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Sample records for audiovisual content congruency

  1. Voice over: Audio-visual congruency and content recall in the gallery setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairhurst, Merle T; Scott, Minnie; Deroy, Ophelia

    2017-01-01

    Experimental research has shown that pairs of stimuli which are congruent and assumed to 'go together' are recalled more effectively than an item presented in isolation. Will this multisensory memory benefit occur when stimuli are richer and longer, in an ecological setting? In the present study, we focused on an everyday situation of audio-visual learning and manipulated the relationship between audio guide tracks and viewed portraits in the galleries of the Tate Britain. By varying the gender and narrative style of the voice-over, we examined how the perceived congruency and assumed unity of the audio guide track with painted portraits affected subsequent recall. We show that tracks perceived as best matching the viewed portraits led to greater recall of both sensory and linguistic content. We provide the first evidence that manipulating crossmodal congruence and unity assumptions can effectively impact memory in a multisensory ecological setting, even in the absence of precise temporal alignment between sensory cues.

  2. Content congruency and its interplay with temporal synchrony modulate integration between rhythmic audiovisual streams

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    Yi-Huang eSu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Both lower-level stimulus factors (e.g., temporal proximity and higher-level cognitive factors (e.g., content congruency are known to influence multisensory integration. The former can direct attention in a converging manner, and the latter can indicate whether information from the two modalities belongs together. The present research investigated whether and how these two factors interacted in the perception of rhythmic, audiovisual streams derived from a human movement scenario. Congruency here was based on sensorimotor correspondence pertaining to rhythm perception. Participants attended to bimodal stimuli consisting of a humanlike figure moving regularly to a sequence of auditory beat, and detected a possible auditory temporal deviant. The figure moved either downwards (congruently or upwards (incongruently to the downbeat, while in both situations the movement was either synchronous with the beat, or lagging behind it. Greater cross-modal binding was expected to hinder deviant detection. Results revealed poorer detection for congruent than for incongruent streams, suggesting stronger integration in the former. False alarms increased in asynchronous stimuli only for congruent streams, indicating greater tendency for deviant report due to visual capture of asynchronous auditory events. In addition, a greater increase in perceived synchrony was associated with a greater reduction in false alarms for congruent streams, while the pattern was reversed for incongruent ones. These results demonstrate that content congruency as a top-down factor not only promotes integration, but also modulates bottom-up effects of synchrony. Results are also discussed regarding how theories of integration and attentional entrainment may be combined in the context of rhythmic multisensory stimuli.

  3. Voice over: Audio-visual congruency and content recall in the gallery setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairhurst, Merle T.; Scott, Minnie; Deroy, Ophelia

    2017-01-01

    Experimental research has shown that pairs of stimuli which are congruent and assumed to ‘go together’ are recalled more effectively than an item presented in isolation. Will this multisensory memory benefit occur when stimuli are richer and longer, in an ecological setting? In the present study, we focused on an everyday situation of audio-visual learning and manipulated the relationship between audio guide tracks and viewed portraits in the galleries of the Tate Britain. By varying the gender and narrative style of the voice-over, we examined how the perceived congruency and assumed unity of the audio guide track with painted portraits affected subsequent recall. We show that tracks perceived as best matching the viewed portraits led to greater recall of both sensory and linguistic content. We provide the first evidence that manipulating crossmodal congruence and unity assumptions can effectively impact memory in a multisensory ecological setting, even in the absence of precise temporal alignment between sensory cues. PMID:28636667

  4. fMR-adaptation indicates selectivity to audiovisual content congruency in distributed clusters in human superior temporal cortex

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    Blomert Leo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efficient multisensory integration is of vital importance for adequate interaction with the environment. In addition to basic binding cues like temporal and spatial coherence, meaningful multisensory information is also bound together by content-based associations. Many functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI studies propose the (posterior superior temporal cortex (STC as the key structure for integrating meaningful multisensory information. However, a still unanswered question is how superior temporal cortex encodes content-based associations, especially in light of inconsistent results from studies comparing brain activation to semantically matching (congruent versus nonmatching (incongruent multisensory inputs. Here, we used fMR-adaptation (fMR-A in order to circumvent potential problems with standard fMRI approaches, including spatial averaging and amplitude saturation confounds. We presented repetitions of audiovisual stimuli (letter-speech sound pairs and manipulated the associative relation between the auditory and visual inputs (congruent/incongruent pairs. We predicted that if multisensory neuronal populations exist in STC and encode audiovisual content relatedness, adaptation should be affected by the manipulated audiovisual relation. Results The results revealed an occipital-temporal network that adapted independently of the audiovisual relation. Interestingly, several smaller clusters distributed over superior temporal cortex within that network, adapted stronger to congruent than to incongruent audiovisual repetitions, indicating sensitivity to content congruency. Conclusions These results suggest that the revealed clusters contain multisensory neuronal populations that encode content relatedness by selectively responding to congruent audiovisual inputs, since unisensory neuronal populations are assumed to be insensitive to the audiovisual relation. These findings extend our previously revealed mechanism for

  5. Voice over: Audio-visual congruency and content recall in the gallery setting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Merle T Fairhurst; Minnie Scott; Ophelia Deroy

    2017-01-01

    ...? In the present study, we focused on an everyday situation of audio-visual learning and manipulated the relationship between audio guide tracks and viewed portraits in the galleries of the Tate Britain...

  6. Musical expertise induces audiovisual integration of abstract congruency rules.

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    Paraskevopoulos, Evangelos; Kuchenbuch, Anja; Herholz, Sibylle C; Pantev, Christo

    2012-12-12

    Perception of everyday life events relies mostly on multisensory integration. Hence, studying the neural correlates of the integration of multiple senses constitutes an important tool in understanding perception within an ecologically valid framework. The present study used magnetoencephalography in human subjects to identify the neural correlates of an audiovisual incongruency response, which is not generated due to incongruency of the unisensory physical characteristics of the stimulation but from the violation of an abstract congruency rule. The chosen rule-"the higher the pitch of the tone, the higher the position of the circle"-was comparable to musical reading. In parallel, plasticity effects due to long-term musical training on this response were investigated by comparing musicians to non-musicians. The applied paradigm was based on an appropriate modification of the multifeatured oddball paradigm incorporating, within one run, deviants based on a multisensory audiovisual incongruent condition and two unisensory mismatch conditions: an auditory and a visual one. Results indicated the presence of an audiovisual incongruency response, generated mainly in frontal regions, an auditory mismatch negativity, and a visual mismatch response. Moreover, results revealed that long-term musical training generates plastic changes in frontal, temporal, and occipital areas that affect this multisensory incongruency response as well as the unisensory auditory and visual mismatch responses.

  7. Infants' preference for native audiovisual speech dissociated from congruency preference.

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    Kathleen Shaw

    Full Text Available Although infant speech perception in often studied in isolated modalities, infants' experience with speech is largely multimodal (i.e., speech sounds they hear are accompanied by articulating faces. Across two experiments, we tested infants' sensitivity to the relationship between the auditory and visual components of audiovisual speech in their native (English and non-native (Spanish language. In Experiment 1, infants' looking times were measured during a preferential looking task in which they saw two simultaneous visual speech streams articulating a story, one in English and the other in Spanish, while they heard either the English or the Spanish version of the story. In Experiment 2, looking times from another group of infants were measured as they watched single displays of congruent and incongruent combinations of English and Spanish audio and visual speech streams. Findings demonstrated an age-related increase in looking towards the native relative to non-native visual speech stream when accompanied by the corresponding (native auditory speech. This increase in native language preference did not appear to be driven by a difference in preference for native vs. non-native audiovisual congruence as we observed no difference in looking times at the audiovisual streams in Experiment 2.

  8. Musical expertise induces audiovisual integration of abstract congruency rules

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paraskevopoulos, Evangelos; Kuchenbuch, Anja; Herholz, Sibylle C; Pantev, Christo

    2012-01-01

    .... The present study used magnetoencephalography in human subjects to identify the neural correlates of an audiovisual incongruency response, which is not generated due to incongruency of the unisensory...

  9. Congruence of happy and sad emotion in music and faces modifies cortical audiovisual activation.

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    Jeong, Jeong-Won; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A; Chugani, Carla D; Sinsoongsud, Piti; Muzik, Otto; Behen, Michael E; Chugani, Harry T; Chugani, Diane C

    2011-02-14

    The powerful emotion inducing properties of music are well-known, yet music may convey differing emotional responses depending on environmental factors. We hypothesized that neural mechanisms involved in listening to music may differ when presented together with visual stimuli that conveyed the same emotion as the music when compared to visual stimuli with incongruent emotional content. We designed this study to determine the effect of auditory (happy and sad instrumental music) and visual stimuli (happy and sad faces) congruent or incongruent for emotional content on audiovisual processing using fMRI blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal contrast. The experiment was conducted in the context of a conventional block-design experiment. A block consisted of three emotional ON periods, music alone (happy or sad music), face alone (happy or sad faces), and music combined with faces where the music excerpt was played while presenting either congruent emotional faces or incongruent emotional faces. We found activity in the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and fusiform gyrus (FG) to be differentially modulated by music and faces depending on the congruence of emotional content. There was a greater BOLD response in STG when the emotion signaled by the music and faces was congruent. Furthermore, the magnitude of these changes differed for happy congruence and sad congruence, i.e., the activation of STG when happy music was presented with happy faces was greater than the activation seen when sad music was presented with sad faces. In contrast, incongruent stimuli diminished the BOLD response in STG and elicited greater signal change in bilateral FG. Behavioral testing supplemented these findings by showing that subject ratings of emotion in faces were influenced by emotion in music. When presented with happy music, happy faces were rated as more happy (p=0.051) and sad faces were rated as less sad (p=0.030). When presented with sad music, happy faces were rated as less

  10. Semantic congruency but not temporal synchrony enhances long-term memory performance for audio-visual scenes.

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    Meyerhoff, Hauke S; Huff, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Human long-term memory for visual objects and scenes is tremendous. Here, we test how auditory information contributes to long-term memory performance for realistic scenes. In a total of six experiments, we manipulated the presentation modality (auditory, visual, audio-visual) as well as semantic congruency and temporal synchrony between auditory and visual information of brief filmic clips. Our results show that audio-visual clips generally elicit more accurate memory performance than unimodal clips. This advantage even increases with congruent visual and auditory information. However, violations of audio-visual synchrony hardly have any influence on memory performance. Memory performance remained intact even with a sequential presentation of auditory and visual information, but finally declined when the matching tracks of one scene were presented separately with intervening tracks during learning. With respect to memory performance, our results therefore show that audio-visual integration is sensitive to semantic congruency but remarkably robust against asymmetries between different modalities.

  11. School-aged children can benefit from audiovisual semantic congruency during memory encoding.

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    Heikkilä, Jenni; Tiippana, Kaisa

    2016-05-01

    Although we live in a multisensory world, children's memory has been usually studied concentrating on only one sensory modality at a time. In this study, we investigated how audiovisual encoding affects recognition memory. Children (n = 114) from three age groups (8, 10 and 12 years) memorized auditory or visual stimuli presented with a semantically congruent, incongruent or non-semantic stimulus in the other modality during encoding. Subsequent recognition memory performance was better for auditory or visual stimuli initially presented together with a semantically congruent stimulus in the other modality than for stimuli accompanied by a non-semantic stimulus in the other modality. This congruency effect was observed for pictures presented with sounds, for sounds presented with pictures, for spoken words presented with pictures and for written words presented with spoken words. The present results show that semantically congruent multisensory experiences during encoding can improve memory performance in school-aged children.

  12. Audiovisual Modulation in Mouse Primary Visual Cortex Depends on Cross-Modal Stimulus Configuration and Congruency.

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    Meijer, Guido T; Montijn, Jorrit S; Pennartz, Cyriel M A; Lansink, Carien S

    2017-09-06

    The sensory neocortex is a highly connected associative network that integrates information from multiple senses, even at the level of the primary sensory areas. Although a growing body of empirical evidence supports this view, the neural mechanisms of cross-modal integration in primary sensory areas, such as the primary visual cortex (V1), are still largely unknown. Using two-photon calcium imaging in awake mice, we show that the encoding of audiovisual stimuli in V1 neuronal populations is highly dependent on the features of the stimulus constituents. When the visual and auditory stimulus features were modulated at the same rate (i.e., temporally congruent), neurons responded with either an enhancement or suppression compared with unisensory visual stimuli, and their prevalence was balanced. Temporally incongruent tones or white-noise bursts included in audiovisual stimulus pairs resulted in predominant response suppression across the neuronal population. Visual contrast did not influence multisensory processing when the audiovisual stimulus pairs were congruent; however, when white-noise bursts were used, neurons generally showed response suppression when the visual stimulus contrast was high whereas this effect was absent when the visual contrast was low. Furthermore, a small fraction of V1 neurons, predominantly those located near the lateral border of V1, responded to sound alone. These results show that V1 is involved in the encoding of cross-modal interactions in a more versatile way than previously thought.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The neural substrate of cross-modal integration is not limited to specialized cortical association areas but extends to primary sensory areas. Using two-photon imaging of large groups of neurons, we show that multisensory modulation of V1 populations is strongly determined by the individual and shared features of cross-modal stimulus constituents, such as contrast, frequency, congruency, and temporal structure. Congruent

  13. Assessing the effects of audiovisual semantic congruency on the perception of a bistable figure.

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    Hsiao, Jhih-Yun; Chen, Yi-Chuan; Spence, Charles; Yeh, Su-Ling

    2012-06-01

    Bistable figures provide a fascinating window through which to explore human visual awareness. Here we demonstrate for the first time that the semantic context provided by a background auditory soundtrack (the voice of a young or old female) can modulate an observer's predominant percept while watching the bistable "my wife or my mother-in-law" figure (Experiment 1). The possibility of a response-bias account-that participants simply reported the percept that happened to be congruent with the soundtrack that they were listening to-was excluded in Experiment 2. We further demonstrate that this crossmodal semantic effect was additive with the manipulation of participants' visual fixation (Experiment 3), while it interacted with participants' voluntary attention (Experiment 4). These results indicate that audiovisual semantic congruency constrains the visual processing that gives rise to the conscious perception of bistable visual figures. Crossmodal semantic context therefore provides an important mechanism contributing to the emergence of visual awareness. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Syllable Congruency of Audio-Visual Speech Stimuli Facilitates the Spatial Ventriloquism Only with Bilateral Visual Presentations

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    Shoko Kanaya

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Spatial ventriloquism refers to a shift of perceptual location of a sound toward a synchronized visual stimulus. It has been assumed to reflect early processes uninfluenced by cognitive factors such as syllable congruency between audio-visual speech stimuli. Conventional experiments have examined compelling situations which typically entail pairs of single audio and visual stimuli to be bound. However, for natural environments our multisensory system is designed to select relevant sensory signals to be bound among adjacent stimuli. This selection process may depend upon higher (cognitive mechanisms. We investigated whether a cognitive factor affects the size of the ventriloquism when an additional visual stimulus is presented with a conventional audio-visual pair. Participants were presented with a set of audio-visual speech stimuli, comprising one or two bilateral movies of a person uttering single syllables together with recordings of this person speaking the same syllables. One of movies and the speech sound were combined in either congruent or incongruent ways. Participants had to identify sound locations. Results show that syllable congruency affected the size of the ventriloquism only when two movies were presented simultaneously. The selection of a relevant stimulus pair among two or more candidates can be regulated by some higher processes.

  15. Content-based analysis improves audiovisual archive retrieval

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    Huurnink, B.; Snoek, C.G.M.; de Rijke, M.; Smeulders, A.W.M.

    2012-01-01

    Content-based video retrieval is maturing to the point where it can be used in real-world retrieval practices. One such practice is the audiovisual archive, whose users increasingly require fine-grained access to broadcast television content. In this paper, we take into account the information needs

  16. Semantic Congruency in Audiovisual Integration as Revealed by the Continuous Flash Suppression Paradigm

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    Yung-Hao Yang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite several demonstrations of crossmodal semantic-congruency effect, it remains controversial as to whether it is a genuine perceptual phenomenon or instead it actually results from post-perceptual response bias such as decision or strategies (de Gelder and Bertelson, 2003. Here we combine the invisible stimuli with sounds to exclude the participants' awareness of the relation between visual and auditory stimuli. We render the visual events invisible by adopting the continuous flash suppression paradigm (Tsuchiya and Koch, 2005 in which the dynamic high-contrast visual patches were presented in one eye to suppress the target that was presented in the other eye. The semantic congruency between visual and auditory stimuli was manipulated and participants had to detect any parts of visual target. The results showed that the time needed to detect the visual target (ie, the release from suppression was faster when it was accompanied by a semantically congruent sound than with an incongruent one. This study therefore demonstrates genuine multisensory integration at the semantic level. Furthermore, it also extends from previous studies with neglect blindsight patients (eg, de Gelder, Pourtois, and Weiskrantz, 2002 to normal participants based on their unawareness of the relation between visual and auditory information.

  17. Development of an Estimation Model for Instantaneous Presence in Audio-Visual Content

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    OZAWA, Kenji; TSUKAHARA, Shota; KINOSHITA, Yuichiro; MORISE, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    ...: system presence and content presence. In this study we focused on content presence. To estimate the overall presence of a content item, we have developed estimation models for the sense of presence in audio-only and audio-visual content...

  18. Audio-visual temporal recalibration can be constrained by content cues regardless of spatial overlap

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    Warrick eRoseboom

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available It has now been well established that the point of subjective synchrony for audio and visual events can be shifted following exposure to asynchronous audio-visual presentations, an effect often referred to as temporal recalibration. Recently it was further demonstrated that it is possible to concurrently maintain two such recalibrated, and opposing, estimates of audio-visual temporal synchrony. However, it remains unclear precisely what defines a given audio-visual pair such that it is possible to maintain a temporal relationship distinct from other pairs. It has been suggested that spatial separation of the different audio-visual pairs is necessary to achieve multiple distinct audio-visual synchrony estimates. Here we investigated if this was necessarily true. Specifically, we examined whether it is possible to obtain two distinct temporal recalibrations for stimuli that differed only in featural content. Using both complex (audio visual speech; Experiment 1 and simple stimuli (high and low pitch audio matched with either vertically or horizontally oriented Gabors; Experiment 2 we found concurrent, and opposite, recalibrations despite there being no spatial difference in presentation location at any point throughout the experiment. This result supports the notion that the content of an audio-visual pair can be used to constrain distinct audio-visual synchrony estimates regardless of spatial overlap.

  19. Audio-Visual Temporal Recalibration Can be Constrained by Content Cues Regardless of Spatial Overlap.

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    Roseboom, Warrick; Kawabe, Takahiro; Nishida, Shin'ya

    2013-01-01

    It has now been well established that the point of subjective synchrony for audio and visual events can be shifted following exposure to asynchronous audio-visual presentations, an effect often referred to as temporal recalibration. Recently it was further demonstrated that it is possible to concurrently maintain two such recalibrated estimates of audio-visual temporal synchrony. However, it remains unclear precisely what defines a given audio-visual pair such that it is possible to maintain a temporal relationship distinct from other pairs. It has been suggested that spatial separation of the different audio-visual pairs is necessary to achieve multiple distinct audio-visual synchrony estimates. Here we investigated if this is necessarily true. Specifically, we examined whether it is possible to obtain two distinct temporal recalibrations for stimuli that differed only in featural content. Using both complex (audio visual speech; see Experiment 1) and simple stimuli (high and low pitch audio matched with either vertically or horizontally oriented Gabors; see Experiment 2) we found concurrent, and opposite, recalibrations despite there being no spatial difference in presentation location at any point throughout the experiment. This result supports the notion that the content of an audio-visual pair alone can be used to constrain distinct audio-visual synchrony estimates regardless of spatial overlap.

  20. Multidimensional Attributes of the Sense of Presence in Audio-Visual Content

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    Kazutomo Fukue

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The sense of presence is crucial for evaluating audio-visual equipment and content. To clarify the multidimensional attributes of the sense, we conducted three experiments on audio, visual, and audio-visual content items. Initially 345 adjectives, which express the sense of presence, were collected and the number of adjectives was reduced to 40 pairs based on the KJ method. Forty scenes were recorded with a high-definition video camera while their sounds were recorded using a dummy head. Each content item was reproduced with a 65-inch display and headphones in three conditions of audio-only, visual-only and audio-visual. Twenty-one subjects evaluated them using the 40 pairs of adjectives by the Semantic Differential method with seven-point scales. The sense of presence in each content item was also evaluated using a Likert scale. The experimental data was analyzed by the factor analysis and four, five and five factors were extracted for audio, visual, and audio-visual conditions, respectively. The multiple regression analysis revealed that audio and audio-visual presences were explained by the extracted factors, although further consideration is required for the visual presence. These results indicated that the factors of psychological loading and activity are relevant for the sense of presence.

  1. Technical Considerations in the Delivery of Audio-Visual Course Content.

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    Lightfoot, Jay M.

    2002-01-01

    In an attempt to provide students with the benefit of the latest technology, some instructors include multimedia content on their class Web sites. This article introduces the basic terms and concepts needed to understand the multimedia domain. Provides a brief tutorial designed to help instructors create good, consistent audio-visual content. (AEF)

  2. The Intergenerational Congruence of Mothers' and Preschoolers' Narrative Affective Content and Narrative Coherence

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    Sher-Censor, Efrat; Grey, Izabela; Yates, Tuppett M.

    2013-01-01

    Intergenerational congruence of mothers' and preschoolers' narratives about the mother-child relationship was examined in a sample of 198 Hispanic (59.1%), Black (19.2%), and White (21.7%) mothers and their preschool child. Mothers' narratives were obtained with the Five Minute Speech Sample and were coded for negative and positive affective…

  3. A Comparison of Physiological Signal Analysis Techniques and Classifiers for Automatic Emotional Evaluation of Audiovisual Contents

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    Adrián Colomer Granero

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on finding the most discriminatory or representative features that allow to classify commercials according to negative, neutral and positive effectiveness based on the Ace Score index. For this purpose, an experiment involving forty-seven participants was carried out. In this experiment electroencephalography (EEG, electrocardiography (ECG, Galvanic Skin Response (GSR and respiration data were acquired while subjects were watching a thirty-minutes audiovisual content. This content was composed by a submarine documentary and nine commercials (one of them the ad under evaluation. After the signal pre-processing, four sets of features were extracted from the physiological signals using different state-of-the-art metrics. These features computed in time and frequency domains are the inputs to several basic and advanced classifiers. An average of 89.76% of the instances was correctly classified according to the Ace Score index. The best results were obtained by a classifier consisting of a combination between AdaBoost and Random Forest with automatic selection of features. The selected features were those extracted from GSR and HRV signals. These results are promising in the audiovisual content evaluation field by means of physiological signal processing.

  4. A Comparison of Physiological Signal Analysis Techniques and Classifiers for Automatic Emotional Evaluation of Audiovisual Contents.

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    Colomer Granero, Adrián; Fuentes-Hurtado, Félix; Naranjo Ornedo, Valery; Guixeres Provinciale, Jaime; Ausín, Jose M; Alcañiz Raya, Mariano

    2016-01-01

    This work focuses on finding the most discriminatory or representative features that allow to classify commercials according to negative, neutral and positive effectiveness based on the Ace Score index. For this purpose, an experiment involving forty-seven participants was carried out. In this experiment electroencephalography (EEG), electrocardiography (ECG), Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) and respiration data were acquired while subjects were watching a 30-min audiovisual content. This content was composed by a submarine documentary and nine commercials (one of them the ad under evaluation). After the signal pre-processing, four sets of features were extracted from the physiological signals using different state-of-the-art metrics. These features computed in time and frequency domains are the inputs to several basic and advanced classifiers. An average of 89.76% of the instances was correctly classified according to the Ace Score index. The best results were obtained by a classifier consisting of a combination between AdaBoost and Random Forest with automatic selection of features. The selected features were those extracted from GSR and HRV signals. These results are promising in the audiovisual content evaluation field by means of physiological signal processing.

  5. Multimedia content production inside the classroom. A teaching proposal for journalism and audiovisual communication students

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    Eva Herrero Curiel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this article is to present and describe two multimedia experiences carried out during two practice groups in the Journalism and Audiovisual Communications program. Thirty students participated in Experience A during 14 teaching sessions, and the experience required each student to record a 3-minute interview of someone newsworthy within academia and, then, create a short documentary piece of up to 5 minutes. Experience B focused on content curation using Storify, and the ultimate goal of the practice exercise was to produce a story from different multimedia contents found within the platform. A SWOT analysis after integrating both experiences revealed that, although students were willing and motivated to use new technologies and produce audiovisual content, they also showed low motivation to work in groups, scant prior knowledge of the medium, and a lack of adaptation to complex situations. As such, the researchers conclude this type of experience can be valuable as the convergence of content and skills in audiovisual and journalistic settings responds to the courses’ demands and facilitates their adaptation to the EHEA requirements. Producción de contenido multimedia en el aula. Una propuesta docente para alumnos de periodismo y comunicación audiovisual Resumen El principal objetivo de este estudio de caso es presentar y describir dos experiencias multimedia llevadas a cabo en dos grupos prácticos de los grados de periodismo y comunicación audiovisual. En la Experiencia A participaron 30 estudiantes durante 14 sesiones docentes, y consistió en la grabación de una entrevista de 3 minutos a un personaje noticioso en el ámbito académico y, después, debían construir en grupo una pequeña pieza documental de, como máximo, 5 minutos de duración. La Experiencia B se centró en curación de contenidos utilizando Storify, en la que los alumnos construyeron una noticia a partir de diferentes contenidos multimedia

  6. NETVION. The released of a platform for audiovisual content in the cloud

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    Álvaro Sánchez Olivares

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The next project tries to test those elements that participate in the early phase of the launch of an audiovisual platform in Spain based on cloud computing, in order to confirm that a business opportunity exists in this area. To that purpose, it has been established a theoretical approach to this technology, and also to the perceived trends in the audiovisual contents distribution. To create an own business model, a study of the existing competition has been carried out, focusing in the analysis of companies as Nubeox, Wuaki, Filmin and Yomvi; in this way, relevant gaps have been detected to design a proper offer, and start with the virtualization and social media strategy. The main conclusions have been: lack of flexibility in establishing a business model because of the dominance of the majors, prevalence in offer areas based on single category (video and establish an own model based on differentiation that includes variety of multimedia contents, maximum compatibility, including the cloud gaming category and a combination of financing forms.

  7. Audiovisual infotainment in European news: a comparative content analysis of Dutch, Spanish and Irish television news programs

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    Alencar, A.; Kruikemeier, S.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates to what extent audiovisual infotainment features can be found in the narrative structure of television news in three European countries news. Content analysis included a sample of 639 news reports (or reporter packages) aired in the first three weeks of September 2013, in six

  8. Second language learning and acculturation: The role of motivation and goal content congruence

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    Sara Rubenfeld

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study explored how having differing goals and motives for learning a second language influences adaptation in the foreign culture. Specifically, we compared English as a second language (ESL students in two programs, which differed in their long-term goal orientations. Some students were taking ESL courses in order to attend university in their second language, whereas other ESL students took courses that were not followed by an immediate reward. Students in both programs completed measures of acculturation as well as measures of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation for learning English. We found that adaptation to the foreign culture, in the form of acculturation, is best facilitated by congruence between students’ motives and goals. The findings are discussed in terms of their methodological and pedagogical implications

  9. Impairment-Factor-Based Audiovisual Quality Model for IPTV: Influence of Video Resolution, Degradation Type, and Content Type

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    Garcia MN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an audiovisual quality model for IPTV services. The model estimates the audiovisual quality of standard and high definition video as perceived by the user. The model is developed for applications such as network planning and packet-layer quality monitoring. It mainly covers audio and video compression artifacts and impairments due to packet loss. The quality tests conducted for model development demonstrate a mutual influence of the perceived audio and video quality, and the predominance of the video quality for the overall audiovisual quality. The balance between audio quality and video quality, however, depends on the content, the video format, and the audio degradation type. The proposed model is based on impairment factors which quantify the quality-impact of the different degradations. The impairment factors are computed from parameters extracted from the bitstream or packet headers. For high definition video, the model predictions show a correlation with unknown subjective ratings of 95%. For comparison, we have developed a more classical audiovisual quality model which is based on the audio and video qualities and their interaction. Both quality- and impairment-factor-based models are further refined by taking the content-type into account. At last, the different model variants are compared with modeling approaches described in the literature.

  10. Live Broadcasting of High Definition Audiovisual Content Using HDTV over Broadband IP Networks

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    C. E. Vegiris

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The current paper focuses on validating an implementation of a state-of-the art audiovisual (AV technologies setup for live broadcasting of cultural shows, via broadband Internet. The main objective of the work was to study, configure, and setup dedicated audio-video equipment for the processes of capturing, processing, and transmission of extended resolution and high fidelity AV content in order to increase realism and achieve maximum audience sensation. Internet2 and GEANT broadband telecommunication networks were selected as the most applicable technology to deliver such traffic workloads. Validation procedures were conducted in combination with metric-based quality of service (QoS and quality of experience (QoE evaluation experiments for the quantification and the perceptual interpretation of the quality achieved during content reproduction. The implemented system was successfully applied in real-world applications, such as the transmission of cultural events from Thessaloniki Concert Hall throughout Greece as well as the reproduction of Philadelphia Orchestra performances (USA via Internet2 and GEANT backbones.

  11. Future-saving audiovisual content for Data Science: Preservation of geoinformatics video heritage with the TIB|AV-Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwe, Peter; Plank, Margret; Ziedorn, Frauke

    2015-04-01

    In data driven research, the access to citation and preservation of the full triad consisting of journal article, research data and -software has started to become good scientific practice. To foster the adoption of this practice the significance of software tools has to be acknowledged, which enable scientists to harness auxiliary audiovisual content in their research work. The advent of ubiquitous computer-based audiovisual recording and corresponding Web 2.0 hosting platforms like Youtube, Slideshare and GitHub has created new ecosystems for contextual information related to scientific software and data, which continues to grow both in size and variety of content. The current Web 2.0 platforms lack capabilities for long term archiving and scientific citation, such as persistent identifiers allowing to reference specific intervals of the overall content. The audiovisual content currently shared by scientists ranges from commented howto-demonstrations on software handling, installation and data-processing, to aggregated visual analytics of the evolution of software projects over time. Such content are crucial additions to the scientific message, as they ensure that software-based data-processing workflows can be assessed, understood and reused in the future. In the context of data driven research, such content needs to be accessible by effective search capabilities, enabling the content to be retrieved and ensuring that the content producers receive credit for their efforts within the scientific community. Improved multimedia archiving and retrieval services for scientific audiovisual content which meet these requirements are currently implemented by the scientific library community. This paper exemplifies the existing challenges, requirements, benefits and the potential of the preservation, accessibility and citability of such audiovisual content for the Open Source communities based on the new audiovisual web service TIB|AV Portal of the German National Library

  12. Sexually Explicit Internet Material and Adolescents' Sexual Uncertainty: The Role of Disposition-Content Congruency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oosten, J.M.F.

    Previous research has suggested that adolescents’ exposure to sexually explicit internet material (SEIM) may result in sexual uncertainty because the content of SEIM may conflict with what adolescents have learned about sex. However, research on which type of adolescent is most susceptible to the

  13. Sexually Explicit Internet Material and Adolescents' Sexual Uncertainty: The Role of Disposition-Content Congruency

    OpenAIRE

    van Oosten, J.M.F.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that adolescents? exposure to sexually explicit internet material (SEIM) may result in sexual uncertainty because the content of SEIM may conflict with what adolescents have learned about sex. However, research on which type of adolescent is most susceptible to the relation between SEIM use and sexual uncertainty is lacking. This study therefore investigated whether the relationship between SEIM use and sexual uncertainty depends on within-gender differences in...

  14. Electrophysiological correlates of predictive coding of auditory location in the perception of natural audiovisual events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen eStekelenburg

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In many natural audiovisual events (e.g., a clap of the two hands, the visual signal precedes the sound and thus allows observers to predict when, where, and which sound will occur. Previous studies have already reported that there are distinct neural correlates of temporal (when versus phonetic/semantic (which content on audiovisual integration. Here we examined the effect of visual prediction of auditory location (where in audiovisual biological motion stimuli by varying the spatial congruency between the auditory and visual part of the audiovisual stimulus. Visual stimuli were presented centrally, whereas auditory stimuli were presented either centrally or at 90° azimuth. Typical subadditive amplitude reductions (AV – V < A were found for the auditory N1 and P2 for spatially congruent and incongruent conditions. The new finding is that the N1 suppression was larger for spatially congruent stimuli. A very early audiovisual interaction was also found at 30-50 ms in the spatially congruent condition, while no effect of congruency was found on the suppression of the P2. This indicates that visual prediction of auditory location can be coded very early in auditory processing.

  15. Sexually Explicit Internet Material and Adolescents' Sexual Uncertainty: The Role of Disposition-Content Congruency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oosten, Johanna M F

    2016-05-01

    Previous research has suggested that adolescents' exposure to sexually explicit internet material (SEIM) may result in sexual uncertainty because the content of SEIM may conflict with what adolescents have learned about sex. However, research on which type of adolescent is most susceptible to the relation between SEIM use and sexual uncertainty is lacking. This study therefore investigated whether the relationship between SEIM use and sexual uncertainty depends on within-gender differences in sexual dispositions (i.e., impersonal sex orientation and hypergendered orientation). Using data from a representative two-wave panel survey among 1765 Dutch adolescents (aged 13-17), I found that SEIM use predicted sexual uncertainty only among girls with a low hypergendered orientation and girls with a relatively high impersonal sex orientation.

  16. Analysis of Children Consumption of TV, Videogames and the Internet: Differences Based on Gender in their Selection of Audiovisual Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz FEIJOO FERNÁNDEZ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Under a strategy to attract diverse audiences, the audiovisual industry has been fragmenting its content based on several criteria, including the gender. In this sense, this research aims to verify if these distinctions are reflected in the children´s content selection in relation with different screens (TV, videogames and the internet. To cope with this research, we selected a quantitative analysis using the technique of the questionnaire that was distributed among students of 6th year primary school, who are between 11 and 12 years to finally access to a sample of 2200 individuals from 77 public and private Galician schools. Thanks to this data, we could corroborate that children choose completely different content according to their gender, excepting internet, media in which their preferences tend to converge.

  17. A System for the Semantic Multimodal Analysis of News Audio-Visual Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Strintzis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available News-related content is nowadays among the most popular types of content for users in everyday applications. Although the generation and distribution of news content has become commonplace, due to the availability of inexpensive media capturing devices and the development of media sharing services targeting both professional and user-generated news content, the automatic analysis and annotation that is required for supporting intelligent search and delivery of this content remains an open issue. In this paper, a complete architecture for knowledge-assisted multimodal analysis of news-related multimedia content is presented, along with its constituent components. The proposed analysis architecture employs state-of-the-art methods for the analysis of each individual modality (visual, audio, text separately and proposes a novel fusion technique based on the particular characteristics of news-related content for the combination of the individual modality analysis results. Experimental results on news broadcast video illustrate the usefulness of the proposed techniques in the automatic generation of semantic annotations.

  18. Knowledge-assisted cross-media analysis of audio-visual content in the news domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mezaris, Vasileios; Gidaros, Spyros; Papadopoulos, Georgios Th.; Kasper, Walter; Ordelman, Roeland J.F.; de Jong, Franciska M.G.; Kompatsiaris, Ioannis

    In this paper, a complete architecture for knowledge-assisted cross-media analysis of News-related multimedia content is presented, along with its constituent components. The proposed analysis architecture employs state-of-the-art methods for the analysis of each individual modality (visual, audio,

  19. Exploiting User Comments for Audio-Visual Content Indexing and Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Eickhoff (Carsten); W. Li; A.P. de Vries (Arjen); P. Serdyukov; P. Braslavski; S.O. Kuznetsov (Sergei); J. Kamps; S.M. Ruger; E. Agichtein; I. Segalovich; E. Yilmaz (Emine)

    2013-01-01

    htmlabstractState-of-the-art content sharing platforms often require users to assign tags to pieces of media in order to make them easily retrievable. Since this task is sometimes perceived as tedious or boring, annotations can be sparse. Commenting on the other hand is a frequently used means of

  20. A Kinect-Based Framework For Better User Experience in Real-Time Audiovisual Content Manipulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Potetsianakis, Emmanouil; Ksylakis, Emmanouil; Triantafyllidis, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    Applications for real-time multimedia content production, because of their delay-sensitive nature, require fast and precise control by the user. This is commonly achieved by specialized physical controllers that are application-specific with steep learning curves. In our work, we propose using the...

  1. Beyond metadata: searching your archive based on its audio-visual content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tommasi, T.; Aly, Robin; McGuinness, K.; Chatfield, K.; Arandjelovic, R.; Parkhi, O.; Ordelman, Roeland J.F.; Zisserman, A.; Tuytelaars, T.

    The EU FP7 project AXES aims at better understanding the needs of archive users and supporting them with systems that reach beyond the state-of-the-art. Our system allows users to instantaneously retrieve content using metadata, spoken words, or a vocabulary of reliably detected visual concepts

  2. The Sense of Verisimilitude Has Different Spatial-Temporal Characteristics from Those Producing the Sense of Presence in the Evaluation Process of Audiovisual Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Kanda

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Realization of high-definition multimodal displays is keenly required for the advancement of information and communications technologies. As an index of high-definition display systems, the sense of presence has been widely investigated. Both theoretically and empirically such sense has been found to relate more dominantly to background components contained in a scene. In contrast, the appreciative role of foreground components in multimodal contents has not been investigated in detail. Therefore, we have been focusing on the sense of verisimilitude as another index. We recently studied how the sense of verisimilitude and the sense of presence were affected by temporal asynchrony between foreground audio-visual components of a Japanese garden and suggested that the sense of verisimilitude has significantly different characteristics from the sense of presence. To investigate whether this result would be valid more generally, we conducted an experiment using other audio-visual content, namely, a clip of western orchestral music. Results showed the sense of verisimilitude is more sensitive to audiovisual synchronicity than to display size, while the sense of presence is more sensitive to spatial size than the temporal property. Hence, the sense of verisimilitude can be another useful index, distinguishable from the sense of presence.

  3. Selected Mental Health Audiovisuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    Presented are approximately 2,300 abstracts on audio-visual Materials--films, filmstrips, audiotapes, and videotapes--related to mental health. Each citation includes material title; name, address, and phone number of film distributor; rental and purchase prices; technical information; and a description of the contents. Abstracts are listed in…

  4. Audiovisual integration facilitates unconscious visual scene processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jye-Sheng; Yeh, Su-Ling

    2015-10-01

    Meanings of masked complex scenes can be extracted without awareness; however, it remains unknown whether audiovisual integration occurs with an invisible complex visual scene. The authors examine whether a scenery soundtrack can facilitate unconscious processing of a subliminal visual scene. The continuous flash suppression paradigm was used to render a complex scene picture invisible, and the picture was paired with a semantically congruent or incongruent scenery soundtrack. Participants were asked to respond as quickly as possible if they detected any part of the scene. Release-from-suppression time was used as an index of unconscious processing of the complex scene, which was shorter in the audiovisual congruent condition than in the incongruent condition (Experiment 1). The possibility that participants adopted different detection criteria for the 2 conditions was excluded (Experiment 2). The audiovisual congruency effect did not occur for objects-only (Experiment 3) and background-only (Experiment 4) pictures, and it did not result from consciously mediated conceptual priming (Experiment 5). The congruency effect was replicated when catch trials without scene pictures were added to exclude participants with high false-alarm rates (Experiment 6). This is the first study demonstrating unconscious audiovisual integration with subliminal scene pictures, and it suggests expansions of scene-perception theories to include unconscious audiovisual integration. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Congruence amalgamation of lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Grätzer, G; Wehrung, F; Gr\\"{a}tzer, George; Lakser, Harry; Wehrung, Friedrich

    2000-01-01

    J. Tuma proved an interesting "congruence amalgamation" result. We are generalizing and providing an alternate proof for it. We then provide applications of this result: --A.P. Huhn proved that every distributive algebraic lattice $D$ with at most $\\aleph\\_1$ compact elements can be represented as the congruence lattice of a lattice $L$. We show that $L$ can be constructed as a locally finite relatively complemented lattice with zero. --We find a large class of lattices, the $\\omega$-congruence-finite lattices, that contains all locally finite countable lattices, in which every lattice has a relatively complemented congruence-preserving extension.

  6. Audiovisual Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physiology Teacher, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Lists and reviews recent audiovisual materials in areas of medical, dental, nursing and allied health, and veterinary medicine; undergraduate, and high school studies. Each is classified as to level, type of instruction, usefulness, and source of availability. Topics include respiration, renal physiology, muscle mechanics, anatomy, evolution,…

  7. An Examination of the Congruency between the University Teacher Training Contents and Secondary School Contents in Tanzania: The Case of Sokoine University of Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komba, Sotco Claudius; Chiwamba, Sarah Vincent

    2016-01-01

    It is ideally expected that after student teachers have gone through comprehensive curricula contents, they should possess the necessary competences and skills to enable them to deliver effectively as teachers. However, some student teachers in Tanzania have expressed their concerns that some of the contents found in the curricula for teacher…

  8. The organization and reorganization of audiovisual speech perception in the first year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, D Kyle; Bruderer, Alison G; Kandhadai, Padmapriya; Vatikiotis-Bateson, Eric; Werker, Janet F

    2017-04-01

    The period between six and 12 months is a sensitive period for language learning during which infants undergo auditory perceptual attunement, and recent results indicate that this sensitive period may exist across sensory modalities. We tested infants at three stages of perceptual attunement (six, nine, and 11 months) to determine 1) whether they were sensitive to the congruence between heard and seen speech stimuli in an unfamiliar language, and 2) whether familiarization with congruent audiovisual speech could boost subsequent non-native auditory discrimination. Infants at six- and nine-, but not 11-months, detected audiovisual congruence of non-native syllables. Familiarization to incongruent, but not congruent, audiovisual speech changed auditory discrimination at test for six-month-olds but not nine- or 11-month-olds. These results advance the proposal that speech perception is audiovisual from early in ontogeny, and that the sensitive period for audiovisual speech perception may last somewhat longer than that for auditory perception alone.

  9. Academic Self-Concept to Performance Congruence among Able Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Janice E.

    Self-concept to performance congruence was assessed for academically-able ninth graders (54 females, 49 males) in both math and verbal content domains. Overall, the majority of these able learners fell outside the congruent range. Analyses revealed similar congruence patterns for females and males, in both subject areas. These findings suggest…

  10. Congruence properties of induced representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, Dieter; Momeni, Arash; Venkov, Alexei

    In this paper we study representations of the projective modular group induced from the Hecke congruence group of level 4 with Selberg's character. We show that the well known congruence properties of Selberg's character are equivalent to the congruence properties of the induced representations...

  11. The congruence subgroup problem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 114; Issue 4. The Congruence Subgroup Problem. M S Raghunathan. Invited Articles Volume 114 ... Author Affiliations. M S Raghunathan1. School of Mathematics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400 005, India ...

  12. Overview of VideoCLEF 2008: Automatic Generation of Topic-based Feeds for Dual Language Audio-Visual Content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larson, M.; Newman, E.; Jones, G.J.F.

    2009-01-01

    The VideoCLEF track, introduced in 2008, aims to develop and evaluate tasks related to analysis of and access to multilingual multimedia content. In its first year, VideoCLEF piloted the Vid2RSS task, whose main subtask was the classification of dual language video (Dutch-language television content

  13. Overview of VideoCLEF 2008: Automatic generation of topic-based feeds for dual language audio-visual content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larson, M.; Newman, E.; Jones, G.

    2008-01-01

    The VideoCLEF track, introduced in 2008, aims to develop and evaluate tasks related to analysis of and access to multilingual multimedia content. In its first year, VideoCLEF piloted the Vid2RSS task, whose main subtask was the classification of dual language video (Dutch-language television content

  14. Historia audiovisual para una sociedad audiovisual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Montero Díaz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the possibilities of presenting an audiovisual history in a society in which audiovisual media has progressively gained greater protagonism. We analyze specific cases of films and historical documentaries and we assess the difficulties faced by historians to understand the keys of audiovisual language and by filmmakers to understand and incorporate history into their productions. We conclude that it would not be possible to disseminate history in the western world without audiovisual resources circulated through various types of screens (cinema, television, computer, mobile phone, video games.

  15. Classification of dual language audio-visual content: Introduction to the VideoCLEF 2008 pilot benchmark evaluation task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larson, M.; Newman, E.; Jones, G.J.F.; Köhler, J.; Larson, M.; de Jong, F.M.G.; Kraaij, W.; Ordelman, R.J.F.

    2008-01-01

    VideoCLEF is a new track for the CLEF 2008 campaign. This track aims to develop and evaluate tasks in analyzing multilingual video content. A pilot of a Vid2RSS task involving assigning thematic class labels to video kicks off the VideoCLEF track in 2008. Task participants deliver classification

  16. Trigger videos on the Web: Impact of audiovisual design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verleur, R.; Heuvelman, A.; Verhagen, Pleunes Willem

    2011-01-01

    Audiovisual design might impact emotional responses, as studies from the 1970s and 1980s on movie and television content show. Given today's abundant presence of web-based videos, this study investigates whether audiovisual design will impact web-video content in a similar way. The study is

  17. Trigger Videos on the Web: Impact of Audiovisual Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verleur, Ria; Heuvelman, Ard; Verhagen, Plon W.

    2011-01-01

    Audiovisual design might impact emotional responses, as studies from the 1970s and 1980s on movie and television content show. Given today's abundant presence of web-based videos, this study investigates whether audiovisual design will impact web-video content in a similar way. The study is motivated by the potential influence of video-evoked…

  18. Audiovisual Archive Exploitation in the Networked Information Society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ordelman, Roeland J.F.

    2011-01-01

    Safeguarding the massive body of audiovisual content, including rich music collections, in audiovisual archives and enabling access for various types of user groups is a prerequisite for unlocking the social-economic value of these collections. Data quantities and the need for specific content

  19. The level of audiovisual print-speech integration deficits in dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronschnabel, Jens; Brem, Silvia; Maurer, Urs; Brandeis, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    The classical phonological deficit account of dyslexia is increasingly linked to impairments in grapho-phonological conversion, and to dysfunctions in superior temporal regions associated with audiovisual integration. The present study investigates mechanisms of audiovisual integration in typical and impaired readers at the critical developmental stage of adolescence. Congruent and incongruent audiovisual as well as unimodal (visual only and auditory only) material was presented. Audiovisual presentations were single letters and three-letter (consonant-vowel-consonant) stimuli accompanied by matching or mismatching speech sounds. Three-letter stimuli exhibited fast phonetic transitions as in real-life language processing and reading. Congruency effects, i.e. different brain responses to congruent and incongruent stimuli were taken as an indicator of audiovisual integration at a phonetic level (grapho-phonological conversion). Comparisons of unimodal and audiovisual stimuli revealed basic, more sensory aspects of audiovisual integration. By means of these two criteria of audiovisual integration, the generalizability of audiovisual deficits in dyslexia was tested. Moreover, it was expected that the more naturalistic three-letter stimuli are superior to single letters in revealing group differences. Electrophysiological and hemodynamic (EEG and fMRI) data were acquired simultaneously in a simple target detection task. Applying the same statistical models to event-related EEG potentials and fMRI responses allowed comparing the effects detected by the two techniques at a descriptive level. Group differences in congruency effects (congruent against incongruent) were observed in regions involved in grapho-phonological processing, including the left inferior frontal and angular gyri and the inferotemporal cortex. Importantly, such differences also emerged in superior temporal key regions. Three-letter stimuli revealed stronger group differences than single letters. No

  20. Bi-directional audiovisual influences on temporal modulation discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Leonard; Mathias, Samuel R; Bensussen, Seth; Chou, Kenny; Goldberg, Hannah R; Sun, Yile; Sekuler, Robert; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G

    2017-04-01

    Cross-modal interactions of auditory and visual temporal modulation were examined in a game-like experimental framework. Participants observed an audiovisual stimulus (an animated, sound-emitting fish) whose sound intensity and/or visual size oscillated sinusoidally at either 6 or 7 Hz. Participants made speeded judgments about the modulation rate in either the auditory or visual modality while doing their best to ignore information from the other modality. Modulation rate in the task-irrelevant modality matched the modulation rate in the task-relevant modality (congruent conditions), was at the other rate (incongruent conditions), or had no modulation (unmodulated conditions). Both performance accuracy and parameter estimates from drift-diffusion decision modeling indicated that (1) the presence of temporal modulation in both modalities, regardless of whether modulations were matched or mismatched in rate, resulted in audiovisual interactions; (2) congruence in audiovisual temporal modulation resulted in more reliable information processing; and (3) the effects of congruence appeared to be stronger when judging visual modulation rates (i.e., audition influencing vision), than when judging auditory modulation rates (i.e., vision influencing audition). The results demonstrate that audiovisual interactions from temporal modulations are bi-directional in nature, but with potential asymmetries in the size of the effect in each direction.

  1. Multisensory integration of drumming actions: musical expertise affects perceived audiovisual asynchrony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, Karin; Dahl, Sofia; Rocchesso, Davide; Waadeland, Carl Haakon; Avanzini, Federico; Puce, Aina; Pollick, Frank E

    2009-09-01

    We investigated the effect of musical expertise on sensitivity to asynchrony for drumming point-light displays, which varied in their physical characteristics (Experiment 1) or in their degree of audiovisual congruency (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, 21 repetitions of three tempos x three accents x nine audiovisual delays were presented to four jazz drummers and four novices. In Experiment 2, ten repetitions of two audiovisual incongruency conditions x nine audiovisual delays were presented to 13 drummers and 13 novices. Participants gave forced-choice judgments of audiovisual synchrony. The results of Experiment 1 show an enhancement in experts' ability to detect asynchrony, especially for slower drumming tempos. In Experiment 2 an increase in sensitivity to asynchrony was found for incongruent stimuli; this increase, however, is attributable only to the novice group. Altogether the results indicated that through musical practice we learn to ignore variations in stimulus characteristics that otherwise would affect our multisensory integration processes.

  2. Age-Related Differences in Audiovisual Interactions of Semantically Different Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viggiano, Maria Pia; Giovannelli, Fabio; Giganti, Fiorenza; Rossi, Arianna; Metitieri, Tiziana; Rebai, Mohamed; Guerrini, Renzo; Cincotta, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Converging results have shown that adults benefit from congruent multisensory stimulation in the identification of complex stimuli, whereas the developmental trajectory of the ability to integrate multisensory inputs in children is less well understood. In this study we explored the effects of audiovisual semantic congruency on identification of…

  3. Soft Congruence Relations over Rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolong Xin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Molodtsov introduced the concept of soft sets, which can be seen as a new mathematical tool for dealing with uncertainty. In this paper, we initiate the study of soft congruence relations by using the soft set theory. The notions of soft quotient rings, generalized soft ideals and generalized soft quotient rings, are introduced, and several related properties are investigated. Also, we obtain a one-to-one correspondence between soft congruence relations and idealistic soft rings and a one-to-one correspondence between soft congruence relations and soft ideals. In particular, the first, second, and third soft isomorphism theorems are established, respectively.

  4. The value of value congruence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jeffrey R; Cable, Daniel M

    2009-05-01

    Research on value congruence has attempted to explain why value congruence leads to positive outcomes, but few of these explanations have been tested empirically. In this article, the authors develop and test a theoretical model that integrates 4 key explanations of value congruence effects, which are framed in terms of communication, predictability, interpersonal attraction, and trust. These constructs are used to explain the process by which value congruence relates to job satisfaction, organizational identification, and intent to stay in the organization, after taking psychological need fulfillment into account. Data from a heterogeneous sample of employees from 4 organizations indicate that the relationships that link individual and organizational values to outcomes are explained primarily by the trust that employees place in the organization and its members, followed by communication, and, to a lesser extent, interpersonal attraction. Polynomial regression analyses reveal that the relationships emanating from individual and organizational values often deviated from the idealized value congruence relationship that underlies previous theory and research. The authors' results also show that individual and organizational values exhibited small but significant relationships with job satisfaction and organizational identification that bypassed the mediators in their model, indicating that additional explanations of value congruence effects should be pursued in future research. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Digital audiovisual archives

    CERN Document Server

    Stockinger, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Today, huge quantities of digital audiovisual resources are already available - everywhere and at any time - through Web portals, online archives and libraries, and video blogs. One central question with respect to this huge amount of audiovisual data is how they can be used in specific (social, pedagogical, etc.) contexts and what are their potential interest for target groups (communities, professionals, students, researchers, etc.).This book examines the question of the (creative) exploitation of digital audiovisual archives from a theoretical, methodological, technical and practical

  6. Audio-Visual Materials for Chinese Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Eugene, Comp.; Ching, Nora C., Comp.

    This publication is designed for teachers of Chinese language and culture who are interested in using audiovisual materials to supplement classroom instruction. The listings objectively present materials which are available; the compilers have not attempted to evaluate them. Content includes historical studies, techniques of brush painting, myths,…

  7. Audiovisual perception of congruent and incongruent Dutch front vowels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkenier, Bea; Duyne, Jurriaan Y; Andringa, Tjeerd C; Baskent, Deniz

    2012-12-01

    Auditory perception of vowels in background noise is enhanced when combined with visually perceived speech features. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the influence of visual cues on vowel perception extends to incongruent vowels, in a manner similar to the McGurk effect observed with consonants. Identification of Dutch front vowels /i, y, e, Y/ that share all features other than height and lip-rounding was measured for congruent and incongruent audiovisual conditions. The audio channel was systematically degraded by adding noise, increasing the reliance on visual cues. The height feature was more robustly carried over through the auditory channel and the lip-rounding feature through the visual channel. Hence, congruent audiovisual presentation enhanced identification, while incongruent presentation led to perceptual fusions and thus decreased identification. Visual cues influence the identification of congruent as well as incongruent audiovisual vowels. Incongruent visual information results in perceptual fusions, demonstrating that the McGurk effect can be instigated by long phonemes such as vowels. This result extends to the incongruent presentation of the visually less reliably perceived height. The findings stress the importance of audiovisual congruency in communication devices, such as cochlear implants and videoconferencing tools, where the auditory signal could be degraded.

  8. Hopf algebras and congruence subgroups

    CERN Document Server

    Sommerhauser, Yorck

    2007-01-01

    We prove that the kernel of the natural action of the modular group on the center of the Drinfel'd double of a semisimple Hopf algebra is a congruence subgroup. To do this, we introduce a class of generalized Frobenius-Schur indicators and endow it with an action of the modular group that is compatible with the original one.

  9. Erratum The congruence subgroup problem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    . 299–308). The congruence subgroup problem. M S RAGHUNATHAN. There is unfortunately an error in the paper cited above in the very first page. We correct this error (which does not materially affect the rest of the paper in any way) below.

  10. Voice congruency facilitates word recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Campeanu

    Full Text Available Behavioral studies of spoken word memory have shown that context congruency facilitates both word and source recognition, though the level at which context exerts its influence remains equivocal. We measured event-related potentials (ERPs while participants performed both types of recognition task with words spoken in four voices. Two voice parameters (i.e., gender and accent varied between speakers, with the possibility that none, one or two of these parameters was congruent between study and test. Results indicated that reinstating the study voice at test facilitated both word and source recognition, compared to similar or no context congruency at test. Behavioral effects were paralleled by two ERP modulations. First, in the word recognition test, the left parietal old/new effect showed a positive deflection reflective of context congruency between study and test words. Namely, the same speaker condition provided the most positive deflection of all correctly identified old words. In the source recognition test, a right frontal positivity was found for the same speaker condition compared to the different speaker conditions, regardless of response success. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that the benefit of context congruency is reflected behaviorally and in ERP modulations traditionally associated with recognition memory.

  11. The Congruence Myth Revisited: Rejoinder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinsley, Howard E. A.

    2000-01-01

    This rejoinder to comments on a previous article about research on the person-environment fit (PEF) model addresses issues in the relationship of congruence to vocational outcomes, the circumplex model, tests of Holland's hexagonal model, and advances in PEF theory and research. (Contains 61 references.) (SK)

  12. Audiovisual Quality Fusion based on Relative Multimodal Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Junyong; Korhonen, Jari; Reiter, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    for relative multimodal complexity analysis to derive the fusion parameter in objective audiovisual quality metrics. Audio and video qualities are first estimated separately using advanced quality models, and then they are combined into the overall audiovisual quality using a linear fusion. Based on carefully...... metrics, compared to the fusion parameters obtained from the subjective quality tests using other known optimization methods.......In multimodal presentations the perceived audiovisual quality assessment is significantly influenced by the content of both the audio and visual tracks. Based on our earlier subjective quality test for finding the optimal trade-off between audio and video quality, this paper proposes a novel method...

  13. Fundamentos da montagem audiovisual

    OpenAIRE

    Sílvia Okumura Hayashi

    2016-01-01

    Este trabalho é um estudo sobre a montagem audiovisual. A pesquisa se estrutura em torno das relações entre os elementos fundamentais do ofício de se montar imagens e sons: o tempo, o espaço, a montagem, as ferramentas de trabalho, media pipelines e o mapa. Para tanto, investigamos a natureza algorítmica e tecnológica da montagem audiovisual, as formas de sua aplicação na produção industrial e também as possibilidades de criação formas singulares de montagem que se originam a partir da explor...

  14. AUDIOVISUAL SERVICES CATALOG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton Unified School District, CA.

    A CATALOG HAS BEEN PREPARED TO HELP TEACHERS SELECT AUDIOVISUAL MATERIALS WHICH MIGHT BE HELPFUL IN ELEMENTARY CLASSROOMS. INCLUDED ARE FILMSTRIPS, SLIDES, RECORDS, STUDY PRINTS, FILMS, TAPE RECORDINGS, AND SCIENCE EQUIPMENT. TEACHERS ARE REMINDED THAT THEY ARE NOT LIMITED TO USE OF THE SUGGESTED MATERIALS. APPROPRIATE GRADE LEVELS HAVE BEEN…

  15. Fly Photoreceptors Encode Phase Congruency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Friederich

    Full Text Available More than five decades ago it was postulated that sensory neurons detect and selectively enhance behaviourally relevant features of natural signals. Although we now know that sensory neurons are tuned to efficiently encode natural stimuli, until now it was not clear what statistical features of the stimuli they encode and how. Here we reverse-engineer the neural code of Drosophila photoreceptors and show for the first time that photoreceptors exploit nonlinear dynamics to selectively enhance and encode phase-related features of temporal stimuli, such as local phase congruency, which are invariant to changes in illumination and contrast. We demonstrate that to mitigate for the inherent sensitivity to noise of the local phase congruency measure, the nonlinear coding mechanisms of the fly photoreceptors are tuned to suppress random phase signals, which explains why photoreceptor responses to naturalistic stimuli are significantly different from their responses to white noise stimuli.

  16. Digital Audiovisual Archives: Unlocking our Audio and Audiovisual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article discusses the importance of digital sound and audiovisual archives in the broadcast environment. However, the digitisation of sound and audiovisual collections also impact on the non-broadcast environment. Digitising our AV collections has become critical. As such, we have entered an exciting phase in ...

  17. A Longitudinal Examination of Congruence Hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meir, Elchanan I.; Navon, Meir

    1992-01-01

    After 4-6 months of employment in either "enterprising" or "social" bank branches, 95 bank tellers completed Holland's Self-Directed Search and a satisfaction inventory. Findings supported a positive correlation between congruence and job satisfaction and between congruence and supervisors' evaluations but only when congruence…

  18. Bisimulation as congruence in the behavioral setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Julius, A.A.; Schaft, A.J. van der

    2005-01-01

    We cast the notion of bisimulation in the Willems’ behavioral setting. We show that in this setting, bisimulation is also a congruence, as it is known in the field of concurrent processes. Bisimulation is a congruence means if A and A' are bisimilar systems, then A || B and A' || B are also

  19. Multiplex congruence network of natural numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Wen-Xu; Chen, Guan-Rong; Shi, Ding-Hua

    2016-03-01

    Congruence theory has many applications in physical, social, biological and technological systems. Congruence arithmetic has been a fundamental tool for data security and computer algebra. However, much less attention was devoted to the topological features of congruence relations among natural numbers. Here, we explore the congruence relations in the setting of a multiplex network and unveil some unique and outstanding properties of the multiplex congruence network. Analytical results show that every layer therein is a sparse and heterogeneous subnetwork with a scale-free topology. Counterintuitively, every layer has an extremely strong controllability in spite of its scale-free structure that is usually difficult to control. Another amazing feature is that the controllability is robust against targeted attacks to critical nodes but vulnerable to random failures, which also differs from ordinary scale-free networks. The multi-chain structure with a small number of chain roots arising from each layer accounts for the strong controllability and the abnormal feature. The multiplex congruence network offers a graphical solution to the simultaneous congruences problem, which may have implication in cryptography based on simultaneous congruences. Our work also gains insight into the design of networks integrating advantages of both heterogeneous and homogeneous networks without inheriting their limitations.

  20. The Role of Audiovisual Mass Media News in Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrani, Taher; Sim, Tam Shu

    2011-01-01

    The present paper focuses on the role of audio/visual mass media news in language learning. In this regard, the two important issues regarding the selection and preparation of TV news for language learning are the content of the news and the linguistic difficulty. Content is described as whether the news is specialized or universal. Universal…

  1. Culture through comparison: creating audio-visual listening materials for a CLIL course

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhyrun, Iryna

    2016-01-01

    ... of audio-visual materials design for listening comprehension taking into consideration educational and cultural contexts, course content, and language learning outcomes of the program. In addition, it discusses advantages and limitations of created audio-visual materials by contrasting them with authentic materials of similar type foun...

  2. Audiovisual Narrative Creation and Creative Retrieval: How Searching for a Story Shapes the Story

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauer, Sabrina

    2017-01-01

    Media professionals – such as news editors, image researchers, and documentary filmmakers - increasingly rely on online access to digital content within audiovisual archives to create narratives. Retrieving audiovisual sources therefore requires an in-depth knowledge of how to find sources

  3. The Audio-Visual Man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babin, Pierre, Ed.

    A series of twelve essays discuss the use of audiovisuals in religious education. The essays are divided into three sections: one which draws on the ideas of Marshall McLuhan and other educators to explore the newest ideas about audiovisual language and faith, one that describes how to learn and use the new language of audio and visual images, and…

  4. Venezuela: Nueva Experiencia Audiovisual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revista Chasqui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La Universidad Simón Bolívar (USB creó en 1986, la Fundación para el Desarrollo del Arte Audiovisual, ARTEVISION. Su objetivo general es la promoción y venta de servicios y productos para la televisión, radio, cine, diseño y fotografía de alta calidad artística y técnica. Todo esto sin descuidar los aspectos teóricos-académicos de estas disciplinas.

  5. Congruences for the Andrews spt function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Ken

    2011-01-11

    Ramanujan-type congruences for the Andrews spt(n) partition function have been found for prime moduli 5 ≤ ℓ ≤ 37 in the work of Andrews [Andrews GE, (2008) J Reine Angew Math 624:133-142] and Garvan [Garvan F, (2010) Int J Number Theory 6:1-29]. We exhibit unexpectedly simple congruences for all ℓ≥5. Confirming a conjecture of Garvan, we show that if ℓ≥5 is prime and (-δ/ℓ) = 1, then spt[(ℓ2(ℓn+δ)+1)/24] ≡ 0 (mod ℓ). This congruence gives (ℓ - 1)/2 arithmetic progressions modulo ℓ(3) which support a mod ℓ congruence. This result follows from the surprising fact that the reduction of a certain mock theta function modulo ℓ, for every ℓ≥5, is an eigenform of the Hecke operator T(ℓ(2)).

  6. A uniform refinement property for congruence lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Wehrung, F

    2005-01-01

    The Congruence Lattice Problem asks whether every algebraic distributive lattice is isomorphic to the congruence lattice of a lattice. It was hoped that a positive solution would follow from E. T. Schmidt's construction or from the approach of P. Pudlak, M. Tischendorf, and J. Tuma. In a previous paper, we constructed a distributive algebraic lattice $A$ with $\\aleph\\_2$ compact elements that cannot be obtained by Schmidt's construction. In this paper, we show that the same lattice $A$ cannot be obtained using the Pudlak, Tischendorf, Tuma approach. The basic idea is that every congruence lattice arising from either method satisfies the Uniform Refinement Property, which is not satisfied by our example. This yields, in turn, corresponding negative results about congruence lattices of sectionally complemented lattices and two-sided ideals of von Neumann regular rings.

  7. Kijkwijzer: The Dutch rating system for audiovisual productions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburg, P.M.; Beentjes, J.W.J.; Nikken, P.; Tan, E.S.H.

    2002-01-01

    Kijkwijzer is the name of the new Dutch rating system in use since early 2001 to provide information about the possible harmful effects of movies, home videos and television programs on young people. The rating system is meant to provide audiovisual productions with both age-based and content-based

  8. Market potential for interactive audio-visual media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leurdijk, A.; Limonard, S.

    2005-01-01

    NM2 (New Media for a New Millennium) develops tools for interactive, personalised and non-linear audio-visual content that will be tested in seven pilot productions. This paper looks at the market potential for these productions from a technological, a business and a users' perspective. It shows

  9. Multistage audiovisual integration of speech: dissociating identification and detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskelund, Kasper; Tuomainen, Jyrki; Andersen, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    signal. Here we show that identification of phonetic content and detection can be dissociated as speech-specific and non-specific audiovisual integration effects. To this end, we employed synthetically modified stimuli, sine wave speech (SWS), which is an impoverished speech signal that only observers...

  10. The production of audiovisual teaching tools in minimally invasive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolerton, Sarah K; Hugh, Thomas J; Cosman, Peter H

    2012-01-01

    Audiovisual learning resources have become valuable adjuncts to formal teaching in surgical training. This report discusses the process and challenges of preparing an audiovisual teaching tool for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The relative value in surgical education and training, for both the creator and viewer are addressed. This audiovisual teaching resource was prepared as part of the Master of Surgery program at the University of Sydney, Australia. The different methods of video production used to create operative teaching tools are discussed. Collating and editing material for an audiovisual teaching resource can be a time-consuming and technically challenging process. However, quality learning resources can now be produced even with limited prior video editing experience. With minimal cost and suitable guidance to ensure clinically relevant content, most surgeons should be able to produce short, high-quality education videos of both open and minimally invasive surgery. Despite the challenges faced during production of audiovisual teaching tools, these resources are now relatively easy to produce using readily available software. These resources are particularly attractive to surgical trainees when real time operative footage is used. They serve as valuable adjuncts to formal teaching, particularly in the setting of minimally invasive surgery. Copyright © 2012 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Media Aid Beyond the Factual: Culture, Development, and Audiovisual Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin A. J. Pearson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses audiovisual assistance, a form of development aid that focuses on the production and distribution of cultural and entertainment media such as fictional films and TV shows. While the first audiovisual assistance program dates back to UNESCO’s International Fund for the Promotion of Culture in the 1970s, the past two decades have seen a proliferation of audiovisual assistance that, I argue, is related to a growing concern for culture in post-2015 global development agendas. In this paper, I examine the aims and motivations behind the EU’s audiovisual assistance programs to countries in the Global South, using data from policy documents and semi-structured, in-depth interviews with Program Managers and administrative staff in Brussels. These programs prioritize forms of audiovisual content that are locally specific, yet globally tradable. Furthermore, I argue that they have an ambivalent relationship with traditional notions of international development, one that conceptualizes media not only as a means to achieve economic development and human rights aims, but as a form of development itself.

  12. Audio-visual onset differences are used to determine syllable identity for ambiguous audio-visual stimulus pairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Oever, Sanne; Sack, Alexander T; Wheat, Katherine L; Bien, Nina; van Atteveldt, Nienke

    2013-01-01

    Content and temporal cues have been shown to interact during audio-visual (AV) speech identification. Typically, the most reliable unimodal cue is used more strongly to identify specific speech features; however, visual cues are only used if the AV stimuli are presented within a certain temporal

  13. Audio/visual analysis for high-speed TV advertisement detection from MPEG bitstream

    OpenAIRE

    Sadlier, David A.

    2002-01-01

    Advertisement breaks dunng or between television programmes are typically flagged by senes of black-and-silent video frames, which recurrendy occur in order to audio-visually separate individual advertisement spots from one another. It is the regular prevalence of these flags that enables automatic differentiauon between what is programme content and what is advertisement break. Detection of these audio-visual depressions within broadcast television content provides a basis on which advertise...

  14. Perceived synchrony for realistic and dynamic audiovisual events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragnhild eEg

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In well-controlled laboratory experiments, researchers have found that humans can perceive delays between auditory and visual signals as short as 20 ms. Conversely, other experiments have shown that humans can tolerate audiovisual asynchrony that exceeds 200 ms. This seeming contradiction in human temporal sensitivity can be attributed to a number of factors such as experimental approaches and precedence of the asynchronous signals, along with the nature, duration, location, complexity and repetitiveness of the audiovisual stimuli, and even individual differences. In order to better understand how temporal integration of audiovisual events occurs in the real world, we need to close the gap between the experimental setting and the complex setting of everyday life. With this work, we aimed to contribute one brick to the bridge that will close this gap. We compared perceived synchrony for long-running and eventful audiovisual sequences to shorter sequences that contain a single audiovisual event, for three types of content: action, music, and speech. The resulting windows of temporal integration showed that participants were better at detecting asynchrony for the longer stimuli, possibly because the long-running sequences contain multiple corresponding events that offer audiovisual timing cues. Moreover, the points of subjective simultaneity differ between content types, suggesting that the nature of a visual scene could influence the temporal perception of events. An expected outcome from this type of experiment was the rich variation among participants' distributions and the derived points of subjective simultaneity. Hence, the designs of similar experiments call for more participants than traditional psychophysical studies. Heeding this caution, we conclude that existing theories on multisensory perception are ready to be tested on more natural and representative stimuli.

  15. Neural mechanisms for the effect of prior knowledge on audiovisual integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Zhang, Ye; Campos, Jennifer L; Zhang, Qinglin; Sun, Hong-Jin

    2011-05-01

    Converging evidence indicates that prior knowledge plays an important role in multisensory integration. However, the neural mechanisms underlying the processes with which prior knowledge is integrated with current sensory information remains unknown. In this study, we measured event-related potentials (ERPs) while manipulating prior knowledge using a novel visual letter recognition task in which auditory information was always presented simultaneously. The color of the letters was assigned to a particular probability of being associated with audiovisual congruency (e.g., green=high probability (HP) and blue=low probability (LP)). Results demonstrate that this prior began affecting reaction times to the congruent audiovisual stimuli at about the 900th trial. Consequently, the ERP data was analyzed in two phases: the "early phase" (trial 900). The effects of prior knowledge were revealed through difference waveforms generated by subtracting the ERPs for the congruent audiovisual stimuli in the LP condition from those in the HP condition. A frontal-central probability effect (90-120 ms) was observed in the early phase. A right parietal-occipital probability effect (40-96 ms) and a frontal-central probability effect (170-200 ms) were observed in the late phase. The results suggest that during the initial acquisition of the knowledge about the probability of congruency, the brain assigned more attention to audiovisual stimuli for the LP condition. Following the acquisition of this prior knowledge, it was then used during early stages of visual processing and modulated the activity of multisensory cortical areas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Discrete Line Congruences for Shading and Lighting

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jun

    2013-07-01

    Two-parameter families of straight lines (line congruences) are implicitly present in graphics and geometry processing in several important ways including lighting and shape analysis. In this paper we make them accessible to optimization and geometric computing, by introducing a general discrete version of congruences based on piecewise-linear correspondences between triangle meshes. Our applications of congruences are based on the extraction of a so-called torsion-free support structure, which is a procedure analogous to remeshing a surface along its principal curvature lines. A particular application of such structures are freeform shading and lighting systems for architecture. We combine interactive design of such systems with global optimization in order to satisfy geometric constraints. In this way we explore a new area where architecture can greatly benefit from graphics.

  17. Digital preservation of audiovisual files within PrestoPRIME

    OpenAIRE

    Addis, Matthew; Allasia, Walter; Bailer, Werner; Boch, Laurent; Gallo, Francesco; Schallauer, Peter; Phillips, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    PrestoPRIME is a European project aiming at digital preservation of audiovisual files. In our scenarios we can observe a combination of lifecycles related to content, systems, services, and organisations involved both in the media and technical businesses. Taking as reference the OAIS model, we followed the principle of keeping everything under control, from all perspectives: configuration, resource management, data integrity, content quality and metadata handling. As a result, in the future ...

  18. [Audio-visual aids and tropical medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morand, J J

    1989-01-01

    The author presents a list of the audio-visual productions about Tropical Medicine, as well as of their main characteristics. He thinks that the audio-visual educational productions are often dissociated from their promotion; therefore, he invites the future creator to forward his work to the Audio-Visual Health Committee.

  19. Audio-visual Materials and Rural Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escolar-Sobrino, Hipolito

    1972-01-01

    Audio-visual materials enlarge the educational work being done in the classroom and the library. This article examines the various types of audio-visual material and equipment and suggests ways in which audio-visual media can be used economically and efficiently in rural libraries. (Author)

  20. Audiovisual Instruction. The Library of Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Kieffer, Robert E.

    Audiovisual instruction has become a necessary part of good teaching. This monograph separates the experiences and devices of audiovisual materials into three categories: nonprojected, projected, and audio materials and equipment. The design of schools for the use of such materials, the importance of audiovisual research, and the administration of…

  1. The process of developing audiovisual patient information: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Catherine; McCreaddie, May

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this project was to produce audiovisual patient information, which was user friendly and fit for purpose. The purpose of the audiovisual patient information is to inform patients about randomized controlled trials, as a supplement to their trial-specific written information sheet. Audiovisual patient information is known to be an effective way of informing patients about treatment. User involvement is also recognized as being important in the development of service provision. The aim of this paper is (i) to describe and discuss the process of developing the audiovisual patient information and (ii) to highlight the challenges and opportunities, thereby identifying implications for practice. A future study will test the effectiveness of the audiovisual patient information in the cancer clinical trial setting. An advisory group was set up to oversee the project and provide guidance in relation to information content, level and delivery. An expert panel of two patients provided additional guidance and a dedicated operational team dealt with the logistics of the project including: ethics; finance; scriptwriting; filming; editing and intellectual property rights. Challenges included the limitations of filming in a busy clinical environment, restricted technical and financial resources, ethical needs and issues around copyright. There were, however, substantial opportunities that included utilizing creative skills, meaningfully involving patients, teamworking and mutual appreciation of clinical, multidisciplinary and technical expertise. Developing audiovisual patient information is an important area for nurses to be involved with. However, this must be performed within the context of the multiprofessional team. Teamworking, including patient involvement, is crucial as a wide variety of expertise is required. Many aspects of the process are transferable and will provide information and guidance for nurses, regardless of specialty, considering developing this

  2. The Effects of Congruence in Policy Priorities on Satisfaction with Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reher, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    and news media content data from the 2009 German Longitudinal Election Study. The results show that citizens whose issue concerns are salient amongst party candidates and in the media campaign coverage are indeed more satisfied with democracy in their country. This effect exists not only for congruence...

  3. Kummer's Original Type Congruence Relation for the Universal Bernoulli Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Ônishi, Yoshihiro

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we give Kummer's original type congruence relation modulo a prime power for the universal Bernoulli numbers. Although the index of the power is half of original congruence, this estimate is best possible.

  4. Congruences for the Ramanujan function and generalized class numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Bernhard

    2009-03-01

    The Ramanujan tau -function satisfies well-known congruences modulo the so-called exceptional prime numbers 2,3,5,7,23,691 . In this paper we prove new congruences related to the irregular primes 131 and 593 , involving generalized class numbers. As an application we obtain distribution results. We obtain a new proof of the famous 691 congruence and congruences of the related Rankin L-funtion.

  5. Body Build Satisfaction and the Congruency of Body Build Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankins, Norman E.; Bailey, Roger C.

    1979-01-01

    Females were administered the somatotype rating scale. Satisfied subjects showed greater congruency between their own and wished-for body build, and greater congruency between their own and friend/date body builds, but less congruency between their own body build and the female stereotype. (Author/BEF)

  6. An Investigation of the Sampling Distribution of the Congruence Coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbooks, Wendy J.; Elmore, Patricia B.

    This study developed and investigated an empirical sampling distribution of the congruence coefficient. The effects of sample size, number of variables, and population value of the congruence coefficient on the sampling distribution of the congruence coefficient were examined. Sample data were generated on the basis of the common factor model and…

  7. An application of the extended RSA congruence | Omokaro | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In [4], we proved that the RSA congruence could be extended to a situation where the modulus of the congruence is a simple product of primes. In this work, we discuss the cryptosystem of this extended RSA congruence as an analogue of the RSA cryptosystem, which is hereafter referred to as the Extended RSA ...

  8. Deriving Process Congruences from Reaction Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobocinski, Pawel

    This thesis is concerned with the development of a theory which, given a formalism with a reduction semantics, allows the derivation of a canonical labelled transition system on which bisimilarity as well as other other equiv� alences are congruences; provided that the contexts of the formalism f...

  9. Lifts of projective congruence groups, II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiming, Ian

    2014-01-01

    We continue and complete our previous paper ``Lifts of projective congruence groups'' concerning the question of whether there exist noncongruence subgroups of  that are projectively equivalent to one of the groups  or . A complete answer to this question is obtained: In case of  such noncongruen...

  10. Characterizing behavioural congruences for Petri nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Priese, Lutz; Sassone, Vladimiro

    1995-01-01

    We exploit a notion of interface for Petri nets in order to design a set of net combinators. For such a calculus of nets, we focus on the behavioural congruences arising from four simple notions of behaviour, viz., traces, maximal traces, step, and maximal step traces, and from the corresponding...

  11. El documentalista audiovisual als serveis de documentació de les televisions locals

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez, Virginia

    2008-01-01

    The irruption of digital systems into the televisions has opened a new front for those audiovisual documentalists working on a television documentation centre. To the traditional tasks as cataloguing and storage, news tasks common to digital contents management have been added, such as metadata generation and management, or information flow control of servers and archives. This poster is based on the audiovisual documentalist figure on the local television, and it shows the environment wher...

  12. Audio-Visual Materials Catalog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson (M.D.) Hospital and Tumor Inst., Houston, TX.

    This catalog lists 27 audiovisual programs produced by the Department of Medical Communications of the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute for public distribution. Video tapes, 16 mm. motion pictures and slide/audio series are presented dealing mostly with cancer and related subjects. The programs are intended for…

  13. Preventive Maintenance Handbook. Audiovisual Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educational Products Information Exchange Inst., Stony Brook, NY.

    The preventive maintenance system for audiovisual equipment presented in this handbook is designed by specialists so that it can be used by nonspecialists in school sites. The report offers specific advice on saftey factors and also lists major problems that should not be handled by nonspecialists. Other aspects of a preventive maintenance system…

  14. Search in audiovisual broadcast archives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huurnink, B.

    2010-01-01

    Documentary makers, journalists, news editors, and other media professionals routinely require previously recorded audiovisual material for new productions. For example, a news editor might wish to reuse footage from overseas services for the evening news, or a documentary maker describing the

  15. Contributions of the interactive decoupage to reading and analyzing interactive audiovisual works in cybermedia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pere Freixa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The epigraph “interactive storytelling” is applied to a series of journalistic pieces developed as interactive audiovisual stories that are becoming increasingly prominent in cybermedia. This article suggests the definition and description of an analysis system, the “interactive decoupage”, where the parameters to observe are established when reading an interactive audiovisual application. The interactive decoupage is a formal analysis system of interactive audiovisual works which allows for a thorough observation of the aspects present in any interactive audiovisual work: structure, content, access’ interfaces and the interaction dialogues the work suggests. The different parts of the decoupage are described, as well as the phases and procedure to execute it. The tool presented is a document for the researcher that provides a detailed description of the elements used by the authors of an interactive audiovisual project to develop and produce its script. The possibility of confronting the interactive audiovisual work with its “decoupage” description provides the analyst with more insight into the creative processes of interactive audiovisual projects.

  16. Audiovisual Ethnography of Philippine Music: A Process-oriented Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terada Yoshitaka

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Audiovisual documentation has been an important part of ethnomusicological endeavors, but until recently it was treated primarily as a tool of preservation and/or documentation that supplements written ethnography, albeit there a few notable exceptions. The proliferation of inexpensive video equipment has encouraged the unprecedented number of scholars and students in ethnomusicology to be involved in filmmaking, but its potential as a methodology has not been fully explored. As a small step to redefine the application of audiovisual media, Dr. Usopay Cadar, my teacher in Philippine music, and I produced two films: one on Maranao kolintang music and the other on Maranao culture in general, based on the audiovisual footage we collected in 2008. This short essay describes how the screenings of these films were organized in March 2013 for the diverse audiences in the Philippines, and what types of reactions and interactions transpired during the screenings. These screenings were organized both to obtain feedback about the content of the films from the caretakers and stakeholders of the documented tradition and to create a venue for interactions and collaborations to discuss the potential of audiovisual ethnography. Drawing from the analysis of the current project, I propose to regard film not as a fixed product but as a living and organic site that is open to commentaries and critiques, where changes can be made throughout the process. In this perspective, ‘filmmaking’ refers to the entire process of research, filming, editing and post-production activities.

  17. AUDIOVISUAL JOURNALISM: FROM THE TV SCREEN TO OTHER SCREENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Fernanda Ferreira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on research which has been developed in partnership with Unesp TV, a university TV broadcast station of the Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho, Bauru campus/SP. The study aims to identify convergent and divergent aspects in the design of audiovisual journalistic content for TV and other media such as the internet and mobile communication systems. The results presented here are the considerations obtained from the first stage of the research. In this phase, the basic steps which should guide the design of the content to feed broadcasting time are outlined, as well as the online audiovisual news broadcast and business management of a TV station, compared to the model which has been followed by internet TV broadcasters.

  18. Audiovisual journalism: from the TV screen to other screens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Machado Filho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on research which has been developed in partnership with Unesp TV, a university TV broadcast station of the Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho, Bauru campus/SP. The study aims to identify convergent and divergent aspects in the design of audiovisual journalistic content for TV and other media such as the internet and mobile communication systems. The results presented here are the considerations obtained from the first stage of the research. In this phase, the basic steps which should guide the design of the content to feed broadcasting time are outlined, as well as the online audiovisual news broadcast and business management of a TV station, compared to the model which has been followed by internet TV broadcasters.

  19. Audiovisual journalism: from the TV screen to other screens

    OpenAIRE

    Mayra Fernanda Ferreira; Francisco Machado Filho

    2012-01-01

    This article is based on research which has been developed in partnership with Unesp TV, a university TV broadcast station of the Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho, Bauru campus/SP. The study aims to identify convergent and divergent aspects in the design of audiovisual journalistic content for TV and other media such as the internet and mobile communication systems. The results presented here are the considerations obtained from the first stage of the research. In this p...

  20. Bilingualism affects audiovisual phoneme identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burfin, Sabine; Pascalis, Olivier; Ruiz Tada, Elisa; Costa, Albert; Savariaux, Christophe; Kandel, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    We all go through a process of perceptual narrowing for phoneme identification. As we become experts in the languages we hear in our environment we lose the ability to identify phonemes that do not exist in our native phonological inventory. This research examined how linguistic experience-i.e., the exposure to a double phonological code during childhood-affects the visual processes involved in non-native phoneme identification in audiovisual speech perception. We conducted a phoneme identification experiment with bilingual and monolingual adult participants. It was an ABX task involving a Bengali dental-retroflex contrast that does not exist in any of the participants' languages. The phonemes were presented in audiovisual (AV) and audio-only (A) conditions. The results revealed that in the audio-only condition monolinguals and bilinguals had difficulties in discriminating the retroflex non-native phoneme. They were phonologically "deaf" and assimilated it to the dental phoneme that exists in their native languages. In the audiovisual presentation instead, both groups could overcome the phonological deafness for the retroflex non-native phoneme and identify both Bengali phonemes. However, monolinguals were more accurate and responded quicker than bilinguals. This suggests that bilinguals do not use the same processes as monolinguals to decode visual speech.

  1. Bilingualism affects audiovisual phoneme identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine eBurfin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We all go through a process of perceptual narrowing for phoneme identification. As we become experts in the languages we hear in our environment we lose the ability to identify phonemes that do not exist in our native phonological inventory. This research examined how linguistic experience –i.e., the exposure to a double phonological code during childhood– affects the visual processes involved in non-native phoneme identification in audiovisual speech perception. We conducted a phoneme identification experiment with bilingual and monolingual adult participants. It was an ABX task involving a Bengali dental-retroflex contrast that does not exist in any of the participants’ languages. The phonemes were presented in audiovisual (AV and audio-only (A conditions. The results revealed that in the audio-only condition monolinguals and bilinguals had difficulties in discriminating the retroflex non-native phoneme. They were phonologically deaf and assimilated it to the dental phoneme that exists in their native languages. In the audiovisual presentation instead, both groups could overcome the phonological deafness for the retroflex non-native phoneme and identify both Bengali phonemes. However, monolinguals were more accurate and responded quicker than bilinguals. This suggests that bilinguals do not use the same processes as monolinguals to decode visual speech.

  2. The Effects of Audiovisual Inputs on Solving the Cocktail Party Problem in the Human Brain: An fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanqing; Wang, Fangyi; Chen, Yongbin; Cichocki, Andrzej; Sejnowski, Terrence

    2017-09-25

    At cocktail parties, our brains often simultaneously receive visual and auditory information. Although the cocktail party problem has been widely investigated under auditory-only settings, the effects of audiovisual inputs have not. This study explored the effects of audiovisual inputs in a simulated cocktail party. In our fMRI experiment, each congruent audiovisual stimulus was a synthesis of 2 facial movie clips, each of which could be classified into 1 of 2 emotion categories (crying and laughing). Visual-only (faces) and auditory-only stimuli (voices) were created by extracting the visual and auditory contents from the synthesized audiovisual stimuli. Subjects were instructed to selectively attend to 1 of the 2 objects contained in each stimulus and to judge its emotion category in the visual-only, auditory-only, and audiovisual conditions. The neural representations of the emotion features were assessed by calculating decoding accuracy and brain pattern-related reproducibility index based on the fMRI data. We compared the audiovisual condition with the visual-only and auditory-only conditions and found that audiovisual inputs enhanced the neural representations of emotion features of the attended objects instead of the unattended objects. This enhancement might partially explain the benefits of audiovisual inputs for the brain to solve the cocktail party problem. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. The Role of RT Carry-Over for Congruence Sequence Effects in Masked Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber-Huber, Christoph; Ansorge, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    The present study disentangles 2 sources of the congruence sequence effect with masked primes: congruence and response time of the previous trial (reaction time [RT] carry-over). Using arrows as primes and targets and a metacontrast masking procedure we found congruence as well as congruence sequence effects. In addition, congruence sequence…

  4. Prediction and constraint in audiovisual speech perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peelle, Jonathan E; Sommers, Mitchell S

    2015-07-01

    During face-to-face conversational speech listeners must efficiently process a rapid and complex stream of multisensory information. Visual speech can serve as a critical complement to auditory information because it provides cues to both the timing of the incoming acoustic signal (the amplitude envelope, influencing attention and perceptual sensitivity) and its content (place and manner of articulation, constraining lexical selection). Here we review behavioral and neurophysiological evidence regarding listeners' use of visual speech information. Multisensory integration of audiovisual speech cues improves recognition accuracy, particularly for speech in noise. Even when speech is intelligible based solely on auditory information, adding visual information may reduce the cognitive demands placed on listeners through increasing the precision of prediction. Electrophysiological studies demonstrate that oscillatory cortical entrainment to speech in auditory cortex is enhanced when visual speech is present, increasing sensitivity to important acoustic cues. Neuroimaging studies also suggest increased activity in auditory cortex when congruent visual information is available, but additionally emphasize the involvement of heteromodal regions of posterior superior temporal sulcus as playing a role in integrative processing. We interpret these findings in a framework of temporally-focused lexical competition in which visual speech information affects auditory processing to increase sensitivity to acoustic information through an early integration mechanism, and a late integration stage that incorporates specific information about a speaker's articulators to constrain the number of possible candidates in a spoken utterance. Ultimately it is words compatible with both auditory and visual information that most strongly determine successful speech perception during everyday listening. Thus, audiovisual speech perception is accomplished through multiple stages of integration

  5. Prediction and constraint in audiovisual speech perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peelle, Jonathan E.; Sommers, Mitchell S.

    2015-01-01

    During face-to-face conversational speech listeners must efficiently process a rapid and complex stream of multisensory information. Visual speech can serve as a critical complement to auditory information because it provides cues to both the timing of the incoming acoustic signal (the amplitude envelope, influencing attention and perceptual sensitivity) and its content (place and manner of articulation, constraining lexical selection). Here we review behavioral and neurophysiological evidence regarding listeners' use of visual speech information. Multisensory integration of audiovisual speech cues improves recognition accuracy, particularly for speech in noise. Even when speech is intelligible based solely on auditory information, adding visual information may reduce the cognitive demands placed on listeners through increasing precision of prediction. Electrophysiological studies demonstrate oscillatory cortical entrainment to speech in auditory cortex is enhanced when visual speech is present, increasing sensitivity to important acoustic cues. Neuroimaging studies also suggest increased activity in auditory cortex when congruent visual information is available, but additionally emphasize the involvement of heteromodal regions of posterior superior temporal sulcus as playing a role in integrative processing. We interpret these findings in a framework of temporally-focused lexical competition in which visual speech information affects auditory processing to increase sensitivity to auditory information through an early integration mechanism, and a late integration stage that incorporates specific information about a speaker's articulators to constrain the number of possible candidates in a spoken utterance. Ultimately it is words compatible with both auditory and visual information that most strongly determine successful speech perception during everyday listening. Thus, audiovisual speech perception is accomplished through multiple stages of integration, supported

  6. Decreased BOLD responses in audiovisual processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga-Post, Esther; Tomaskovic, Sonja; Slabu, Lavinia; Renken, Remco; de Smit, Femke; Duifhuis, Hendrikus

    2010-01-01

    Audiovisual processing was studied in a functional magnetic resonance imaging study using the McGurk effect. Perceptual responses and the brain activity patterns were measured as a function of audiovisual delay. In several cortical and subcortical brain areas, BOLD responses correlated negatively

  7. In Focus: Alcohol and Alcoholism Audiovisual Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Clearinghouse for Alcohol Information (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    This guide reviews audiovisual materials currently available on alcohol abuse and alcoholism. An alphabetical index of audiovisual materials is followed by synopses of the indexed materials. Information about the intended audience, price, rental fee, and distributor is included. This guide also provides a list of publications related to media…

  8. Audiovisual signs and information science: an evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalver Bethônico

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluates the relationship of Information Science with audiovisual signs, pointing out conceptual limitations, difficulties imposed by the verbal fundament of knowledge, the reduced use within libraries and the ways in the direction of a more consistent analysis of the audiovisual means, supported by the semiotics of Charles Peirce.

  9. Audiovisual Discrimination between Laughter and Speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petridis, Stavros; Pantic, Maja

    Past research on automatic laughter detection has focused mainly on audio-based detection. Here we present an audiovisual approach to distinguishing laughter from speech and we show that integrating the information from audio and video leads to an improved reliability of audiovisual approach in

  10. Open maps, behavioural equivalences, and congruences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Allan; Nielsen, Mogens

    1996-01-01

    Spans of open maps have been proposed by Joyal, Nielsen, and Winskel as a way of adjoining an abstract equivalence, P-bisimilarity, to a category of models of computation M, where P is an arbitrary sub-category of observations. Part of the motivation was to recast and generalise Milner's well...... viewed as functors preserve P-bisimilarity? We define the notion of functors being P -factorisable, show how this ensures that P-bisimilarity is a congruence with respect to such functors. Guided by the definition of P-factorisability we show how it is possible to parametrise proofs of functors being P...

  11. Some congruences for 3-component multipartitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Tao Yan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Let p3(n denote the number of 3-component multipartitions of n. Recently, using a 3-dissection formula for the generating function of p3(n, Baruah and Ojah proved that for n ≥ 0, p3(9n + 5 ≡ 0 (mod 33 and p3 (9n + 8 ≡ 0 (mod 34. In this paper, we prove several congruences modulo powers of 3 for p3(n by using some theta function identities. For example, we prove that for n ≥ 0, p3 (243n + 233 ≡ p3 (729n + 638 ≡ 0 (mod 310.

  12. A Review of Research on Person-Environment Congruence in Holland's Theory of Careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spokane, Arnold R.

    1985-01-01

    Examines correlational studies which consistently show significant, positive relationships between congruence and academic performance and persistence, job satisfaction, stability of choice, perceived congruence, and personality, but nonsignificant relationships between congruence and self-concept or sociability. More complex research designs…

  13. Cinco discursos da digitalidade audiovisual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerbase, Carlos

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Michel Foucault ensina que toda fala sistemática - inclusive aquela que se afirma “neutra” ou “uma desinteressada visão objetiva do que acontece” - é, na verdade, mecanismo de articulação do saber e, na seqüência, de formação de poder. O aparecimento de novas tecnologias, especialmente as digitais, no campo da produção audiovisual, provoca uma avalanche de declarações de cineastas, ensaios de acadêmicos e previsões de demiurgos da mídia.

  14. Audio-visual gender recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Xu, Xun; Huang, Thomas S.

    2007-11-01

    Combining different modalities for pattern recognition task is a very promising field. Basically, human always fuse information from different modalities to recognize object and perform inference, etc. Audio-Visual gender recognition is one of the most common task in human social communication. Human can identify the gender by facial appearance, by speech and also by body gait. Indeed, human gender recognition is a multi-modal data acquisition and processing procedure. However, computational multimodal gender recognition has not been extensively investigated in the literature. In this paper, speech and facial image are fused to perform a mutli-modal gender recognition for exploring the improvement of combining different modalities.

  15. A sound and efficient measure of joint congruence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conconi, Michele; Castelli, Vincenzo Parenti

    2014-09-01

    In the medical world, the term "congruence" is used to describe by visual inspection how the articular surfaces mate each other, evaluating the joint capability to distribute an applied load from a purely geometrical perspective. Congruence is commonly employed for assessing articular physiology and for the comparison between normal and pathological states. A measure of it would thus represent a valuable clinical tool. Several approaches for the quantification of joint congruence have been proposed in the biomechanical literature, differing on how the articular contact is modeled. This makes it difficult to compare different measures. In particular, in previous articles a congruence measure has been presented which proved to be efficient and suitable for the clinical practice, but it was still empirically defined. This article aims at providing a sound theoretical support to this congruence measure by means of the Winkler elastic foundation contact model which, with respect to others, has the advantage to hold also for highly conforming surfaces as most of the human articulations are. First, the geometrical relation between the applied load and the resulting peak of pressure is analytically derived from the elastic foundation contact model, providing a theoretically sound approach to the definition of a congruence measure. Then, the capability of congruence measure to capture the same geometrical relation is shown. Finally, the reliability of congruence measure is discussed. © IMechE 2014.

  16. Attention Modulation by Proportion Congruency: The Asymmetrical List Shifting Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamse, Elger L.; Duthoo, Wout; Notebaert, Wim; Risko, Evan F.

    2013-01-01

    Proportion congruency effects represent hallmark phenomena in current theorizing about cognitive control. This is based on the notion that proportion congruency determines the relative levels of attention to relevant and irrelevant information in conflict tasks. However, little empirical evidence exists that uniquely supports such an attention…

  17. Congruence and Welsh-English Code-Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuchar, Margaret

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to elucidating the notion of congruence in code-switching with particular reference to Welsh-English data. It has been suggested that a sufficient degree of congruence or equivalence between the constituents of one language and another is necessary in order for code-switching to take place. We shall distinguish…

  18. Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    Aim, content and methods are fundamental categories of both theoretical and practical general didactics. A quick glance in recent pedagogical literature on higher education, however, reveals a strong preoccupation with methods, i.e. how teaching should be organized socially (Biggs & Tang, 2007...... a theoretical approach, which takes complexity as fundamental premise for modern society (Luhmann, 1985, 2002). In educational situations conditionally valuable content generally will exceed what can actually be taught within the frames of an education. In pedagogy this situation is often referred...... to as ‘abundance of material’, and in many cases it is not obvious, how the line between actually chosen and conditionally relevant content can be draw. Difficulties in drawing the line between actual educational content and conditionally relevant content can be handled in different way. One way, quite efficient...

  19. Audiovisual quality assessment and prediction for videotelephony

    CERN Document Server

    Belmudez, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    The work presented in this book focuses on modeling audiovisual quality as perceived by the users of IP-based solutions for video communication like videotelephony. It also extends the current framework for the parametric prediction of audiovisual call quality. The book addresses several aspects related to the quality perception of entire video calls, namely, the quality estimation of the single audio and video modalities in an interactive context, the audiovisual quality integration of these modalities and the temporal pooling of short sample-based quality scores to account for the perceptual quality impact of time-varying degradations.

  20. Audiovisual Styling and the Film Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Birger

    2015-01-01

    Approaches to music and audiovisual meaning in film appear to be very different in nature and scope when considered from the point of view of experimental psychology or humanistic studies. Nevertheless, this article argues that experimental studies square with ideas of audiovisual perception...... and meaning in humanistic film music studies in two ways: through studies of vertical synchronous interaction and through studies of horizontal narrative effects. Also, it is argued that the combination of insights from quantitative experimental studies and qualitative audiovisual film analysis may actually...... that are more intimately linked with present concerns within humanistic film studies...

  1. Deriving Process Congruences from Reaction Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobocinski, Pawel

    form a category which has certain colimits. We shall begin by extending Leifer and Milner’s theory of reactive sys� tems to a 2�categorical setting. This development is motivated by the com� mon situation in which the contexts of a reactive system contain non�trivial algebraic structure...... of adhesive categories, we shall present a con� struction of GRPOs in input�linear cospan bicategories. As an immediate application, we shall shed light on as well as extend the theory of rewriting via borrowed contexts, due to Ehrig and K ̈onig. Secondly, we shall examine the implications of the construction......This thesis is concerned with the development of a theory which, given a formalism with a reduction semantics, allows the derivation of a canonical labelled transition system on which bisimilarity as well as other other equiv� alences are congruences; provided that the contexts of the formalism...

  2. Deriving Process Congruences from Reaction Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobocinski, Pawel

    This thesis is concerned with the development of a theory which, given a formalism with a reduction semantics, allows the derivation of a canonical labelled transition system on which bisimilarity as well as other other equiv� alences are congruences; provided that the contexts of the formalism...... well�behaved pushouts along monomorphisms. Adhesive categories also turn out to be a useful tool in the study and generalisation of the theory of double�pushout graph transformation systems, indeed, such systems have a rich rewriting theory when defined over adhesive categories. Armed with the theory...... of adhesive categories, we shall present a con� struction of GRPOs in input�linear cospan bicategories. As an immediate application, we shall shed light on as well as extend the theory of rewriting via borrowed contexts, due to Ehrig and K ̈onig. Secondly, we shall examine the implications of the construction...

  3. Designing between Pedagogies and Cultures: Audio-Visual Chinese Language Resources for Australian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yifeng; Shen, Huizhong

    2016-01-01

    This design-based study examines the creation and development of audio-visual Chinese language teaching and learning materials for Australian schools by incorporating users' feedback and content writers' input that emerged in the designing process. Data were collected from workshop feedback of two groups of Chinese-language teachers from primary…

  4. Audiovisual segregation in cochlear implant users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Landry

    Full Text Available It has traditionally been assumed that cochlear implant users de facto perform atypically in audiovisual tasks. However, a recent study that combined an auditory task with visual distractors suggests that only those cochlear implant users that are not proficient at recognizing speech sounds might show abnormal audiovisual interactions. The present study aims at reinforcing this notion by investigating the audiovisual segregation abilities of cochlear implant users in a visual task with auditory distractors. Speechreading was assessed in two groups of cochlear implant users (proficient and non-proficient at sound recognition, as well as in normal controls. A visual speech recognition task (i.e. speechreading was administered either in silence or in combination with three types of auditory distractors: i noise ii reverse speech sound and iii non-altered speech sound. Cochlear implant users proficient at speech recognition performed like normal controls in all conditions, whereas non-proficient users showed significantly different audiovisual segregation patterns in both speech conditions. These results confirm that normal-like audiovisual segregation is possible in highly skilled cochlear implant users and, consequently, that proficient and non-proficient CI users cannot be lumped into a single group. This important feature must be taken into account in further studies of audiovisual interactions in cochlear implant users.

  5. The development of audio-visual materials to prepare patients for medical procedures: an oncology application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, M; Schofield, P; Jefford, M; Krishnasamy, M; Aranda, S

    2007-09-01

    This paper describes a systematic process for the development of educational audio-visual materials that are designed to prepare patients for potentially threatening procedures. Literature relating to the preparation of patients for potentially threatening medical procedures, psychological theory, theory of diffusion of innovations and patient information was examined. Four key principles were identified as being important: (1) stakeholder consultation, (2) provision of information to prepare patients for the medical procedure, (3) evidence-based content, and (4) promotion of patient confidence. These principles are described along with an example of the development of an audio-visual resource to prepare patients for chemotherapy treatment. Using this example, practical strategies for the application of each of the principles are described. The principles and strategies described may provide a practical, evidence-based guide to the development of other types of patient audio-visual materials.

  6. Embodiment and Materialization in "Neutral" Materials: Using Audio-Visual Analysis to Discern Social Representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Hedenus

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of audio-visual media puts bodies literally in focus, but there is as yet surprisingly little in the methodology literature about how to analyze the body in this kind of material. The aim of this article is to illustrate how qualitative audio-visual analysis, focusing on embodiment and materialization, may be used to discern social representations; this is of especial interest when studying materials which have an explicit ambition to achieve "neutrality" without reference to certain kinds of bodies. Filmed occupational descriptions—produced by the Swedish Employment Agency (SEA—are analyzed and discussed. The examples presented in the article illustrate how various forms of audio-visual analysis—content analysis, sequential analysis and narrative analysis—can be used to reveal how social representations of occupations and practitioners are embodied and materialized in these films. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs160139

  7. Speech-specific audiovisual perception affects identification but not detection of speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskelund, Kasper; Andersen, Tobias

    Speech perception is audiovisual as evidenced by the McGurk effect in which watching incongruent articulatory mouth movements can change the phonetic auditory speech percept. This type of audiovisual integration may be specific to speech or be applied to all stimuli in general. To investigate...... this issue, Tuomainen et al. (2005) used sine-wave speech stimuli created from three time-varying sine waves tracking the formants of a natural speech signal. Naïve observers tend not to recognize sine wave speech as speech but become able to decode its phonetic content when informed of the speech...... of audiovisual integration specific to speech perception. However, the results of Tuomainen et al. might have been influenced by another effect. When observers were naïve, they had little motivation to look at the face. When informed, they knew that the face was relevant for the task and this could increase...

  8. A Similarity-Based Approach for Audiovisual Document Classification Using Temporal Relation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrane Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We propose a novel approach for video classification that bases on the analysis of the temporal relationships between the basic events in audiovisual documents. Starting from basic segmentation results, we define a new representation method that is called Temporal Relation Matrix (TRM. Each document is then described by a set of TRMs, the analysis of which makes events of a higher level stand out. This representation has been first designed to analyze any audiovisual document in order to find events that may well characterize its content and its structure. The aim of this work is to use this representation to compute a similarity measure between two documents. Approaches for audiovisual documents classification are presented and discussed. Experimentations are done on a set of 242 video documents and the results show the efficiency of our proposals.

  9. Mood congruence phenomenon in acutely symptomatic mania bipolar I disorder patients with and without psychotic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Vera B; Chaves, Márcia L

    2013-01-01

    Bipolar disorder causes substantial morbidity including cognitive impairment. The objective of the study was to evaluate memory performance of acutely mania bipolar I disorder (BD-I) patients with and without psychosis. We also aimed to assess the mood congruence phenomenon upon memory. A cross-sectional study was developed with BD-I patients (19 with, and 12 without psychotic symptoms), and 27 age- and education-paired healthy controls. Memory tests were selected to evaluate memory/attention performance. A verbal episodic memory task with affective content (word span) was also applied. A significant difference was observed in the scores of the word span task with positive tone among the three groups, controlling for number of mania episodes (p=.042). Nonpsychotic BD patients presented higher scores. There was a statistical tendency for BD-I patients with and without psychotic symptoms to perform poorer than healthy controls in the delayed recall of the logical memory test (p=.069). Psychotic and nonpsychotic mania BD-I patients showed mood congruence phenomenon in a verbal memory task with positive tone in relation to the healthy group. Evidence of mood congruence was found in the nonpsychotic group suggesting a purer manifestation of the disease.

  10. Workplace Congruence and Occupational Outcomes among Social Service Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, John R; Shier, Micheal L; Nicholas, David

    2016-06-01

    Workplace expectations reflect an important consideration in employee experience. A higher prevalence of workplace congruence between worker and employer expectations has been associated with higher levels of productivity and overall workplace satisfaction across multiple occupational groups. Little research has investigated the relationship between workplace congruence and occupational health outcomes among social service workers. This study sought to better understand the extent to which occupational congruence contributes to occupational outcomes by surveying unionised social service workers (n = 674) employed with the Government of Alberta, Canada. Multiple regression analysis shows that greater congruence between workplace and worker expectations around workloads, workplace values and the quality of the work environment significantly: (i) decreases symptoms related to distress and secondary traumatic stress; (ii) decreases intentions to leave; and (iii) increases overall life satisfaction. The findings provide some evidence of areas within the workplace of large government run social welfare programmes that can be better aligned to worker expectations to improve occupational outcomes among social service workers.

  11. Evaluación del protagonista-antagonista en los contenidos audiovisuales dirigidos a la infancia en cadenas de televisión españolas/Protagonist-antagonist evaluation in audiovisual content target on children on Spanish television

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carmen López-Sánchez; Victoria Tur Viñes; José A García del Castillo

    2010-01-01

      The goal of this study is to analyze the protagonist-antagonist profile in all television content scheduled for children in Spanish television channels, analyzing variables such as type and number...

  12. Timing of audiovisual inputs to the prefrontal cortex and multisensory integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanski, L M; Hwang, J

    2012-07-12

    A number of studies have demonstrated that the relative timing of audiovisual stimuli is especially important for multisensory integration of speech signals although the neuronal mechanisms underlying this complex behavior are unknown. Temporal coincidence and congruency are thought to underlie the successful merging of two intermodal stimuli into a coherent perceptual representation. It has been previously shown that single neurons in the non-human primate prefrontal cortex integrate face and vocalization information. However, these multisensory responses and the degree to which they depend on temporal coincidence have yet to be determined. In this study we analyzed the response latency of ventrolateral prefrontal (VLPFC) neurons to face, vocalization and combined face-vocalization stimuli and an offset (asynchronous) version of the face-vocalization stimulus. Our results indicate that for most prefrontal multisensory neurons, the response latency for the vocalization was the shortest, followed by the combined face-vocalization stimuli. The face stimulus had the longest onset response latency. When tested with a dynamic face-vocalization stimulus that had been temporally offset (asynchronous) one-third of multisensory cells in VLPFC demonstrated a change in response compared to the response to the natural, synchronous face-vocalization movie. Our results indicate that prefrontal neurons are sensitive to the temporal properties of audiovisual stimuli. A disruption in the temporal synchrony of an audiovisual signal which results in a change in the firing of communication related prefrontal neurons could underlie the loss in intelligibility which occurs with asynchronous speech stimuli. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Are tutor behaviors in problem-based learning stable?: a generalizability study of social congruence, expertise and cognitive congruence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Judith C; Alwis, W A M; Rotgans, Jerome I

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the stability of three distinct tutor behaviors (1) use of subject-matter expertise, (2) social congruence and (3) cognitive congruence, in a problem-based learning (PBL) environment. The data comprised the input from 16,047 different students to a survey of 762 tutors administered in three consecutive semesters. Over the three semesters each tutor taught two of the same course and one different course. A generalizability study was conducted to determine whether the tutor behaviors were generalizable across the three measurement occasions. The results indicate that three semesters are sufficient to make generalizations about all three tutor behaviors. In addition the results show that individual differences between tutors account for the greatest differences in levels of expertise, social congruence and cognitive congruence. The study concludes that tutor behaviors are fairly consistent in PBL and somewhat impervious to change. Implications of these findings for tutor training are discussed.

  14. A promessa do audiovisual interativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Baptista Winck

    Full Text Available A cadeia produtiva do audiovisual utiliza o capital cultural, especialmente a criatividade, como sua principal fonte de recursos, inaugurando o que se vem chamando de economia criativa. Essa cadeia de valor manufatura a inventividade como matéria-prima, transformado idéias em objetos de consumo de larga escala. A indústria da televisão está inserida num conglomerado maior de indústrias, como a da moda, das artes, da música etc. Esse gigantesco parque tecnológico reúne as atividades que têm a criação como valor, sua produção em escala como meio e o incremento da propriedade intelectual como fim em si mesmo. A industrialização da criatividade, aos poucos, está alterando o corpo teórico acerca do que se pensa sobre as relações de trabalho, as ferramentas e, acima de tudo, o conceito de bens como produto da inteligência.

  15. Gender congruency effects in picture naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alario, F-X; Matos, Rafael E; Segui, Juan

    2004-10-01

    The analysis of speech error corpora in various gender-marked languages has shown that noun substitutions tend to preserve grammatical gender. This result has been taken as an indication that grammatical gender could play a constraining role during the process of lexical selection. To gain insights on the status of grammatical gender in the speech production system, we discuss this hypothesis and we report three picture naming experiments. We attempted to observe gender-marked context effects in the course of error-free speech production. Participants named pictures shortly after processing a prime that was or was not gender marked and that was or was not congruent with the name of the picture. A clear congruency effect was observed, involving both facilitation in the gender congruent conditions and inhibition in gender incongruent conditions. Different interpretations of this effect and of previously reported gender context effects are discussed in the context of current models of speech production. Copyright 2004 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Categorical congruence facilitates multisensory associative learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barenholtz, Elan; Lewkowicz, David J; Davidson, Meredith; Mavica, Lauren

    2014-10-01

    Learning about objects often requires making arbitrary associations among multisensory properties, such as the taste and appearance of a food or the face and voice of a person. However, the multisensory properties of individual objects usually are statistically constrained, such that some properties are more likely to co-occur than others, on the basis of their category. For example, male faces are more likely to co-occur with characteristically male voices than with female voices. Here, we report evidence that these natural multisensory statistics play a critical role in the learning of novel, arbitrary associative pairs. In Experiment 1, we found that learning of pairs consisting of human voices and gender-congruent faces was superior to learning of pairs consisting of human voices and gender-incongruent faces or of pairs consisting of human voices and pictures of inanimate objects (plants and rocks). In Experiment 2, we found that this "categorical congruency" advantage extended to nonhuman stimuli, as well-namely, to pairs of class-congruent animal pictures and vocalizations (e.g., dogs and barks) versus class-incongruent pairs (e.g., dogs and bird chirps). These findings suggest that associating multisensory properties that are statistically consistent with the various objects that we encounter in our daily lives is a privileged form of learning.

  17. Lip movements affect infants' audiovisual speech perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, H Henny; Werker, Janet F

    2013-05-01

    Speech is robustly audiovisual from early in infancy. Here we show that audiovisual speech perception in 4.5-month-old infants is influenced by sensorimotor information related to the lip movements they make while chewing or sucking. Experiment 1 consisted of a classic audiovisual matching procedure, in which two simultaneously displayed talking faces (visual [i] and [u]) were presented with a synchronous vowel sound (audio /i/ or /u/). Infants' looking patterns were selectively biased away from the audiovisual matching face when the infants were producing lip movements similar to those needed to produce the heard vowel. Infants' looking patterns returned to those of a baseline condition (no lip movements, looking longer at the audiovisual matching face) when they were producing lip movements that did not match the heard vowel. Experiment 2 confirmed that these sensorimotor effects interacted with the heard vowel, as looking patterns differed when infants produced these same lip movements while seeing and hearing a talking face producing an unrelated vowel (audio /a/). These findings suggest that the development of speech perception and speech production may be mutually informative.

  18. Practicas de produccion audiovisual universitaria reflejadas en los trabajos presentados en la muestra audiovisual universitaria Ventanas 2005-2009

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Urbanczyk, Maria; Fernando Hernandez, Yesid; Uribe Reyes, Catalina

    2011-01-01

    Este articulo presenta los resultados de la investigacion realizada sobre la produccion audiovisual universitaria en Colombia, a partir de los trabajos presentados en la muestra audiovisual Ventanas 2005-2009...

  19. Proportion congruency effects: Instructions may be enough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga eEntel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Learning takes time, namely, one needs to be exposed to contingency relations between stimulus dimensions in order to learn, whereas intentional control can be recruited through task demands. Therefore showing that control can be recruited as a function of experimental instructions alone, that is, adapting the processing according to the instructions before the exposure to the task, can be taken as evidence for existence of control recruitment in the absence of learning. This was done by manipulating the information given at the outset of the experiment. In the first experiment, we manipulated list-level congruency proportion. Half of the participants were informed that most of the stimuli would be congruent, whereas the other half were informed that most of the stimuli would be incongruent. This held true for the stimuli in the second part of each experiment. In the first part, however, the proportion of the two stimulus types was equal. A proportion congruent effect was found in both parts of the experiment, but it was larger in the second part. In our second experiment, we manipulated the proportion of the stimuli within participants by applying an item-specific design. This was done by presenting some color words most often in their congruent color, and other color words in incongruent colors. Participants were informed about the exact word-color pairings in advance. Similar to Experiment 1, this held true only for the second experimental part. In contrast to our first experiment, informing participants in advance did not result in an item-specific proportion effect, which was observed only in the second part. Thus our results support the hypothesis that instructions may be enough to trigger list-level control, yet learning does contribute to the proportion congruent effect under such conditions. The item-level proportion effect is apparently caused by learning or at least it is moderated by it.

  20. Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor IJRED

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available International Journal of Renewable Energy Development www.ijred.com Volume 1             Number 3            October 2012                ISSN 2252- 4940   CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Design and Economic Analysis of a Photovoltaic System: A Case Study 65-73 C.O.C. Oko , E.O. Diemuodeke, N.F. Omunakwe, and E. Nnamdi     Development of Formaldehyde Adsorption using Modified Activated Carbon – A Review 75-80 W.D.P Rengga , M. Sudibandriyo and M. Nasikin     Process Optimization for Ethyl Ester Production in Fixed Bed Reactor Using Calcium Oxide Impregnated Palm Shell Activated Carbon (CaO/PSAC 81-86 A. Buasri , B. Ksapabutr, M. Panapoy and N. Chaiyut     Wind Resource Assessment in Abadan Airport in Iran 87-97 Mojtaba Nedaei       The Energy Processing by Power Electronics and its Impact on Power Quality 99-105 J. E. Rocha and B. W. D. C. Sanchez       First Aspect of Conventional Power System Assessment for High Wind Power Plants Penetration 107-113 A. Merzic , M. Music, and M. Rascic   Experimental Study on the Production of Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Its Effect on Diesel Engine 115-122 N. Shrivastava,  , S.N. Varma and M. Pandey  

  1. Literacia y memoria audiovisual de las dictaduras

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, Olivia

    2015-01-01

    Durante las dictaduras ibéricas fueron producidos noti- ciarios cinematográficos por los organismos de propaganda de los estados con la finalidad de controlar la información audiovisual y apoyar la difusión de los valores de los regíme- nes peninsulares. En la actualidad, este acervo de imágenes del pasado dictatorial ibérico constituye un archivo custodia- do por las filmotecas y archivos encargados de preservar la memoria audiovisual. En los últimos años, dichas imágenes han sido objeto de ...

  2. Sharing killed the AVMSD star: the impossibility of European audiovisual media regulation in the era of the sharing economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrek Ibrus

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the challenges that the ‘sharing economy’ presents to the updating of the European Union’s (EU Audiovisual Media Service Directive (AVMSD, part of the broader Digital Single Market (DSM strategy of the EU. It suggests that the convergence of media markets and the emergence of video-sharing platforms may make the existing regulative tradition obsolete. It demonstrates an emergent need for regulatory convergence – AVMSD to create equal terms for all technical forms of content distribution. It then shows how the operational logic of video-sharing platforms undermines the AVMSD logic aimed at creating demand for professionally produced European content – leading potentially to the liberalisation of the EU audiovisual services market. Lastly, it argues that the DSM strategy combined with sharing-related network effects may facilitate the evolution of the oligopolistic structure in the EU audiovisual market, potentially harmful for cultural diversity.

  3. Attention to touch weakens audiovisual speech integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsius, Agnès; Navarra, Jordi; Soto-Faraco, Salvador

    2007-11-01

    One of the classic examples of multisensory integration in humans occurs when speech sounds are combined with the sight of corresponding articulatory gestures. Despite the longstanding assumption that this kind of audiovisual binding operates in an attention-free mode, recent findings (Alsius et al. in Curr Biol, 15(9):839-843, 2005) suggest that audiovisual speech integration decreases when visual or auditory attentional resources are depleted. The present study addressed the generalization of this attention constraint by testing whether a similar decrease in multisensory integration is observed when attention demands are imposed on a sensory domain that is not involved in speech perception, such as touch. We measured the McGurk illusion in a dual task paradigm involving a difficult tactile task. The results showed that the percentage of visually influenced responses to audiovisual stimuli was reduced when attention was diverted to a tactile task. This finding is attributed to a modulatory effect on audiovisual integration of speech mediated by supramodal attention limitations. We suggest that the interactions between the attentional system and crossmodal binding mechanisms may be much more extensive and dynamic than it was advanced in previous studies.

  4. Audiovisual Instruction in Pediatric Pharmacy Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutchie, Kelly D.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    A pharmacy practice program added to the core baccalaureate curriculum at the University of Utah College of Pharmacy which includes a practice in pediatrics is described. An audiovisual program in pediatric diseases and drug therapy was developed. This program allows the presentation of more material without reducing clerkship time. (Author/MLW)

  5. Short Communication: Preservation of Photographs and Audiovisual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is argued that the audiovisual heritage which has remained largely untapped or is scattered both within individual nations or has been collected and carried overseas holds the key to collective memory. The current lack of requisite resources for the collection and preservation of this cultural heritage remains a major ...

  6. Audiovisual laughter detection based on temporal features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petridis, Stavros; Pantic, Maja

    2008-01-01

    Previous research on automatic laughter detection has mainly been focused on audio-based detection. In this study we present an audio-visual approach to distinguishing laugh- ter from speech based on temporal features and we show that integrating the information from audio and video chan- nels leads

  7. Rapid, generalized adaptation to asynchronous audiovisual speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Burg, Erik; Goodbourn, Patrick T

    2015-04-07

    The brain is adaptive. The speed of propagation through air, and of low-level sensory processing, differs markedly between auditory and visual stimuli; yet the brain can adapt to compensate for the resulting cross-modal delays. Studies investigating temporal recalibration to audiovisual speech have used prolonged adaptation procedures, suggesting that adaptation is sluggish. Here, we show that adaptation to asynchronous audiovisual speech occurs rapidly. Participants viewed a brief clip of an actor pronouncing a single syllable. The voice was either advanced or delayed relative to the corresponding lip movements, and participants were asked to make a synchrony judgement. Although we did not use an explicit adaptation procedure, we demonstrate rapid recalibration based on a single audiovisual event. We find that the point of subjective simultaneity on each trial is highly contingent upon the modality order of the preceding trial. We find compelling evidence that rapid recalibration generalizes across different stimuli, and different actors. Finally, we demonstrate that rapid recalibration occurs even when auditory and visual events clearly belong to different actors. These results suggest that rapid temporal recalibration to audiovisual speech is primarily mediated by basic temporal factors, rather than higher-order factors such as perceived simultaneity and source identity. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Longevity and Depreciation of Audiovisual Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Richard

    1987-01-01

    Describes results of survey of media service directors at public universities in Ohio to determine the expected longevity of audiovisual equipment. Use of the Delphi technique for estimates is explained, results are compared with an earlier survey done in 1977, and use of spreadsheet software to calculate depreciation is discussed. (LRW)

  9. Audiovisual vocal outburst classification in noisy conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eyben, Florian; Petridis, Stavros; Schuller, Björn; Pantic, Maja

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigate an audiovisual approach for classification of vocal outbursts (non-linguistic vocalisations) in noisy conditions using Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) Recurrent Neural Networks and Support Vector Machines. Fusion of geometric shape features and acoustic low-level

  10. Audiovisual Asynchrony Detection in Human Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Joost X.; Di Luca, Massimiliano; Noppeney, Uta

    2011-01-01

    Combining information from the visual and auditory senses can greatly enhance intelligibility of natural speech. Integration of audiovisual speech signals is robust even when temporal offsets are present between the component signals. In the present study, we characterized the temporal integration window for speech and nonspeech stimuli with…

  11. Audio-Visual Technician | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Controls the inventory of portable audio-visual equipment and mobile telephones within IDRC's loans library. Delivers, installs, uninstalls and removes equipment reserved by IDRC staff through the automated booking system. Participates in the planning process for upgrade and /or acquisition of new audio-visual ...

  12. Socialized charismatic leadership, values congruence, and deviance in work groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael E; Treviño, Linda K

    2006-07-01

    The authors conducted a field study to investigate the relationship between socialized charismatic leadership and deviance in work groups. Because socialized charismatic leaders are thought to play an ethical leadership role, the authors hypothesized that the socialized charismatic leadership style would be associated with reduced deviance in the leader's work group. This prediction was supported for both the interpersonal and the organizational dimensions of deviance. Next, the authors examined the mediating role of values congruence. The results were partially supportive of the values congruence mediating hypothesis. Implications for future research and for management are discussed. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Memory mood congruency phenomenon in bipolar I disorder and major depression disorder patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.B. Delgado

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate memory performance in tasks with and without affective content (to confirm the mood congruency phenomenon in acutely admitted patients with bipolar I disorder (BD and major depression disorder (MDD and in healthy participants. Seventy-eight participants (24 BD, 29 MDD, and 25 healthy controls were evaluated. Three word lists were used as the memory task with affective content (positive, negative and indifferent. Psychiatric symptoms were also evaluated with rating scales (Young Mania Rating Scale for mania and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale for depression. Patients were selected during the first week of hospitalization. BD patients showed higher scores in the word span with positive tone than MDD patients and healthy controls (P = 0.002. No other difference was observed for tests with affective tone. MDD patients presented significantly lower scores in the Mini-Mental State Exam, logical memory test, visual recognition span, and digit span, while BD patients presented lower scores in the visual recognition test and digit span. Mood congruency effect was found for word span with positive tone among BD patients but no similar effect was observed among MDD patients for negative items. MDD patients presented more memory impairment than BD patients, but BD patients also showed memory impairment

  14. Epistemological Belief Congruency in Mathematics between Vocational Technology Students and Their Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schommer-Aikins, Marlene; Unruh, Susan; Morphew, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Three questions were addressed in this study. Is there evidence of epistemological beliefs congruency between students and their instructor? Do students' epistemological beliefs, students' epistemological congruence, or both predict mathematical anxiety? Do students' epistemological beliefs, students' epistemological congruence, or both predict…

  15. The Digital Turn in the French Audiovisual Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Alexandre

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the digital turn in the French audiovisual model. An organizational and legal system has evolved with changing technology and economic forces over the past thirty years. The high-income television industry served as the key element during the 1980s to compensate for a shifting value economy from movie theaters to domestic screens and personal devices. However, the growing competition in the TV sector and the rise of tech companies have initiated a disruption process. A challenged French conception copyright, the weakened position of TV channels and the scaling of content market all now call into question the sustainability of the French model in a digital era.

  16. Partner choice, relationship satisfaction, and oral contraception: the congruency hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, S Craig; Little, Anthony C; Burriss, Robert P; Cobey, Kelly D; Klapilová, Kateřina; Havlíček, Jan; Jones, Benedict C; DeBruine, Lisa; Petrie, Marion

    2014-07-01

    Hormonal fluctuation across the menstrual cycle explains temporal variation in women's judgment of the attractiveness of members of the opposite sex. Use of hormonal contraceptives could therefore influence both initial partner choice and, if contraceptive use subsequently changes, intrapair dynamics. Associations between hormonal contraceptive use and relationship satisfaction may thus be best understood by considering whether current use is congruent with use when relationships formed, rather than by considering current use alone. In the study reported here, we tested this congruency hypothesis in a survey of 365 couples. Controlling for potential confounds (including relationship duration, age, parenthood, and income), we found that congruency in current and previous hormonal contraceptive use, but not current use alone, predicted women's sexual satisfaction with their partners. Congruency was not associated with women's nonsexual satisfaction or with the satisfaction of their male partners. Our results provide empirical support for the congruency hypothesis and suggest that women's sexual satisfaction is influenced by changes in partner preference associated with change in hormonal contraceptive use. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Numerical Congruency Effect in the Sentence-Picture Verification Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šetić, Mia; Domijan, Dražen

    2017-05-01

    In two experiments, we showed that irrelevant numerical information influenced the speed of sentence-picture verification. Participants were asked to verify whether the concept mentioned in a sentence matched the object presented in a subsequent picture. Concurrently, the number word attached to the concept in the sentence and the quantity of objects presented in the picture were manipulated (numerical congruency). The number of objects varied from one to four. In Experiment 1, participants read statements such as three dogs. In Experiment 2, they read sentences such as three dogs were wandering in the street. In both experiments, the verification speed revealed the interaction between response and numerical congruency. The verification times for concept-object match were faster when there was also numerical congruence (compared with incongruence) between the number word and quantity. On the other hand, there was no difference between numerical congruence and incongruence when the concept and object mismatched. The results are interpreted as evidence for the symbol grounding of number words in perceptual representation of small quantities, that is, quantities falling in the subitization range.

  18. Job Satisfaction Related to Tested Congruence and Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, James D.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Studied personality-environment congruence and differentiation, singly and in combination, as measured by the Vocational Preference Inventory. Results indicated that these variables predicted reported job satisfaction for 247 teachers employed in five subject matter areas. Time-related variables and sex were not significantly related to job…

  19. Unmasking the dichoptic mask by sound: spatial congruency matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yung-Hao; Yeh, Su-Ling

    2014-04-01

    People tend to look toward where a sound occurs; however, the role of spatial congruency between sound and sight in the effect of sound facilitation on visual detection remains controversial. We propose that the role of spatial congruency depends on the reliability of the information provided by the facilitator; if it is relatively unreliable, adding spatially congruent information can help to unify different sensory inputs to compensate for this unreliability. To test this, we examine the influence of sound location on visual detection with a non-temporal task, presumably unfavorable for sound since it is better for temporal resolution, and predict that spatial congruency should matter in this situation. We used the continuous flash suppression paradigm that makes the visual stimuli invisible to keep the relationship of sound and sight opaque. The sound is on the same depth plane as the visual stimulus (the congruent condition) or on a different plane (the incongruent condition). The target was presented to one eye with luminance contrast gradually increased and continuously masked by flashed Mondrian masks presented to the other eye until the target was released from suppression. We found that sound facilitated visual detection (measured by released-from-suppression time) in the spatially congruent condition but not in the spatially incongruent condition. Together with previous findings in the literature, it is suggested that both task type and modality determine the reliability of the information for multisensory integration and thus determine whether spatial congruency is critical.

  20. Multilevel analysis of couple congruence on pain, interference, and disability

    OpenAIRE

    Cano, Annmarie; Johansen, Ayna B.; Franz, Aleda

    2005-01-01

    Couple congruence on ratings of pain severity and disability were examined using hierarchical linear modeling. Older community Individuals with Chronic Pain (ICPs) and their spouses completed the Multidimensional Pain Inventory (pain severity, interference, negative spouse responses to pain), Sickness Impact Profile (physical disability, psychosocial disability), and the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (psychological distress). Both spouses reported on ICPs' pain and disability as well...

  1. Simultaneous representations of semilattices by lattices with permutable congruences

    CERN Document Server

    Tuma, J; Tuma, Jiri; Wehrung, Friedrich

    2001-01-01

    The Congruence Lattice Problem (CLP), stated by R. P. Dilworth in the forties, asks whether every distributive {∨, 0}-semilatticeS is isomorphic to the semilattice Conc L of compact congruences of a lattice L. While this problem is still open, many partial solutions have been obtained, positive and negative as well. The solution to CLP is known to be positive for all S such that $|S|\\leq\\aleph\\_1$. Furthermore, one can then take L with permutable congruences. This contrasts with the case where $|S| \\geq\\aleph\\_2$, where there are counterexamples S for which L cannot be, for example, sectionally complemented. We prove in this paper that the lattices of these counterexamples cannot have permutable congruences as well. We also isolate finite, combinatorial analogues of these results. All the "finite" statements that we obtain are amalgamation properties of the Conc functor. The strongest known positive results, which originate in earlier work by the first author, imply tha...

  2. Congruence of Parental Perception, Marital Satisfaction, and Child Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Lucy Rau; Allen, Deborah R.

    1978-01-01

    Parents completed the Locke-Wallace Scale, the Interpersonal Checklist, and the Children's Behavior Checklist to assess marital satisfaction, congruence of perceptions, and agreement in perceptions of their child and child adjustment. Variables were positively intercorrelated. Similarity in partners' self-concepts and psychological empathy were…

  3. On some congruence with application to exponential sums

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Introduction. Divisibility is an essential property between elements of algebraic structures. As we know, the concept of congruence originates from that of divisibility and it is not only a convenient notation but also a very helpful method to prove many theorems in number theory. For this reason, almost every textbook for ...

  4. Congruency between role perception and role performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to ascertain the level of congruency between extension agents' role perception and role performance with a view to providing policy makers and extension practitioners with better understanding of the role inconsistencies that are contributing to the ineffectiveness of extension agents and in ...

  5. Sequence length variation, indel costs, and congruence in sensitivity analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagesen, Lone; Petersen, Gitte; Seberg, Ole

    2005-01-01

    The behavior of two topological and four character-based congruence measures was explored using different indel treatments in three empirical data sets, each with different alignment difficulties. The analyses were done using direct optimization within a sensitivity analysis framework in which...

  6. Measuring Perceptual (In) Congruence between Information Service Providers and Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Crystal

    2017-01-01

    Library quality is no longer evaluated solely on the value of its collections, as user perceptions of service quality play an increasingly important role in defining overall library value. This paper presents a retooling of the LibQUAL+ survey instrument, blending the gap measurement model with perceptual congruence model studies from information…

  7. Noun classification and congruence in German and Zulu – a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and Sotho languages and textbooks aimed specifically at the needs of South African learners of German as a foreign language have become a necessity. The focal point of this article is a comparison of the congruence systems in German and Zulu. Keywords: contrastive analysis, cognitive approach to language learning, ...

  8. Value congruence, the success of group farming in Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evidence from organisational sociology indicates that in high performing groups the gap between group and individual value is narrow. The objective of the study is to determine the degree of value congruence between group and individual value, in group farm schemes and to link this to the functioning of the group farm.

  9. Close chromosomal congruence in two species of ground squirrel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Close chromosomal congruence in two species of ground squirrel: Xerus inauris and X. princeps. (Rodentia: Sciuridae). T.J. Robinson, • .1.0. Skinner and A.S. Haim. Mammal Research Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria. Chromosomes from cultured fibroblasts of two southern. African ground squirrel species, Xerus ina ...

  10. Connection associated with a congruence and inertial forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llosa, J.; Soler, D.

    The properties defining uniquely the connection associated with a congruence of world lines are stated. The equations of motion and energy for a test particle are presented using this connection. This permits to introduce the notions of inertial forces in General Relativity. Equivalents results were obtained by Cattaneo, but here manifest covariance is preserved.

  11. The effect of congruence in policy priorities on electoral participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reher, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes that voters are more likely to turn out at elections if candidates and parties address their issue concerns in the election campaign. Voters with high levels of congruence in policy priorities should perceive the campaign as more interesting and the election as more relevant. ...

  12. The effect of characterisation training on the congruence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... facial expression, led to believable/congruent role play and improved communication on various levels. Conclusion. The post-training outcomes showed clear improvement regarding the congruence of SP portrayals. The changes can be contributed to SP training focused on 3D character development by creating subtext, ...

  13. The effect of the lecture discussion teaching method with and without audio-visual augmentation on immediate and retention learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrusyszyn, M A

    1990-06-01

    This study determined whether students taught using the lecture-discussion method augmented with audio-visuals would achieve a higher mean score on an immediate post-test and delayed retention test than students presented with a lecture-discussion without audio-visuals. A convenience sample of 52 students divided into two groups voluntarily participated in the quasi-experiment. Two teaching sessions averaging 90 minutes in length were taught by the researcher. Learning and retention were measured by a 10-item multiple choice test with content validity. Immediate learning was measured with a post-test administered immediately following each of the teaching sessions. Delayed learning was measured with a retention test administered 25.5 days following the teaching sessions. Group data was analysed using an independent one tailed t-test for mean scores. Students attending the lecture-discussion with audio-visual augmentation did not achieve significantly higher mean scores on the two tests than the non-augmented group (p less than or equal to 0.05). Analysis using a paired t-test revealed that the difference in scores between the post-test and retention test for the group without audio-visual augmentation was significant (t = 2.31; p less than 0.05). Delayed retention appears to have been influenced by the use of audio-visuals. Nurse educators need to consider ways in which the lecture-discussion may be enhanced to maximise student learning and retention.

  14. Efficient visual search from synchronized auditory signals requires transient audiovisual events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Burg, E.; Cass, J.R.; Olivers, C.N.L.; Theeuwes, J.; Alais, D

    2010-01-01

    Background: A prevailing view is that audiovisual integration requires temporally coincident signals. However, a recent study failed to find any evidence for audiovisual integration in visual search even when using synchronized audiovisual events. An important question is what information is

  15. The Impact of Politics 2.0 in the Spanish Social Media: Tracking the Conversations around the Audiovisual Political Wars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera, José M.; Correyero, Beatriz

    After the consolidation of weblogs as interactive narratives and producers, audiovisual formats are gaining ground on the Web. Videos are spreading all over the Internet and establishing themselves as a new medium for political propaganda inside social media with tools so powerful like YouTube. This investigation proceeds in two stages: on one hand we are going to examine how this audiovisual formats have enjoyed an enormous amount of attention in blogs during the Spanish pre-electoral campaign for the elections of March 2008. On the other hand, this article tries to investigate the social impact of this phenomenon using data from a content analysis of the blog discussion related to these videos centered on the most popular Spanish political blogs. Also, we study when the audiovisual political messages (made by politicians or by users) "born" and "die" in the Web and with what kind of rules they do.

  16. Estatuto do Audiovisual de TV na Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KILPP, Suzana

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O artigo é um relato parcial da pesquisa Audiovisualidades Digitais que realizamos de 2009 a 2011. Fazemos uma rápida incursão em alguns sites de emissoras de TV na Internet para autenticar os tipos de postagens de vídeo (e suas características imagéticas na circunvizinhança de outras postagens que participam do design de interface das homes e das watchpages dos mesmos, e assim tecer considerações preliminares sobre o estatuto do audiovisual de TV na Internet. Tais considerações são tensionadas por conceitos de Benjamin, Bergson, Bolter e Grusin, Derrida, Flusser, Kilpp, Manovich, e McLuhan, e inscrevem-se numa ecologia audiovisual que vimos perseguindo em nossas pesquisas.

  17. Automated social skills training with audiovisual information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiroki; Sakti, Sakriani; Neubig, Graham; Negoro, Hideki; Iwasaka, Hidemi; Nakamura, Satoshi

    2016-08-01

    People with social communication difficulties tend to have superior skills using computers, and as a result computer-based social skills training systems are flourishing. Social skills training, performed by human trainers, is a well-established method to obtain appropriate skills in social interaction. Previous works have attempted to automate one or several parts of social skills training through human-computer interaction. However, while previous work on simulating social skills training considered only acoustic and linguistic features, human social skills trainers take into account visual features (e.g. facial expression, posture). In this paper, we create and evaluate a social skills training system that closes this gap by considering audiovisual features regarding ratio of smiling, yaw, and pitch. An experimental evaluation measures the difference in effectiveness of social skill training when using audio features and audiovisual features. Results showed that the visual features were effective to improve users' social skills.

  18. Audiovisual data fusion for successive speakers tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Labourey, Quentin; Aycard, Olivier; Pellerin, Denis; Rombaut, Michèle

    2014-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, a human speaker tracking method on audio and video data is presented. It is applied to con- versation tracking with a robot. Audiovisual data fusion is performed in a two-steps process. Detection is performed independently on each modality: face detection based on skin color on video data and sound source localization based on the time delay of arrival on audio data. The results of those detection processes are then fused thanks to an adaptation of bayes...

  19. Documental Audiovisual sobre el teatro callejero.

    OpenAIRE

    Chancusi Chiguano, Tatiana Andrea; Quinatoa Medina, Margarita Belén

    2016-01-01

    The product consists of a video documentary that last 27 minutes 32 seconds, which subject is street theater. The work of people that perform this activity in public space stands out in this audiovisual product. It is highlighting women’s role in this kind of theater. The video chronicles the experiences, reflections, and the daily comings and goings of Sonia Flores, also known in the art world as Maria Lola Vaca del Campo (Cow of the field); it also chronicles the relatio...

  20. 'When birds of a feather flock together': synesthetic correspondences modulate audiovisual integration in non-synesthetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Valerio Parise

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Synesthesia is a condition in which the stimulation of one sense elicits an additional experience, often in a different (i.e., unstimulated sense. Although only a small proportion of the population is synesthetic, there is growing evidence to suggest that neurocognitively-normal individuals also experience some form of synesthetic association between the stimuli presented to different sensory modalities (i.e., between auditory pitch and visual size, where lower frequency tones are associated with large objects and higher frequency tones with small objects. While previous research has highlighted crossmodal interactions between synesthetically corresponding dimensions, the possible role of synesthetic associations in multisensory integration has not been considered previously. METHODOLOGY: Here we investigate the effects of synesthetic associations by presenting pairs of asynchronous or spatially discrepant visual and auditory stimuli that were either synesthetically matched or mismatched. In a series of three psychophysical experiments, participants reported the relative temporal order of presentation or the relative spatial locations of the two stimuli. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The reliability of non-synesthetic participants' estimates of both audiovisual temporal asynchrony and spatial discrepancy were lower for pairs of synesthetically matched as compared to synesthetically mismatched audiovisual stimuli. CONCLUSIONS: Recent studies of multisensory integration have shown that the reduced reliability of perceptual estimates regarding intersensory conflicts constitutes the marker of a stronger coupling between the unisensory signals. Our results therefore indicate a stronger coupling of synesthetically matched vs. mismatched stimuli and provide the first psychophysical evidence that synesthetic congruency can promote multisensory integration. Synesthetic crossmodal correspondences therefore appear to play a crucial (if unacknowledged

  1. Pitch contour impairment in congenital amusia: New insights from the Self-paced Audio-visual Contour Task (SACT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xuejing; Sun, Yanan; Ho, Hao Tam; Thompson, William Forde

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with congenital amusia usually exhibit impairments in melodic contour processing when asked to compare pairs of melodies that may or may not be identical to one another. However, it is unclear whether the impairment observed in contour processing is caused by an impairment of pitch discrimination, or is a consequence of poor pitch memory. To help resolve this ambiguity, we designed a novel Self-paced Audio-visual Contour Task (SACT) that evaluates sensitivity to contour while placing minimal burden on memory. In this task, participants control the pace of an auditory contour that is simultaneously accompanied by a visual contour, and they are asked to judge whether the two contours are congruent or incongruent. In Experiment 1, melodic contours varying in pitch were presented with a series of dots that varied in spatial height. Amusics exhibited reduced sensitivity to audio-visual congruency in comparison to control participants. To exclude the possibility that the impairment arises from a general deficit in cross-modal mapping, Experiment 2 examined sensitivity to cross-modal mapping for two other auditory dimensions: timbral brightness and loudness. Amusics and controls were significantly more sensitive to large than small contour changes, and to changes in loudness than changes in timbre. However, there were no group differences in cross-modal mapping, suggesting that individuals with congenital amusia can comprehend spatial representations of acoustic information. Taken together, the findings indicate that pitch contour processing in congenital amusia remains impaired even when pitch memory is relatively unburdened.

  2. Pitch contour impairment in congenital amusia: New insights from the Self-paced Audio-visual Contour Task (SACT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejing Lu

    Full Text Available Individuals with congenital amusia usually exhibit impairments in melodic contour processing when asked to compare pairs of melodies that may or may not be identical to one another. However, it is unclear whether the impairment observed in contour processing is caused by an impairment of pitch discrimination, or is a consequence of poor pitch memory. To help resolve this ambiguity, we designed a novel Self-paced Audio-visual Contour Task (SACT that evaluates sensitivity to contour while placing minimal burden on memory. In this task, participants control the pace of an auditory contour that is simultaneously accompanied by a visual contour, and they are asked to judge whether the two contours are congruent or incongruent. In Experiment 1, melodic contours varying in pitch were presented with a series of dots that varied in spatial height. Amusics exhibited reduced sensitivity to audio-visual congruency in comparison to control participants. To exclude the possibility that the impairment arises from a general deficit in cross-modal mapping, Experiment 2 examined sensitivity to cross-modal mapping for two other auditory dimensions: timbral brightness and loudness. Amusics and controls were significantly more sensitive to large than small contour changes, and to changes in loudness than changes in timbre. However, there were no group differences in cross-modal mapping, suggesting that individuals with congenital amusia can comprehend spatial representations of acoustic information. Taken together, the findings indicate that pitch contour processing in congenital amusia remains impaired even when pitch memory is relatively unburdened.

  3. On the Role of Crossmodal Prediction in Audiovisual Emotion Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah eJessen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Humans rely on multiple sensory modalities to determine the emotional state of others. In fact, such multisensory perception may be one of the mechanisms explaining the ease and efficiency by which others’ emotions are recognized. But how and when exactly do the different modalities interact? One aspect in multisensory perception that has received increasing interest in recent years is the concept of crossmodal prediction. In emotion perception, as in most other settings, visual information precedes the auditory one. Thereby, leading in visual information can facilitate subsequent auditory processing. While this mechanism has often been described in audiovisual speech perception, it has not been addressed so far in audiovisual emotion perception. Based on the current state of the art in (a crossmodal prediction and (b multisensory emotion perception research, we propose that it is essential to consider the former in order to fully understand the latter. Focusing on electroencephalographic (EEG and magnetoencephalographic (MEG studies, we provide a brief overview of the current research in both fields. In discussing these findings, we suggest that emotional visual information may allow for a more reliable prediction of auditory information compared to non-emotional visual information. In support of this hypothesis, we present a re-analysis of a previous data set that shows an inverse correlation between the N1 response in the EEG and the duration of visual emotional but not non-emotional information. If the assumption that emotional content allows for more reliable predictions can be corroborated in future studies, crossmodal prediction is a crucial factor in our understanding of multisensory emotion perception.

  4. Brand extensions: brand concept congruency and feedback effects revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Thorbjørnsen, Helge

    2005-01-01

    -This is the author's version of the article:"Brand extensions: brand concept congruency and feedback effects revisited" Journal of Product & Brand Management, Vol. 14 Iss: 4, pp.250 - 257, Abstract Purpose – The aim of this research is to examine the effects of congruent and incongruent brand concept extensions on consumer attitudes towards the extended product and feedback effects on the parent brand. Moreover, brand familiarity is proposed as an important mo...

  5. Identifying Gifted Children: Congruence among Different IQ Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Estrella Fernández; Trinidad García; Olga Arias-Gundín; Almudena Vázquez; Celestino Rodríguez

    2017-01-01

    This study has two main aims: (1) analysing the relationship between intellectual capacities and levels of creativity in a sample of Spanish students from the third and sixth grades; and (2) examining the discrimination capacities and degree of congruence among different tests of intellectual ability that are commonly used to identify high-ability students. The study sample comprised 236 primary school students. Participants completed different tests of intellectual ability, which were based ...

  6. Preservation and Management of Audiovisual Archives in Botswana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reviews the state of the audio-visual collections held by different government institutions in Botswana. The rationale of such review rests on the observation that although audiovisual materials constitute a vital information resource in such institutions, they are often not adequately managed after they are created.

  7. Use of Audiovisual Texts in University Education Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrov, Evgeniy P.

    2014-01-01

    Audio-visual learning technologies offer great opportunities in the development of students' analytical and projective abilities. These technologies can be used in classroom activities and for homework. This article discusses the features of audiovisual media texts use in a series of social sciences and humanities in the University curriculum.

  8. Decision-level fusion for audio-visual laughter detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reuderink, B.; Poel, M.; Truong, K.; Poppe, R.; Pantic, M.

    2008-01-01

    Laughter is a highly variable signal, which can be caused by a spectrum of emotions. This makes the automatic detection of laughter a challenging, but interesting task. We perform automatic laughter detection using audio-visual data from the AMI Meeting Corpus. Audio-visual laughter detection is

  9. The Audio-Visual Marketing Handbook for Independent Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Tom

    This how-to booklet offers specific advice on producing video or slide/tape programs for marketing independent schools. Five chapters present guidelines for various stages in the process: (1) Audio-Visual Marketing in Context (aesthetics and economics of audiovisual marketing); (2) A Question of Identity (identifying the audience and deciding on…

  10. Thesaurus enrichment for query expansion in audiovisual archives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollink, L.; Malaise, V.; Schreiber, A.Th.

    2010-01-01

    It is common practice in audiovisual archives to disclose documents using metadata from a structured vocabulary or thesaurus. Many of these thesauri have limited or no structure. The objective of this paper is to find out whether retrieval of audiovisual resources from a collection indexed with an

  11. Thesaurus enrichment for query expansion in audiovisual archives.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollink, L.; Malaisé, V.; Schreiber, A.Th.

    2009-01-01

    It is common practice in audiovisual archives to disclose documents using metadata from a structured vocabulary or thesaurus. Many of these thesauri have limited or no structure. The objective of this paper is to find out whether retrieval of audiovisual resources from a collection indexed with an

  12. Survey of audiovisual standards and practices in health sciences libraries.

    OpenAIRE

    McCarthy, J

    1983-01-01

    A survey of audiovisual (AV) practices in health sciences libraries was conducted by the Audiovisual Standards and Practices Committee of the Medical Library Association. The objective was to determine the variety and extent of AV practices currently in use in health sciences libraries, as a preliminary step toward developing AV standards.

  13. Exposure to audiovisual programs as sources of authentic language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exposure to audiovisual programs as sources of authentic language input and second language acquisition in informal settings. ... Also, the present study reveals that the choice of authentic audiovisual input seems to have a more significant impact on language development compared to the amount of exposure. Southern ...

  14. Congruence analysis of point clouds from unstable stereo image sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Jepping

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the correction of exterior orientation parameters of stereo image sequences over deformed free-form surfaces without control points. Such imaging situation can occur, for example, during photogrammetric car crash test recordings where onboard high-speed stereo cameras are used to measure 3D surfaces. As a result of such measurements 3D point clouds of deformed surfaces are generated for a complete stereo sequence. The first objective of this research focusses on the development and investigation of methods for the detection of corresponding spatial and temporal tie points within the stereo image sequences (by stereo image matching and 3D point tracking that are robust enough for a reliable handling of occlusions and other disturbances that may occur. The second objective of this research is the analysis of object deformations in order to detect stable areas (congruence analysis. For this purpose a RANSAC-based method for congruence analysis has been developed. This process is based on the sequential transformation of randomly selected point groups from one epoch to another by using a 3D similarity transformation. The paper gives a detailed description of the congruence analysis. The approach has been tested successfully on synthetic and real image data.

  15. The natural statistics of audiovisual speech.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandramouli Chandrasekaran

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Humans, like other animals, are exposed to a continuous stream of signals, which are dynamic, multimodal, extended, and time varying in nature. This complex input space must be transduced and sampled by our sensory systems and transmitted to the brain where it can guide the selection of appropriate actions. To simplify this process, it's been suggested that the brain exploits statistical regularities in the stimulus space. Tests of this idea have largely been confined to unimodal signals and natural scenes. One important class of multisensory signals for which a quantitative input space characterization is unavailable is human speech. We do not understand what signals our brain has to actively piece together from an audiovisual speech stream to arrive at a percept versus what is already embedded in the signal structure of the stream itself. In essence, we do not have a clear understanding of the natural statistics of audiovisual speech. In the present study, we identified the following major statistical features of audiovisual speech. First, we observed robust correlations and close temporal correspondence between the area of the mouth opening and the acoustic envelope. Second, we found the strongest correlation between the area of the mouth opening and vocal tract resonances. Third, we observed that both area of the mouth opening and the voice envelope are temporally modulated in the 2-7 Hz frequency range. Finally, we show that the timing of mouth movements relative to the onset of the voice is consistently between 100 and 300 ms. We interpret these data in the context of recent neural theories of speech which suggest that speech communication is a reciprocally coupled, multisensory event, whereby the outputs of the signaler are matched to the neural processes of the receiver.

  16. Panorama de les fonts audiovisuals internacionals en televisió : contingut, gestió i drets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López de Solís, Iris

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Les cadenes generalistes espanyoles (nacionals i autonòmiques disposen de diferents fonts audiovisuals per informar dels temes internacionals, com ara agències, consorcis de notícies i corresponsalies. En aquest article, a partir de les dades facilitades per diferents cadenes, s'aborda la cobertura, l'ús i la gestió d'aquestes fonts, així com també els seus drets d'ús i arxivament, i s'analitza la història i les eines en línia de les agències més emprades. Finalment, es descriu la tasca diària del departament d'Eurovision de TVE, al qual fa uns mesos s'han incorporat documentalistes que, a més de tractar documentalment el material audiovisual, duen a terme tasques d'edició i de producció.Las cadenas generalistas españolas (nacionales y autonómicas cuentan con diferentes fuentes audiovisuales para informar de los temas internacionales, como agencias, consorcios de noticias y corresponsalías. En este artículo, a partir de los datos facilitados por diferentes cadenas, se aborda la cobertura, el uso y la gestión de dichas fuentes, así como sus derechos de uso y archivado, y se analiza la historia y las herramientas en línea de las agencias más empleadas. Finalmente se describe la labor diaria del departamento de Eurovision de TVE, al que hace unos meses se han incorporado documentalistas que, además de tratar documentalmente el material audiovisual, realizan labores de edición y producción.At both national and regional levels, Spain’s main public service television channels rely upon a number of independent producers of audiovisual content to deliver news on international affairs, including news agencies and consortia and correspondent networks. Using the data provided by different channels, this paper examines the coverage, use and management of these sources as well as the regulations determining their use and storage. It also analyzes the history of the most prominent agencies and the online toolkits they offer

  17. Islam and Democracy: Conflicts and Congruence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Nazrul Islam

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Is authoritarianism intrinsic to Islam? Is Islam incompatible with democracy? These questions are frequently debated in the context of the study of the relationship between the Western and Islamic civilization. The debate has gained momentum since the last decade of the twentieth century, especially after the collapse of the former Soviet Union and the subsequent transition of socialist states in Eastern Europe and other authoritarian states in Asia and Latin America to democracy. The publication of The Clash of Civilizations by American scholar Samuel Huntington, in which he presented a controversial argument about a cultural divide and clash between the Islamic world and the West, pushed the debate even further. Apart from Muslim intellectuals, Western academics have spent a significant amount of time on these questions, with a multitude of articles and volumes examining the compatibility of Islam and democracy. In this paper, we will examine Islam’s relationship with democracy from normative and philosophical viewpoints, examining how the established values and principles of Islam as reflected in the Qur’anic and prophetic traditions correspond to Western democratic norms and practices. In order to obtain a profound understanding of this subject, we have delved into, through content analysis, the thoughts of several early modernist Islamic scholars who have had tremendous impact on contemporary Islamic revivalist movements throughout the world, and interviewed a number of contemporary Islamic thinkers in Bangladesh.

  18. Alterations in audiovisual simultaneity perception in amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Michael D; Goltz, Herbert C; Wong, Agnes M F

    2017-01-01

    Amblyopia is a developmental visual impairment that is increasingly recognized to affect higher-level perceptual and multisensory processes. To further investigate the audiovisual (AV) perceptual impairments associated with this condition, we characterized the temporal interval in which asynchronous auditory and visual stimuli are perceived as simultaneous 50% of the time (i.e., the AV simultaneity window). Adults with unilateral amblyopia (n = 17) and visually normal controls (n = 17) judged the simultaneity of a flash and a click presented with both eyes viewing. The signal onset asynchrony (SOA) varied from 0 ms to 450 ms for auditory-lead and visual-lead conditions. A subset of participants with amblyopia (n = 6) was tested monocularly. Compared to the control group, the auditory-lead side of the AV simultaneity window was widened by 48 ms (36%; p = 0.002), whereas that of the visual-lead side was widened by 86 ms (37%; p = 0.02). The overall mean window width was 500 ms, compared to 366 ms among controls (37% wider; p = 0.002). Among participants with amblyopia, the simultaneity window parameters were unchanged by viewing condition, but subgroup analysis revealed differential effects on the parameters by amblyopia severity, etiology, and foveal suppression status. Possible mechanisms to explain these findings include visual temporal uncertainty, interocular perceptual latency asymmetry, and disruption of normal developmental tuning of sensitivity to audiovisual asynchrony.

  19. Categorization of natural dynamic audiovisual scenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olli Rummukainen

    Full Text Available This work analyzed the perceptual attributes of natural dynamic audiovisual scenes. We presented thirty participants with 19 natural scenes in a similarity categorization task, followed by a semi-structured interview. The scenes were reproduced with an immersive audiovisual display. Natural scene perception has been studied mainly with unimodal settings, which have identified motion as one of the most salient attributes related to visual scenes, and sound intensity along with pitch trajectories related to auditory scenes. However, controlled laboratory experiments with natural multimodal stimuli are still scarce. Our results show that humans pay attention to similar perceptual attributes in natural scenes, and a two-dimensional perceptual map of the stimulus scenes and perceptual attributes was obtained in this work. The exploratory results show the amount of movement, perceived noisiness, and eventfulness of the scene to be the most important perceptual attributes in naturalistically reproduced real-world urban environments. We found the scene gist properties openness and expansion to remain as important factors in scenes with no salient auditory or visual events. We propose that the study of scene perception should move forward to understand better the processes behind multimodal scene processing in real-world environments. We publish our stimulus scenes as spherical video recordings and sound field recordings in a publicly available database.

  20. Audiovisual Simultaneity Judgment and Rapid Recalibration throughout the Lifespan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul Noel

    Full Text Available Multisensory interactions are well established to convey an array of perceptual and behavioral benefits. One of the key features of multisensory interactions is the temporal structure of the stimuli combined. In an effort to better characterize how temporal factors influence multisensory interactions across the lifespan, we examined audiovisual simultaneity judgment and the degree of rapid recalibration to paired audiovisual stimuli (Flash-Beep and Speech in a sample of 220 participants ranging from 7 to 86 years of age. Results demonstrate a surprisingly protracted developmental time-course for both audiovisual simultaneity judgment and rapid recalibration, with neither reaching maturity until well into adolescence. Interestingly, correlational analyses revealed that audiovisual simultaneity judgments (i.e., the size of the audiovisual temporal window of simultaneity and rapid recalibration significantly co-varied as a function of age. Together, our results represent the most complete description of age-related changes in audiovisual simultaneity judgments to date, as well as being the first to describe changes in the degree of rapid recalibration as a function of age. We propose that the developmental time-course of rapid recalibration scaffolds the maturation of more durable audiovisual temporal representations.

  1. Audiovisual Interval Size Estimation Is Associated with Early Musical Training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Kathryn Abel

    Full Text Available Although pitch is a fundamental attribute of auditory perception, substantial individual differences exist in our ability to perceive differences in pitch. Little is known about how these individual differences in the auditory modality might affect crossmodal processes such as audiovisual perception. In this study, we asked whether individual differences in pitch perception might affect audiovisual perception, as it relates to age of onset and number of years of musical training. Fifty-seven subjects made subjective ratings of interval size when given point-light displays of audio, visual, and audiovisual stimuli of sung intervals. Audiovisual stimuli were divided into congruent and incongruent (audiovisual-mismatched stimuli. Participants' ratings correlated strongly with interval size in audio-only, visual-only, and audiovisual-congruent conditions. In the audiovisual-incongruent condition, ratings correlated more with audio than with visual stimuli, particularly for subjects who had better pitch perception abilities and higher nonverbal IQ scores. To further investigate the effects of age of onset and length of musical training, subjects were divided into musically trained and untrained groups. Results showed that among subjects with musical training, the degree to which participants' ratings correlated with auditory interval size during incongruent audiovisual perception was correlated with both nonverbal IQ and age of onset of musical training. After partialing out nonverbal IQ, pitch discrimination thresholds were no longer associated with incongruent audio scores, whereas age of onset of musical training remained associated with incongruent audio scores. These findings invite future research on the developmental effects of musical training, particularly those relating to the process of audiovisual perception.

  2. Entorno de creación de contenido audiovisual

    OpenAIRE

    IBÁÑEZ SEMPERE, JORGE

    2015-01-01

    En este PFC se pone a disposición de cualquier interesado un completo entorno de creación de contenido audiovisual, valiéndonos del plató creado en la ETSIT, podremos trabajar con un chroma, emplear software de edición, adquirir nociones básicas de audiovisual e incluso llegar a emitir nuestro propio programa en streaming Ibáñez Sempere, J. (2015). Entorno de creación de contenido audiovisual. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/51432. Archivo delegado

  3. The effect of combined sensory and semantic components on audio-visual speech perception in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguinness, Corrina; Setti, Annalisa; Burke, Kate E; Kenny, Rose Anne; Newell, Fiona N

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have found that perception in older people benefits from multisensory over unisensory information. As normal speech recognition is affected by both the auditory input and the visual lip movements of the speaker, we investigated the efficiency of audio and visual integration in an older population by manipulating the relative reliability of the auditory and visual information in speech. We also investigated the role of the semantic context of the sentence to assess whether audio-visual integration is affected by top-down semantic processing. We presented participants with audio-visual sentences in which the visual component was either blurred or not blurred. We found that there was a greater cost in recall performance for semantically meaningless speech in the audio-visual 'blur' compared to audio-visual 'no blur' condition and this effect was specific to the older group. Our findings have implications for understanding how aging affects efficient multisensory integration for the perception of speech and suggests that multisensory inputs may benefit speech perception in older adults when the semantic content of the speech is unpredictable.

  4. The effect of combined sensory and semantic components on audio-visual speech perception in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrina eMaguinness

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have found that perception in older people benefits from multisensory over uni-sensory information. As normal speech recognition is affected by both the auditory input and the visual lip-movements of the speaker, we investigated the efficiency of audio and visual integration in an older population by manipulating the relative reliability of the auditory and visual information in speech. We also investigated the role of the semantic context of the sentence to assess whether audio-visual integration is affected by top-down semantic processing. We presented participants with audio-visual sentences in which the visual component was either blurred or not blurred. We found that there was a greater cost in recall performance for semantically meaningless speech in the audio-visual blur compared to audio-visual no blur condition and this effect was specific to the older group. Our findings have implications for understanding how aging affects efficient multisensory integration for the perception of speech and suggests that multisensory inputs may benefit speech perception in older adults when the semantic content of the speech is unpredictable.

  5. Accuracy and congruence of patient and physician weight-related discussions: from Project CHAT (Communicating Health: Analyzing Talk)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, Michael E.; Dolor, Rowena J.; Óstbye, Truls; Lyna, Pauline; Alexander, Stewart C.; Tulsky, James A.; Pollak, Kathryn I.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Primary care providers should counsel overweight patients to lose weight. Rates of self-reported weight-related counseling vary, perhaps due to self-report bias. We assessed accuracy and congruence of weight-related discussions among patients, physicians, and audio-recorded encounters. Methods We audio recorded encounters between physicians (n=40) and their overweight/obese patients (n=461) at five community-based practices. We coded weight-related content and surveyed patients and physicians immediately after the visit. Generalized linear mixed models assessed factors associated with accuracy. Results Overall, accuracy was moderate: patient (67%), physician (70%), and congruence (62%). When encounters contained weight-related content were analyzed, patients (98%) and physicians (97%) were highly accurate and congruent (95%) but when weight was not discussed patients and physicians were more inaccurate and incongruent (patient 36%; physician 44%; 28% congruence). Physicians less comfortable discussing weight were more likely to misreport that weight was discussed [OR = 4.5 (95% CI=1.88–10.75, p<0.001)]. White physicians with African-American patients were more likely to report accurately no discussion about weight than White physicians with White patients OR=0.30 (95% CI=0.13–0.69, p<0.01). Conclusion Physician and patient self-report of weight-related discussions were highly accurate and congruent when audio-recordings indicated weight was discussed, but not when recordings indicated no weight discussions. Physician overestimation of weight discussions when weight is not discussed constitutes missed opportunities for health interventions. PMID:24390888

  6. A cultural congruence test for primary school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayanova L. F.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study presented in this article relies on the principles of the cultural-historical theory, which defines cultural impact as the main driving force behind psychological development. Based on the assumption that culture is a set of normative situations, the study identifies rules that are typical for primary school students in big Russian cities. These rules are grouped into what we refer to as factors of cultural compliance, which ultimately can be seen as indicators of pupils’ cultural congruence. In specifying the cultural congruence of primary school students, we take into account not only the rules of school life but also the whole range of stable rules for children 7- to 10-years-old. Researchers at the Psychology Institute of the Higher University of the Chinese Academy of Science (Wang, Zhu, & Shi, 2011 call such rules usual or contextually usual. We include rules that govern the behavior of children who have cultural differences, so in this article we are talking about the rules that are typical for children of this age in Russia. The goal of the study was to develop a test to diagnose the level of cultural congruence. The test was exposed to psychometric evaluation for validity, reliability, and discriminatory power. Factor analysis by means of varimax rotation provided for calibration of the rules by consolidating them into factors. These factors underpin the test and include the categories social interaction, academic competence, regulation, obedience, self-service, and self-control. In accordance with the principles employed in psychology, the factors confirm the construct validity of the test in relation to children’s development when they are between 7 and 10 years old. The study confirms that learning is the main activity at this age by introducing a factor that brings together rules inherent in normative situations in the education process. The social setting for psychological development, viewed as a specific

  7. Congruence lattices of free lattices in non-distributive varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Ploscica, M; Wehrung, F; Ploscica, Miroslav; Tuma, Jiri; Wehrung, Friedrich

    2005-01-01

    We prove that for any free lattice F with at least $\\aleph\\_2$ generators in any non-distributive variety of lattices, there exists no sectionally complemented lattice L with congruence lattice isomorphic to the one of F. This solves a question formulated by Gr\\"{a}tzer and Schmidt in 1962. This yields in turn further examples of simply constructed distributive semilattices that are not isomorphic to the semilattice of finitely generated two-sided ideals in any von Neumann regular ring.

  8. Nuevos actores sociales en el escenario audiovisual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Rosique Cedillo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A raíz de la entrada de las televisiones privadas al sector audiovisual español, el panorama de los contenidos de entretenimiento de la televisión generalista vivió cambios trascendentales que se vieron reflejados en las parrillas de programación. Esta situación ha abierto la polémica en torno a la disyuntiva de tener o no una televisión, sea pública o privada, que no cumple con las expectativas sociales esperadas. Esto ha motivado a que grupos civiles organizados en asociaciones de telespectadores, emprendan diversas acciones con el objetivo de incidir en el rumbo que los contenidos de entretenimiento vienen tomando, apostando fuertemente por la educación del receptor en relación a los medios audiovisuales, y por la participación ciudadana en torno a los temas televisivos.

  9. Ordinal models of audiovisual speech perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    Audiovisual information is integrated in speech perception. One manifestation of this is the McGurk illusion in which watching the articulating face alters the auditory phonetic percept. Understanding this phenomenon fully requires a computational model with predictive power. Here, we describe...... ordinal models that can account for the McGurk illusion. We compare this type of models to the Fuzzy Logical Model of Perception (FLMP) in which the response categories are not ordered. While the FLMP generally fit the data better than the ordinal model it also employs more free parameters in complex...... experiments when the number of response categories are high as it is for speech perception in general. Testing the predictive power of the models using a form of cross-validation we found that ordinal models perform better than the FLMP. Based on these findings we suggest that ordinal models generally have...

  10. Las aventuras de Zamba. Apuntes sobre la comunicación audiovisual en un canal infantil del Ministerio de Educación argentino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Crivelli

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Las aventuras de Zamba. Some Notes on Audiovisual Communication in a TV Channel for Children of the Argentinian Ministry of Education. Abstract: From 2009, within the frame of a process of de-monopolization of audiovisual communication, several public policies were developed in Argentina with the purpose of extending participation in the production of audiovisual contents. In this paper, the main aesthetic qualities of an audiovisual program, Las aventuras de Zamba, produced by a State-run TV channel for children, are analyzed. Some tensions risen in the relationship state / market, producing artistic representations about otherness, are examined. Keywords: television, series, children, Argentina, education, otherness. // Las aventuras de Zamba. Apuntes sobre la comunicación audiovisual en un canal infantil del Ministerio de Educación argentino. Resumen: A partir del 2009 en la Argentina, en el marco de un proceso de democratización y desmonopolización de la comunicación audiovisual, se implementaron diversas políticas públicas destinadas a extender la participación en la producción de imágenes y relatos de todo el país. A partir del análisis de la relación entre ciertos aspectos estéticos del principal producto audiovisual de una señal infantil, dependiente del Ministerio de educación nacional, se examinan las tensiones existentes en la relación Estado / Mercado, que se traducen en representaciones y estéticas sobre la otredad. Palabras clave: televisión, serie, educación, Argentina, otredad

  11. Talker Variability in Audiovisual Speech Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon eHeald

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A change in talker is a change in the context for the phonetic interpretation of acoustic patterns of speech. Different talkers have different mappings between acoustic patterns and phonetic categories and listeners need to adapt to these differences. Despite this complexity, listeners are adept at comprehending speech in multiple-talker contexts, albeit at a slight but measurable performance cost (e.g., slower recognition. So far, this talker-variability cost has been demonstrated only in audio-only speech. Other research in single-talker contexts have shown, however, that when listeners are able to see a talker’s face, speech recognition is improved under adverse listening (e.g., noise or distortion conditions that can increase uncertainty in the mapping between acoustic patterns and phonetic categories. Does seeing a talker's face reduce the cost of word recognition in multiple-talker contexts? We used a speeded word-monitoring task in which listeners make quick judgments about target-word recognition in single- and multiple-talker contexts. Results show faster recognition performance in single-talker conditions compared to multiple-talker conditions for both audio-only and audio-visual speech. However, recognition time in a multiple-talker context was slower in the audio-visual condition compared to audio-only condition. These results suggest that seeing a talker’s face during speech perception may slow recognition by increasing the importance of talker identification, signaling to the listener a change in talker has occurred.

  12. An Instrumented Glove for Control Audiovisual Elements in Performing Arts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Tavares

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of cutting-edge technologies such as wearable devices to control reactive audiovisual systems are rarely applied in more conventional stage performances, such as opera performances. This work reports a cross-disciplinary approach for the research and development of the WMTSensorGlove, a data-glove used in an opera performance to control audiovisual elements on stage through gestural movements. A system architecture of the interaction between the wireless wearable device and the different audiovisual systems is presented, taking advantage of the Open Sound Control (OSC protocol. The developed wearable system was used as audiovisual controller in “As sete mulheres de Jeremias Epicentro”, a portuguese opera by Quarteto Contratempus, which was premiered in September 2017.

  13. Audiovisual interpretative skills: between textual culture and formalized literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefanía Jiménez, Ph. D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study on the process of acquiring interpretative skills to decode audiovisual texts among adolescents and youth. Based on the conception of such competence as the ability to understand the meanings connoted beneath the literal discourses of audiovisual texts, this study compared two variables: the acquisition of such skills from the personal and social experience in the consumption of audiovisual products (which is affected by age difference, and, on the second hand, the differences marked by the existence of formalized processes of media literacy. Based on focus groups of young students, the research assesses the existing academic debate about these processes of acquiring skills to interpret audiovisual materials.

  14. Audio-visual detection benefits in the rat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gleiss, Stephanie; Kayser, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    ... multisensory protocols. We here demonstrate the feasibility of an audio-visual stimulus detection task for rats, in which the animals detect lateralized uni- and multi-sensory stimuli in a two-response forced choice paradigm...

  15. Reference frame congruency in search-and-rescue tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovic, Nada J; Keillor, Jocelyn; Hollands, Justin G; Chignell, Mark H

    2009-04-01

    Our aim was to investigate how the congruency between visual displays and auditory cues affects performance on various spatial tasks. Previous studies have demonstrated that spatial auditory cues, when combined with visual displays, can enhance performance and decrease workload. However, this facilitation was achieved only when auditory cues shared a common reference frame (RF) with the visual display. In complex and dynamic environments, such as airborne search and rescue (SAR), it is often difficult to ensure such congruency. In a simulated SAR operation, participants performed three spatial tasks: target search, target localization, and target recall. The interface consisted of the camera view of the terrain from the aircraft-mounted sensor, a map of the area flown over, a joystick that controlled the sensor, and a mouse. Auditory cues were used to indicate target location. While flying in the scenario, participants searched for targets, identified their locations in one of two coordinate systems, and memorized their location relative to the terrain layout. Congruent cues produced the fastest and most accurate performance. Performance advantages were observed even with incongruent cues relative to neutral cues, and egocentric cues were more effective than exocentric cues. Although the congruent cues are most effective, in cases in which the same cue is used across spatial tasks, egocentric cues are a better choice than exocentric cues. Egocentric auditory cues should be used in display design for tasks that involve RF transformations, such as SAR, air traffic control, and unmanned aerial vehicle operations.

  16. The heterogeneous world of congruency sequence effects: An update.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wout eDuthoo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Congruency sequence effects (CSEs refer to the observation that congruency effects in conflict tasks are typically smaller following incongruent compared to following congruent trials. This measure has long been thought to provide a unique window into top-down attentional adjustments and their underlying brain mechanisms. According to the renowned conflict monitoring theory, CSEs reflect enhanced selective attention following conflict detection. Still, alternative accounts suggested that bottom-up associative learning suffices to explain the pattern of reaction times and error rates. A couple of years ago, a review by Egner (2007 pitted these two rivalry accounts against each other, concluding that both conflict adaptation and feature integration contribute to the CSE. Since then, a wealth of studies has further debated this issue, and two additional accounts have been proposed, offering intriguing alternative explanations. Contingency learning accounts put forward that predictive relationships between stimuli and responses drive the CSE, whereas the repetition expectancy hypothesis suggests that top-down, expectancy-driven control adjustments affect the CSE. In the present paper, we build further on the previous review (Egner, 2007 by summarizing and integrating recent behavioural and neurophysiological studies on the CSE. In doing so, we evaluate the relative contribution and theoretical value of the different attentional and memory-based accounts. Moreover, we review how all of these influences can be experimentally isolated, and discuss designs and procedures that can critically judge between them.

  17. Self-Concept--Performance Congruence: An Exploration of Patterns among High-Achieving Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Janice E.

    1998-01-01

    Self-concept to performance congruence among academically able adolescents (54 females, 49 males) in both math and English was explored. Although analyses revealed similar congruence patterns for females and males in both subject areas, the overall majority of these able learners fell outside the congruent range. (Author/CR)

  18. A Monte Carlo Study of the Sampling Distribution of the Congruence Coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broodbooks, Wendy J.; Elmore, Patricia B.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of sample size, number of variables, and population value of the congruence coefficient on the sampling distribution of the congruence coefficient were examined. Sample data were generated on the basis of the common factor model, and principal axes factor analyses were performed. (Author/LMO)

  19. Making sense, nonsense, and no-sense when representing audio-visual collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Theis Vallø

    2017-01-01

    This chapter taps into broader discussions about digital culture, big data, user-generated content, and presence theory. It reconsiders methods for organizing and visualizing large data sets, in particular audio-visual collections, by addressing sense-making, nonsense-making, and no......-sense-making in the work on mapping and representing these collections. Visualizing collections of art and other artifacts forces us to consider methods of sense-making and nonsense-making as a desirable byproduct of crowd-sourcing. In all this, we must not forget “no sense”, or perhaps more precise “presence...

  20. Smart Content Factory—Approaching the Vision

    OpenAIRE

    G. Güntner; Reich, S.

    2005-01-01

    In our paper we describe the objectives and achievements of a project called “Smart Content Factory”. The project aims at the creation of a knowledge-aware system infrastructure to support the utilization of audiovisual content. We will provide an overview of the project objectives and introduce “digital content engineering” as a scientific discipline dealing with concepts, methodologies, techniques and tools for a quantifiable approach towards the vision of smart content, thereby addressing ...

  1. Narrativa audiovisual. Estrategias y recursos [Reseña

    OpenAIRE

    Cuenca Jaramillo, María Dolores

    2011-01-01

    Reseña del libro "Narrativa audiovisual. Estrategias y recursos" de Fernando Canet y Josep Prósper. Cuenca Jaramillo, MD. (2011). Narrativa audiovisual. Estrategias y recursos [Reseña]. Vivat Academia. Revista de Comunicación. Año XIV(117):125-130. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/46210 Senia 125 130 Año XIV 117

  2. Audio-visual perception of new wind parks

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, T.; Behm, H.; Bill, R.; Kang, J.

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have reported negative impacts of wind parks on the public. These studies considered the noise levels or visual levels separately but not audio-visual interactive factors. This study investigated the audio-visual impact of a new wind park using virtual technology that combined audio and visual features of the environment. Participants were immersed through Google Cardboard in an actual landscape without wind parks (ante operam) and in the same landscape with wind parks (post ...

  3. Lousa Digital Interativa: avaliação da interação didática e proposta de aplicação de narrativa audiovisual / Interactive White Board – IWB: assessment in interaction didactic and audiovisual narrative proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco García García

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O uso de audiovisual em sala de aula não garante uma eficácia na aprendizagem, mas para os estudantes é um elemento interessante e ainda atrativo. Este trabalho — uma aproximação de duas pesquisas: a primeira apresenta a importância da interação didática com a LDI e a segunda, uma lista de elementos de narrativa audiovisual que podem ser aplicados em sala de aula — propõe o domínio de elementos da narrativa audiovisual como uma possibilidade teórica para o professor que quer produzir um conteúdo audiovisual para aplicar em plataformas digitais, como é o caso da Lousa Digital Interativa - LDI. O texto está divido em três partes: a primeira apresenta os conceitos teóricos das duas pesquisas, a segunda discute os resultados de ambas e, por fim, a terceira parte propõe uma prática pedagógica de interação didática com elementos de narrativa audiovisual para uso em LDI. AbstractThe audiovisual use in classroom does not guarantee effectiveness in learning, but for students is an interesting element and still attractive. This work suggests that the field of audiovisual elements of the narrative is a theoretical possibility for the teacher who wants to produce an audiovisual content to apply to digital platforms, such as the Interactive Digital Whiteboard - LDI. This work is an approximation of two doctoral theses, the first that shows the importance of interaction with the didactic and the second LDI provides a list of audiovisual narrative elements that can be applied in the classroom. This work is divided into three parts, the first part presents the theoretical concepts of the two surveys, the second part discusses the results of two surveys and finally the third part, proposes a practical pedagogical didactic interaction with audiovisual narrative elements to use in LDI.

  4. The Impact of Topic Congruence on Second Language Reading Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Sadeghpour

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study scrutinized the impact of congruent topics on the quality of L2 reading comprehension. 56 Iranian advanced-level students read 2 texts on a controversial topic, one on the advantages of child gender selection, and the other on disadvantages. Quality analysis of immediate and delayed recall tasks, defined as the amount of high and low-level information recalled correctly, was performed by analysis of variance. Results revealed that topic congruence affected immediate recall of both high and low-level information, and also delayed recall of low-level information. Findings showed that the effect of congruent topics on reading recall was detrimental; participants recalled less information from the passage with congruent topic than a passage with incongruent topic. Outcomes of the study suggest that controversial topics should be selected more cautiously, because they may not truly reflect L2 readers’ reading comprehension.

  5. Congruence of decay chains of elements 113, 115, and 117

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forsberg Ulrika

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Superheavy element research relies heavily on the detection of correlated decay chains. When several chains have been detected, it is natural to ask whether they form one congruent set, or whether they should be further divided into subsets. To statistically assess the congruence between the chains in a data set, we developed a procedure to calculate a Figure-of-Merit for low-number statistics. In this work, the method is applied to the world data set of odd-Z superheavy nuclei with Z ≥ 113. Some of the postulated sets of chains are found to be congruent, while others are not. The findings are of relevance for the IUPAC and IUPAP approvals of the new elements Z = 113, 115, and 117.

  6. Congruence of decay chains of elements 113, 115, and 117

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Ulrika; Fahlander, Claes; Rudolph, Dirk

    2016-12-01

    Superheavy element research relies heavily on the detection of correlated decay chains. When several chains have been detected, it is natural to ask whether they form one congruent set, or whether they should be further divided into subsets. To statistically assess the congruence between the chains in a data set, we developed a procedure to calculate a Figure-of-Merit for low-number statistics. In this work, the method is applied to the world data set of odd-Z superheavy nuclei with Z ≥ 113. Some of the postulated sets of chains are found to be congruent, while others are not. The findings are of relevance for the IUPAC and IUPAP approvals of the new elements Z = 113, 115, and 117.

  7. Identifying Gifted Children: Congruence among Different IQ Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Estrella; García, Trinidad; Arias-Gundín, Olga; Vázquez, Almudena; Rodríguez, Celestino

    2017-01-01

    This study has two main aims: (1) analysing the relationship between intellectual capacities and levels of creativity in a sample of Spanish students from the third and sixth grades; and (2) examining the discrimination capacities and degree of congruence among different tests of intellectual ability that are commonly used to identify high-ability students. The study sample comprised 236 primary school students. Participants completed different tests of intellectual ability, which were based on both fluid and crystallized intelligence, as well as creativity. Results indicated that it is advisable to use varying tests in the assessment process, and a complementary measure (i.e., creativity) in order to create a multi-criteria means of detection that can more efficiently distinguish this population of students.

  8. Identifying Gifted Children: Congruence among Different IQ Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrella Fernández

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study has two main aims: (1 analysing the relationship between intellectual capacities and levels of creativity in a sample of Spanish students from the third and sixth grades; and (2 examining the discrimination capacities and degree of congruence among different tests of intellectual ability that are commonly used to identify high-ability students. The study sample comprised 236 primary school students. Participants completed different tests of intellectual ability, which were based on both fluid and crystallized intelligence, as well as creativity. Results indicated that it is advisable to use varying tests in the assessment process, and a complementary measure (i.e., creativity in order to create a multi-criteria means of detection that can more efficiently distinguish this population of students.

  9. [Mood-congruency effects in self-relevant words].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, M

    1997-04-01

    In this experiment, one of three moods: positive, negative, neutral, was induced with Velten technique and music. Subjects were then presented with a word at a time from a list of trait words, which were pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral. They were to decide whether the word described their self, and respond with 'yes' (relevant) or 'no' (irrelevant) buttons. After the task, they were given five minutes for an incidental free recall test. Results indicated that induced mood affected memory, but not judgements of self-relevance. Mood congruent recall effects were found only for self-relevant words, and more self-relevant than irrelevant words were recalled if they were mood congruent. It was concluded that mood effects were different depending on whether the information was self-relevant, and that mood-congruency effects were found only for self-relevant information.

  10. Memory and hedonic tone: 'personality' or 'mood' congruence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    desRosiers, G; Robinson, D

    1992-02-01

    Four groups of healthy women matched for age and IQ were reliably classified on the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire as being either high or low in extraversion or neuroticism. As part of a larger research project, each participant was administered a range of psychometric measures together with three paired-associate learning lists varying in hedonic tone and difficulty levels together with the Beck Depression Inventory. Performance on the hedonic lists covaried with personality categories but, unlike what typically obtains in clinical patients, less association emerged between performance and mood states. Performance was particularly polarized in women scoring high in neuroticism but low in extraversion. Speculations about the apparent correlates of so-called mood congruence in healthy subjects are put forward and parallels are drawn with studies reporting the phenomenon in clinically depressed patients.

  11. The contribution of dynamic visual cues to audiovisual speech perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaekl, Philip; Pesquita, Ana; Alsius, Agnes; Munhall, Kevin; Soto-Faraco, Salvador

    2015-08-01

    Seeing a speaker's facial gestures can significantly improve speech comprehension, especially in noisy environments. However, the nature of the visual information from the speaker's facial movements that is relevant for this enhancement is still unclear. Like auditory speech signals, visual speech signals unfold over time and contain both dynamic configural information and luminance-defined local motion cues; two information sources that are thought to engage anatomically and functionally separate visual systems. Whereas, some past studies have highlighted the importance of local, luminance-defined motion cues in audiovisual speech perception, the contribution of dynamic configural information signalling changes in form over time has not yet been assessed. We therefore attempted to single out the contribution of dynamic configural information to audiovisual speech processing. To this aim, we measured word identification performance in noise using unimodal auditory stimuli, and with audiovisual stimuli. In the audiovisual condition, speaking faces were presented as point light displays achieved via motion capture of the original talker. Point light displays could be isoluminant, to minimise the contribution of effective luminance-defined local motion information, or with added luminance contrast, allowing the combined effect of dynamic configural cues and local motion cues. Audiovisual enhancement was found in both the isoluminant and contrast-based luminance conditions compared to an auditory-only condition, demonstrating, for the first time the specific contribution of dynamic configural cues to audiovisual speech improvement. These findings imply that globally processed changes in a speaker's facial shape contribute significantly towards the perception of articulatory gestures and the analysis of audiovisual speech. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Semantic congruence affects hippocampal response to repetition of visual associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAndrews, Mary Pat; Girard, Todd A; Wilkins, Leanne K; McCormick, Cornelia

    2016-09-01

    Recent research has shown complementary engagement of the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in encoding and retrieving associations based on pre-existing or experimentally-induced schemas, such that the latter supports schema-congruent information whereas the former is more engaged for incongruent or novel associations. Here, we attempted to explore some of the boundary conditions in the relative involvement of those structures in short-term memory for visual associations. The current literature is based primarily on intentional evaluation of schema-target congruence and on study-test paradigms with relatively long delays between learning and retrieval. We used a continuous recognition paradigm to investigate hippocampal and mPFC activation to first and second presentations of scene-object pairs as a function of semantic congruence between the elements (e.g., beach-seashell versus schoolyard-lamp). All items were identical at first and second presentation and the context scene, which was presented 500ms prior to the appearance of the target object, was incidental to the task which required a recognition response to the central target only. Very short lags 2-8 intervening stimuli occurred between presentations. Encoding the targets with congruent contexts was associated with increased activation in visual cortical regions at initial presentation and faster response time at repetition, but we did not find enhanced activation in mPFC relative to incongruent stimuli at either presentation. We did observe enhanced activation in the right anterior hippocampus, as well as regions in visual and lateral temporal and frontal cortical regions, for the repetition of incongruent scene-object pairs. This pattern demonstrates rapid and incidental effects of schema processing in hippocampal, but not mPFC, engagement during continuous recognition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Facilitating congruence between religious beliefs and sexual identity with mindfulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Erica S N; Yarhouse, Mark A

    2010-12-01

    With the increasing relevance of sexual minority concerns, including the process of navigating sexual and religious identities, clinical practice has focused on helping sexual minorities address methods of self-expression that are most congruent with the client's values. Sexual Identity Therapy (SIT), (Throckmorton & Yarhouse, 2006) has been developed to assist individuals who are seeking to address potential conflicts between religious and sexual identities by focusing on personal congruence. To facilitate this process, the practice of mindfulness is applied. As an adaptation from its spiritual origins, mindfulness is used to facilitate the treatment of various disorders, such as chronic pain, substance abuse, and depression. It has also been the crux of several different third-wave cognitive and behavioral therapies that consider the "… context and functions of psychological phenomena" (Hayes, 2004, p. 5) for the purpose of helping clients to develop "… broad, flexible and effective repertoires" (p. 6). In this instance, mindfulness is applied to SIT to assist individuals with same-sex attraction to become nonjudgmentally aware of their thoughts and feelings related to same-sex attraction such that they are able to experience their attractions in an open and honest manner without feeling compelled to either dismiss or augment these attractions. Mindful awareness of same-sex attraction facilitates congruence because there is less emphasis on changing behaviors, thoughts or feelings, but rather, changing the relationship the individual has to their experiences of same-sex attraction so that they are experienced as neutral, as opposed to aversive. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Application of Phase Congruency for Discriminating Some Lung Diseases Using Chest Radiograph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Mohd Rijal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel procedure using phase congruency is proposed for discriminating some lung disease using chest radiograph. Phase congruency provides information about transitions between adjacent pixels. Abrupt changes of phase congruency values between pixels may suggest a possible boundary or another feature that may be used for discrimination. This property of phase congruency may have potential for deciding between disease present and disease absent where the regions of infection on the images have no obvious shape, size, or configuration. Five texture measures calculated from phase congruency and Gabor were shown to be normally distributed. This gave good indicators of discrimination errors in the form of the probability of Type I Error (δ and the probability of Type II Error (β. However, since 1 −  δ is the true positive fraction (TPF and β is the false positive fraction (FPF, an ROC analysis was used to decide on the choice of texture measures. Given that features are normally distributed, for the discrimination between disease present and disease absent, energy, contrast, and homogeneity from phase congruency gave better results compared to those using Gabor. Similarly, for the more difficult problem of discriminating lobar pneumonia and lung cancer, entropy and homogeneity from phase congruency gave better results relative to Gabor.

  15. The Influence of Sponsor-Event Congruence in Sponsorship of Music Festivals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny Hutabarat

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses the research on the Influence of Sponsor-Event Congruence toward Brand Image, Attitudes toward the Brand and Purchase Intention. Having reviewed the literatures and arranged the hypotheses, the data has been gathered by distributing the questionnaire to 155 audiences at the Java Jazz Music Festival, firstly with convenience sampling and then snowballing sampling approach. The analysis of data was executed with Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. The result shows the sponsor-event congruence variable has a positive impact toward brand image and attitudes toward the brand sponsor. Brand Image also has a positive impact toward purchase intention; in contrary attitudes toward the brand do not have a positive purchase intention. With those results, to increase the sponsorship effectiveness, the role of congruency is very significant in the sponsorship event. Congruency is a key influencer to trigger the sponsorship effectiveness. Congruency between the event and the sponsor is able to boost up the brand image and bring out favorable attitudes towards the brand for the success of marketing communication programs, particularly sponsorship. In addition to it, image transfer gets higher due to the congruency existence (fit between sponsor and event and directs the intention creation to buy sponsor brand product/service (purchase intention. In conclusion, sponsor-event congruence has effect on consumer responds toward sponsorship, either on the cognitive level, affective and also behavior.

  16. Audio-Visual Peripheral Localization Disparity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryota Miyauchi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In localizing simultaneous auditory and visual events, the brain should map the audiovisual events onto a unified perceptual space in a subsequent spatial process for integrating and/or comparing multisensory information. However, there is little qualitative and quantitative psychological data for estimating multisensory localization in peripheral visual fields. We measured the relative perceptual direction of a sound to a flash when they were simultaneously presented in peripheral visual fields. The results demonstrated that the sound and flash were perceptually located at the same position when the sound was presented in 5 deg-periphery from the flash. This phenomenon occurred even excluding the trial in which the participants' eyes moved. The measurement of the location of each sound and flash in a pointing task showed that the perceptual location of the sound shifted toward the frontal direction and conversely the perceptual location of the flash shifted toward the periphery. Our findings suggest that unisensory perceptual spaces of audition and vision have deviations in peripheral visual fields and, when the brain remaps unisensory locations of auditory and visual events into unified perceptual space, the unisensory spatial information of the events can be suitably maintained.

  17. Causal inference of asynchronous audiovisual speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F Magnotti

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available During speech perception, humans integrate auditory information from the voice with visual information from the face. This multisensory integration increases perceptual precision, but only if the two cues come from the same talker; this requirement has been largely ignored by current models of speech perception. We describe a generative model of multisensory speech perception that includes this critical step of determining the likelihood that the voice and face information have a common cause. A key feature of the model is that it is based on a principled analysis of how an observer should solve this causal inference problem using the asynchrony between two cues and the reliability of the cues. This allows the model to make predictions abut the behavior of subjects performing a synchrony judgment task, predictive power that does not exist in other approaches, such as post hoc fitting of Gaussian curves to behavioral data. We tested the model predictions against the performance of 37 subjects performing a synchrony judgment task viewing audiovisual speech under a variety of manipulations, including varying asynchronies, intelligibility, and visual cue reliability. The causal inference model outperformed the Gaussian model across two experiments, providing a better fit to the behavioral data with fewer parameters. Because the causal inference model is derived from a principled understanding of the task, model parameters are directly interpretable in terms of stimulus and subject properties.

  18. El fénix quiere vivir : algunas consideraciones sobre la documentación audiovisual

    OpenAIRE

    Endean Gamboa, Robert

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents an overview of the audio-visual documents, with a retrospective study and different points of view of national and foreign authors on the importance of the audio-visual materials and its organization, preservation and diffusion.

  19. Habit, craft and creativity: how digital search habits shape the craft of professional audiovisual storytelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauer, Sabrina

    2017-01-01

    The increased digitalization of audiovisual materials allows media professionals, such as news documentation specialists and documentary filmmakers, to increasingly make use of online access to digital archives to find sources for their audiovisual stories. This paper presents empirical insights

  20. Audiovisual classification of vocal outbursts in human conversation using long-short-term memory networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eyben, Florian; Petridis, Stavros; Schuller, Björn; Tzimiropoulos, Georgios; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja

    We investigate classification of non-linguistic vocalisations with a novel audiovisual approach and Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) Recurrent Neural Networks as highly successful dynamic sequence classifiers. As database of evaluation serves this year's Paralinguistic Challenge's Audiovisual Interest

  1. A representação audiovisual das mulheres migradas The audiovisual representation of migrant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Pontes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo analiso as representações sobre as mulheres migradas nos fundos audiovisuais de algumas entidades que trabalham com gênero e imigração em Barcelona. Por haver detectado nos audiovisuais analisados uma associação recorrente das mulheres migradas à pobreza, à criminalidade, à ignorância, à maternidade obrigatória e numerosa, à prostituição etc., busquei entender como tais representações tomam forma, estudando os elementos narrativos, estilísticos, visuais e verbais através dos quais se articulam essas imagens e discursos sobre as mulheres migradas.In this paper I analyze the representations of the migrant women at the audiovisual founds in some of the organizations that work with gender and immigration in Barcelona. At the audiovisuals I have found a recurring association of the migrant women with poverty, criminality, ignorance, passivity, undocumentation, gender violence, compulsory and numerous motherhood, prostitution, etc. Thus, I tried to understand the ways in which these representations are shaped, studying the narrative, stylistic, visual and verbal elements through which these images and discourses of the migrant women are articulated.

  2. Effects of interest-major congruence, motivation, and academic performance on timely degree attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jeff; Robbins, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Using longitudinal student data from 15 four-year (n = 3,072) and 13 (n = 788) two-year postsecondary institutions, the authors tested the effects of interest-major congruence, motivation, and 1st-year academic performance on timely degree completion. Findings suggest that interest-major congruence has a direct effect on timely degree completion at both institutional settings and that motivation has indirect effects (via 1st-year academic performance). The total effects of both interest-major congruence and motivation on timely degree completion underscore the importance of both constructs in understanding student adjustment and postsecondary success. Implications for theory and counseling practice are discussed.

  3. TV content analysis techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kompatsiaris, Yiannis

    2012-01-01

    The rapid advancement of digital multimedia technologies has not only revolutionized the production and distribution of audiovisual content, but also created the need to efficiently analyze TV programs to enable applications for content managers and consumers. Leaving no stone unturned, TV Content Analysis: Techniques and Applications provides a detailed exploration of TV program analysis techniques. Leading researchers and academics from around the world supply scientifically sound treatment of recent developments across the related subject areas--including systems, architectures, algorithms,

  4. Parametric packet-based audiovisual quality model for IPTV services

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia, Marie-Neige

    2014-01-01

    This volume presents a parametric packet-based audiovisual quality model for Internet Protocol TeleVision (IPTV) services. The model is composed of three quality modules for the respective audio, video and audiovisual components. The audio and video quality modules take as input a parametric description of the audiovisual processing path, and deliver an estimate of the audio and video quality. These outputs are sent to the audiovisual quality module which provides an estimate of the audiovisual quality. Estimates of perceived quality are typically used both in the network planning phase and as part of the quality monitoring. The same audio quality model is used for both these phases, while two variants of the video quality model have been developed for addressing the two application scenarios. The addressed packetization scheme is MPEG2 Transport Stream over Real-time Transport Protocol over Internet Protocol. In the case of quality monitoring, that is the case for which the network is already set-up, the aud...

  5. The Fungible Audio-Visual Mapping and its Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Sa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article draws a perceptual approach to audio-visual mapping. Clearly perceivable cause and effect relationships can be problematic if one desires the audience to experience the music. Indeed perception would bias those sonic qualities that fit previous concepts of causation, subordinating other sonic qualities, which may form the relations between the sounds themselves. The question is, how can an audio-visual mapping produce a sense of causation, and simultaneously confound the actual cause-effect relationships. We call this a fungible audio-visual mapping. Our aim here is to glean its constitution and aspect. We will report a study, which draws upon methods from experimental psychology to inform audio-visual instrument design and composition. The participants are shown several audio-visual mapping prototypes, after which we pose quantitative and qualitative questions regarding their sense of causation, and their sense of understanding the cause-effect relationships. The study shows that a fungible mapping requires both synchronized and seemingly non-related components – sufficient complexity to be confusing. As the specific cause-effect concepts remain inconclusive, the sense of causation embraces the whole. 

  6. Mapping audiovisual translation investigations: research approaches and the role of technology

    OpenAIRE

    Matamala, Anna

    2017-01-01

    This article maps audiovisual translation research by analysing in a contrastive way the abstracts presented at three audiovisual translation conferences ten years ago and nowadays. The comparison deals with the audiovisual transfer modes and topics under discussion, and the approach taken by the authors in their abstracts. The article then shifts the focus to the role of technology in audiovisual translation research, as it is considered an element that is impacting and will continue to impa...

  7. Timing in audiovisual speech perception: A mini review and new psychophysical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venezia, Jonathan H; Thurman, Steven M; Matchin, William; George, Sahara E; Hickok, Gregory

    2016-02-01

    Recent influential models of audiovisual speech perception suggest that visual speech aids perception by generating predictions about the identity of upcoming speech sounds. These models place stock in the assumption that visual speech leads auditory speech in time. However, it is unclear whether and to what extent temporally-leading visual speech information contributes to perception. Previous studies exploring audiovisual-speech timing have relied upon psychophysical procedures that require artificial manipulation of cross-modal alignment or stimulus duration. We introduce a classification procedure that tracks perceptually relevant visual speech information in time without requiring such manipulations. Participants were shown videos of a McGurk syllable (auditory /apa/ + visual /aka/ = perceptual /ata/) and asked to perform phoneme identification (/apa/ yes-no). The mouth region of the visual stimulus was overlaid with a dynamic transparency mask that obscured visual speech in some frames but not others randomly across trials. Variability in participants' responses (~35 % identification of /apa/ compared to ~5 % in the absence of the masker) served as the basis for classification analysis. The outcome was a high resolution spatiotemporal map of perceptually relevant visual features. We produced these maps for McGurk stimuli at different audiovisual temporal offsets (natural timing, 50-ms visual lead, and 100-ms visual lead). Briefly, temporally-leading (~130 ms) visual information did influence auditory perception. Moreover, several visual features influenced perception of a single speech sound, with the relative influence of each feature depending on both its temporal relation to the auditory signal and its informational content.

  8. Spatial Frequency Requirements and Gaze Strategy in Visual-Only and Audiovisual Speech Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Amanda H.; Alsius, Agnès; Parè, Martin; Munhall, Kevin G.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this article is to examine the effects of visual image degradation on performance and gaze behavior in audiovisual and visual-only speech perception tasks. Method: We presented vowel-consonant-vowel utterances visually filtered at a range of frequencies in visual-only, audiovisual congruent, and audiovisual incongruent…

  9. The role of visual spatial attention in audiovisual speech perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tobias; Tiippana, K.; Laarni, J.

    2009-01-01

    integration did not change. Visual spatial attention was also able to select between the faces when lip reading. This suggests that visual spatial attention acts at the level of visual speech perception prior to audiovisual integration and that the effect propagates through audiovisual integration......Auditory and visual information is integrated when perceiving speech, as evidenced by the McGurk effect in which viewing an incongruent talking face categorically alters auditory speech perception. Audiovisual integration in speech perception has long been considered automatic and pre......-attentive but recent reports have challenged this view. Here we study the effect of visual spatial attention on the McGurk effect. By presenting a movie of two faces symmetrically displaced to each side of a central fixation point and dubbed with a single auditory speech track, we were able to discern the influences...

  10. Dynamic Bayesian Networks for Audio-Visual Speech Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Luhong

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of visual features in audio-visual speech recognition (AVSR is justified by both the speech generation mechanism, which is essentially bimodal in audio and visual representation, and by the need for features that are invariant to acoustic noise perturbation. As a result, current AVSR systems demonstrate significant accuracy improvements in environments affected by acoustic noise. In this paper, we describe the use of two statistical models for audio-visual integration, the coupled HMM (CHMM and the factorial HMM (FHMM, and compare the performance of these models with the existing models used in speaker dependent audio-visual isolated word recognition. The statistical properties of both the CHMM and FHMM allow to model the state asynchrony of the audio and visual observation sequences while preserving their natural correlation over time. In our experiments, the CHMM performs best overall, outperforming all the existing models and the FHMM.

  11. CLIMCONG: A framework-tool for assessing CLIMate CONGruency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buras, Allan; Kölling, Christian; Menzel, Annette

    2016-04-01

    It is widely accepted that the anticipated elevational and latitudinal shifting of climate forces living organisms (including humans) to track these changes in space over a certain time. Due to the complexity of climate change, prediction of consequent migrations is a difficult procedure afflicted with many uncertainties. To simplify climate complexity and ease respective attempts, various approaches aimed at classifying global climates. For instance, the frequently used Köppen-Geiger climate classification (Köppen, 1900) has been applied to predict the shift of climate zones throughout the 21st century (Rubel and Kottek, 2010). Another - more objective but also more complex - classification approach has recently been presented by Metzger et al. (2013). Though being comprehensive, classifications have certain drawbacks, as I) often focusing on few variables, II) having discrete borders at the margins of classes, and III) subjective selection of an arbitrary number of classes. Ecological theory suggests that when only considering temperature and precipitation (such as Köppen, 1900) particular climate features - e.g. radiation and plant water availability - may not be represented with sufficient precision. Furthermore, sharp boundaries among homogeneous classes do not reflect natural gradients. To overcome the aforementioned drawbacks, we here present CLIMCONG - a framework-tool for assessing climate congruency for quantitatively describing climate similarity through continua in space and time. CLIMCONG allows users to individually select variables for calculation of climate congruency. By this, particular foci can be specified, depending on actual research questions posed towards climate change. For instance, while ecologists focus on a multitude of parameters driving net ecosystem productivity, water managers may only be interested in variables related to drought extremes and water availability. Based on the chosen parameters CLIMCONG determines congruency of

  12. Leader-follower value congruence in social responsibility and ethical satisfaction: a polynomial regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seung-Wan; Byun, Gukdo; Park, Hun-Joon

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents empirical research into the relationship between leader-follower value congruence in social responsibility and the level of ethical satisfaction for employees in the workplace. 163 dyads were analyzed, each consisting of a team leader and an employee working at a large manufacturing company in South Korea. Following current methodological recommendations for congruence research, polynomial regression and response surface modeling methodologies were used to determine the effects of value congruence. Results indicate that leader-follower value congruence in social responsibility was positively related to the ethical satisfaction of employees. Furthermore, employees' ethical satisfaction was stronger when aligned with a leader with high social responsibility. The theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  13. The Impact of Value Congruence on Consumer-Service Brand Relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Jing; Bloemer, J.M.M.

    2008-01-01

    By integrating results from literature pertaining to social psychology, organizational behavior, and relationship marketing, the authors develop and test a model that explains how value congruence affects the key components of consumer-brand relationship quality and outcomes, including

  14. How valence affects language processing: Negativity bias and mood congruence in narrative comprehension

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Egidi, Giovanna; Gerrig, Richard J

    2009-01-01

    .... It demonstrated how negativity bias and mood congruence emerge during narrative comprehension. Participants were induced to experience either a positive or a negative mood and then read stories that could have either a positive or a negative ending...

  15. Congruence of perceptions among nursing leaders and staff regarding missed nursing care and teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalisch, Beatrice J; Lee, Kyung Hee

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to test the congruence of the perceptions of unit-based nurse leaders (managers, advanced practice nurses) and nursing staff members (registered nurses, nursing assistants, unit secretaries) in acute care hospitals as to the extent and type of missed nursing care and nursing teamwork. Based on the leader-member exchange congruence framework (LMX), nursing staff and nursing leaders completed the MISSCARE Survey, and a segment of the participants completed the Nursing Teamwork Survey. The findings of this study show a lack of LMX congruence between leaders and nursing staff members. Nursing staff report less missed care and lower teamwork than do leaders, and nursing staff list more problems with having adequate material and labor resources than do leaders. LMX congruence has been associated with positive organizational outcomes.

  16. Value congruence, control, sense of community and demands as determinants of burnout syndrome among hospitality workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio-Martínez, Ángela; Leiter, Michael P; Gascón, Santiago; Gumuchian, Stephanie; Masluk, Bárbara; Herrera-Mercadal, Paola; Albesa, Agustín; García-Campayo, Javier

    2017-09-07

    Employees working in the hospitality industry are constantly exposed to occupational stressors that may lead employees into experiencing burnout syndrome. Research addressing the interactive effects of control, community and value congruence to alleviate the impact of workplace demands on experiencing burnout is relatively limited. The present study examined relationships among control, community and value congruence, workplace demands and the three components of burnout. A sample of 418 employees working in a variety of hospitality associations including restaurants and hotels in Spain were recruited. Moderation analyses and linear regressions analyzed the predictive power of control, community and value congruence as moderating variables. Results indicate that control, community and value congruence were successful buffers in the relationships between workplace demands and the burnout dimensions. The present findings offer suggestions for future research on potential moderating variables, as well as implications for reducing burnout among hospitality employees.

  17. Fast parallel DNA-based algorithms for molecular computation: quadratic congruence and factoring integers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Weng-Long

    2012-03-01

    Assume that n is a positive integer. If there is an integer such that M (2) ≡ C (mod n), i.e., the congruence has a solution, then C is said to be a quadratic congruence (mod n). If the congruence does not have a solution, then C is said to be a quadratic noncongruence (mod n). The task of solving the problem is central to many important applications, the most obvious being cryptography. In this article, we describe a DNA-based algorithm for solving quadratic congruence and factoring integers. In additional to this novel contribution, we also show the utility of our encoding scheme, and of the algorithm's submodules. We demonstrate how a variety of arithmetic, shifted and comparative operations, namely bitwise and full addition, subtraction, left shifter and comparison perhaps are performed using strands of DNA.

  18. L'Arxiu de la Paraula : context i projecte del repositori audiovisual de l'Ateneu Barcelonès

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcaraz Martínez, Rubén

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Es presenten els resultats del projecte de digitalització del fons audiovisual de l'Ateneu Barcelonès iniciat per l'Àrea de Biblioteca i Arxiu Històric l'any 2011. S'explica la metodologia de treball fent èmfasi en la gestió dels fitxers analògics i nascuts digitals i en la problemàtica derivada dels drets d'autor. Finalment, es presenta l'Arxiu de la Paraula i l'@teneu hub, nous repositori i web respectivament, l'objectiu dels quals és difondre el patrimoni audiovisual i donar accés centralitzat als diferents continguts generats per l'entitat.Se presentan los resultados del proyecto de digitalización del fondo audiovisual del Ateneu Barcelonès iniciado por el área de Biblioteca y Archivo Histórico en 2011. Se explica la metodología de trabajo haciendo énfasis en la gestión de los ficheros analógicos y nacidos digitales y en la problemática derivada de los derechos de autor. Finalmente, se presenta el Archivo de la Palabra y el @teneo hub, nuevos repositorio y web respectivamente, cuyo objetivo es difundir el patrimonio audiovisual y dar acceso centralizado a los diferentes contenidos generados por la entidad.This paper reports on the project to digitize the audiovisual archives of the Ateneu Barcelonès, which was launched by that institution’s Library and Archive department in 2011. The paper explains the methodology used to create the repository, focusing on the management of analogue files and born-digital materials and the question of author’s rights. Finally, it presents the new repository L’Arxiu de la Paraula (the Word Archive and the new website, @teneu hub, which are designed to disseminate the Ateneu’s audiovisual heritage and provide centralized access to its different contents.

  19. El Archivo de la Palabra : contexto y proyecto del repositorio audiovisual del Ateneu Barcelonès

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcaraz Martínez, Rubén

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Es presenten els resultats del projecte de digitalització del fons audiovisual de l'Ateneu Barcelonès iniciat per l'Àrea de Biblioteca i Arxiu Històric l'any 2011. S'explica la metodologia de treball fent èmfasi en la gestió dels fitxers analògics i nascuts digitals i en la problemàtica derivada dels drets d'autor. Finalment, es presenta l'Arxiu de la Paraula i l'@teneu hub, nous repositori i web respectivament, l'objectiu dels quals és difondre el patrimoni audiovisual i donar accés centralitzat als diferents continguts generats per l'entitat.Se presentan los resultados del proyecto de digitalización del fondo audiovisual del Ateneu Barcelonès iniciado por el área de Biblioteca y Archivo Histórico en 2011. Se explica la metodología de trabajo haciendo énfasis en la gestión de los ficheros analógicos y nacidos digitales y en la problemática derivada de los derechos de autor. Finalmente, se presenta el Archivo de la Palabra y el @teneo hub, nuevos repositorio y web respectivamente, cuyo objetivo es difundir el patrimonio audiovisual y dar acceso centralizado a los diferentes contenidos generados por la entidad.This paper reports on the project to digitize the audiovisual archives of the Ateneu Barcelonès, which was launched by that institution’s Library and Archive department in 2011. The paper explains the methodology used to create the repository, focusing on the management of analogue files and born-digital materials and the question of author’s rights. Finally, it presents the new repository L’Arxiu de la Paraula (the Word Archive and the new website, @teneu hub, which are designed to disseminate the Ateneu’s audiovisual heritage and provide centralized access to its different contents.

  20. Vegan lifestyle behaviors: an exploration of congruence with health-related beliefs and assessed health indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyett, Patricia A; Sabaté, Joan; Haddad, Ella; Rajaram, Sujatha; Shavlik, David

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate health belief as a major motive for diet and lifestyle behaviors of 100 vegans in the United States; and to determine congruence with selected health and nutrition outcomes. Response data from an administered questionnaire was analyzed. Statistical analyses determined the most common factors influencing diet choice; the number of vegans practicing particular lifestyle behaviors; body mass index; and prevalence of self-reported chronic disease diagnoses. Nutrient intakes were analyzed and assessed against Dietary Reference Intakes. Health was the most reported reason for diet choice (47%). In the health belief, animal welfare, and religious/other motive categories, low percentages of chronic disease diagnoses were reported: 27%, 11%, and 15%, respectively. There were no significant differences in health behaviors and indices among vegan motive categories, except for product fat content choices. Within the entire study population, health-related vegan motive coincided with regular exercise; 71% normal BMI (mean=22.6); minimal alcohol and smoking practices; frequently consumed vegetables, nuts, and grains; healthy choices in meal types, cooking methods, and low-fat product consumption; and adequate intakes for most protective nutrients when compared to reference values. But incongruence was found with 0% intake adequacy for vitamin D; and observation of excessive sodium use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evolution of audiovisual production in five Spanish Cybermedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Mayoral Sánchez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper quantifies and analyzes the evolution of audiovisual production of five Spanish digital newspapers: abc.es, elconfidencial.com, elmundo.es, elpais.com and lavanguardia.com. So have been studied videos published on the five cover for four weeks (fourteen days in November 2011 and another fourteen in March 2014. This diachronic perspective has revealed a remarkable contradiction in online media about audiovisual products. Even with very considerable differences between them, the five analyzed media increasingly publish videos. They do it in in the most valued areas of their homepages. However, is not perceived in them a willingness to engage firmly

  2. El archivo de RTVV: Patrimonio Audiovisual de la Humanidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidalgo Goyanes, Paloma

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Los documentos audiovisuales son importantes para el estudio de los siglos XX y XXI. Los archivos de televisión contribuyen a la formación del imaginario colectivo y forman parte del Patrimonio Audiovisual de la Humanidad. La preservación del archivo audiovisual de la RTVV es responsabilidad de los poderes públicos, según se expresa en la legislación vigente y un derecho de los ciudadanos y de los contribuyentes como herederos de este patrimonio que refleja su historia, su cultura y su lengua.

  3. Enhancing Congruence between Implicit Motives and Explicit Goal Commitments: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona M. Roch

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Theory and research suggest that the pursuit of personal goals that do not fit a person's affect-based implicit motives results in impaired emotional well-being, including increased symptoms of depression. The aim of this study was to evaluate an intervention designed to enhance motive-goal congruence and study its impact on well-being.Method: Seventy-four German students (mean age = 22.91, SD = 3.68; 64.9% female without current psychopathology, randomly allocated to three groups: motivational feedback (FB; n = 25; participants learned about the fit between their implicit motives and explicit goals, FB + congruence-enhancement training (CET; n = 22; participants also engaged in exercises to increase the fit between their implicit motives and goals, and a no-intervention control group (n = 27, were administered measures of implicit motives, personal goal commitments, happiness, depressive symptoms, and life satisfaction 3 weeks before (T1 and 6 weeks after (T2 treatment.Results: On two types of congruence measures derived from motive and goal assessments, treated participants showed increases in agentic (power and achievement congruence, with improvements being most consistent in the FB+CET group. Treated participants also showed a trend-level depressive symptom reduction, but no changes on other well-being measures. Although increases in overall and agentic motivational congruence were associated with increases in affective well-being, treatment-based reduction of depressive symptoms was not mediated by treatment-based agentic congruence changes.Conclusion: These findings document that motivational congruence can be effectively enhanced, that changes in motivational congruence are associated with changes in affective well-being, and they suggest that individuals' implicit motives should be considered when personal goals are discussed in the therapeutic process.

  4. Enhancing Congruence between Implicit Motives and Explicit Goal Commitments: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roch, Ramona M; Rösch, Andreas G; Schultheiss, Oliver C

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Theory and research suggest that the pursuit of personal goals that do not fit a person's affect-based implicit motives results in impaired emotional well-being, including increased symptoms of depression. The aim of this study was to evaluate an intervention designed to enhance motive-goal congruence and study its impact on well-being. Method: Seventy-four German students (mean age = 22.91, SD = 3.68; 64.9% female) without current psychopathology, randomly allocated to three groups: motivational feedback (FB; n = 25; participants learned about the fit between their implicit motives and explicit goals), FB + congruence-enhancement training (CET; n = 22; participants also engaged in exercises to increase the fit between their implicit motives and goals), and a no-intervention control group (n = 27), were administered measures of implicit motives, personal goal commitments, happiness, depressive symptoms, and life satisfaction 3 weeks before (T1) and 6 weeks after (T2) treatment. Results: On two types of congruence measures derived from motive and goal assessments, treated participants showed increases in agentic (power and achievement) congruence, with improvements being most consistent in the FB+CET group. Treated participants also showed a trend-level depressive symptom reduction, but no changes on other well-being measures. Although increases in overall and agentic motivational congruence were associated with increases in affective well-being, treatment-based reduction of depressive symptoms was not mediated by treatment-based agentic congruence changes. Conclusion: These findings document that motivational congruence can be effectively enhanced, that changes in motivational congruence are associated with changes in affective well-being, and they suggest that individuals' implicit motives should be considered when personal goals are discussed in the therapeutic process.

  5. A Field Investigation of Implicit Theory Congruence in Leader-Follower Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Coyle, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the following study was to investigate the role of interpersonal congruence between leaders' and followers' implicit theories of leadership (ILTs) and followership (IFTs) in both partners' perspectives of the leader-follower relationship. While most literature focuses on assessments of the leader-member exchange (LMX) relationship, this study examined perceived support, identification with one's partner, and contribution to the relationship, in addition to LMX. Congruence bet...

  6. Effect of hearing loss on semantic access by auditory and audiovisual speech in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerger, Susan; Tye-Murray, Nancy; Damian, Markus F; Abdi, Hervé

    2013-01-01

    This research studied whether the mode of input (auditory versus audiovisual) influenced semantic access by speech in children with sensorineural hearing impairment (HI). Participants, 31 children with HI and 62 children with normal hearing (NH), were tested with the authors' new multimodal picture word task. Children were instructed to name pictures displayed on a monitor and ignore auditory or audiovisual speech distractors. The semantic content of the distractors was varied to be related versus unrelated to the pictures (e.g., picture distractor of dog-bear versus dog-cheese, respectively). In children with NH, picture-naming times were slower in the presence of semantically related distractors. This slowing, called semantic interference, is attributed to the meaning-related picture-distractor entries competing for selection and control of the response (the lexical selection by competition hypothesis). Recently, a modification of the lexical selection by competition hypothesis, called the competition threshold (CT) hypothesis, proposed that (1) the competition between the picture-distractor entries is determined by a threshold, and (2) distractors with experimentally reduced fidelity cannot reach the CT. Thus, semantically related distractors with reduced fidelity do not produce the normal interference effect, but instead no effect or semantic facilitation (faster picture naming times for semantically related versus unrelated distractors). Facilitation occurs because the activation level of the semantically related distractor with reduced fidelity (1) is not sufficient to exceed the CT and produce interference but (2) is sufficient to activate its concept, which then strengthens the activation of the picture and facilitates naming. This research investigated whether the proposals of the CT hypothesis generalize to the auditory domain, to the natural degradation of speech due to HI, and to participants who are children. Our multimodal picture word task allowed us

  7. Congruence between gender stereotypes and activity preference in self-identified tomboys and non-tomboys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Carol Lynn; Dinella, Lisa M

    2012-06-01

    The major goal was to examine a central tenet of cognitive approaches to gender development, namely, that congruence exists between personal gender stereotypes and behaviors. Item-by-item comparisons of girls' stereotypes about activities and their preferences for activities were conducted, for both girls who claimed to be tomboys and those who did not. Congruence was expected for all girls, but because of their gender non-normative interests, tomboys may exhibit less congruence. A secondary goal was to examine factors that might influence congruence, specifically, whether tomboys develop more inclusive stereotypes and develop greater understanding of stereotype variability. Participants included 112 girls (7-12 years old, M age=9). Girls were interviewed about their activity preferences, beliefs about girls' and boys' activity preferences, understanding variability of stereotypes, and identification as tomboys. Tomboys (30% of the sample) and non-tomboys did not differ in their liking of or in the number of liked feminine activities. However, tomboys showed more interest in masculine activities than non-tomboys. Tomboys and non-tomboys did not differ in stereotype inclusiveness, although tomboys showed a trend toward more inclusive stereotypes. Both groups showed high levels of congruence between stereotypes and preferences. Congruence was stronger for nontomboys (14 times more likely to exhibit responses congruent with stereotypes vs. incongruent ones), as compared to tomboys who were four times more likely to exhibit responses congruent with stereotypes versus incongruent ones. Implications of these findings for cognitive approaches to gender development are discussed.

  8. Shedding light on our audiovisual heritage: perspectives to emphasise CERN Digital Memory

    CERN Document Server

    Salvador, Mathilde Estelle

    2017-01-01

    This work aims to answer the question of how to add value to CERN’s audiovisual heritage available on CERN Document Server. In other terms, how to make more visible to the scientific community and grand public what is hidden and classified: namely CERN’s archives, and more precisely audiovisual ones because of their creative potential. Rather than focusing on its scientific and technical value, we will analyse its artistic and attractive power. In fact, we will see that all kind of archive can be intentionally or even accidentally artistic and exciting, that it is possible to change our vision of a photo, a sound or a film. This process of enhancement is a virtuous circle as it has an educational value and makes accessible scientific content that is normally out of range. However, the problem of how to magnify such archives remains. That is why we will try to learn from other digital memories in the world to see how they managed to highlight their own archives, in order to suggest new ways of enhancing au...

  9. Arrested Development of Audiovisual Speech Perception in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Ryan A.; Siemann, Justin K.; Woynaroski, Tiffany G.; Schneider, Brittany C.; Eberly, Haley E.; Camarata, Stephen M.; Wallace, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    Atypical communicative abilities are a core marker of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). A number of studies have shown that, in addition to auditory comprehension differences, individuals with autism frequently show atypical responses to audiovisual speech, suggesting a multisensory contribution to these communicative differences from their typically developing peers. To shed light on possible differences in the maturation of audiovisual speech integration, we tested younger (ages 6-12) and older (ages 13-18) children with and without ASD on a task indexing such multisensory integration. To do this, we used the McGurk effect, in which the pairing of incongruent auditory and visual speech tokens typically results in the perception of a fused percept distinct from the auditory and visual signals, indicative of active integration of the two channels conveying speech information. Whereas little difference was seen in audiovisual speech processing (i.e., reports of McGurk fusion) between the younger ASD and TD groups, there was a significant difference at the older ages. While TD controls exhibited an increased rate of fusion (i.e., integration) with age, children with ASD failed to show this increase. These data suggest arrested development of audiovisual speech integration in ASD. The results are discussed in light of the extant literature and necessary next steps in research. PMID:24218241

  10. A montagem audiovisual a partir de mapa multitemporal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Souza

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1807-9288.2013v9n1p193   Situado no âmbito da discussão sobre tecnologias contemporâneas no ensino das artes audiovisuais, este artigo trata do ensino da montagem audiovisual a partir da composição de multiplicidades temporais. Neste contexto o termo audiovisual designa o vídeo digital composto por múltiplos fluxos temporais. Essa definição se refere à aplicação do hipervídeo no estudo da montagem audiovisual, buscando estabelecer relações com as pesquisas sobre a tecnologia na arte e com o estudo das artes audiovisuais contemporâneas. Por multiplicidades temporais entendam-se os diversos fluxos temporais – tempos ucrônicos, segundo Couchot (2005 – que a imagem digital tornou possível perceber na montagem em rizoma. A partir do conceito de tempo ucrônico, este artigo busca investigar as formas temporais e as narrativas que se tornam possíveis na montagem audiovisual e seu aprendizado. Neste escopo também é apresentado o software desenvolvido para a montagem de multitemporalidades com o intuito de fornecer subsídio para o ensino da montagem nas artes audiovisuais.

  11. Speech-specificity of two audiovisual integration effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskelund, Kasper; Tuomainen, Jyrki; Andersen, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    Seeing the talker’s articulatory mouth movements can influence the auditory speech percept both in speech identification and detection tasks. Here we show that these audiovisual integration effects also occur for sine wave speech (SWS), which is an impoverished speech signal that naïve observers...

  12. Recent Audio-Visual Materials on the Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Edith Campbell

    1981-01-01

    Identifies and describes audio-visual materials (films, filmstrips, and audio cassette tapes) about the Soviet Union which have been produced since 1977. For each entry, information is presented on title, time required, date of release, cost (purchase and rental), and an abstract. (DB)

  13. Selected Audio-Visual Materials for Consumer Education. [New Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, William L.

    Ninety-two films, filmstrips, multi-media kits, slides, and audio cassettes, produced between 1964 and 1974, are listed in this selective annotated bibliography on consumer education. The major portion of the bibliography is devoted to films and filmstrips. The main topics of the audio-visual materials include purchasing, advertising, money…

  14. Making Audio-Visual Teaching Materials for Elementary Science

    OpenAIRE

    永田, 四郎

    1980-01-01

    For the elementary science, some audio-visual teaching materials were made by author and our students. These materials are slides for projector, transparencies and materials for OHP, 8 mm sound films and video tapes. We hope this kind of study will continue.

  15. Effect of Audio-Visual Intervention Program on Cognitive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus the purpose of the study was to study the effectiveness of the audio-visual intervention program on the cognitive development of preschool children in relation to their socio economic status. The researcher employed experimental method to conduct the study. The sample consisted of 100 students from preschool of ...

  16. Accessing Audiovisual Heritage: A Roadmap for Collaborative Innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomen, Johan; Ordelman, Roeland J.F.

    Digitization of audiovisual archives is opening up a wealth of challenges and possibilities for innovations in science, education, and business. The key to unlocking archives for innovation is multimedia technology. In this article the authors zoom in on one of the largest multimedia archives in

  17. Assessing the Impact of Audiovisual Translation on the Improvement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Audiovisual translation (AVT) or screen translation is a term used to refer to any language and cultural transfer aimed at translating original dialogues coming from any acoustic or visual product. Academic Literacy (AL) is viewed as the ability to cope with the reading, thinking and reasoning demands required of a student ...

  18. Audio-Visual Communications, A Tool for the Professional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Environmental Health, 1976

    1976-01-01

    The manner in which the Cuyahoga County, Ohio Department of Environmental Health utilizes audio-visual presentations for communication with business and industry, professional public health agencies and the general public is presented. Subjects including food sanitation, radiation protection and safety are described. (BT)

  19. Safeguarding human dignity in the European audiovisual sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGonagle, T.

    2007-01-01

    Audiovisual media services fall within the scope of many different international and national legal instruments, as well as of best practices and standards developed by case law. These rules often target a much wider spectrum of activities. Only some of them address specifically the media. Those,

  20. La presencia del narratario en el relato audiovisual

    OpenAIRE

    Prósper Ribes, Josep

    2015-01-01

    El narratario es un elemento básico en el relato audiovisual estrechamente relacionado con el narrador. Siempre hay una instancia narrataria y puede haber en un relato narratarios delegados. El narratario es fundamental para configurar la narración. La

  1. Segmentation of the Speaker's Face Region with Audiovisual Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuyu; Sato, Yoichi

    The ability to find the speaker's face region in a video is useful for various applications. In this work, we develop a novel technique to find this region within different time windows, which is robust against the changes of view, scale, and background. The main thrust of our technique is to integrate audiovisual correlation analysis into a video segmentation framework. We analyze the audiovisual correlation locally by computing quadratic mutual information between our audiovisual features. The computation of quadratic mutual information is based on the probability density functions estimated by kernel density estimation with adaptive kernel bandwidth. The results of this audiovisual correlation analysis are incorporated into graph cut-based video segmentation to resolve a globally optimum extraction of the speaker's face region. The setting of any heuristic threshold in this segmentation is avoided by learning the correlation distributions of speaker and background by expectation maximization. Experimental results demonstrate that our method can detect the speaker's face region accurately and robustly for different views, scales, and backgrounds.

  2. Electrophysiological evidence for speech-specific audiovisual integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baart, M.; Stekelenburg, J.J.; Vroomen, J.

    2014-01-01

    Lip-read speech is integrated with heard speech at various neural levels. Here, we investigated the extent to which lip-read induced modulations of the auditory N1 and P2 (measured with EEG) are indicative of speech-specific audiovisual integration, and we explored to what extent the ERPs were

  3. Use of Audiovisual Media and Equipment by Medical Educationists ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most frequently used audiovisual medium and equipment is transparency on Overhead projector (O. H. P.) while the medium and equipment that is barely used for teaching is computer graphics on multi-media projector. This study also suggests ways of improving teaching-learning processes in medical education, ...

  4. Environmental conditions and the storage of audiovisual materials in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article discusses environmental factors which affect audiovisual (AV) materials in east and southern Africa. Since countries in the East and Southern Africa Regional Branch of the International Council on Archives (ESARBICA) are in a tropical region, AV materials are affected by high temperatures which result in ...

  5. Audio-Visual Language--Verbal and Visual Codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doelker, Christian

    1980-01-01

    Figurative (visual representation) and commentator (verbal representation) functions and their use in audiovisual media are discussed. Three categories each of visual and aural media are established: real images, artificial forms, and graphic signs; and sound effects, music, and the spoken language. (RAO)

  6. Decision-Level Fusion for Audio-Visual Laughter Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reuderink, B.; Poel, Mannes; Truong, Khiet Phuong; Poppe, Ronald Walter; Pantic, Maja; Popescu-Belis, Andrei; Stiefelhagen, Rainer

    Laughter is a highly variable signal, which can be caused by a spectrum of emotions. This makes the automatic detection of laugh- ter a challenging, but interesting task. We perform automatic laughter detection using audio-visual data from the AMI Meeting Corpus. Audio- visual laughter detection is

  7. Audiovisual Vowel Monitoring and the Word Superiority Effect in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Mathilde; Spinelli, Elsa; Savariaux, Christophe; Kandel, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore whether viewing the speaker's articulatory gestures contributes to lexical access in children (ages 5-10) and in adults. We conducted a vowel monitoring task with words and pseudo-words in audio-only (AO) and audiovisual (AV) contexts with white noise masking the acoustic signal. The results indicated that…

  8. Audio-Visual Equipment Depreciation. RDU-75-07.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Miriam A.; Baker, Martha

    A study was conducted at Purdue University to gather operational and budgetary planning data for the Libraries and Audiovisual Center. The objectives were: (1) to complete a current inventory of equipment including year of purchase, costs, and salvage value; (2) to determine useful life data for general classes of equipment; and (3) to determine…

  9. Audio-visual materials usage preference among agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was found that respondents preferred radio, television, poster, advert, photographs, specimen, bulletin, magazine, cinema, videotape, chalkboard, and bulletin board as audio-visual materials for extension work. These are the materials that can easily be manipulated and utilized for extension work. Nigerian Journal of ...

  10. Understanding the basics of audiovisual archiving in Africa and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The division between the two worlds (the developed and the developing world) has not spared the process of audiovisual archiving and the gap is widening bringing in a lot of challenges to Africa as part of the developing world. While the developed world is today concerned about digital technology and web-based ...

  11. History and audiovisual narratives: on fact and on fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcius Freire

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper intends to relate two different fields: audiovisual discourses(on cinema and on television and the historical discourse as a way ofarticulating social imaginaries. It aims, therefore, to make a comparative analysis of diverse indicial narratives in order to establish their repetitions and variations concerning the way of recalling and reconstructing memory sights through the representation of historical facts.

  12. Audiovisual Integration in Noise by Children and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barutchu, Ayla; Danaher, Jaclyn; Crewther, Sheila G.; Innes-Brown, Hamish; Shivdasani, Mohit N.; Paolini, Antonio G.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the development of multisensory facilitation in primary school-age children under conditions of auditory noise. Motor reaction times and accuracy were recorded from 8-year-olds, 10-year-olds, and adults during auditory, visual, and audiovisual detection tasks. Auditory signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of 30-,…

  13. Developing a typology of humor in audiovisual media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijzen, M.A.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2004-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to develop and investigate a typology of humor in audiovisual media. We identified 41 humor techniques, drawing on Berger's (1976, 1993) typology of humor in narratives, audience research on humor preferences, and an inductive analysis of humorous commercials. We

  14. Audio-Visual Speaker Diarization Based on Spatiotemporal Bayesian Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebru, Israel; Ba, Sileye; Li, Xiaofei; Horaud, Radu

    2017-01-05

    Speaker diarization consists of assigning speech signals to people engaged in a dialogue. An audio-visual spatiotemporal diarization model is proposed. The model is well suited for challenging scenarios that consist of several participants engaged in multi-party interaction while they move around and turn their heads towards the other participants rather than facing the cameras and the microphones. Multiple-person visual tracking is combined with multiple speech-source localization in order to tackle the speech-to-person association problem. The latter is solved within a novel audio-visual fusion method on the following grounds: binaural spectral features are first extracted from a microphone pair, then a supervised audio-visual alignment technique maps these features onto an image, and finally a semisupervised clustering method assigns binaural spectral features to visible persons. The main advantage of this method over previous work is that it processes in a principled way speech signals uttered simultaneously by multiple persons. The diarization itself is cast into a latent-variable temporal graphical model that infers speaker identities and speech turns, based on the output of an audio-visual association process, executed at each time slice, and on the dynamics of the diarization variable itself. The proposed formulation yields an efficient exact inference procedure. A novel dataset, that contains audio-visual training data as well as a number of scenarios involving several participants engaged in formal and informal dialogue, is introduced. The proposed method is thoroughly tested and benchmarked with respect to several state-of-the art diarization algorithms.

  15. Context-specific effects of musical expertise on audiovisual integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eBishop

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ensemble musicians exchange auditory and visual signals that can facilitate interpersonal synchronisation. Musical expertise improves how precisely auditory and visual signals are perceptually integrated and increases sensitivity to asynchrony between them. Whether expertise improves sensitivity to audiovisual asynchrony in all instrumental contexts or only in those using sound-producing gestures that are within an observer's own motor repertoire is unclear. This study tested the hypothesis that musicians are more sensitive to audiovisual asynchrony in performances featuring their own instrument than in performances featuring other instruments. Short clips were extracted from audio-video recordings of clarinet, piano, and violin performances and presented to highly-skilled clarinettists, pianists, and violinists. Clips either maintained the audiovisual synchrony present in the original recording or were modified so that the video led or lagged behind the audio. Participants indicated whether the audio and video channels in each clip were synchronised. The range of asynchronies most often endorsed as synchronised was assessed as a measure of participants' sensitivities to audiovisual asynchrony. A positive relationship was observed between musical training and sensitivity, with data pooled across stimuli. While participants across expertise groups detected asynchronies most readily in piano stimuli and least readily in violin stimuli, pianists showed significantly better performance for piano stimuli than for either clarinet or violin. These findings suggest that, to an extent, the effects of expertise on audiovisual integration can be instrument-specific; however, the nature of the sound-producing gestures that are observed has a substantial effect on how readily asynchrony is detected as well.

  16. Planning Schools for Use of Audio-Visual Materials. No. 3: The Audio-Visual Materials Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Education Association, Washington, DC. Dept. of Audiovisual Instruction.

    This manual discusses the role, organizational patterns, expected services, and space and housing needs of the audio-visual instructional materials center. In considering the housing of basic functions, photographs, floor layouts, diagrams, and specifications of equipment are presented. An appendix includes a 77-item bibliography, a 7-page list of…

  17. Semantic congruence reverses effects of sleep restriction on associative encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberca-Reina, Esther; Cantero, Jose L; Atienza, Mercedes

    2014-04-01

    Encoding and memory consolidation are influenced by factors such as sleep and congruency of newly learned information with prior knowledge (i.e., schema). However, only a few studies have examined the contribution of sleep to enhancement of schema-dependent memory. Based on previous studies showing that total sleep deprivation specifically impairs hippocampal encoding, and that coherent schemas reduce the hippocampal consolidation period after learning, we predict that sleep loss in the pre-training night will mainly affect schema-unrelated information whereas sleep restriction in the post-training night will have similar effects on schema-related and unrelated information. Here, we tested this hypothesis by presenting participants with face-face associations that could be semantically related or unrelated under different sleep conditions: normal sleep before and after training, and acute sleep restriction either before or after training. Memory was tested one day after training, just after introducing an interference task, and two days later, without any interference. Significant results were evident on the second retesting session. In particular, sleep restriction before training enhanced memory for semantically congruent events in detriment of memory for unrelated events, supporting the specific role of sleep in hippocampal memory encoding. Unexpectedly, sleep restriction after training enhanced memory for both related and unrelated events. Although this finding may suggest a poorer encoding during the interference task, this hypothesis should be specifically tested in future experiments. All together, the present results support a framework in which encoding processes seem to be more vulnerable to sleep loss than consolidation processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sistema audiovisual para reconocimiento de comandos Audiovisual system for recognition of commands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Ceballos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el desarrollo de un sistema automático de reconocimiento audiovisual del habla enfocado en el reconocimiento de comandos. La representación del audio se realizó mediante los coeficientes cepstrales de Mel y las primeras dos derivadas temporales. Para la caracterización del vídeo se hizo seguimiento automático de características visuales de alto nivel a través de toda la secuencia. Para la inicialización automática del algoritmo se emplearon transformaciones de color y contornos activos con información de flujo del vector gradiente ("GVF snakes" sobre la región labial, mientras que para el seguimiento se usaron medidas de similitud entre vecindarios y restricciones morfológicas definidas en el estándar MPEG-4. Inicialmente, se presenta el diseño del sistema de reconocimiento automático del habla, empleando únicamente información de audio (ASR, mediante Modelos Ocultos de Markov (HMMs y un enfoque de palabra aislada; posteriormente, se muestra el diseño de los sistemas empleando únicamente características de vídeo (VSR, y empleando características de audio y vídeo combinadas (AVSR. Al final se comparan los resultados de los tres sistemas para una base de datos propia en español y francés, y se muestra la influencia del ruido acústico, mostrando que el sistema de AVSR es más robusto que ASR y VSR.We present the development of an automatic audiovisual speech recognition system focused on the recognition of commands. Signal audio representation was done using Mel cepstral coefficients and their first and second order time derivatives. In order to characterize the video signal, a set of high-level visual features was tracked throughout the sequences. Automatic initialization of the algorithm was performed using color transformations and active contour models based on Gradient Vector Flow (GVF Snakes on the lip region, whereas visual tracking used similarity measures across neighborhoods and morphological

  19. Creativity and audiovisual production online: the case of the Andalusian serial “Niña Repelente”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen SILVA ROBLES

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Web 2.0 has done that young designers can generate and disseminate audiovisual content through social media, without having to go through the usual channels of distribution, until now essential. By the P.C. or the P.D.A. receptors await eager to consume video, an activity that increasingly spend more hours... with a fundamental difference: we have to watch the TV for online audiovisual consume more in other systems and transmitters. With this background, in Andalusia we live the birth of series, considered and of worship, which have shown the potential of our young artists. However, the periodical of chapters is a financial investment that most of them can not afford. Meanwhile, media agencies are faced with the phenomenon of online advertising. The executives are before expectants receivers and content experiences: these are the keys to advertising 2.0. And from here, the pieces begin to function: some have the ideas, content, others funding. That is the Movistar case, the leader telephony company in Spain, and “Niña Repelente”, an online serie that has had the greatest impact in recent years. The sponsorship agreement signed in 2010 has led to the dissemination of the series in Myspace, the social network of more use among native Spanish youth. The case in question gives rise to this paper that analyzes the keys to these changes in different phases of audiovisual production (creation, distribution, consumption while studying the critical variables and open questions for the world communication from the latest trends in Web applications.

  20. Effects of working memory span on processing of lexical associations and congruence in spoken discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudewyn, Megan A; Long, Debra L; Swaab, Tamara Y

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether variability in working memory (WM) capacity and cognitive control affects the processing of global discourse congruence and local associations among words when participants listened to short discourse passages. The final, critical word of each passage was either associated or unassociated with a preceding prime word (e.g., "He was not prepared for the fame and fortune/praise"). These critical words were also either congruent or incongruent with respect to the preceding discourse context [e.g., a context in which a prestigious prize was won (congruent) or in which the protagonist had been arrested (incongruent)]. We used multiple regression to assess the unique contribution of suppression ability (our measure of cognitive control) and WM capacity on the amplitude of individual N400 effects of congruence and association. Our measure of suppression ability did not predict the size of the N400 effects of association or congruence. However, as expected, the results showed that high WM capacity individuals were less sensitive to the presence of lexical associations (showed smaller N400 association effects). Furthermore, differences in WM capacity were related to differences in the topographic distribution of the N400 effects of discourse congruence. The topographic differences in the global congruence effects indicate differences in the underlying neural generators of the N400 effects, as a function of WM. This suggests additional, or at a minimum, distinct, processing on the part of higher capacity individuals when tasked with integrating incoming words into the developing discourse representation.

  1. Determinants of person-environment congruence in institutionalized elderly men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperbeck, D J; Whitbourne, S K; Nehrke, M F

    1981-01-01

    This study was designed to obtain information potentially of value in understanding an modifying the impact of the social environment of the perceived quality of like among institutionalized aged persons. It was hypothesized that Person-Environment (P-E) congruence, as assessed by the Environmental Perception, Preference and Importance Scale (EPPIS), would be related to (1) sex integration/segregation makeup of the health related facility (HRF) living units, and (2) quantity of social interaction between staff and residents. Analysis of sex by unit sex-type interaction for 60 residents' Person-Environment (P-E) congruence scores revealed that elderly females on sex-integrated units reported a higher level of P-E congruence than those residing on female-only units; males on sex-integrated units, in contrast, reported a poorer level of P-E congruence than males on sex -segregated units. Furthermore, behavioral observations of staff-resident verbal interactions confirmed the hypothesis that residents living on units with high staff-resident interaction perceived the environments more congruent with their preferences than residents on units low in verbal interaction. The observed relationships between the P-E congruence measure, resident-staff interaction, and unit sex-type were taken as further support for the relevance and value of the EPPIS measure as a tool for assessing and improving the institutional milieu.

  2. Contextual Congruency Effect in Natural Scene Categorization: Different Strategies in Humans and Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Anne-Claire; Fize, Denis; VanRullen, Rufin

    2015-01-01

    Rapid visual categorization is a crucial ability for survival of many animal species, including monkeys and humans. In real conditions, objects (either animate or inanimate) are never isolated but embedded in a complex background made of multiple elements. It has been shown in humans and monkeys that the contextual background can either enhance or impair object categorization, depending on context/object congruency (for example, an animal in a natural vs. man-made environment). Moreover, a scene is not only a collection of objects; it also has global physical features (i.e phase and amplitude of Fourier spatial frequencies) which help define its gist. In our experiment, we aimed to explore and compare the contribution of the amplitude spectrum of scenes in the context-object congruency effect in monkeys and humans. We designed a rapid visual categorization task, Animal versus Non-Animal, using as contexts both real scenes photographs and noisy backgrounds built from the amplitude spectrum of real scenes but with randomized phase spectrum. We showed that even if the contextual congruency effect was comparable in both species when the context was a real scene, it differed when the foreground object was surrounded by a noisy background: in monkeys we found a similar congruency effect in both conditions, but in humans the congruency effect was absent (or even reversed) when the context was a noisy background. PMID:26207915

  3. Audiovisual Temporal Processing and Synchrony Perception in the Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schormans, Ashley L.; Scott, Kaela E.; Vo, Albert M. Q.; Tyker, Anna; Typlt, Marei; Stolzberg, Daniel; Allman, Brian L.

    2017-01-01

    Extensive research on humans has improved our understanding of how the brain integrates information from our different senses, and has begun to uncover the brain regions and large-scale neural activity that contributes to an observer’s ability to perceive the relative timing of auditory and visual stimuli. In the present study, we developed the first behavioral tasks to assess the perception of audiovisual temporal synchrony in rats. Modeled after the parameters used in human studies, separate groups of rats were trained to perform: (1) a simultaneity judgment task in which they reported whether audiovisual stimuli at various stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) were presented simultaneously or not; and (2) a temporal order judgment task in which they reported whether they perceived the auditory or visual stimulus to have been presented first. Furthermore, using in vivo electrophysiological recordings in the lateral extrastriate visual (V2L) cortex of anesthetized rats, we performed the first investigation of how neurons in the rat multisensory cortex integrate audiovisual stimuli presented at different SOAs. As predicted, rats (n = 7) trained to perform the simultaneity judgment task could accurately (~80%) identify synchronous vs. asynchronous (200 ms SOA) trials. Moreover, the rats judged trials at 10 ms SOA to be synchronous, whereas the majority (~70%) of trials at 100 ms SOA were perceived to be asynchronous. During the temporal order judgment task, rats (n = 7) perceived the synchronous audiovisual stimuli to be “visual first” for ~52% of the trials, and calculation of the smallest timing interval between the auditory and visual stimuli that could be detected in each rat (i.e., the just noticeable difference (JND)) ranged from 77 ms to 122 ms. Neurons in the rat V2L cortex were sensitive to the timing of audiovisual stimuli, such that spiking activity was greatest during trials when the visual stimulus preceded the auditory by 20–40 ms. Ultimately

  4. Audiovisual Rehabilitation in Hemianopia: A Model-Based Theoretical Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magosso, Elisa; Cuppini, Cristiano; Bertini, Caterina

    2017-01-01

    Hemianopic patients exhibit visual detection improvement in the blind field when audiovisual stimuli are given in spatiotemporally coincidence. Beyond this “online” multisensory improvement, there is evidence of long-lasting, “offline” effects induced by audiovisual training: patients show improved visual detection and orientation after they were trained to detect and saccade toward visual targets given in spatiotemporal proximity with auditory stimuli. These effects are ascribed to the Superior Colliculus (SC), which is spared in these patients and plays a pivotal role in audiovisual integration and oculomotor behavior. Recently, we developed a neural network model of audiovisual cortico-collicular loops, including interconnected areas representing the retina, striate and extrastriate visual cortices, auditory cortex, and SC. The network simulated unilateral V1 lesion with possible spared tissue and reproduced “online” effects. Here, we extend the previous network to shed light on circuits, plastic mechanisms, and synaptic reorganization that can mediate the training effects and functionally implement visual rehabilitation. The network is enriched by the oculomotor SC-brainstem route, and Hebbian mechanisms of synaptic plasticity, and is used to test different training paradigms (audiovisual/visual stimulation in eye-movements/fixed-eyes condition) on simulated patients. Results predict different training effects and associate them to synaptic changes in specific circuits. Thanks to the SC multisensory enhancement, the audiovisual training is able to effectively strengthen the retina-SC route, which in turn can foster reinforcement of the SC-brainstem route (this occurs only in eye-movements condition) and reinforcement of the SC-extrastriate route (this occurs in presence of survived V1 tissue, regardless of eye condition). The retina-SC-brainstem circuit may mediate compensatory effects: the model assumes that reinforcement of this circuit can

  5. Audiovisual Rehabilitation in Hemianopia: A Model-Based Theoretical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Magosso

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Hemianopic patients exhibit visual detection improvement in the blind field when audiovisual stimuli are given in spatiotemporally coincidence. Beyond this “online” multisensory improvement, there is evidence of long-lasting, “offline” effects induced by audiovisual training: patients show improved visual detection and orientation after they were trained to detect and saccade toward visual targets given in spatiotemporal proximity with auditory stimuli. These effects are ascribed to the Superior Colliculus (SC, which is spared in these patients and plays a pivotal role in audiovisual integration and oculomotor behavior. Recently, we developed a neural network model of audiovisual cortico-collicular loops, including interconnected areas representing the retina, striate and extrastriate visual cortices, auditory cortex, and SC. The network simulated unilateral V1 lesion with possible spared tissue and reproduced “online” effects. Here, we extend the previous network to shed light on circuits, plastic mechanisms, and synaptic reorganization that can mediate the training effects and functionally implement visual rehabilitation. The network is enriched by the oculomotor SC-brainstem route, and Hebbian mechanisms of synaptic plasticity, and is used to test different training paradigms (audiovisual/visual stimulation in eye-movements/fixed-eyes condition on simulated patients. Results predict different training effects and associate them to synaptic changes in specific circuits. Thanks to the SC multisensory enhancement, the audiovisual training is able to effectively strengthen the retina-SC route, which in turn can foster reinforcement of the SC-brainstem route (this occurs only in eye-movements condition and reinforcement of the SC-extrastriate route (this occurs in presence of survived V1 tissue, regardless of eye condition. The retina-SC-brainstem circuit may mediate compensatory effects: the model assumes that reinforcement of this

  6. Grounding grammatical categories: attention bias in hand space influences grammatical congruency judgment of Chinese nominal classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobben, Marit; D'Ascenzo, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    Embodied cognitive theories predict that linguistic conceptual representations are grounded and continually represented in real world, sensorimotor experiences. However, there is an on-going debate on whether this also holds for abstract concepts. Grammar is the archetype of abstract knowledge, and therefore constitutes a test case against embodied theories of language representation. Former studies have largely focussed on lexical-level embodied representations. In the present study we take the grounding-by-modality idea a step further by using reaction time (RT) data from the linguistic processing of nominal classifiers in Chinese. We take advantage of an independent body of research, which shows that attention in hand space is biased. Specifically, objects near the hand consistently yield shorter RTs as a function of readiness for action on graspable objects within reaching space, and the same biased attention inhibits attentional disengagement. We predicted that this attention bias would equally apply to the graspable object classifier but not to the big object classifier. Chinese speakers (N = 22) judged grammatical congruency of classifier-noun combinations in two conditions: graspable object classifier and big object classifier. We found that RTs for the graspable object classifier were significantly faster in congruent combinations, and significantly slower in incongruent combinations, than the big object classifier. There was no main effect on grammatical violations, but rather an interaction effect of classifier type. Thus, we demonstrate here grammatical category-specific effects pertaining to the semantic content and by extension the visual and tactile modality of acquisition underlying the acquisition of these categories. We conclude that abstract grammatical categories are subjected to the same mechanisms as general cognitive and neurophysiological processes and may therefore be grounded.

  7. Grounding grammatical categories: attention bias in hand space influences grammatical congruency judgment of Chinese nominal classifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marit eLobben

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Embodied cognitive theories predict that linguistic conceptual representations are grounded and continually represented in real world, sensorimotor experiences. However, there is an on-going debate on whether this also holds for abstract concepts. Grammar is the archetype of abstract knowledge, and therefore constitutes a test case against embodied theories of language representation. Former studies have largely focussed on lexical-level embodied representations. In the present study we take the grounding-by-modality idea a step further by using reaction time data from the linguistic processing of nominal classifiers in Chinese. We take advantage of an independent body of research, which shows that attention in hand space is biased. Specifically, objects near the hand consistently yield shorter reaction times as a function of readiness for action on graspable objects within reaching space, and the same biased attention inhibits attentional disengagement. We predicted that this attention bias would equally apply to the graspable object classifier but not to the big object classifier. Chinese speakers (N=21 judged grammatical congruency of classifier-noun combinations in two conditions: graspable object classifier and big object classifier. We found that RTs for the graspable object classifier were significantly faster in congruent combinations, and significantly slower in incongruent combinations, than the big object classifier. There was no main effect on grammatical violations, but rather an interaction effect of classifier type. Thus, we demonstrate here grammatical category-specific effects pertaining to the semantic content and by extension the visual and tactile modality of acquisition underlying the acquisition of these categories. We conclude that abstract grammatical categories are subjected to the same mechanisms as general cognitive and neurophysiological processes and may therefore be grounded.

  8. Digital Content Licensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwemer, Sebastian Felix

    the Digital Single Market (DSM). National and European authorities and legislators have created a host of – often industry- and sometimes business model-specific – initiatives, proposals and rules in order to facilitate the DSM and reconcile it with the territorial nature of copyright and its business......Copyright is territorial. But is the Internet? The Internet has changed the way we consume copyright-protected material. Yet, territorial segmentation of online content is a reality in the 28 EU Member States. Licensing and access practices do not reflect the digital reality, in which end......-legislative) initiatives, which support the facilitation of multi-territorial licensing and cross-border access to content. It investigates the regulation of two online markets, which have recently been subject to scrutiny by the EU institutions: the audiovisual and the music sector, both addressed by ex ante sector...

  9. Multi-modal medical image registration based on phase congruency and quantitative-qualitative mutual information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shan; Han, Hongbin; Liu, Zhaoying; Liu, Bo; Zhou, Fugen

    2011-11-01

    A new approach of multi-modal medical image registration is proposed to overcome the drawbacks of mutual information as taking no consideration of the space information, taking all intensities without distinction, and being sensitive to noise. The proposed method firstly extracts the phase congruencies of the reference and floating image, secondly, it computes quantitative-qualitative mutual information with the phase congruency mappings, finally, the geometric transform is optimized by Particle Swarm Optimization. The quantitative-qualitative mutual information used in our algorithm select the pixels whose utility are larger than the threshold of 1. In addition, Mutual information incorporating phase congruency assimilates the information of both intensity and space. Experiment results show that our approach is more robust in suppressing noise and can achieve higher accuracy.

  10. Color selectivity of the spatial congruency effect: evidence from the focused attention paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makovac, Elena; Gerbino, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The multisensory response enhancement (MRE), occurring when the response to a visual target integrated with a spatially congruent sound is stronger than the response to the visual target alone, is believed to be mediated by the superior colliculus (SC) (Stein & Meredith, 1993). Here, we used a focused attention paradigm to show that the spatial congruency effect occurs with red (SC-effective) but not blue (SC-ineffective) visual stimuli, when presented with spatially congruent sounds. To isolate the chromatic component of SC-ineffective targets and to demonstrate the selectivity of the spatial congruency effect we used the random luminance modulation technique (Experiment 1) and the tritanopic technique (Experiment 2). Our results indicate that the spatial congruency effect does not require the distribution of attention over different sensory modalities and provide correlational evidence that the SC mediates the effect.

  11. Leader-follower values congruence: are socialized charismatic leaders better able to achieve it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael E; Treviño, Linda K

    2009-03-01

    In a field study, the authors investigated the relationship between socialized charismatic leadership and values congruence between leaders and followers. Socialized charismatic leadership theory holds that charismatic leaders convey a values-based message and bring about values congruence between themselves and their followers. Yet, other research suggests that individuals' values are stable and closely linked to occupational membership and that employees' values are therefore likely to be quite difficult to change. Results of this study suggest that occupations are indeed associated with multiple types of employee values. The results also demonstrate that, for 3 of the 4 values studied, socialized charismatic leadership is associated with values congruence between the specific values leaders say they transmit to their followers and the values their followers say they use in work. The findings shed additional light on the values alignment process. Implications for research and practice are discussed. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. A influência do ambiente audiovisual na legendação de filmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Célia Ribeiro Nobre

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo mostra como a legendação é influenciada por muitos fatores presentes dentro do ambiente audiovisual devido, sobretudo, à função comunicativa audiovisual, à composição semiótica, à mecânica da legendação, e às visões e ao comportamento das pessoas envolvidas na produção audiovisual, na tradução e na distribuição, na crítica e no público.This article shows how subtitling is influenced by many factors among the audiovisual environment, due primarily to the audiovisuals communicative function and semiotic composition; the mechanics of subtitling; and the views and behavior of people involved with the audiovisuals production, translation and distribution, the critics and the public.

  13. Culture, salience, and psychiatric diagnosis: exploring the concept of cultural congruence & its practical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashed, Mohammed Abouelleil

    2013-07-16

    Cultural congruence is the idea that to the extent a belief or experience is culturally shared it is not to feature in a diagnostic judgement, irrespective of its resemblance to psychiatric pathology. This rests on the argument that since deviation from norms is central to diagnosis, and since what counts as deviation is relative to context, assessing the degree of fit between mental states and cultural norms is crucial. Various problems beset the cultural congruence construct including impoverished definitions of culture as religious, national or ethnic group and of congruence as validation by that group. This article attempts to address these shortcomings to arrive at a cogent construct. The article distinguishes symbolic from phenomenological conceptions of culture, the latter expanded upon through two sources: Husserl's phenomenological analysis of background intentionality and neuropsychological literature on salience. It is argued that culture is not limited to symbolic presuppositions and shapes subjects' experiential dispositions. This conception is deployed to re-examine the meaning of (in)congruence. The main argument is that a significant, since foundational, deviation from culture is not from a value or belief but from culturally-instilled experiential dispositions, in what is salient to an individual in a particular context. Applying the concept of cultural congruence must not be limited to assessing violations of the symbolic order and must consider alignment with or deviations from culturally-instilled experiential dispositions. By virtue of being foundational to a shared experience of the world, such dispositions are more accurate indicators of potential vulnerability. Notwithstanding problems of access and expertise, clinical practice should aim to accommodate this richer meaning of cultural congruence.

  14. Null Geodesic Congruences, Asymptotically-Flat Spacetimes and Their Physical Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy M. Adamo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A priori, there is nothing very special about shear-free or asymptotically shear-free null geodesic congruences. Surprisingly, however, they turn out to possess a large number of fascinating geometric properties and to be closely related, in the context of general relativity, to a variety of physically significant effects. It is the purpose of this paper to try to fully develop these issues. This work starts with a detailed exposition of the theory of shear-free and asymptotically shear-free null geodesic congruences, i.e., congruences with shear that vanishes at future conformal null infinity. A major portion of the exposition lies in the analysis of the space of regular shear-free and asymptotically shear-free null geodesic congruences. This analysis leads to the space of complex analytic curves in an auxiliary four-complex dimensional space, H-space. They in turn play a dominant role in the applications. The applications center around the problem of extracting interior physical properties of an asymptotically-flat spacetime directly from the asymptotic gravitational (and Maxwell field itself, in analogy with the determination of total charge by an integral over the Maxwell field at infinity or the identification of the interior mass (and its loss by (Bondi's integrals of the Weyl tensor, also at infinity. More specifically, we will see that the asymptotically shear-free congruences lead us to an asymptotic definition of the center-of-mass and its equations of motion. This includes a kinematic meaning, in terms of the center-of-mass motion, for the Bondi three-momentum. In addition, we obtain insights into intrinsic spin and, in general, angular momentum, including an angular-momentum--conservation law with well-defined flux terms. When a Maxwell field is present, the asymptotically shear-free congruences allow us to determine/define at infinity a center-of-charge world line and intrinsic magnetic dipole moment.

  15. Null Geodesic Congruences, Asymptotically-Flat Spacetimes and Their Physical Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy M. Adamo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A priori, there is nothing very special about shear-free or asymptotically shear-free null geodesic congruences. Surprisingly, however, they turn out to possess a large number of fascinating geometric properties and to be closely related, in the context of general relativity, to a variety of physically significant effects. It is the purpose of this paper to try to fully develop these issues. This work starts with a detailed exposition of the theory of shear-free and asymptotically shear-free null geodesic congruences, i.e., congruences with shear that vanishes at future conformal null infinity. A major portion of the exposition lies in the analysis of the space of regular shear-free and asymptotically shear-free null geodesic congruences. This analysis leads to the space of complex analytic curves in complex Minkowski space. They in turn play a dominant role in the applications. The applications center around the problem of extracting interior physical properties of an asymptotically-flat spacetime directly from the asymptotic gravitational (and Maxwell field itself, in analogy with the determination of total charge by an integral over the Maxwell field at infinity or the identification of the interior mass (and its loss by (Bondi’s integrals of the Weyl tensor, also at infinity. More specifically, we will see that the asymptotically shear-free congruences lead us to an asymptotic definition of the center-of-mass and its equations of motion. This includes a kinematic meaning, in terms of the center-of-mass motion, for the Bondi three-momentum. In addition, we obtain insights into intrinsic spin and, in general, angular momentum, including an angular-momentum–conservation law with well-defined flux terms. When a Maxwell field is present, the asymptotically shear-free congruences allow us to determine/define at infinity a center-of-charge world line and intrinsic magnetic dipole moment.

  16. Audiovisual translation research in Brazil and in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Alvarenga

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents contributions from three translation scholars aimed at discussing the present situation of audiovisual translation research in Brazil and in Europe. The first contribution deals with issues concerning both contexts whereas the two others focus on local research issues.Este artigo apresenta contribuições de três pesquisadoras de tradução que discutem a situação atual das pesquisas sobre tradução audiovisual no Brasil e na Europa. A primeira contribuição trata de questões correlatas aos dois contextos enquanto que as duas outras enfocam questões de pesquisa de interesse local.

  17. JORNALISMO AUDIOVISUAL: DA TELA DA TV PARA OUTRAS TELAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Ferreira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho é fruto de uma pesquisa em desenvolvimento em parceria com a TV Unesp, emissora universitária vinculada à Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita, campus de Bauru/SP e que tem por objetivo identificar os pontos convergentes e divergentes na produção de conteúdo audiovisual informativo para a TV aberta e demais plataformas digitais e móveis. O texto em questão é a conclusão da primeira etapa da pesquisa que se pautou por identificar os pressupostos básicos que deverão nortear os conteúdos que serão produzidos posteriormente e veiculados pela emissora no decorrer da pesquisa. Foram analisadas as características do jornalismo audiovisual online e o modelo de negócios da TV aberta em contraste com o modelo de negócios presente na Internet.

  18. The attentional window modulates capture by audiovisual events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Van der Burg

    Full Text Available Visual search is markedly improved when a target color change is synchronized with a spatially non-informative auditory signal. This "pip and pop" effect is an automatic process as even a distractor captures attention when accompanied by a tone. Previous studies investigating visual attention have indicated that automatic capture is susceptible to the size of the attentional window. The present study investigated whether the pip and pop effect is modulated by the extent to which participants divide their attention across the visual field We show that participants were better in detecting a synchronized audiovisual event when they divided their attention across the visual field relative to a condition in which they focused their attention. We argue that audiovisual capture is reduced under focused conditions relative to distributed settings.

  19. Jornalismo audiovisual: da tela da TV para outras telas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Machado Filho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho é fruto de uma pesquisa em desenvolvimento em parceria com a TV Unesp, emissora universitária vinculada à Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita, campus de Bauru/SP e que tem por objetivo identificar os pontos convergentes e divergentes na produção de conteúdo audiovisual informativo para a TV aberta e demais plataformas digitais e móveis. O texto em questão é a conclusão da primeira etapa da pesquisa que se pautou por identificar os pressupostos básicos que deverão nortear os conteúdos que serão produzidos posteriormente e veiculados pela emissora no decorrer da pesquisa. Foram analisadas as características do jornalismo audiovisual online e o modelo de negócios da TV aberta em contraste com o modelo de negócios presente na Internet.

  20. Interlibrary loan of audiovisual materials in the health sciences: how a system operates in New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, C M

    1976-10-01

    An audiovisual loan program developed by the library of the College of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey is described. This program, supported by an NLM grant, has circulated audiovisual software from CMDNJ to libraries since 1974. Project experiences and statistics reflect the great demand for audiovisuals by health science libraries and demonstrate that a borrowing system following the pattern of traditional interlibrary loan can operate effectively and efficiently to serve these needs.

  1. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE CONGRUENCE OF REQUIRED AND PERCEIVED LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOR AND SATISFACTION IN ATHLETES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, San-Fu; Watson Ii, Jack C; Chen, Yu-Fang; Halbrook, Meghan

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of the current study was to explore the relationship between the congruence of perceived and required leadership behavior and the effect of this relationship upon athlete satisfaction in a Chinese setting. Using a sample of volleyball players (n = 233) and athletic directors (n = 19), the present study examined the congruence between required and perceived leadership behavior and the resulting satisfaction of Taiwanese athletes. Analyses revealed athletes were more likely to be satisfied when their perceptions of their coaches' positive feedback behavior conformed to the expectations of their athletic directors. These results confirmed aspects of the multidimensional model of leadership in a cultural perspective.

  2. Design of variable-weight quadratic congruence code for optical CDMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Gang; Cheng, Wen-Qing; Chen, Fu-Jun

    2015-09-01

    A variable-weight code family referred to as variable-weight quadratic congruence code (VWQCC) is constructed by algebraic transformation for incoherent synchronous optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) systems. Compared with quadratic congruence code (QCC), VWQCC doubles the code cardinality and provides the multiple code-sets with variable code-weight. Moreover, the bit-error rate (BER) performance of VWQCC is superior to those of conventional variable-weight codes by removing or padding pulses under the same chip power assumption. The experiment results show that VWQCC can be well applied to the OCDMA with quality of service (QoS) requirements.

  3. Health Education Audiovisual Media on Mental Illness for Family

    OpenAIRE

    Wahyuningsih, Dyah; Wiyati, Ruti; Subagyo, Widyo

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to produce health education media in form of Video Compact Disk (VCD). The first disk consist of method how to take care of patient with social isolation and the second disk consist of method how to take care of patient with violence behaviour. The implementation of audiovisual media is giving for family in Psyciatric Ward Banyumas hospital. The family divided in two groups, the first group was given health education about social isolation and the second group was given healt...

  4. Neural development of networks for audiovisual speech comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Anthony Steven; Solodkin, Ana; Small, Steven L

    2010-08-01

    Everyday conversation is both an auditory and a visual phenomenon. While visual speech information enhances comprehension for the listener, evidence suggests that the ability to benefit from this information improves with development. A number of brain regions have been implicated in audiovisual speech comprehension, but the extent to which the neurobiological substrate in the child compares to the adult is unknown. In particular, developmental differences in the network for audiovisual speech comprehension could manifest through the incorporation of additional brain regions, or through different patterns of effective connectivity. In the present study we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and structural equation modeling (SEM) to characterize the developmental changes in network interactions for audiovisual speech comprehension. The brain response was recorded while children 8- to 11-years-old and adults passively listened to stories under audiovisual (AV) and auditory-only (A) conditions. Results showed that in children and adults, AV comprehension activated the same fronto-temporo-parietal network of regions known for their contribution to speech production and perception. However, the SEM network analysis revealed age-related differences in the functional interactions among these regions. In particular, the influence of the posterior inferior frontal gyrus/ventral premotor cortex on supramarginal gyrus differed across age groups during AV, but not A speech. This functional pathway might be important for relating motor and sensory information used by the listener to identify speech sounds. Further, its development might reflect changes in the mechanisms that relate visual speech information to articulatory speech representations through experience producing and perceiving speech. 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Neural correlates of quality during perception of audiovisual stimuli

    CERN Document Server

    Arndt, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a new approach to examining perceived quality of audiovisual sequences. It uses electroencephalography to understand how exactly user quality judgments are formed within a test participant, and what might be the physiologically-based implications when being exposed to lower quality media. The book redefines experimental paradigms of using EEG in the area of quality assessment so that they better suit the requirements of standard subjective quality testings. Therefore, experimental protocols and stimuli are adjusted accordingly. .

  6. The Digital Turn in the French Audiovisual Model

    OpenAIRE

    Olivier Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    This article deals with the digital turn in the French audiovisual model. An organizational and legal system has evolved with changing technology and economic forces over the past thirty years. The high-income television industry served as the key element during the 1980s to compensate for a shifting value economy from movie theaters to domestic screens and personal devices. However, the growing competition in the TV sector and the rise of tech companies have initiated a disruption process. A...

  7. Non-standard photography methods in audiovisual journalism

    OpenAIRE

    Géla, František

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the diploma thesis "Non- standard photography methods in audiovisual journalism" is to present image and production methods that are used in television news and journalism - particularly those ones that defy standard methods. These methods appear, considering technological development and the endeavour of making neutral visual space of television journalism, more attractive. First chapter of the thesis presents television news, its history, characteristics, elements and typology of...

  8. Interest Congruency as a Moderator of the Relationships between Job Tenure and Job Satisfaction and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Kenneth; Wiener, Yoash

    1977-01-01

    In a sample of 54 middle managers, significant moderator effects were found for the mental health indices of self-esteem, life-satisfaction, and overall mental health and for satisfaction with supervision. These indices correlated positively with job tenure for high congruency individuals. For low congruency individuals, the obtained correlations…

  9. Congruence or Discrepancy? Comparing Patients' Health Valuations and Physicians' Treatment Goals for Rehabilitation for Patients with Chronic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagl, Michaela; Farin, Erik

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the congruence of patients' health valuations and physicians' treatment goals for the rehabilitation of chronically ill patients. In addition, patient characteristics associated with greater or less congruence were to be determined. In a questionnaire study, patients' health valuations and physicians' goals were…

  10. AUDIO-VISUAL SYNKRETISM IN THE HISTORY OF ART AND EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Telysheva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper looks at the problems facing the art teachers and resulted, in the author’s opinion, from separation of the content and functional side of the subject. The other problem is the lack of insight regarding social behavior, forms of consciousness and perception (including the spatial and temporal ones underlying all sorts and forms of art. The paper demonstrates the interrelations between the history of arts and education history considered in terms of development and fixation of various forms of social consciousness. The audiovisual syncretism is regarded as the nature of perception and world reflection at specific historical stages of human knowledge and creativity development. Both the history of arts and education include the content and procedure related aspects. The whole history of pedagogy involves the procedure improvements (methods, means, forms, etc. along the way «from integration to differentiation, and backwards»; and on the other side, it incorporates the invariable educational content. Likewise, throughout the history of arts we can trace the procedural aspect developments and the existence of the “eternal” content related to personality upbringing.

  11. Audiovisual temporal fusion in 6-month-old infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Kopp

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate neural dynamics of audiovisual temporal fusion processes in 6-month-old infants using event-related brain potentials (ERPs. In a habituation-test paradigm, infants did not show any behavioral signs of discrimination of an audiovisual asynchrony of 200 ms, indicating perceptual fusion. In a subsequent EEG experiment, audiovisual synchronous stimuli and stimuli with a visual delay of 200 ms were presented in random order. In contrast to the behavioral data, brain activity differed significantly between the two conditions. Critically, N1 and P2 latency delays were not observed between synchronous and fused items, contrary to previously observed N1 and P2 latency delays between synchrony and perceived asynchrony. Hence, temporal interaction processes in the infant brain between the two sensory modalities varied as a function of perceptual fusion versus asynchrony perception. The visual recognition components Pb and Nc were modulated prior to sound onset, emphasizing the importance of anticipatory visual events for the prediction of auditory signals. Results suggest mechanisms by which young infants predictively adjust their ongoing neural activity to the temporal synchrony relations to be expected between vision and audition.

  12. Visual Target Localization, the Effect of Allocentric Audiovisual Reference Frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hartnagel

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Visual allocentric references frames (contextual cues affect visual space perception (Diedrichsen et al., 2004; Walter et al., 2006. On the other hand, experiments have shown a change of visual perception induced by binaural stimuli (Chandler, 1961; Carlile et al., 2001. In the present study we investigate the effect of visual and audiovisual allocentred reference frame on visual localization and straight ahead pointing. Participant faced a black part-spherical screen (92cm radius. The head was maintained aligned with the body. Participant wore headphone and a glove with motion capture markers. A red laser point was displayed straight ahead as fixation point. The visual target was a 100ms green laser point. After a short delay, the green laser reappeared and participant had to localize target with a trackball. Straight ahead blind pointing was required before and after series of 48 trials. Visual part of the bimodal allocentred reference frame was provided by a vertical red laser line (15° left or 15° right, auditory part was provided by 3D sound. Five conditions were tested, no-reference, visual reference (left/right, audiovisual reference (left/right. Results show that the significant effect of bimodal audiovisual reference is not different from the visual reference one.

  13. Modeling the Development of Audiovisual Cue Integration in Speech Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, Laura M; Nordeen, Elke R; Vrabic, Sarah C; Toscano, Joseph C

    2017-03-21

    Adult speech perception is generally enhanced when information is provided from multiple modalities. In contrast, infants do not appear to benefit from combining auditory and visual speech information early in development. This is true despite the fact that both modalities are important to speech comprehension even at early stages of language acquisition. How then do listeners learn how to process auditory and visual information as part of a unified signal? In the auditory domain, statistical learning processes provide an excellent mechanism for acquiring phonological categories. Is this also true for the more complex problem of acquiring audiovisual correspondences, which require the learner to integrate information from multiple modalities? In this paper, we present simulations using Gaussian mixture models (GMMs) that learn cue weights and combine cues on the basis of their distributional statistics. First, we simulate the developmental process of acquiring phonological categories from auditory and visual cues, asking whether simple statistical learning approaches are sufficient for learning multi-modal representations. Second, we use this time course information to explain audiovisual speech perception in adult perceivers, including cases where auditory and visual input are mismatched. Overall, we find that domain-general statistical learning techniques allow us to model the developmental trajectory of audiovisual cue integration in speech, and in turn, allow us to better understand the mechanisms that give rise to unified percepts based on multiple cues.

  14. Audiovisual integration in the human perception of materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisaki, Waka; Goda, Naokazu; Motoyoshi, Isamu; Komatsu, Hidehiko; Nishida, Shin'ya

    2014-04-17

    Interest in the perception of the material of objects has been growing. While material perception is a critical ability for animals to properly regulate behavioral interactions with surrounding objects (e.g., eating), little is known about its underlying processing. Vision and audition provide useful information for material perception; using only its visual appearance or impact sound, we can infer what an object is made from. However, what material is perceived when the visual appearance of one material is combined with the impact sound of another, and what are the rules that govern cross-modal integration of material information? We addressed these questions by asking 16 human participants to rate how likely it was that audiovisual stimuli (48 combinations of visual appearances of six materials and impact sounds of eight materials) along with visual-only stimuli and auditory-only stimuli fell into each of 13 material categories. The results indicated strong interactions between audiovisual material perceptions; for example, the appearance of glass paired with a pepper sound is perceived as transparent plastic. Rating material-category likelihoods follow a multiplicative integration rule in that the categories judged to be likely are consistent with both visual and auditory stimuli. On the other hand, rating-material properties, such as roughness and hardness, follow a weighted average rule. Despite a difference in their integration calculations, both rules can be interpreted as optimal Bayesian integration of independent audiovisual estimations for the two types of material judgment, respectively.

  15. Temporal adaptation to audiovisual asynchrony generalizes across different sound frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi eNavarra

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The human brain exhibits a highly-adaptive ability to reduce natural asynchronies between visual and auditory signals. Even though this mechanism robustly modulates the subsequent perception of sounds and visual stimuli, it is still unclear how such a temporal realignment is attained. In the present study, we investigated whether or not temporal adaptation generalizes across different sound frequencies. In a first exposure phase, participants adapted to a fixed 220-ms audiovisual asynchrony or else to synchrony for 3min. In a second phase, the participants performed simultaneity judgments (SJs regarding pairs of audiovisual stimuli that were presented at different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs and included either the same tone as in the exposure phase (a 250Hz beep, another low-pitched beep (300Hz, or a high-pitched beep (2500Hz. Temporal realignment was always observed (when comparing SJ performance after exposure to asynchrony vs. synchrony, regardless of the frequency of the sound tested. This suggests that temporal recalibration influences the audiovisual perception of sounds in a frequency non-specific manner and may imply the participation of non-primary perceptual areas of the brain that are not constrained by certain physical features such as sound frequency.

  16. Event Related Potentials Index Rapid Recalibration to Audiovisual Temporal Asynchrony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, David M.; Noel, Jean-Paul; Wallace, Mark T.

    2017-01-01

    Asynchronous arrival of multisensory information at the periphery is a ubiquitous property of signals in the natural environment due to differences in the propagation time of light and sound. Rapid adaptation to these asynchronies is crucial for the appropriate integration of these multisensory signals, which in turn is a fundamental neurobiological process in creating a coherent perceptual representation of our dynamic world. Indeed, multisensory temporal recalibration has been shown to occur at the single trial level, yet the mechanistic basis of this rapid adaptation is unknown. Here, we investigated the neural basis of rapid recalibration to audiovisual temporal asynchrony in human participants using a combination of psychophysics and electroencephalography (EEG). Consistent with previous reports, participant’s perception of audiovisual temporal synchrony on a given trial (t) was influenced by the temporal structure of stimuli on the previous trial (t−1). When examined physiologically, event related potentials (ERPs) were found to be modulated by the temporal structure of the previous trial, manifesting as late differences (>125 ms post second-stimulus onset) in central and parietal positivity on trials with large stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs). These findings indicate that single trial adaptation to audiovisual temporal asynchrony is reflected in modulations of late evoked components that have previously been linked to stimulus evaluation and decision-making. PMID:28381993

  17. Estrategias de comprensión audiovisual para estudiantes sinohablantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Gibert Escofet

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio partimos de dos referencias básicas para la enseñanza del E/LE: el Marco Común Europeo de Referencia para las lenguas (Consejo de Europa 2001 y el Plan Curricular del Instituto Cervantes (Instituto Cervantes 2006. El proyecto presentado obedece a la necesidad de subsanar los problemas de comprensión auditiva que presenta el alumnado chino. Como estos grupos-meta están poco acostumbrados a aprender con estrategias distintas a las implicadas en la memorización, partimos de la hipótesis de que el desarrollo de las estrategias de comprensión audiovisual y el trabajo cooperativo les haría, por una parte, más competentes en la comprensión auditiva y audiovisual, y, por otra, en la aceptación e interiorización de una metodología más comunicativa de aprendizaje. Así pues, el objetivo principal planteado es el desarrollar estas estrategias de comprensión audiovisual a través del trabajo cooperativo y, así, ayudar a los estudiantes a responsabilizarse de su propio aprendizaje.

  18. Audiovisual integration for speech during mid-childhood: electrophysiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaganovich, Natalya; Schumaker, Jennifer

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the presence of visual speech cues reduces the amplitude and latency of the N1 and P2 event-related potential (ERP) components elicited by speech stimuli. However, the developmental trajectory of this effect is not yet fully mapped. We examined ERP responses to auditory, visual, and audiovisual speech in two groups of school-age children (7-8-year-olds and 10-11-year-olds) and in adults. Audiovisual speech led to the attenuation of the N1 and P2 components in all groups of participants, suggesting that the neural mechanisms underlying these effects are functional by early school years. Additionally, while the reduction in N1 was largest over the right scalp, the P2 attenuation was largest over the left and midline scalp. The difference in the hemispheric distribution of the N1 and P2 attenuation supports the idea that these components index at least somewhat disparate neural processes within the context of audiovisual speech perception. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Human infants orient to biological motion rather than audiovisual synchrony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falck-Ytter, Terje; Bakker, Marta; von Hofsten, Claes

    2011-06-01

    Both orienting to audiovisual synchrony and to biological motion are adaptive responses. The ability to integrate correlated information from multiple senses reduces processing load and underlies the perception of a multimodal and unified world. Perceiving biological motion facilitates filial attachment and detection of predators/prey. In the literature, these mechanisms are discussed in isolation. In this eye-tracking study, we tested their relative strengths in young human infants. We showed five-month-old infants point-light animation pairs of human motion, accompanied by a soundtrack. We found that audiovisual synchrony was a strong determinant of attention when it was embedded in biological motion (two upright animations). However, when biological motion was shown together with distorted biological motion (upright animation and inverted animation, respectively), infants looked at the upright animation and disregarded audiovisual synchrony. Thus, infants oriented to biological motion rather than multimodally unified physical events. These findings have important implications for understanding the developmental trajectory of brain specialization in early human infancy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Audiovisual integration of speech in a patient with Broca's Aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Tobias S; Starrfelt, Randi

    2015-01-01

    Lesions to Broca's area cause aphasia characterized by a severe impairment of the ability to speak, with comparatively intact speech perception. However, some studies have found effects on speech perception under adverse listening conditions, indicating that Broca's area is also involved in speech perception. While these studies have focused on auditory speech perception other studies have shown that Broca's area is activated by visual speech perception. Furthermore, one preliminary report found that a patient with Broca's aphasia did not experience the McGurk illusion suggesting that an intact Broca's area is necessary for audiovisual integration of speech. Here we describe a patient with Broca's aphasia who experienced the McGurk illusion. This indicates that an intact Broca's area is not necessary for audiovisual integration of speech. The McGurk illusions this patient experienced were atypical, which could be due to Broca's area having a more subtle role in audiovisual integration of speech. The McGurk illusions of a control subject with Wernicke's aphasia were, however, also atypical. This indicates that the atypical McGurk illusions were due to deficits in speech processing that are not specific to Broca's aphasia.

  1. Value of audiovisual records in intercultural education/Valor de los registros audiovisuales en educacion intercultural

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bautista, Antonio; Rayon, Laura; de las Heras, Ana

    2012-01-01

    ... , y de plantear algunas soluciones dadas desde la antropologia audiovisual, analizamos la naturaleza de algunas situaciones de educacion intercultural recogidas en los dos colegios -etnografias- que...

  2. Evolution of broadcast content distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Beutler, Roland

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses opportunities for broadcasters that arise with the advent of broadband networks, both fixed and mobile. It discusses how the traditional way of distributing audio-visual content over broadcasting networks has been complemented by the usage of broadband networks. The author shows how this also gives the possibility to offer new types of interactive or so-called nonlinear services. The book illustrates how change in distribution technology is accelerating the need for broadcasters around the world to adapt their content distribution strategy and how it will impact the portfolios of content they offer. Outlines the shift in broadcast content distribution paradigms and related strategic issues Provides an overview of the new broadcasting ecosystem encompassing new types of content, user habits, expectations, and devices Discusses complementary usage of different distribution technologies and platforms.

  3. Artivismo, activismo y sin autoría audiovisual : el caso del colectivo Cine sin Autor (CsA) / Artivism, activism and audiovisual authorship: the case of Cine sin Autor (CsA)

    OpenAIRE

    Sedeño Valdellós, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Without authorship is an audiovisual production process that problematize some of the canonical or fixed ideas of the transfer about authorshio and authority from one individual to the common people on issues of audiovisual production. In previous works we have already highlighted some of its characteristics and analyzed some works and practices from a collective (Cine sin Autor or CsA) that we called as "audiovisual without authorship", an alternative for an audiovisual language and with a p...

  4. Comprehending News Videotexts: The Influence of the Visual Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Informed by dual coding theory, this study explores the role of the visual content in L2 listeners' comprehension of news videotexts. L1 research into the visual characteristics and comprehension of news videotexts is outlined, subsequently informing the quantitative analysis of audiovisual correspondence in the news videotexts used. In each of…

  5. A Content Analysis of Educational Media about Menstruation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, Beverly; Swenson, Ingrid

    1989-01-01

    Reviewed 31 audiovisual media for content related to physical and psychological aspects of menstruation; portrayal of adolescent girls, parents, and peers; and relationship of menstruation to developmental process. In general, variations in physical and emotional responses were described as normal. In all cases, fear and embarrassment were…

  6. The congruences of a finite lattice a "proof-by-picture" approach

    CERN Document Server

    Grätzer, George

    2016-01-01

    This is a self-contained exposition by one of the leading experts in lattice theory, George Grätzer, presenting the major results of the last 70 years on congruence lattices of finite lattices, featuring the author's signature Proof-by-Picture method. Key features: * Insightful discussion of techniques to construct "nice" finite lattices with given congruence lattices and "nice" congruence-preserving extensions * Contains complete proofs, an extensive bibliography and index, and over 140 illustrations * This new edition includes two new parts on Planar Semimodular Lattices and The Order of Principle Congruences, covering the research of the last 10 years The book is appropriate for a one-semester graduate course in lattice theory, and it is a practical reference for researchers studying lattices. Reviews of the first edition: "There exist a lot of interesting results in this area of lattice theory, and some of them are presented in this book. [This] monograph…is an exceptional work in lattice theory, like ...

  7. The Effect of Radical Innovation In/Congruence on New Product Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baker, W.; Sinkula, J.; Grinstein, A.; Rosenzweig, S.

    2014-01-01

    Radical innovation is critical for many firms and for society. This research focuses on the impact of radical innovation congruence - the degree to which management values regarding radical innovation match radical innovation norms in the business unit. We offer a model and empirically test it to

  8. Development and Field Test of the Multiple Intelligences Learning Instruction Congruency Impact Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peifer, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to contribute to the academic discussion regarding the validity of Multiple Intelligences (MI) theory through focusing on the validity of an important construct embedded in the theory, that of congruence between instructional style and preferred MI style for optimal learning. Currently there is insufficient empirical…

  9. Balanced Scorecard in Higher Education Institutions: Congruence and Roles to Quality Assurance Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reda, Nigusse W.

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to highlight the congruence and roles of the balanced scorecard in the quality assurance practices in higher education institutions, and second, to propose a balanced scorecard model for higher education institutions. Design/methodology/approach: A descriptive literature review was used to…

  10. Effect of Syllable Congruency in Sixth Graders in the Lexical Decision Task with Masked Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetail, Fabienne; Mathey, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the syllable in visual recognition of French words in Grade 6. To do so, the syllabic congruency effect was examined in the lexical decision task combined with masked priming. Target words were preceded by pseudoword primes sharing the first letters that either corresponded to the syllable…

  11. Interaction between Phonemic Abilities and Syllable Congruency Effect in Young Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetail, Fabienne; Mathey, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether and to what extent phonemic abilities of young readers (Grade 5) influence syllabic effects in reading. More precisely, the syllable congruency effect was tested in the lexical decision task combined with masked priming in eleven-year-old children. Target words were preceded by a pseudo-word prime sharing the first…

  12. The Effects of College Major and Job Field Congruence on Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolniak, Gregory C.; Pascarella, Ernest T.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated predictors of job satisfaction and builds on previous research on the effects of bachelor's degree majors and job field congruence on job satisfaction. Data on workers' job experiences in 2001 were matched to those workers' college experiences across 30 institutions and background characteristics up to 25 years earlier.…

  13. The Adolescent-Parent Career Congruence Scale: Development and Initial Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawitri, Dian R.; Creed, Peter A.; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.

    2013-01-01

    Although there is a growing interest in the discrepancy between parents and their adolescent children in relation to career expectations, there is no existing, psychometrically sound scale that directly measures adolescent-parent career congruence or incongruence. This study reports the development and initial validation of the Adolescent-Parent…

  14. The Flip Side of Holland Type Congruence: Incongruence and Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dik, Bryan J.; Strife, Samantha Roberts; Hansen, Jo-Ida C.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between Holland type (Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional; Holland, 1959, 1997) congruence and incongruence (i.e., lack of ft between an occupation's 3-letter Holland code and a person's lowest 3 Holland interest types) and tested whether incongruence predicts unique…

  15. The Impact of Transformational Leadership on Leader-Follower Work Value Congruence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bosch

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study builds on the theory that transformational leadership impacts perceptions of leader-follower value congruence. The study examines intrinsic, altruistic, and social work values in a sample of 150 workers in the United States. The hypotheses tested that different levels of transformational leadership, as perceived by followers, are positively related to follower perceptions of leader-follower intrinsic, altruistic, and social work value congruence. Utilizing hierarchical multiple regression, the findings indicate that  levels of perceived transformational leadership are positively related to higher levels of perceived leader-follower intrinsic, altruistic, and social work value congruency. This study used four different measurement tools to test these hypotheses and controlled for task-oriented behaviors, tenure with supervisor as well as race, gender, and age similarity with supervisor. The findings suggest that organizations involved in a restructuring or reorganization due to either internal or external circumstances should emphasize developing leaders’ transformational leadership behaviors in order to capture benefits related to value congruency.

  16. Evaluation of the Normal Limit of the Congruence (Q) Angle of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OBJECTIVE: To establish the normal limit of the congruence 9Q) Angle of the patella in Nigeria and therefore establish a reference value for orthopaedic surgeons. DESIGN: Measurement of Q angle in 104 freshly obtained cadavers from three centers in Port Harcourt and one center in Nnewi all in eastern part of Nigeria.

  17. Balanced Scorecard in Higher Education Institutions: Congruence and Roles to Quality Assurance Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reda, Nigusse W.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to highlight the congruence and roles of the balanced scorecard in the quality assurance practices in higher education institutions, and second, to propose a balanced scorecard model for higher education institutions. Design/methodology/approach: A descriptive literature review was used to…

  18. An autonomous surface discontinuity detection and quantification method by digital image correlation and phase congruency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinar, A. F.; Barhli, S. M.; Hollis, D.; Flansbjer, M.; Tomlinson, R. A.; Marrow, T. J.; Mostafavi, M.

    2017-09-01

    Digital image correlation has been routinely used to measure full-field displacements in many areas of solid mechanics, including fracture mechanics. Accurate segmentation of the crack path is needed to study its interaction with the microstructure and stress fields, and studies of crack behaviour, such as the effect of closure or residual stress in fatigue, require data on its opening displacement. Such information can be obtained from any digital image correlation analysis of cracked components, but it collection by manual methods is quite onerous, particularly for massive amounts of data. We introduce the novel application of Phase Congruency to detect and quantify cracks and their opening. Unlike other crack detection techniques, Phase Congruency does not rely on adjustable threshold values that require user interaction, and so allows large datasets to be treated autonomously. The accuracy of the Phase Congruency based algorithm in detecting cracks is evaluated and compared with conventional methods such as Heaviside function fitting. As Phase Congruency is a displacement-based method, it does not suffer from the noise intensification to which gradient-based methods (e.g. strain thresholding) are susceptible. Its application is demonstrated to experimental data for cracks in quasi-brittle (Granitic rock) and ductile (Aluminium alloy) materials.

  19. Fusion of phase congruency and harris algorithm for extraction of iris corner points

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabuza-Hocquet, G

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available of reliable iris features. This work proposes a fusion of Phase congruency and Harris algorithm to detect corner features found within the arrangement of iris patterns. This fusion produces a feature vector with the exact location of corner features...

  20. Pulling your self together: Meditation enhances the congruence between implicit and explicit self-esteem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koole, S.L.; Govorun, O.; Chang, C.

    2009-01-01

    Self-reported or explicit self-esteem frequently conflicts with indirectly assessed, implicit self-esteem. The present research investigated whether meditation may reduce such inner conflicts by promoting congruence between implicit and explicit self-esteem. Relative to control conditions,

  1. Hecke Eigenforms in the Cohomology of Congruence Subgroups of SL(3, Z)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geemen, Bert van; Kallen, Wilberd van der; Top, Jaap; Verberkmoes, Alain

    1997-01-01

    We list here Hecke eigenvalues of several automorphic forms for congruence subgroups of SL(3; Z). To compute such tables, we describe an algorithm that combines techniques developed previously with the Lenstra–Lenstra–Lovász algorithm. With our implementation of this new algorithm we were able to

  2. Ramanujan-type congruences for broken 2-diamond partitions modulo 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, William Y. C.; Fan, Anna R. B.; Yu, Rebecca T.

    2014-08-01

    The notion of broken $k$-diamond partitions was introduced by Andrews and Paule. Let $\\Delta_k(n)$ denote the number of broken k-diamond partitions of $n$. They also posed three conjectures on the congruences of $\\Delta_2(n)$ modulo 2, 5 and 25. Hirschhorn and sellers proved the conjectures for modulo 2, and Chan proved cases of modulo 5. For the case of modulo 3, Radu and Sellers obtained an infinite family of congruences for $\\Delta_2(n)$. In this paper, we obtain two infinite families of congruences for $\\Delta_2(n)$ modulo 3 based on a formula of Radu and Sellers, the 3-dissection formula of the generating function of triangular number due to Berndt, and the properties of the $U$-operator, the $V$-operator, the Hecke operator and the Hecke eigenform. For example, we find that $\\Delta_2(243n+142)\\equiv \\Delta_2(243n+223)\\equiv0\\pmod{3}$. The infinite family of Radu and Sellers and the two infinite families derived in this paper have two congruences in common, namely, $\\Delta_2(27n+16)\\equiv\\Delta_2(27n+25)\\equiv0 \\pmod{3}$.

  3. SAR-PC: Edge Detection in SAR Images via an Advanced Phase Congruency Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuming Xiang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Edge detection in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images has been a challenging task due to the speckle noise. Ratio-based edge detectors are robust operators for SAR images that provide constant false alarm rates, but they are only optimal for step edges. Edge detectors developed by the phase congruency model provide the identification of different types of edge features, but they suffer from speckle noise. By combining the advantages of the two edge detectors, we propose a SAR phase congruency detector (SAR-PC. Firstly, an improved local energy model for SAR images is obtained by replacing the convolution of raw image and the quadrature filters by the ratio responses. Secondly, a new noise level is estimated for the multiplicative noise. Substituting the SAR local energy and the new noise level into the phase congruency model, SAR-PC is derived. Edge response corresponds to the max moment of SAR-PC. We compare the proposed detector with the ratio-based edge detectors and the phase congruency edge detectors. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curves and visual effects are used to evaluate the performance. Experimental results of simulated images and real-world images show that the proposed edge detector is robust to speckle noise and it provides a consecutive edge response.

  4. Examining Congruence within School-Family Partnerships: Definition, Importance, and Current Measurement Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glueck, Courtney L.; Reschly, Amy L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the construct of congruence, particularly with regard to school-family collaboration and partnerships. An in-depth review of the empirical and theoretical literature supporting a shift in focus from encouraging family involvement to creating effective school-family partnerships is presented, followed by an…

  5. Sex Role Identity and Career Indecision as Predictors of Holland's Congruence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eells, Gregory T.; Romans, John S. C.

    A study examined the extent to which sex role identity and career indecision could be used as predictors of individuals' congruence with their environment. Holland's Self-Directed Search, the Bem Sex Role Inventory, and the Career Decision Scale were administered to 84 male and 42 female undergraduates who had declared Animal Science majors at a…

  6. Relation of Interest and Self-Efficacy Occupational Congruence and Career Choice Certainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey, Terence J. G.

    2010-01-01

    A sample of 2145 adults completed the Personal Globe Inventory (PGI) as well as indicating their occupational choice and the certainty of this choice. The PGI yielded interest and self-efficacy scores and these were used with the occupational choice to calculate a congruence score for interests and one for efficacy. The prediction of career…

  7. Effects of Congruence-Incongruence Between Locus of Control and Field Dependence on Interpersonal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Amy B.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    This study uses the concept of congruence-incongruence as a predictor of interpersonal distance for each of four different social stimuli: (1) a same-sex friend, (2) a girl that they wanted to meet, (3) an ex-mental patient and (4) a professor whose course they had failed. (Author)

  8. Does value congruence between nurses and supervisors effect job satisfaction and turnover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Deborah

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of congruency of leadership support and value of patient outcomes between nurses and nurse managers and nurses' job satisfaction and turnover intent. Turnover most often has a negative effect on an organization. Leadership support and patient outcomes have been identified as important factors, but congruency has not been studied in great detail. This quantitative non-experimental study included registered nurses (92) and nurse managers (21) in five non-magnet hospitals in the United States. Value congruence on leadership support was correlated with job satisfaction: Satisfaction in Nursing Scale (SINs)-Workload Barriers (r = 0.327, Administrative Support r = 0.544 and Collegiality = 0.920, P leadership support (Leadership Practices Inventory, LPI) was negatively correlated with turnover intent (r = 0.317, P 0.05) was noted. Value congruence of leadership support is related to job satisfaction and may be a factor in turnover intent. Nurse Administrators can use these results to develop policies to address the turnover especially in the area of leadership support. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The performance of the Congruence Among Distance Matrices (CADM) test in phylogenetic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background CADM is a statistical test used to estimate the level of Congruence Among Distance Matrices. It has been shown in previous studies to have a correct rate of type I error and good power when applied to dissimilarity matrices and to ultrametric distance matrices. Contrary to most other tests of incongruence used in phylogenetic analysis, the null hypothesis of the CADM test assumes complete incongruence of the phylogenetic trees instead of congruence. In this study, we performed computer simulations to assess the type I error rate and power of the test. It was applied to additive distance matrices representing phylogenies and to genetic distance matrices obtained from nucleotide sequences of different lengths that were simulated on randomly generated trees of varying sizes, and under different evolutionary conditions. Results Our results showed that the test has an accurate type I error rate and good power. As expected, power increased with the number of objects (i.e., taxa), the number of partially or completely congruent matrices and the level of congruence among distance matrices. Conclusions Based on our results, we suggest that CADM is an excellent candidate to test for congruence and, when present, to estimate its level in phylogenomic studies where numerous genes are analysed simultaneously. PMID:21388552

  10. Exploring the Congruence between the Lesotho Junior Secondary Geography Curriculum and Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raselimo, Mohaeka; Irwin, Pat; Wilmot, Di

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we analyse the Lesotho junior secondary geography curriculum document with the purpose of exploring the congruence between geography and environmental education. The study is based on a curriculum reform process introduced by the Lesotho Environmental Education Support Project (LEESP) in 2001. we draw theoretical insights from…

  11. The Congruence Myth: An Analysis of the Efficacy of the Person-Environment Fit Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinsley, Howard E. A.

    2000-01-01

    A research review supports the validity of the person-environment fit (PEF) model in vocational psychology; however, sampling inadequacies have influenced results. One PEF example, Holland's hexagonal model, is unsupported due to lack of commensurate measurement; most hexagonal congruence indices are invalid. (Contains 110 references.) (SK)

  12. Perceptions of Value-Congruence with One's Department Chair: Does Match Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virick, Meghna; Strage, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Although studies have examined numerous factors that predict junior faculty success, previous research has paid little attention to the role played by department chairs. Drawing on theory from person-environment fit theory and value congruence, we sought to examine the implication of a match versus mismatch between faculty members and their chairs…

  13. Occupational Congruence and Personal Task-Related Attributes: How Do They Relate to Work Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tziner, Aharon; Meir, Elchanan I.; Segal, Hila

    2002-01-01

    Data from 359 military officers (measures of personality, ability, and congruence) and supervisor and peer performance ratings were analyzed. Personality and person-environment fit were related to performance. Extroverts and those whose interests were congruent with their work environment tended to receive higher ratings. (Contains 41 references.)…

  14. Creatividad y producción audiovisual en la red: el caso de la serie andaluza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez Marín, Gloria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En español: La Web 2.0 ha posibilitado que jóvenes creadores generen contenido audiovisual y puedan difundirlo a través de los medios sociales, sin necesidad de pasar por los canales habituales de distribución, hasta ahora imprescindibles. Al otro lado del ordenador o de los dispositivos móviles le esperan receptores ansiosos por consumir vídeo, una actividad a la que cada vez dedicamos más horas… con una diferencia fundamental: hemos dejado de ver el televisor para consumir más audiovisual online en otro tipo de sistemas y aparatos emisores. Gracias a este contexto, en Andalucía vivimos el nacimiento de series, consideradas ya de culto, que han puesto de manifiesto el potencial de nuestros jóvenes creadores. Sin embargo, la realización periódica de capítulos supone un esfuerzo económico que la mayoría de ellos no pueden sufragar. Mientras, las agencias de comunicación se enfrentan al fenómeno de la publicidad online. Los ejecutivos se encuentran ante receptores que ansían experiencias y contenido: éstas son las claves de la publicidad 2.0. Y a partir de aquí, las piezas comienzan a funcionar: unos poseen las ideas, el contenido; otros, la financiación. Tal es el caso de Niña Repelente, una de las series online que mayor repercusión ha tenido en los últimos años y su acuerdo de patrocinio con la compañía líder de telefonía en España, firmado en 2010, que ha supuesto la difusión de la serie en Tuenti, la red social autóctona de más uso entre los jóvenes españoles. El caso referido da pie a este trabajo que analiza las claves de esas transformaciones en las distintas fases de la creación audiovisual (creación, distribución, consumo, al tiempo que estudia las variables críticas y abre preguntas para el mundo de la comunicación a partir de las últimas tendencias en las aplicaciones web.In english: The Web 2.0 has done that young designers can generate and disseminate audiovisual content through social media

  15. Audiovisual heritage preservation in Earth and Space Science Informatics: Videos from Free and Open Source Software for Geospatial (FOSS4G) conferences in the TIB|AV-Portal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwe, Peter; Marín Arraiza, Paloma; Plank, Margret

    2016-04-01

    The influence of Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) projects on Earth and Space Science Informatics (ESSI) continues to grow, particularly in the emerging context of Data Science or Open Science. The scientific significance and heritage of FOSS projects is only to a limited amount covered by traditional scientific journal articles: Audiovisual conference recordings contain significant information for analysis, reference and citation. In the context of data driven research, this audiovisual content needs to be accessible by effective search capabilities, enabling the content to be searched in depth and retrieved. Thereby, it is ensured that the content producers receive credit for their efforts within the respective communities. For Geoinformatics and ESSI, one distinguished driver is the OSGeo Foundation (OSGeo), founded in 2006 to support and promote the interdisciplinary collaborative development of open geospatial technologies and data. The organisational structure is based on software projects that have successfully passed the OSGeo incubation process, proving their compliance with FOSS licence models. This quality assurance is crucial for the transparent and unhindered application in (Open) Science. The main communication channels within and between the OSGeo-hosted community projects for face to face meetings are conferences on national, regional and global scale. Video recordings have been complementing the scientific proceedings since 2006. During the last decade, the growing body of OSGeo videos has been negatively affected by content loss, obsolescence of video technology and dependence on commercial video portals. Even worse, the distributed storage and lack of metadata do not guarantee concise and efficient access of the content. This limits the retrospective analysis of video content from past conferences. But, it also indicates a need for reliable, standardized, comparable audiovisual repositories for the future, as the number of OSGeo projects

  16. Effects of working memory span on processing of lexical associations and congruence in spoken discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Ann Boudewyn

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to determine whether variability in working-memory capacity and cognitive control affects the processing of global discourse congruence and local associations among words when participants listened to short discourse passages. The final, critical word of each passage was either associated or unassociated with a preceding prime word (e.g. He was not prepared for the fame and fortune/praise. These critical words were also either congruent or incongruent with respect to the preceding discourse context (e.g. a context in which a prestigious prize was won (congruent or in which the protagonist had been arrested (incongruent. We used multiple regression to assess the unique contribution of suppression ability (our measure of cognitive control and working memory capacity on the amplitude of individual N400 effects of congruence and association. Our measure of suppression ability did not predict the size of the N400 effects of association or congruence. However, as expected, the results showed that high working-memory capacity individuals were less sensitive to the presence of lexical associations (showed smaller N400 association effects. Furthermore, differences in working memory capacity were related to differences in the topographic distribution of the N400 effects of discourse congruence. The topographic differences in the global congruence effects indicate differences in the underlying neural generators of the N400 effects, as a function of working memory. This suggests additional, or at a minimum, distinct, processing on the part of higher capacity individuals when tasked with integrating incoming words into the developing discourse representation.

  17. Correlates of emotional congruence with children in sexual offenders against children: a test of theoretical models in an incarcerated sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhail, Ian V; Hermann, Chantal A; Fernandez, Yolanda M

    2014-02-01

    Emotional congruence with children is a psychological construct theoretically involved in the etiology and maintenance of sexual offending against children. Research conducted to date has not examined the relationship between emotional congruence with children and other psychological meaningful risk factors for sexual offending against children. The current study derived potential correlates of emotional congruence with children from the published literature and proposed three models of emotional congruence with children that contain relatively unique sets of correlates: the blockage, sexual deviance, and psychological immaturity models. Using Area under the Curve analysis, we assessed the relationship between emotional congruence with children and offense characteristics, victim demographics, and psychologically meaningful risk factors in a sample of incarcerated sexual offenders against children (n=221). The sexual deviance model received the most support: emotional congruence with children was significantly associated with deviant sexual interests, sexual self-regulation problems, and cognition that condones and supports child molestation. The blockage model received partial support, and the immaturity model received the least support. Based on the results, we propose a set of further predictions regarding the relationships between emotional congruence with children and other psychologically meaningful risk factors to be examined in future research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A general audiovisual temporal processing deficit in adult readers with dyslexia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francisco, A.A.; Jesse, A.; Groen, M.A.; McQueen, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Because reading is an audiovisual process, reading impairment may reflect an audiovisual processing deficit. The aim of the present study was to test the existence and scope of such a deficit in adult readers with dyslexia. Method: We tested 39 typical readers and 51 adult readers with

  19. Easy Method for Inventory-Taking and Classification of Audio-Visual Material. First Edition, Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy-Rousseau, Francoise

    The alphanumeric code is a system put forward with the hope that it will bring uniformity in methods of inventory-taking and describing all sorts of audio-visual material which can be used in either French or English. The alphanumeric code classifies audio-visual materials in such a way as to indicate the exact nature of the media, the format, the…

  20. Planning Schools for Use of Audio-Visual Materials. No. 1--Classrooms, 3rd Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    Intended to inform school board administrators and teachers of the current (1958) thinking on audio-visual instruction for use in planning new buildings, purchasing equipment, and planning instruction. Attention is given the problem of overcoming obstacles to the incorporation of audio-visual materials into the curriculum. Discussion includes--(1)…

  1. Film Studies in Motion : From Audiovisual Essay to Academic Research Video

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, Miklós; van den Berg, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Our (co-written with Thomas van den Berg) ‪media rich,‬ ‪‎open access‬ ‪‎Scalar‬ ‪e-book‬ on the ‪‎Audiovisual Essay‬ practice is available online: http://scalar.usc.edu/works/film-studies-in-motion Audiovisual essaying should be more than an appropriation of traditional video artistry, or a mere

  2. Audiovisual Speech Perception and Eye Gaze Behavior of Adults with Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saalasti, Satu; Katsyri, Jari; Tiippana, Kaisa; Laine-Hernandez, Mari; von Wendt, Lennart; Sams, Mikko

    2012-01-01

    Audiovisual speech perception was studied in adults with Asperger syndrome (AS), by utilizing the McGurk effect, in which conflicting visual articulation alters the perception of heard speech. The AS group perceived the audiovisual stimuli differently from age, sex and IQ matched controls. When a voice saying /p/ was presented with a face…

  3. Threats and opportunities for new audiovisual cultural heritage archive services: the Dutch case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ongena, G.; Huizer, E.; van de Wijngaert, Lidwien

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to analyze the business-to-consumer market for digital audiovisual archiving services. In doing so we identify drivers, threats, and opportunities for new services based on audiovisual archives in the cultural heritage domain. By analyzing the market we provide

  4. First clinical implementation of audiovisual biofeedback in liver cancer stereotactic body radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Regina; Martin, Darren; McLean, Lisa; Cho, Gwi; Hill, Robin; Pickard, Sheila; Aston, Paul; Huang, Chen‐Yu; Makhija, Kuldeep; O'Brien, Ricky; Keall, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Summary This case report details a clinical trial's first recruited liver cancer patient who underwent a course of stereotactic body radiation therapy treatment utilising audiovisual biofeedback breathing guidance. Breathing motion results for both abdominal wall motion and tumour motion are included. Patient 1 demonstrated improved breathing motion regularity with audiovisual biofeedback. A training effect was also observed. PMID:26247520

  5. A General Audiovisual Temporal Processing Deficit in Adult Readers with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Ana A.; Jesse, Alexandra; Groen, Margriet A.; McQueen, James M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Because reading is an audiovisual process, reading impairment may reflect an audiovisual processing deficit. The aim of the present study was to test the existence and scope of such a deficit in adult readers with dyslexia. Method: We tested 39 typical readers and 51 adult readers with dyslexia on their sensitivity to the simultaneity of…

  6. Audiovisual cultural heritage: bridging the gap between digital archives and its users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ongena, G.; Donoso, Veronica; Geerts, David; Cesar, Pablo; de Grooff, Dirk

    2009-01-01

    This document describes a PhD research track on the disclosure of audiovisual digital archives. The domain of audiovisual material is introduced as well as a problem description is formulated. The main research objective is to investigate the gap between the different users and the digital archives.

  7. Beta-Band Functional Connectivity Influences Audiovisual Integration in Older Age: An EEG Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luyao Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Audiovisual integration occurs frequently and has been shown to exhibit age-related differences via behavior experiments or time-frequency analyses. In the present study, we examined whether functional connectivity influences audiovisual integration during normal aging. Visual, auditory, and audiovisual stimuli were randomly presented peripherally; during this time, participants were asked to respond immediately to the target stimulus. Electroencephalography recordings captured visual, auditory, and audiovisual processing in 12 old (60–78 years and 12 young (22–28 years male adults. For non-target stimuli, we focused on alpha (8–13 Hz, beta (13–30 Hz, and gamma (30–50 Hz bands. We applied the Phase Lag Index to study the dynamics of functional connectivity. Then, the network topology parameters, which included the clustering coefficient, path length, small-worldness global efficiency, local efficiency and degree, were calculated for each condition. For the target stimulus, a race model was used to analyze the response time. Then, a Pearson correlation was used to test the relationship between each network topology parameters and response time. The results showed that old adults activated stronger connections during audiovisual processing in the beta band. The relationship between network topology parameters and the performance of audiovisual integration was detected only in old adults. Thus, we concluded that old adults who have a higher load during audiovisual integration need more cognitive resources. Furthermore, increased beta band functional connectivity influences the performance of audiovisual integration during normal aging.

  8. International Co-Production of Audio-Visual Material in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greetfeld, Hans

    1979-01-01

    Describes an international advisory committee on audiovisual media, the procedure followed in the production and use of audiovisual materials and resources among member countries. Includes a list of the films that have been produced, over the years, by the committee. (GA)

  9. THE IROQUOIS, A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AUDIO-VISUAL MATERIALS--WITH SUPPLEMENT. (TITLE SUPPLIED).

    Science.gov (United States)

    KELLERHOUSE, KENNETH; AND OTHERS

    APPROXIMATELY 25 SOURCES OF AUDIOVISUAL MATERIALS PERTAINING TO THE IROQUOIS AND OTHER NORTHEASTERN AMERICAN INDIAN TRIBES ARE LISTED ACCORDING TO TYPE OF AUDIOVISUAL MEDIUM. AMONG THE LESS-COMMON MEDIA ARE RECORDINGS OF IROQUOIS MUSIC AND DO-IT-YOURSELF REPRODUCTIONS OF IROQUOIS ARTIFACTS. PRICES ARE GIVEN WHERE APPLICABLE. (BR)

  10. Electrophysiological evidence for differences between fusion and combination illusions in audiovisual speech perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baart, Martijn; Lindborg, Alma Cornelia; Andersen, Tobias S

    2017-01-01

    Incongruent audiovisual speech stimuli can lead to perceptual illusions such as fusions or combinations. Here, we investigated the underlying audiovisual integration process by measuring ERPs. We observed that visual speech-induced suppression of P2 amplitude (which is generally taken as a measure...

  11. Audiovisual News, Cartoons, and Films as Sources of Authentic Language Input and Language Proficiency Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrani, Taher; Sim, Tam Shu

    2012-01-01

    In today's audiovisually driven world, various audiovisual programs can be incorporated as authentic sources of potential language input for second language acquisition. In line with this view, the present research aimed at discovering the effectiveness of exposure to news, cartoons, and films as three different types of authentic audiovisual…

  12. Search behavior of media professionals at an audiovisual archive: A transaction log analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huurnink, B.; Hollink, L.; van den Heuvel, W.; de Rijke, M.

    2010-01-01

    Finding audiovisual material for reuse in new programs is an important activity for news producers, documentary makers, and other media professionals. Such professionals are typically served by an audiovisual broadcast archive. We report on a study of the transaction logs of one such archive. The

  13. From digital and audiovisual competence to media competence: dimensions and indicators/De la competencia digital y audiovisual a la competencia mediatica: dimensiones e indicadores

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perez, Ma Amor; Delgado, Agueda

    2012-01-01

    La necesidad de plantear la conceptualizacion de la competencia mediatica conduce a una perspectiva mas amplia en la que convergen aspectos vinculados a la competencia audiovisual y a la competencia digital...

  14. Understanding the congruence of HRM frames in a healthcare organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bondarouk, Tatiana; Bos-Nehles, Anna Christina; Hesselink, Xanthe

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify the differences and similarities in the HRM frames of middle-level managers and HR professionals, and to uncover the roots and contents of (dis)agreements in the HRM frames among HR professionals and middle-level managers.

  15. On the relevance of script writing basics in audiovisual translation practice and training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Martínez-Sierra

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2012v1n29p145   Audiovisual texts possess characteristics that clearly differentiate audiovisual translation from both oral and written translation, and prospective screen translators are usually taught about the issues that typically arise in audiovisual translation. This article argues for the development of an interdisciplinary approach that brings together Translation Studies and Film Studies, which would prepare future audiovisual translators to work with the nature and structure of a script in mind, in addition to the study of common and diverse translational aspects. Focusing on film, the article briefly discusses the nature and structure of scripts, and identifies key points in the development and structuring of a plot. These key points and various potential hurdles are illustrated with examples from the films Chinatown and La habitación de Fermat. The second part of this article addresses some implications for teaching audiovisual translation.

  16. Audiovisual English-Arabic Translation: De Beaugrande's Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Eddin Hussain

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to demonstrate the significance of the seven standards of textuality with special application to audiovisual English Arabic translation.  Ample and thoroughly analysed examples have been provided to help in audiovisual English-Arabic translation decision-making. A text is meaningful if and only if it carries meaning and knowledge to its audience, and is optimally activatable, recoverable and accessible.  The same is equally applicable to audiovisual translation (AVT. The latter should also carry knowledge which can be easily accessed by the TL audience, and be processed with least energy and time, i.e. achieving the utmost level of efficiency. Communication occurs only when that text is coherent, with continuity of senses and concepts that are appropriately linked. Coherence of a text will be achieved when all aspects of cohesive devices are well accounted for pragmatically.  This combined with a good amount of psycholinguistic element will provide a text with optimal communicative value. Non-text is certainly devoid of such components and ultimately non-communicative. Communicative knowledge can be classified into three categories: determinate knowledge, typical knowledge and accidental knowledge. To create dramatic suspense and the element of surprise, the text in AV environment, as in any dialogue, often carries accidental knowledge.  This unusual knowledge aims to make AV material interesting in the eyes of its audience. That cognitive environment is enhanced by an adequate employment of material (picture and sound, and helps to recover sense in the text. Hence, the premise of this paper is the application of certain aspects of these standards to AV texts taken from various recent feature films and documentaries, in order to facilitate the translating process and produce a final appropriate product.

  17. Bayesian Calibration of Simultaneity in Audiovisual Temporal Order Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shinya; Miyazaki, Makoto; Iwano, Takayuki; Kitazawa, Shigeru

    2012-01-01

    After repeated exposures to two successive audiovisual stimuli presented in one frequent order, participants eventually perceive a pair separated by some lag time in the same order as occurring simultaneously (lag adaptation). In contrast, we previously found that perceptual changes occurred in the opposite direction in response to tactile stimuli, conforming to Bayesian integration theory (Bayesian calibration). We further showed, in theory, that the effect of Bayesian calibration cannot be observed when the lag adaptation was fully operational. This led to the hypothesis that Bayesian calibration affects judgments regarding the order of audiovisual stimuli, but that this effect is concealed behind the lag adaptation mechanism. In the present study, we showed that lag adaptation is pitch-insensitive using two sounds at 1046 and 1480 Hz. This enabled us to cancel lag adaptation by associating one pitch with sound-first stimuli and the other with light-first stimuli. When we presented each type of stimulus (high- or low-tone) in a different block, the point of simultaneity shifted to “sound-first” for the pitch associated with sound-first stimuli, and to “light-first” for the pitch associated with light-first stimuli. These results are consistent with lag adaptation. In contrast, when we delivered each type of stimulus in a randomized order, the point of simultaneity shifted to “light-first” for the pitch associated with sound-first stimuli, and to “sound-first” for the pitch associated with light-first stimuli. The results clearly show that Bayesian calibration is pitch-specific and is at work behind pitch-insensitive lag adaptation during temporal order judgment of audiovisual stimuli. PMID:22792297

  18. Bayesian calibration of simultaneity in audiovisual temporal order judgments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Yamamoto

    Full Text Available After repeated exposures to two successive audiovisual stimuli presented in one frequent order, participants eventually perceive a pair separated by some lag time in the same order as occurring simultaneously (lag adaptation. In contrast, we previously found that perceptual changes occurred in the opposite direction in response to tactile stimuli, conforming to bayesian integration theory (bayesian calibration. We further showed, in theory, that the effect of bayesian calibration cannot be observed when the lag adaptation was fully operational. This led to the hypothesis that bayesian calibration affects judgments regarding the order of audiovisual stimuli, but that this effect is concealed behind the lag adaptation mechanism. In the present study, we showed that lag adaptation is pitch-insensitive using two sounds at 1046 and 1480 Hz. This enabled us to cancel lag adaptation by associating one pitch with sound-first stimuli and the other with light-first stimuli. When we presented each type of stimulus (high- or low-tone in a different block, the point of simultaneity shifted to "sound-first" for the pitch associated with sound-first stimuli, and to "light-first" for the pitch associated with light-first stimuli. These results are consistent with lag adaptation. In contrast, when we delivered each type of stimulus in a randomized order, the point of simultaneity shifted to "light-first" for the pitch associated with sound-first stimuli, and to "sound-first" for the pitch associated with light-first stimuli. The results clearly show that bayesian calibration is pitch-specific and is at work behind pitch-insensitive lag adaptation during temporal order judgment of audiovisual stimuli.

  19. La regulación audiovisual: argumentos a favor y en contra The audio-visual regulation: the arguments for and against

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Sopena Palomar

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza la efectividad de la regulación audiovisual y valora los diversos argumentos a favor y en contra de la existencia de consejos reguladores a nivel estatal. El debate sobre la necesidad de un organismo de este calado en España todavía persiste. La mayoría de los países comunitarios se han dotado de consejos competentes en esta materia, como es el caso del OFCOM en el Reino Unido o el CSA en Francia. En España, la regulación audiovisual se limita a organismos de alcance autonómico, como son el Consejo Audiovisual de Navarra, el de Andalucía y el Consell de l’Audiovisual de Catalunya (CAC, cuyo modelo también es abordado en este artículo. The article analyzes the effectiveness of the audio-visual regulation and assesses the different arguments for and against the existence of the broadcasting authorities at the state level. The debate of the necessity of a Spanish organism of regulation is still active. Most of the European countries have created some competent authorities, like the OFCOM in United Kingdom and the CSA in France. In Spain, the broadcasting regulation is developed by regional organisms, like the Consejo Audiovisual de Navarra, the Consejo Audiovisual de Andalucía and the Consell de l’Audiovisual de Catalunya (CAC, whose case is also studied in this article.

  20. Congruence of Holland's theory of vocational and work environments with GPA of college students in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Khatib, Saleh A

    2007-06-01

    Holland's theory of vocational personalities and work environment, extended to educational environments, was used as a theoretical framework for the study of the relation of congruence and sex on self-reported GPA. 617 students at Ajman University of Science and Technology responded to the Vocational Preference Inventory. Analysis of variance indicated that students' congruence and sex were significant predictors of GPA and the interaction of GPA and sex. Associations of sex with congruence and with Academic Environment were significant, represented by choice of major. Implications of the findings were discussed.

  1. A comparative study of approaches to audiovisual translation

    OpenAIRE

    Aldea, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    For those who are not new to the world of Japanese animation, known mainly as anime, the debate of "dub vs. sub" is by no means anything out of the ordinary, but rather a very heated argument amongst fans. The study will focus on the differences in the US English version between the two approaches of translating audio-visual media, namely subtitling (official subtitles and fanmade subtitles) and dubbing, in a qualitative context. More precisely, which of the two approaches can store the most ...

  2. Voice activity detection using audio-visual information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petsatodis, Theodore; Pnevmatikakis, Aristodemos; Boukis, Christos

    2009-01-01

    An audio-visual voice activity detector that uses sensors positioned distantly from the speaker is presented. Its constituting unimodal detectors are based on the modeling of the temporal variation of audio and visual features using Hidden Markov Models; their outcomes are fused using a post......-decision scheme. The Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients and the vertical mouth opening are the chosen audio and visual features respectively, both augmented with their first-order derivatives. The proposed system is assessed using far-field recordings from four different speakers and under various levels...

  3. A Joint Audio-Visual Approach to Audio Localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2015-01-01

    Localization of audio sources is an important research problem, e.g., to facilitate noise reduction. In the recent years, the problem has been tackled using distributed microphone arrays (DMA). A common approach is to apply direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation on each array (denoted as nodes...... time-of-flight cameras. Moreover, we propose an optimal method for weighting such DOA and range information for audio localization. Our experiments on both synthetic and real data show that there is a clear, potential advantage of using the joint audiovisual localization framework....

  4. The use of audiovisual techniques in participative diagnosis: the experience of the Polvo Fields; O uso do audiovisual no diagnostico participativo: a experiencia do projeto de educacao ambiental no Campo de Polvo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, Juliana; Pitanga, Luisa [Abaete Estudos Socioambientais Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Borensztein, Fernando [Devon Energy do Brasil Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The Brazilian environmental law requires oil companies' commitment to implement environmental programs, among which the environmental education project. This type of project should be understood by the companies as an opportunity for the development of socio environmental responsibility policies towards the affected populations. In order for the environmental education project to be effective as a means of awareness and social transformation, it is required to increase public's participation from the process of knowledge creation on the communities environmental problems to the disclose of the produced contents. This work refers to the use of the audiovisual as an instrument for the mobilization and consciousness for the construction of participative diagnostics, from the experience of the Environmental Education Project of the Polvo field, accomplished in ten municipal districts of the Campos Basin region. Inspired on an original methodology, the project promoted environmental cinema workshops that resulted in 30 documentaries directed by the local population and 10 environmental forums in which were developed local audiovisual environmental agendas. (author)

  5. Talker variability in audio-visual speech perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heald, Shannon L M; Nusbaum, Howard C

    2014-01-01

    A change in talker is a change in the context for the phonetic interpretation of acoustic patterns of speech. Different talkers have different mappings between acoustic patterns and phonetic categories and listeners need to adapt to these differences. Despite this complexity, listeners are adept at comprehending speech in multiple-talker contexts, albeit at a slight but measurable performance cost (e.g., slower recognition). So far, this talker variability cost has been demonstrated only in audio-only speech. Other research in single-talker contexts have shown, however, that when listeners are able to see a talker's face, speech recognition is improved under adverse listening (e.g., noise or distortion) conditions that can increase uncertainty in the mapping between acoustic patterns and phonetic categories. Does seeing a talker's face reduce the cost of word recognition in multiple-talker contexts? We used a speeded word-monitoring task in which listeners make quick judgments about target word recognition in single- and multiple-talker contexts. Results show faster recognition performance in single-talker conditions compared to multiple-talker conditions for both audio-only and audio-visual speech. However, recognition time in a multiple-talker context was slower in the audio-visual condition compared to audio-only condition. These results suggest that seeing a talker's face during speech perception may slow recognition by increasing the importance of talker identification, signaling to the listener a change in talker has occurred.

  6. A imagem-ritmo e o videoclipe no audiovisual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe de Castro Muanis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A televisão pode ser um espaço de reunião entre som e imagem em um dispositivo que possibilita a imagem-ritmo – dando continuidade à teoria da imagem de Gilles Deleuze, proposta para o cinema. Ela agregaria, simultaneamente, ca-racterísticas da imagem-movimento e da imagem-tempo, que se personificariam na construção de imagens pós-modernas, em produtos audiovisuais não necessariamente narrativos, porém populares. Filmes, videogames, videoclipes e vinhetas em que a música conduz as imagens permitiriam uma leitura mais sensorial. O audiovisual como imagem-música abre, assim, para uma nova forma de percepção além da textual tradicional, fruto da interação entre ritmo, texto e dispositivo. O tempo das imagens em movimento no audiovisual está atrelado inevitável e prioritariamente ao som. Elas agregam possibilidades não narrativas que se realizam, na maioria das vezes, sobre a lógica do ritmo musical, so-bressaindo-se como um valor fundamental, observado nos filmes Sem Destino (1969, Assassinos por Natureza (1994 e Corra Lola Corra (1998.

  7. Compliments in Audiovisual Translation – issues in character identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Fernandes Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, audiovisual translation has gained increased significance in Translation Studies as well as an interdisciplinary subject within other fields (media, cinema studies etc. Although many articles have been published on communicative aspects of translation such as politeness, only recently have scholars taken an interest in the translation of compliments. This study will focus on both these areas from a multimodal and pragmatic perspective, emphasizing the links between these fields and how this multidisciplinary approach will evidence the polysemiotic nature of the translation process. In Audiovisual Translation both text and image are at play, therefore, the translation of speech produced by the characters may either omit (because it is provided by visualgestual signs or it may emphasize information. A selection was made of the compliments present in the film What Women Want, our focus being on subtitles which did not successfully convey the compliment expressed in the source text, as well as analyze the reasons for this, namely difference in register, Culture Specific Items and repetitions. These differences lead to a different portrayal/identity/perception of the main character in the English version (original soundtrack and subtitled versions in Portuguese and Italian.

  8. Valores occidentales en el discurso publicitario audiovisual argentino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidoro Arroyo Almaraz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se desarrolla un análisis del discurso publicitario audiovisual argentino. Se pretende identificar los valores sociales que comunica con mayor predominancia y su posible vinculación con los valores característicos de la sociedad occidental posmoderna. Con este propósito se analizó la frecuencia de aparición de valores sociales para el estudio de 28 anuncios de diferentes anunciantes . Como modelo de análisis se utilizó el modelo “Seven/Seven” (siete pecados capitales y siete virtudes cardinales ya que se considera que los valores tradicionales son herederos de las virtudes y los pecados, utilizados por la publicidad para resolver necesidades relacionadas con el consumo. La publicidad audiovisual argentina promueve y anima ideas relacionadas con las virtudes y pecados a través de los comportamientos de los personajes de los relatos audiovisuales. Los resultados evidencian una mayor frecuencia de valores sociales caracterizados como pecados que de valores sociales caracterizados como virtudes ya que los pecados se transforman a través de la publicidad en virtudes que dinamizan el deseo y que favorecen el consumo fortaleciendo el aprendizaje de las marcas. Finalmente, a partir de los resultados obtenidos se reflexiona acerca de los usos y alcances sociales que el discurso publicitario posee.

  9. Nuevos modelos de producción audiovisual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Raquel Miranda Cáceres

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available La industria televisiva está comenzando a sufrir una transformación originada por dos factores: la explosión de Internet y la revolución digital. La sinergia producida por estos acontecimientos nos encamina hacia una nueva vida, una era de conjunción audiovisual entre distintos sectores, televisión y PC, de la que se beneficiará el telespectador.Estamos en los albores de un modo nuevo de comunicarnos, comprar, jugar, en un mundo donde los grandes avances tecnológicos convergerán de forma irremediable. Estamos ante un cambio de cultura audiovisual. Sin embargo, es muy complicado predecir las características que tendrá la Televisión del futuro, cuando adquiera su madurez, ya que nos encontramos en pleno proceso creativo, queda mucho por recorrer y su formación final será un planeta aún por descubrir que ahora mismo sólo podemos vislumbrar. Algunos expertos llaman a esta revolución de la imagen post televisión, otros lo llaman futuro.

  10. Evidence for a Mechanism Encoding Audiovisual Spatial Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Orchard-Mills

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Auditory and visual spatial representations are produced by distinct processes, drawing on separate neural inputs and occurring in different regions of the brain. We tested for a bimodal spatial representation using a spatial increment discrimination task. Discrimination thresholds for synchronously presented but spatially separated audiovisual stimuli were measured for base separations ranging from 0° to 45°. In a dark anechoic chamber, the spatial interval was defined by azimuthal separation of a white-noise burst from a speaker on a movable robotic arm and a checkerboard patch 5° wide projected onto an acoustically transparent screen. When plotted as a function of base interval, spatial increment thresholds exhibited a J-shaped pattern. Thresholds initially declined, the minimum occurring at base separations approximately equal to the individual observer's detection threshold and thereafter rose log-linearly according to Weber's law. This pattern of results, known as the ‘dipper function’, would be expected if the auditory and visual signals defining the spatial interval converged onto an early sensory filter encoding audiovisual space. This mechanism could be used to encode spatial separation of auditory and visual stimuli.

  11. [Guided home-based vestibular rehabilitation assisted by audiovisual media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinidad Ruiz, Gabriel; Domínguez Pedroso, Mónica; Cruz de la Piedad, Eduardo; Solís Vázquez, Raquel; Samaniego Regalado, Beatriz; Rejas Ugena, Eladio

    2010-01-01

    To describe the creation and validation process of a new audiovisual support model for the design of guided home-based vestibular rehabilitation programs (GHVR), we introduce a prospective experimental study. 89 patients who underwent vestibular rehabilitation (VR) were evaluated throughout 2009. For the model design, we built a video library with VR exercises that can be combined using DVD creation software to tailor VR protocols. Treatment incidents, adherence, need to convert to a posturography-based program and variations in the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) score and dynamic visual acuity (DVA) were assessed. A good response was found, not only with respect to adherence (5.6% abandonment), but also in the clinical parameters, with a mean DHI score variation of 33.14 points, and a decrease in lines lost in the DVA test from 4.24 to 1.52 lines at the end of the treatment. Our study results show the possibility of building an audiovisual aid for creating GHVR programs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  12. Information-Driven Active Audio-Visual Source Localization.

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    Niclas Schult

    Full Text Available We present a system for sensorimotor audio-visual source localization on a mobile robot. We utilize a particle filter for the combination of audio-visual information and for the temporal integration of consecutive measurements. Although the system only measures the current direction of the source, the position of the source can be estimated because the robot is able to move and can therefore obtain measurements from different directions. These actions by the robot successively reduce uncertainty about the source's position. An information gain mechanism is used for selecting the most informative actions in order to minimize the number of actions required to achieve accurate and precise position estimates in azimuth and distance. We show that this mechanism is an efficient solution to the action selection problem for source localization, and that it is able to produce precise position estimates despite simplified unisensory preprocessing. Because of the robot's mobility, this approach is suitable for use in complex and cluttered environments. We present qualitative and quantitative results of the system's performance and discuss possible areas of application.

  13. Authentic Language Input Through Audiovisual Technology and Second Language Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taher Bahrani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Second language acquisition cannot take place without having exposure to language input. With regard to this, the present research aimed at providing empirical evidence about the low and the upper-intermediate language learners’ preferred type of audiovisual programs and language proficiency development outside the classroom. To this end, 60 language learners (30 low level and 30 upper-intermediate level were asked to have exposure to their preferred types of audiovisual program(s outside the classroom and keep a diary of the amount and the type of exposure. The obtained data indicated that the low-level participants preferred cartoons and the upper-intermediate participants preferred news more. To find out which language proficiency level could improve its language proficiency significantly, a post-test was administered. The results indicated that only the upper-intermediate language learners gained significant improvement. Based on the findings, the quality of the language input should be given priority over the amount of exposure.

  14. Intensidades y retóricas del texto audiovisual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Maria Tore

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Las páginas que siguen se proponen desarrollar una concepción semiótica que se apoya esencialmente en las teorías de Louis Hjelmslev y de Claude Zilberberg. A través del estudio de un texto audiovisual, el íncipit del filme Pickpocket de Robert Bresson (1959, no se tratará de ilustrar la semiótica de Hjelmslev ni de Zilberberg, y menos aún de aplicarla; se trata más bien de experimentarla, puesto que dicha teoría textual no ha sido aplicada o lo ha sido escasamente, al dominio de lo audiovisual.1 Nos atendremos, por una parte, a dar cuenta, con esa teoría, del texto fílmico en cuestión; y por otra parte, a mostrar su interés y su alcance heurístico, tanto para la teoría del lenguaje como para los estudios fílmicos.

  15. The effects of sad mood on memory in older adults: a test of the mood congruence effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Bob G; Maines, Michele L; Robinson, Gia S

    2002-12-01

    Mood congruence effects have long been studied in younger adults, but not in older adults. Socioemotional selectivity theory (SST) suggests that mood congruence could operate differently in older adults. One hundred and nineteen younger and 78 older adults were randomly assigned to sad or neutral mood inductions, using combined Velten and music induction procedures. Results indicated that during sad mood induction both older and younger adults showed enhanced recall of sad words on delayed word list recall task and in autobiographical memory. However, only older adults displayed mood congruence effects on lexical ambiguity and lower recall of positive words in the word list task. Results provided partial support for developmental effects on mood congruence derived from SST.

  16. Understanding the online channel extension of traditional retailers: Online-offline and online-prototypical congruence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Jinfeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many Chinese traditional retailers have turned to the multichannel forms by establishing their own online stores. When doing so, retail managers face a difficult choice between two online marketing orientations: “pursuit of ideal” (i.e. online-prototypical congruence orientation and “retention of tradition” (i.e. online-offline congruence orientation. To help managers make this choice, this study proposes a conceptual framework to illustrate how these two orientations affect retail store attitude when retail brand familiarity differs. The results indicate that both orientations can improve consumers’ retail store attitudes. When retail brand familiarity is low, the online stores of traditional retailers should balance both orientations in product selections and adopt “pursuit of ideal” in prices. When retail brand familiarity is high, “retention of tradition” should be applied in product selections and both orientations should be integrated in prices for gaining more positive change in retail store attitude.

  17. Increasing Personal Value Congruence in Computerized Decision Support Using System Feedback

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    Bryan Hosack

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Theory of Universals in Values (TUV, a reliable and validated conceptualization of personal values used in psychology, is used to examine the effect of system feedback delivered by a Decision Support System (DSS on personal values. The results indicate that value-based decision-making behavior can be influenced by DSS feedback to address value congruence in decision-making. User behavior was shown to follow the outcomes expected by operant theory when feedback was supportive and to follow the outcomes of reactance theory when feedback was challenging. This result suggests that practitioners and Information System (IS researchers should consider user values when designing computerized decision feedback to adjust a system’s design such that the potential user backlash is avoided or congruence between organizational and personal values is achieved.

  18. The absence of a gender congruency effect in romance languages: a matter of stimulus onset asynchrony?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miozzo, Michele; Costa, Albert; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2002-03-01

    Using the picture-word interference paradigm, H. Schriefers and E. Teruel (2000) found that in German the grammatical gender of the distractor word affects the production of phrases composed of article+picture name: Latencies were longer for picture-word pairs of different genders. However, the effect was found only at positive stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs; i.e., when pictures were presented 75 or 150 ms earlier than word distractors). This gender congruency effect is not obtained in Romance languages. The present article examines whether in these languages, as in German, the effect appears at positive SOAs. No effect was observed in Italian and Spanish at positive SOAs. An account is proposed to explain why the gender congruency effect is obtained in Germanic (Dutch and German) but not in Romance languages.

  19. Effects of size congruency on item and size recognition with words or pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standing, Lionel G; Bertrand, Michelle I

    2008-10-01

    The effect of size changes (8:1 or 1:8) between learning and recognition sessions upon item and size recognition was tested, using either pictures or words as stimuli. Participants (N = 34) viewed color photographs of everyday objects or the corresponding printed words and then performed 160 trials of a recognition task, including 50% new stimuli, for which they had to indicate whether each item had been seen before and whether its size had changed. Item recognition, for pictures only, was improved by size congruency between the learning and test sessions. In contrast, size recognition was raised by learning/test-size congruency for both pictures and words. Both word- and picture-learning stimuli produced higher item and size recognition when large in area rather than small. The data are interpreted as showing the stronger role of spatial coding with pictorial than with verbal stimuli.

  20. Claves para reconocer los niveles de lectura crítica audiovisual en el niño Keys to Recognizing the Levels of Critical Audiovisual Reading in Children

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    Jacqueline Sánchez Carrero

    2012-03-01

    workshops on media literacy. The groups had been instructed on the audiovisual universe, which allowed them to analyze, deconstruct and recreate audiovisual content. Firstly, this article refers to the evolving concept of media education. Secondly, the common experiences in the three countries are described, with special attention to the influence of indicators that gauge the level of critical reading. Finally, we reflect on the need for media education in the era of multi-literacy. It is unusual to find studies that reveal the keys to assessing the levels of critical consumption of digital media content in children, and this is essential for determining the level of children's understanding before and after training processes in media education.

  1. Audiovisual Integration Delayed by Stimulus Onset Asynchrony Between Auditory and Visual Stimuli in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yanna; Yang, Weiping; Nakahashi, Kohei; Takahashi, Satoshi; Wu, Jinglong

    2017-02-01

    Although neuronal studies have shown that audiovisual integration is regulated by temporal factors, there is still little knowledge about the impact of temporal factors on audiovisual integration in older adults. To clarify how stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) between auditory and visual stimuli modulates age-related audiovisual integration, 20 younger adults (21-24 years) and 20 older adults (61-80 years) were instructed to perform an auditory or visual stimuli discrimination experiment. The results showed that in younger adults, audiovisual integration was altered from an enhancement (AV, A ± 50 V) to a depression (A ± 150 V). In older adults, the alterative pattern was similar to that for younger adults with the expansion of SOA; however, older adults showed significantly delayed onset for the time-window-of-integration and peak latency in all conditions, which further demonstrated that audiovisual integration was delayed more severely with the expansion of SOA, especially in the peak latency for V-preceded-A conditions in older adults. Our study suggested that audiovisual facilitative integration occurs only within a certain SOA range (e.g., -50 to 50 ms) in both younger and older adults. Moreover, our results confirm that the response for older adults was slowed and provided empirical evidence that integration ability is much more sensitive to the temporal alignment of audiovisual stimuli in older adults.

  2. Effect of attentional load on audiovisual speech perception: evidence from ERPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsius, Agnès; Möttönen, Riikka; Sams, Mikko E; Soto-Faraco, Salvador; Tiippana, Kaisa

    2014-01-01

    Seeing articulatory movements influences perception of auditory speech. This is often reflected in a shortened latency of auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) generated in the auditory cortex. The present study addressed whether this early neural correlate of audiovisual interaction is modulated by attention. We recorded ERPs in 15 subjects while they were presented with auditory, visual, and audiovisual spoken syllables. Audiovisual stimuli consisted of incongruent auditory and visual components known to elicit a McGurk effect, i.e., a visually driven alteration in the auditory speech percept. In a Dual task condition, participants were asked to identify spoken syllables whilst monitoring a rapid visual stream of pictures for targets, i.e., they had to divide their attention. In a Single task condition, participants identified the syllables without any other tasks, i.e., they were asked to ignore the pictures and focus their attention fully on the spoken syllables. The McGurk effect was weaker in the Dual task than in the Single task condition, indicating an effect of attentional load on audiovisual speech perception. Early auditory ERP components, N1 and P2, peaked earlier to audiovisual stimuli than to auditory stimuli when attention was fully focused on syllables, indicating neurophysiological audiovisual interaction. This latency decrement was reduced when attention was loaded, suggesting that attention influences early neural processing of audiovisual speech. We conclude that reduced attention weakens the interaction between vision and audition in speech.

  3. Effect of attentional load on audiovisual speech perception: Evidence from ERPs

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    Agnès eAlsius

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Seeing articulatory movements influences perception of auditory speech. This is often reflected in a shortened latency of auditory event-related potentials (ERPs generated in the auditory cortex. The present study addressed whether this early neural correlate of audiovisual interaction is modulated by attention. We recorded ERPs in 15 subjects while they were presented with auditory, visual and audiovisual spoken syllables. Audiovisual stimuli consisted of incongruent auditory and visual components known to elicit a McGurk effect, i.e. a visually driven alteration in the auditory speech percept. In a Dual task condition, participants were asked to identify spoken syllables whilst monitoring a rapid visual stream of pictures for targets, i.e., they had to divide their attention. In a Single task condition, participants identified the syllables without any other tasks, i.e., they were asked to ignore the pictures and focus their attention fully on the spoken syllables. The McGurk effect was weaker in the Dual task than in the Single task condition, indicating an effect of attentional load on audiovisual speech perception. Early auditory ERP components, N1 and P2, peaked earlier to audiovisual stimuli than to auditory stimuli when attention was fully focused on syllables, indicating neurophysiological audiovisual interaction. This latency decrement was reduced when attention was loaded, suggesting that attention influences early neural processing of audiovisual speech. We conclude that reduced attention weakens the interaction between vision and audition in speech.

  4. Neural Dynamics of Audiovisual Speech Integration under Variable Listening Conditions: An Individual Participant Analysis

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    Nicholas eAltieri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Speech perception engages both auditory and visual modalities. Limitations of traditional accuracy-only approaches in the investigation of audiovisual speech perception have motivated the use of new methodologies. In an audiovisual speech identification task, we utilized capacity (Townsend & Nozawa, 1995, a dynamic measure of efficiency, to quantify audiovisual integration. Capacity was used to compare RT distributions from audiovisual trials to RT distributions from auditory-only and visual-only trials across three listening conditions: clear auditory signal, S/N ratio of -12 dB, and S/N ratio of -18 dB. The purpose was to obtain EEG recordings in conjunction with capacity to investigate how a late ERP co-varies with integration efficiency. Results showed efficient audiovisual integration for low auditory S/N ratios, but inefficient audiovisual integration when the auditory signal was clear. The ERP analyses showed evidence for greater audiovisual amplitude in lower auditory S/N ratios (higher capacity/efficiency compared to the high S/N ratio (low capacity/inefficient integration. The data are consistent with an interactive framework of integration, where auditory recognition is influenced by speech-reading as a function of signal clarity.

  5. Efficient visual search from synchronized auditory signals requires transient audiovisual events.

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    Erik Van der Burg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A prevailing view is that audiovisual integration requires temporally coincident signals. However, a recent study failed to find any evidence for audiovisual integration in visual search even when using synchronized audiovisual events. An important question is what information is critical to observe audiovisual integration. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we demonstrate that temporal coincidence (i.e., synchrony of auditory and visual components can trigger audiovisual interaction in cluttered displays and consequently produce very fast and efficient target identification. In visual search experiments, subjects found a modulating visual target vastly more efficiently when it was paired with a synchronous auditory signal. By manipulating the kind of temporal modulation (sine wave vs. square wave vs. difference wave; harmonic sine-wave synthesis; gradient of onset/offset ramps we show that abrupt visual events are required for this search efficiency to occur, and that sinusoidal audiovisual modulations do not support efficient search. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Thus, audiovisual temporal alignment will only lead to benefits in visual search if the changes in the component signals are both synchronized and transient. We propose that transient signals are necessary in synchrony-driven binding to avoid spurious interactions with unrelated signals when these occur close together in time.

  6. Temporal processing of audiovisual stimuli is enhanced in musicians: evidence from magnetoencephalography (MEG.

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    Yao Lu

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have demonstrated that the structural and functional differences between professional musicians and non-musicians are not only found within a single modality, but also with regard to multisensory integration. In this study we have combined psychophysical with neurophysiological measurements investigating the processing of non-musical, synchronous or various levels of asynchronous audiovisual events. We hypothesize that long-term multisensory experience alters temporal audiovisual processing already at a non-musical stage. Behaviorally, musicians scored significantly better than non-musicians in judging whether the auditory and visual stimuli were synchronous or asynchronous. At the neural level, the statistical analysis for the audiovisual asynchronous response revealed three clusters of activations including the ACC and the SFG and two bilaterally located activations in IFG and STG in both groups. Musicians, in comparison to the non-musicians, responded to synchronous audiovisual events with enhanced neuronal activity in a broad left posterior temporal region that covers the STG, the insula and the Postcentral Gyrus. Musicians also showed significantly greater activation in the left Cerebellum, when confronted with an audiovisual asynchrony. Taken together, our MEG results form a strong indication that long-term musical training alters the basic audiovisual temporal processing already in an early stage (direct after the auditory N1 wave, while the psychophysical results indicate that musical training may also provide behavioral benefits in the accuracy of the estimates regarding the timing of audiovisual events.

  7. Cross-Level Cultural Congruence: Implications For Managing Diversity In Multinational Corporations

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer Palthe

    2014-01-01

    Few models view culture as a multi-level construct and limited diversity management theories capture the significance of the configuration of individual, organizational, and national culture differences on employee and organizational outcomes. This paper seeks to bridge this gap by presenting a conceptual model that suggests that the interplay between this triad of cultural entities (individual, organizational, and national) influences the degree of cultural congruence that ultimately affects...

  8. Evaluating and interpreting cross-taxon congruence: Potential pitfalls and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioria, Margherita; Bacaro, Giovanni; Feehan, John

    2011-05-01

    Characterizing the relationship between different taxonomic groups is critical to identify potential surrogates for biodiversity. Previous studies have shown that cross-taxa relationships are generally weak and/or inconsistent. The difficulties in finding predictive patterns have often been attributed to the spatial and temporal scales of these studies and on the differences in the measure used to evaluate such relationships (species richness versus composition). However, the choice of the analytical approach used to evaluate cross-taxon congruence inevitably represents a major source of variation. Here, we described the use of a range of methods that can be used to comprehensively assess cross-taxa relationships. To do so, we used data for two taxonomic groups, wetland plants and water beetles, collected from 54 farmland ponds in Ireland. Specifically, we used the Pearson correlation and rarefaction curves to analyse patterns in species richness, while Mantel tests, Procrustes analysis, and co-correspondence analysis were used to evaluate congruence in species composition. We compared the results of these analyses and we described some of the potential pitfalls associated with the use of each of these statistical approaches. Cross-taxon congruence was moderate to strong, depending on the choice of the analytical approach, on the nature of the response variable, and on local and environmental conditions. Our findings indicate that multiple approaches and measures of community structure are required for a comprehensive assessment of cross-taxa relationships. In particular, we showed that selection of surrogate taxa in conservation planning should not be based on a single statistic expressing the degree of correlation in species richness or composition. Potential solutions to the analytical issues associated with the assessment of cross-taxon congruence are provided and the implications of our findings in the selection of surrogates for biodiversity are discussed.

  9. Surveying the relationship between brand equity and brand-customer personality congruency

    OpenAIRE

    Morteza Rezaei; Shahram Jamali Kapak; Shahriar Azizi

    2013-01-01

    Assigning human`s personality features to brands is one of the main subjects that has been focused by researchers in latest decades. On the other hand, congruency of brand personality with customers` personality is a concept that could affect brand equity. So in order to explore this relationship, this research has tested a model in Shahrvand Chain Stores of Tehran. Sample of 185 customers of this store has been selected and finally with return rate of 90%, 163 usable questionnaires have been...

  10. The Effect of Implicit–Explicit Followership Congruence on Benevolent Leadership: Evidence from Chinese Family Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiao; Peng, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Benevolent leadership, a traditional Chinese leadership style generated under the influence of Confucianism, has been under growing discussion since its proposal. However, existing research has focused mainly on the consequences of benevolent leadership, and research probing into its antecedents is scarce. To fill such research gap, the current study aims to explore the effect of the congruence between implicit positive followership prototype (PFP) and explicit positive followership trait (PF...

  11. Aula virtual y presencial en aprendizaje de comunicación audiovisual y educación Virtual and Real Classroom in Learning Audiovisual Communication and Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefina Santibáñez Velilla

    2010-10-01

    Values and counter-values transmitted by television series for children and teenagers». The research has been carried out using a sample of 205 students of the University of La Rioja who attended a course in Technologies Applied to Education. The technique of qualitative and quantitative content analysis has been used to provide an objective, systematic and quantitative description of the different documents content. The results obtained show that the communication, content and assessment tools of WebCT are favourably assessed by the students. We have reached the conclusion that WebCT and ICTS constitute an aid to ESHE methodological innovation based on student-centred learning. The students showed their audiovisual competence in the analysis of values and the construction of multimedia documents using different formats. Through their works these students give a new sense to the use of television series in education.

  12. A Possible Neurophysiological Correlate of AudioVisual Binding and Unbinding in Speech Perception

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    Attigodu Chandrashekara eGanesh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Audiovisual speech integration of auditory and visual streams generally ends up in a fusion into a single percept. One classical example is the McGurk effect in which incongruent auditory and visual speech signals may lead to a fused percept different from either visual or auditory inputs. In a previous set of experiments, we showed that if a McGurk stimulus is preceded by an incongruent audiovisual context (composed of incongruent auditory and visual speech materials the amount of McGurk fusion is largely decreased. We interpreted this result in the framework of a two-stage binding and fusion model of audiovisual speech perception, with an early audiovisual binding stage controlling the fusion/decision process and likely to produce unbinding with less fusion if the context is incoherent. In order to provide further electrophysiological evidence for this binding/unbinding stage, early auditory evoked N1/P2 responses were here compared during auditory, congruent and incongruent audiovisual speech perception, according to either prior coherent or incoherent audiovisual contexts. Following the coherent context, in line with previous EEG/MEG studies, visual information in the congruent audiovisual condition was found to modify auditory evoked potentials, with a latency decrease of P2 responses compared to the auditory condition. Importantly, both P2 amplitude and latency in the congruent audiovisual condition increased from the coherent to the incoherent context. Although potential contamination by visual responses from the visual cortex cannot be discarded, our results might provide a possible neurophysiological correlate of early binding/unbinding process applied on audiovisual interactions.

  13. Congruence in reported frequency of parent-adolescent sexual health communication: A study from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atienzo, Erika E; Ortiz-Panozo, Eduardo; Campero, Lourdes

    2015-08-01

    Most studies on parent-adolescent sexual health communication come from developed countries and are based on either parents' or children's reports. In developing countries, there is little evidence about the agreement among reports of all parties involved in parent-adolescent sexual health communication. The objective of this study is to explore the congruence (agreement) between adolescents and their parents about how frequently they discuss on selected sexual health topics. A total of 1606 parent-adolescent dyads of adolescents attending the first year in public high schools and their parents, in Morelos, Mexico were sampled in this study. The participants completed a self-administered questionnaire that included the frequency of parent-adolescent communication about eight sexual health topics. An ordinal logistic threshold model was used to estimate intra-class correlation coefficients within parent-adolescent dyads (as a measure of congruence) and to test if thresholds were equal between parents and adolescents. Congruence in reported frequency of parent-adolescent sexual health communication ranged from 0.205 (menstruation) to 0.307 (condoms) for mother-adolescent dyads, and from 0.103 (ejaculation) to 0.380 (condoms) for father-adolescent dyads. The thresholds (i.e., the cutoff points that define the categories in the observed ordinal variable) differed between parents and adolescents for each of the sexual health topics explored (phealth communication. This might be due to interpretation of frequency and intensity of sexual health communication which differs between parents and adolescents.

  14. Spatial congruence between carbon and biodiversity across forest landscapes of northern Borneo

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    Nicolas Labrière

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how carbon and biodiversity vary across tropical forest landscapes is essential to achieving effective conservation of their respective hotspots in a global context of high deforestation. Whether conservation strategies aimed at protecting carbon hotspots can provide co-benefits for biodiversity protection, and vice versa, highly depends on the extent to which carbon and biodiversity co-occur at the landscape level. We used field measurements and easily accessible explanatory variables to model aboveground carbon density, soil carbon density and tree alpha diversity (response variables over a mostly forested area of northern Borneo. We assessed the spatial relationships between response variables and the spatial congruence of their hotspots. We found a significant positive relationship between aboveground carbon density and tree alpha diversity, and an above-than-expected-by-chance spatial congruence of their hotspots. Consequently, the protection of areas of high aboveground carbon density through financial mechanisms such as REDD+ is expected to benefit tree diversity conservation in the study area. On the other hand, relationships between soil carbon density and both aboveground carbon density and tree alpha diversity were negative and spatial congruences null. Hotspots of soil carbon density, mostly located in peatlands, therefore need specific conservation regulations, which the current moratorium on peat conversion in Indonesia is a first step toward.

  15. Reducing Stereotype Threat With Embodied Triggers: A Case of Sensorimotor-Mental Congruence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalabaev, Aïna; Radel, Rémi; Masicampo, E J; Dru, Vincent

    2016-08-01

    In four experiments, we tested whether embodied triggers may reduce stereotype threat. We predicted that left-side sensorimotor inductions would increase cognitive performance under stereotype threat, because such inductions are linked to avoidance motivation among right-handers. This sensorimotor-mental congruence hypothesis rests on regulatory fit research showing that stereotype threat may be reduced by avoidance-oriented interventions, and motor congruence research showing positive effects when two parameters of a motor action activate the same motivational system (avoidance or approach). Results indicated that under stereotype threat, cognitive performance was higher when participants contracted their left hand (Study 1) or when the stimuli were presented on the left side of the visual field (Studies 2-4), as compared with right-hand contraction or right-side visual stimulation. These results were observed on math (Studies 1, 2, and 4) and Stroop (Study 3) performance. An indirect effect of congruence on math performance through subjective fluency was also observed. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  16. Cognitive endpoints as disease biomarkers: optimizing the congruency of preclinical models to the clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Mark; Balci, Fuat; Wan, Hong I; Fox, Gerard B; Rutkowski, J Lynn; Feuerstein, Giora

    2008-07-01

    Cognition is a complex set of processes, including attention, learning and memory, that refers to the capacity to encode, consolidate, store and retrieve recent and remotely stored fact (semantic) and experience-based (episodic) memory. The development of cognitive enhancers is of particular importance to society and the pharmaceutical industry, as cognitive dysfunctions are observed across a wide range of neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders; however, developing such therapeutics has proven difficult. There is poor congruency between the abundance of positive results observed in animal studies compared with clinical outcome. For example, from 1982 to 2002 there was a 6000% increase in studies on cognitive processing in rodents that had little or no impact on the outcome of phase II and III clinical trials. The effects of therapeutics on models of cognition that demonstrate the potential to improve preclinical-to-clinical congruency, focusing on attention, impulsivity and episodic memory, are summarized in this review. Changes in attention, impulsivity and episodic memory are tractable 'disease biomarkers' that correlate with the disease phenotypes that are potential therapeutic targets. In the context of the development of cognitive enhancing drugs, one of the major goals of translational medicine is to improve the congruency between preclinical models and clinical results. Improved translatability could improve discovery, validation and implementation of biomarkers to inform clinical outcome studies and decision making, and to establish proof-of-concept for efficacy and safety based on targeted mechanisms of action.

  17. AUTOMATED MULTI-SOURCE REMOTE SENSING IMAGE REGISTRATION BASED ON PHASE CONGRUENCY

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    Y. Ye

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Automated registration of multi-source remote sensing data, e.g., optical, SAR, LiDAR data, could be difficult due to their heterogeneity. This paper proposes a method based on the concept of phase congruency, a measure of feature significance robust to change in illumination and contrast. We first calculate the phase congruencies respectively for the input image and the reference image to reduce local illumination and contrast difference caused by the heterogeneity or radiometric variation. Minimum moment of phase congruency is used to select feature points in the input image, followed by a normalized cross correlation to determine their correspondences in the reference image. Prior georeferencing information and image pyramid guide the above matching process, which is then refined by means of least squares matching (LSM method. The proposed method uses random sample consensus (RANSAC to remove the large correspondence errors caused by e.g., shadow and shielding. Finally, image registration is achieved by determining a projective transformation between the two images based on the final set of correspondences. The proposed method is evaluated with multi-source remote sensing images, including optical images, SAR images and LiDAR data. The registration quality is evaluated by using manually collected check points. The results demonstrate that the proposed method is robust and can achieve a registration accuracy which can be comparable to that produced by manual registration.

  18. Spatial congruence in language and species richness but not threat in the world's top linguistic hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turvey, Samuel T; Pettorelli, Nathalie

    2014-12-07

    Languages share key evolutionary properties with biological species, and global-level spatial congruence in richness and threat is documented between languages and several taxonomic groups. However, there is little understanding of the functional connection between diversification or extinction in languages and species, or the relationship between linguistic and species richness across different spatial scales. New Guinea is the world's most linguistically rich region and contains extremely high biological diversity. We demonstrate significant positive relationships between language and mammal richness in New Guinea across multiple spatial scales, revealing a likely functional relationship over scales at which infra-island diversification may occur. However, correlations are driven by spatial congruence between low levels of language and species richness. Regional biocultural richness may have showed closer congruence before New Guinea's linguistic landscape was altered by Holocene demographic events. In contrast to global studies, we demonstrate a significant negative correlation across New Guinea between areas with high levels of threatened languages and threatened mammals, indicating that landscape-scale threats differ between these groups. Spatial resource prioritization to conserve biodiversity may not benefit threatened languages, and conservation policy must adopt a multi-faceted approach to protect biocultural diversity as a whole.

  19. Olfactory Context-Dependent Memory and the Effects of Affective Congruency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackländer, Ryan P M; Bermeitinger, Christina

    2017-10-31

    Odors have been claimed to be particularly effective mnemonic cues, possibly because of the strong links between olfaction and emotion processing. Indeed, past research has shown that odors can bias processing towards affectively congruent material. In order to determine whether this processing bias translates to memory, we conducted 2 olfactory-enhanced-context memory experiments where we manipulated affective congruency between the olfactory context and to-be-remembered material. Given the presumed importance of valence to olfactory perception, we hypothesized that memory would be best for affectively congruent material in the olfactory enhanced context groups. Across the 2 experiments, groups which encoded and retrieved material in the presence of an odorant exhibited better memory performance than groups that did not have the added olfactory context during encoding and retrieval. While context-enhanced memory was exhibited in the presence of both pleasant and unpleasant odors, there was no indication that memory was dependent on affective congruency between the olfactory context and the to-be-remembered material. While the results provide further support for the notion that odors can act as powerful contextual mnemonic cues, they call into question the notion that affective congruency between context and focal material is important for later memory performance. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Gender Congruency From a Neutral Point of View: The Roles of Gender Classes and Conceptual Connotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Andrea; Beller, Sieghard; Klauer, Karl Christoph

    2018-02-01

    The question of whether language affects thought is long-standing, with grammatical gender being one of the most contended instances. Empirical evidence focuses on the gender congruency effect, according to which referents of masculine nouns are conceptualized more strongly as male and those of feminine nouns more strongly as female. While some recent studies suggest that this effect is driven by conceptual connotations rather than grammatical properties, research remains theoretically inconclusive because of the confounding of grammatical gender and conceptual connotations in gendered (masculine or feminine) nouns. Taking advantage of the fact that German also includes a neuter gender, the current study attempted to disentangle the relative contributions of grammatical properties and connotations to the emergence of the gender congruency effect. In three pairs of experiments, neuter and gendered nouns were compared in an Extrinsic Affective Simon Task based on gender associations, controlled for a possible role of gender-indicating articles. A congruency effect emerged equally strongly for neuter and gendered nouns, but disappeared when including connotations as covariate, thereby effectively excluding grammatical gender as the (only) driving force for this effect. Based on a critical discussion of these findings, we propose a possible mechanism for the emergence of the effect that also has the potential to accommodate conflicting patterns of findings from previous research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. The audiovisual mounting narrative as a basis for the documentary film interactive: news studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mgs. Denis Porto Renó

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a literature review and experiment results from pilot-doctoral research "assembly language visual narrative for the documentary film interactive," which defend the thesis that there are features interactive audio and video editing of the movie, even as causing agent of interactivity. The search for interactive audio-visual formats are present in international investigations, but sob glances technology. He believes that this paper is to propose possible formats for interactive audiovisual production film, video, television, computer and cell phone from the postmodern society. Key words: Audiovisual, language, interactivity, cinema interactive, documentary, communication.

  2. Self-organizing maps for measuring similarity of audiovisual speech percepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothe, Hans-Heinrich

    . Dependent on the training data, these other units may also be contextually immediate neighboring units. The poster demonstrates the idea with text material spoken by one individual subject using a set of simple audio-visual features. The data material for the training process consists of 44 labeled......The goal of this work is to find a way to measure similarity of audiovisual speech percepts. Phoneme-related self-organizing maps (SOM) with a rectangular basis are trained with data material from a (labeled) video film. For the training, a combination of auditory speech features and corresponding...... audio-visual speech percepts and to measure coarticulatory effects....

  3. La estacíon de trabajo del traductor audiovisual: Herramientas y Recursos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Matamala

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we discuss the relationship between audiovisual translation and new technologies, and describe the characteristics of the audiovisual translator´s workstation, especially as regards dubbing and voiceover. After presenting the tools necessary for the translator to perform his/ her task satisfactorily as well as pointing to future perspectives, we make a list of sources that can be consulted in order to solve translation problems, including those available on the Internet. Keywords: audiovisual translation, new technologies, Internet, translator´s tools.

  4. Atypical audiovisual speech integration in infants at risk for autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne A Guiraud

    Full Text Available The language difficulties often seen in individuals with autism might stem from an inability to integrate audiovisual information, a skill important for language development. We investigated whether 9-month-old siblings of older children with autism, who are at an increased risk of developing autism, are able to integrate audiovisual speech cues. We used an eye-tracker to record where infants looked when shown a screen displaying two faces of the same model, where one face is articulating/ba/and the other/ga/, with one face congruent with the syllable sound being presented simultaneously, the other face incongruent. This method was successful in showing that infants at low risk can integrate audiovisual speech: they looked for the same amount of time at the mouths in both the fusible visual/ga/- audio/ba/and the congruent visual/ba/- audio/ba/displays, indicating that the auditory and visual streams fuse into a McGurk-type of syllabic percept in the incongruent condition. It also showed that low-risk infants could perceive a mismatch between auditory and visual cues: they looked longer at the mouth in the mismatched, non-fusible visual/ba/- audio/ga/display compared with the congruent visual/ga/- audio/ga/display, demonstrating that they perceive an uncommon, and therefore interesting, speech-like percept when looking at the incongruent mouth (repeated ANOVA: displays x fusion/mismatch conditions interaction: F(1,16 = 17.153, p = 0.001. The looking behaviour of high-risk infants did not differ according to the type of display, suggesting difficulties in matching auditory and visual information (repeated ANOVA, displays x conditions interaction: F(1,25 = 0.09, p = 0.767, in contrast to low-risk infants (repeated ANOVA: displays x conditions x low/high-risk groups interaction: F(1,41 = 4.466, p = 0.041. In some cases this reduced ability might lead to the poor communication skills characteristic of autism.

  5. Atypical audiovisual speech integration in infants at risk for autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiraud, Jeanne A; Tomalski, Przemyslaw; Kushnerenko, Elena; Ribeiro, Helena; Davies, Kim; Charman, Tony; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Johnson, Mark H

    2012-01-01

    The language difficulties often seen in individuals with autism might stem from an inability to integrate audiovisual information, a skill important for language development. We investigated whether 9-month-old siblings of older children with autism, who are at an increased risk of developing autism, are able to integrate audiovisual speech cues. We used an eye-tracker to record where infants looked when shown a screen displaying two faces of the same model, where one face is articulating/ba/and the other/ga/, with one face congruent with the syllable sound being presented simultaneously, the other face incongruent. This method was successful in showing that infants at low risk can integrate audiovisual speech: they looked for the same amount of time at the mouths in both the fusible visual/ga/- audio/ba/and the congruent visual/ba/- audio/ba/displays, indicating that the auditory and visual streams fuse into a McGurk-type of syllabic percept in the incongruent condition. It also showed that low-risk infants could perceive a mismatch between auditory and visual cues: they looked longer at the mouth in the mismatched, non-fusible visual/ba/- audio/ga/display compared with the congruent visual/ga/- audio/ga/display, demonstrating that they perceive an uncommon, and therefore interesting, speech-like percept when looking at the incongruent mouth (repeated ANOVA: displays x fusion/mismatch conditions interaction: F(1,16) = 17.153, p = 0.001). The looking behaviour of high-risk infants did not differ according to the type of display, suggesting difficulties in matching auditory and visual information (repeated ANOVA, displays x conditions interaction: F(1,25) = 0.09, p = 0.767), in contrast to low-risk infants (repeated ANOVA: displays x conditions x low/high-risk groups interaction: F(1,41) = 4.466, p = 0.041). In some cases this reduced ability might lead to the poor communication skills characteristic of autism.

  6. Unsupervised Segmentation Methods of TV Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elie El-Khoury

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a generic algorithm to address various temporal segmentation topics of audiovisual contents such as speaker diarization, shot, or program segmentation. Based on a GLR approach, involving the ΔBIC criterion, this algorithm requires the value of only a few parameters to produce segmentation results at a desired scale and on most typical low-level features used in the field of content-based indexing. Results obtained on various corpora are of the same quality level than the ones obtained by other dedicated and state-of-the-art methods.

  7. Reflections on autobiographical memory in the contemporary audiovisual medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Markendorf

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The biographical discourse follows a traditional positivist model, focused on relations of cause and effect, and composes a chronological logic to present a life story. In the last decades, scholars have questioned this crystallized form and have offered new possibilities for the writing of the biographies. The audiovisual product, object of interest of this work, despite certain advantages over paper model, still produces screenplays in which the slices of life of an individual are an ordered succession of events in time. The purpose of this article is therefore reflect on how memory is present in the biographical films and what kind of contemporary modifications have been introduced into the trivial model so as to remove the mythical aspect that involves the biographees.

  8. Gaze-direction-based MEG averaging during audiovisual speech perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotta Hirvenkari

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available To take a step towards real-life-like experimental setups, we simultaneously recorded magnetoencephalographic (MEG signals and subject’s gaze direction during audiovisual speech perception. The stimuli were utterances of /apa/ dubbed onto two side-by-side female faces articulating /apa/ (congruent and /aka/ (incongruent in synchrony, repeated once every 3 s. Subjects (N = 10 were free to decide which face they viewed, and responses were averaged to two categories according to the gaze direction. The right-hemisphere 100-ms response to the onset of the second vowel (N100m’ was a fifth smaller to incongruent than congruent stimuli. The results demonstrate the feasibility of realistic viewing conditions with gaze-based averaging of MEG signals.

  9. Handicrafts production: documentation and audiovisual dissemination as sociocultural appreciation technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Alvarenga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of scientific research, technology and innovation project in the creative economy sector, conducted from January 2014 to January 2015 that aimed to document and disclose the artisans and handicraft production of Vila de Itaúnas, ES, Brasil. The process was developed from initial conversations, followed by planning and conducting participatory workshops for documentation and audiovisual dissemination around the production of handicrafts and its relation to biodiversity and local culture. The initial objective was to promote expression and diffusion spaces of knowledge among and for the local population, also reaching a regional, state and national public. Throughout the process, it was found that the participatory workshops and the collective production of a virtual site for disclosure of practices and products contributed to the development and socio-cultural recognition of artisan and craft in the region.

  10. A simple and efficient method to enhance audiovisual binding tendencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Odegaard

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Individuals vary in their tendency to bind signals from multiple senses. For the same set of sights and sounds, one individual may frequently integrate multisensory signals and experience a unified percept, whereas another individual may rarely bind them and often experience two distinct sensations. Thus, while this binding/integration tendency is specific to each individual, it is not clear how plastic this tendency is in adulthood, and how sensory experiences may cause it to change. Here, we conducted an exploratory investigation which provides evidence that (1 the brain’s tendency to bind in spatial perception is plastic, (2 that it can change following brief exposure to simple audiovisual stimuli, and (3 that exposure to temporally synchronous, spatially discrepant stimuli provides the most effective method to modify it. These results can inform current theories about how the brain updates its internal model of the surrounding sensory world, as well as future investigations seeking to increase integration tendencies.

  11. Audio-visual active speaker tracking in cluttered indoors environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talantzis, Fotios; Pnevmatikakis, Aristodemos; Constantinides, Anthony G

    2009-02-01

    We propose a system for detecting the active speaker in cluttered and reverberant environments where more than one person speaks and moves. Rather than using only audio information, the system utilizes audiovisual information from multiple acoustic and video sensors that feed separate audio and video tracking modules. The audio module operates using a particle filter (PF) and an information-theoretic framework to provide accurate acoustic source location under reverberant conditions. The video subsystem combines in 3-D a number of 2-D trackers based on a variation of Stauffer's adaptive background algorithm with spatiotemporal adaptation of the learning parameters and a Kalman tracker in a feedback configuration. Extensive experiments show that gains are to be expected when fusion of the separate modalities is performed to detect the active speaker.

  12. The subjective duration of audiovisual looming and receding stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Massimo; Pavan, Andrea

    2012-08-01

    Looming visual stimuli (log-increasing in proximal size over time) and auditory stimuli (of increasing sound intensity over time) have been shown to be perceived as longer than receding visual and auditory stimuli (i.e., looming stimuli reversed in time). Here, we investigated whether such asymmetry in subjective duration also occurs for audiovisual looming and receding stimuli, as well as for stationary stimuli (i.e., stimuli that do not change in size and/or intensity over time). Our results showed a great temporal asymmetry in audition but a null asymmetry in vision. In contrast, the asymmetry in audiovision was moderate, suggesting that multisensory percepts arise from the integration of unimodal percepts in a maximum-likelihood fashion.

  13. A LINGUAGEM AUDIOVISUAL COMO PRÁTICA ESCOLAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Berle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O ensaio discute a relação entre o cinema e a escola para tematizar a linguagem audiovisual e suas implicações nas práticas escolares. Mesmo com o acesso a materiais e recursos audiovisuais, o cinema comparece no cotidiano escolar como apoio pedagógico diante da hierarquização e redução das linguagens à leitura e à escrita na educação das crianças. Para discutir a necessária pluralização de experiências com as linguagens, enquanto prática escolar, busca dialogar com a proposta de Jorge Larrosa, de substituir o par teoria/prática pelo par experiência/sentido para pensar a educação e com a concepção do humano como ser histórico e produtor de história em Paul Ricoeur. Nosso olhar de educadoras e pesquisadoras da infância interroga a naturalizada presença da linguagem audiovisual na educação das crianças, para destacar a desconsideração pela pluralidade de acessos midiáticos que as crianças podem interagir atualmente. Não reivindica a inclusão do cinema nos currículos, enquanto área de conhecimento a ser contemplada como “conteúdo”, mas aponta a importância do ampliar as aprendizagens, no cotidiano escolar, ao reivindicar a pluralização dos processos de aprender a complexificar repertórios linguageiros.

  14. Putative mechanisms mediating tolerance for audiovisual stimulus onset asynchrony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Jyoti; Miller, Lee M; Pitt, Mark A; Shahin, Antoine J

    2015-03-01

    Audiovisual (AV) speech perception is robust to temporal asynchronies between visual and auditory stimuli. We investigated the neural mechanisms that facilitate tolerance for audiovisual stimulus onset asynchrony (AVOA) with EEG. Individuals were presented with AV words that were asynchronous in onsets of voice and mouth movement and judged whether they were synchronous or not. Behaviorally, individuals tolerated (perceived as synchronous) longer AVOAs when mouth movement preceded the speech (V-A) stimuli than when the speech preceded mouth movement (A-V). Neurophysiologically, the P1-N1-P2 auditory evoked potentials (AEPs), time-locked to sound onsets and known to arise in and surrounding the primary auditory cortex (PAC), were smaller for the in-sync than the out-of-sync percepts. Spectral power of oscillatory activity in the beta band (14-30 Hz) following the AEPs was larger during the in-sync than out-of-sync perception for both A-V and V-A conditions. However, alpha power (8-14 Hz), also following AEPs, was larger for the in-sync than out-of-sync percepts only in the V-A condition. These results demonstrate that AVOA tolerance is enhanced by inhibiting low-level auditory activity (e.g., AEPs representing generators in and surrounding PAC) that code for acoustic onsets. By reducing sensitivity to acoustic onsets, visual-to-auditory onset mapping is weakened, allowing for greater AVOA tolerance. In contrast, beta and alpha results suggest the involvement of higher-level neural processes that may code for language cues (phonetic, lexical), selective attention, and binding of AV percepts, allowing for wider neural windows of temporal integration, i.e., greater AVOA tolerance. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  15. The audio-visual revolution: do we really need it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, I

    1979-03-01

    In the United Kingdom, The audio-visual revolution has steadily gained converts in the nursing profession. Nurse tutor courses now contain information on the techniques of educational technology and schools of nursing increasingly own (or wish to own) many of the sophisticated electronic aids to teaching that abound. This is taking place at a time of hitherto inexperienced crisis and change. Funds have been or are being made available to buy audio-visual equipment. But its purchase and use relies on satisfying personal whim, prejudice or educational fashion, not on considerations of educational efficiency. In the rush of enthusiasm, the overwhelmed teacher (everywhere; the phenomenon is not confined to nursing) forgets to ask the searching, critical questions: 'Why should we use this aid?','How effective is it?','And, at what?'. Influential writers in this profession have repeatedly called for a more responsible attitude towards published research work of other fields. In an attempt to discover what is known about the answers to this group of questions, an eclectic look at media research is taken and the widespread dissatisfaction existing amongst international educational technologists is noted. The paper isolates out of the literature several causative factors responsible for the present state of affairs. Findings from the field of educational television are cited as representative of an aid which has had a considerable amount of time and research directed at it. The concluding part of the paper shows the decisions to be taken in using or not using educational media as being more complicated than might at first appear.

  16. Audiovisual emotional processing and neurocognitive functioning in patients with depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie eDoose-Grünefeld

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in the processing of emotional stimuli (e.g. facial expressions, prosody, music have repeatedly been reported in patients with major depression. Such impairments may result from the likewise prevalent executive deficits in these patients. However, studies investigating this relationship are rare. Moreover, most studies to date have only assessed impairments in unimodal emotional processing, whereas in real life, emotions are primarily conveyed through more than just one sensory channel. The current study therefore aimed at investigating multi-modal emotional processing in patients with depression and to assess the relationship between emotional and neurocognitive impairments. 41 patients suffering from major depression and 41 never-depressed healthy controls participated in an audiovisual (faces-sounds emotional integration paradigm as well as a neurocognitive test battery. Our results showed that depressed patients were specifically impaired in the processing of positive auditory stimuli as they rated faces significantly more fearful when presented with happy than with neutral sounds. Such an effect was absent in controls. Findings in emotional processing in patients did not correlate with BDI-scores. Furthermore, neurocognitive findings revealed significant group differences for two of the tests. The effects found in audiovisual emotional processing, however, did not correlate with performance in the neurocognitive tests.In summary, our results underline the diversity of impairments going along with depression and indicate that deficits found for unimodal emotional processing cannot trivially be generalized to deficits in a multi-modal setting. The mechanisms of impairments therefore might be far more complex than previously thought. Our findings furthermore contradict the assumption that emotional processing deficits in major depression are associated with impaired attention or inhibitory functioning.

  17. Natural asynchronies in audiovisual communication signals regulate neuronal multisensory interactions in voice-sensitive cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrodin, Catherine; Kayser, Christoph; Logothetis, Nikos K; Petkov, Christopher I

    2015-01-06

    When social animals communicate, the onset of informative content in one modality varies considerably relative to the other, such as when visual orofacial movements precede a vocalization. These naturally occurring asynchronies do not disrupt intelligibility or perceptual coherence. However, they occur on time scales where they likely affect integrative neuronal activity in ways that have remained unclear, especially for hierarchically downstream regions in which neurons exhibit temporally imprecise but highly selective responses to communication signals. To address this, we exploited naturally occurring face- and voice-onset asynchronies in primate vocalizations. Using these as stimuli we recorded cortical oscillations and neuronal spiking responses from functional MRI (fMRI)-localized voice-sensitive cortex in the anterior temporal lobe of macaques. We show that the onset of the visual face stimulus resets the phase of low-frequency oscillations, and that the face-voice asynchrony affects the prominence of two key types of neuronal multisensory responses: enhancement or suppression. Our findings show a three-way association between temporal delays in audiovisual communication signals, phase-resetting of ongoing oscillations, and the sign of multisensory responses. The results reveal how natural onset asynchronies in cross-sensory inputs regulate network oscillations and neuronal excitability in the voice-sensitive cortex of macaques, a suggested animal model for human voice areas. These findings also advance predictions on the impact of multisensory input on neuronal processes in face areas and other brain regions.

  18. Audiovisual integration of emotional signals from music improvisation does not depend on temporal correspondence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, Karin; McAleer, Phil; Pollick, Frank

    2010-04-06

    In the present study we applied a paradigm often used in face-voice affect perception to solo music improvisation to examine how the emotional valence of sound and gesture are integrated when perceiving an emotion. Three brief excerpts expressing emotion produced by a drummer and three by a saxophonist were selected. From these bimodal congruent displays the audio-only, visual-only, and audiovisually incongruent conditions (obtained by combining the two signals both within and between instruments) were derived. In Experiment 1 twenty musical novices judged the perceived emotion and rated the strength of each emotion. The results indicate that sound dominated the visual signal in the perception of affective expression, though this was more evident for the saxophone. In Experiment 2 a further sixteen musical novices were asked to either pay attention to the musicians' movements or to the sound when judging the perceived emotions. The results showed no effect of visual information when judging the sound. On the contrary, when judging the emotional content of the visual information, a worsening in performance was obtained for the incongruent condition that combined different emotional auditory and visual information for the same instrument. The effect of emotionally discordant information thus became evident only when the auditory and visual signals belonged to the same categorical event despite their temporal mismatch. This suggests that the integration of emotional information may be reinforced by its semantic attributes but might be independent from temporal features. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Western Audiovisual Stereotypes of Russian Image: the Ideological Confrontation Epoch (1946-1991

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Fedorov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article included the analysis of the Western audiovisual stereotypes of Russian image from the period of ideological confrontation (1946-1991: ideological and social trends, classification of the contents’ models and genres. The content analysis of the western media texts of the period of the “cold war” (1946-1991 allows to present their main plot diagrams as follows: Soviet spies penetrate into the territory of the USA/Western country to commit diversion and/or to worm out military secrets; the USSR prepares a covert attack on the territory of the USA/Western world, creating secret bases with nuclear weapons; the inhuman Soviet totalitarian regime oppresses its own people or the people of any other country; Nonconformity leaves/attempts to leave the USSR where, in their opinion, democracy and individual freedom are being oppressed; common western people explain to Soviet military/civilian visitors who were mislead by propaganda that the USA/Western country is the stronghold of friendship and world-wide prosperity and peace; obstacles connected with the ideological confrontation between the USSR and the Western world appear on the way of a loving couple.

  20. Prosody recognition and audiovisual emotion matching in schizophrenia: the contribution of cognition and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagna, Filomena; Montemagni, Cristiana; Maria Milani, Anna; Rocca, Giuseppe; Rocca, Paola; Casacchia, Massimo; Bogetto, Filippo

    2013-02-28

    This study aimed to evaluate the ability to decode emotion in the auditory and audiovisual modality in a group of patients with schizophrenia, and to explore the role of cognition and psychopathology in affecting these emotion recognition abilities. Ninety-four outpatients in a stable phase and 51 healthy subjects were recruited. Patients were assessed through a psychiatric evaluation and a wide neuropsychological battery. All subjects completed the comprehensive affect testing system (CATS), a group of computerized tests designed to evaluate emotion perception abilities. With respect to the controls, patients were not impaired in the CATS tasks involving discrimination of nonemotional prosody, naming of emotional stimuli expressed by voice and judging the emotional content of a sentence, whereas they showed a specific impairment in decoding emotion in a conflicting auditory condition and in the multichannel modality. Prosody impairment was affected by executive functions, attention and negative symptoms, while deficit in multisensory emotion recognition was affected by executive functions and negative symptoms. These emotion recognition deficits, rather than being associated purely with emotion perception disturbances in schizophrenia, are affected by core symptoms of the illness. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cortical Response Similarities Predict which Audiovisual Clips Individuals Viewed, but Are Unrelated to Clip Preference

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bridwell, David A; Roth, Cullen; Gupta, Cota Navin; Calhoun, Vince D

    2015-01-01

    .... These inter-subject correlation's (ISC's) emerge from similarities in individual's cortical response to the shared audiovisual inputs, which may be related to their emergent cognitive and perceptual experience...

  2. An fMRI Study of Audiovisual Speech Perception Reveals Multisensory Interactions in Auditory Cortex

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Okada, Kayoko; Venezia, Jonathan H; Matchin, William; Saberi, Kourosh; Hickok, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    .... While previous audiovisual speech studies demonstrate that high-level multisensory interactions occur in pSTS, what remains unclear is how early in the processing hierarchy these multisensory interactions may occur...

  3. Magazine Production: A Selected, Annotated Bibliography of Audio-Visual Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applegate, Edd

    This bibliography, which contains 13 annotations, is designed to help instructors choose appropriate audio-visual materials for a course in magazine production. Names and addresses of institutions from which the materials may be secured have been included. (MS)

  4. Strategies for media literacy: Audiovisual skills and the citizenship in Andalusia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Aguaded-Gómez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Media consumption is an undeniable fact in present-day society. The hours that members of all social segments spend in front of a screen take up a large part of their leisure time worldwide. Audiovisual communication becomes especially important within the context of today’s digital society (society-network, where information and communication technologies pervade all corners of everyday life. However, people do not own enough audiovisual media skills to cope with this mass media omnipresence. Neither the education system nor civic associations, or the media themselves, have promoted audiovisual skills to make people critically competent when viewing media. This study aims to provide an updated conceptualization of the “audiovisual skill” in this digital environment and transpose it onto a specific interventional environment, seeking to detect needs and shortcomings, plan global strategies to be adopted by governments and devise training programmes for the various sectors involved.

  5. Convergent Cultures: The Disappearance of Commissioned Audiovisual Productions in The Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bas Agterberg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the changes in production and consumption in the audiovisual industry and the way the so-called ‘ephemeral’ commissioned productions are scarcely preserved. New technologies and the liberal economic policies and internationalisation changed the media landscape in the 1980s. Audiovisual companies created a broad range of products within the audiovisual industry. This also resulted in a democratisation of the use of media as well as new formats of programmes and distribution for commissioned productions. By looking at a specific company that recently handed over a collection to the Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision, challenges and issues of preserving video and digital and interactive audiovisual productions are discussed.

  6. Audiovisual Webjournalism: An analysis of news on UOL News and on TV UERJ Online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Nogueira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This work shows the development of audiovisual webjournalism on the Brazilian Internet. This paper, based on the analysis of UOL News on UOL TV – pioneer format on commercial web television - and of UERJ Online TV – first on-line university television in Brazil - investigates the changes in the gathering, production and dissemination processes of audiovisual news when it starts to be transmitted through the web. Reflections of authors such as Herreros (2003, Manovich (2001 and Gosciola (2003 are used to discuss the construction of audiovisual narrative on the web. To comprehend the current changes in today’s webjournalism, we draw on the concepts developed by Fidler (1997; Bolter and Grusin (1998; Machado (2000; Mattos (2002 and Palacios (2003. We may conclude that the organization of narrative elements in cyberspace makes for the efficiency of journalistic messages, while establishing the basis of a particular language for audiovisual news on the Internet.

  7. Effect of Audiovisual Treatment Information on Relieving Anxiety in Patients Undergoing Impacted Mandibular Third Molar Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung-Hwan; Won, Ji-Hoon; Cha, Jung-Yul; Hwang, Chung-Ju

    2015-11-01

    The authors hypothesized that an audiovisual slide presentation that provided treatment information regarding the removal of an impacted mandibular third molar could improve patient knowledge of postoperative complications and decrease anxiety in young adults before and after surgery. A group that received an audiovisual description was compared with a group that received the conventional written description of the procedure. This randomized clinical trial included young adult patients who required surgical removal of an impacted mandibular third molar and fulfilled the predetermined criteria. The predictor variable was the presentation of an audiovisual slideshow. The audiovisual informed group provided informed consent after viewing an audiovisual slideshow. The control group provided informed consent after reading a written description of the procedure. The outcome variables were the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Dental Anxiety Scale, a self-reported anxiety questionnaire, completed immediately before and 1 week after surgery, and a postoperative questionnaire about the level of understanding of potential postoperative complications. The data were analyzed with χ(2) tests, independent t tests, Mann-Whitney U  tests, and Spearman rank correlation coefficients. Fifty-one patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The audiovisual informed group was comprised of 20 men and 5 women; the written informed group was comprised of 21 men and 5 women. The audiovisual informed group remembered significantly more information than the control group about a potential allergic reaction to local anesthesia or medication and potential trismus (P informed group had lower self-reported anxiety scores than the control group 1 week after surgery (P informing patients of the treatment with an audiovisual slide presentation could improve patient knowledge about postoperative complications and aid in alleviating anxiety after the surgical removal of an impacted mandibular

  8. BILINGUAL MULTIMODAL SYSTEM FOR TEXT-TO-AUDIOVISUAL SPEECH AND SIGN LANGUAGE SYNTHESIS

    OpenAIRE

    Karpov, A.A.; M. Zelezny

    2014-01-01

    We present a conceptual model, architecture and software of a multimodal system for audio-visual speech and sign language synthesis by the input text. The main components of the developed multimodal synthesis system (signing avatar) are: automatic text processor for input text analysis; simulation 3D model of human's head; computer text-to-speech synthesizer; a system for audio-visual speech synthesis; simulation 3D model of human’s hands and upper body; multimodal user interface integrating ...

  9. A New Method for Analyzing Content Validity Data Using Multidimensional Scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueming; Sireci, Stephen G.

    2013-01-01

    Validity evidence based on test content is of essential importance in educational testing. One source for such evidence is an alignment study, which helps evaluate the congruence between tested objectives and those specified in the curriculum. However, the results of an alignment study do not always sufficiently capture the degree to which a test…

  10. Congruencies in increased mortality rates, years of potential life lost, and causes of death among public mental health clients in eight states

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Colton, Craig W; Manderscheid, Ronald W

    2006-01-01

    .... Elevated mortality rates among individuals with mental illness have been reported in various studies, but very little focus has been placed on interstate comparisons and congruency of mortality...

  11. GÖRSEL-İŞİTSEL ÇEVİRİ / AUDIOVISUAL TRANSLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevtap GÜNAY KÖPRÜLÜ

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Audiovisual translation dating back to the silent film era is a special translation method which has been developed for the translation of the movies and programs shown on TV and cinema. Therefore, in the beginning, the term “film translation” was used for this type of translation. Due to the growing number of audiovisual texts it has attracted the interest of scientists and has been assessed under the translation studies. Also in our country the concept of film translation was used for this area, but recently, the concept of audio-visual has been used. Since it not only encompasses the films but also covers all the audio-visual communicatian tools as well, especially in scientific field. In this study, the aspects are analyzed which should be taken into consideration by the translator during the audio-visual translation process within the framework of source text, translated text, film, technical knowledge and knowledge. At the end of the study, it is shown that there are some factors, apart from linguistic and paralinguistic factors and they must be considered carefully as they can influence the quality of the translation. And it is also shown that the given factors require technical knowledge in translation. In this sense, the audio-visual translation is accessed from a different angle compared to the other researches which have been done.

  12. Audio-visual speech perception in noise: Implanted children and young adults versus normal hearing peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taitelbaum-Swead, Riki; Fostick, Leah

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate auditory, visual and audiovisual speech perception abilities among two groups of cochlear implant (CI) users: prelingual children and long-term young adults, as compared to their normal hearing (NH) peers. Prospective cohort study that included 50 participants, divided into two groups of CI (10 children and 10 adults), and two groups of normal hearing peers (15 participants each). Speech stimuli included monosyllabic meaningful and nonsense words in a signal to noise ratio of 0 dB. Speech stimuli were introduced via auditory, visual and audiovisual modalities. (1) CI children and adults show lower speech perception accuracy with background noise in audiovisual and auditory modalities, as compared to NH peers, but significantly higher visual speech perception scores. (2) CI children are superior to CI adults in speech perception in noise via auditory modality, but inferior in the visual one. Both CI children and CI adults had similar audiovisual integration. The findings of the current study show that in spite of the fact that the CI children were implanted bilaterally, at a very young age, and using advanced technology, they still have difficulties in perceiving speech in adverse listening conditions even when adding the visual modality. This suggests that adding audiovisual training might be beneficial for this group by improving their audiovisual integration in difficult listening situations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Inconspicuous portable audio/visual recording: transforming an IV pole into a mobile video capture stand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettineo, Christopher M; Vozenilek, John A; Kharasch, Morris; Wang, Ernest; Aitchison, Pam; Arreguin, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Although a traditional simulation laboratory may have excellent installed audio/visual capabilities, often large classes overwhelm the limited space in the laboratory. With minimal monetary investment, it is possible to create a portable audio/visual stand from an old IV pole. An IV pole was transformed into an audio/visual stand to overcome the burden of transporting individual electronic components during a patient safety research project conducted in an empty patient room with a standardized patient. The materials and methods for making the modified IV pole are outlined in this article. The limiting factor of production is access to an old IV pole; otherwise a few purchases from an electronics store complete the audio/visual IV pole. The modified IV pole is a cost-effective and portable solution to limited space or the need for audio/visual capabilities outside of a simulation laboratory. The familiarity of an IV pole in a clinical setting reduces the visual disturbance of relocated audio/visual equipment in a room previously void of such instrumentation.

  14. (M,N-Soft Intersection BL-Algebras and Their Congruences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueling Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to give a foundation for providing a new soft algebraic tool in considering many problems containing uncertainties. In order to provide these new soft algebraic structures, we discuss a new soft set-(M, N-soft intersection set, which is a generalization of soft intersection sets. We introduce the concepts of (M, N-SI filters of BL-algebras and establish some characterizations. Especially, (M, N-soft congruences in BL-algebras are concerned.

  15. Desarrollo de una prueba de comprensión audiovisual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casañ Núñez, Juan Carlos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo forma parte de una investigación doctoral que estudia el uso de preguntas de comprensión audiovisual integradas en la imagen del vídeo como subtítulos y sincronizadas con los fragmentos de vídeo relevantes. Anteriormente se han publicado un marco teórico que describe esta técnica (Casañ Núñez, 2015b y un ejemplo en una secuencia didáctica (Casañ Núñez, 2015a. El presente trabajo detalla el proceso de planificación, diseño y experimentación de una prueba de comprensión audiovisual con dos variantes que será administrada junto con otros instrumentos en estudios cuasiexperimentales con grupos de control y tratamiento. Fundamentalmente, se pretende averiguar si la subtitulación de las preguntas facilita la comprensión, si aumenta el tiempo que los estudiantes miran en dirección a la pantalla y conocer la opinión del grupo de tratamiento sobre esta técnica. En la fase de experimentación se efectuaron seis estudios. En el último estudio piloto participaron cuarenta y un estudiantes de ELE (veintidós en el grupo de control y diecinueve en el de tratamiento. Las observaciones de los informantes durante la administración de la prueba y su posterior corrección sugirieron que las indicaciones sobre la estructura del test, las presentaciones de los textos de entrada, la explicación sobre el funcionamiento de las preguntas subtituladas para el grupo experimental y la redacción de los ítems resultaron comprensibles. Los datos de las dos variantes del instrumento se sometieron a sendos análisis de facilidad, discriminación, fiabilidad y descriptivos. También se calcularon las correlaciones entre los test y dos tareas de un examen de comprensión auditiva. Los resultados mostraron que las dos versiones de la prueba estaban preparadas para ser administradas.

  16. Can personality traits predict pathological responses to audiovisual stimulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yambe, Tomoyuki; Yoshizawa, Makoto; Fukudo, Shin; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Ryuta; Shizuka, Kazuhiko; Nanka, Shunsuke; Tanaka, Akira; Abe, Ken-ichi; Shouji, Tomonori; Hongo, Michio; Tabayashi, Kouichi; Nitta, Shin-ichi

    2003-10-01

    pathophysiological reaction to the audiovisual stimulations. As for the photo sensitive epilepsy, it was reported to be only 5-10% for all patients. Therefore, 90% or more of the cause could not be determined in patients who started a morbid response. The results in this study suggest that the autonomic function was connected to the mental tendency of the objects. By examining such directivity, it is expected that subjects, which show morbid reaction to an audiovisual stimulation, can be screened beforehand.

  17. The value-congruence model of memory for emotional experiences: an explanation for cultural differences in emotional self-reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Shigehiro; Schimmack, Ulrich; Diener, Ed; Kim-Prieto, Chu; Scollon, Christie Napa; Choi, Dong-Won

    2007-11-01

    In 3 studies, the authors found support for the value-congruence model that accounts for cultural variations in memory for emotional experiences. In Study 1, the authors found that in the made-in-the-U.S. scenario condition, European Americans were more accurate than were Asian Americans in their retrospective frequency judgments of emotions. However, in the made-in-Japan scenario condition, European Americans were less accurate than were Asian Americans. In Study 2, the authors demonstrated that value orientation mediates the CulturexType of Event congruence effect. In Study 3 (a daily event sampling study), the authors showed that the congruence effect was explained by the importance of parental approval. In sum, emotional events congruent with personal values remain in memory longer and influence retrospective frequency judgments of emotion more than do incongruent events. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. User habits of smartphone owners in terms of consumption of media content

    OpenAIRE

    Kimla, Lukáš

    2017-01-01

    The thesis "User habits of smartphone owners in terms of consumption of media content" aims to expertly uncover a deeper description of user habits of today's smartphone users, and focus primarily on aspects of the consumption of media content on these devices, such as applications, games, web browsing, news, audiovisual content and social networks. The purpose is to give a complete picture of today's smartphone users as consumers of new technological media and to reveal the spectrum of influ...

  19. When music tempo affects the temporal congruence between physical practice and motor imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debarnot, Ursula; Guillot, Aymeric

    2014-06-01

    When people listen to music, they hear beat and a metrical structure in the rhythm; these perceived patterns enable coordination with the music. A clear correspondence between the tempo of actual movement (e.g., walking) and that of music has been demonstrated, but whether similar coordination occurs during motor imagery is unknown. Twenty participants walked naturally for 8m, either physically or mentally, while listening to slow and fast music, or not listening to anything at all (control condition). Executed and imagined walking times were recorded to assess the temporal congruence between physical practice (PP) and motor imagery (MI). Results showed a difference when comparing slow and fast time conditions, but each of these durations did not differ from soundless condition times, hence showing that body movement may not necessarily change in order to synchronize with music. However, the main finding revealed that the ability to achieve temporal congruence between PP and MI times was altered when listening to either slow or fast music. These data suggest that when physical movement is modulated with respect to the musical tempo, the MI efficacy of the corresponding movement may be affected by the rhythm of the music. Practical applications in sport are discussed as athletes frequently listen to music before competing while they mentally practice their movements to be performed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The Effect of Implicit–Explicit Followership Congruence on Benevolent Leadership: Evidence from Chinese Family Firms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Peng, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Benevolent leadership, a traditional Chinese leadership style generated under the influence of Confucianism, has been under growing discussion since its proposal. However, existing research has focused mainly on the consequences of benevolent leadership, and research probing into its antecedents is scarce. To fill such research gap, the current study aims to explore the effect of the congruence between implicit positive followership prototype (PFP) and explicit positive followership trait (PFT) on benevolent leadership. Polynomial regression combined with the response surface methodology was used to test the hypotheses herein. The results, based on a sample of 241 leader–follower dyads from four Chinese family firms, indicated the following: (1) benevolent leadership is higher when leader PFP is congruent with follower PFT than when they are incongruent; (2) in cases of congruence, benevolent leadership is higher when leader PFP and follower PFT are both high rather than low; (3) in the case of incongruence, there is no significant difference for the level of benevolent leadership in two scenarios: “low leader PFP – high follower PFT” and “high leader PFP – low follower PFT”. PMID:27375514