear as if there is a generalized neuropeptide response to chronic hyperG following 2 weeks of exposure. Rather, there is an increase only of TRH and that occurs only in areas of the brain known to be heavily involved with vestibular inputs and motor control (both voluntary and autonomic). These results suggest that TRH may play a role in adaptation to altered gravity as it does in adaptation to altered vestibular input following labyrinthectomy, and in cerebellar and vestibular control of locomotion, as seen in studies of ataxia.