WorldWideScience

Sample records for audible warning devices

  1. 30 CFR 56.14208 - Warning devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Warning devices. 56.14208 Section 56.14208 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14208 Warning devices. (a) Visible warning devices...

  2. 30 CFR 57.14208 - Warning devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Warning devices. 57.14208 Section 57.14208... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14208 Warning devices. (a) Visible warning devices shall be used when parked mobile equipment creates a hazard to persons in other mobile...

  3. 30 CFR 75.208 - Warning devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Warning devices. 75.208 Section 75.208 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Roof Support § 75.208 Warning devices. Except during...

  4. 33 CFR 143.15 - Lights and warning devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lights and warning devices. 143... devices. (a) OCS facilities must meet the lights and warning devices requirements under part 67 of this... devices requirements under the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea 1972 or...

  5. 49 CFR 571.125 - Standard No. 125; Warning devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.125 Standard No. 125; Warning devices. S1. Scope. This standard... vehicles. S3. Application. This standard applies to devices, without self-contained energy sources, that... vehicle, except for devices designed to be permanently affixed to the vehicle. S4. Definitions....

  6. 14 CFR 125.187 - Landing gear: Aural warning device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Landing gear: Aural warning device. 125.187 Section 125.187 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING...

  7. 14 CFR 121.289 - Landing gear: Aural warning device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Landing gear: Aural warning device. 121.289 Section 121.289 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG,...

  8. 30 CFR 75.1103-3 - Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; minimum requirements; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic fire sensor and warning device...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1103-3 Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; minimum requirements; general. Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems installed in belt haulageways...

  9. 21 CFR 801.63 - Medical devices; warning statements for devices containing or manufactured with...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical devices; warning statements for devices containing or manufactured with chlorofluorocarbons and other class I ozone-depleting substances. 801.63 Section 801.63 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING...

  10. Audible pedestrian signals :a feasibility study

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver, Morris Bernard

    1989-01-01

    This report represents a concentrated effort that determines the feasibility of audible pedestrian signals. These signals are devices which give auditory cues to help the visually impaired cross safely at difficult intersections. Surveys were sent out to over 100 organizations, audible signal manufacturers, and cities who have knowledge of the devices, and responses were analyzed. The devices were found to be feasible but only at certain complex and confusing intersect...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1103-4 - Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; installation; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic fire sensor and warning device...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1103-4 Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; installation; minimum requirements. (a) Effective December 31, 2009, automatic fire sensor and warning...

  12. 76 FR 58301 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Automatic Fire Sensor and Warning Device...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ... Sensor and Warning Device Systems; Examination and Test Requirements ACTION: Notice of request for public... Coal Mining. OMB 1219-0145 has been renamed Automatic Fire Sensor and Warning Device Systems... to a task in July 2011; OMB 1219-0073 subsumed Sec. 75.1103-5(a)(2)(ii) Automatic fire sensor...

  13. 30 CFR 75.1103-8 - Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; examination and test requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic fire sensor and warning device...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1103-8 Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; examination and test requirements. (a) Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems shall be examined...

  14. Microsimulation modelling of driver behaviour towards alternative warning devices at railway level crossings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tey, Li-Sian; Zhu, Sicong; Ferreira, Luis; Wallis, Guy

    2014-10-01

    Level crossings are amongst the most complex of road safety issues, due to the addition of rail infrastructure, trains and train operations. The differences in the operational characteristics of different warning devices together with varying crossing, traffic or/and train characteristics, cause different driver behaviour at crossings. This paper compares driver behaviour towards two novel warning devices (rumble strips and in-vehicle audio warning) with two conventional warning devices (flashing light and stop sign) at railway level crossings using microsimulation modelling. Two safety performance indicators directly related to collision risks, violation and time-to-collision, were adopted. Results indicated the active systems were more effective at reducing likely collisions compared to passive devices. With the combined application of driving simulation and traffic microsimulation modelling, traffic safety performance indicators for a level crossing can be estimated. From these, relative safety comparisons for the different traffic devices are derived, or even for absolute safety evaluation with proper calibration from field investigations.

  15. Early warning device for detection of pollutants in water

    OpenAIRE

    Perez de Vargas Sansalvador, Isabel; Fay, Cormac; Cleary, John; Turner, Geraldine; Nightingale, Adrian; Mowlem, Matthew; Diamond, Dermot

    2014-01-01

    Due to a growing need to protect water resources from contamination, there is a requirement for the development of more reliable and cost effective devices for water quality monitoring. The aim of the AQUAWARN project is to develop and deploy a fully autonomous water quality monitoring device that can measure nitrite, nitrate, phosphate and pH colorimetrically in fresh water and wastewater, and communicate the information to stakeholders in real time.

  16. Early warning pollution detection device for application in water quality

    OpenAIRE

    Perez de Vargas Sansalvador, Isabel; Fay, Cormac; Cleary, John; Turner, Geraldine; Nightingale, Adrian; Mowlem, Matthew; Diamond, Dermot

    2014-01-01

    It has been well recognised that water is a valuable resource and the quality of our water systems require sampling at a higher temporal and spatial frequency than is currently taking place. The AQUAWARN project aims to meet this challenge through the development of commercially competitive water quality monitoring devices. These will be capable of performing analytical measurements in situ - primarily aimed at freshwater and wastewater systems. The analytes of interest are mainly phosphate, ...

  17. A Mobile Device System for Early Warning of ECG Anomalies

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Szczepański; Khalid Saeed

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid increase in computational power of mobile devices the amount of ambient intelligence-based smart environment systems has increased greatly in recent years. A proposition of such a solution is described in this paper, namely real time monitoring of an electrocardiogram (ECG) signal during everyday activities for identification of life threatening situations. The paper, being both research and review, describes previous work of the authors, current state of the art in the context...

  18. A Mobile Device System for Early Warning of ECG Anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Szczepański

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid increase in computational power of mobile devices the amount of ambient intelligence-based smart environment systems has increased greatly in recent years. A proposition of such a solution is described in this paper, namely real time monitoring of an electrocardiogram (ECG signal during everyday activities for identification of life threatening situations. The paper, being both research and review, describes previous work of the authors, current state of the art in the context of the authors’ work and the proposed aforementioned system. Although parts of the solution were described in earlier publications of the authors, the whole concept is presented completely for the first time along with the prototype implementation on mobile device—a Windows 8 tablet with Modern UI. The system has three main purposes. The first goal is the detection of sudden rapid cardiac malfunctions and informing the people in the patient’s surroundings, family and friends and the nearest emergency station about the deteriorating health of the monitored person. The second goal is a monitoring of ECG signals under non-clinical conditions to detect anomalies that are typically not found during diagnostic tests. The third goal is to register and analyze repeatable, long-term disturbances in the regular signal and finding their patterns.

  19. Audible radiation monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odell, D.M.C.

    1992-12-31

    This invention consists of a method and apparatus for monitoring ionizing radiation comprising radiation detectors in electrical connection with an isotopic analyzer and a device for producing chords to which each isotope is mapped so that the device produces a unique chord for each isotope. Preferably the chords are pleasing to the ear, except for chords representing unexpected isotopes, and are louder or softer depending on the level of radioactivity produced by each isotope, and musical instrument voices may be simulated in producing the chords as an aid to distinguishing similar-sounding chords. Because of the representation by chords, information regarding the level and composition of the radiation in an area can be conveyed to workers in that area more effectively and yet without distracting them.

  20. The Use of Audible Traffic Signals in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, A. F.; Uslan, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses audible traffic signals (ATS) and their use by visually impaired pedestrians in the United States and other countries. Areas of concern are noted, including the types of intersections at which ATS should be installed, the locations of poles and buttons for activating the system, and the specific type of device used.…

  1. An Adaptation Level Theory of Tinnitus Audibility

    OpenAIRE

    Grant eSearchfield; Kei eKobayashi; Michael eSanders

    2012-01-01

    Models of tinnitus suggest roles for auditory, attention, and emotional networks in tinnitus perception. A model of tinnitus audibility based on Helson’s (1964) adaptation level theory (ALT) is hypothesized to explain the relationship between tinnitus audibility, personality, memory, and attention. This theory attempts to describe how tinnitus audibility or detectability might change with experience and context. The basis of ALT and potential role of auditory scene analysis in tinnitus percep...

  2. An Adaptation Level Theory of tinnitus audibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant eSearchfield

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Models of tinnitus suggest roles for auditory, attention and emotional networks in tinnitus perception. A model of tinnitus audibility based on Helson’s (1964 Adaptation Level Theory (ALT is hypothesized to explain the relationship between tinnitus audibility, personality, memory and attention. This theory attempts to describe how tinnitus audibility or detectability might change with experience and context. The basis of ALT and potential role of Auditory Scene Analysis in tinnitus perception are discussed. The proposed psychoacoustic model lends itself to incorporation into existing neurophysiological models of tinnitus perception. It is hoped that the ALT hypothesis will allow for greater empirical investigation of factors influencing tinnitus perception, such as attention and tinnitus sound therapies.

  3. Audibility and visual biasing in speech perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Bart Richard

    Although speech perception has been considered a predominantly auditory phenomenon, large benefits from vision in degraded acoustic conditions suggest integration of audition and vision. More direct evidence of this comes from studies of audiovisual disparity that demonstrate vision can bias and even dominate perception (McGurk & MacDonald, 1976). It has been observed that hearing-impaired listeners demonstrate more visual biasing than normally hearing listeners (Walden et al., 1990). It is argued here that stimulus audibility must be equated across groups before true differences can be established. In the present investigation, effects of visual biasing on perception were examined as audibility was degraded for 12 young normally hearing listeners. Biasing was determined by quantifying the degree to which listener identification functions for a single synthetic auditory /ba-da-ga/ continuum changed across two conditions: (1)an auditory-only listening condition; and (2)an auditory-visual condition in which every item of the continuum was synchronized with visual articulations of the consonant-vowel (CV) tokens /ba/ and /ga/, as spoken by each of two talkers. Audibility was altered by presenting the conditions in quiet and in noise at each of three signal-to- noise (S/N) ratios. For the visual-/ba/ context, large effects of audibility were found. As audibility decreased, visual biasing increased. A large talker effect also was found, with one talker eliciting more biasing than the other. An independent lipreading measure demonstrated that this talker was more visually intelligible than the other. For the visual-/ga/ context, audibility and talker effects were less robust, possibly obscured by strong listener effects, which were characterized by marked differences in perceptual processing patterns among participants. Some demonstrated substantial biasing whereas others demonstrated little, indicating a strong reliance on audition even in severely degraded acoustic

  4. Meteorological Monitoring And Warning Computer Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Randolph J.; Dianic, Allan V.; Moore, Lien N.

    1996-01-01

    Meteorological monitoring system (MMS) computer network tracks weather conditions and issues warnings when weather hazards are about to occur. Receives data from such meteorological instruments as wind sensors on towers and lightning detectors, and compares data with weather restrictions specified for outdoor activities. If weather violates restriction, network generates audible and visible alarms to alert people involved in activity. Also displays weather and toxic diffusion data and disseminates weather forecasts, advisories, and warnings to workstations.

  5. Research of the Warning Alarm Device of Vehicle Rollover%汽车侧翻预警报警装置的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈启鹏; 熊巧巧; 周成

    2012-01-01

    阐述了汽车侧翻的危害,以及我国汽车侧翻预警装置的研究现状.简述了汽车侧翻预警报警装置的工作原理,提出了一种基于侧向加速度和基于横向载荷转移率为侧翻判断条件的侧翻预警的方法.指出侧向加速度和横向载荷转移率是开发实用汽车侧翻预警报警系统的关键技术,并对汽车侧翻预警报警装置的实用性进行了探讨.%This paper states the damage of vehicle rollover, and the research status of the warning alarm device of vehicle rollover at home. Additionally, it supplely states the warning alarm device of vehicle rollover,which presents a rollover warning method that based on lateral acceleration and lateral load transfer ratio. And finally,it points out lateral acceleration and lateral load transfer ratio are the key technology of exploiting the application vehicle rollover warning alarm system, and discuss the practicability of vehicle rollover warning alarm device.

  6. Utility of Ochrobactrum anthropi YC152 in a Microbial Fuel Cell as an Early Warning Device for Hexavalent Chromium Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guey-Horng; Cheng, Chiu-Yu; Liu, Man-Hai; Chen, Tzu-Yu; Hsieh, Min-Chi; Chung, Ying-Chien

    2016-01-01

    Fast hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) determination is important for environmental risk and health-related considerations. We used a microbial fuel cell-based biosensor inoculated with a facultatively anaerobic, Cr(VI)-reducing, and exoelectrogenic Ochrobactrum anthropi YC152 to determine the Cr(VI) concentration in water. The results indicated that O. anthropi YC152 exhibited high adaptability to pH, temperature, salinity, and water quality under anaerobic conditions. The stable performance of the microbial fuel cell (MFC)-based biosensor indicated its potential as a reliable biosensor system. The MFC voltage decreased as the Cr(VI) concentration in the MFC increased. Two satisfactory linear relationships were observed between the Cr(VI) concentration and voltage output for various Cr(VI) concentration ranges (0.0125-0.3 mg/L and 0.3-5 mg/L). The MFC biosensor is a simple device that can accurately measure Cr(VI) concentrations in drinking water, groundwater, and electroplating wastewater in 45 min with low deviations (water. Thus, the developed MFC biosensor has potential as an early warning detection device for Cr(VI) determination even if O. anthropi YC152 is a possible opportunistic pathogen. PMID:27537887

  7. Utility of Ochrobactrum anthropi YC152 in a Microbial Fuel Cell as an Early Warning Device for Hexavalent Chromium Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guey-Horng Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fast hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI determination is important for environmental risk and health-related considerations. We used a microbial fuel cell-based biosensor inoculated with a facultatively anaerobic, Cr(VI-reducing, and exoelectrogenic Ochrobactrum anthropi YC152 to determine the Cr(VI concentration in water. The results indicated that O. anthropi YC152 exhibited high adaptability to pH, temperature, salinity, and water quality under anaerobic conditions. The stable performance of the microbial fuel cell (MFC-based biosensor indicated its potential as a reliable biosensor system. The MFC voltage decreased as the Cr(VI concentration in the MFC increased. Two satisfactory linear relationships were observed between the Cr(VI concentration and voltage output for various Cr(VI concentration ranges (0.0125–0.3 mg/L and 0.3–5 mg/L. The MFC biosensor is a simple device that can accurately measure Cr(VI concentrations in drinking water, groundwater, and electroplating wastewater in 45 min with low deviations (<10%. The use of the biosensor can help in preventing the violation of effluent regulations and the maximum allowable concentration of Cr(VI in water. Thus, the developed MFC biosensor has potential as an early warning detection device for Cr(VI determination even if O. anthropi YC152 is a possible opportunistic pathogen.

  8. Factors ensuring consistent audibility in pediatric hearing aid fitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuk, Francis; Marcoux, Andre

    2002-10-01

    Ensuring consistent audibility is an important objective when fitting hearing aids to children. This article reviews the factors that could affect the audibility of the speech signals to children. These factors range from a precise determination of the child's hearing loss to an accurate specification of gain in the chosen hearing aids. In addition, hearing aid technology and features such as multichannel processing, directional microphones, and feedback cancellation that could affect the achievement of consistent audibility are reviewed. PMID:12416935

  9. Audible Aliasing Distortion in Digital Audio Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schimmel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with aliasing distortion in digital audio signal synthesis of classic periodic waveforms with infinite Fourier series, for electronic musical instruments. When these waveforms are generated in the digital domain then the aliasing appears due to its unlimited bandwidth. There are several techniques for the synthesis of these signals that have been designed to avoid or reduce the aliasing distortion. However, these techniques have high computing demands. One can say that today's computers have enough computing power to use these methods. However, we have to realize that today’s computer-aided music production requires tens of multi-timbre voices generated simultaneously by software synthesizers and the most of the computing power must be reserved for hard-disc recording subsystem and real-time audio processing of many audio channels with a lot of audio effects. Trivially generated classic analog synthesizer waveforms are therefore still effective for sound synthesis. We cannot avoid the aliasing distortion but spectral components produced by the aliasing can be masked with harmonic components and thus made inaudible if sufficient oversampling ratio is used. This paper deals with the assessment of audible aliasing distortion with the help of a psychoacoustic model of simultaneous masking and compares the computing demands of trivial generation using oversampling with those of other methods.

  10. 医疗设备智能定位预警系统的研究%Research on intelligent positionig system of warning device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟东宁; 王丹; 蒋知新; 李侠

    2014-01-01

    Objective:Achieving evaluating soldier injury by infrared imaging method and information management of early warning equipment, boosting the using efficiency of device, lowering the administrative cost of device, serving effectively on clinical, establishing the Internet of Things (IOT) administrative system platform, achieving digitalizing, informative administrative mode.Methods: Adopting RFID radio frequence recognitive technology, designing the intelligence dynamic tracking administrative system.Results: In the using period of equipment in wartime, controlling the status of device at any time, obtaining the working data, bringing about the intellectual informative administration by identity recognition.Conclusion: Using RFID theory and character, combining the device-administrative controlling platform, may achieve the using and flowing condition of real time monitoring device, reflect the mobile tracking record and warning, the administrative statistic statement of device. In order to build an early warning mechanism management which advanced, standard and optimized.%目的:实现战时评估战伤伤情的红外影像方法与设备预警信息化管理,提高设备使用效率,降低设备的管理成本,有效服务于战争环境。方法:采用射频识别(RFID)技术,设计智能动态定位管理系统。建立管理物联网系统平台,实现设备智能定位预警数字化、信息化管理模式。结果:智能定位预警系统的建立,可实时了解战时环境医疗设备的使用周期和使用状态,及时获取有效数据,通过身份识别与定位,实现医疗设备的预警智能信息化管理。结论:利用RFID的原理、特点及医疗设备管理监控平台,能够实时监控医疗设备的使用和流动情况,可实现对医疗设备的移动跟踪记录、报警以及设备的统计报表等管理目标,进一步规范和优化医疗设备的预警管理机制。

  11. High-frequency audibility: benefits for hearing-impaired listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, C A; Turner, C W

    1998-07-01

    The present study was a systematic investigation of the benefit of providing hearing-impaired listeners with audible high-frequency speech information. Five normal-hearing and nine high-frequency hearing-impaired listeners identified nonsense syllables that were low-pass filtered at a number of cutoff frequencies. As a means of quantifying audibility for each condition, Articulation Index (AI) was calculated for each condition for each listener. Most hearing-impaired listeners demonstrated an improvement in speech recognition as additional audible high-frequency information was provided. In some cases for more severely impaired listeners, increasing the audibility of high-frequency speech information resulted in no further improvement in speech recognition, or even decreases in speech recognition. A new measure of how well hearing-impaired listeners used information within specific frequency bands called "efficiency" was devised. This measure compared the benefit of providing a given increase in speech audibility to a hearing-impaired listener to the benefit observed in normal-hearing listeners for the same increase in speech audibility. Efficiencies were calculated using the old AI method and the new AI method (which takes into account the effects of high speech presentation levels). There was a clear pattern in the results suggesting that as the degree of hearing loss at a given frequency increased beyond 55 dB HL, the efficacy of providing additional audibility to that frequency region was diminished, especially when this degree of hearing loss was present at frequencies of 4000 Hz and above. A comparison of analyses from the "old" and "new" AI procedures suggests that some, but not all, of the deficiencies of speech recognition in these listeners was due to high presentation levels.

  12. Audibility of spectral differences in head-related transfer functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Pablo F.F.; Møller, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    The spatial resolution at which head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) are available is an important aspect in the implementation of three-dimensional sound. Specifically, synthesis of moving sound requires that HRTFs are sufficiently close so the simulated sound is perceived as moving smoothly....... How close they must be, depends directly on how much the characteristics of neighboring HRTFs differ, and, most important, when these differences become audible. Differences between HRTFs exist in the interaural delay (ITD) and in the spectral characteristics, i.e. the magnitude spectrum of the HRTFs....... The present study investigates the audibility of the spectral characteristics. To this purpose, binaural and monaural audibility thresholds of differences between minimum-phase representations of HRTFs are measured and evaluated....

  13. [Senses and meanings of health socialized by cultural devices: readings of the warning images on cigarettes packs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renovato, Rogério Dias; Bagnato, Maria Helena Salgado; Missio, Lourdes; Murback, Silvana Elisa Sauaia Lopes; da Cruz, Lúcia Pedroso; Bassinello, Greicelene Aparecida Hespanhol

    2009-10-01

    This article analyzes the images publicized on cigarettes packs that are part of the strategies from the Ministry of Health to combat the tabagism and available from the Cancer National Institute. These images bring the official speech of specialists and build narratives, understood such as truths, based on scientific knowledge. We have supported our thesis on theoretical referential of Cultural Studies, since its reflections help to understand that the subjectiveness is social and culturally built by different speeches and devices. We do not deny what is represented, but we establish dialogues with other possibilities of readings that can be present at these devices.We understand the propagated images as cultural pedagogies that behave as texts to be read, building up representations that can be assumed as true effect, and attributes to the citizen the necessity of constant control of its action. Reassuring the biomedicine and the health institutions, an onedimensional vision is propagated disregarding the complexity of this problem. We understand that the cultural pedagogies are part of competition territories, where the directions and meanings can be re-prepared producing hybrid identities that build up its own identity origins over this tangle of power relations. PMID:19750369

  14. 49 CFR 393.19 - Hazard warning signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hazard warning signals. 393.19 Section 393.19... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Electrical Wiring § 393.19 Hazard warning signals. The hazard warning signal operating unit on each commercial motor vehicle shall...

  15. Audible reflection density for different late reflection criteria in rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krueger, Donata; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Brunskog, Jonas;

    2012-01-01

    For reasonably accurate but practical auralizations, some simplifications and approximations are needed. The main issue in the present investigation is that the reflection density of a room impulse response, in theory, increases so fast as a quadratic function of the elapsed time, even assuming...... only specular reflections. Therefore in this study, the upper threshold for audible reflection density is investigated for four different transition times of 25, 50, 75, and 100 ms through a headphone listening test. Binaural impulse responses and speech signals simulated in three rooms with different...... characteristics (an empty office, a lecture room, and an auditorium) are used as stimuli. Subjects are asked to increase/decrease the reflection density of a stimulus until they cannot distinguish it from the stimulus that follows the theoretical reflection density for the different transition times in the three...

  16. Ultrathin skin cloaks with metasurfaces for audible sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Shilong; Chen, Huaijun; Ding, Changlin; Li, Linlin; Shen, Fangliang; Luo, Chunrong; Zhao, Xiaopeng

    2016-06-01

    We report a design of 2D acoustic skin cloaks by using ultrathin metasurfaces in audible range. The microunit of this metasurface is constructed by a cavity coupled with a membrane. This cloak can completely compensate the wave front discrepancy generated by the scattering of the hidden object because the microunits are capable of arbitrarily modulating the reflected amplitude and phase. The operating frequency ranges from 3.54 kHz to 3.93 kHz. The tolerated maximum incident angle decreases as the height of the hidden object increases. Moreover, the cloak’s thickness is only approximately λ/10, so that we can make an object in almost any shape undetectable without obviously increasing the size of the whole system. This intriguing feature forms a sharp contrast to most bulky cloaks on the basis of coordination transformations.

  17. Warning systems and public warning response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, J.H.

    1993-09-01

    This background paper reviews current knowledge on warning systems and human response to warnings. It expands on an earlier paper prepared for a workshop on the Second Assessment on Natural Hazards, held in Estes Park, Colorado in July 1992. Although it has a North American perspective, many of the lessons learned are universally applicable. The paper addresses warning systems in terms of dissemination and does not cover physical science issues associated with prediction and forecast. Finally, it covers hazards with relatively short lead times -- 48 hours or less. It does not address topics such as long-term forecasts of earthquakes or volcanic eruptions or early famine warning systems.

  18. ongfeng 304 - a rollover warning device principle and experimental analysis%东风304A侧翻预警装置原理与实验分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆存远; 郭腾飞

    2014-01-01

    文章以“东风304A”中小型轮式拖拉机为研究对象,目的:提出研发侧翻预警装置的原理思想。方法:通过计算和实验来获得有效数据和分析图像,通过建模和原理分析确定方案。结论:通过侧翻预警装置的原理思想和实验数据分析来进行侧翻预警装置的研发设计,旨在避免驾驶员经验驾驶造成侧翻事故。%The report take " Dongfeng 304A " small-wheeled tractor as the object of study, the goal: Proposing the principle of designing early warning installation for rollover. We can get available data and analysis image by calcula-tion and experiment, determining a plan by modeling and data analysis. Conclusion: Through the principle and empirical data analysis of early warning equipment, we will make the research and development of early warning installation, for the purpose of avoiding rollover accident caused by expericed driving.

  19. Audibility of time differences in adjacent head-related transfer functions (HRTFs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Pablo F.F.; Møller, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Changes in the temporal and spectral characteristics of the sound reaching the two ears are known to be of great importance for the perception of spatial sound. The smallest change that can be reliably perceived provides a measure of how accurate directional hearing is. The present study...... investigates audibility of changes in the temporal characteristics of HRTFs. A listening test is conducted to measure the smallest change in the interaural time difference (ITD) that produces an audible difference of any nature. Results show a large inter-individual variation with a range of audibility...

  20. Wind gust warning verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primo, Cristina

    2016-07-01

    Operational meteorological centres around the world increasingly include warnings as one of their regular forecast products. Warnings are issued to warn the public about extreme weather situations that might occur leading to damages and losses. In forecasting these extreme events, meteorological centres help their potential users in preventing the damage or losses they might suffer. However, verifying these warnings requires specific methods. This is due not only to the fact that they happen rarely, but also because a new temporal dimension is added when defining a warning, namely the time window of the forecasted event. This paper analyses the issues that might appear when dealing with warning verification. It also proposes some new verification approaches that can be applied to wind warnings. These new techniques are later applied to a real life example, the verification of wind gust warnings at the German Meteorological Centre ("Deutscher Wetterdienst"). Finally, the results obtained from the latter are discussed.

  1. Vibration and Audible Noise of Filter Capacitors in HVDC Converter Stations%Vibration and Audible Noise of Filter Capacitors in HVDC Converter Stations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Ling-yu; JI Sheng-chang

    2011-01-01

    The filter capacitor stack is one of the main acoustic noise sources in high-voltage DC (HVDC) converter stations. As HVDC systems are built more and more recently, it is significant to research the audible noise of filter capacitors. In this paper, the current situation of research on vibration and audible noise of filter capacitors in HVDC converter stations, which is departed into three parts--generation mechanism, prediction methods, and reduction measures, is presented and the research achievements are discussed. Scholars have built the model that the alternating electric force caused by the voltage conduces to the vibration, which propagates to the enclosure and radiates audible noise. As a result, the parts contributing most to the generation of audible noise are the top and the bottom of capacitors. In the noise level prediction respect, several methods have been prospected including impact hammer, sweep frequency, impact current, monopole and Kirchhoff formula method, which are suitable for single capacitors or capacitors stacks individually. However, the sweep frequency method is restricted by experiment condition, and the impact current method needs further research and verified. On the other hand, CIGRE WG14.26 provides three sound reduction measures, but all of them are not so practicable, while MPP absorber and compressible space absorber prospected by Dr. Wu Peng are proved to be effective. The sound barriers are also considered by scholars, and the acoustic directivity performance of capacitors is also researched. Besides, the developing direction of each research field is prospected in corresponding part.

  2. Health-Based Audible Noise Guidelines Account for Infrasound and Low-Frequency Noise Produced by Wind Turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, Robert G.; Ashtiani, Payam; Ollson, Christopher A; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa; McCallum, Lindsay C.; Leventhall, Geoff; Knopper, Loren D.

    2015-01-01

    Setbacks for wind turbines have been established in many jurisdictions to address potential health concerns associated with audible noise. However, in recent years, it has been suggested that infrasound (IS) and low-frequency noise (LFN) could be responsible for the onset of adverse health effects self-reported by some individuals living in proximity to wind turbines, even when audible noise limits are met. The purpose of this paper was to investigate whether current audible noise-based guide...

  3. Health-based Audible Noise Guidelines Account for Infrasound and Low Frequency Noise Produced by Wind Turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, Robert G.; Payam eAshtiani; Ollson, Christopher A; Melissa eWhitfield Aslund; McCallum, Lindsay C.; Geoff eLeventhall; Knopper, Loren D.

    2015-01-01

    Setbacks for wind turbines have been established in many jurisdictions to address potential health concerns associated with audible noise. However, in recent years it has been suggested that infrasound (IS) and low frequency noise (LFN) could be responsible for the onset of adverse health effects self-reported by some individuals living in proximity to wind turbines, even when audible noise limits are met. The purpose of this paper was to investigate whether current audible noise-based guidel...

  4. Objective Evaluation of the Audibility of Transient Errors in an Adaptive A/D Conversion Channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marker-Villumsen, Niels; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger; Bruun, Erik

    2014-01-01

    An adaptive analog-to-digital conversion channel for audio, using automatic gain control, generates transient errors that may be audible. Evaluating the audibility of such errors requires subjective evaluation using listening tests. From an electrical circuit design point-of-view this is not feas......An adaptive analog-to-digital conversion channel for audio, using automatic gain control, generates transient errors that may be audible. Evaluating the audibility of such errors requires subjective evaluation using listening tests. From an electrical circuit design point......-of-view this is not feasible, due to design time constraints. This paper investigates the use of the model output variables (MOVs) from the Perceptual Evaluation of Audio Quality (PEAQ) method, for objectively evaluating the transient errors of the conversion channel, in order to optimize the design and reduce design time....... The objective method is compared with results from an alternative forced choice listening test. The comparison shows that the objective method can be used to evaluate the audibility of the transient errors; thus the method can be applied when designing the circuit implementing the channel....

  5. Calculation Model for the Propagation of Audible Noise from High Voltage Transmission Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xuebao; CUI Xiang; LU Tiebing; HE Jiamei

    2013-01-01

    Audible noise from high voltage transmission lines' corona discharge has become one of the decisive factors affecting design of high voltage transmission lines,thus it is very important to study the spatial propagation characteristics of audible noise for its accurate prediction.A calculation model for the propagation of audible noise is presented in this paper,which is based on the basic equation of the sound wave and can involve the influences of the atmosphere absorption and ground effects.The effects of different ground impedances and the atmospheric attenuation on the distribution of sound pressure level are discussed in this paper.The results show that the atmospheric absorption may increase the attenuation of the audible noise,and the ground surface affects both the amplitude and phase of the sound.The spatial distribution fluctuates considering the ground effects.The atmospheric attenuation and the ground effect are closely related to the frequency of the noise.In the frequency range of the audible noise,the influence of atmospheric attenuation on the spatial propagation characteristics is more obvious in high frequency while ground has significant influences in low frequency.

  6. 30 CFR 75.1600-2 - Communication facilities; working sections; installation and maintenance requirements; audible or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Communication facilities; working sections; installation and maintenance requirements; audible or visual alarms. 75.1600-2 Section 75.1600-2 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Communications § 75.1600-2 Communication facilities;...

  7. Audibility-based predictions of speech recognition for children and adults with normal hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreery, Ryan W; Stelmachowicz, Patricia G

    2011-12-01

    This study investigated the relationship between audibility and predictions of speech recognition for children and adults with normal hearing. The Speech Intelligibility Index (SII) is used to quantify the audibility of speech signals and can be applied to transfer functions to predict speech recognition scores. Although the SII is used clinically with children, relatively few studies have evaluated SII predictions of children's speech recognition directly. Children have required more audibility than adults to reach maximum levels of speech understanding in previous studies. Furthermore, children may require greater bandwidth than adults for optimal speech understanding, which could influence frequency-importance functions used to calculate the SII. Speech recognition was measured for 116 children and 19 adults with normal hearing. Stimulus bandwidth and background noise level were varied systematically in order to evaluate speech recognition as predicted by the SII and derive frequency-importance functions for children and adults. Results suggested that children required greater audibility to reach the same level of speech understanding as adults. However, differences in performance between adults and children did not vary across frequency bands.

  8. 30 CFR 77.311 - Alarm devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alarm devices. 77.311 Section 77.311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY....311 Alarm devices. Thermal dryer systems shall be equipped with both audible and visual alarm...

  9. Reproduction of Realistic Background Noise for Testing Telecommunications Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gil Corrales, Juan David; Song, Wookeun; MacDonald, Ewen

    2015-01-01

    A method for reproduction of sound, based on crosstalk cancellation using inverse filters, was implemented in the context of testing telecommunications devices. The effect of the regularization parameter, number of loudspeakers, type of background noise, and a technique to attenuate audible artif......, the performance was equally good when using eight or four loudspeakers, and the reproduction method was shown to be robust for different program materials. The proposed technique to reduce audible artifacts increased the perceived similarity....

  10. 基于DSP和FPGA的汽车防撞高速数据采集系统%A high speed data acquisition system for automotive collision warning devices based on DSP-FPGA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋伟

    2012-01-01

    With the continuous development of information technology, data acquisition technology has become an important modern tool, and is also expanding its scope of application. It has been widely used in communication, radar, medical, remote sensing and other fields. This data acquisition system designed is based on a high-speed DSP-FPGA data acquisition, primarily for high-speed acquisition and processing on laser radar echo signal in automotive collision warning devices.%随着信息技术的不断发展,数据采集技术已成为重要的现代化的工具,并且其应用范围也在不断扩大,在通信、雷达、医疗、遥测遥感等领域得到了广泛的应用。本文为了汽车防撞报警设备高速信号处理的目的.采用了DSP和FPGA处理器加上相关算法,实现了对激光雷达回波信号能够高速的采集和处理。

  11. Sound-light Warning Device on Low-water Display of Self-control High-level Water Tank%自制高位水箱低位显示水位声光报警装置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟育东

    2013-01-01

      水位报警装置,实现了对高位水箱水位的实时监测低位显示功能,其功能的实现主要由水箱、连通管、浮筒、控制器等组成。与现有技术相比,方便了由于水箱设置较高,在相对低位水箱水位的观察与监测,从而根据水箱水温变化,及时控制出水温度。同时降低了员工的劳动强度,提高了工作效率。%The water level warning device complete real-time supervision display on water level of head water tank. Its functions enforcement depends on water tank, communicating pipe, float and controller. The main operating principles of water level monitoring device are as follows:1. connect the communicating pipe and set magnetic float on side wall of the water tank; 2.set the magnetic switch on the ectotheca of communicating pipe that may make magnetic float change with the water table, thus the magnetic switch is under control and the corresponding water level condition can be displayed. Compared with the available technology, it is convenient to observe and monitor the water level;accordingly, the temperature of exceeding water can change by water temperature in the tank;meanwhile, it lowers labour intensity and improves work efficiency.

  12. 城乡配电线路分段开关的网络化故障预警装置%Design of urban and rural power supply line switch fault warning device based on network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高彩霞; 王福忠; 裴素萍

    2013-01-01

    针对目前城乡10 kV配电线路真空分段开关安装后无法获取开关状态信息、对存在的安全隐患不能及时预警、易发生故障且引发火灾等问题,设计了城乡配电线路分段开关的网络化故障预警装置.侧重介绍了该系统总体方案的确定、主站硬件电路的设计、声波检测电路的设计、线路电流检测电路的设计、断路器分合闸状态检测电路的设计等内容.运行经验表明,该系统不仅可以尽早发现真空分段开关的安全隐患,防止恶性事故的发生,而且还可以在开关发生故障时及时获取故障信息并对其进行检修,有效减少了停电时间,提高了10 kV配电线路的可靠性和安全性.%For the problems that switch state information cannot be obtained after a 10 kV distribution line vacuum section switch is installed between urban and rural areas,the hidden safety problems cannot be timely warned and it is easy to cause faults even fire and other problems.Thusly,the urban and rural power supply line vacuum switch fault warning device based on network is designed,the determination of the whole scheme of a system,hardware design of the master station,the design of detection circuit for supersonic,the design of detection circuit for current,the design of a detection circuit for broken/closed state of a vacuum switch are introduced.Practice indicates:that the system cannot only detect the hidden danger of a vacuum section switch as soon as possible and prevent vicious accidents,but also acquire failure information in time and overhaul them when the switch faults occur.And this reduces the blackouts time effectively and increased the reliability and security of a 10 kV distribution circuit.

  13. Resonating bodies: an artist's enquiry into sympathies between the audible and the material

    OpenAIRE

    Scarfe, Dawn

    2011-01-01

    This thesis uses sounding objects to explore interactions and affinities between the audible and the material. Throughout, the emphasis is on first hand, practical engagement with resonating bodies. Antiquated acoustic instruments are re-examined, generating personal conjectures and creative explorations. The author submits herself to “therapy” with the sound of the glass harmonica, inspired by controversial physician Franz Anton Mesmer (1734-1815). Helmholtz resonators (circa 1863) are re-ma...

  14. Audible Noise Measurement and Analysis of the Main Power Apparatus in UHV GIS Substations

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou Nian Guang; Tang Qi; Wu Xiao Wen; Hu Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Investigation of audible noise characteristics of the main power apparatus in UHV GIS substations provides essential statistics for the noise prediction and control. Noise pressure level, spectrum and attenuation characteristics of the main transformers and high voltage (HV) reactors are measured and analyzed in this paper. The result shows that the main transformer and HV reactor have identical A-weighted equivalent sound pressure level. The medium- and low-frequency noises are the primary c...

  15. Silent and a audible stereotypes: The constitution of "ethnic character" in Serbian epic poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đerić Gordana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the explanatory relevance of the concept of stereotype in one of its original meanings - as a "mental image". This meaning of the term is the starting point for further differentiations, such as: between linguistic and behavioral stereotypes (in the sense of nonverbal, expected responses; universal and particular stereotypes; self representative and introspective stereotypes; permanent and contemporary stereotypes; and finally, what is most important for our purposes, the difference between silent and audible stereotypes. These distinctions, along with the functions of stereotype, are discussed in the first part of the paper. In the second part, the relations of silent and audible stereotypes are tested against the introduction of "innovative vocabularies" in popular lore. In other words, the explanatory power of this differentiation is checked through an analysis of unconventional motives in Serbian epic poems. The goal of the argument is to clarify the procedure of self creation of masculinity as a relevant feature of the "national character" through "tactic games" of silent and audible stereotypes. The examination of these "poetic strategies" serves a twofold purpose: to illustrate the process of constructing particular features of the "ethno type", on one hand, and to check hypotheses and models which are taken as frameworks in analyzing stereotypes, on the other.

  16. Research of indoor smoke warning and air purification equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wangronglong; Zhaoyexing; Fuyunhua

    2015-01-01

    In order to reduce indoor smoke concentration and improve indoor air quality,we put forward the intelligent indoor smoke warning and air purification device. This device can quickly reduce the concentration of indoor smoke by the air purification and fire alarm function. It provides a suitable living environment for people.

  17. Response of skin to audible signal and skin-hearing aid%皮肤对于声音信号响应与皮肤听声器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建文; 于晓明; 曹力佳

    2008-01-01

    ①介绍了皮肤听声器的基本组成与昕声效果.这种新型的助听工具可使任何人通过皮肤获得听觉,但辨析语音的效果还不理想.②为了进一步研究皮肤响应声音信号的理论,构造了测试皮肤响应声音信号的实验环境.通过实验测试了皮肤响应声音信号的关键部件音频变压器、平面电极与皮肤听声之间的临界频率电压特性曲线,讨论了皮肤响应声音信号的关键部件与皮肤听声效果之间的关系,说明了通过声一电转换实现皮肤听声的特点和可行性.③介绍了新型可便携、低功耗助听产品一皮肤听声器,并与助听器、电子耳蜗、导聋犬等传统的助听工具进行了对比,说明了皮肤听声器的优越性能.%This study was designed to introduce basic components and sound-receiving effects of skin-hearing aid with transformer. This new device helped all people receive audible signals via skin, but the effects on discriminating phone were still not ideal.The experimental environment of the response of skin to audible signals was constructed for the theory research. The response on critical frequency and voltage among the transformer, the flat electrode and the skin has gotten in the experiment. It was discussed that the effect of the response of skin to audible signal between the key parts of device of hearing by skin with transformer and the skin. It was illustrated the practicability of skin hearing by sound-electricity converting.The skin-hearing aid, a low power consumption aid, was compared with traditional tools, such as hearing aid, electronic cochlea, and guide dogs, and the results proved the superiority of skin-hearing aid.

  18. Health-based audible noise guidelines account for infrasound and low-frequency noise produced by wind turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Robert G; Ashtiani, Payam; Ollson, Christopher A; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa; McCallum, Lindsay C; Leventhall, Geoff; Knopper, Loren D

    2015-01-01

    Setbacks for wind turbines have been established in many jurisdictions to address potential health concerns associated with audible noise. However, in recent years, it has been suggested that infrasound (IS) and low-frequency noise (LFN) could be responsible for the onset of adverse health effects self-reported by some individuals living in proximity to wind turbines, even when audible noise limits are met. The purpose of this paper was to investigate whether current audible noise-based guidelines for wind turbines account for the protection of human health, given the levels of IS and LFN typically produced by wind turbines. New field measurements of indoor IS and outdoor LFN at locations between 400 and 900 m from the nearest turbine, which were previously underrepresented in the scientific literature, are reported and put into context with existing published works. Our analysis showed that indoor IS levels were below auditory threshold levels while LFN levels at distances >500 m were similar to background LFN levels. A clear contribution to LFN due to wind turbine operation (i.e., measured with turbines on in comparison to with turbines off) was noted at a distance of 480 m. However, this corresponded to an increase in overall audible sound measures as reported in dB(A), supporting the hypothesis that controlling audible sound produced by normally operating wind turbines will also control for LFN. Overall, the available data from this and other studies suggest that health-based audible noise wind turbine siting guidelines provide an effective means to evaluate, monitor, and protect potential receptors from audible noise as well as IS and LFN.

  19. Health-based Audible Noise Guidelines Account for Infrasound and Low Frequency Noise Produced by Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G Berger

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Setbacks for wind turbines have been established in many jurisdictions to address potential health concerns associated with audible noise. However, in recent years it has been suggested that infrasound (IS and low frequency noise (LFN could be responsible for the onset of adverse health effects self-reported by some individuals living in proximity to wind turbines, even when audible noise limits are met. The purpose of this paper was to investigate whether current audible noise-based guidelines for wind turbines account for the protection of human health, given the levels of IS and LFN typically produced by wind turbines. New field measurements of indoor IS and outdoor LFN at locations between 400 m and 900 m from the nearest turbine, which were previously underrepresented in the scientific literature, are reported and put into context with existing published works. Our analysis showed that indoor IS levels were below auditory threshold levels while LFN levels at distances >500 m were similar to background LFN levels. A clear contribution to LFN due to wind turbine operation (i.e., measured with turbines on in comparison to with turbines off was noted at a distance of 480 m. However, this corresponded to an increase in overall audible sound measures as reported in dB(A, supporting the hypothesis that controlling audible sound produced by normally operating wind turbines will also control for LFN. Overall, the available data from this and other studies suggest that health-based audible noise wind turbine siting guidelines provide an effective means to evaluate, monitor, and protect potential receptors from audible noise as well as IS and LFN.

  20. Health-based audible noise guidelines account for infrasound and low-frequency noise produced by wind turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Robert G; Ashtiani, Payam; Ollson, Christopher A; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa; McCallum, Lindsay C; Leventhall, Geoff; Knopper, Loren D

    2015-01-01

    Setbacks for wind turbines have been established in many jurisdictions to address potential health concerns associated with audible noise. However, in recent years, it has been suggested that infrasound (IS) and low-frequency noise (LFN) could be responsible for the onset of adverse health effects self-reported by some individuals living in proximity to wind turbines, even when audible noise limits are met. The purpose of this paper was to investigate whether current audible noise-based guidelines for wind turbines account for the protection of human health, given the levels of IS and LFN typically produced by wind turbines. New field measurements of indoor IS and outdoor LFN at locations between 400 and 900 m from the nearest turbine, which were previously underrepresented in the scientific literature, are reported and put into context with existing published works. Our analysis showed that indoor IS levels were below auditory threshold levels while LFN levels at distances >500 m were similar to background LFN levels. A clear contribution to LFN due to wind turbine operation (i.e., measured with turbines on in comparison to with turbines off) was noted at a distance of 480 m. However, this corresponded to an increase in overall audible sound measures as reported in dB(A), supporting the hypothesis that controlling audible sound produced by normally operating wind turbines will also control for LFN. Overall, the available data from this and other studies suggest that health-based audible noise wind turbine siting guidelines provide an effective means to evaluate, monitor, and protect potential receptors from audible noise as well as IS and LFN. PMID:25759808

  1. Crowd-Sourced Global Earthquake Early Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minson, S. E.; Brooks, B. A.; Glennie, C. L.; Murray, J. R.; Langbein, J. O.; Owen, S. E.; Iannucci, B. A.; Hauser, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Although earthquake early warning (EEW) has shown great promise for reducing loss of life and property, it has only been implemented in a few regions due, in part, to the prohibitive cost of building the required dense seismic and geodetic networks. However, many cars and consumer smartphones, tablets, laptops, and similar devices contain low-cost versions of the same sensors used for earthquake monitoring. If a workable EEW system could be implemented based on either crowd-sourced observations from consumer devices or very inexpensive networks of instruments built from consumer-quality sensors, EEW coverage could potentially be expanded worldwide. Controlled tests of several accelerometers and global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers typically found in consumer devices show that, while they are significantly noisier than scientific-grade instruments, they are still accurate enough to capture displacements from moderate and large magnitude earthquakes. The accuracy of these sensors varies greatly depending on the type of data collected. Raw coarse acquisition (C/A) code GPS data are relatively noisy. These observations have a surface displacement detection threshold approaching ~1 m and would thus only be useful in large Mw 8+ earthquakes. However, incorporating either satellite-based differential corrections or using a Kalman filter to combine the raw GNSS data with low-cost acceleration data (such as from a smartphone) decreases the noise dramatically. These approaches allow detection thresholds as low as 5 cm, potentially enabling accurate warnings for earthquakes as small as Mw 6.5. Simulated performance tests show that, with data contributed from only a very small fraction of the population, a crowd-sourced EEW system would be capable of warning San Francisco and San Jose of a Mw 7 rupture on California's Hayward fault and could have accurately issued both earthquake and tsunami warnings for the 2011 Mw 9 Tohoku-oki, Japan earthquake.

  2. Earthquake Early Warning Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Pei-Yang Lin

    2011-01-01

    Because of Taiwan’s unique geographical environment, earthquake disasters occur frequently in Taiwan. The Central Weather Bureau collated earthquake data from between 1901 and 2006 (Central Weather Bureau, 2007) and found that 97 earthquakes had occurred, of which, 52 resulted in casualties. The 921 Chichi Earthquake had the most profound impact. Because earthquakes have instant destructive power and current scientific technologies cannot provide precise early warnings in advance, earthquake ...

  3. Embedded Tsunami Warning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Ramya

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Today Tsunami is the very wild natural disaster that threatens the mankind. An automated warning system should be designed to measure the pressure variations under the sea. So in the case of anyabnormal rise in the pressure level under the sea, an alarm is produced as well as messages are sent to concerned persons using mobile computing. In this study a proximity capacitive sensor and embedded micro controller is designed to announce the oncoming of Tsunami to the authorized person.

  4. System and Method for Providing a Real Time Audible Message to a Pilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Walter W. (Inventor); Lachter, Joel B. (Inventor); Battiste, Vernol (Inventor); Koteskey, Robert W. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A system and method for providing information to a crew of the aircraft while in-flight. The system includes a module having: a receiver for receiving a message while in-flight; a filter having a set of screening parameters and operative to filter the message based on the set of screening parameters; and a converter for converting the message into an audible message. The message includes a pilot report having at least one of weather information, separation information, congestion information, flight deviation information and destination information. The message is sent to the aircraft by another aircraft or an air traffic controller.

  5. Comparative study of the effects of occupational exposure to infrasound and low frequency noise with those of audible noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Pawlas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The study aimed to compare effects of occupational exposure to low frequency noise (LFN in comparison with those of audible noise (AN. Material and methods. Three groups of 307 workers (I – exposed to LFN, II – exposed to audible noise – AN, and III- controls were examined. Results. Blood pressure and other biochemical parameters were worse in the group exposed. All parameters of hearing were worse in the AN group in comparison with LFN one in whole range of frequency. The same trends were found in posturography. Conclusions. The results of the study showed that audible noise is more hazardous than LFN. The results did not support thesis on vibroacoustic disease.

  6. 49 CFR 234.259 - Warning time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Warning time. 234.259 Section 234.259..., Inspection, and Testing Inspections and Tests § 234.259 Warning time. Each crossing warning system shall be tested for the prescribed warning time at least once every 12 months and when the warning system...

  7. Guidelines for Assessing the Need for Adaptive Devices for Visually Impaired Pedestrians at Signalized Intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Brian R.; de Oca, Patricia Montes

    1998-01-01

    Presents guidelines for orientation and mobility instructors and traffic engineers to assess the need for adaptive devices to make crosswalks at signalized intersections accessible to pedestrians with visual impairments. The discussions of audible and tactile pedestrian devices, along with case examples, distinguish when each device should be…

  8. Audible Noise Measurement and Analysis of the Main Power Apparatus in UHV GIS Substations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Nian Guang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of audible noise characteristics of the main power apparatus in UHV GIS substations provides essential statistics for the noise prediction and control. Noise pressure level, spectrum and attenuation characteristics of the main transformers and high voltage (HV reactors are measured and analyzed in this paper. The result shows that the main transformer and HV reactor have identical A-weighted equivalent sound pressure level. The medium- and low-frequency noises are the primary components in the spectral. More attention should be paid to the low-frequency bands in the noise control process. The noise of cooling fan has a large influence on that of the main transformer. Without the consideration of corona noise, the average A-weighted sound pressure level shows an overall decreasing trend with the increase of the propagation distance. Obvious interference phenomenon of the noises at 100 and 200Hz exists in the noise propagation process.

  9. A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH TO AUTHENTICATE SONG SIGNAL WITHOUT DISTORTION OF GRANULARITY OF AUDIBLE INFORMATION (ASSDGAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uttam Kr. Mondal

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The major concern to authenticate an audio signal is restoring its basic audible properties and providing such a way that may not produce any unusual perception to listeners. Therefore, authenticating an audio signal needs to embed as less as minimum security code within tolerable range of perception. In this paper, perceptual encoding has been applied for structuring song signal in a specified manner with less modification of its amplitude values and followed by embedding formatted data in skewed pattern that will use for verifying any type of alternation by comparing its own structural format and systematic structure of song signal with neighbouring sampled values. A comparative study has been made with similar existing techniques and experimental results are also supported with mathematical formula based on Microsoft WAVE (".wav" stereo sound file.

  10. Developing effective warning systems: Ongoing research at Ruapehu volcano, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Graham S.; Johnston, David M.; Paton, Douglas; Christianson, Amy; Becker, Julia; Keys, Harry

    2008-05-01

    PurposeThis paper examines the unique challenges to volcanic risk management associated with having a ski area on an active volcano. Using a series of simulated eruption/lahar events at Ruapehu volcano, New Zealand, as a context, a model of risk management that integrates warning system design and technology, risk perceptions and the human response is explored. Principal resultsDespite increases in the observed audibility and comprehension of the warning message, recall of public education content, and people's awareness of volcanic risk, a persistent minority of the public continued to demonstrate only moderate awareness of the correct actions to take during a warning and failed to respond effectively. A relationship between level of staff competence and correct public response allowed the level of public response to be used to identify residual risk and additional staff training needs. The quality of staff awareness, action and decision-making has emerged as a critical factor, from detailed staff and public interviews and from exercise observations. Staff actions are especially important for mobilising correct public response at Ruapehu ski areas due to the transient nature of the visitor population. Introduction of education material and staff training strategies that included the development of emergency decision-making competencies improved knowledge of correct actions, and increased the proportion of people moving out of harm's way during blind tests. Major conclusionsWarning effectiveness is a function of more than good hazard knowledge and the generation and notification of an early warning message. For warning systems to be effective, these factors must be complemented by accurate knowledge of risk and risk management actions. By combining the Ruapehu findings with those of other warning system studies in New Zealand, and internationally, a practical five-step model for effective early warning systems is discussed. These steps must be based upon sound and

  11. Towards direct realisation of the SI unit of sound pressure in the audible hearing range based on optical free-field acoustic particle measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the introduction of the International System of Units (the SI system) in 1960, weights, measures, standardised approaches, procedures, and protocols have been introduced, adapted, and extensively used. A major international effort and activity concentrate on the definition and traceability of the seven base SI units in terms of fundamental constants, and consequently those units that are derived from the base units. In airborne acoustical metrology and for the audible range of frequencies up to 20 kHz, the SI unit of sound pressure, the pascal, is realised indirectly and without any knowledge or measurement of the sound field. Though the principle of reciprocity was originally formulated by Lord Rayleigh nearly two centuries ago, it was devised in the 1940s and eventually became a calibration standard in the 1960s; however, it can only accommodate a limited number of acoustic sensors of specific types and dimensions. International standards determine the device sensitivity either through coupler or through free-field reciprocity but rely on the continuous availability of specific acoustical artefacts. Here, we show an optical method based on gated photon correlation spectroscopy that can measure sound pressures directly and absolutely in fully anechoic conditions, remotely, and without disturbing the propagating sound field. It neither relies on the availability or performance of any measurement artefact nor makes any assumptions of the device geometry and sound field characteristics. Most importantly, the required units of sound pressure and microphone sensitivity may now be experimentally realised, thus providing direct traceability to SI base units

  12. 16 CFR 307.2 - Required warnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... on the package or in the advertisement (unless the advertisement is an outdoor billboard) of a smokeless tobacco product. The warning statements required by the Act are as follows: WARNING: THIS PRODUCT MAY CAUSE MOUTH CANCER WARNING: THIS PRODUCT MAY CAUSE GUM DISEASE AND TOOTH LOSS WARNING:...

  13. Earthquake Early Warning: User Education and Designing Effective Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, E. R.; Sellnow, D. D.; Jones, L.; Sellnow, T. L.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and partners are transitioning from test-user trials of a demonstration earthquake early warning system (ShakeAlert) to deciding and preparing how to implement the release of earthquake early warning information, alert messages, and products to the public and other stakeholders. An earthquake early warning system uses seismic station networks to rapidly gather information about an occurring earthquake and send notifications to user devices ahead of the arrival of potentially damaging ground shaking at their locations. Earthquake early warning alerts can thereby allow time for actions to protect lives and property before arrival of damaging shaking, if users are properly educated on how to use and react to such notifications. A collaboration team of risk communications researchers and earth scientists is researching the effectiveness of a chosen subset of potential earthquake early warning interface designs and messages, which could be displayed on a device such as a smartphone. Preliminary results indicate, for instance, that users prefer alerts that include 1) a map to relate their location to the earthquake and 2) instructions for what to do in response to the expected level of shaking. A number of important factors must be considered to design a message that will promote appropriate self-protective behavior. While users prefer to see a map, how much information can be processed in limited time? Are graphical representations of wavefronts helpful or confusing? The most important factor to promote a helpful response is the predicted earthquake intensity, or how strong the expected shaking will be at the user's location. Unlike Japanese users of early warning, few Californians are familiar with the earthquake intensity scale, so we are exploring how differentiating instructions between intensity levels (e.g., "Be aware" for lower shaking levels and "Drop, cover, hold on" at high levels) can be paired with self-directed supplemental

  14. 奥德博有声出版公司研究%A Case Study on Audible Inc

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺钰滢

    2016-01-01

    Taking Audible Inc., an Amazon.com subsidiary as a case, the paper analyzes the profile of audiobooks’listeners in the United States and introduces the company’s history, then it deeply explores how Audible produces, distributes and promotes its downloadable audiobooks.%以亚马逊旗下的奥德博(Audible)公司为研究对象,介绍美国有声读物的受众特点,梳理奥德博公司的发展历程,并重点对其有声产品开发、发行与推广环节进行深入探究。

  15. An audible demonstration of the speed of sound in bubbly liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Preston S.; Roy, Ronald A.

    2008-10-01

    The speed of sound in a bubbly liquid is strongly dependent upon the volume fraction of the gas phase, the bubble size distribution, and the frequency of the acoustic excitation. At sufficiently low frequencies, the speed of sound depends primarily on the gas volume fraction. This effect can be audibly demonstrated using a one-dimensional acoustic waveguide, in which the flow rate of air bubbles injected into a water-filled tube is varied by the user. The normal modes of the waveguide are excited by the sound of the bubbles being injected into the tube. As the flow rate is varied, the speed of sound varies as well, and hence, the resonance frequencies shift. This can be clearly heard through the use of an amplified hydrophone and the user can create aesthetically pleasing and even musical sounds. In addition, the apparatus can be used to verify a simple mathematical model known as Wood's equation that relates the speed of sound of a bubbly liquid to its void fraction.

  16. Audible thunder characteristic and the relation between peak frequency and lightning parameters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    OuYang Yuhua; Yuan Ping

    2012-02-01

    In recent summers, some natural lightning optical spectra and audible thunder signals were observed. Twelve events on 15 August 2008 are selected as samples since some synchronizing information about them are obtained, such as lightning optical spectra, surface E-field changes, etc. By using digital filter and Fourier transform, thunder frequency spectra in observation location have been calculated. Then the two main propagation effects, finite amplitude propagation and attenuation by air, are calculated. Upon that we take the test thunder frequency spectra and work backward to recalculate the original frequency spectra near generation location. Thunder frequency spectra and the frequency distribution varying with distance are researched. According to the theories on plasma, the channel temperature and electron density are further calculated by transition parameters of lines in lightning optical spectra. Pressure and the average ionization degree of each discharge channel are obtained by using Saha equations, charge conservation equations and particle conservation equations. Moreover, the relationship between the peak frequency of each thunder and channel parameters of the lightning is studied.

  17. Audible and infrasonic noise levels in the cabins of modern agricultural tractors — Does the risk of adverse, exposure-dependent effects still exist?

    OpenAIRE

    Bartosz Bilski

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The agricultural tractor is one of the most commonly used vehicles on farms and one of the most prominent sources of noise. This article presents an exemplary assessment of the audible and infrasonic noise levels in the cabins of selected modern wheeled agricultural tractors. Materials and Methods: Operator-perceived audible and infrasonic noise levels in the cabins were examined for 20 types of modern tractors during typical conditions of work. The tractors had been in use for ...

  18. Development of the Effective Underwater Speaker Sound Modulated by Audible Sound Frequency Range of Large Cetaceans for Avoidance with Ship Collision

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroko Yamada; Nozomi Kobayashi; Tatsunori Nakashima; Hidehiro Kato

    2015-01-01

    The underwater speaker (UWS) has been installed on high speed vessels; hydrofoils (HF) with low-noise during their cruises, to avoid sudden collisions with large cetaceans, while its performance has remained uncertain because of the problem in quality of the produced sound. Thus, we developed a sound source for the UWS by modulating the sound based on the audible range of major large cetaceans so as to increase its utilities. To investigate the audible sound frequency range of cetacean, we tr...

  19. Macro finance early warning system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guihuan ZHENG; Xun ZHANG; Wei SHANG; Shanying XU

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a financial early warning informa-tion system is developed based on the multi-dimensional cli-mate approach that is featured with a multi-dimensional in-dex construction and the relevant multi-dimensional analy-sis. Requirement analysis and design issues of building an information system supporting this multi-dimensional cli-mate approach are discussed in detail. And a case using this system to study the macro financial issues is presented to illustrate how the proposed multi-dimensional approach works in the information system we design. This research is an interdisciplinary work of economic theories, macro finan-cial empirical studies, and software engineering. With ad-vanced macro financial early warning theories implemented in a web application, the Macro Financial Early Warning System (FEWS) developed in this research has been proved to be effective in a trial running in the Forecasting research institute of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  20. Sugary Drink Warnings Hit Home with Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160860.html Sugary Drink Warnings Hit Home With Teens Fewer choose sweetened ... Health warning labels can steer teens away from sugary drinks, a new study suggests. "The average teen in ...

  1. Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) Storm Wallets

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) is responsible for typhoon forecasts and warnings for the Western Pacific and Indian Ocean basins. After each storm, the...

  2. Malaria early warning in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Simon I. Hay; Rogers, David J.; Shanks, G. Dennis; Monica F. Myers; Robert W Snow

    2001-01-01

    Kenya displays large spatiotemporal diversity in its climate and ecology. It follows that malaria transmission will reflect this environmental heterogeneity in both space and time. In this article, we discuss how such heterogeneity, and its epidemiological consequences, should be considered in the development of early warning systems for malaria epidemics.

  3. Developing cancer warning statements for alcoholic beverages

    OpenAIRE

    Pettigrew, Simone; Jongenelis, Michelle; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Slevin, Terry; Pratt, Iain S; Glance, David; Liang, Wenbin

    2014-01-01

    Background There is growing evidence of the increased cancer risk associated with alcohol consumption, but this is not well understood by the general public. This study investigated the acceptability among drinkers of cancer warning statements for alcoholic beverages. Methods Six focus groups were conducted with Australian drinkers to develop a series of cancer-related warning statements for alcohol products. Eleven cancer warning statements and one general health warning statement were subse...

  4. Applied analysis and construction of Prevention, Monitoring and Early Warning System of Mountain Torrent Disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Jamil

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available To prevent from the hazards of mountain torrent disasters, today's monitoring and early warning system is widely used in mountain areas to keep alert from the rainstorm. Mountain torrent disaster caused by the rainstorm and is one of the most important reasons, resulting in transportation blocks and mass casualties. Mountain torrent disaster occurs frequently depends on the weather of mountain's country. It can be distinguished and predicted by monitoring and early warning system to provide the safety reference in disaster presentation and reduction. This paper presents the analysis and key management of monitoring and early warning system of mountain torrent which mainly includes monitoring system and early warning system of water and rain information. In order to achieve better effect of disaster prevention and reduction, establish an organization system of mass observation and mass prevention and enhance training propaganda. The monitoring system of water and rain information mainly includes network layout of water and rain monitoring station, information acquisition, information transmission and communication networking and configuration of devices. Early warning system of mountain torrent is composed of platform-based early warning system of torrent defense and early warning system of torrent mass observation and mass prevention. And also appended short description of publicity and training includes popularization of knowledge about disaster prevention; preparations of disaster prevention, maintenance and operation of monitoring and warning facilities, publicity and rehearsal of proposal.

  5. The moving minimum audible angle is smaller during self motion than during source motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Owen eBrimijoin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We are rarely perfectly still: our heads rotate in three axes and move in three dimensions, constantly varying the spectral and binaural cues at the ear drums. In spite of this motion, static sound sources in the world are typically perceived as stable objects. This argues that the auditory system – in a manner not unlike the vestibulo-ocular reflex – works to compensate for self motion and stabilize our sensory representation of the world. We tested a prediction arising from this postulate: that self motion should be processed more accurately than source motion.We used an infrared motion tracking system to measure head angle, and real-time interpolation of head related impulse responses to create head-stabilized signals that appeared to remain fixed in space as the head turned. After being presented with pairs of simultaneous signals consisting of a man and a woman speaking a snippet of speech, normal and hearing impaired listeners were asked to report whether the female voice was to the left or the right of the male voice. In this way we measured the moving minimum audible angle (MMAA. This measurement was made while listeners were asked to turn their heads back and forth between ± 15° and the signals were stabilized in space. After this self-motion condition we measured MMAA in a second source-motion condition when listeners remained still and the virtual locations of the signals were moved using the trajectories from the first condition.For both normal and hearing impaired listeners, we found that the MMAA for signals moving relative to the head was ~1-2° smaller when the movement was the result of self motion than when it was the result of source motion, even though the motion with respect to the head was identical. These results as well as the results of past experiments suggest that spatial processing involves an ongoing and highly accurate comparison of spatial acoustic cues with self-motion cues.

  6. Cortical Auditory Evoked Potentials Reveal Changes in Audibility with Nonlinear Frequency Compression in Hearing Aids for Children: Clinical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Teresa Y C; Zhang, Vicky W; Hou, Sanna; Van Buynder, Patricia

    2016-02-01

    Hearing loss in children is detected soon after birth via newborn hearing screening. Procedures for early hearing assessment and hearing aid fitting are well established, but methods for evaluating the effectiveness of amplification for young children are limited. One promising approach to validating hearing aid fittings is to measure cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs). This article provides first a brief overview of reports on the use of CAEPs for evaluation of hearing aids. Second, a study that measured CAEPs to evaluate nonlinear frequency compression (NLFC) in hearing aids for 27 children (between 6.1 and 16.8 years old) who have mild to severe hearing loss is reported. There was no significant difference in aided sensation level or the detection of CAEPs for /g/ between NLFC on and off conditions. The activation of NLFC was associated with a significant increase in aided sensation levels for /t/ and /s/. It also was associated with an increase in detection of CAEPs for /t/ and /s/. The findings support the use of CAEPs for checking audibility provided by hearing aids. Based on the current data, a clinical protocol for using CAEPs to validate audibility with amplification is presented. PMID:27587920

  7. New orientation and accessibility option for persons with visual impairment: transportation applications for remote infrared audible signage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, William; Bentzen, Billie Louise; Myers, Linda; Brabyn, John

    2001-05-01

    BACKGROUND: For a blind or visually impaired person, a vital prerequisite to accessing any feature of the built environment is being able to find this feature. Braille signs, even where available, do not replace the functions of print signage because they cannot be read from a distance. Remotely readable infrared signs utilise spoken infrared message transmissions to label key environmental features, so that a blind person with a suitable receiver can locate and identify them from a distance. METHODS: Three problems that are among the most challenging and dangerous faced by blind travellers are negotiating complex transit stations, locating bus stops and safely and efficiently crossing light-controlled intersections. We report the results of human factors studies using a remote infrared audible sign system (RIAS), Talking Signs(R), in these critical tasks, examining issues such as the amount of training needed to use the system, its impact on performance and safety, benefits for different population subgroups and user opinions of its value. RESULTS: Results are presented in the form of both objective performance measures and in subjects' ratings of the usefulness of the system in performing these tasks. Findings are that blind people can quickly and easily learn to use remote infrared audible signage effectively and that its use improves travel safety, efficiency and independence.? CONCLUSIONS: The technology provides equal access to a wide variety of public facilities.

  8. 40 CFR 60.482-10 - Standards: Closed vent systems and control devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., audible, or olfactory indications of leaks. (2) If the vapor collection system or closed vent system is... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Closed vent systems and..., 2006 § 60.482-10 Standards: Closed vent systems and control devices. (a) Owners or operators of...

  9. The Audible Human Project: Modeling Sound Transmission in the Lungs and Torso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zoujun

    Auscultation has been used qualitatively by physicians for hundreds of years to aid in the monitoring and diagnosis of pulmonary diseases. Alterations in the structure and function of the pulmonary system that occur in disease or injury often give rise to measurable changes in lung sound production and transmission. Numerous acoustic measurements have revealed the differences of breath sounds and transmitted sounds in the lung under normal and pathological conditions. Compared to the extensive cataloging of lung sound measurements, the mechanism of sound transmission in the pulmonary system and how it changes with alterations of lung structural and material properties has received less attention. A better understanding of sound transmission and how it is altered by injury and disease might improve interpretation of lung sound measurements, including new lung imaging modalities that are based on an array measurement of the acoustic field on the torso surface via contact sensors or are based on a 3-dimensional measurement of the acoustic field throughout the lungs and torso using magnetic resonance elastography. A long-term goal of the Audible Human Project (AHP ) is to develop a computational acoustic model that would accurately simulate generation, transmission and noninvasive measurement of sound and vibration within the pulmonary system and torso caused by both internal (e.g. respiratory function) and external (e.g. palpation) sources. The goals of this dissertation research, fitting within the scope of the AHP, are to develop specific improved theoretical understandings, computational algorithms and experimental methods aimed at transmission and measurement. The research objectives undertaken in this dissertation are as follows. (1) Improve theoretical modeling and experimental identification of viscoelasticity in soft biological tissues. (2) Develop a poroviscoelastic model for lung tissue vibroacoustics. (3) Improve lung airway acoustics modeling and its

  10. Validation of exposure visualization and audible distance emission for navigated temporal bone drilling in phantoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard H J Voormolen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A neuronavigation interface with extended function as compared with current systems was developed to aid during temporal bone surgery. The interface, named EVADE, updates the prior anatomical image and visualizes the bone drilling process virtually in real-time without need for intra-operative imaging. Furthermore, EVADE continuously calculates the distance from the drill tip to segmented temporal bone critical structures (e.g. the sigmoid sinus and facial nerve and produces audiovisual warnings if the surgeon drills in too close vicinity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and surgical utility of EVADE in physical phantoms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed 228 measurements assessing the position accuracy of tracking a navigated drill in the operating theatre. A mean target registration error of 1.33±0.61 mm with a maximum error of 3.04 mm was found. Five neurosurgeons each drilled two temporal bone phantoms, once using EVADE, and once using a standard neuronavigation interface. While using standard neuronavigation the surgeons damaged three modeled temporal bone critical structures. No structure was hit by surgeons utilizing EVADE. Surgeons felt better orientated and thought they had improved tumor exposure with EVADE. Furthermore, we compared the distances between surface meshes of the virtual drill cavities created by EVADE to actual drill cavities: average maximum errors of 2.54±0.49 mm and -2.70±0.48 mm were found. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results demonstrate that EVADE gives accurate feedback which reduces risks of harming modeled critical structures compared to a standard neuronavigation interface during temporal bone phantom drilling.

  11. Radiation emitting devices regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radiation Emitting Devices Regulations are the regulations referred to in the Radiation Emitting Devices Act and relate to the operation of devices. They include standards of design and construction, standards of functioning, warning symbol specifications in addition to information relating to the seizure and detention of machines failing to comply with the regulations. The radiation emitting devices consist of the following: television receivers, extra-oral dental x-ray equipment, microwave ovens, baggage inspection x-ray devices, demonstration--type gas discharge devices, photofluorographic x-ray equipment, laser scanners, demonstration lasers, low energy electron microscopes, high intensity mercury vapour discharge lamps, sunlamps, diagnostic x-ray equipment, ultrasound therapy devices, x-ray diffraction equipment, cabinet x-ray equipment and therapeutic x-ray equipment

  12. 49 CFR 229.113 - Warning notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....113 Warning notice. Whenever any steam generator has been shut down because of defects, a distinctive warning notice giving reasons for the shut-down shall be conspicuously attached near the steam generator starting controls until the necessary repairs have been made. The locomotive in which the steam...

  13. Audible and infrasonic noise levels in the cabins of modern agricultural tractors — Does the risk of adverse, exposure-dependent effects still exist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Bilski

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The agricultural tractor is one of the most commonly used vehicles on farms and one of the most prominent sources of noise. This article presents an exemplary assessment of the audible and infrasonic noise levels in the cabins of selected modern wheeled agricultural tractors. Materials and Methods: Operator-perceived audible and infrasonic noise levels in the cabins were examined for 20 types of modern tractors during typical conditions of work. The tractors had been in use for no longer than 3 years, with rated power between 96 kW and 227 kW, designed and produced by world-renowned companies. Noise level measurements were performed in accordance with PN-EN ISO 9612:2011 (ISO 9612:2009. Results: Audible noise levels (A-weighted ranged from 62.1 to 87.4 dB-A (average: 68.2 to 83.8 dB-A for different work tasks. The factors influencing noise levels include performed tasks, soil, weather conditions and the skills of individual drivers. In spectrum analysis, the highest noise levels occurred at frequencies 250 Hz, 1 and 2 kHz. Infrasound noise levels (G-weighted ranged from 87.3 to 111.3 dB-G. The driver-experienced exposure to infrasound was found to increase significantly when the vehicle was in motion. Conclusions: Average audible noise levels have no potential to adversely affect the hearing organ during tasks performed inside the closed cabins of the analysed modern agricultural tractors. Due to the relatively low audible noise levels inside the cabins of modern agricultural tractors, non-auditory effects are the only adverse symptoms that can develop. Modern agricultural tractors emit considerable infrasonic noise levels. All tractors introduced into the market should be subjected to tests with regard to infrasonic noise levels.

  14. New blind mobility aid devices based on the ultrasonic Doppler effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitjoka, L; Pourcelot, L

    1999-09-01

    An original approach to electronic blind mobility aid combined with ultrasonic wave processing and spatial hearing has allowed the design of new blind mobility aid devices. These devices convert inaudible ultrasound echoes into audible sound via the Doppler effect, preserving even slight modification of the high frequency wave, so as to provide the user with higher acuity information regarding his movement, as well as object movement and their spatial location.

  15. Vehicle Dynamics Approach to Driver Warning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef A. Ghoneim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a concept for enhanced active safety by introducing a driver warning system based on vehicle dynamics that predicts a potential loss of control condition prior to stability control activation. This real-time warning algorithm builds on available technologies such as the Electronic Stability Control (ESC. The driver warning system computes several indices based on yaw rate, side-slip velocity, and vehicle understeer using ESC sensor suite. An arbitrator block arbitrates between the different indices and determines the status index of the driving vehicle. The status index is compared to predetermined stability levels which correspond to high and low stability levels. If the index exceeds the high stability level, a warning signal (haptic, acoustic, or visual is issued to alert the driver of a potential loss of control and ESC activation. This alert will remain in effect until the index is less than the low stability level at which time the warning signal will be terminated. A vehicle speed advisory algorithm is integrated with the warning algorithm to provide a desired vehicle speed of a vehicle traveling on a curve. Simulation results and vehicle tests were conducted to illustrate the effectiveness of the warning algorithm.

  16. Seismic Activity: Public Alert and Warning: Legal Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zocchetti, D.

    2007-12-01

    governmental actions during emergency situations. At a minimum, the courts have shown a high degree of deference and provided immunity protection for discretionary governmental actions. For example, government organizations are often protected from legal redress for making basic policy decisions such as whether or not to implement an early warning system for emergency actions. Some national and state governments, however, have gone further to provide a legal shield of immunity through specific statutory enactments. Statutory protections generally extend to both the governmental organizations and the decision makers therein. In contrast, these protections are not always extended to third parties such as private businesses, which are often part of the chain of people and organizations that are critical for providing emergency notifications to the public. These businesses include the warning devices manufacturers, the communications systems installers, the software developers, and many other non-governmental parties essential to notifying the public. It can be argued that the legal risk in providing these private sector products or services serves to ensure their quality. But these businesses' real or perceived risk of liability could dissuade their participation in the notification system, or at least chill their innovation. Those involved in designing, developing, implementing, and operating emergency notification systems must consider how their unique situation will be impacted and potentially altered by the legal environment, or in some cases how they should affect change to that legal environment in order to have successful warning systems.

  17. Early warning systems - empirical evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davor Labaš

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of early warning systems (EWS in revealing weak signals on environmental changes and in constructing a solid base for timely and appropriate business response, particularly against the backdrop of business crises, empirical evidence - especially at the country level - still lags behind. The aim of this paper is to contribute to the practical and theoretical knowledge about EWS by providing empirical evidence from companies located in three different European countries, i.e. Croatia, Austria and Greece. We propose that companies in richer countries, as measured in terms of GDP, have a higher implementation level of EWS and are more likely to meet current state-of-the-art EWS standards while companies in the countries with a lower GDP show a lesser level of development. Moreover, we explore the reasons for not implementing EWS. For our survey we used a structured questionnaire. Contrary to our hypotheses, there are no significant differences among the countries concerning the level of EWS implementation. However, there are some differences as to the kind of EWS. Overall, EWS are predominately short-term oriented and operating in all three countries. The main reasons for not implementing EWS are the shortage of employees and the lack of management initiatives.

  18. Application of a Tsunami Warning Message Metric to refine NOAA NWS Tsunami Warning Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, C. E.; Johnston, D.; Sorensen, J.; Whitmore, P.

    2013-12-01

    In 2010, the U.S. National Weather Service (NWS) funded a three year project to integrate social science into their Tsunami Program. One of three primary requirements of the grant was to make improvements to tsunami warning messages of the NWS' two Tsunami Warning Centers- the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) in Palmer, Alaska and the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) in Ewa Beach, Hawaii. We conducted focus group meetings with a purposive sample of local, state and Federal stakeholders and emergency managers in six states (AK, WA, OR, CA, HI and NC) and two US Territories (US Virgin Islands and American Samoa) to qualitatively asses information needs in tsunami warning messages using WCATWC tsunami messages for the March 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami event. We also reviewed research literature on behavioral response to warnings to develop a tsunami warning message metric that could be used to guide revisions to tsunami warning messages of both warning centers. The message metric is divided into categories of Message Content, Style, Order and Formatting and Receiver Characteristics. A message is evaluated by cross-referencing the message with the operational definitions of metric factors. Findings are then used to guide revisions of the message until the characteristics of each factor are met. Using findings from this project and findings from a parallel NWS Warning Tiger Team study led by T. Nicolini, the WCATWC implemented the first of two phases of revisions to their warning messages in November 2012. A second phase of additional changes, which will fully implement the redesign of messages based on the metric, is in progress. The resulting messages will reflect current state-of-the-art knowledge on warning message effectiveness. Here we present the message metric; evidence-based rational for message factors; and examples of previous, existing and proposed messages.

  19. Warning signs and symptoms of heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patientinstructions/000775.htm Warning signs and symptoms of heart disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Heart disease often develops over time. You may have early ...

  20. National Weather Service County Warning Area Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains polygons corresponding to the County Warning Areas (CWAs) of each Weather Forecast Office (WFO) in the National Weather Service (NWS).

  1. FDA Warns About Stem Cell Claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates FDA Warns About Stem Cell Claims Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... blood-forming system. back to top Regulation of Stem Cells FDA regulates stem cells in the U.S. to ...

  2. 49 CFR 393.87 - Warning flags on projecting loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Warning flags on projecting loads. 393.87 Section... ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.87 Warning flags on... load marked with red or orange fluorescent warning flags. Each warning flag must be at least 457 mm...

  3. The SuperNova Early Warning System

    OpenAIRE

    Scholberg, K.

    2008-01-01

    A core collapse in the Milky Way will produce an enormous burst of neutrinos in detectors world-wide. Such a burst has the potential to provide an early warning of a supernova's appearance. I will describe the nature of the signal, the sensitivity of current detectors, and SNEWS, the SuperNova Early Warning System, a network designed to alert astronomers as soon as possible after the detected neutrino signal.

  4. Audibility of dispersion error in room acoustic finite-difference time-domain simulation as a function of simulation distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarelma, Jukka; Botts, Jonathan; Hamilton, Brian; Savioja, Lauri

    2016-04-01

    Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation has been a popular area of research in room acoustics due to its capability to simulate wave phenomena in a wide bandwidth directly in the time-domain. A downside of the method is that it introduces a direction and frequency dependent error to the simulated sound field due to the non-linear dispersion relation of the discrete system. In this study, the perceptual threshold of the dispersion error is measured in three-dimensional FDTD schemes as a function of simulation distance. Dispersion error is evaluated for three different explicit, non-staggered FDTD schemes using the numerical wavenumber in the direction of the worst-case error of each scheme. It is found that the thresholds for the different schemes do not vary significantly when the phase velocity error level is fixed. The thresholds are found to vary significantly between the different sound samples. The measured threshold for the audibility of dispersion error at the probability level of 82% correct discrimination for three-alternative forced choice is found to be 9.1 m of propagation in a free field, that leads to a maximum group delay error of 1.8 ms at 20 kHz with the chosen phase velocity error level of 2%. PMID:27106330

  5. Influence Factors of Audible Noise Caused by Corona Discharge on UHVDC Transmission Lines Under High Altitude Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Feng; YU Zhanqing; ZENG Rong; LIU Lei; LI Min; LI Ruihai

    2012-01-01

    Audible noises (AN) generated by corona discharges on ultra high voltage direct current (UHVDC) transmission lines is one of the key issues of UHVDC power projects. Experimental results were obtained synchronously by 10 Briiel & Kjeer outdoor AN instruments under the full-scale test lines in National Laboratory for UHV Technology in Kunming at an altitude of 2 100 m. Long-term statistical measurements of the AN level were performed almost 24 hours a day and 5 ~ 6 days a week in 2 years. Influences of voltage, line configurations, temperature and humidity on the characteristics of AN levels were analysed. The measurement results show that the AN level rises with increasing line voltage, decreasing minimum conductor height and increasing bundle radius. The pole spacing has no significant influence on the peak value of the AN level. The AN level varies about _+ 1 dB in the temperature range of 15~22℃, and no more than ±2 dB within 6.8~24.4 ℃. The results also indicate that in a relative low range of absolute humidity, about 5 ~ 7. 99 g/ma, the AN level fluctuates slightly at different measurement points. However, in a relative high absolute humidity range, about 8 ~ 11. 5 g/ma, the AN level decreases with the increase of absolute humidity.

  6. Development of the Effective Underwater Speaker Sound Modulated by Audible Sound Frequency Range of Large Cetaceans for Avoidance with Ship Collision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Yamada

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The underwater speaker (UWS has been installed on high speed vessels; hydrofoils (HF with low-noise during their cruises, to avoid sudden collisions with large cetaceans, while its performance has remained uncertain because of the problem in quality of the produced sound. Thus, we developed a sound source for the UWS by modulating the sound based on the audible range of major large cetaceans so as to increase its utilities. To investigate the audible sound frequency range of cetacean, we tried two procedures, (1 indirect-estimation from relationship between cetaceans audibility and vocalization, and (2 indirect-estimation from measurements on the cochlear basal membrane. We also synthesized the two new sound sources which we can potentially expect an avoidance with large cetaceans. Through several field experiments with deploy the new sounds we reached a tentative conclusion that the new sound was effective in terms of inducing the cetaceans' avoidance reaction and would be also expected to be applied to other low-noise vessels.

  7. Overview of laser warning technology%"解剖"激光告警

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱家健

    2009-01-01

    介绍了激光告警的作用,分析了激光告警器的原理、性能要求和分类,然后分别阐述了典型的光谱识别型、相干识别型和散射探测型激光告警器,并对不同类型的激光告警器进行了比较评价.%An introduction to the role of laser warning on the battlefield is presented, with an overview of the principle, required specifications and classification of laser warning devices. Specific types are described, including those devoted to spectrum recognition, coherent recognition, and scattering detection, and their properties compared. Finally, future developments of laser warning technology are discussed.

  8. Environment Agency England flood warning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Chris; Walters, Mark; Haynes, Elizabeth; Dobson, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Context In England around 5 million homes are at risk of flooding. We invest significantly in flood prevention and management schemes but we can never prevent all flooding. Early alerting systems are fundamental to helping us reduce the impacts of flooding. The Environment Agency has had the responsibility for flood warning since 1996. In 2006 we invested in a new dissemination system that would send direct messages to pre-identified recipients via a range of channels. Since then we have continuously improved the system and service we offer. In 2010 we introduced an 'opt-out' service where we pre-registered landline numbers in flood risk areas, significantly increasing the customer base. The service has performed exceptionally well under intense flood conditions. Over a period of 3 days in December 2013, when England was experiencing an east coast storm surge, the system sent nearly 350,000 telephone messages, 85,000 emails and 70,000 text messages, with a peak call rate of around 37,000 per hour and 100% availability. The Floodline Warnings Direct (FWD) System FWD provides warnings in advance of flooding so that people at risk and responders can take action to minimise the impact of the flood. Warnings are sent via telephone, fax, text message, pager or e-mail to over 1.1 million properties located within flood risk areas in England. Triggers for issuing alerts and warnings include attained and forecast river levels and rainfall in some rapidly responding locations. There are three levels of warning: Flood Alert, Flood Warning and Severe Flood Warning, and a stand down message. The warnings can be updated to include relevant information to help inform those at risk. Working with our current provider Fujitsu, the system is under a programme of continuous improvement including expanding the 'opt-out' service to mobile phone numbers registered to at risk addresses, allowing mobile registration to the system for people 'on the move' and providing access to

  9. Tsunami early warning and decision support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Steinmetz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available An innovative newly developed modular and standards based Decision Support System (DSS is presented which forms part of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS. The GITEWS project stems from the effort to implement an effective and efficient Tsunami Early Warning and Mitigation System for the coast of Indonesia facing the Sunda Arc along the islands of Sumatra, Java and Bali. The geological setting along an active continental margin which is very close to densely populated areas is a particularly difficult one to cope with, because potential tsunamis' travel times are thus inherently short. National policies require an initial warning to be issued within the first five minutes after an earthquake has occurred. There is an urgent requirement for an end-to-end solution where the decision support takes the entire warning chain into account. The system of choice is based on pre-computed scenario simulations and rule-based decision support which is delivered to the decision maker through a sophisticated graphical user interface (GUI using information fusion and fast information aggregation to create situational awareness in the shortest time possible. The system also contains risk and vulnerability information which was designed with the far end of the warning chain in mind – it enables the decision maker to base his acceptance (or refusal of the supported decision also on regionally differentiated risk and vulnerability information (see Strunz et al., 2010. While the system strives to provide a warning as quickly as possible, it is not in its proper responsibility to send and disseminate the warning to the recipients. The DSS only broadcasts its messages to a dissemination system (and possibly any other dissemination system which is operated under the responsibility of BMKG – the meteorological, climatological and geophysical service of Indonesia – which also hosts the tsunami early warning center. The system is to be seen

  10. A survey of early warning technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, G.D.; Arlowe, H.D.; Williams, J.D.

    1995-07-01

    This paper presents a survey of technologies useful in providing early warning in physical security systems. Early warning is important in virtually all types of security systems whether they are used for temporary (tactical, portable, or semi-permanent) applications, border warning, fixed-site detection, or standoff surveillance detection. With the exception of the standoff surveillance detection systems, all systems discussed in this paper usually involve a moving target. The fact that a person(s) to be detected in a standoff surveillance scenario is not moving presents challenging problems and requires different applications of technology. The technologies commonly used to detect moving targets and some suggestions for detection of stationary targets are addressed in this paper.

  11. Natural risk warning: comparison of two methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cavallo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Italian network of "Centri Funzionali" is now reaching operational status both in hydro-meteorological risk forecasting and support to the decision making of administrations that issue natural risk warning. Each centre operates for its district of influence. In order to have a nationwide common standard the National Civil Protection Department proposed a quantitative warning methodology based on the definition of rainfall thresholds correlated to historical damages. In the first phase the thresholds have been defined using two studies that cover all Italy: the VAPI (statistics of extreme rainfall and discharges, see reference and the AVI (database of historical flood and landslide events and reported damages, see reference. This work presents one year back analysis that compares the new methodology and the one that has been usied since 2000 by the Liguria Region Meteorological Centre with regard to flood warning, pinpointing the performance differences in terms of false and missed alerts.

  12. Interactive early warning technique based on SVDD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    After reviewing current researches on early warning,it is found that"bad" data of some systems is not easy to obtain,which makes methods proposed by these researches unsuitable for monitored systems.An interactive early warning technique based on SVDD(support vector data description)is proposed to adopt"good" data as samples to overcome the difficulty in obtaining the"bad"data.The process consists of two parts:(1)A hypersphere is fitted on"good"data using SVDD.If the data object are outside the hypersphere,it would be taken as"suspicious";(2)A group of experts would decide whether the suspicious data is"bad"or"good",early warning messages would be issued according to the decisions.And the detailed process of implementation is proposed.At last,an experiment based on data of a macroeconomic system is conducted to verify the proposed technique.

  13. A SDMS Model: Early Warning Coordination Centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Reyes, Jaime

    2010-05-01

    Following the tsunami disaster in 2004, the General Secretary of the United Nations (UN) Kofi Annan called for a global early warning system for all hazards and for all communities. He also requested the ISDR (International Strategy fort Disaster Reduction) and its UN partners to conduct a global survey of capacities, gaps and opportunities in relation to early warning systems. The produced report, "Global survey of Early Warning Systems", concluded that there are many gaps and shortcomings and that much progress has been made on early warning systems and great capabilities are available around the world. However, it may be argued that an early warning system (EWS) may not be enough to prevent fatalities due to a natural hazard; i.e., it should be seen as part of a ‘wider' or total system. Furthermore, an EWS may work very well when assessed individually but it is not clear whether it will contribute to accomplish the purpose of the ‘total disaster management system'; i.e., to prevent fatalities. For instance, a regional EWS may only work if it is well co-ordinated with the local warning and emergency response systems that ensure that the warning is received, communicated and acted upon by the potentially affected communities. It may be argued that without these local measures being in place, a regional EWS will have little impact in saving lives. Researchers argued that unless people are warned in remote areas, the technology is useless; for instance McGuire [5] argues that: "I have no doubt that the technical element of the warning system will work very well,"…"But there has to be an effective and efficient communications cascade from the warning centre to the fisherman on the beach and his family and the bar owners." Similarly, McFadden [6] states that: "There's no point in spending all the money on a fancy monitoring and a fancy analysis system unless we can make sure the infrastructure for the broadcast system is there,"… "That's going to require a lot

  14. Forecasting, Warning and Responding to Transnational Risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    areas to conceptualise and empirically study the interlinked problems of forecasting, warning and mobilising preventive action. Contributors comment on key problems such as uncertainty, silo-mentality, spotting weak-signals, cultures of blame, conflicts of interest and divergent risk perceptions......, but are also sensitive to differences between actors and types of risk. The overall thrust is to challenge both technocratic and popularised accounts of the warning-response problem. Successful prevention or mitigation involves difficult cognitive, normative and political judgements. Whilst these difficulties...

  15. Recasting the warning-response problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, C.O.; Otto, F.; Brante, J.;

    2010-01-01

    , accepted, prioritized and responded to by policy-makers. This has led to a simplistic understanding of how communicative, cognitive and political processes involving a range of actors can influence both the perception as well as the response to warnings. The paper also criticizes that many normative...... judgments about the desirability of preventive action are suffering from hindsight bias and insufficient attention to balancing problems related to risk substitution, opportunity costs and moral hazard. In response to these deficits, the paper puts forward a modified model of warning as a persuasive process...

  16. DRUG ABUSE WARNING NETWORK (DAWN) DATABASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is an ongoing drug abuse data collection system sponsored by SAMHSA's Office of Applied Studies. DAWN collects data from: (1) hospital emergency departments (EDs) and (2) medical examiners (MEs). The DAWN ED component relies on a nationally r...

  17. Tsunami Warning Services for the Caribbean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, P. M.; Ferris, J. C.; Weinstein, S. A.

    2007-05-01

    Tsunami warning and watch services are currently provided to the Caribbean region through a collaborative effort between the two NOAA Tsunami Warning Centers (TWCs): the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) in Ewa Beach, Hawaii, and the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) in Palmer, Alaska. The WCATWC, in coordination with the Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN), provides fast-response warning services to the U.S. territories of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands (PR/VI). The PTWC provides regional watch services to other countries throughout and surrounding the Caribbean Sea as part of the Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Caribbean Sea and Adjacent Regions. This collaboration is analogous to the TWC's responsibilities in the Pacific basin: the WCATWC provides fast-response warning services for the U.S. west coast states, Alaska, and British Columbia in Canada, while the PTWC provides regional services for countries throughout and surrounding the Pacific Ocean (as well as a fast-response service for the U.S. State of Hawaii). Caribbean seismic data are transmitted to the TWCs through several means. The PRSN directly exports data to the WCATWC, providing the Center sufficient seismic data for the PR/VI region. Additionally, the PRSN provides the TWCs with data gathered from other Caribbean nations. Using modern communication capabilities, the seismic data can be processed at the TWCs at the same time it is processed locally. Another source of high- quality seismic data is the new USGS nine-station array that circles the region. The Global Seismic Network maintains several stations in Caribbean, Central American, and South American nations which are available in real-time to the TWCs. Unfortunately, sea level data coverage is sporadic in the region. The PR/VI has a relatively dense array of coastal tide gages, but coastal tide gage coverage is very sparse for the rest of the Caribbean basin. Three deep-ocean pressure

  18. Sounding the Alert: Designing an Effective Voice for Earthquake Early Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, E. R.; Given, D. D.

    2015-12-01

    The USGS is working with partners to develop the ShakeAlert Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) system (http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2014/3083/) to protect life and property along the U.S. West Coast, where the highest national seismic hazard is concentrated. EEW sends an alert that shaking from an earthquake is on its way (in seconds to tens of seconds) to allow recipients or automated systems to take appropriate actions at their location to protect themselves and/or sensitive equipment. ShakeAlert is transitioning toward a production prototype phase in which test users might begin testing applications of the technology. While a subset of uses will be automated (e.g., opening fire house doors), other applications will alert individuals by radio or cellphone notifications and require behavioral decisions to protect themselves (e.g., "Drop, Cover, Hold On"). The project needs to select and move forward with a consistent alert sound to be widely and quickly recognized as an earthquake alert. In this study we combine EEW science and capabilities with an understanding of human behavior from the social and psychological sciences to provide insight toward the design of effective sounds to help best motivate proper action by alert recipients. We present a review of existing research and literature, compiled as considerations and recommendations for alert sound characteristics optimized for EEW. We do not yet address wording of an audible message about the earthquake (e.g., intensity and timing until arrival of shaking or possible actions), although it will be a future component to accompany the sound. We consider pitch(es), loudness, rhythm, tempo, duration, and harmony. Important behavioral responses to sound to take into account include that people respond to discordant sounds with anxiety, can be calmed by harmony and softness, and are innately alerted by loud and abrupt sounds, although levels high enough to be auditory stressors can negatively impact human judgment.

  19. LIVE DEMONSTRATION OF DISTANT EARLY WARNING SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammitzsch, M.; Lendholt, M.; Wächter, J.

    2009-12-01

    The DEWS (Distant Early Warning System) [1] project, funded under the 6th Framework Programme of the European Union, has the objective to create a new generation of interoperable early warning systems based on an open sensor platform. This platform integrates OGC [2] SWE [3] compliant sensor systems for the rapid detection of earthquakes, for the monitoring of sea level, ocean floor events, and ground displacements. Based on the upstream information flow DEWS focuses on the improvement of downstream capacities of warning centres especially by improving information logistics for effective and targeted warning message aggregation for a multilingual environment. Multiple telecommunication channels will be used for the dissemination of warning messages. Wherever possible, existing standards have been integrated. The Command and Control User Interface (CCUI), a rich client application based on Eclipse RCP (Rich Client Platform) [4] and the open source GIS uDig [5], integrates various OGC services. Using WMS (Web Map Service) [6] and WFS (Web Feature Service) [7] spatial data are utilized to depict the situation picture and to integrate a simulation system via WPS (Web Processing Service) [8] to identify affected areas. Warning messages are compiled and transmitted in the OASIS [9] CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) [10] standard together with addressing information defined via EDXL-DE (Emergency Data Exchange Language - Distribution Element) [11]. Internal interfaces are realized with SOAP [12] web services. Based on results of GITEWS [13] - in particular the GITEWS Tsunami Service Bus [14] - the DEWS approach provides an implementation for tsunami early warning systems. The introductory part of the demonstration briefly explains the DEWS project, the CCUI in conjunction with operators’ workflow, the system architecture, details of information logistics and the virtual scenario of live demonstration. The live demonstration exhibits the CCUI on screen and the service

  20. Impacts of Fog Characteristics, Forward Illumination, and Warning Beacon Intensity Distribution on Roadway Hazard Visibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Warning beacons are critical for the safety of transportation, construction, and utility workers. These devices need to produce sufficient luminous intensity to be visible without creating glare to drivers. Published standards for the photometric performance of warning beacons do not address their performance in conditions of reduced visibility such as fog. Under such conditions light emitted in directions other than toward approaching drivers can create scattered light that makes workers and other hazards less visible. Simulations of visibility of hazards under varying conditions of fog density, forward vehicle lighting, warning beacon luminous intensity, and intensity distribution were performed to assess their impacts on visual performance by drivers. Each of these factors can influence the ability of drivers to detect and identify workers and hazards along the roadway in work zones. Based on the results, it would be reasonable to specify maximum limits on the luminous intensity of warning beacons in directions that are unlikely to be seen by drivers along the roadway, limits which are not included in published performance specifications. PMID:27314058

  1. Impacts of Fog Characteristics, Forward Illumination, and Warning Beacon Intensity Distribution on Roadway Hazard Visibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullough, John D; Rea, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    Warning beacons are critical for the safety of transportation, construction, and utility workers. These devices need to produce sufficient luminous intensity to be visible without creating glare to drivers. Published standards for the photometric performance of warning beacons do not address their performance in conditions of reduced visibility such as fog. Under such conditions light emitted in directions other than toward approaching drivers can create scattered light that makes workers and other hazards less visible. Simulations of visibility of hazards under varying conditions of fog density, forward vehicle lighting, warning beacon luminous intensity, and intensity distribution were performed to assess their impacts on visual performance by drivers. Each of these factors can influence the ability of drivers to detect and identify workers and hazards along the roadway in work zones. Based on the results, it would be reasonable to specify maximum limits on the luminous intensity of warning beacons in directions that are unlikely to be seen by drivers along the roadway, limits which are not included in published performance specifications. PMID:27314058

  2. Impacts of Fog Characteristics, Forward Illumination, and Warning Beacon Intensity Distribution on Roadway Hazard Visibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullough, John D; Rea, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    Warning beacons are critical for the safety of transportation, construction, and utility workers. These devices need to produce sufficient luminous intensity to be visible without creating glare to drivers. Published standards for the photometric performance of warning beacons do not address their performance in conditions of reduced visibility such as fog. Under such conditions light emitted in directions other than toward approaching drivers can create scattered light that makes workers and other hazards less visible. Simulations of visibility of hazards under varying conditions of fog density, forward vehicle lighting, warning beacon luminous intensity, and intensity distribution were performed to assess their impacts on visual performance by drivers. Each of these factors can influence the ability of drivers to detect and identify workers and hazards along the roadway in work zones. Based on the results, it would be reasonable to specify maximum limits on the luminous intensity of warning beacons in directions that are unlikely to be seen by drivers along the roadway, limits which are not included in published performance specifications.

  3. Warning communication and hydraulic risk perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruntfest, E.; Caporali, E.

    2003-04-01

    In disaster management scientists must transmit their results to large groups of recipients, including decision makers and the mass media who often are not familiar with the language of science. The importance of the promotion of the hydrologic risk perception of the user communities is that many events have short lead times and high levels of uncertainty. Natural hazard mitigation processes are complex and demand several perspectives. While the rhetoric calls for extensive collaboration between disciplines, the gap between theory and practice is large, particularly in the U.S. This paper highlights results from case studies of collaborative flood warning research in Europe and in USA. Case studies on warning systems from Italy and the U.S. are included.

  4. Satellite Threat Warning and Attack Reporting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilland, D. [Kirkland AFB, NM (United States). Air Force Research Lab.; Phipps, G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Optics & Technologies Dept.; Jingle, C.; Newton, G. [Schafer Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Air Force Research Laboratory`s Satellite Threat Warning and Attack Reporting (STW/AR) program will provide technologies for advanced threat warning and reporting of radio frequency (RF) and laser threats. The STW/AR program objectives are: (a) develop cost- effective technologies to detect, identify, locate, characterize, and report attacks or interference against U.S. and Allied satellites. (b) demonstrate innovative, light-weight, low-power, laser and RF sensors. The program focuses on the demonstration of RF and laser sensors. The RF sensor effort includes the investigation of interferometric antenna arrays, multi-arm spiral and butler matrix antennas, wideband receivers, adaptive processors, and improved processing algorithms. The laser sensor effort includes the investigation of alternative detectors, broadband grating and optical designs, active pixel sensing, and improved processing algorithms.

  5. Automatic early warning systems for the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computerized, continuous monitoring environmental early warning systems are complex networks that merge measurements with the information technology. Accuracy, consistency, reliability and data quality are their most important features. Several effects may disturb their characteristics: hostile environment, unreliable communications, poor quality of equipment, non qualified users or service personnel. According to our experiences, a number of measures should be taken to enhance system performances and to maintain them at the desired level. In the paper, we are presenting an analysis of system requirements, possible disturbances and corrective measures that give the main directives for the design, construction and exploitation of the environmental early warning systems. Procedures which ensure data integrity and quality are mentioned. Finally, the contemporary system approach based on the LAN/WAN network topology with Intranet/Internet software is proposed, together with case descriptions of two already operating systems, based on computer-network principle. (author)

  6. Tsunamis warning from space :Ionosphere seismology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larmat, Carene [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-09-04

    Ionosphere is the layer of the atmosphere from about 85 to 600km containing electrons and electrically charged atoms that are produced by solar radiation. Perturbations - layering affected by day and night, X-rays and high-energy protons from the solar flares, geomagnetic storms, lightning, drivers-from-below. Strategic for radio-wave transmission. This project discusses the inversion of ionosphere signals, tsunami wave amplitude and coupling parameters, which improves tsunami warning systems.

  7. Experimental evaluation of fog warning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghamdi, Ali S

    2007-11-01

    Highway safety is a major concern to the public and to transportation professionals, so the number of crashes caused by poor visibility due to fog form an alarming statistic. Drivers respond to poor visibility conditions in different ways: some slow down; others do not. Many drivers simply follow the taillights of the vehicle ahead. Accordingly, hazardous conditions are created in which speeds are both too high for the prevailing conditions and highly variable. Findings are presented from a study of traffic crashes due to fog in the southern region of Saudi Arabia. The primary objective was to assess the effectiveness of fog detection and warning system on driver behavior regarding speed and headway. This warning system includes visibility sensors that automatically activate a variable message sign that posts an advisory speed when hazardous conditions due to fog occur. The system was installed on a 2 km section of a two-lane, rural highway. A data set of 36,013 observations from both experimental and control sections at two study sites was collected and analyzed. The data included vehicle speed, volume, and classification; time headway, time of day, and visibility distance. Although the warning system was ineffective in reducing speed variability, mean speed throughout the experimental sections was reduced by about 6.5 kph. This reduction indicates that the warning system appeared to have a positive effect on driver behavior in fog even though the observed mean speeds were still higher than the posted advisory speed. From relationships found in the literature between mean driving speed and number of crashes, a speed reduction of only 5 kph would yield a 15% decrease in the number of crashes.

  8. Novel approaches to helicopter obstacle warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Christian; Samuelis, Christian; Wegner, Matthias; Münsterer, Thomas; Rumpf, Thomas; Schwartz, Ingo

    2006-05-01

    EADS Germany is the world market leader in commercial Helicopter Laser Radar (HELLAS) Obstacle Warning Systems. The HELLAS-Warning System has been introduced into the market in 2000, is in service at German Border Control (Bundespolizei) and Royal Thai Airforce and is successfully evaluated by the Foreign Comparative Test Program (FCT) of the USSOCOM. Currently the successor system HELLAS-Awareness is in development. It will have extended sensor performance, enhanced realtime data processing capabilities and advanced HMI features. We will give an outline of the new sensor unit concerning detection technology and helicopter integration aspects. The system provides a widespread field of view with additional dynamic line of sight steering and a large detection range in combination with a high frame rate of 3Hz. The workflow of the data processing will be presented with focus on novel filter techniques and obstacle classification methods. As commonly known the former are indispensable due to unavoidable statistical measuring errors and solarisation. The amount of information in the filtered raw data is further reduced by ground segmentation. The remaining raised objects are extracted and classified in several stages into different obstacle classes. We will show the prioritization function which orders the obstacles concerning to their threat potential to the helicopter taking into account the actual flight dynamics. The priority of an object determines the display and provision of warnings to the pilot. Possible HMI representation includes video or FLIR overlay on multifunction displays, audio warnings and visualization of information on helmet mounted displays and digital maps. Different concepts will be presented.

  9. Warning labels formulated as questions positively influence smoking-related risk perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glock, Sabine; Müller, Barbara C N; Ritter, Simone M

    2013-02-01

    Research on warning labels printed on cigarette packages has shown that fear inducing health warnings might provoke defensive responses. This study investigated whether reformulating statements into questions could avoid defensive reactions. Smokers were presented with either warning labels formulated as questions, textual warning labels, graphic warning labels, or no warning labels. Participants' smoking-related risk perception was higher after exposure to warning labels formulated as questions or no warning labels than after exposure to textual or graphic warning labels. These results indicate that reformulating statements into questions can avoid defensive responses elicited by textual- and graphic warning labels. PMID:22419415

  10. Puerto Rico Tsunami Warning and Mitigation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerfano, V. A.; Mercado, A.; von Hillebrandt, C. G.

    2003-12-01

    The circum-Caribbean region has a documented history of large damaging tsunamis that have affected coastal areas, including the events of the Virgin Islands in 1867 and Mona Passage in 1918. These tsunamis have been triggered by large tsunamigenic earthquakes that deformed the ocean floor. The seismic water waves originating in the prominent fault system around PR are considered to be a near-field hazard for Puerto Rico and the Virgin islands (PR/VI) because they can reach coastal areas within a few minutes after the earthquake. Sources for regional and tele tsunamis have also been identified. To help mitigate the risk of potential tsunamis on the coastal communities of Puerto Rico, with initial funding from the Federal Emergency Management Administration (FEMA) and the University of Puerto Rico (UPR), the Puerto Rico Tsunami Warning and Mitigation Program (PRTWMP) was established in 2000. Three of the main tasks are to evaluate the possibility of establishing a Tsunami Warning System (TWS), prepare tsunami flood maps and education. The need to establish a system of rapid notification for tsunami alerting in the Caribbean region has been recognized by the emergency management and scientific community. Presently, the Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN) of the University of Puerto Rico at Mayag\\x81ez is establishing a Tsunami Warning System (TWS) for PR/VI. Part of the TWS is the EarlyBird system, developed by the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center, which has been running in the PRSN since January, 2003. This program automatically locates and disseminates information on potentially tsunamigenic earthquakes. Also, the existing protocol for exchanging data and information on potentially tsunamigenic events in the PR/VI is currently being reviewed by the concerned institutions. Tsunami flood maps were prepared for all of Puerto Rico, including the island municipalities of Vieques and Culebra. These flood maps were generated in three phases. First, hypothetical

  11. Implicit motivational impact of pictorial health warning on cigarette packs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Volchan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The use of pictorial warning labels on cigarette packages is one of the provisions included in the first ever global health treaty by the World Health Organization against the tobacco epidemic. There is substantial evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of graphic health warning labels on intention to quit, thoughts about health risks and engaging in cessation behaviors. However, studies that address the implicit emotional drives evoked by such warnings are still underexplored. Here, we provide experimental data for the use of pictorial health warnings as a reliable strategy for tobacco control. METHODS: Experiment 1 pre-tested nineteen prototypes of pictorial warnings to screen for their emotional impact. Participants (n = 338 were young adults balanced in gender, smoking status and education. Experiment 2 (n = 63 tested pictorial warnings (ten that were stamped on packs. We employed an innovative set-up to investigate the impact of the warnings on the ordinary attitude of packs' manipulation, and quantified judgments of warnings' emotional strength and efficacy against smoking. FINDINGS: Experiment 1 revealed that women judged the warning prototypes as more aversive than men, and smokers judged them more aversive than non-smokers. Participants with lower education judged the prototypes more aversive than participants with higher education. Experiment 2 showed that stamped warnings antagonized the appeal of the brands by imposing a cost to manipulate the cigarette packs, especially for smokers. Additionally, participants' judgments revealed that the more aversive a warning, the more it is perceived as effective against smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Health warning labels are one of the key components of the integrated approach to control the global tobacco epidemic. The evidence presented in this study adds to the understanding of how implicit responses to pictorial warnings may contribute to behavioral change.

  12. Near-field tsunami early warning and emergency planning in the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerassimos A. Papadopoulos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The new European project Near-field Tsunami Early Warning and Emergency Planning in the Mediterranean Sea (NEARTOWARN faces the need to develop operational tsunami early warning systems in near-field (local conditions where the travel time of the first tsunami wave is very short, that is less than 30 min, which is a typical case in the North East Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea region but also elsewhere around the globe. The operational condition that should be fulfilled is that the time of tsunami detection, plus the time of warning transmitting, plus the time of evacuation should not exceed the travel time of the first tsunami wave from its source to the closest evacuation zone. To this goal the time to detect of the causative earthquake should be compressed at the very minimum. In this context the core of the proposed system is a network of seismic early warning devices, which activate and send alert in a few seconds after the generation of a near-field earthquake, when a seismic ground motion exceeding a prescribed threshold is detected. Then civil protection mobilizes to manage the earthquake crisis but also to detect and manage a possible tsunami through a geographical risk management system. For the tsunami detection the system is supported by tide-gauges of radar type, a database of presimulated tsunami scenarios, and a local tsunami decision matrix. The island of Rhodes in the eastern termination of the Hellenic Arc and Trench has been selected for a pilot and operational development of the local tsunami warning system given that the island is a highly popular tourist destination, historically it was hit by large tsunamigenic earthquakes and was recently the master test-site for the pan-European FP6 tsunami research project Tsunami Risk ANd Strategies For the European Region (TRANSFER.

  13. A Video Camera Road Sign System of the Early Warning from Collision with the Wild Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matuska Slavomir

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a camera road sign system of the early warning, which can help to avoid from vehicle collision with the wild animals. The system consists of camera modules placed down the particularly chosen route and the intelligent road signs. The camera module consists of the camera device and the computing unit. The video stream is captured from video camera using computing unit. Then the algorithms of object detection are deployed. Afterwards, the machine learning algorithms will be used to classify the moving objects. If the moving object is classified as animal and this animal can be dangerous for safety of the vehicle, warning will be displayed on the intelligent road sings.

  14. Local tsunami early warning: the case of Rhodes island, Greece, and the NEARTOWARN (EU-DG ECHO) prevention project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Gerassimos; Argyris, Ilias; Fokaefs, Anna

    2013-04-01

    Local, that is near-field, tsunamis occur in the global ocean including the Mediterranean Sea and its connected seas. For such tsunamis the first wave has very short travel time of arrival (less than 30 min.) to the closest coastal zone thus making the early warning a very difficult task. An efficient, end-to-end early tsunami warning system in local conditions should fulfill the condition that the time needed for the earthquake detection, plus the time needed for the warning message transmission to the authorities and afterwards to the general public and/or other task groups, plus the time needed for response and real evacuation is less than the travel time of the first wave. In the physiographic conditions of the Mediterranean Sea it is extremely hard to satisfy such a condition unless the total time needed to response in early warning is drastically minimized. The project Near-Field Tsunami Warning and Emergency Planning (NEARTOWARN, which is supported by the EU DG-ECHO prevention programme, aims, among others, to establish a system in Rhodes island, Greece, with the purpose to meet needs for local early tsunami warning. To minimize the time for emergency in less than 30 sec, seismic alert devices (SED's) make the core component of the system. SED's are activated and send alerting signals as soon as a P-phase of seismic wave is detected in the near-field but for a predetermined threshold of ground motion. Then, emergency starts while SED's activate remotely other devices, such as computers with data bases of pre-calculated tsunami simulations, surveillance cameras etc. The system is completed with tide-gauges, simulated tsunami scenarios and emergency planning supported by a Geographical Management System. Rhodes island in Dodecanese, South Aegean Sea, Greece, has been selected as a test-area for the development of the prototype system given that it was hit by large tsunamigenic earthquakes several times in the past.

  15. Application of Machine Vision to Vehicle Automatic Collision Warning Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jiang-feng; GAO Feng; XU Guo-yan; YAO Sheng-zhuo

    2008-01-01

    Using the new technologies such as information technology, communication technology and electronic control technology, vehicle collision warning system(CWS) can acquire road condition, adjacent vehicle march condition as well as its dynamics performance continuously, then it can forecast the oncoming potential collision and give a warning. Based on the analysis of driver's driving behavior, algorithm's warning norms are determined. Based on warning norms adopting machine vision method, the cooperation collision warning algorithm(CWA) model with multi-input and multi-output is established which is used in supporting vehicle CWS. The CWA is tested using the actual data and the result shows that this algorithm can identify and carry out warning for vehicle collision efficiently, which has important meaning for improving the vehicle travel safety.

  16. Near-Field Tsunami Early Warning and Preparedeness in the Mediterranean: the EU NEARTOWARN Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Gerasimos; Karastathis, Vasilis; Novikova, Tatyana; Fokaefs, Anna; Minadakis, George; Papageorgiou, Antonia; Tinti, Stefano; Armigliato, Alberto; Ausilia Paparo, Maria; Zaniboni, Filippo; Georgiou, George; Aniel Quiroga, Inigo; Gonzalez, Mauricio; Alvarez-Gomez, Jose Antonio; Lesne, Olivia; Renou, Camille; Mangin, Antoine; Schindele, Francois; Argyris, Ilias

    2014-05-01

    The Mediterranean Sea region is characterized by near-field tsunamis (travel times less than 30 min.). An efficient end-to-end warning system should fulfill the condition that the time needed from an earthquake detection to evacuation is less than the arrival time of the first wave, which is a very hard task in the Mediterranean. The project NEARTOWARN, which is supported by the EU DG-ECHO prevention program aims, among others, to establish a pilot system in Rhodes island, SE Aegean Sea, Greece, with the purpose to meet needs for local tsunami early warning but applicable in other coastal zones of the Mediterranean and beyond. To minimize emergency time in less than 30 sec, seismic alert devices (SEDs) make the core component of alerting. SEDs are activated and send alerting signals as soon as a P- phase of seismic wave is detected in the near-field domain and for a predetermined threshold of ground motion. Then, emergency starts while SEDs activate remotely other devices, such as computers with data bases of pre-calculated tsunami simulations, surveillance cameras etc. The system is completed with tide- gauges, simulated tsunami scenarios and emergency planning supported by a Geographical Management System. Rhodes island in Dodecanese, Greece, has been selected as a test- area for the development of the prototype system. To promote the future development of such local systems in other coastal zones of the Mediterranean the NEARTOWARN partners review current status of early warning systems, produce digital inventories of wave travel times from several tsunami sources to a number of forecasting points, standardize data bases for pre-simulated tsunami scenarios and optimize triggering thresholds for the SED alerting networks. A local system such as the one developed by NEARTOWARN is expected to function in synergy with national and regional warning systems such as the one coordinated NEAMTWS.

  17. The Innovation Research of Financial Early-Warning Index Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The period economic fluctuation is vital for an enterprise to exist and further develop,it directly affect the enterprise financial health.So,it is significant to build up financial early-warning index and measure the warning condition that the enterprise faces and take the effective measures to eliminate. We criticize Altman's Z calculating model and build up some new indexes for enterprise financial early-warning condition measuring and making sound decision.

  18. Real-time earthquake warning for astronomical observatories

    CERN Document Server

    Coughlin, Michael; Barrientos, Sergio; Claver, Chuck; Harms, Jan; Smith, Christopher; Warner, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Early earthquake warning is a rapidly developing capability that has significant ramifications for many fields, including astronomical observatories. In this work, we describe the susceptibility of astronomical facilities to seismic events, including large telescopes as well as second-generation ground-based gravitational-wave interferometers. We describe the potential warning times for observatories from current seismic networks and propose locations for future seismometers to maximize warning times.

  19. Tweeting Tsunami: Early Warning Networks in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Oldring, Amanda Olivia Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Influential Twitter users can enhance disaster warning by diffusing risk awareness through networks. While Twitter networks are frequently active during disaster warning, little work in social network analysis has been applied to the Pacific Northwest Coast, encapsulating British Columbia in Canada, and Alaska, Washington, Oregon, and California in the United States. This region is vulnerable to tsunamis, and Twitter’s speed, reach, and volume could enhance early warning. This thesis locates ...

  20. Influencing of warning label signal words on perceived hazard level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wogalter, M S; Jarrard, S W; Simpson, S N

    1994-09-01

    This experiment investigated the influence of warnings, signal words, and a signal icon on perceived hazard of consumer products. Under the guise of a marketing research study, 135 people (high school students, college students, and participants from a shopping mall) rated product labels on six dimensions, including how hazardous they perceived the products to be. A total of 16 labels from actual household products were used: 9 carried the experimental conditions, and 7 were filler product labels that never carried a warning. Five conditions presented the signal words NOTE, CAUTION, WARNING, DANGER, and LETHAL together with a brief warning message. In another two conditions, a signal icon (exclamation point surrounded by a triangle) was presented together with the terms DANGER and LETHAL. In the final two conditions, one lacked a signal word but retained the warning message, and the other lacked both the warning message and the signal word. Results showed that the presence of a signal word increased perceived product hazard compared with its absence. Significant differences were noted between extreme terms (e.g., NOTE and DANGER) but not between terms usually recommended in warning design guidelines (e.g., CAUTION and WARNING). The signal icon showed no significant effect on hazard perception. Implications of the results and the value of the methodology for future warnings investigations are discussed. PMID:7989055

  1. A Quantitative Analysis of Variability Warnings in Linux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melo, Jean; Flesborg, Elvis; Brabrand, Claus;

    2015-01-01

    In order to get insight into challenges with quality in highly-configurable software, we analyze one of the largest open source projects, the Linux kernel, and quantify basic properties of configuration-related warnings. We automatically analyze more than 20 thousand valid and distinct random...... configurations, in a computation that lasted more than a month. We count and classify a total of 400,000 warnings to get an insight in the distribution of warning types, and the location of the warnings. We run both on a stable and unstable version of the Linux kernel. The results show that Linux contains...

  2. France's heat health watch warning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal, Mathilde; Laaidi, Karine; Ledrans, Martine; Baffert, Elsa; Caserio-Schönemann, Céline; Le Tertre, Alain; Manach, Jacques; Medina, Sylvia; Rudant, Jérémie; Empereur-Bissonnet, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    In 2003, a Heat Health Watch Warning System was developed in France to anticipate heat waves that may result in a large excess of mortality. The system was developed on the basis of a retrospective analysis of mortality and meteorological data in fourteen pilot cities. Several meteorological indicators were tested in relation to levels of excess mortality. Computations of sensibility and specificity were used to choose the meteorological indicators and the cut-offs. An indicator that mixes minimum and maximum temperatures was chosen. The cut-offs were set in order to anticipate events resulting in an excess mortality above 100% in the smallest cities and above 50% in Paris, Lyon, Marseille and Lille. The system was extended nationwide using the 98th percentile of the distribution of minimum and maximum temperatures. A national action plan was set up, using this watch warning system. It was activated on 1st June 2004 on a national scale. The system implies a close cooperation between the French Weather Bureau (Météo France), the National Institute of Health Surveillance (InVS) and the Ministry of Health. The system is supported by a panel of preventive actions, to prevent the sanitary impact of heat waves.

  3. Enhanced chemical weapon warning via sensor fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Michael; Pritchett, Daniel; Cothren, Brian; Schwaiger, James

    2011-05-01

    Torch Technologies Inc., is actively involved in chemical sensor networking and data fusion via multi-year efforts with Dugway Proving Ground (DPG) and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The objective of these efforts is to develop innovative concepts and advanced algorithms that enhance our national Chemical Warfare (CW) test and warning capabilities via the fusion of traditional and non-traditional CW sensor data. Under Phase I, II, and III Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contracts with DPG, Torch developed the Advanced Chemical Release Evaluation System (ACRES) software to support non real-time CW sensor data fusion. Under Phase I and II SBIRs with DTRA in conjunction with the Edgewood Chemical Biological Center (ECBC), Torch is using the DPG ACRES CW sensor data fuser as a framework from which to develop the Cloud state Estimation in a Networked Sensor Environment (CENSE) data fusion system. Torch is currently developing CENSE to implement and test innovative real-time sensor network based data fusion concepts using CW and non-CW ancillary sensor data to improve CW warning and detection in tactical scenarios.

  4. USAID Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning System (IOTWS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coble, M.; Mooney, W.

    2005-12-01

    The Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning System (IOTWS), created by an inter-agency agreement between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Trade and Development Agency (USTDA), the US Forest Service (USFS), and the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) will work toward developing a tsunami early warning and disaster management and response system for the Indian Ocean by utilizing the leadership and technical expertise of India, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Maldives, and Indonesia. Inter-agency cooperation combines expertise in a broad range of disciplines to accomplish several goals including: 1) developing an infrastructure for real-time data analysis of seismicity and for rapid communication and response networks, 2) land use planning and community preparation aimed at minimizing damage and loss of life from future disasters, and 3) international logistical and administrative support. Throughout the implementation of the IOTWS, a primary focus will be placed on``in-country capacity building,'' so that individual nations will be self-sustaining in the future. This will be accomplished, partly, by training provided by the U.S. Government through workshops, international exchange, and institutionalizing national capabilities. The USGS program was launched in August 2005 and will be implemented over a two-year period.

  5. Flood Warning and Forecasting System in Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leskova, Danica

    2016-04-01

    In 2015, it finished project Flood Warning and Forecasting System (POVAPSYS) as part of the flood protection in Slovakia till 2010. The aim was to build POVAPSYS integrated computerized flood forecasting and warning system. It took a qualitatively higher level of output meteorological and hydrological services in case of floods affecting large territorial units, as well as local flood events. It is further unfolding demands on performance and coordination of meteorological and hydrological services, troubleshooting observation, evaluation of data, fast communication, modeling and forecasting of meteorological and hydrological processes. Integration of all information entering and exiting to and from the project POVAPSYS provides Hydrological Flood Forecasting System (HYPOS). The system provides information on the current hydrometeorological situation and its evolution with the generation of alerts and notifications in case of exceeding predefined thresholds. HYPOS's functioning of the system requires flawless operability in critical situations while minimizing the loss of its key parts. HYPOS is a core part of the project POVAPSYS, it is a comprehensive software solutions based on a modular principle, providing data and processed information including alarms, in real time. In order to achieve full functionality of the system, in proposal, we have put emphasis on reliability, robustness, availability and security.

  6. Rift Valley fever ecology and early warning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Rift Valley fever (RVF) once again dramatically affected the Horn of Africa (Kenya, Somalia, and Tanzania) in 2006-2007. This outbreak was linked to unusual rainfall associated with climatic events (El Nino), which affected the populations of the mosquitoes acting as vectors and reservoirs of the disease. The disease also reappeared in Sudan in the autumn of 2007, following excessive rainfall driven by a post-El Nino, unusually warm sea temperature in the Indian Ocean. In the same year and in 2008, the disease affected southern Africa countries (Swaziland, South Africa) and islands in the Indian Ocean (Comoros, Mayotte, Madagascar). Based on near real-time climatic data, forecasting models and Early Warning Systems were available at the continental level and proved to be efficient in raising the alert before the onset of the epidemic, at least for the coastal countries of eastern Africa. In addition, these recent events gave an opportunity to review the natural history of RVF, especially in some places where its ecology was poorly documented. FAO and WHO officers widely use outcomes from the different models and then identified gaps or needs that could be filled in order to improve the use of these predictions. A brainstorming meeting was organized in Rome in September 2008 to discuss adjustments and complementarities of the existing models, as forecasting and early warning systems are the key points that may provide a time window for preventive measures, before the amplification of the virus is out of control. (author)

  7. Discussion on Earthquake Forecasting and Early Warning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiaodong; Jiang Haikun; Li Mingxiao

    2008-01-01

    Through analysis of natural and social attributes of earthquake forecasting,the relationship between the natural and social attributes of earthquake forecasting (early warning) has been discussed.Regarding the natural attributes of earthquake forecasting,it only attempts to forecast the magnitude,location and occurrence time of future earthquake based on the aualysis of observational data and relevant theories and taking into consideration the present understanding of seismogeny and earthquake generation.It need not consider the consequences an earthquake forecast involves,and its purpose is to check out the level of scientific understanding of earthquakes.In respect of the social aspect of earthquake forecasting,people also focus on the consequence that the forecasting involves,in addition to its natural aspect,such as the uncertainty of earthquake prediction itself,the impact of earthquake prediction,and the earthquake resistant capability of structures (buildings),lifeline works,etc.In a word,it highlights the risk of earthquake forecasting and tries to mitigate the earthquake hazard as much as possible.In this paper,the authors also discuss the scientific and social challenges faced in earthquake prediction and analyze preliminarily the meanings and content of earthquake early warning.

  8. Early Warning System Ghana: how to successfully implement a disaster early warning system in a data scarce region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, Job; Jungermann, Nicole

    2016-04-01

    Ghana is a country frequently struck by natural disasters like floods and droughts. Timely warning or detection of such disasters will mitigate the negative impact on lives and property. However, local data and monitoring systems necessary to provide such a warning are hardly available. The availability and improvement of internet, mobile phones and satellites has provided new possibilities for disaster warning systems in data scarce regions such as Ghana. Our presentation describes the development of an early warning system (EWS) in Ghana completely based on satellite based open data. The EWS provides a flood or drought hazard warning on sub-catchment level and links the warning to a more detailed flood or drought risk map, to enable the disaster coordinator to send warnings or relieve more efficiently to areas that have the highest risk. This is especially relevant because some areas for which the system is implemented are very remote. The system is developed and tested to be robust and operational especially in remote areas. This means that the necessary information is also available under limited internet conditions and not dependent on local computer facilities. In many rural areas in Ghana communities rely on indigenous knowledge when it comes to flood or drought disaster forecasting. The EWS has a feature that allows indigenous knowledge indicators to be taken into account in the warning and makes easy comparison possible with the satellite based warnings.

  9. 30 CFR 56.14201 - Conveyor start-up warnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conveyor start-up warnings. 56.14201 Section 56.14201 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14201 Conveyor start-up warnings. (a) When...

  10. 30 CFR 57.14201 - Conveyor start-up warnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conveyor start-up warnings. 57.14201 Section 57.14201 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14201 Conveyor start-up warnings. (a) When...

  11. Perception and meaning of warning signals in urban context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Corsin; Polack, Jean-Dominique; Castellengo, Michèle;

    1999-01-01

    Perception of warning signals in urban context points out the question of their efficiency, that is, whether they are identified or not. Results show that contextual constraints influence the perceptual threshold and the identification. The classes of signals obtained can be used to determine new...... acoustical features for efficient warning signals....

  12. Multimodal warnings to enhance risk communication and safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, E.C.; Erp, J.B.F. van

    2014-01-01

    Multimodal warnings incorporate audio and/or skin-based (tactile) cues to supplement or replace visual cues in environments where the user’s visual perception is busy, impaired, or nonexistent. This paper describes characteristics of audio, tactile, and multimodal warning displays and their role in

  13. The Alcohol Warning and Adolescents: 5-Year Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, David P.; Nohre, Liva; Pentz, Mary Ann; Stacy, Alan W.

    2000-01-01

    Examined the effect of alcohol warning labels on adolescents during the first 5 years that the warning was required. Surveys of 10th and 12th grade students over 5 years indicated that the initial positive effects of the labels on adolescents leveled off after 3.5 years. The labels have not affected adolescents' beliefs about alcohol or…

  14. FDA Boxed Warning for Immediate-Release Opioids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food And Drug Administration Public Health Service U S Department Of Health And Human Services

    2016-06-01

    On March 22, 2016, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced enhanced warnings for immediate-release opioid pain medications related to risks of misuse, abuse, addiction, overdose, and death. The new safety warnings also added to all prescription opioid medications to inform prescribers and patients of additional risks related to opioid use. PMID:27301692

  15. The Effect of Cancer Warning Statements on Alcohol Consumption Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Simone; Jongenelis, Michelle I.; Glance, David; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Pratt, Iain S.; Slevin, Terry; Liang, Wenbin; Wakefield, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    In response to increasing calls to introduce warning labels on alcoholic beverages, this study investigated the potential effectiveness of alcohol warning statements designed to increase awareness of the alcohol-cancer link. A national online survey was administered to a diverse sample of Australian adult drinkers (n = 1,680). Along with…

  16. Collision warning system based on probability density functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, T.H.A. van den; Ploeg, J.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a collision warning method between the host vehicle and target object(s) is studied. A probabilistic collision warning method is proposed, which is, in particular, useful for objects, e.g. vulnerable road users, which trajectories can rapidly change heading and/or velocity with respec

  17. 40 CFR 82.106 - Warning statement requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... subpart, each container or product identified in § 82.102 (a) or (b) shall bear the following warning statement, meeting the requirements of this subpart for placement and form: WARNING: Contains , a substance... reaction, and where the controlled substance serves no useful purpose in or for the product itself....

  18. 21 CFR 330.2 - Pregnancy-nursing warning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pregnancy-nursing warning. 330.2 Section 330.2 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS... AND NOT MISBRANDED General Provisions § 330.2 Pregnancy-nursing warning. A pregnancy-nursing...

  19. Perceptions and Expected Immediate Reactions to Tornado Warning Polygons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindell, M. K.; Huang, S. K.; Wei, H. L.; Samuelson, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    To provide people with more specific information about tornado threats, the National Weather Service has replaced its county-wide warnings with smaller warning polygons that more specifically indicate the risk area. However, tornado warning polygons do not have a standardized definition regarding tornado strike probabilities (ps) so it is unclear how warning recipients interpret them. To better understand this issue, 155 participants responded to 15 hypothetical warning polygons. After viewing each polygon, they rated the likelihood of a tornado striking their location and the likelihood that they would take nine different response actions ranging from continuing normal activities to getting in a car and driving somewhere safer. The results showed participants inferred that the ps was highest at the polygon's centroid, lower just inside the edges of the polygon, still lower (but not zero) just outside the edges of the polygon, and lowest in locations beyond that. Moreover, higher ps values were associated with lower expectations of continuing normal activities and higher expectations of seeking information from social sources (but not environmental cues) and higher expectations of seeking shelter (but not evacuating in their cars). These results indicate that most people make some errors in their ps judgments but are likely to respond appropriately to the ps they infer from the warning polygons. Overall, the findings from this study and other research can help meteorologists to better understand how people interpret the uncertainty associated with warning polygons and, thus, improve tornado warning systems.

  20. Systems and Sensors for Debris-flow Monitoring and Warning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Marchi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Debris flows are a type of mass movement that occurs in mountain torrents. They consist of a high concentration of solid material in water that flows as a wave with a steep front. Debris flows can be considered a phenomenon intermediate between landslides and water floods. They are amongst the most hazardous natural processes in mountainous regions and may occur under different climatic conditions. Their destructiveness is due to different factors: their capability of transporting and depositing huge amounts of solid materials, which may also reach large sizes (boulders of several cubic meters are commonly transported by debris flows, their steep fronts, which may reach several meters of height and also their high velocities. The implementation of both structural and nonstructural control measures is often required when debris flows endanger routes, urban areas and other infrastructures. Sensor networks for debris-flow monitoring and warning play an important role amongst non-structural measures intended to reduce debris-flow risk. In particular, debris flow warning systems can be subdivided into two main classes: advance warning and event warning systems. These two classes employ different types of sensors. Advance warning systems are based on monitoring causative hydrometeorological processes (typically rainfall and aim to issue a warning before a possible debris flow is triggered. Event warning systems are based on detecting debris flows when these processes are in progress. They have a much smaller lead time than advance warning ones but are also less prone to false alarms. Advance warning for debris flows employs sensors and techniques typical of meteorology and hydrology, including measuring rainfall by means of rain gauges and weather radar and monitoring water discharge in headwater streams. Event warning systems use different types of sensors, encompassing ultrasonic or radar gauges, ground vibration sensors, videocameras, avalanche

  1. Partial discharge early-warning through ultraviolet spectroscopic detection of SO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surveillance of SF6 decomposition products is significant for detection of partial discharge (PD) in gas insulation switchgear (GIS). As a basis in on-site detection and diagnosis, PD early-warning aims to quickly find the abnormalities using a simple and cheap device. In this paper, SO2 is chosen as a feature product and detected through ultraviolet spectroscopy. The derivative method is employed for baseline correction and spectral enhancement. The standard gases of the main decomposition products are qualitatively and quantitatively detected. Then decomposition experiments with different defects are designed to further verify the feasibility. As a stable decomposition product under PD, SO2 is proved to be applicable for PD early-warning in the field. By selecting the appropriate wavelength range, namely 290–310 nm, ultraviolet derivative spectroscopy is sensitive enough to the trace SO2 in the decomposed gas and the interference of other products can be avoided. Fast Fourier transform could be used for feature extraction in qualitative detection. Concentrations of SO2 and other by-products increase with increasing discharge time and could be affected by the discharge energy and PD type. Ultraviolet detection based on SO2 is effective for PD early-warning but the threshold should still be carefully selected in practice. (paper)

  2. Partial discharge early-warning through ultraviolet spectroscopic detection of SO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Wang, Xianpei; Dai, Dangdang; Dong, Zhengcheng; Huang, Yunguang

    2014-03-01

    Surveillance of SF6 decomposition products is significant for detection of partial discharge (PD) in gas insulation switchgear (GIS). As a basis in on-site detection and diagnosis, PD early-warning aims to quickly find the abnormalities using a simple and cheap device. In this paper, SO2 is chosen as a feature product and detected through ultraviolet spectroscopy. The derivative method is employed for baseline correction and spectral enhancement. The standard gases of the main decomposition products are qualitatively and quantitatively detected. Then decomposition experiments with different defects are designed to further verify the feasibility. As a stable decomposition product under PD, SO2 is proved to be applicable for PD early-warning in the field. By selecting the appropriate wavelength range, namely 290-310 nm, ultraviolet derivative spectroscopy is sensitive enough to the trace SO2 in the decomposed gas and the interference of other products can be avoided. Fast Fourier transform could be used for feature extraction in qualitative detection. Concentrations of SO2 and other by-products increase with increasing discharge time and could be affected by the discharge energy and PD type. Ultraviolet detection based on SO2 is effective for PD early-warning but the threshold should still be carefully selected in practice.

  3. Reliability and effectiveness of early warning systems for natural hazards: Concept and application to debris flow warning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early Warning Systems (EWS) are increasingly applied to mitigate the risks posed by natural hazards. To compare the effect of EWS with alternative risk reduction measures and to optimize their design and operation, their reliability and effectiveness must be quantified. In the present contribution, a framework approach to the evaluation of threshold-based EWS for natural hazards is presented. The system reliability is classically represented by the Probability of Detection (POD) and Probability of False Alarms (PFA). We demonstrate how the EWS effectiveness, which is a measure of risk reduction, can be formulated as a function of POD and PFA. To model the EWS and compute the reliability, we develop a framework based on Bayesian Networks, which is further extended to a decision graph, facilitating the optimization of the warning system. In a case study, the framework is applied to the assessment of an existing debris flow EWS. The application demonstrates the potential of the framework for identifying the important factors influencing the effectiveness of the EWS and determining optimal warning strategies and system configurations. - Highlights: • Warning systems are increasingly applied measures to reduce natural hazard risks. • Bayesian Networks (BN) are powerful tools to quantify warning system's reliability. • The effectiveness is defined to assess the optimality of warning systems. • By extending BNs to decision graphs, the optimal warning strategy is identified. • Sensors positioning significantly influence the effectiveness of warning systems

  4. Experiment on an Onsite Early Warning Method for the Taiwan Early Warning System

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Yih-Min; Kanamori, Hiroo

    2005-01-01

    As increasing urbanization is taking place worldwide, earthquake hazards pose serious threats to lives and property in urban areas. For seismic hazard mitigation, a practical earthquake forecast method appears to be far from realization, because of the extreme complexity involved in earthquake processes (e.g., Kanamori et al., 1997). Another approach to mitigate seismic hazards is the development of early warning systems (ews) (Nakamura, 1984, 1988; Heaton, 1985; United States National Resear...

  5. Inversion of tsunami waveforms and tsunami warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Chao

    Ever since the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, the technique of inversion of tsunami data and the importance of tsunami warning have drawn the attention of many researchers. However, since tsunamis are rare and extreme events, developed inverse techniques lack validation, and open questions rise when they are applied to a real event. In this study, several of those open questions are investigated, i.e., the wave dispersion, bathymetry grid size and subfault division. First, tsunami records from three large tsunami events -- 2010 Maule, 2011 Tohoku and 2012 Haida Gwaii -- are analyzed to extract the main characteristics of the leading tsunami waves. Using the tool of wavelet transforming, the instant wave period can be obtained and thus the dispersive parameter mu2 can be calculated. mu2 is found to be smaller than 0.02 for all records, indicating that the wave dispersion is minor for the propagation of tsunami leading waves. Second, inversions of tsunami data are carried out for three tsunami events -- 2011 Tohoku, 2012 Haida Gwaii and 2014 Iquique. By varying the subfault size and the bathymetry grid size in the inversions, general rules are established for choosing those two parameters. It is found that the choice of bathymetry grid size depends on various parameters, such as the subfault size and the depth of subfaults. The global bathymetry data GEBCO with spatial resolution of 30 arcsec is generally good if the subfault size is larger than 40 km x 40 km; otherwise, bathymetry data with finer resolution is desirable. Detailed instructions of choosing the bathymetry size can be found in Chapter 2. By contrast, the choice of subfault size has much more freedom; our study shows that the subfault size can be very large without significant influence on the predicted tsunami waves. For earthquakes with magnitude of 8.0 ˜ 9.0, the subfault size can be 60 km ˜ 100 km. In our study, the maximum subfault size results in 9 ˜ 16 subfault patches on the ruptured fault surface

  6. Quantitative assessment of the effectiveness of a rockfall warning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bründl, Michael; Sättele, Martina; Krautblatter, Michael; Straub, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Rockslides and rockfalls can pose high risk to human settlements and traffic infrastructure. In addition to structural mitigation measures like rockfall nets, warning systems are increasingly installed to reduce rockfall risks. Whereas for structural mitigation measures with reducing effects on the spatial extent a structured evaluation method is existing, no or only few approaches to assess the effectiveness for warning systems are known. Especially for higher magnitude rockfalls structural mitigation measures are not effective, and reliable early warning systems will be essential in future. In response to that, we developed a classification and a framework to assess the reliability and effectiveness of early warning systems (Sättele et al, 2015a; 2016). Here, we demonstrate an application for the rockfall warning system installed in Preonzo prior to a major rockfall in May 2012 (Sättele et al., 2015b). We show that it is necessary to design such a warning system as fail-safe construction, which has to incorporate components with low failure probabilities, high redundancy, low warning thresholds, and additional control systems. With a hypothetical probabilistic analysis, we investigate the effect of the risk attitude of decision makers and of the number of sensors on the probability of detecting an event and on initiating a timely evacuation, as well as on related intervention cost. We conclude that it is possible to quantitatively assess the effectiveness of warning systems, which helps to optimize mitigation strategies against rockfall events. References Sättele, M., Bründl, M., and Straub, D.: Reliability and effectiveness of warning systems for natural hazards: concept and application to debris flow warning, Rel. Eng. Syst. Safety, 142, 192-202, 2015a. Sättele, M., Krautblatter, M., Bründl, M., and Straub, D.: Forecasting rock slope failure: How reliable and effective are warning systems?, Landslides, 605, 1-14, 2015b. Sättele, M., Bründl, M., and

  7. Anatomy of Historical Tsunamis: Lessons Learned for Tsunami Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Y.; Kong, L.; Yamamoto, M.; McCreery, C. S.

    2011-11-01

    Tsunamis are high-impact disasters that can cause death and destruction locally within a few minutes of their occurrence and across oceans hours, even up to a day, afterward. Efforts to establish tsunami warning systems to protect life and property began in the Pacific after the 1946 Aleutian Islands tsunami caused casualties in Hawaii. Seismic and sea level data were used by a central control center to evaluate tsunamigenic potential and then issue alerts and warnings. The ensuing events of 1952, 1957, and 1960 tested the new system, which continued to expand and evolve from a United States system to an international system in 1965. The Tsunami Warning System in the Pacific (ITSU) steadily improved through the decades as more stations became available in real and near-real time through better communications technology and greater bandwidth. New analysis techniques, coupled with more data of higher quality, resulted in better detection, greater solution accuracy, and more reliable warnings, but limitations still exist in constraining the source and in accurately predicting propagation of the wave from source to shore. Tsunami event data collected over the last two decades through international tsunami science surveys have led to more realistic models for source generation and inundation, and within the warning centers, real-time tsunami wave forecasting will become a reality in the near future. The tsunami warning system is an international cooperative effort amongst countries supported by global and national monitoring networks and dedicated tsunami warning centers; the research community has contributed to the system by advancing and improving its analysis tools. Lessons learned from the earliest tsunamis provided the backbone for the present system, but despite 45 years of experience, the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami reminded us that tsunamis strike and kill everywhere, not just in the Pacific. Today, a global intergovernmental tsunami warning system is coordinated

  8. NEARTOWARN: A new EU-DG ECHO-supported project for the near-field tsunami early warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, G. A.

    2012-04-01

    The early warning for near-field (local) tsunamis, with travel times of no more than about 30 min. from the tsunami source to the closest coastal zones, is today a hot topic of great importance in the international effort to reduce the loss of human lives and to mitigate other tsunami risks. Particularly, in the Mediterranean region earthquakes, and more rarely volcanic eruptions and landslides, produce near-field tsunamis threatening nearly all the coastal zones but mainly those in the Hellenic Arc and Trench (South Peloponnese, Cyclades, Crete, Rhodes, SW Turkey), in the Corinth Gulf (Central Greece), in the Messina strait and the east Sicily (Italy) in the Ligurian Sea, the Algeria and the Balearic islands, in the west Mediterranean basin, and the Cyprus-Lebanon area in the easternmost Mediterranean. The North East Atlantic and Mediterranean Tsunami Warning System (NEAMTWS), which is under construction with the supervision of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, is oriented to issue warnings only in regional scales, that is for about 1 hour of tsunami propagation time. For near-field warning it is unrealistic to rely on a unique system for the entire basin. Instead, several local systems working on the basis of some joint principles but with local adjustements is the most promising solution. This is exactly the aim of the new project NEARToWARN (Near-field Tsunami Warning) which is supported by the EU DG-ECHO. Partnership includes the National Observatory of Athens (Coordinator, Greece), the University of Bologna (Italy), the University of Cyprus, the ACRI-ST (Sophia-Antipolis, France), the University of Cantabria (Spain) and the Municipility of Rhodes. The main concept is to develop a prototype local early tsunami warning system. To minimize the time for emergency in less than 30 sec, seismic alert devices (SED's) make the core component of the system. SED's are activated and send alerting signals as soon as a P-phase of seismic wave is detected in

  9. Tsunami Generation Modelling for Early Warning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annunziato, A.; Matias, L.; Ulutas, E.; Baptista, M. A.; Carrilho, F.

    2009-04-01

    In the frame of a collaboration between the European Commission Joint Research Centre and the Institute of Meteorology in Portugal, a complete analytical tool to support Early Warning Systems is being developed. The tool will be part of the Portuguese National Early Warning System and will be used also in the frame of the UNESCO North Atlantic Section of the Tsunami Early Warning System. The system called Tsunami Analysis Tool (TAT) includes a worldwide scenario database that has been pre-calculated using the SWAN-JRC code (Annunziato, 2007). This code uses a simplified fault generation mechanism and the hydraulic model is based on the SWAN code (Mader, 1988). In addition to the pre-defined scenario, a system of computers is always ready to start a new calculation whenever a new earthquake is detected by the seismic networks (such as USGS or EMSC) and is judged capable to generate a Tsunami. The calculation is performed using minimal parameters (epicentre and the magnitude of the earthquake): the programme calculates the rupture length and rupture width by using empirical relationship proposed by Ward (2002). The database calculations, as well the newly generated calculations with the current conditions are therefore available to TAT where the real online analysis is performed. The system allows to analyze also sea level measurements available worldwide in order to compare them and decide if a tsunami is really occurring or not. Although TAT, connected with the scenario database and the online calculation system, is at the moment the only software that can support the tsunami analysis on a global scale, we are convinced that the fault generation mechanism is too simplified to give a correct tsunami prediction. Furthermore short tsunami arrival times especially require a possible earthquake source parameters data on tectonic features of the faults like strike, dip, rake and slip in order to minimize real time uncertainty of rupture parameters. Indeed the earthquake

  10. Digital Devices and Distracted Doctoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossey, Garry

    2015-04-01

    During the past twenty years a digital sea change has affected our world. Digital devices have changed the way we live and especially the way we work in our professions. As dentists, we are able to work with far greater accuracy and precision than ever before; we would be foolish not to embrace these advances. But, as is often the case with rapid cultural changes, we need to be aware of the possibility of unintended consequences that may accompany this revolution. Sound scientific studies are beginning to warn of the psychological and physiological problems of overuse of digital devices in our daily lives. We should remember that these devices are neutral. It is up to each of us to use them in ways that enhance patient care. PMID:26234105

  11. An Early Warning System for Asteroid Impact

    CERN Document Server

    Tonry, John L

    2010-01-01

    Earth is bombarded by meteors, occasionally by one large enough to cause a significant explosion and possible loss of life. Although the odds of a deadly asteroid strike in the next century are low, the most likely impact is by a relatively small asteroid, and we suggest that the best mitigation strategy in the near term is simply to move people out of the way. We describe an "early warning" system that could provide a week's notice of most sizable asteroids or comets on track to hit the Earth. This system, dubbed "Asteroid Terrestrial-impact Last Alert System" (ATLAS), comprises two observatories separated by about 100km that simultaneously scan the visible sky twice a night, and can be implemented immediately for relatively low cost. The sensitivity of ATLAS permits detection of 140m asteroids (100 Mton impact energy) three weeks before impact, and 50m asteroids a week before arrival. An ATLAS alarm, augmented by other observations, should result in a determination of impact location and time that is accura...

  12. Smartphone MEMS accelerometers and earthquake early warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Q.; Allen, R. M.; Schreier, L.; Kwon, Y. W.

    2015-12-01

    The low cost MEMS accelerometers in the smartphones are attracting more and more attentions from the science community due to the vast number and potential applications in various areas. We are using the accelerometers inside the smartphones to detect the earthquakes. We did shake table tests to show these accelerometers are also suitable to record large shakings caused by earthquakes. We developed an android app - MyShake, which can even distinguish earthquake movements from daily human activities from the recordings recorded by the accelerometers in personal smartphones and upload trigger information/waveform to our server for further analysis. The data from these smartphones forms a unique datasets for seismological applications, such as earthquake early warning. In this talk I will layout the method we used to recognize earthquake-like movement from single smartphone, and the overview of the whole system that harness the information from a network of smartphones for rapid earthquake detection. This type of system can be easily deployed and scaled up around the global and provides additional insights of the earthquake hazards.

  13. Russian eruption warning systems for aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, C.; Girina, O.; Senyukov, S.; Rybin, A.; Osiensky, J.; Izbekov, P.; Ferguson, G.

    2009-01-01

    More than 65 potentially active volcanoes on the Kamchatka Peninsula and the Kurile Islands pose a substantial threat to aircraft on the Northern Pacific (NOPAC), Russian Trans-East (RTE), and Pacific Organized Track System (PACOTS) air routes. The Kamchatka Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) monitors and reports on volcanic hazards to aviation for Kamchatka and the north Kuriles. KVERT scientists utilize real-time seismic data, daily satellite views of the region, real-time video, and pilot and field reports of activity to track and alert the aviation industry of hazardous activity. Most Kurile Island volcanoes are monitored by the Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT) based in Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk. SVERT uses daily moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite images to look for volcanic activity along this 1,250-km chain of islands. Neither operation is staffed 24 h per day. In addition, the vast majority of Russian volcanoes are not monitored seismically in real-time. Other challenges include multiple time-zones and language differences that hamper communication among volcanologists and meteorologists in the US, Japan, and Russia who share the responsibility to issue official warnings. Rapid, consistent verification of explosive eruptions and determination of cloud heights remain significant technical challenges. Despite these difficulties, in more than a decade of frequent eruptive activity in Kamchatka and the northern Kuriles, no damaging encounters with volcanic ash from Russian eruptions have been recorded. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.

  14. 2004 through 2010 Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that continuously monitors drug-related visits to hospital...

  15. CDC Warns of Dangers of Plastic Surgery in Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a very mutilating infection. They're going for cosmetic surgery, and they will be scarred. It's a terrible ... postoperative infections, particularly ones that are related to cosmetic surgery," Daley said. The CDC report warns about the ...

  16. Required warnings for cigarette packages and advertisements. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending its regulations to add a new requirement for the display of health warnings on cigarette packages and in cigarette advertisements. This rule implements a provision of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (Tobacco Control Act) that requires FDA to issue regulations requiring color graphics, depicting the negative health consequences of smoking, to accompany the nine new textual warning statements required under the Tobacco Control Act. The Tobacco Control Act amends the Federal Cigarette Labeling and Advertising Act (FCLAA) to require each cigarette package and advertisement to bear one of nine new textual warning statements. This final rule specifies the color graphic images that must accompany each of the nine new textual warning statements. PMID:21696017

  17. Annan warns of 'content divide' between rich and poor

    CERN Multimedia

    Dickson, D

    2003-01-01

    "The Secretary-General of the United Nations, Kofi Annan, warned today (10 December) that a "content divide" is threatening to deprive developing countries of the full benefits offered by information and communications technologies (ICTs)" (1 page)

  18. Fentanyl-Laced 'Norco' Is Lethal, Report Warns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160158.html Fentanyl-Laced 'Norco' Is Lethal, Report Warns New street ... study involving the drug. The street drug combines fentanyl -- the synthetic opioid painkiller linked to the death ...

  19. Early Warning Signals of Ecological Transitions: Methods for Spatial Patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kefi, S.; Guttal, V.; Brock, W.A.; Carpenter, S.R.; Ellison, A.M.; Livina, V.N.; Seekell, D.A.; Scheffer, M.; Nes, van E.H.; Dakos, V.

    2014-01-01

    A number of ecosystems can exhibit abrupt shifts between alternative stable states. Because of their important ecological and economic consequences, recent research has focused on devising early warning signals for anticipating such abrupt ecological transitions. In particular, theoretical studies s

  20. Communication of emergency public warnings: A social science perspective and state-of-the-art assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mileti, D.S. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (USA)); Sorensen, J.H. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1990-08-01

    More than 200 studies of warning systems and warning response were reviewed for this social science perspective and state-of-the-art assessment of communication of emergency public warnings. The major findings are as follows. First, variations in the nature and content of warnings have a large impact on whether or not the public heeds the warning. Relevant factors include the warning source; warning channel; the consistency, credibility, accuracy, and understandability of the message; and the warning frequency. Second, characteristics of the population receiving the warning affect warning response. These include social characteristics such as gender, ethnicity and age, social setting characteristics such as stage of life or family context, psychological characteristics such as fatalism or risk perception, and knowledge characteristics such as experience or training. Third, many current myths about public response to emergency warning are at odds with knowledge derived from field investigations. Some of these myths include the keep it simple'' notion, the cry wolf'' syndrome, public panic and hysteria, and those concerning public willingness to respond to warnings. Finally, different methods of warning the public are not equally effective at providing an alert and notification in different physical and social settings. Most systems can provide a warning given three or more hours of available warning time. Special systems such as tone-alert radios are needed to provide rapid warning. 235 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Paradoxical Effects of Warning in the Production of Children's False Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Prete, Francesco; Mirandola, Chiara; Konishi, Mahiko; Cornoldi, Cesare; Ghetti, Simona

    2014-01-01

    The effects of warning on false recognition and associated subjective experience of false recollection and familiarity were investigated in 7-to 13-year-old children and young adults (N = 259) using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. Two warning conditions (warning with an example of a critical lure and warning without an example of a…

  2. EARLY WARNING INDICATORS OF ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL INSTABILITY INDEXES

    OpenAIRE

    Rodica Oana Ioniţă

    2013-01-01

    This paper is an empirical study which analyzes economic and financial instability periods. I composed two early warning indicators: one for a period of economic instability and other for a period of financial instability. The index of economic instability periods is called EWI (Economic Warning Index) and it is defined with the aid of an intermediary indicator CII – defined in terms of industrial production growth, external trade growth and unemployment growth – and of a basket of significan...

  3. Test of thermal shields for early warning station detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jesper

    1997-01-01

    The properties of thermal shields around NaI crystal scintillators for early warning stations have been checked in order to assure that external temperature variations cannot influence the stability of the measurements.......The properties of thermal shields around NaI crystal scintillators for early warning stations have been checked in order to assure that external temperature variations cannot influence the stability of the measurements....

  4. Applying Data Mining for Early Warning food supply networks

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Y.; Kramer, M R; Beulens, A.J.M.; Vorst, van de, ELB Edward

    2006-01-01

    In food supply networks, quality of end products is a critical issue. The quality of food products depends in a complex way on many factors. In order to effectively control food quality, our research aims at implementing early warning and proactive control systems in food supply networks. To exploit the large amounts of operational data collected throughout such a network, we employ data mining in various settings. This paper investigates the requirements on data mining posed by early warning...

  5. Enhancement of Delivery of Warning Messages for Mobile Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Sheng Tsai

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V communication systems have been studied extensively in recent years by transportation experts worldwide. Such systems enable the transmission of warning messages (alarms between vehicles without additional roadside infrastructure. Thus, messages can be sent faster than through base stations. Because of these advantages, researchers worldwide are exploring how this technology can improve traffic safety. However, the various V2V schemes proposed thus far share the same problem: (1 unnecessary repetition of warning messages and (2 transmission to inapplicable respondents. This study proposes a new method for delivering V2V warning messages which reduces the redundant messages common in current schemes. Here, three schemes to deliver alarms are considered. One is blind flooding to broadcast alarms. Warning messages are routed by AODV protocol. Another is called Two Lanes. The broadcasting region of alarms is limited in two traffic lanes nearby a traffic accident only. And the last one is the proposed strategy where a warning message received by a car will be simply checked the prime number carried within the alarm header and decided whether the car is responsible to deliver it. If necessary, it will be forwarded to the next nodes. Otherwise, the redundant warning message shall be discarded to release system load and avoid to suspend other normal transmission proceeding. The results reveal that minimizing the delays caused by such redundant messages enables warnings to be sent to drivers more rapidly. Also, it prioritizes warning messages so that drivers are apprised of the most serious and dangerous traffic accidents. Moreover, another key finding in this paper is that the radii of the broadcasting coverage shall be adjusted carefully and adaptively to optimize the system performance.

  6. Research of internet worm warning system based on system identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao ZHOU; Guanzhong DAI; Huimin YE

    2006-01-01

    The frequent explosion of Internet worms has been one of the most serious problems in cyberspace security.In this paper, by analyzing the worm's propagation model, we propose a new worm warning system based on the method of system identification, and use recursive least squares algorithm to estimate the worm's infection rate. The simulation result shows the method we adopted is an efficient way to conduct Internet worm warning.

  7. Dynamic Vibrotactile Signals for Forward Collision Avoidance Warning Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Fanxing; Gray, Rob; Ho, Cristy.; Ahtamad, Mujthaba; Spence, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Four experiments were conducted in order to assess the effectiveness of dynamic vibrotactile collision-warning signals in potentially enhancing safe driving. Background: Auditory neuroscience research has demonstrated that auditory signals that move toward a person are more salient than those that move away. If this looming effect were found to extend to the tactile modality, then it could be utilized in the context of in-car warning signal design. Method: The effectiveness of vari...

  8. Text-based Research of Early Warning Platform from Food Complaint Texts

    OpenAIRE

    Yueyi Zhang; Taiyi Chen; Jing Hu; Xinghua Fang

    2015-01-01

    This study proposes a food complaint text early warning method based on the guidance of ontology and establishes a scientific and reasonable system of early warning, builds and improves the food security early warning platform. All of those make this study play a supplementary role in the research content of food safety regulators. Based on traditional early warning system, this study constructs food safety complaints warning platform model and builds the food domain ontology and expands food...

  9. Audible noise predicting formulas and reduction measures for 1 000 kV UHV AC transmission lines%1000 kV交流输电线路噪声的计算模式和减缓措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗超; 查智明; 姚为方

    2015-01-01

    Several audible corona noise predicting formulas of UHA transmission lines,founded by BPA from the U. S. A. ,ENEL from Italy and EPRI from China etc. ,were introduced. Based on the conductor parameter of Huannan-Shanghai 1 000 kV UHV AC double-circuit transmission line,four formulas were presented for pre-dicting the audible noise of the same type transmission lines exactly. The factors resulting in audible noise of UHV AC transmission line are analyzed,including the structure,design and construction of the transmission line, as wel as the atmosphere and environments. The measures to reduce audible noise of transmission line were summed up,and such engineering solutions to reduce the audible noise as increasing the diameter of bundled conductors,increasing the bundle numbers and changing the interval between bundled conductors are consid-ered applicable. Some preventive suggestions ale provided in the hope of supporting on-site operation data for designs of 1000kV UHVAC transmission lines,operation and maintenance.%介绍了几家国内外研究机构建立的用来计算预测输电线路电晕可听噪声的模式,针对皖电东送淮南至上海1000 kV特高压交流示范工程输电线路的实际参数,建立了相应的计算公式,可以较为准确的预测该类型输电线路可听噪声的大小;交流输电线路电晕产生可听噪声的影响因素众多,根据是否可控将这些因素分为两大类,并分析了单个因素对可听噪声预测值的影响程度,针对输电电路导线参数、杆塔型式和附加材料三个方面的内容,提出了几类切实可行的输电线路可听噪声减缓措施,为后续1000 kV交流输电线路的设计和建设提供参考。

  10. UncertiantyQuantificationinTsunamiEarlyWarningCalculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anunziato, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    The objective of the Tsunami calculations is the estimation of the impact of waves caused by large seismic events on the coasts and the determination of potential inundation areas. In the case of Early Warning Systems, i.e. systems that should allow to anticipate the possible effects and give the possibility to react consequently (i.e. issue evacuation of areas at risk), this must be done in very short time (minutes) to be effective. In reality, the above estimation includes several uncertainty factors which make the prediction extremely difficult. The quality of the very first estimations of the seismic parameters is not very precise: the uncertainty in the determination of the seismic components (location, magnitude and depth) decreases with time because as time passes it is possible to use more and more seismic signals and the event characterization becomes more precise. On the other hand other parameters that are necessary to establish for the performance of a calculation (i.e. fault mechanism) are difficult to estimate accurately also after hours (and in some cases remain unknown) and therefore this uncertainty remains in the estimated impact evaluations; when a quick tsunami calculation is necessary (early warning systems) the possibility to include any possible future variation of the conditions to establish the "worst case scenario" is particularly important. The consequence is that the number of uncertain parameters is so large that it is not easy to assess the relative importance of each of them and their effect on the predicted results. In general the complexity of system computer codes is generated by the multitude of different models which are assembled into a single program to give the global response for a particular phenomenon. Each of these model has associated a determined uncertainty coming from the application of that model to single cases and/or separated effect test cases. The difficulty in the prediction of a Tsunami calculation response is

  11. Enhancing the performance of mine communication, warning and condition monitoring systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myszkowski, M.; Rellecke, R.; Widera, K. (and others) [DMT GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    This project investigated improvements in power line communications (PLC), condition monitoring techniques and diagnostic aids, together with improving audible communication systems underground. The work on PLC investigated narrow-band, low data rate technologies and high data bandwidth broadband PLC technologies. It is concluded that broadband PLC technologies cannot currently meet the requirements of providing backbone communications in mining and that fibre-optic methods offer better performance. However, short range broadband applications are feasible and an innovative voice and data transmission system, including remote control features, has been developed for coalface communications, using radiofrequency and digital voice technologies not previously used for this application. This system accommodates all the new digital interfaces: Bluetooth, PLC, twisted pair cables, etc. The condition monitoring research has led to a suite of new specialised ATEX-certified sensors together with the development of new vibration signature tracking and classification devices and methods, which provide an early indication of incipient failure. Particular value of these methods is anticipated with coalface equipment. A further component of the work examined the practicability of implementing noise reduction techniques in mining communications systems and noisy workplaces by means of active noise cancellation (ANC). Whilst ANC-based techniques would not be currently cost-effective, several other practical communication improvements are worth considering further. These include new hearing protector technologies and a simple but effective 'waveshape compressor' to improve speech dynamic range in communication systems. A final component of the project examined the issue of mining alerts and alarms, where significant advances in signal design tools have been made. 60 refs., 138 figs., 8 tabs., 1 app.

  12. Low Literacy Impairs Comprehension of Prescription Drug Warning Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Terry C; Wolf, Michael S; Bass, Pat F; Middlebrooks, Mark; Kennen, Estela; Baker, David W; Bennett, Charles L; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Bocchini, Anna; Savory, Stephanie; Parker, Ruth M

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Adverse events resulting from medication error are a serious concern. Patients' literacy and their ability to understand medication information are increasingly seen as a safety issue. OBJECTIVE To examine whether adult patients receiving primary care services at a public hospital clinic were able to correctly interpret commonly used prescription medication warning labels. DESIGN In-person structured interviews with literacy assessment. SETTING Public hospital, primary care clinic. PARTICIPANTS A total of 251 adult patients waiting for an appointment at the Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center in Shreveport (LSUHSC-S) Primary Care Clinic. MEASUREMENTS Correct interpretation, as determined by expert panel review of patients' verbatim responses, for each of 8 commonly used prescription medication warning labels. RESULTS Approximately one-third of patients (n=74) were reading at or below the 6th-grade level (low literacy). Patient comprehension of warning labels was associated with one's literacy level. Multistep instructions proved difficult for patients across all literacy levels. After controlling for relevant potential confounding variables, patients with low literacy were 3.4 times less likely to interpret prescription medication warning labels correctly (95% confidence interval: 2.3 to 4.9). CONCLUSIONS Patients with low literacy had difficulty understanding prescription medication warning labels. Patients of all literacy levels had better understanding of warning labels that contained single-step versus multiple-step instructions. Warning labels should be developed with consumer participation, especially with lower literate populations, to ensure comprehension of short, concise messages created with familiar words and recognizable icons. PMID:16881945

  13. Sensing and detoxification devices in public building spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traberg-Borup, Steen; Gunnarsen, Lars Bo; Afshari, Alireza

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes commonly used ventilation principles and where sensig and detoxification devices could be integrated in public buidings in an effort to warn and protect citizens against surprise attacks by toxic agents. The release of toxic agents may be outdoors, in a single indoor spot...

  14. Significados e sentidos de saúde socializados por artefatos culturais: leituras das imagens de advertência nos maços de cigarro Senses and meanings of health socialized by cultural devices: readings of the warning images on cigarettes packs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Dias Renovato

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, analisamos imagens veiculadas nas embalagens de cigarros, que fazem parte das estratégias do Ministério da Saúde no combate ao tabagismo e disponibilizadas pelo Instituto Nacional de Câncer. Tais imagens trazem o discurso oficial de especialistas e constroem narrativas, entendidas como verdades, alicerçadas no conhecimento científico. Apoiamo-nos no referencial teórico dos estudos culturais, pois suas reflexões ajudam a compreender que as subjetividades são social e culturalmente construídas por vários discursos e artefatos. Não negamos o que está representado, mas estabelecemos diálogos com outras possibilidades de leituras que podem estar presentes nestes artefatos. Entendemos essas imagens como pedagogias culturais - que se comportam como textos a serem lidos, construindo representações, as quais podem ser assumidas como efeitos de verdade - e que atribuem ao sujeito a necessidade de controlar constantemente suas ações. Ao reforçar a biomedicina, as instituições de saúde reproduzem uma visão unidimensional e desconsideram a complexidade desse problema. Entendemos que as pedagogias culturais fazem parte de um território de lutas, onde sentidos e significados podem ser reelaborados, produzindo identidades híbridas, que constroem suas matrizes identitárias nesse emaranhado de relações de poder.This article analyzes the images publicized on cigarettes packs that are part of the strategies from the Ministry of Health to combat the tabagism and available from the Cancer National Institute. These images bring the official speech of specialists and build narratives, understood such as truths, based on scientific knowledge. We have supported our thesis on theoretical referential of Cultural Studies, since its reflections help to understand that the subjectiveness is social and culturally built by different speeches and devices. We do not deny what is represented, but we establish dialogues with other

  15. Towards a certification process for tsunami early warning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwe, Peter; Wächter, Jochen; Hammitzsch, Martin

    2013-04-01

    The natural disaster of the Boxing Day Tsunami of 2004 was followed by an information catastrophe. Crucial early warning information could not be delivered to the communities under imminent threat, resulting in over 240,000 casualties in 14 countries. This tragedy sparked the development of a new generation of integrated modular Tsunami Early Warning Systems (TEWS). While significant advances were accomplished in the past years, recent events, like the Chile 2010 and the Tohoku 2011 tsunami demonstrate that the key technical challenge for Tsunami Early Warning research on the supranational scale still lies in the timely issuing of status information and reliable early warning messages in a proven workflow. A second challenge stems from the main objective of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO (IOC) Tsunami Programme, the integration of national TEWS towards ocean-wide networks: Each of the increasing number of integrated Tsunami Early Warning Centres has to cope with the continuing evolution of sensors, hardware and software while having to maintain reliable inter-center information exchange services. To avoid future information catastrophes, the performance of all components, ranging from individual sensors, to Warning Centers within their particular end-to-end Warning System Environments, and up to federated Systems of Tsunami Warning Systems has to be regularly validated against defined criteria. Since 2004, GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ) has built up expertise in the field of TEWS. Within GFZ, the Centre for GeoInformation Technology (CeGIT) has focused its work on the geoinformatics aspects of TEWS in two projects already, being the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) and the Distant Early Warning System (DEWS). This activity is continued in the TRIDEC project (Collaborative, Complex, and Critical Decision Processes in Evolving Crises) funded under the European Union's seventh Framework Programme (FP7

  16. Patients’ attention to and understanding of adverse drug reaction warnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tresa Muir McNeal

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Tresa Muir McNeal1, Colleen Y Colbert1, Christian Cable1, Curtis R Mirkes1, June G Lubowinski2, John D Myers11Department of Medicine, Texas A&M University System HSC College of Medicine, Scott & White Healthcare, Temple, TX, USA; 2RD Haynes Medical Library, Scott & White Healthcare, Temple, TX, USAIntroduction: Medications are critical to the management of patient conditions, and they can have significant effects on the success or failure of medical interventions. Patient perceptions of drug warnings play an important role in medication compliance and ultimately disease management. Several factors may affect patients’ understanding of drug warnings and drug labeling, including health literacy and interactions with physicians and pharmacists.Purpose: The purpose of this article is to provide a review of the literature related to patient perceptions of drug warnings and drug labeling. Descriptive articles and studies regarding patient perceptions and knowledge of adverse drug reaction warnings were reviewed.Methods: The following databases were utilized to search the literature related to patient perceptions of drug warnings: PubMed, Academic Search Premiere, CINAHL, Medline, Psych Info, Business Source Complete, Alternative Healthwatch, Health Source (both Nursing/Academic and Consumer additions, JSTOR, and Master File Premiere. For the purpose of this review, any peer-reviewed article was eligible. Exclusionary criteria included: articles published in languages other than English, articles/studies on patient perceptions of vaccines and chemotherapy, and articles related to perceptions of medications administered in the inpatient setting. Forty-six articles were included in the review.Results: Health literacy has been shown to have a major impact on patients’ ability to understand potential adverse reactions and instructions on correct dosing of medications. Direct communication with physicians and pharmacists is one of the most important and

  17. The case for stringent alcohol warning labels: lessons from the tobacco control experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-hamdani, Mohammed

    2014-02-01

    Like cigarettes, alcohol is a social drug associated with considerable health and social costs. Relative to cigarettes, regulators worldwide have imposted very modest restrictions in its advertisements. Studies on alcohol health warnings show that they do not have a strong effect on influencing recall, perceptions, and behaviors. Poorly visible and ambiguous health warnings plus the absence of pictorial warnings muddy previous studies. This study takes a different approach, extracting lessons from cigarette health warnings literature for application to the alcohol health warnings' research and practice. I recommend the development of direct health warnings; increase in visibility of the warnings; incorporation of pictorial health warnings; and consideration of plain packaging for alcohol products. A toolkit of these best practices could advance the case for stringent alcohol health warnings policies. PMID:24257632

  18. Towards a nationwide Early Warning System in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmureanu, A.; Ionescu, C.; Manea, L.

    2012-04-01

    The need to use early warning methods to reduce natural risks in modern societies is related to their unprecedented dependence upon technology. The strong deep events originating from Vrancea-Romania (Mw =7.5) area and shallow events originating from Banat-Romania or Shabla-Bulgaria areas can generate destructive effects in Romania and neighbor countries, and may seriously affect high risk manmade structures. EWS for deep Vrancea earthquakes uses the time interval (28-32 sec.) between the moment when the earthquake is detected by the local seismic network installed in the epicenter area (Vrancea) and the arrival time of the seismic waves in the protected area (Bucharest) to send earthquake warning to users. For the shallow events several methodologies to rapidly estimate earthquake magnitude are under testing. NIEP developed an early warning system that is able to evaluate rapidly earthquake magnitude after detection in the epicenter. In the last years, NIEP upgraded its seismic network in order to cover better the seismic zones of Romania. The early warning system consists of seismic stations that allow rapid communication of data, several software modules developed at NIEP and a communication network. The system allows estimation of earthquake magnitude and permits to send earthquake alarm very fast to users. The early warning software modules minimize communication latencies present in other communication protocols in order to have a rapid magnitude determination. This software was developed by NIEP and is running in present at our institute in real time.

  19. Conspicuity, memorability, comprehension, and priming in road hazard warning signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Samuel G

    2006-05-01

    This study assessed driver reactions to 16 road hazard warning signs of various formats by projecting life-sized video of road scenes to drivers in a driving simulator. A range of measures, including attentional and search conspicuity, implicit and explicit recognition, dynamic and static comprehension, and sign priming were collected. Of the signs tested, road works and school warning signs were most often detected, remembered, and understood. Slippery surface warnings were associated with some of the lowest detection and comprehension rates. The effectiveness of the different formats depended on the type of hazard sign. In the case of road works warnings, a flashing variable message format was only slightly more conspicuous than the large dimension format, equal in comprehensibility, and perhaps somewhat worse in terms of memorability. For the school warnings, however, the flashing variable message format appeared to convey a greater sense of potential hazard, produced superior search conspicuity and priming, and was equal in terms of memorability and comprehensibility. The range of measures worked well as a whole with the two measures of conspicuity and the measure of static comprehension showing the greatest consistency.

  20. A piezoelectric polymer cavitation sensor installed in an emulsion generation microchannel device and an evaluation of cavitation state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Takefumi; Yabumoto, Masaki; Suzumori, Koichi

    2016-07-01

    In previous works, ultrasonic emulsification was realized using small microchannel devices oscillated by piezoelectric transducers. By using the devices, the emulsification in the flow process was also realized. In these devices, the driving frequency was higher than 2 MHz. This value is higher than the maximum audible field. On the other hand, the frequency is too high to utilize the cavitation effect. This is because the cavitation threshold depends on the frequency. The aim of this study is to confirm the cavitation state in the microchannel device using a piezoelectric polymer sensor. A micropatterned cavitation detection sensor has been fabricated by a photolithography technique and evaluated in a high-intensity ultrasound field. The emulsification state in the microchannel device has been evaluated using the fabricated sensor.

  1. Photovoltaic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Jason A.; Keenihan, James R.; Gaston, Ryan S.; Kauffmann, Keith L.; Langmaid, Joseph A.; Lopez, Leonardo C.; Maak, Kevin D.; Mills, Michael E.; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R.

    2015-06-02

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly and a body portion joined at an interface region and including an intermediate layer, at least one interconnecting structural member, relieving feature, unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  2. Concentration device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    A concentration device (2) for filter filtration concentration of particles (4) from a volume of a fluid (6). The concentration device (2) comprises a filter (8) configured to filter particles (4) of a predefined size in the volume of the fluid (6). The concentration device (2) comprises...

  3. New symbol launched to warn public about radiation dangers. Supplementary symbol aims to help reduce needless deaths and injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    , including food irradiators, teletherapy machines for cancer treatment and industrial radiography units. The symbol is to be placed on the device housing the source, as a warning not to dismantle the device or to get any closer. It will not be visible under normal use, only if someone attempts to disassemble the device. The symbol will not be located on building access doors, transportation packages or containers. 'The new ionizing radiation warning symbol (ISO 21482) is the latest successful result of long-standing cooperation between the IAEA and ISO. We encourage the symbol's rapid adoption by the international community,' said ISO Secretary-General Alan Bryden. Many source manufacturers plan to use the symbol on new large sources. Strategies to apply the symbol on existing large sources are being developed by the IAEA. (IAEA)

  4. Data Processing Model of Coalmine Gas Early-Warning System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Jian-sheng; YIN Hong-sheng; LIU Xiu-rong; HUA Gang; XU Yong-gang

    2007-01-01

    The data processing mode is vital to the performance of an entire coalmine gas early-warning system, especially in real-time performance. Our objective was to present the structural features of coalmine gas data, so that the data could be processed at different priority levels in C language. Two different data processing models, one with priority and the other without priority, were built based on queuing theory. Their theoretical formulas were determined via a M/M/1 model in order to calculate average occupation time of each measuring point in an early-warning program. We validated the model with the gas early-warning system of the Huaibei Coalmine Group Corp. The results indicate that the average occupation time for gas data processing by using the queuing system model with priority is nearly 1/30 of that of the model without priority..

  5. Tobacco branding, plain packaging, pictorial warnings, and symbolic consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoek, Janet; Gendall, Philip; Gifford, Heather; Pirikahu, Gill; McCool, Judith; Pene, Gina; Edwards, Richard; Thomson, George

    2012-05-01

    We use brand association and symbolic consumption theory to explore how plain cigarette packaging would influence the identities young adults cocreate with tobacco products. Group discussions and in-depth interviews with 86 young adult smokers and nonsmokers investigated how participants perceive tobacco branding and plain cigarette packaging with larger health warnings. We examined the transcript data using thematic analysis and explored how removing tobacco branding and replacing this with larger warnings would affect the symbolic status of tobacco brands and their social connotations. Smokers used tobacco brand imagery to define their social attributes and standing, and their connection with specific groups. Plain cigarette packaging usurped this process by undermining aspirational connotations and exposing tobacco products as toxic. Replacing tobacco branding with larger health warnings diminishes the cachet brand insignia creates, weakens the social benefits brands confer on users, and represents a potentially powerful policy measure.

  6. The genetics of monarch butterfly migration and warning colouration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Shuai; Zhang, Wei; Niitepõld, Kristjan; Hsu, Jeremy; Haeger, Juan Fernández; Zalucki, Myron P; Altizer, Sonia; de Roode, Jacobus C; Reppert, Steven M; Kronforst, Marcus R

    2014-10-16

    The monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus, is famous for its spectacular annual migration across North America, recent worldwide dispersal, and orange warning colouration. Despite decades of study and broad public interest, we know little about the genetic basis of these hallmark traits. Here we uncover the history of the monarch's evolutionary origin and global dispersal, characterize the genes and pathways associated with migratory behaviour, and identify the discrete genetic basis of warning colouration by sequencing 101 Danaus genomes from around the globe. The results rewrite our understanding of this classic system, showing that D. plexippus was ancestrally migratory and dispersed out of North America to occupy its broad distribution. We find the strongest signatures of selection associated with migration centre on flight muscle function, resulting in greater flight efficiency among migratory monarchs, and that variation in monarch warning colouration is controlled by a single myosin gene not previously implicated in insect pigmentation. PMID:25274300

  7. On-site early-warning system for Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dino Bindi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the development of an on-site early warning system for Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan is outlined. Several low cost sensors equipped with MEMS accelerometers are installed in eight buildings distributed within the urban area. The different sensing units communicate each other via wireless links and the seismic data are streamed in real-time to the data center using internet. Since each single sensing unit has computing capabilities, software for data processing can be installed to perform decentralized actions. In particular, each sensing unit can perform event detection task and run software for on-site early warning. If a description for the vulnerability of the building is uploaded in the sensing unit, this piece of information can be exploited to introduce the expected probability of damage in the early-warning protocol customized for a specific structure.

  8. The Crop Disease and Pest Warning and Prediction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Juhua; Huang, Wenjiang; Wang, Jihua; Wei, Chaoling

    The aim of this study was to establish the warning and prediction system for crop diseases and pests based on SuperMap IS. NET geographic information system (GIS), which was developed by Supermap company. In this system, the author used GIS and remote sensing (RS) technology. The system could transform data information into a geographical information map to show the occurrence degree and distribution on various diseases and pests. This paper described mainly warning flow, database design and the main functions of the system. Finally, the system realized successfully the warning of the wheat stripe rust in Xifeng region of Qingyang city in Gansu province in 2002, and the prediction result was satisfactory. It indicated that we could classify and predict diseases and pests, and select right time and technology to control the diseases and pests by this GIS system.

  9. Wavelet analysis of the seismograms for tsunami warning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chamoli

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The complexity in the tsunami phenomenon makes the available warning systems not much effective in the practical situations. The problem arises due to the time lapsed in the data transfer, processing and modeling. The modeling and simulation needs the input fault geometry and mechanism of the earthquake. The estimation of these parameters and other aprior information increases the utilized time for making any warning. Here, the wavelet analysis is used to identify the tsunamigenesis of an earthquake. The frequency content of the seismogram in time scale domain is examined using wavelet transform. The energy content in high frequencies is calculated and gives a threshold for tsunami warnings. Only first few minutes of the seismograms of the earthquake events are used for quick estimation. The results for the earthquake events of Andaman Sumatra region and other historic events are promising.

  10. Development of an early-warning system for monitoring remote volcanoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sauvage

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Many andesitic volcanoes are quiescent for long time periods: usually (but not always an increase in seismic activity and in deformation precedes an eruption by a few months or a few days. A UNESCO panel has put forward the concept of an early warning system for monitoring dormant volcanoes in remote regions. Simple seismic or deformation measuring devices can in principle be built for monitoring remote volcanoes. These instruments are composed of two units: 1 a processor that measures the baseline «activity» of the volcano and decides when the activity increases above a certain threshold; 2 a transmitter for long distance communication. For slow parameters like tilt or extensometry, the signal can be transmitted every few minutes or hours. For seismology, signals include a large quantity of data and therefore they are usually not transmitted. The processing unit is not easy to design because a single seismic station can record noises that are very similar to «volcanic events». Average noise level on a given time interval, event detection counters and high amplitude ground motion counters are a simple (but not exhaustive way to summarize seismic activity. The transmission of data from the field to a monitoring center is feasible by present and future satellite telemetry. We present our attempt to develop an early warning system for remote volcano monitoring with data transmission by satellite.

  11. Application of Seismic Array Processing to Tsunami Early Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, C.; Meng, L.

    2015-12-01

    Tsunami wave predictions of the current tsunami warning systems rely on accurate earthquake source inversions of wave height data. They are of limited effectiveness for the near-field areas since the tsunami waves arrive before data are collected. Recent seismic and tsunami disasters have revealed the need for early warning to protect near-source coastal populations. In this work we developed the basis for a tsunami warning system based on rapid earthquake source characterisation through regional seismic array back-projections. We explored rapid earthquake source imaging using onshore dense seismic arrays located at regional distances on the order of 1000 km, which provides faster source images than conventional teleseismic back-projections. We implement this method in a simulated real-time environment, and analysed the 2011 Tohoku earthquake rupture with two clusters of Hi-net stations in Kyushu and Northern Hokkaido, and the 2014 Iquique event with the Earthscope USArray Transportable Array. The results yield reasonable estimates of rupture area, which is approximated by an ellipse and leads to the construction of simple slip models based on empirical scaling of the rupture area, seismic moment and average slip. The slip model is then used as the input of the tsunami simulation package COMCOT to predict the tsunami waves. In the example of the Tohoku event, the earthquake source model can be acquired within 6 minutes from the start of rupture and the simulation of tsunami waves takes less than 2 min, which could facilitate a timely tsunami warning. The predicted arrival time and wave amplitude reasonably fit observations. Based on this method, we propose to develop an automatic warning mechanism that provides rapid near-field warning for areas of high tsunami risk. The initial focus will be Japan, Pacific Northwest and Alaska, where dense seismic networks with the capability of real-time data telemetry and open data accessibility, such as the Japanese HiNet (>800

  12. Early warning of geohazards using space technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronin, A.

    The societal impact of geological hazards is enormous. Every year volcanoes, earthquakes, landslides and subsidence claim thousands of lives, injure many thousands more, devastate peoples' homes and destroy their livelihoods. The costs of damaged infrastructure are taken higher still by insurance premiums and run into the billions in any currency. This affects rich and poor alike, but with a disproportionate impact on the developing world. As the human population increases and more people live in hazardous areas, this impact grows unsustainably. It must be reduced and that requires increased understanding of the geohazards, improved preparedness for disasters and better ways to manage them when they occur. The inter-related disasters that comprise geohazards are all driven directly by geological processes and share ground deformation as a common thread. This means that they can be addressed using similar technology and understood using related scientific modelling processes. Geohazards are a complex phenomenon and no one method can provide all the necessary information and understanding. It is essential that Earth Observation data are integrated with airborne data, in-situ observations and associated historical data archives, and then analysed using GIS and other modelling tools if these hazards are to be understood and managed. Geohazards occur in one form or another in every country. They do not respect national boundaries and have the potential to cause changes in the atmosphere that will be truly global in effect, requiring a global observing infrastructure to monitor them. The current situation in space research of early warning of geohazards indicates a few phenomena, related with geohazard processes: Earth's deformation, surface temperature, gas and aerosol emission, electromagnetic disturbances in ionosphere. Both horizontal and vertical deformations scaled about tens centimetres and meters measured after the shock. Such deformations are recorded by In

  13. Implementing drought early warning systems: policy lessons and future needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Ana; Werner, Micha; Maia, Rodrigo; Garrote, Luis; Nyabeze, Washington

    2014-05-01

    Drought forecasting and Warning provides the potential of reducing impacts to society due to drought events. The implementation of effective drought forecasting and warning, however, requires not only science to support reliable forecasting, but also adequate policy and societal response. Here we propose a protocol to develop drought forecasting and early warning based in the international cooperation of African and European institutions in the DEWFORA project (EC, 7th Framework Programme). The protocol includes four major phases that address the scientific knowledge and the social capacity to use the knowledge: (a) What is the science available? Evaluating how signs of impending drought can be detected and predicted, defining risk levels, and analysing of the signs of drought in an integrated vulnerability approach. (b) What are the societal capacities? In this the institutional framework that enables policy development is evaluated. The protocol gathers information on vulnerability and pending hazard in advance so that early warnings can be declared at sufficient lead time and drought mitigation planning can be implemented at an early stage. (c) How can science be translated into policy? Linking science indicators into the actions/interventions that society needs to implement, and evaluating how policy is implemented. Key limitations to planning for drought are the social capacities to implement early warning systems. Vulnerability assessment contributes to identify these limitations and therefore provides crucial information to policy development. Based on the assessment of vulnerability we suggest thresholds for management actions to respond to drought forecasts and link predictive indicators to relevant potential mitigation strategies. Vulnerability assessment is crucial to identify relief, coping and management responses that contribute to a more resilient society. (d) How can society benefit from the forecast? Evaluating how information is provided to

  14. Human factors research problems in electronic voice warning system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, C. A.; Williams, D. H.

    1975-01-01

    The speech messages issued by voice warning systems must be carefully designed in accordance with general principles of human decision making processes, human speech comprehension, and the conditions in which the warnings can occur. The operator's effectiveness must not be degraded by messages that are either inappropriate or difficult to comprehend. Important experimental variables include message content, linguistic redundancy, signal/noise ratio, interference with concurrent tasks, and listener expectations generated by the pragmatic or real world context in which the messages are presented.

  15. Early warning system for detection of protozoal contamination of source waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Mogensen, Claus; Berg, Tommy W.;

    2012-01-01

    Ensuring water quality is an ever increasing important issue world-wide. Currently, detection of protozoa in drinking water is a costly and time consuming process. We have developed an online, real-time sensor for detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia spp. in a range of source waters. The novel...... optical technique, in combination with advanced data analysis, yields a measure for the protozoal content present in the sample. High sensitivity of the system is obtained through a combination of filtration and the use of ultrasound. This gives a fast and reliable detection capability of protozoal...... are collected on a filter for further molecular verification. The detection system is a compact, low power, reagentless device and thus ideal for applications where relatively long service intervals and remote operations are desired. The applications envisioned for this system includes early warning of source...

  16. THE INEXPENSIVE DEVICE FOR SEA LEVEL MEASUREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Annunziato

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A new mareograph device has been designed at the Joint Research Centre (JRC of the European Commission (EC in order improve the sea level network in use for the Tsunami Hazard monitoring in the Mediterranean Sea and in the North Atlantic area (NEAMTWS area of UNESCO. The instrument has the characteristic to be cheap and very effective but its reliability, duration and quality need to be determined and qualified. For this reason a number of experimental campaigns are being conducted, whose first results are presented here. In collaboration with the UNESCO/IOC (Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, responsible of the definition of the Tsunami Warning System of this geographical area, a set of 20 devices has been offered by JRC for a period of 1 year of testing of the devices; the surveys for the installation of the devices is under way and the installation should be completed by the end of 2015.

  17. Using warnings to reduce categorical false memories in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Anna M; Gutchess, Angela H

    2016-07-01

    Warnings about memory errors can reduce their incidence, although past work has largely focused on associative memory errors. The current study sought to explore whether warnings could be tailored to specifically reduce false recall of categorical information in both younger and older populations. Before encoding word pairs designed to induce categorical false memories, half of the younger and older participants were warned to avoid committing these types of memory errors. Older adults who received a warning committed fewer categorical memory errors, as well as other types of semantic memory errors, than those who did not receive a warning. In contrast, young adults' memory errors did not differ for the warning versus no-warning groups. Our findings provide evidence for the effectiveness of warnings at reducing categorical memory errors in older adults, perhaps by supporting source monitoring, reduction in reliance on gist traces, or through effective metacognitive strategies. PMID:26274627

  18. 76 FR 66074 - Small Entity Compliance Guide: Required Warnings for Cigarette Packages and Advertisements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Small Entity Compliance Guide: Required Warnings for... industry entitled ``Required Warnings for Cigarette Packages and Advertisements--Small Entity Compliance... the Center for Tobacco Products, Food and Drug Administration, 9200 Corporate Blvd., Rockville,...

  19. Enhancing the effectiveness of tobacco package warning labels: a social psychological perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Strahan, E; White, K.; Fong, G; Fabrigar, L; Zanna, M; Cameron, R.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To outline social psychological principles that could influence the psychosocial and behavioural effects of tobacco warning labels, and to inform the development of more effective tobacco warning labels.

  20. Microfluidic Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Zheng, Siyang (Inventor); Lin, Jeffrey Chun-Hui (Inventor); Kasdan, Harvey L. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Described herein are particular embodiments relating to a microfluidic device that may be utilized for cell sensing, counting, and/or sorting. Particular aspects relate to a microfabricated device that is capable of differentiating single cell types from dense cell populations. One particular embodiment relates a device and methods of using the same for sensing, counting, and/or sorting leukocytes from whole, undiluted blood samples.

  1. Warning signals for poor performance improve human-robot interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brule, R. van den; Bijlstra, G.; Dotsch, R.; Haselager, W.F.G.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    The present research was aimed at investigating whether human-robot interaction (HRI) can be improved by a robot's nonverbal warning signals. Ideally, when a robot signals that it cannot guarantee good performance, people could take preventive actions to ensure the successful completion of the robot

  2. Early warning signals also precede non-catastrophic transitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kefi, S.; Dakos, V.; Scheffer, M.; Nes, van E.H.; Rietkerk, M.

    2013-01-01

    Synthesis The quickly expanding literature on early warning signals for critical transitions in ecosystems suggests that critical slowing down is a key phenomenon to measure the distance to a tipping point in ecosystems. Such work is broadly misinterpreted as showing that slowing down is specific to

  3. 40 CFR 156.66 - Child hazard warning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Child hazard warning. 156.66 Section 156.66 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS..., marketing, storage or use is remote (for example, an industrial use product); or (2) The pesticide...

  4. The new Euskalmet coastal-maritime warning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaztelumendi, Santiago; Egaña, Joseba; Liria, Pedro; Gonzalez, Manuel; Aranda, José Antonio; Anitua, Pedro

    2016-06-01

    This work presents the main characteristics of the Basque Meteorology Agency (Euskalmet) maritime-coastal risk warning system, with special emphasis on the latest updates, including a clear differentiation on specific warning messages addressing sea conditions for navigation purposes in the first 2 nautical miles, and expected coastal impacts. Some details of the warning bulletin for maritime and coastal risk situations are also presented, together with other communication products and strategies used in coastal and maritime severe episodes at the Basque coast. Today, three different aspects are included in the coastal-maritime risk warning system in Basque Country, related to the main potential severe events that affecting coastal activities. - "Galerna" risk relates to a sudden wind reversal that can severely affect coastal navigation and recreational activities. - "Navigation" risk relates to severe sea state conditions for 0-2 miles, affecting different navigation activities. - "Coastal impact" risk relates to adverse wave characteristics and tidal surges that induce flooding events and different impacts in littoral areas.

  5. Implementing an Inpatient Social Early Warning System for Child Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atabaki, Armita; Heddaeus, Daniela; Metzner, Franka; Schulz, Holger; Siefert, Sonke; Pawils, Silke

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The current article describes the process evaluation of a social early warning system (SEWS) for the prevention of child maltreatment in the federal state of Hamburg. This prevention initiative targets expectant mothers and their partners including an initial screening of risk factors for child maltreatment, a subsequent structured…

  6. The Food Early Warning System Project in Somalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leblanc, M.

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes shortly the objectives of a Food Early Warning System (FEWS project, as well as its organisation. The specifie case of Somalia, where the project had to evolve in increasingly difficult situations, and the solutions used so as to preserve the output, are described.

  7. Scheme for evaluating a local queue warning system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botma, H. & Oei, H.L.

    1977-01-01

    A method of evaluating an automatic queue warning system is outlined. The main object of the evaluation is to measure the effect of such a system on traffic behaviour and road safety, although the overall journey time is also examined. The chosen method of research entails before and after studies,

  8. Development of Early Warning Methods for Electric Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jóhannsson, Hjörtur

    This thesis concerns the development of methods that can provide, in realtime, an early warning for an emerging blackout in electric power systems. The blackout in E-Denmark and S-Sweden on September 23, 2003 is the main motivation for the method development. The blackout was caused by occurrence...

  9. Public Health Measures: Alerts and Early Warning Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marvin, H.J.P.; Kleter, G.A.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews various reactive and proactive alert and early warning systems that can be used for the identification of emerging risks to food safety, both within the European Union and at the global level. Recent developments include the establishment of a unit dedicated to emerging risks at

  10. Reactions to Graphic Health Warnings in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonnemaker, James M.; Choiniere, Conrad J.; Farrelly, Matthew C.; Kamyab, Kian; Davis, Kevin C.

    2015-01-01

    This study reports consumer reactions to the graphic health warnings selected by the Food and Drug Administration to be placed on cigarette packs in the United States. We recruited three sets of respondents for an experimental study from a national opt-in e-mail list sample: (i) current smokers aged 25 or older, (ii) young adult smokers aged 18-24…

  11. Scientists Warn of Possible Floods Caused by Melting Glaciers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Aresearch team led by LI Xin from the Cold &Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute under CAS recently called on the authorities to set up an early warning system for the possible floods due to glacial lake outbursts in China's alpine hinterland.

  12. Famines in Africa: is early warning early enough?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeeyon Janet Kim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Following the second Sahelian famine in 1984–1985, major investments were made to establish Early Warning Systems. These systems help to ensure that timely warnings and vulnerability information are available to decision makers to anticipate and avert food crises. In the recent crisis in the Horn of Africa, alarming levels of acute malnutrition were documented from March 2010, and by August 2010, an impending food crisis was forecast. Despite these measures, the situation remained unrecognised, and further deteriorated causing malnutrition levels to grow in severity and scope. By the time the United Nations officially declared famine on 20 July 2011, and the humanitarian community sluggishly went into response mode, levels of malnutrition and mortality exceeded catastrophic levels. At this time, an estimated 11 million people were in desperate and immediate need for food. With warnings of food crises in the Sahel, South Sudan, and forecast of the drought returning to the Horn, there is an immediate need to institutionalize change in the health response during humanitarian emergencies. Early warning systems are only effective if they trigger an early response.

  13. Early warning signals also precede non-catastrophic transitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kefi, S.; Dakos, V.; Scheffer, M.; Nes, E.H. van; Rietkerk, M.

    2013-01-01

    Ecosystem responses to external changes can surprise us by their abruptness and irreversibility. Models have helped identifying indicators of impending catastrophic shifts, referred to as ‘generic early warning signals’. These indicators are linked to a phenomenon known as ‘critical slowing down’ wh

  14. Ecosystems for Early Warning: Potential Use of Bioindicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zommers, Z. A.; Sitati, A. M.; Habilov, M.

    2014-12-01

    Bioindicators are biological processes, species or communities, which are used to assess changes in the environment or environmental quality. Theoretically, they could also be used to provide advanced warning of hazards. They are inexpensive, locally relevant, and can encourage stakeholder participation in early warning system development and maintenance. While bioindicators have been identified for environmental problems such as air pollution and water pollution, and have been used to assess health of ecosystems, little information is available on bioindicators for climate related hazards. This presentation reviews possible biodindicators for droughts, wildfires and tropical cyclones, based on the results of a literature review. It will also present results from a household survey of 36 communities in Kenya, Ghana and Burkina Faso. Indigenous knowledge offers a wealth of potential bioindicators; including animal and insect behavior, and plant phenology. Yet significant study is needed to verify these indicators and evaluate them against criteria such as specificity, variability, monotonicity, practicality and relevance. Bioindicators may not be specific to individual hazards and may provide limited advanced warning, as response often occurs after the actual onset of the hazard. Furthermore, indicators may become increasingly unreliable due to climate change itself. There is a need for a large-scale assessment of hazard bioindicators, which should also include forecasts of bioindicator change under global warming, and a cost-benefit analysis of the value of integrating bioindicators into early warning systems. Lessons can be drawn from ethnopharmacology. Coordinated research on this topic could contribute to the resilience of both ecosystems and human livelihoods.

  15. Evaluation of the Individualized Study Program: Early Warning System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunziker, Celeste M.

    The Early Warning System (EWS) of the Individualized Study Program (ISP) at the University of California, Davis, was evaluated. Disadvantaged students who have not met the university's entrance requirements are tracked by the EWS during their first year in order to identify academic problems and provide advising and support. Findings include: EWS…

  16. Heeding the warning signs: further displacement predicted for Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Schmeidl

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There is currently much evidence pointing to another wave of displacement likely to occur in Afghanistan. Ignoring these early warning signs and failing to act may mean paying a higher price in the future, both financially and in human terms.

  17. Experimental evaluation of a dedicated underwater loudhailer for diver warning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raa, L.A. te; Verhave, J.A.; Driessen, F.P.G.; Dreschler, J.

    2010-01-01

    To improve port security capability there is a need for systems for detection, warning and deterrence of unwanted divers in harbour environments. In a complex environment such as a harbour, these topics present challenging problems and as such are subject to research and development. Already a few d

  18. Flood early warning system : Design, implementation and computational modules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krzhizhanovskaya, V.V.; Shirshov, G.S.; Melnikova, N.B.; Belleman, R.G.; Rusadi, F.I.; Broekhuijsen, B.J.; Gouldby, B.P.; Lhomme, J.; Balis, B.; Bubak, M.; Pyayt, A.L.; Mokhov, I.I.; Ozhigin, A.V.; Lang, B.; Meijer, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    We present a prototype of the flood early warning system (EWS) developed within the UrbanFlood FP7 project. The system monitors sensor networks installed in flood defenses (dikes, dams, embankments, etc.), detects sensor signal abnormalities, calculates dike failure probability, and simulates possib

  19. Flood early warning system: design, implementation and computational modules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.V. Krzhizhanovskaya; G.S. Shirshov; N.B. Melnikova; R.G. Belleman; F.I. Rusadi; B.J. Broekhuijsen; B.P. Gouldby; J. Lhomme; B. Balis; M. Bubak; A.L. Pyayt; I.I. Mokhov; A.V. Ozhigin; B. Lang; R.J. Meijer

    2011-01-01

    We present a prototype of the flood early warning system (EWS) developed within the UrbanFlood FP7 project. The system monitors sensor networks installed in flood defenses (dikes, dams, embankments, etc.), detects sensor signal abnormalities, calculates dike failure probability, and simulates possib

  20. A new visibility pre-warning system for the expressway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, L.; Hong, Q.; Li, G.; Han, X. B.; C-Y Lu, Steven; Ding, R.

    2005-01-01

    One of the most important factors that contribute to traffic accidents on the expressway is the low visibility, which may be caused by local or regional weather status such as agglomerate fog, rain, snow and sandstorm. A pre-warning system would be great help to prevent traffic accidents due to low visibility. Considering some problems of the existing system, such as the limited monitoring area and expensive cost, etc., a new kind of visibility pre-warning system is presented in this paper. The pre-warning system is made up of measuring nodes and communications bus. At the measuring node there is a long-distance photoelectric sensor, which is placed by means of cascade at the middle isolation strip along the expressway. Using the long-distance sensors makes it possible to monitor the visibility status of the whole expressway. CAN bus is used in this system as the communication bus to transmit information about visibility along the expressway. In virtue of the advantages of the CAN bus, a long distance network is constructed to meet the needs of the system, such as real time, reliability and low cost. With this new visibility pre-warning system, the visibility status of the whole expressway can be monitored in time and all day. In this paper, the architectural structure of the system is introduced, and also the detailed designs of the measuring node and hardware connection of the CAN bus communications is described.

  1. TSUNAMI WARNING SYSTEM IN THE PACIFIC: Brief Historical Review of its Establishment and Institutional Support

    OpenAIRE

    George Pararas-Carayannis

    2015-01-01

    The year 2015 marks the 50th anniversary of operations of the International Tsunami Warning System in the Pacific Ocean. The present report describes briefly the establishment of the rudimentary early tsunami warning system in 1948 by the USA after the disastrous tsunami of April 1, 1946, generated by a great earthquake in the Aleutian Islands, struck without warning the Hawaiian Islands and other parts of the Pacific. Also reviewed are the progressive improvements made to the U.S. warning sy...

  2. A communication model for interlinking national tsunami early warning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendholt, M.; Hammitzsch, M.; Esbri Palomares, M. A.

    2012-04-01

    The integration of national Tsunami Early Earning Systems (TEWS) to ocean-wide networks is a main objective of the UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanic Commission (IOC) tsunami programme. The intention is to interlink national TEWSs leveraging warning communication during hazards. For this purpose a communication model has been developed enabling an efficient message exchange within a centre-to-centre (C2C) communication in a system-of-systems environment. The model, designed to be robust and simple, is based on existing interoperability standards from the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and the Organization of the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS). For the exchange of tsunami warning bulletins the Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) is used. It supports geospatial referencing by addressing geocoded Points of Interests (POIs), Areas of Interest (AOIs) and Coastal Forecast Zones (CFZs). Moreover it supports hazard classification by standardized criticality parameters and the transmission of attachments, e.g. situation maps. The communication model also supports the exchange of sensor observations and measurements such as sea level data or earthquake parameters. For this purpose markup languages of the Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) suite are used. Both communication products, warning bulletins and sensor observations, are embedded in an envelope providing addressing and routing information using the Emergency Data Exchange Language Distribution Element (EDXL-DE). The communication model has been implemented in a first pilot based on Message Oriented Middleware (MOM). Implementation, test and validation was started in the European research project Distant Early Warning System (DEWS) and is continued successively in the project Collaborative, Complex, and Critical Decision Processes in Evolving Crises (TRIDEC). Stimulated by the concepts and results of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) and based on its sensor integration platform

  3. The pathway to earthquake early warning in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R. M.; Given, D. D.; Heaton, T. H.; Vidale, J. E.; West Coast Earthquake Early Warning Development Team

    2013-05-01

    The development of earthquake early warning capabilities in the United States is now accelerating and expanding as the technical capability to provide warning is demonstrated and additional funding resources are making it possible to expand the current testing region to the entire west coast (California, Oregon and Washington). Over the course of the next two years we plan to build a prototype system that will provide a blueprint for a full public system in the US. California currently has a demonstrations warning system, ShakeAlert, that provides alerts to a group of test users from the public and private sector. These include biotech companies, technology companies, the entertainment industry, the transportation sector, and the emergency planning and response community. Most groups are currently in an evaluation mode, receiving the alerts and developing protocols for future response. The Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) system is the one group who has now implemented an automated response to the warning system. BART now stops trains when an earthquake of sufficient size is detected. Research and development also continues to develop improved early warning algorithms to better predict the distribution of shaking in large earthquakes when the finiteness of the source becomes important. The algorithms under development include the use of both seismic and GPS instrumentation and integration with existing point source algorithms. At the same time, initial testing and development of algorithms in and for the Pacific Northwest is underway. In this presentation we will review the current status of the systems, highlight the new research developments, and lay out a pathway to a full public system for the US west coast. The research and development described is ongoing at Caltech, UC Berkeley, University of Washington, ETH Zurich, Southern California Earthquake Center, and the US Geological Survey, and is funded by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation and the US Geological

  4. Alcohol Warning Posters: How To Get Legislation Passed in Your City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Science in the Public Interest, Washington, DC.

    This manual was developed to assist citizens seeking alcohol warning posters wherever alcoholic beverages are sold. Warning posters can include health information about drinking during pregnancy, the danger of using alcohol while driving or using machinery, or alcohol dependency and addiction. Warning posters are now required in cities such as New…

  5. 30 CFR 77.1102 - Warning signs; smoking and open flame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Warning signs; smoking and open flame. 77.1102... COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1102 Warning signs; smoking and open flame. Signs warning against smoking and open flames shall be posted so they can be readily seen in areas or places where fire...

  6. Longer Term Impact of Cigarette Package Warnings in Australia Compared with the United Kingdom and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua; Cummings, Kenneth M.; Thrasher, James F.; Hitchman, Sara C.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Hammond, David; Bansal-Travers, Maansi

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effects of different cigarette package warnings in Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom up to 5 years post-implementation. The data came from the International Tobacco Control Surveys. Measures included salience of warnings, cognitive responses, forgoing cigarettes and avoiding warnings. Although salience of the UK…

  7. A Walk through TRIDEC's intermediate Tsunami Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammitzsch, M.; Reißland, S.; Lendholt, M.

    2012-04-01

    The management of natural crises is an important application field of the technology developed in the project Collaborative, Complex, and Critical Decision-Support in Evolving Crises (TRIDEC), co-funded by the European Commission in its Seventh Framework Programme. TRIDEC is based on the development of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) and the Distant Early Warning System (DEWS) providing a service platform for both sensor integration and warning dissemination. In TRIDEC new developments in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) are used to extend the existing platform realising a component-based technology framework for building distributed tsunami warning systems for deployment, e.g. in the North-eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and Connected Seas (NEAM) region. The TRIDEC system will be implemented in three phases, each with a demonstrator. Successively, the demonstrators are addressing challenges, such as the design and implementation of a robust and scalable service infrastructure supporting the integration and utilisation of existing resources with accelerated generation of large volumes of data. These include sensor systems, geo-information repositories, simulation tools and data fusion tools. In addition to conventional sensors also unconventional sensors and sensor networks play an important role in TRIDEC. The system version presented is based on service-oriented architecture (SOA) concepts and on relevant standards of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) and the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS). In this way the system continuously gathers, processes and displays events and data coming from open sensor platforms to enable operators to quickly decide whether an early warning is necessary and to send personalized warning messages to the authorities and the population at large through a wide range of communication channels. The system

  8. Design and Implementation of Anti Lost Bluetooth Low Energy Mobile Device for Mobile Phone

    OpenAIRE

    Prajakta S. Chavan; Uttam L. Bombale

    2014-01-01

    Today mobile phone like smart phone, tablet are very costly ranging from 300 USD to 600 USD , to avoid them to get forget at any social places, we can have mobile device(gadget) which will warn us (beep)this device is left back .To make commercialize product which will act as mobile phone watchmen, with specification and characteristic like smallest device foot print, comfortable to carry along, ultra low power consumption to increase battery life and to avoid frequent chargin...

  9. Miniature solid-state lasers for pointing, illumination, and warning devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D. C.; Singley, J. M.; Yager, E.; Kowalewski, K.; Lotito, B.; Guelzow, J.; Hildreth, J.; Kuper, J. W.

    2008-04-01

    In this paper we review the current status of and progress towards higher power and more wavelength diverse diode-pumped solid-state miniature lasers. Snake Creek Lasers now offers unprecedented continuous wave (CW) output power from 9.0 mm and 5.6 mm TO type packages, including the smallest green laser in the world, the MicroGreen TM laser, and the highest density green laser in the world, the MiniGreen TM laser. In addition we offer an infrared laser, the MiniIR TM, operating at 1064 nm, and have just introduced a blue Mini laser operating at 473 nm in a 9.0 mm package. Recently we demonstrated over 1 W of output power at 1064 nm from a 12 mm TO type package, and green output power from 300-500 mW from the same 12 mm package. In addition, the company is developing a number of other innovative new miniature CW solid-state lasers operating at 750 nm, 820 nm, 458 nm, and an eye-safe Q-switched laser operating at 1550 nm. We also review recently demonstrated combining volume Bragg grating (VBG) technology has been combined with automatic power control (APC) to produce high power MiniGreen TM lasers whose output is constant to +/- 10 % over a wide temperature range, without the use of a thermoelectric cooler (TEC). This technology is expected to find widespread application in military and commercial applications where wide temperature operation is particularly important. It has immediate applications in laser pointers, illuminators, and laser flashlights, and displays.

  10. Use of Cancer-Linked Fibroid Device Declines After FDA Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The report was published Aug. 23 in the Journal of the American Medical Association . For the study, Wright and colleagues collected ... Huntington Hospital, N.Y.; Aug. 23/30, 2016, Journal of the American Medical Association HealthDay Copyright (c) 2016 HealthDay . All rights ...

  11. Smokers’ and E-Cigarette Users’ Perceptions about E-Cigarette Warning Statements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia A. Wackowski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette warning labels are important sources of risk information, but warning research for other tobacco products is limited. This study aimed to gauge perceptions about warnings that may be used for e-cigarettes. We conducted six small focus groups in late 2014/early 2015 with adult current e-cigarette users and cigarette-only smokers. Participants rated and discussed their perceptions of six e-cigarette warning statements, and warnings in two existing Vuse and MarkTen e-cigarette ads. Participants were open to e-cigarette warnings and provided the strongest reactions to statements warning that e-liquid/e-vapor or e-cigarettes can be poisonous, contain toxins, or are “not a safe alternative to smoking”. However, many also noted that these statements were exaggerated, potentially misleading, and could scare smokers away from reducing their harm by switching to e-cigarettes. Opinions on the Food and Drug Administration’s proposed nicotine addiction warning and warnings that e-cigarettes had not been approved for smoking cessation or had unknown health effects were mixed. Participants perceived MarkTen’s advertisement warning to be stronger and more noticeable than Vuse’s. Care should be taken in developing e-cigarette warnings given their relative recentness and potential for harm reduction compared to other tobacco products. Additional research, including with varied audiences, would be instructive.

  12. Smokers' and E-Cigarette Users' Perceptions about E-Cigarette Warning Statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackowski, Olivia A; Hammond, David; O'Connor, Richard J; Strasser, Andrew A; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette warning labels are important sources of risk information, but warning research for other tobacco products is limited. This study aimed to gauge perceptions about warnings that may be used for e-cigarettes. We conducted six small focus groups in late 2014/early 2015 with adult current e-cigarette users and cigarette-only smokers. Participants rated and discussed their perceptions of six e-cigarette warning statements, and warnings in two existing Vuse and MarkTen e-cigarette ads. Participants were open to e-cigarette warnings and provided the strongest reactions to statements warning that e-liquid/e-vapor or e-cigarettes can be poisonous, contain toxins, or are "not a safe alternative to smoking". However, many also noted that these statements were exaggerated, potentially misleading, and could scare smokers away from reducing their harm by switching to e-cigarettes. Opinions on the Food and Drug Administration's proposed nicotine addiction warning and warnings that e-cigarettes had not been approved for smoking cessation or had unknown health effects were mixed. Participants perceived MarkTen's advertisement warning to be stronger and more noticeable than Vuse's. Care should be taken in developing e-cigarette warnings given their relative recentness and potential for harm reduction compared to other tobacco products. Additional research, including with varied audiences, would be instructive. PMID:27376310

  13. Smokers’ and E-Cigarette Users’ Perceptions about E-Cigarette Warning Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackowski, Olivia A.; Hammond, David; O’Connor, Richard J.; Strasser, Andrew A.; Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette warning labels are important sources of risk information, but warning research for other tobacco products is limited. This study aimed to gauge perceptions about warnings that may be used for e-cigarettes. We conducted six small focus groups in late 2014/early 2015 with adult current e-cigarette users and cigarette-only smokers. Participants rated and discussed their perceptions of six e-cigarette warning statements, and warnings in two existing Vuse and MarkTen e-cigarette ads. Participants were open to e-cigarette warnings and provided the strongest reactions to statements warning that e-liquid/e-vapor or e-cigarettes can be poisonous, contain toxins, or are “not a safe alternative to smoking”. However, many also noted that these statements were exaggerated, potentially misleading, and could scare smokers away from reducing their harm by switching to e-cigarettes. Opinions on the Food and Drug Administration’s proposed nicotine addiction warning and warnings that e-cigarettes had not been approved for smoking cessation or had unknown health effects were mixed. Participants perceived MarkTen’s advertisement warning to be stronger and more noticeable than Vuse’s. Care should be taken in developing e-cigarette warnings given their relative recentness and potential for harm reduction compared to other tobacco products. Additional research, including with varied audiences, would be instructive. PMID:27376310

  14. The role of warning behaviors in threat assessment: an exploration and suggested typology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid Meloy, J; Hoffmann, Jens; Guldimann, Angela; James, David

    2012-01-01

    The concept of warning behaviors offers an additional perspective in threat assessment. Warning behaviors are acts which constitute evidence of increasing or accelerating risk. They are acute, dynamic, and particularly toxic changes in patterns of behavior which may aid in structuring a professional's judgment that an individual of concern now poses a threat - whether the actual target has been identified or not. They require an operational response. A typology of eight warning behaviors for assessing the threat of intended violence is proposed: pathway, fixation, identification, novel aggression, energy burst, leakage, directly communicated threat, and last resort warning behaviors. Previous research on risk factors associated with such warning behaviors is reviewed, and examples of each warning behavior from various intended violence cases are presented, including public figure assassination, adolescent and adult mass murder, corporate celebrity stalking, and both domestic and foreign acts of terrorism. Practical applications and future research into warning behaviors are suggested. PMID:22556034

  15. Ferroelectric devices

    CERN Document Server

    Uchino, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    Updating its bestselling predecessor, Ferroelectric Devices, Second Edition assesses the last decade of developments-and setbacks-in the commercialization of ferroelectricity. Field pioneer and esteemed author Uchino provides insight into why this relatively nascent and interdisciplinary process has failed so far without a systematic accumulation of fundamental knowledge regarding materials and device development.Filling the informational void, this collection of information reviews state-of-the-art research and development trends reflecting nano and optical technologies, environmental regulat

  16. The Rosetta phone: a hand-held device for automatic translation of signs in natural images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafri, Syed Ali Raza; Mikkilineni, Aravind K.; Boutin, Mireille; Delp, Edward J.

    2008-02-01

    When traveling in a region where the local language is not written using the Roman alphabet, translating written text (e.g., documents, road signs, or placards) is a particularly difficult problem since the text cannot be easily entered into a translation device or searched using a dictionary. To address this problem, we are developing the "Rosetta Phone," a handheld device (e.g., PDA or mobile telephone) capable of acquiring a picture of the text, identifying the text within the image, and producing both an audible and a visual English interpretation of the text. We started with English, as a developement language, for which we achieved close to 100% accuracy in identifying and reading text. We then modified the system to be able to read and translate words written using the Arabic character set. We currently achieve approximately 95% accuracy in reading words from a small directory of town names.

  17. Tsunamis detection, monitoring, and early-warning technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Joseph, Antony

    2011-01-01

    The devastating impacts of tsunamis have received increased focus since the Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004, the most devastating tsunami in over 400 years of recorded history. This professional reference is the first of its kind: it provides a globally inclusive review of the current state of tsunami detection technology and will be a much-needed resource for oceanographers and marine engineers working to upgrade and integrate their tsunami warning systems. It focuses on the two main tsunami warning systems (TWS): International and Regional. Featured are comparative assessments of detection, monitoring, and real-time reporting technologies. The challenges of detection through remote measuring stations are also addressed, as well as the historical and scientific aspects of tsunamis.

  18. Earthquake warning system for infrastructures : a scoping analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Nancy S.; O' Connor, Sharon L.; Stamber, Kevin Louis; Kelic, Andjelka; Fogleman, William E. (GRIT, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Vugrin, Eric D.; Corbet, Thomas Frank, Jr.; Brown, Theresa Jean

    2011-09-01

    This report provides the results of a scoping study evaluating the potential risk reduction value of a hypothetical, earthquake early-warning system. The study was based on an analysis of the actions that could be taken to reduce risks to population and infrastructures, how much time would be required to take each action and the potential consequences of false alarms given the nature of the action. The results of the scoping analysis indicate that risks could be reduced through improving existing event notification systems and individual responses to the notification; and production and utilization of more detailed risk maps for local planning. Detailed maps and training programs, based on existing knowledge of geologic conditions and processes, would reduce uncertainty in the consequence portion of the risk analysis. Uncertainties in the timing, magnitude and location of earthquakes and the potential impacts of false alarms will present major challenges to the value of an early-warning system.

  19. Deep ocean early warning signals of an Atlantic MOC collapse

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Qing Yi; Dijkstra, Henk A

    2014-01-01

    The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC) is a crucial part of the climate system because of its associated northward heat transport. The present-day MOC is sensitive to freshwater anomalies and may collapse to a state with a strongly reduced northward heat transport. A future collapse of the Atlantic MOC has been identified as one of the most dangerous tipping points in the climate system. It is therefore crucial to develop early warning indicators for such a potential collapse based on relatively short time series. So far, attempts to use indicators based on critical slowdown have been marginally successful. Based on complex climate network reconstruction, we here present a promising new indicator for the MOC collapse that efficiently monitors spatial changes in deep ocean circulation. Through our analysis of the performance of this indicator we formulate optimal locations of measurement of the MOC to provide early warning signals of a collapse. Our results imply that an increase in spatial reso...

  20. The Forecasting and Warning System of Geological Disasters in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YaoXuexiang; XuJing

    2004-01-01

    Geological disasters such as landslide and mudslide can be caused by many factors. Collaborations among different governmental agencies and multi-disciplines are necessary to establish a forecasting and warning system of geological disasters ( FWSGD). A FWSGD in China has been in operation since June 1 , 2003 as a joint project between the China Meteorological Administration (CMA) and the Ministry of Land and Resources ( MLR). This system has successfully shown very good social and economic benefits. The temporal-spatial distributions of China geological disasters and their causes have been analyzed in this paper. The FWSGD is described and its possible existing issues are also discussed. Authors suggest a new approach to study these disasters from interactions of the earth systems. Finally, a monitoring, forecasting, warning and preventing system for geological disasters in China is proposed.

  1. Design And Construction Of Early Warning Environmental Radiation Monitoring Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early Warning Environmental Radiation Monitoring Station, used ONLINE environmental radiation monitoring and early warning network, has high sensitive radiation detection and it can send the alarm signal quickly by the Internet network to the emergency management office. Its gamma Probes are one NaI(Tl) detector and three GM detectors. The NaI(Tl) detector is used to monitor Spectrum environmental radiation and identify the Isotopes, the other are used to detect high dose rate of gamma rays. This instrument must tolerate a wide range of ambient temperature and strong temperature slopes when used in outdoor. However, the gain of photomultiplier tube, amplifier and ADC must be stabilized by pulsed LEDs used as precision reference light sources. (author)

  2. Late lessons from early warnings: science, precaution, innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen Foss

    2013-01-01

    rather than present specific estimates for these costs. Making the best use of environmental science and modelling helps to make environmental protection and precaution a priority. Producing cost estimates should not be left to economists alone, but should rather be seen as a starting point for a broader...... innovations whilst minimising harms. This chapter revisits some key environmental issues for which estimates of costs of inaction have been carefully developed over many years of research. The aim is to consider the methodological challenges involved in producing estimates that are credible and appropriate......The 2013 Late lessons from early warnings report is the second of its type produced by the European Environment Agency (EEA) in collaboration with a broad range of external authors and peer reviewers. The case studies across both volumes of Late lessons from early warnings cover a diverse range...

  3. Early warning signals detect critical impacts of experimental warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Lauren; McCann, Kevin; Tunney, Tyler; Gellner, Gabriel; Fryxell, John M

    2016-09-01

    Earth's surface temperatures are projected to increase by ~1-4°C over the next century, threatening the future of global biodiversity and ecosystem stability. While this has fueled major progress in the field of physiological trait responses to warming, it is currently unclear whether routine population monitoring data can be used to predict temperature-induced population collapse. Here, we integrate trait performance theory with that of critical tipping points to test whether early warning signals can be reliably used to anticipate thermally induced extinction events. We find that a model parameterized by experimental growth rates exhibits critical slowing down in the vicinity of an experimentally tested critical threshold, suggesting that dynamical early warning signals may be useful in detecting the potentially precipitous onset of population collapse due to global climate change. PMID:27648228

  4. Alerting prefixes for speech warning messages. [in helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, N. M.; Voorhees, J. W.; Karl, R. L.; Werner, E.

    1984-01-01

    A major question posed by the design of an integrated voice information display/warning system for next-generation helicopter cockpits is whether an alerting prefix should precede voice warning messages; if so, the characteristics desirable in such a cue must also be addressed. Attention is presently given to the results of a study which ascertained pilot response time and response accuracy to messages preceded by either neutral cues or the cognitively appropriate semantic cues. Both verbal cues and messages were spoken in direct, phoneme-synthesized speech, and a training manipulation was included to determine the extent to which previous exposure to speech thus produced facilitates these messages' comprehension. Results are discussed in terms of the importance of human factors research in cockpit display design.

  5. Warning against the dangers of wildfires in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozny, M.; Bares, D.; Virag, M.; Stalmacher, J.

    2009-04-01

    Many fire risk models have been developed for various temporal and spatial scales and application purposes. The integrated warning service in the Czech Republic is used for wildfire risk assessment model of FDI (Fire Danger Index). The FDI model is being developed in the Doksany observatory based on evaluation of weather conditions. FDI model describes danger of wildfire for vegetation covered countryside. There are five levels of danger: 1 - very low risk, 2 - low risk, 3 - moderate risk, 4 - high risk, 5 - very high risk. Simply say higher index value, reflects to higher risk of wildfire. As input data, the model uses measured values from the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute stations network as well as ALADIN's model predicted conditions. The modelling process computes upper soil profile moisture, surface moistening and the spreading speed of fire. Early warning system for wildfires prevention in the Czech Republic is used since 2006.

  6. Role of remote sensing in desert locust early warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cressman, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria, Forskål) plagues have historically had devastating consequences on food security in Africa and Asia. The current strategy to reduce the frequency of plagues and manage desert locust infestations is early warning and preventive control. To achieve this, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations operates one of the oldest, largest, and best-known migratory pest monitoring systems in the world. Within this system, remote sensing plays an important role in detecting rainfall and green vegetation. Despite recent technological advances in data management and analysis, communications, and remote sensing, monitoring desert locusts and preventing plagues in the years ahead will continue to be a challenge from a geopolitical and financial standpoint for affected countries and the international donor community. We present an overview of the use of remote sensing in desert locust early warning.

  7. NEA Mitigation Studies for Short Warning Time Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbee, Brent; Syal, Megan Bruck; Gisler, Galen

    2016-01-01

    This talk describes current collaborative research efforts between NASA GSFC and the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) national labs (Lawrence Livermore, Los Alamos, and Sandia) to design systems and frameworks for robust responses to short warning time near-Earth asteroid (NEA) scenarios, in which we would have less than 10 years to respond to an NEA on its way to impact the Earth.

  8. Supernova Early Warning in Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Hanyu Wei for the Daya Bay collaboration

    2013-01-01

    Providing an early warning of a galactic supernova using neutrino signals is of importance in studying both supernova dynamics and neutrino physics. The Daya Bay reactor neutrino experiment, with a unique feature of multiple liquid scintillator detectors separated in space, is sensitive to the full energy spectrum of supernova burst electron-antineutrinos. By deploying 8 Antineutrino Detectors (ADs) in three different experimental halls, we obtain a more powerful and prompt rejection of muon ...

  9. REAL-TIME HAZARD ANALYSIS FOR EARTHQUAKE EARLY WARNING

    OpenAIRE

    Iervolino, I.; Dipartimento di Analisi e Progettazione Strutturale. Università di Napoli Federico II; Convertito, V.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione OV, Napoli, Italia; Giorgio, M.; Dipartimento di Ingegneria Aerospaziale e Meccanica. Seconda Università di Napoli; Manfredi, G.; Dipartimento di Analisi e Progettazione Strutturale. Università di Napoli Federico II; Zollo, A.; Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche. Università degli Studi “Federico II” di Napoli

    2006-01-01

    Earthquake Early Warning Systems (EEWS), based on real-time prediction of ground motion or structural response measures, may play a role in reducing vulnerability and/or exposition of buildings and lifelines. In fact, recently seismologists developed efficient methods for rapid estimation of event features by means of limited information of the P-waves. Then, when an event is occurring, probabilistic distributions of magnitude and source-to-site distance are available and the prediction of th...

  10. Implementing an Inpatient Social Early Warning System for Child Maltreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Atabaki, Armita; Heddaeus, Daniela; Metzner, Franka; Schulz, Holger; Siefert, Sönke; Pawils, Silke

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The current article describes the process evaluation of a social early warning system (SEWS) for the prevention of child maltreatment in the federal state of Hamburg. This prevention initiative targets expectant mothers and their partners including an initial screening of risk factors for child maltreatment, a subsequent structured clearing interview further exploring risks and identifying protective factors and an optional referral to the regional health and social care ...

  11. Early warning of atmospheric regime transitions using transfer operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantet, Alexis; Dijkstra, Henk

    2015-04-01

    The existence of persistent midlatitude atmospheric regimes, such as blocking events, with time scales larger than 5-10 days and indications of preferred transition paths between them motivates the development of early-warning indicators of regime transitions. Here, we use a barotropic model of the northern midlatitudes winter flow to study such meta-stable regimes. We look at estimates of transfer operators acting on densities evolving on a reduced phase space spanned by the first Empirical Orthogonal Functions of the streamfunction and develop an early-warning indicator of zonal to blocked flow transition. The study of the spectra of transfer operators estimated for different lags reveals a multi-level structure in the flow as well as the effect of memory on the reduced dynamics due to past interactions between the resolved and unresolved variables. The slowest motions in the reduced phase space are thereby found to have time scales larger than 8 days and to behave as Markovian for larger lags. These motions are associated with meta-stable regimes and their transitions and can be detected as almost-invariant sets of the transfer operator. The early-warning indicator is based on the action on an initial density of products of the transfer operators estimated for sufficiently long lags, making use of the semi-group property of these operators and shows relatively good Peirce skill score. From the energy budget of the model, we are able to explain the meta-stability of the regimes and the existence of preferred transition paths as the manifestation of barotropic instability. Finally, even though the model is highly simplified, the skill of the early warning indicator is promising, suggesting that the transfer operator approach can be used in parallel to an operational deterministic model for stochastic prediction or to assess forecast uncertainty.

  12. The genetics of monarch butterfly migration and warning coloration

    OpenAIRE

    Zhan, Shuai; Zhang, Wei; Niitepõld, Kristjan; Hsu, Jeremy; Haeger, Juan Fernández; Myron P Zalucki; Altizer, Sonia; Jacobus C de Roode; Reppert, Steven M.; Kronforst, Marcus R.

    2014-01-01

    The monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus, is famous for its spectacular annual migration across North America, recent worldwide dispersal, and orange warning coloration. Despite decades of study and broad public interest, we know little about the genetic basis of these hallmark traits. By sequencing 101 monarch genomes from around the globe, we uncover the history of the monarch's evolutionary origin and global dispersal, characterize the genes and pathways associated with migratory behavior, ...

  13. Generic tsunami scenarios for disasters and early warning preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillande, Richard; Gardi, Annalisa; Valencia, Nathalia; Salaün, Tugdual

    2010-05-01

    The implementation of the tsunami early warning systems in the NE Atlantic and Mediterranean regions will occur in countries with no preparedness and very little knowledge of potentially affected coastal zones by the various tsunami sources. The final link to coastal communities will be sirens to distribute in the concerned areas. The SCHEMA project aims at elaboration of a generic method to consider various parameters of a particular tsunami scenario. A scenario corresponds to a specific source with a given magnitude or intensity. Since we do not consider only the remote sources with possibilities of warning, local earthquake and submarine landslides are also translated in scenarios to allow the civil protections, municipalities and local stakeholders to assess cases with no real warning possibility, where life will be saved by self evacuation in nearby shelter areas or buildings. The specific temporal dimension of tsunami phenomenon is considered. Oceanic propagation time, expected duration of dangerous waves and wavelength are taken into account with their level of uncertainties. Scenarios are presented by maps and layouts with various information: inundation extension, submersion depth, receding sea limit, currents velocity or modulus of flow, modeled damage level to buildings, affected networks and lifelines. Variable dimensions such as residing or working population, by hour of the day and by season are also considered. Secondary vulnerability factors which may increase damage level to buildings are added (potentially floating objects which may turn into projectiles). The potential evacuation routes and obstacles are represented to support installation of warning networks and definition of shelters as well as evacuation routes. The scenarios are calculated using accurate digital bathymetric and topographic model with less than 10 m ground resolution allowing a very detailed mapping. This accuracy is especially important for scenarios with moderate waves for

  14. Early warnings and missed alarms for abrupt monsoon transitions

    OpenAIRE

    Z. A. Thomas; Kwasniok, F.; C. A. Boulton; Cox, P.M.; Jones, R. T.; Lenton, T. M.; C. S. M. Turney

    2015-01-01

    Palaeo-records from China demonstrate that the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) is dominated by abrupt and large magnitude monsoon shifts on millennial timescales, switching between periods of high and weak monsoon rains. It has been hypothesized that over these timescales, the EASM exhibits two stable states with bifurcation-type tipping points between them. Here we test this hypothesis by looking for early warning signals of past bifurcations in speleothem δ18O records fro...

  15. GPS water level measurements for Indonesia's Tsunami Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöne, T.; Pandoe, W.; Mudita, I.; Roemer, S.; Illigner, J.; Zech, C.; Galas, R.

    2011-03-01

    On Boxing Day 2004, a severe tsunami was generated by a strong earthquake in Northern Sumatra causing a large number of casualties. At this time, neither an offshore buoy network was in place to measure tsunami waves, nor a system to disseminate tsunami warnings to local governmental entities. Since then, buoys have been developed by Indonesia and Germany, complemented by NOAA's Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART) buoys, and have been moored offshore Sumatra and Java. The suite of sensors for offshore tsunami detection in Indonesia has been advanced by adding GPS technology for water level measurements. The usage of GPS buoys in tsunami warning systems is a relatively new approach. The concept of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) (Rudloff et al., 2009) combines GPS technology and ocean bottom pressure (OBP) measurements. Especially for near-field installations where the seismic noise may deteriorate the OBP data, GPS-derived sea level heights provide additional information. The GPS buoy technology is precise enough to detect medium to large tsunamis of amplitudes larger than 10 cm. The analysis presented here suggests that for about 68% of the time, tsunamis larger than 5 cm may be detectable.

  16. Municipalities' Preparedness for Weather Hazards and Response to Weather Warnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehiriz, Kaddour; Gosselin, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The study of the management of weather-related disaster risks by municipalities has attracted little attention even though these organizations play a key role in protecting the population from extreme meteorological conditions. This article contributes to filling this gap with new evidence on the level and determinants of Quebec municipalities' preparedness for weather hazards and response to related weather warnings. Using survey data from municipal emergency management coordinators and secondary data on the financial and demographic characteristics of municipalities, the study shows that most Quebec municipalities are sufficiently prepared for weather hazards and undertake measures to protect the population when informed of imminent extreme weather events. Significant differences between municipalities were noted though. Specifically, the level of preparedness was positively correlated with the municipalities' capacity and population support for weather-related disaster management policies. In addition, the risk of weather-related disasters increases the preparedness level through its effect on population support. We also found that the response to weather warnings depended on the risk of weather-related disasters, the preparedness level and the quality of weather warnings. These results highlight areas for improvement in the context of increasing frequency and/or severity of such events with current climate change. PMID:27649547

  17. Municipalities' Preparedness for Weather Hazards and Response to Weather Warnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehiriz, Kaddour; Gosselin, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The study of the management of weather-related disaster risks by municipalities has attracted little attention even though these organizations play a key role in protecting the population from extreme meteorological conditions. This article contributes to filling this gap with new evidence on the level and determinants of Quebec municipalities’ preparedness for weather hazards and response to related weather warnings. Using survey data from municipal emergency management coordinators and secondary data on the financial and demographic characteristics of municipalities, the study shows that most Quebec municipalities are sufficiently prepared for weather hazards and undertake measures to protect the population when informed of imminent extreme weather events. Significant differences between municipalities were noted though. Specifically, the level of preparedness was positively correlated with the municipalities’ capacity and population support for weather-related disaster management policies. In addition, the risk of weather-related disasters increases the preparedness level through its effect on population support. We also found that the response to weather warnings depended on the risk of weather-related disasters, the preparedness level and the quality of weather warnings. These results highlight areas for improvement in the context of increasing frequency and/or severity of such events with current climate change. PMID:27649547

  18. Vrancea early warning system for Bucharest and industrial objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romania is an earthquake prone area and it is of crucial importance to obtain quantitative information needed for seismic risk mitigation and related public policies and seismic safety measures. The most damaging earthquakes in Romania concentrate in the Vrancea region, located at the sharp bend of the Eastern Carpathians Arc, in a well confined focal volume at intermediate depths between 60 km and 200 km. Vrancea earthquakes are documented for at least a millennium (since 985 a.c.) and represent very peculiar characteristics. They are a permanent threat for large urban areas on the Romanian territory and extended areas in Europe. Bucharest is among the mega cities mostly affected by destructive earthquakes. The early warning system in Romania is to provide individuals and communities exposed to disaster risk due to strong Vrancea earthquakes, with accurate information about an impending hazard as early as possible, to act in a timely and appropriate manner to reduce probability of suffering, personal damage, death and property losses. The purpose of this early system is to issue messages at sites of interest before the destructive seismic energy arrives. Early warning system is a technological instrument to detect, monitor and issue warnings/alerts. It needs to become part of a management information system for decision - making in the context of national institutional frameworks for disaster management and as a part of national and local strategies for disaster risk reduction. (authors)

  19. International Cooperation for an Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning System (IOTWS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detweiler, S. T.; Mooney, W. D.; Hudnut, K.; Atwater, B.; Sipkin, S.

    2006-05-01

    A new Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning System (IOTWS) will provide tsunami early warnings and framework for disaster management and response systems. The system will utilize the leadership and technical expertise of many countries, including Indonesia, Thailand, India, Sri Lanka, and the Maldives, together with assistance from international partners. Inter-agency cooperation combines expertise in a broad range of disciplines to accomplish several goals including: 1) developing an infrastructure for real-time analysis of seismic data, and for rapid communication and warning networks, 2) land use planning and community preparation aimed at minimizing damage and loss of life from future disasters, and 3) international support for logistics, communications, training, management and administration. Throughout the implementation of the IOTWS, a primary focus will be placed on "in-country capacity building," so that individual nations will be self- sustaining in the future. This will be accomplished, partly, by training provided during workshops, international exchange, and building national capabilities. The USAID/USGS program was launched in August, 2005 and will be implemented over a two-year period. Participating U.S. government Agencies: the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Trade and Development Agency (USTDA), and the US Forest Service (USFS).

  20. Progress in developing an Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning System (IOTWS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detweiler, S.; Mooney, W. D.; Kelly, A.; Atwater, B.; Sipkin, S.; Petersen, M.; Hudnut, K.

    2007-12-01

    Nearly three years following the devastating 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, there is much progress to report on building a new Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning System (IOTWS) which will provide tsunami early warnings and framework for disaster management and response systems. To date, the IOTWS has utilized the leadership and technical expertise of many countries including Indonesia, Thailand, India, Sri Lanka, and the Maldives, together with assistance from international partners. Inter-agency cooperation has combined expertise in a broad range of disciplines to accomplish several goals including: 1) developing infrastructures for both real-time analysis of seismic data and rapid communication and warnings (including the upgrade of several Indonesian seismic and GPS stations), 2) land use planning and community preparation aimed at minimizing damage and loss of life from future disasters, and 3) international support for logistics, communications, training, management and administration. Throughout the implementation of the IOTWS, a primary focus was placed on "in-country capacity building," so that individual nations can be self-sustaining in their efforts. We believe that this has been accomplished through extensive training sessions, workshops and site visits.

  1. Early warnings and missed alarms for abrupt monsoon transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Z. A.; Kwasniok, F.; Boulton, C. A.; Cox, P. M.; Jones, R. T.; Lenton, T. M.; Turney, C. S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Palaeo-records from China demonstrate that the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) is dominated by abrupt and large magnitude monsoon shifts on millennial timescales, switching between periods of high and weak monsoon rains. It has been hypothesized that over these timescales, the EASM exhibits two stable states with bifurcation-type tipping points between them. Here we test this hypothesis by looking for early warning signals of past bifurcations in speleothem δ18O records from Sanbao Cave and Hulu Cave, China, spanning the penultimate glacial cycle. We find that although there are increases in both autocorrelation and variance preceding some of the monsoon transitions during this period, it is only immediately prior to the abrupt monsoon shift at the penultimate deglaciation (Termination II) that statistically significant increases are detected. To supplement our data analysis, we produce and analyse multiple model simulations that we derive from these data. We find hysteresis behaviour in our model simulations with transitions directly forced by solar insolation. However, signals of critical slowing down, which occur on the approach to a bifurcation, are only detectable in the model simulations when the change in system stability is sufficiently slow to be detected by the sampling resolution of the data set. This raises the possibility that the early warning "alarms" were missed in the speleothem data over the period 224-150 kyr and it was only at the monsoon termination that the change in the system stability was sufficiently slow to detect early warning signals.

  2. Seasonal Water Balance Forecasts for Drought Early Warning in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirig, Christoph; Bhend, Jonas; Liniger, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Droughts severely impact Ethiopian agricultural production. Successful early warning for drought conditions in the upcoming harvest season therefore contributes to better managing food shortages arising from adverse climatic conditions. So far, however, meteorological seasonal forecasts have not been used in Ethiopia's national food security early warning system (i.e. the LEAP platform). Here we analyse the forecast quality of seasonal forecasts of total rainfall and of the meteorological water balance as a proxy for plant available water. We analyse forecast skill of June to September rainfall and water balance from dynamical seasonal forecast systems, the ECMWF System4 and EC-EARTH global forecasting systems. Rainfall forecasts outperform forecasts assuming a stationary climate mainly in north-eastern Ethiopia - an area that is particularly vulnerable to droughts. Forecasts of the water balance index seem to be even more skilful and thus more useful than pure rainfall forecasts. The results vary though for different lead times and skill measures employed. We further explore the potential added value of dynamically downscaling the forecasts through several dynamical regional climate models made available through the EU FP7 project EUPORIAS. Preliminary results suggest that dynamically downscaled seasonal forecasts are not significantly better compared with seasonal forecasts from the global models. We conclude that seasonal forecasts of a simple climate index such as the water balance have the potential to benefit drought early warning in Ethiopia, both due to its positive predictive skill and higher usefulness than seasonal mean quantities.

  3. Early warning signals of tipping points in periodically forced systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Mark S.; Bathiany, Sebastian; Lenton, Timothy M.

    2016-04-01

    The prospect of finding generic early warning signals of an approaching tipping point in a complex system has generated much interest recently. Existing methods are predicated on a separation of timescales between the system studied and its forcing. However, many systems, including several candidate tipping elements in the climate system, are forced periodically at a timescale comparable to their internal dynamics. Here we use alternative early warning signals of tipping points due to local bifurcations in systems subjected to periodic forcing whose timescale is similar to the period of the forcing. These systems are not in, or close to, a fixed point. Instead their steady state is described by a periodic attractor. For these systems, phase lag and amplification of the system response can provide early warning signals, based on a linear dynamics approximation. Furthermore, the Fourier spectrum of the system's time series reveals harmonics of the forcing period in the system response whose amplitude is related to how nonlinear the system's response is becoming with nonlinear effects becoming more prominent closer to a bifurcation. We apply these indicators as well as a return map analysis to a simple conceptual system and satellite observations of Arctic sea ice area, the latter conjectured to have a bifurcation type tipping point. We find no detectable signal of the Arctic sea ice approaching a local bifurcation.

  4. LED-Based High-Voltage Lines Warning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldar MUSA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available LED-based system, running with the current of high-voltage lines and converting the current flowing through the line into the light by using a toroid transformer, has been developed. The transformer’s primary winding is constituted by the high voltage power line. Toroidal core consists of two equal parts and the secondary windings are evenly placed on these two parts. The system is mounted on the high-voltage lines as a clamp. The secondary winding ends are connected in series by the connector on the clamp. LEDs are supplied by the voltage at the ends of secondary. Current flowing through highvoltage transmission lines is converted to voltage by the toroidal transformer and the light emitting LEDs are supplied with this voltage. The theory of the conversion of the current flowing through the line into the light is given. The system, running with the current of the line and converting the current into the light, has been developed. System has many application areas such as warning high voltage lines (warning winches to not hinder the high-voltage lines when working under the lines, warning planes to not touch the high-voltage lines, remote measurement of high-voltage line currents, and local illumination of the line area

  5. TRMM Applications for Rainfall-Induced Landslide Early Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dok, A.; Fukuoka, H.; Hong, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Early warning system (EWS) is the most effective method in saving lives and reducing property damages resulted from the catastrophic landslides if properly implemented in populated areas of landslide-prone nations. For predicting the occurrence of landslides, it requires examination of empirical relationship between rainfall characteristics and past landslide occurrence. In developed countries like Japan and the US, precipitation is monitored by rain radars and ground-based rain gauge matrix. However, in developing regions like Southeast Asian countries, very limited number of rain gauges is available, and there is no implemented methodology for issuing effective warming of landslides yet. Correspondingly, satellite precipitation monitoring could be therefore a possible and promising solution for launching landslide quasi-real-time early warning system in those countries. It is due to the fact that TMPA (TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis) can provides a globally calibration-based sequential scheme for combining precipitation estimates from multiple satellites, and gauge analyses where feasible, at fine scales (3-hourly with 0.25°x0.25° spatial resolution). It is available both after and in quasi-real time, calibrated by TRMM Combined Instrument and TRMM Microwave Imager precipitation product. However, validation of ground based rain gauge and TRMM satellite data in the vulnerable regions is still not yet operative. Snake-line/Critical-line and Soil Water Index (SWI) are used for issuing warning of landslide occurrence in Japan; whereas, Caine criterion is preferable in Europe and western nations. Herewith, it presents rainfall behavior which took place in Beichuan city (located on the 2008 Chinese Wenchuan earthquake fault), Hofu and Shobara cities in Japan where localized heavy rainfall attacked in 2009 and 2010, respectively, from TRMM 3B42RT correlated with ground based rain gauge data. The 1-day rainfall intensity and 15-day cumulative rainfall

  6. Debris flow early warning systems in Norway: organization and tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleivane, I.; Colleuille, H.; Haugen, L. E.; Alve Glad, P.; Devoli, G.

    2012-04-01

    In Norway, shallow slides and debris flows occur as a combination of high-intensity precipitation, snowmelt, high groundwater level and saturated soil. Many events have occurred in the last decades and are often associated with (or related to) floods events, especially in the Southern of Norway, causing significant damages to roads, railway lines, buildings, and other infrastructures (i.e November 2000; August 2003; September 2005; November 2005; Mai 2008; June and Desember 2011). Since 1989 the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE) has had an operational 24 hour flood forecasting system for the entire country. From 2009 NVE is also responsible to assist regions and municipalities in the prevention of disasters posed by landslides and snow avalanches. Besides assisting the municipalities through implementation of digital landslides inventories, susceptibility and hazard mapping, areal planning, preparation of guidelines, realization of mitigation measures and helping during emergencies, NVE is developing a regional scale debris flow warning system that use hydrological models that are already available in the flood warning systems. It is well known that the application of rainfall thresholds is not sufficient to evaluate the hazard for debris flows and shallow slides, and soil moisture conditions play a crucial role in the triggering conditions. The information on simulated soil and groundwater conditions and water supply (rain and snowmelt) based on weather forecast, have proved to be useful variables that indicate the potential occurrence of debris flows and shallow slides. Forecasts of runoff and freezing-thawing are also valuable information. The early warning system is using real-time measurements (Discharge; Groundwater level; Soil water content and soil temperature; Snow water equivalent; Meteorological data) and model simulations (a spatially distributed version of the HBV-model and an adapted version of 1-D soil water and energy balance

  7. Drought early warning and risk management in a changing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulwarty, R. S.

    2011-12-01

    Drought has long been recognized as falling into the category of incremental but long-term and cumulative environmental changes, also termed slow-onset or creeping events. These event types would include: air and water quality decline, desertification processes, deforestation and forest fragmentation, loss of biodiversity and habitats, and nitrogen overloading, among others. Climate scientists continue to struggle with recognizing the onset of drought and scientists and policy makers continue to debate the basis (i.e., criteria) for declaring an end to a drought. Risk-based management approaches to drought planning at the national and regional levels have been recommended repeatedly over the years but their prototyping, testing and operational implementation have been limited. This presentation will outline two avenues for disaster risk reduction in the context of drought (1) integrated early warning information systems, and (2) linking disaster risk reduction to climate change adaptation strategies. Adaptation involves not only using operational facilities and infrastructure to cope with the immediate problems but also leaving slack or reserve for coping with multiple stress problems that produce extreme impacts and surprise. Increasing the 'anticipatability' of an event, involves both monitoring of key indicators from appropriate baseline data, and observing early warning signs that assumptions in risk management plans are failing and critical transitions are occurring. Illustrative cases will be drawn from the IPCC Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters (2011), the UN Global Assessment of Disaster Risk Reduction (2011) and implementation activities in which the author has been engaged. Most drought early warning systems have tended to focus on the development and use of physical system indicators and forecasts of trends and thresholds. We show that successful early warning systems that meet expectations of risk management also have

  8. Study of Disseminating Landslide Early Warning Information in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koay, Swee Peng; Lateh, Habibah; Tien Tay, Lea; Ahamd, Jamilah; Chan, Huah Yong; Sakai, Naoki; Jamaludin, Suhaimi

    2015-04-01

    In Malaysia, rain induced landslides are occurring more often than before. The Malaysian Government allocates millions of Malaysian Ringgit for slope monitoring and slope failure remedial measures in the budget every year. In rural areas, local authorities also play a major role in monitoring the slope to prevent casualty by giving information to the residents who are staying near to the slopes. However, there are thousands of slopes which are classified as high risk slopes in Malaysia. Implementing site monitoring system in these slopes to monitor the movement of the soil in the slopes, predicting the occurrence of slopes failure and establishing early warning system are too costly and almost impossible. In our study, we propose Accumulated Rainfall vs. Rainfall Intensity prediction method to predict the slope failure by referring to the predicted rainfall data from radar and the rain volume from rain gauges. The critical line which determines if the slope is in danger, is generated by simulator with well-surveyed the soil property in the slope and compared with historical data. By establishing such predicting system, the slope failure warning information can be obtained and disseminated to the surroundings via SMS, internet and siren. However, establishing the early warning dissemination system is not enough in disaster prevention, educating school children and the community by giving knowledge on landslides, such as landslide's definition, how and why does the slope failure happen and when will it fail, to raise the risk awareness on landslides will reduce landslides casualty, especially in rural area. Moreover, showing video on the risk and symptom of landslides in school will also help the school children gaining the knowledge of landslides. Generating hazard map and landslides historical data provides further information on the occurrence of the slope failure. In future, further study on fine tuning of landslides prediction method, applying IT technology to

  9. Design and evaluation of multimedia security warnings for the interaction between humans and industrial robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruth, Jana; Kraetzer, Christian; Dittmann, Jana

    2011-01-01

    In this document a multi-media security warning design approach for automated production scenarios with industrial robots is introduced. This first approach is based on and adapts design principles of common security programs and a German VDI standard for safety warnings design. We focus on direct human-to-robot interaction scenarios, e.g. the online-programming of industrial robots, because of their potential indirect safety impacts, which could be caused by malicious codes infection of a robots control computer. We designed ten different multi-media security warnings, composed of visual and acoustical information. Visual information of warnings is transported via a traffic light metaphor (symbolizing three different threat levels), different warn icons (symbolizing properties of malicious codes) and instructions icons to programmers or operators and additional textual information. With an acknowledgment button in the middle of the warning, the programmer's confirmation of the reception of the warning is verified. Additionally, three different acoustical signals also indicate the threat level of the warning. Furthermore, an evaluation is presented, which uses concepts known from usability testing (method of loud thinking, questionnaire, time measurement). The aim is to evaluate general design criteria of our developed security warnings and tendency of user perception for further advancement of our warnings design.

  10. Exploring the Role of Social Memory of Floods for Designing Flood Early Warning Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girons Lopez, Marc; Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Grabs, Thomas; Halldin, Sven; Seibert, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Early warning systems are an important tool for natural disaster mitigation practices, especially for flooding events. Warnings rely on near-future forecasts to provide time to take preventive actions before a flood occurs, thus reducing potential losses. However, on top of the technical capacities, successful warnings require an efficient coordination and communication among a range of different actors and stakeholders. The complexity of integrating the technical and social spheres of warning systems has, however, resulted in system designs neglecting a number of important aspects such as social awareness of floods thus leading to suboptimal results. A better understanding of the interactions and feedbacks among the different elements of early warning systems is therefore needed to improve their efficiency and therefore social resilience. When designing an early warning system two important decisions need to be made regarding (i) the hazard magnitude at and from which a warning should be issued and (ii) the degree of confidence required for issuing a warning. The first decision is usually taken based on the social vulnerability and climatic variability while the second one is related to the performance (i.e. accuracy) of the forecasting tools. Consequently, by estimating the vulnerability and the accuracy of the forecasts, these two variables can be optimized to minimize the costs and losses. Important parameters with a strong influence on the efficiency of warning systems such as social awareness are however not considered in their design. In this study we present a theoretical exploration of the impact of social awareness on the design of early warning systems. For this purpose we use a definition of social memory of flood events as a proxy for flood risk awareness and test its effect on the optimization of the warning system design variables. Understanding the impact of social awareness on warning system design is important to make more robust warnings that can

  11. Ventricular assist device

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAD; RVAD; LVAD; BVAD; Right ventricular assist device; Left ventricular assist device; Biventricular assist device; Heart pump; Left ventricular assist system; LVAS; Implantable ventricular assist device

  12. On the importance of risk knowledge for an end-to-end tsunami early warning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Joachim; Strunz, Günter; Riedlinger, Torsten; Mück, Matthias; Wegscheider, Stephanie; Zosseder, Kai; Steinmetz, Tilmann; Gebert, Niklas; Anwar, Herryal

    2010-05-01

    Warning systems commonly use information provided by networks of sensors able to monitor and detect impending disasters, aggregate and condense these information to provide reliable information to a decision maker whether to warn or not, disseminates the warning message and provide this information to people at risk. Ultimate aim is to enable those in danger to make decisions (e.g. initiate protective actions for buildings) and to take action to safe their lives. This involves very complex issues when considering all four elements of early warning systems (UNISDR-PPEW), namely (1) risk knowledge, (2) monitoring and warning service, (3) dissemination and communication, (4) response capability with the ultimate aim to gain as much time as possible to empower individuals and communities to act in an appropriate manner to reduce injury, loss of life, damage to property and the environment and loss of livelihoods. Commonly most warning systems feature strengths and main attention on the technical/structural dimension (monitoring & warning service, dissemination tools) with weaknesses and less attention on social/cultural dimension (e.g. human response capabilities, defined warning chain to and knowing what to do by the people). Also, the use of risk knowledge in early warning most often is treated in a theoretical manner (knowing that it is somehow important), yet less in an operational, practical sense. Risk assessments and risk maps help to motivate people, prioritise early warning system needs and guide preparations for response and disaster prevention activities. Beyond this risk knowledge can be seen as a tie between national level early warning and community level reaction schemes. This presentation focuses on results, key findings and lessons-learnt related to tsunami risk assessment in the context of early warning within the GITEWS (German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning) project. Here a novel methodology reflecting risk information needs in the early warning

  13. Semimanufacture intended to be mounted on a vibrating wall or a vibrating panel for actively damping vibrations of the wall, wall or panel provided with such semimanufacture, system provided with a semimanufacture and a control unit, wall or panel provided with a control unit and method for damping audible vibrations of a wall or panel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goeje, de Marius; Overbeek, van Michiel Wilbert R.M.; Waal, van der Adri; Berkhoff, Arthur P.; Nederveen, Peter J.

    2006-01-01

    A semimanufacture intended to be mounted on a vibrating wall or a vibrating panel for actively damping the vibrations in the wall or the panel with frequencies which are at least partly audible, wherein the semimanufacture is provided with a plate wherein the plate is integrated with: at least one v

  14. Feasibility study of earthquake early warning (EEW) in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Weston A.; Hotovec-Ellis, Alicia J.; Bodin, Paul

    2016-09-30

    The effects of earthquake shaking on the population and infrastructure across the State of Hawaii could be catastrophic, and the high seismic hazard in the region emphasizes the likelihood of such an event. Earthquake early warning (EEW) has the potential to give several seconds of warning before strong shaking starts, and thus reduce loss of life and damage to property. The two approaches to EEW are (1) a network approach (such as ShakeAlert or ElarmS) where the regional seismic network is used to detect the earthquake and distribute the alarm and (2) a local approach where a critical facility has a single seismometer (or small array) and a warning system on the premises.The network approach, also referred to here as ShakeAlert or ElarmS, uses the closest stations within a regional seismic network to detect and characterize an earthquake. Most parameters used for a network approach require observations on multiple stations (typically 3 or 4), which slows down the alarm time slightly, but the alarms are generally more reliable than with single-station EEW approaches. The network approach also benefits from having stations closer to the source of any potentially damaging earthquake, so that alarms can be sent ahead to anyone who subscribes to receive the notification. Thus, a fully implemented ShakeAlert system can provide seconds of warning for both critical facilities and general populations ahead of damaging earthquake shaking.The cost to implement and maintain a fully operational ShakeAlert system is high compared to a local approach or single-station solution, but the benefits of a ShakeAlert system would be felt statewide—the warning times for strong shaking are potentially longer for most sources at most locations.The local approach, referred to herein as “single station,” uses measurements from a single seismometer to assess whether strong earthquake shaking can be expected. Because of the reliance on a single station, false alarms are more common than

  15. Separating device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, T.P.R.

    2001-01-01

    A sorting device (1) suitable for sorting wire from a waste stream, comprising a body (2) that moves when in use, and provided with spikes or similar projections. The body is embodied as a rotatable roll (2), which oscillates axially during its rotation. The roll is coupled to an oscillation engine

  16. Printing Device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den M.J.; Markies, P.R.; Zuilhof, H.

    2014-01-01

    An ink jetprinting device includes a pressure chamber formed by a plurality of wall segments, a first aperture extending through a wall segment and communicating with an ink jet orifice and a second aperture extending through a wall segment and communicating with an ink supply duct. The pressure cha

  17. Electrochemical device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Patrick G.; Einstein, Harry; Bellows, Richard J.

    1988-01-12

    A tunnel protected electrochemical device features channels fluidically communicating between manifold, tunnels and cells. The channels are designed to provide the most efficient use of auxiliary power. The channels have a greater hydraulic pressure drop and electrical resistance than the manifold. This will provide a design with the optimum auxiliary energy requirements.

  18. Stratification devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon

    2008-01-01

    results in longer operation periods and improved utilization of the solar collector. Thermal stratification can be achieved, for example by using inlet stratification devices at all inlets to the storage tank. This paper presents how thermal stratification is established and utilized by means of inlet...

  19. Accuracy and speed of response to different voice types in a cockpit voice warning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, J.; Rumbaugh, W. A.

    1983-09-01

    Voice warning systems (VWS) in aircraft cockpits provide a valuable means of warning identification. Improvements in technology have made the VWS a viable addition to aircraft warning systems. This thesis was an experiment to determine the best voice type (male, female, or neutral machine) for use in a VWS for military aircraft. Different levels of engine background noise, signal to noise ratio of the warning message, and precursor delivery formats were used. The experiment had ten subjects performing a primary tracking task; at random intervals a voice warning was interjected, requiring that the subjects respond by pushing the correct button. The results of this experiment contradict some previous beliefs and findings. The male voice was associated with more accurate responses for voice warning systems in the military aircraft environment. For speed of response the results were more complicated; the male voice was generally more closely associated with faster response times for accurate responses.

  20. A Warning System for Overspeed at the Corner Using Visible Light Based Road-To-Vehicle Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuniyoshi Okuda

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available When a car enters a corner with over speed, it rises the accident risk higher. To warn the risk and urging the caution to drivers, many of the accident-prone corners have warning rights. The driver can decelerate the car smoothly and pass through the corner safety by those devices. However, appropriate speed for each corner is different by curvature of the corner and characteristics of the vehicle. The driver has to suppose the safe speed for every corner only by experience, usually. Of course too much slow causes traffic jam. Especially at the first road in the first place for the driver, it is difficult to suppose the curvatures of the corners. Then, we propose a visible light communication system so that the warning lights in the corner send appropriate warning information. Visible light communication transmits a signal by blinking the light. One of the characteristics of visible light communication is that it can use existing lighting equipment as a transmitter. In our system, we can distribute the warning information to the driver using the visible light communication. Though the curvature(R:radious of the corner does not change, the speed of each vehicle to approach the corner always to different. Focusing the distance from the corner to the car, we consider a communication system to send different kind of information according to that distance. If the distance is enough long, the driver has a plenty of time to decelerate the vehicle. The more the distance becomes short, the more the driver is required rapid deceleration. Therefore, to distribute the appropriate warning information to the driver, dividing the distance from the corner into some areas, we make the system to send different information in each area. Generally in communication system, modulation primarily changes the amplitude, phase or frequency. In visible light communication, change of the amplitude changes the brightness, which causes flickering that burdens the drivers

  1. The Self-Organising Seismic Early Warning Information Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picozzi, M.

    2009-04-01

    The Self-Organizing Seismic Early Warning Information Network (SOSEWIN) represents a new approach for Earthquake Early Warning Systems (EEWS), consisting in taking advantage of novel wireless communications technologies. It also sets out to overcome problems of insufficient node density, which typically affects present existing early warning systems, by having the SOSEWIN seismological sensing units being comprised of low-cost components (generally bought "off-the-shelf"), with each unit initially costing 100's of Euros, in contrast to 1,000's to 10,000's for standard seismological stations. The reduced sensitivity of the new sensing units arising from the use of lower-cost components will be compensated by the network's density, which in the future is expected to number 100's to 1000's over areas served currently by the order of 10's of standard stations. The robustness, independence of infrastructure, spontaneous extensibility and a self-healing/self-organizing character in the event of failing sensors during an earthquake makes SOSEWIN particularly useful for urban areas. Moreover, in the post-event time frame, negligible assumptions or interpolations would be necessary for assessing the strong ground shaking and earthquake intensities. In SOSEWIN, the ground motion is continuously monitored by conventional accelerometers (3-component) and geophones and analyzed using robust signal analysis methods by each sensing node of the network. The incoming signals are pre-processed by bandpass filtering and the detection processing is performed using an automatic STA/LTA trigger algorithm. Signal attributes are iteratively estimated from the P-wave part of the recordings (e.g. PGA, PGV, PGD, Arias Intensity and Cumulative Absolute Velocity) to determine if the earthquake is of sufficient magnitude to be of concern to issue a system alarm. Differently from most existing EEWS where the alarming system relies on estimates provided by only a few seismic stations, the SOSEWIN

  2. Implementing the national AIGA flash flood warning system in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organde, Didier; Javelle, Pierre; Demargne, Julie; Arnaud, Patrick; Caseri, Angelica; Fine, Jean-Alain; de Saint Aubin, Céline

    2015-04-01

    The French national hydro-meteorological and flood forecasting centre (SCHAPI) aims to implement a national flash flood warning system to improve flood alerts for small-to-medium (up to 1000 km2) ungauged basins. This system is based on the AIGA method, co-developed by IRSTEA these last 10 years. The method, initially set up for the Mediterranean area, is based on a simple event-based hourly hydrologic distributed model run every 15 minutes (Javelle et al. 2014). The hydrologic model ingests operational radar-gauge rainfall grids from Météo-France at a 1-km² resolution to produce discharges for successive outlets along the river network. Discharges are then compared to regionalized flood quantiles of given return periods and warnings (expressed as the range of the return period estimated in real-time) are provided on a river network map. The main interest of the method is to provide forecasters and emergency services with a synthetic view in real time of the ongoing flood situation, information that is especially critical in ungauged flood prone areas. In its enhanced national version, the hourly event-based distributed model is coupled to a continuous daily rainfall-runoff model which provides baseflow and a soil moisture index (for each 1-km² pixel) at the beginning of the hourly simulation. The rainfall-runoff models were calibrated on a selection of 700 French hydrometric stations with Météo-France radar-gauge reanalysis dataset for the 2002-2006 period. To estimate model parameters for ungauged basins, the 2 hydrologic models were regionalised by testing both regressions (using different catchment attributes, such as catchment area, soil type, and climate characteristic) and spatial proximity techniques (transposing parameters from neighbouring donor catchments), as well as different homogeneous hydrological areas. The most valuable regionalisation method was determined for each model through jack-knife cross-validation. The system performance was then

  3. The Self-Organising Seismic Early Warning Information Network: Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühnlenz, F.; Fischer, J.; Eveslage, I.

    2009-04-01

    SAFER and EDIM working groups, the Department of Computer Science, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany, and Section 2.1 Earthquake Risk and Early Warning, GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Germany Contact: Frank Kühnlenz, kuehnlenz@informatik.hu-berlin.de The Self-Organising Seismic Early Warning Information Network (SOSEWIN) represents a new approach for Earthquake Early Warning Systems (EEWS), consisting in taking advantage of novel wireless communications technologies without the need of a planned, centralised infrastructure. It also sets out to overcome problems of insufficient node density, which typically affects present existing early warning systems, by having the SOSEWIN seismological sensing units being comprised of low-cost components (generally bought "off-the-shelf"), with each unit initially costing 100's of Euros, in contrast to 1,000's to 10,000's for standard seismological stations. The reduced sensitivity of the new sensing units arising from the use of lower-cost components will be compensated by the network's density, which in the future is expected to number 100's to 1000's over areas served currently by the order of 10's of standard stations. The robustness, independence of infrastructure, spontaneous extensibility due to a self-healing/self-organizing character in the case of removing/failing or adding sensors makes SOSEWIN potentially useful for various use cases, e.g. monitoring of building structures or seismic microzonation. Nevertheless its main purpose is the earthquake early warning, for which reason the ground motion is continuously monitored by conventional accelerometers (3-component). It uses SEEDLink to store and provide access to the sensor data. SOSEWIN considers also the needs of earthquake task forces, which want to set-up a temporary seismic network rapidly and with light-weighted stations to record after-shocks. The wireless and self-organising character of this sensor network should be of great value

  4. Young Adults’ Perceptions of Cigarette Warning Labels in the United States and Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle O’Hegarty, PhD

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionFor the past 20 years, there have been no changes to the text-only cigarette warning labels in the United States. During this same time period, other countries placed large graphic warning labels on cigarette packages. The purpose of this study was to investigate the reactions of U.S. young adult smokers and nonsmokers aged 18 to 24 years to Canadian cigarette label text and graphic warnings. The study focused on determining their perceptions and the potential impact of Canadian labels on smoking, and study participants were asked for suggestions for modifications of U.S. cigarette warning labels so they would be effective for smoking deterrence and cessation.Methods During January and February 2002, 11 focus groups consisting of 54 smokers and 41 nonsmokers were conducted in the Detroit metropolitan area. Current smokers were defined as those who had smoked a cigarette within the past 30 days. Participants were asked about their knowledge and perceptions of current U.S. cigarette warning labels and their impressions of Canadian cigarette warning labels.AnalysisA content analysis and a word index were applied to the transcripts of all focus groups to identify and clarify themes and domains that appeared in group discussions and to compare results across different groups.ResultsFocus group participants reported that Canadian cigarette warning labels were more visible and informative than U.S. cigarette warning labels. Messages perceived to be relevant to smokers were considered effective. Education level did not appear related to how participants responded to warning labels. There were some differences for warning labels that had sex-specific messages.DiscussionWarning labels are one component of comprehensive tobacco control and smoking cessation efforts. Stronger warnings on cigarette packages need to be part of a larger U.S. public health educational effort.

  5. A European precipitation index for extreme rain-storm and flash flood early warning

    OpenAIRE

    ALFIERI LORENZO; THIELEN DEL POZO Jutta

    2012-01-01

    Extreme rain-storms are known for triggering devastating flash floods in various regions of Europe and particularly along the Mediterranean coasts. Despite recent notable advances in weather forecasting, most operational early warning systems for extreme rainstorms and flash floods are based on rainfall estimation, rather than on forecasts. As a result, warning lead times are bounded to few hours and warnings are usually issued when the event is already taking place. This work proposes a n...

  6. Flash flood detection through a multi-stage probabilistic warning system for heavy precipitation events

    OpenAIRE

    Alfieri, L.; Velasco, D.; Thielen, J.

    2011-01-01

    The deadly combination of short to no warning lead times and the vulnerability of urbanized areas makes flash flood events extremely dangerous for the modern society. This paper contributes to flash flood early warning by proposing a multi-stage warning system for heavy precipitation events based on threshold exceedances within a probabilistic framework. It makes use of meteorological products at different resolutions, namely, numerical weather predictions (NWP), radar-NWP b...

  7. INTELLIGENT EARLY-WARNING SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR ENTERPRISE FINANCIAL CRISIS BASED ON CASE-BASED REASONING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhanbo LEI; Yoshiyasu YAMADA; Jihong HUANG; Youmin XI

    2006-01-01

    Case-based reasoning (CBR) is an important reasoning technique of expert system. In this paper, the authors introduce CBR to intelligent early-warning support system, which could warn quantitatively for enterprise financial crisis and could warn qualitatively by expert's knowledge and experience. Furthermore, genetic algorithm is applied to case-based reasoning in CBR-IEWSS, which improves accuracy and efficiency of case retrieval. Last, the structure of CBR-IEWSS is given.

  8. Context-sensitive distraction warnings : effects on drivers' visual behavior and acceptance

    OpenAIRE

    Kujala, Tuomo; Karvonen, Hannu; Mäkelä, Jakke

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of context-sensitive distraction warnings on drivers׳ in-car glance behaviors and acceptance. The studied prototype warning application functions on a smart phone. The novelty of the application is its proactive and context-sensitive approach to the adjustment of warning thresholds according to the estimated visual demands of the driving situation ahead. In our study, novice and experienced drivers conducted in-car tasks with a smart phone on a test ...

  9. A visual warning system to reduce struck-by or pinning accidents involving mobile mining equipment

    OpenAIRE

    Sammarco, J.; Gallagher, S.; Mayton, A.; Srednicki, J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an experiment to examine whether a visual warning system can improve detection of moving machine hazards that could result in struck-by or pinning accidents. Thirty-six participants, twelve each in one of three age groups, participated in the study. A visual warning system capable of providing four different modes of warning was installed on a continuous mining machine that is used to mine coal. The speed of detecting various machine movements was recorded with and withou...

  10. Architecture for Mitigating Short-Term Warning Cosmic Threats: READI Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambiar, Shrrirup P.; Hussein, Alaa; Silva-Martinez, Jackelynne; Reinert, Jessica; Gonzalez, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Earth is being constantly bombarded by a large variety of celestial bodies and has been since its formation 4.5 billion years ago. Among those bodies, mainly asteroids and comets, there are those that have the potential to create large scale destruction upon impact. The only extinction-level impact recorded to date was 65 million years ago, during the era of dinosaurs. The probability of another extinction-level, or even city-killer, impact may be negligible, but the consequences can be severe for the biosphere and for our species. Therefore it is highly imperative for us to be prepared for such a devastating impact in the near future, especially since humanity is at the threshold of wielding technologies that allow us to do so. Majority of scientists, engineers, and policymakers have focused on long-term strategies and warning periods for Earth orbit crossing Near-Earth Objects (NEOs), and have suggested methods and policies to tackle such problems. However, less attention has been paid to short warning period NEO threats. Such NEOs test current technological and international cooperation capabilities in protecting ourselves, and can create unpredictable devastation ranging from local to global scale. The most recent example is the Chelyabinsk incident in Russia. This event has provided a wakeup call for space agencies and governments around the world towards establishing a Planetary Defense Program. The Roadmap for EArth Defense Initiative (READI) is a project by a team of international, intercultural, and interdisciplinary participants of the International Space University's Space Studies Program 2015 hosted by Ohio University, Athens, OH proposing a roadmap for space agencies, governments, and the general public to tackle NEOs with a short warning before impact. Taking READI as a baseline, this paper presents a technical description of methodologies proposed for detection and impact mitigation of a medium-sized comet (up to 800m across) with a short-warning

  11. Refining Prescription Warning Labels Using Patient Feedback: A Qualitative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olayinka O Shiyanbola

    Full Text Available The complexity of written medication information hinders patients' understanding and leads to patient misuse of prescribed medications. Incorporating patient feedback in designing prescription warning labels (PWLs is crucial in enhancing patient comprehension of medication warning instructions. This qualitative study explored patient feedback on five newly designed PWLs. In-depth semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with 21 patients, who were 18 years and older, spoke English, and took a prescription medication. These patients were shown different variations of the five most commonly used PWLs-Take with Food, Do not Drink Alcohol, Take with a Full glass of Water, Do not Chew or Break, and Protect from Sunlight. The 60-minute interviews explored feedback on patient comprehension of the PWL instructions and their suggestions for improving the clarity of the PWLs. At the end of the interview, patient self-reported socio-demographic information was collected with a 3-minute survey and a brief health literacy assessment was completed using the Newest Vital Sign. Twenty-one patients completed the interviews. Most patients were female (n = 15, 71.4% with ages ranging from 23 to 66 years old (mean: 47.6 ± 13.3. The mean health literacy score was 2.4 on a scale of 0-6. Qualitative content analysis based on the text, pictures, and placement of the PWLs on the pill bottle showed preferences for including 'WARNING' on the PWL to create alertness, inclusion of a picture together with the text, yellow color highlighting behind the text, and placement of the PWL on the front of the pill bottle. Although patients had positive opinions of the redesigned PWLs, patients wanted further improvements to the content and design of the PWLs for enhanced clarity and understandability.

  12. "Warning card" as a prevention of prolonged apnea in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajtman, Z; Surina, B; Bartolek, D; Car, D; Gasparović, S; Kirincić, N; Rudez, J

    2002-12-01

    Human butyrylcholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.8) (BChE) is present in serum mainly as "usual UU" form, but it has also been found in variant forms known as "atypical" BChE. The most important predictive value of BChE phenotype is for anesthetist to prevent prolonged apnea. BChE has an important role in the hydrolysis of neuromuscular relaxant succinylcholine (suxamethonium, scoline) used during anesthesia. In order to detect atypical variants of BChE and give these findings to the anesthetists-surgeons before an operation to avoid the prolonged apnea, we phenotyped 542 sera of children before tonsillectomies. Total BChE activity was measured using butyrylthiocholine as substrate and dibucaine, fluoride, urea and dimethylcarbamate Ro 02-0683 were used as inhibitors. The frequencies of phenotypes in 542 children were: UU, UA, US, SS, AS and AA--92.25%, 7.01%, 0.18%, 0.18%, 0.18%, 0.18% respectively. Once established phenotype of BChE does not change during the lifetime. Therefore the carriers of atypical phenotype of BChE received a "Warning card", which is a permanent warning for succinylcholine application, as well as a sign to the members of the families to test their own phenotype of BChE. In our study three "Warning cards" were given: two to the carriers of atypical phenotype and third to a child presented as SS phenotype with low total activity of BChE. The present study is the first clinical evaluation of this genetic abnormality in the Republic of Croatia. PMID:12674844

  13. Developing an Early Warning System for Machu Picchu Pueblo, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulmer, Mark; Farquhar, Tony

    2010-05-01

    The town of Machu Picchu, Peru, is linked to Ollantaytambo and Cusco by rail and serves as the main station for the 400,000+ tourists visiting Machu Picchu. Due to the tourist industry the town grown threefold in population in the past two decades. Today, due to the limited availability of low-lying ground, construction is occurring higher up on the unstable valley slopes. The town is located at 2000 m asl while the surrounding peaks rise to over 4000 m asl. Slopes range from 70° in the surrounding granite mountains. The town has grown on the downstream right bank of the Vilcanota River, at the confluence of the Alcamayo and the Aguas Calientes Rivers. Broadly, a dry winter season runs from May to August with a rainy summer season running from October to March. The rainy months provide around 80% of the annual rainfall average, which ranges from 1,600 to 2,300 mm. Seasonal temperature variations are considered modest. An assessment of the geohazards in and around the town has been undertaken. Those of particular concern to the town are 1) large rocks falling onto the town and/or the rail line, 2) flash flooding by any one of its three rivers, and 3) mudflows and landslides. To improve the existing municipal warning system a prototype early warning system incorporating suitable technologies that could monitor weather, river flow and slope satability was installed along the Aguas Calientes River in 2009. This has a distributed modular construction allowing most components to be installed, maintained, swapped, salvaged, repaired and/or replaced by local technicians. A diverse set of candidate power, communication and sensor technologies was deployed and evaluated. Most of the candidate technologies had never been deployed in similar terrain, altitude or weather. The successful deployment of the prototype proved that it is technically feasible to develop early warning capacity in the town.

  14. Refining Prescription Warning Labels Using Patient Feedback: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiyanbola, Olayinka O; Smith, Paul D; Mansukhani, Sonal Ghura; Huang, Yen-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The complexity of written medication information hinders patients' understanding and leads to patient misuse of prescribed medications. Incorporating patient feedback in designing prescription warning labels (PWLs) is crucial in enhancing patient comprehension of medication warning instructions. This qualitative study explored patient feedback on five newly designed PWLs. In-depth semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with 21 patients, who were 18 years and older, spoke English, and took a prescription medication. These patients were shown different variations of the five most commonly used PWLs-Take with Food, Do not Drink Alcohol, Take with a Full glass of Water, Do not Chew or Break, and Protect from Sunlight. The 60-minute interviews explored feedback on patient comprehension of the PWL instructions and their suggestions for improving the clarity of the PWLs. At the end of the interview, patient self-reported socio-demographic information was collected with a 3-minute survey and a brief health literacy assessment was completed using the Newest Vital Sign. Twenty-one patients completed the interviews. Most patients were female (n = 15, 71.4%) with ages ranging from 23 to 66 years old (mean: 47.6 ± 13.3). The mean health literacy score was 2.4 on a scale of 0-6. Qualitative content analysis based on the text, pictures, and placement of the PWLs on the pill bottle showed preferences for including 'WARNING' on the PWL to create alertness, inclusion of a picture together with the text, yellow color highlighting behind the text, and placement of the PWL on the front of the pill bottle. Although patients had positive opinions of the redesigned PWLs, patients wanted further improvements to the content and design of the PWLs for enhanced clarity and understandability. PMID:27258026

  15. Ozone generation by rock fracture: Earthquake early warning?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baragiola, Raul A.; Dukes, Catherine A.; Hedges, Dawn [Engineering Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States)

    2011-11-14

    We report the production of up to 10 ppm ozone during crushing and grinding of typical terrestrial crust rocks in air, O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} at atmospheric pressure, but not in helium or nitrogen. Ozone is formed by exoelectrons emitted by high electric fields, resulting from charge separation during fracture. The results suggest that ground level ozone produced by rock fracture, besides its potential health hazard, can be used for early warning in earthquakes and other catastrophes, such as landslides or land shifts in excavation tunnels and underground mines.

  16. Nowcasting, forecasting and warning for ionospheric propagation: supporting databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Jakowski

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of data is essential in the context of nowcasting, forecasting and warning of ionospheric propagation conditions, with roles to play in the development, evaluation and operation of models and services. Descriptions are given of three databases that have been established in the course of the COST 271 Action: a database of prompt ionospheric soundings, an extension to a database generated by the EISCAT incoherent scatter radars, and a database intended to facilitate evaluation of TEC estimation methods. Each database includes some background information, a description of the contents and interface, and instructions as to how to gain access to it.

  17. Earthquake early warning for Romania - most recent improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmureanu, Alexandru; Elia, Luca; Martino, Claudio; Colombelli, Simona; Zollo, Aldo; Cioflan, Carmen; Toader, Victorin; Marmureanu, Gheorghe; Marius Craiu, George; Ionescu, Constantin

    2014-05-01

    EWS for Vrancea earthquakes uses the time interval (28-32 sec.) between the moment when the earthquake is detected by the local seismic network installed in the epicenter area (Vrancea) and the arrival time of the seismic waves in the protected area (Bucharest) to send earthquake warning to users. In the last years, National Institute for Earth Physics (NIEP) upgraded its seismic network in order to cover better the seismic zones of Romania. Currently the National Institute for Earth Physics (NIEP) operates a real-time seismic network designed to monitor the seismic activity on the Romania territory, dominated by the Vrancea intermediate-depth (60-200 km) earthquakes. The NIEP real-time network consists of 102 stations and two seismic arrays equipped with different high quality digitizers (Kinemetrics K2, Quanterra Q330, Quanterra Q330HR, PS6-26, Basalt), broadband and short period seismometers (CMG3ESP, CMG40T, KS2000, KS54000, KS2000, CMG3T,STS2, SH-1, S13, Ranger, gs21, Mark l22) and acceleration sensors (Episensor). Recent improvement of the seismic network and real-time communication technologies allows implementation of a nation-wide EEWS for Vrancea and other seismic sources from Romania. We present a regional approach to Earthquake Early Warning for Romania earthquakes. The regional approach is based on PRESTo (Probabilistic and Evolutionary early warning SysTem) software platform: PRESTo processes in real-time three channel acceleration data streams: once the P-waves arrival have been detected, it provides earthquake location and magnitude estimations, and peak ground motion predictions at target sites. PRESTo is currently implemented in real- time at National Institute for Earth Physics, Bucharest for several months in parallel with a secondary EEWS. The alert notification is issued only when both systems validate each other. Here we present the results obtained using offline earthquakes originating from Vrancea area together with several real

  18. Flexible Early Warning Systems with Workflows and Decision Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, F.; Chaves, F.; Zeiner, H.

    2012-04-01

    An essential part of early warning systems and systems for crisis management are decision support systems that facilitate communication and collaboration. Often official policies specify how different organizations collaborate and what information is communicated to whom. For early warning systems it is crucial that information is exchanged dynamically in a timely manner and all participants get exactly the information they need to fulfil their role in the crisis management process. Information technology obviously lends itself to automate parts of the process. We have experienced however that in current operational systems the information logistics processes are hard-coded, even though they are subject to change. In addition, systems are tailored to the policies and requirements of a certain organization and changes can require major software refactoring. We seek to develop a system that can be deployed and adapted to multiple organizations with different dynamic runtime policies. A major requirement for such a system is that changes can be applied locally without affecting larger parts of the system. In addition to the flexibility regarding changes in policies and processes, the system needs to be able to evolve; when new information sources become available, it should be possible to integrate and use these in the decision process. In general, this kind of flexibility comes with a significant increase in complexity. This implies that only IT professionals can maintain a system that can be reconfigured and adapted; end-users are unable to utilise the provided flexibility. In the business world similar problems arise and previous work suggested using business process management systems (BPMS) or workflow management systems (WfMS) to guide and automate early warning processes or crisis management plans. However, the usability and flexibility of current WfMS are limited, because current notations and user interfaces are still not suitable for end-users, and workflows

  19. Geoethical issues involved in Tsunami Warning System concepts and operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalampakis, Marinos; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos A.; Tinti, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    The main goal of a Tsunami Warning System (TWS) is to mitigate the effect of an incoming tsunami by alerting coastal population early enough to allow people to evacuate safely from inundation zones. Though this representation might seem oversimplified, nonetheless, achieving successfully this goal requires a positive synergy of geoscience, communication, emergency management, technology, education, social sciences, politics. Geoethical issues arise always when there is an interaction between geoscience and society, and TWS is a paradigmatic case where interaction is very strong and is made critical because a) the formulation of the tsunami alert has to be made in a time as short as possible and therefore on uncertain data, and b) any evaluation error (underestimation or overestimation) can lead to serious (and sometimes catastrophic) consequences involving wide areas and a large amount of population. From the geoethical point of view three issues are critical: how to (i) combine forecasts and uncertainties reasonably and usefully, (ii) cope and possibly solve the dilemma whether it is better over-alerting or under-alerting population and (iii) deal with responsibility and liability of geoscientists, TWS operators, emergency operators and coastal population. The discussion will be based on the experience of the Hellenic National Tsunami Warning Center (HL-NTWC, Greece), which operates on 24/7 basis as a special unit of the Institute of Geodynamics, National Observatory of Athens, and acts also as Candidate Tsunami Service Provider (CTSP) in the framework of the North-Eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and connected seas Tsunami Warning System (NEAMTWS) of the IOC/UNESCO. Since August 2012, when HL-NTWC was officially declared as operational, 14 tsunami warning messages have been disseminated to a large number of subscribers after strong submarine earthquakes occurring in Greece and elsewhere in the eastern Mediterranean. It is recognized that the alerting process

  20. Towards Detection of Early Warning Signals on Financial Crises

    OpenAIRE

    Puchkova, A.; Kryazhimskiy, A.V.

    2012-01-01

    The financial crises of 2001-2002 and 2008-2009 had a significant impact on the world economy. In this paper, we investigate whether early warning signals can be seen in financial time series preceding the crises. In our analysis, we use data on the Dow Jones Industrial Average and Federal Reserve Interest Rate. We construct a random process describing the occurrence of positive and negative signals in a time series preceding the financial crisis of 2001-2002. We use the constructed random pr...

  1. Tehran dust storm early warning system: corrective measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradian, Mohammad Javad; Rastegarfar, Behnaz; Rastegar, Mohammad Reza; Ardalan, Ali

    2015-01-01

    On June 2, 2014 a sandstorm hit Tehran, the capital city of Iran which killed 5 and injured 44 people. The early warning system did not operate properly and the alarm was not transferred to at risk population and the related organizations in time and in a right manner. Additionally, people who were exposed to the winds didn't know the appropriate safety measures. Focusing much more on establishing EWS to alert the risk prone population timely and public education for taking safety measures when exposed to the disastrous situation is recommended. PMID:25774324

  2. CONCEPTUAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE PACIFIC, ATLANTIC AND ARCTIC TSUNAMI WARNING SYSTEMS FOR CANADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Murty

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Canada has coastlines on three of the four oceans on the globe, namely, the Pacific, Atlantic and Arctic oceans. The Pacific and Atlantic oceans are connected to the Arctic Ocean in the north, but still they are three distinct oceans, and need three individual tsunami warning systems. Tsunamis in the Arctic Ocean are not as well documented as in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. From what is known, tsunamis in the Arctic Ocean are rare and probably are small in amplitude. Because of very low population density, around the Canadian Arctic, at present, there is no priority for a tsunami warning system for Arctic Canada. For the Pacific Ocean, a tsunami warning system is in existence since 1948. In at least one sense, the warning aspects of the tsunami warning system for the Pacific coast of Canada, is relatively simple and straight forward, because it involves only the federal government (PSEPC and the provincial government of British Columbia (PEP. For the Atlantic Ocean, A tsunami warning system is now being established. The warning aspects will be some what more complex for eastern Canada, since it not only involves the federal government, but also five provinces, namely, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island and Quebec. The Alaska tsunami warning center (ATWC in Palmer, Alaska, provides tsunami warnings for both Pacific and Atlantic Canada.

  3. Ethical and Practical Considerations in Removing Black Box Warnings from Drug Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, James S; Sarpatwari, Ameet; Kesselheim, Aaron S

    2016-08-01

    Boxed warnings-also known as "black box" warnings-can be a powerful tool in communicating drug risks to physicians and patients. The overall number of boxed warnings has grown in recent years as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved more drugs on the basis of limited pre-marketing information and as new safety issues for marketed drugs have been identified. Two recent manufacturers' petitions to remove boxed warnings on the drugs rosiglitazone (Avandia) and varenicline (Chantix) have led to divergent FDA decisions and revealed different considerations involved in boxed warning imposition and removal. For ethical and practical reasons, the FDA is justified in applying a higher standard for boxed warning removal than for imposition, as removal of a boxed warning may have unintended effects on physician and patient behavior. However, no guidelines on boxed warning removal currently exist. To promote safe use of approved prescription drugs, the FDA should adopt a uniform and transparent process governing decisions to impose or remove boxed warnings. PMID:27000800

  4. "Distinvar" device

    CERN Multimedia

    1965-01-01

    The alignment of one of the accelerator magnets being checked by the AR Division survey group. A "distinvar" device, invented by the group, using calibrated invar wires stretched between the fixed survey pillar (on the left) and a fixed point on the magnet. In two days it is thus possible to measure the alignment of the 100 magnets with an accuracy better than 1/10.

  5. Development of an Anti-Theft Device using Motion Detection and Body Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhowel Dellosa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available –The researcher aimed to design, assemble and determine the performance of the anti-theft device using motion detection and body temperature. The study utilized developmental design to observe the functionality of the device. Study showed that the anti-theft device can detect motion from a moving object for those with body temperature like human being, animals. A signal from the sensor circuits will trigger the receiver circuit to produce an audible sound that served as alarm. It was also found out that the output of the study is accurate in terms of detecting moving objects with body temperature during day and night times. The researchers formulated an evaluation instrument to determine its performance. Results showed that the device had a good performance and acceptable in terms of functionality. It is strongly recommended that further studies be conducted to enrich the anti-theft device using motion detection and body temperature in a controlled environment like museum and banks to determine the effectiveness of the integration of the anti-theft device.

  6. Feasibility study of earthquake early warning (EEW) in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Weston A.; Hotovec-Ellis, Alicia J.; Bodin, Paul

    2016-09-30

    The effects of earthquake shaking on the population and infrastructure across the State of Hawaii could be catastrophic, and the high seismic hazard in the region emphasizes the likelihood of such an event. Earthquake early warning (EEW) has the potential to give several seconds of warning before strong shaking starts, and thus reduce loss of life and damage to property. The two approaches to EEW are (1) a network approach (such as ShakeAlert or ElarmS) where the regional seismic network is used to detect the earthquake and distribute the alarm and (2) a local approach where a critical facility has a single seismometer (or small array) and a warning system on the premises.The network approach, also referred to here as ShakeAlert or ElarmS, uses the closest stations within a regional seismic network to detect and characterize an earthquake. Most parameters used for a network approach require observations on multiple stations (typically 3 or 4), which slows down the alarm time slightly, but the alarms are generally more reliable than with single-station EEW approaches. The network approach also benefits from having stations closer to the source of any potentially damaging earthquake, so that alarms can be sent ahead to anyone who subscribes to receive the notification. Thus, a fully implemented ShakeAlert system can provide seconds of warning for both critical facilities and general populations ahead of damaging earthquake shaking.The cost to implement and maintain a fully operational ShakeAlert system is high compared to a local approach or single-station solution, but the benefits of a ShakeAlert system would be felt statewide—the warning times for strong shaking are potentially longer for most sources at most locations.The local approach, referred to herein as “single station,” uses measurements from a single seismometer to assess whether strong earthquake shaking can be expected. Because of the reliance on a single station, false alarms are more common than

  7. An Early Warning System for fluvial flooding in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Femke; Stam, Jasper; Sprokkereef, Eric; van Dijk, Marc

    2013-04-01

    Fluvial flooding is one of the major natural hazards in the modern world. In a densely populated area, such as The Netherlands, the possibility of flooding of the Rhine and Meuse poses a significant threat to society. There is a clear need for reliable and robust hydrological forecasting. The Water Management Centre for the Netherlands and Deltares have developed an early warning system that uses real-time data provided by a large number of European meteorological and hydrological gauging stations, weather forecasts from three different weather services, and rainfall-runoff and hydraulic models. Data assimilation techniques are used to update both model states and parameter outputs. In addition, a post processing method, quantile regression, is applied to hydrological ensemble output. This presentation will demonstrate the operational flood early warning system (based on Delft-FEWS) applied to these rivers. Recent challenges are, for example, the visualization of uncertainties on deterministic and probabilistic forecasts, the clear communication and visualization of the enormous amount of data available, and snow modelling.

  8. Nipple Discharge: An Early Warning Sign of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veda Parthasarathy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nipple discharge (ND can be the earliest presenting symptom of breast cancer. We hereby present two cases of breast cancer with no palpable mass manifesting as isolated ND, which was whitish in color. In both cases, cytology of the discharge revealed highly pleomorphic cells indicating a high grade malignancy. Mammography showed diffuse, extensive microcalcifications. Simple mastectomy with axillary clearance was done. Histology in both cases revealed diffusely spreading intraductal carcinoma, with focus of microinvasion in one case. ND if scanty or not blood stained is often ignored by the patients and at times, the clinicians. This article highlights that ND can be an early warning sign of intraductal carcinomas that are non-invasive in early stage. Irrespective of the color or nature of the discharge, unilateral ND needs to be evaluated. Proper clinical assessment, cytological evaluation of the ND, and mammography ought to be performed in all such cases. Considering the low level of awareness in women regarding the warning signs of breast cancer, the current focus is to create "breast awareness." Women should be sensitized to recognize any unusual changes in their breasts and report to their health care providers at the earliest.

  9. Interpretations of cigarette advertisement warning labels by Philadelphia Puerto Ricans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Nancy; Gilpin, Dawn R; Lenos, Melissa; Hobbs, Renee

    2011-09-01

    This study examined Philadelphia Puerto Ricans' interpretations of the Surgeon General's warnings that appear on cigarette packaging and in advertisements. In-home family focus groups in which participants were asked to comment on magazine cigarette advertisements showed a great variety of interpretations of the legally mandated warning labels. These findings (a) corroborate and add to research in public health and communications regarding the possibility of wide variations in message interpretations and (b) support the call for public health messages to be carefully tested for effectiveness among different social groups. The article's focus on Puerto Ricans addresses the problem of misleading conclusions that can arise from aggregating all Latino subpopulations into one group. The use of a naturalistic setting to examine interpretations of messages about smoking departs from the experimental methods typically used for such research and provides new evidence that even a seemingly straightforward message can be interpreted in multiple ways. Understanding and addressing differences in message interpretation can guide public health campaigns aimed at reducing health disparities. PMID:21534024

  10. Superficial siderosis is a warning sign for future intracranial hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, Jennifer; Wollenweber, Frank A; Lummel, Nina; Bochmann, Katja; Pfefferkorn, Thomas; Gschwendtner, Andreas; Bruckmann, Hartmut; Dichgans, Martin; Opherk, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Supratentorial superficial siderosis (SS) is a frequent imaging marker of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). It is most probably caused by focal subarachnoid hemorrhages (fSAHs). Based on single-case observations, it has been proposed that such fSAHs might be a predisposing factor for future intracranial hemorrhage. Here we tested the hypothesis if a SS as a residue of fSAHs must be regarded as a warning sign for future intracranial hemorrhage. Fifty-one consecutive patients with SS and no apparent cause other than possible or probable CAA were identified through a database search and followed-up for a median interval of 35.3 months (range 6-120 months). Main outcome measures were rate and location of new intracranial hemorrhages. Twenty-four patients (47.1 %) had experienced any new intracranial hemorrhage, 18 patients (35.3 %) had an intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and in 13 of them (25.5 %), the hemorrhage was located at the site of pre-existing siderosis. Six patients (11.7 %) had developed a new subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), four of them at the site of siderosis. Patients with SS are at substantial risk for subsequent intracranial hemorrhage. SS can be considered a warning sign of future ICH or SAH, which frequently occur adjacent to pre-existing SS. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  11. Rift Valley fever, disease ecology and early warning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) once again dramatically affected the Horn of Africa (Kenya, Somalia, and Tanzania) in 2006-2007. This outbreak was linked to unusual rainfall associated with climatic events (El Nino) which affected the populations of the mosquitoes acting as vectors and reservoirs of the disease. The disease also reappeared in Sudan in the autumn of 2007, following excessive rainfall driven by a post-El Nino and unusually warm sea temperatures in the Indian Ocean. In 2008, the disease affected southern African countries (Swaziland, South Africa) and islands in the Indian Ocean (Comoros, Mayotte Island, Madagascar). Based on near real-time climatic data, forecasting models and early warning systems were available at the continental level and proved to be efficient in raising the alert before the onset of the epidemic, at least for the coastal countries of eastern Africa. These recent events provided an opportunity to review the natural history of RVF, especially in some places where its ecology was poorly documented. FAO and WHO officers used outcomes from the different models and then identified gaps or needs that could be filled in order to improve the use of these predictions. A brainstorming meeting was organised in Rome in September 2008 to discuss adjustments and complementarities to the existing models, as forecasting and early warning systems are the keys that may provide a time window for preventive measures before amplification of the virus is out of control. (author)

  12. Early warning of changing drinking water quality by trend analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomperi, Jani; Juuso, Esko; Leiviskä, Kauko

    2016-06-01

    Monitoring and control of water treatment plants play an essential role in ensuring high quality drinking water and avoiding health-related problems or economic losses. The most common quality variables, which can be used also for assessing the efficiency of the water treatment process, are turbidity and residual levels of coagulation and disinfection chemicals. In the present study, the trend indices are developed from scaled measurements to detect warning signs of changes in the quality variables of drinking water and some operating condition variables that strongly affect water quality. The scaling is based on monotonically increasing nonlinear functions, which are generated with generalized norms and moments. Triangular episodes are classified with the trend index and its derivative. Deviation indices are used to assess the severity of situations. The study shows the potential of the described trend analysis as a predictive monitoring tool, as it provides an advantage over the traditional manual inspection of variables by detecting changes in water quality and giving early warnings. PMID:27280609

  13. Early-warning signals for an outbreak of theinfluenza pandemic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Di; Gao Jie

    2011-01-01

    Over the course of human history,influenza pandemics have been seen as major disasters,so studies on the influenza virus have become an important issue for many experts and scholars.Comprehensive research has been performed over the years on the biological properties,chemical characteristics,external environmental factors and other aspects of the virus,and some results have been achieved.Based on the chaos game representation walk model,this paper uses the time series analysis method to study the DNA sequences of the influenza virus from 1913 to 2010,and works out the early-warning signals indicator value for the outbreak of an influenza pandemic.The variances in the CGR walk sequences for the pandemic years (or + -1 to 2 years) are significantly higher than those for the adjacent years,while those in the non-pandemic years are usually smaller.In this way we can provide an influenza early-warning mechanism so that people can take precautions and be well prepared prior to a pandemic.

  14. Tsunami Warning Center in Turkey : Status Update 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meral Ozel, N.; Necmioglu, O.; Yalciner, A. C.; Kalafat, D.; Yilmazer, M.; Comoglu, M.; Sanli, U.; Gurbuz, C.; Erdik, M.

    2012-04-01

    This is an update to EGU2011-3094 informing on the progress of the establishment of a National Tsunami Warning Center in Turkey (NTWC-TR) under the UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission - Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Tsunami Early Warning and Mitigation System in the North-eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and connected seas (IOC-ICG/NEAMTWS) initiative. NTWC-TR is integrated into the 24/7 operational National Earthquake Monitoring Center (NEMC) of KOERI comprising 129 BB and 61 strong motion sensors. Based on an agreement with the Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency (DEMP), data from 10 BB stations located in the Aegean and Mediterranean Coast is now transmitted in real time to KOERI. Real-time data transmission from 6 primary and 10 auxiliary stations from the International Monitoring System will be in place in the very near future based on an agreement concluded with the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) in 2011. In an agreement with a major Turkish GSM company, KOERI is enlarging its strong-motion network to promote real-time seismology and to extend Earthquake Early Warning system countrywide. 25 accelerometers (included in the number given above) have been purchased and installed at Base Transceiver Station Sites in coastal regions within the scope of this initiative. Data from 3 tide gauge stations operated by General Command of Mapping (GCM) is being transmitted to KOERI via satellite connection and the aim is to integrate all tide-gauge stations operated by GCM into NTWC-TR. A collaborative agreement has been signed with the European Commission - Joint Research Centre (EC-JRC) and MOD1 Tsunami Scenario Database and TAT (Tsunami Analysis Tool) are received by KOERI and user training was provided. The database and the tool are linked to SeisComp3 and currently operational. In addition KOERI is continuing the work towards providing contributions to JRC in order to develop an improved database

  15. Flood early warning system in I.R. of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the close of the twentieth century, natural hazards and disasters are one of the most common forms of disasters around the world. Natural disasters cause in significant loss of life and serious economic, environmental and social impacts that greatly retard the development process. Careful hazard assessment and planning, and a range of social, economic and political measures, can significantly contain these threats. Risk is defined as the potential for loss or damage as the result of a particular action or decision and Risk Management is a process consisting of well-defined steps which, when taken in sequence, support better decision making by contributing to a greater insight into risks and their impacts. Most commonly, there are three components in a natural disaster plan: monitoring and early warning; risk assessment; and mitigation and response. Given the improved tools and technologies available today, it is possible to provide disaster information and minimize the potential damage of disasters. In the following parts of the report, the national early warning systems for flood would be discussed, as one of the important component of natural disaster risk management. In 1. R. of Iran, also, different types of natural disasters occur, such as drought, flood, earthquake, sea-level rise, dust storm, hail, freezing and etc, but Flood hazard and disaster is one of the most frequent and damaging types of natural disasters. They have been the most common type of geophysical disaster in the latter half of the twentieth century in Iran, generating an estimated more than 20 percent of all disasters from 1950 to 2003. One of the hazardous floods of Iran occurred in Golestan and north of Khorasan provinces, located in north-east of the country, on August 2001 and 2002. In this regard, according to the responsibility of I. R. of Iran Meteorological Organization (IRIMO) on the flood forecasting, the early warning issue of the mentioned flood, issued within 48 hour's in

  16. The Self-Organising Seismic Early Warning Information Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühnlenz, F.; Eveslage, I.; Fischer, J.; Fleming, K. M.; Lichtblau, B.; Milkereit, C.; Picozzi, M.

    2009-12-01

    The Self-Organising Seismic Early Warning Information Network (SOSEWIN) represents a new approach for Earthquake Early Warning Systems (EEWS), consisting in taking advantage of novel wireless communications technologies without the need of a planned, centralised infrastructure. It also sets out to overcome problems of insufficient node density, which typically affects present existing early warning systems, by having the SOSEWIN seismological sensing units being comprised of low-cost components (generally bought "off-the-shelf"), with each unit initially costing 100's of Euros, in contrast to 1,000's to 10,000's for standard seismological stations. The reduced sensitivity of the new sensing units arising from the use of lower-cost components will be compensated by the network's density, which in the future is expected to number 100's to 1000's over areas served currently by the order of 10's of standard stations. The robustness, independence of infrastructure, spontaneous extensibility due to a self-healing/self-organizing character in the case of removing/failing or adding sensors makes SOSEWIN potentially useful for various use cases, e.g. monitoring of building structures or seismic microzonation. Nevertheless its main purpose is the earthquake early warning, for which reason the ground motion is continuously monitored by conventional accelerometers (3-component) and processed within a station. Based on this, the network itself decides whether an event is detected through cooperating stations. SEEDLink is used to store and provide access to the sensor data. Experiences and selected experiment results with the SOSEWIN-prototype installation in the Ataköy district of Istanbul (Turkey) are presented. SOSEWIN considers also the needs of earthquake task forces, which want to set-up a temporary seismic network rapidly and with light-weighted stations to record after-shocks. The wireless and self-organising character of this sensor network is of great value to do this

  17. Electrooptical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, C. E.

    1980-03-01

    This report covers work carried out with support of the Department of the Air Force during the period 1 October 1979 through 31 March 1980. A part of this support was provided by the Rome Air Development Center. CW operation at temperatures up to 55 C has been achieved for GaInAsP/InP double-heterostructure (DH) lasers emitting at 1.5 micrometers, which were grown without a GaInAsP buffer layer. These devices are of interest for use as sources in fiber-optics communications systems, since the lowest transmission loss reported for fused-silica optical fibers occurs at 1.55 micrometers. Surface passivation techniques developed for InP and GaInAsP avalanche photodiodes have resulted in reductions of dark current as large as four orders of magnitude, to values as low as .0000016 A/sq cm at 0.9 V(b) where V(b) is the breakdown voltage. Devices consisting entirely of InP have been passivated with plasma-deposited Si3N4, and those with a GaInAsP layer but with the p-n junction in InP have been passivated with polyimide. Neither of these techniques successfully reduces dark currents in devices with the p-n junction in the GaInAsP, but a film of photoresist sprayed with SF6 as the propellant has given excellent results. The electrical characteristics in InP ion implanted with Sn, Ge, Si, and C have been investigated. All of these column IV elements yielded n-type conductivity and Sn, Ge, and Si showed high electrical activation; however, implanted C was found to have a net electrical activation of only about 5 percent.

  18. Design of Expressway communication protocol for automotive collision warning systems%高速公路汽车防碰撞预警系统的通信协议设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹光寿; 蔡启仲; 蓝全钊; 翁超; 包华倩; 潘绍明

    2013-01-01

    文章根据自主设计的一种高速公路汽车防碰撞预警系统,车载装置检测车辆运行状况,判断车辆运行是否异常或有故障,自动或手动发送信息预警,高速公路路边装置接收车载装置的信息,根据信息类型向该车辆行驶方向后面的路边装置发送信息,后面的路边装置将车辆前方的交通异常状况发送给车载装置。文章中构建Zigbee无线网络,设计无线通信协议,规范了车载装置与路边装置,路边装置相互之间,车载装置与入口测试启动装置,出口关闭装置,通信频率设置的通信协议,给出了程序流程图,经过测试满足高速公路汽车防碰撞预警系统的应用要求。%Presented a highway motor vehicle collision warning systems, autonomous speed highway-vehicle devices on vehicles, and to determine whether the vehicle speed set security value below the highway automatically, you can manually send message warning, freeway on-ramp test starter on highway vehicle performance testing device, start the highway-vehicle device, set up safe speed limit, Highway closed highways closed device-vehicle device features Highway direction of travel frequency settings, device settings Highway truck-mounted communications device in the highway direction frequencies, expressway monitoring and communication device real-time monitoring of vehicle travel, and while the vehicles are in normal form, anti-collision warning output; The highway vehicle collision warning systems can be monitored in real time and receive the abnormal traffic safety warnings ahead, sent the safe speed limit values due to weather and road conditions change, improves the safety of highway traffic.

  19. Early warning system for detection of microbial contamination of source waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogensen, Claus Tilsted; Bentien, Anders; Lau, Mogens; Højris, Bo; Iversen, Kåre; Klinting, Mette; Berg, Tommy Winter; Agersnap, Niels; Valvik, Martin

    2011-06-01

    Ensuring chemical and microbial water quality is an ever increasing important issue world-wide. Currently, determination of microbial water quality is a time (and money) consuming manual laboratory process. We have developed and field-tested an online and real-time sensor for measuring the microbial water quality of a wide range of source waters. The novel optical technique, in combination with advanced data analysis, yields a measure for the microbial content present in the sample. This gives a fast and reliable detection capability of microbial contamination of the source. Sample acquisition and analysis is performed real-time where objects in suspension are differentiated into e.g. organic/inorganic subgroups. The detection system is a compact, low power, reagentless device and thus ideal for applications where long service intervals and remote operations are desired. Due to the very large dynamic range in measured parameters, the system is able to monitor process water in industry and food production as well as monitor waste water, source water and water distribution systems. The applications envisioned for this system includes early warning of source water contamination and/or variation. This includes: water plants/water distribution networks, filtration systems (water purification), commercial buildings, swimming pools, waste water effluent, and industry in general.

  20. Scalable devices

    KAUST Repository

    Krüger, Jens J.

    2014-01-01

    In computer science in general and in particular the field of high performance computing and supercomputing the term scalable plays an important role. It indicates that a piece of hardware, a concept, an algorithm, or an entire system scales with the size of the problem, i.e., it can not only be used in a very specific setting but it\\'s applicable for a wide range of problems. From small scenarios to possibly very large settings. In this spirit, there exist a number of fixed areas of research on scalability. There are works on scalable algorithms, scalable architectures but what are scalable devices? In the context of this chapter, we are interested in a whole range of display devices, ranging from small scale hardware such as tablet computers, pads, smart-phones etc. up to large tiled display walls. What interests us mostly is not so much the hardware setup but mostly the visualization algorithms behind these display systems that scale from your average smart phone up to the largest gigapixel display walls.

  1. Thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To absorb fabrication errors in radial toroidal coils and a spacer and completely fill the gap between them by the provision of an expansion device between the coils and the supporting spacer by injecting fillers of a predetermined composition. Constitution: An expansion device comprising an expansion plate, packings inserted into grooves formed in the outer circumference of the expansion plate and a recessed pressure receiving plate is inserted between the wall surface of radial toroidal coils and a spacer for maintaining the gap between the toroidal coils. Then, filler comprising polyester resin and glass beads incorporated therein is injected from an injection aperture of the recessed pressure receiving plate having an exhaust aperture at the upper part. The filler is solidified and enables the fabrication error in the coils and the spacer to be absorbed. Since the gap between the coils and the spacer is completely filled, the tumbling force of the coils can surely be transmitted by way of the spacer to upper and lower racks. (Moriyama, K.)

  2. 32 CFR 644.531 - Warning to public of danger in handling explosive missiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Warning to public of danger in handling explosive... Contamination from Proposed Excess Land and Improvements § 644.531 Warning to public of danger in handling... of contaminants remaining on the land and the inherent danger of handling explosives or...

  3. 49 CFR 176.325 - Smoking or open flame and posting of warning signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Smoking or open flame and posting of warning signs... Smoking or open flame and posting of warning signs. (a) Smoking or the use of open flame is prohibited in... material. (b) A sign carrying the legend: FLAMMABLE VAPORS KEEP LIGHTS AND FIRE AWAY NO SMOKING must...

  4. 49 CFR 176.220 - Smoking or open flame and posting of warning signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Smoking or open flame and posting of warning signs... CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 2 (Compressed Gas) Materials § 176.220 Smoking or open flame and posting of warning signs. (a) Smoking or the use of open flame is prohibited in any hold...

  5. 21 CFR 369.4 - Warnings suggested for drugs by formal or informal statements of policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Warnings suggested for drugs by formal or informal statements of policy. 369.4 Section 369.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE INTERPRETATIVE STATEMENTS RE WARNINGS ON DRUGS...

  6. 76 FR 55332 - Federal Bureau of Investigation Anti-Piracy Warning Seal Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 41 CFR Part 128-1 RIN 1110-AA32 Federal Bureau of Investigation Anti-Piracy Warning Seal Program AGENCY...- Piracy Warning Seal (APW Seal). The proposed rule will provide access to the APW Seal to all...

  7. 49 CFR 214.329 - Train approach warning provided by watchmen/lookouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Train approach warning provided by watchmen... Protection § 214.329 Train approach warning provided by watchmen/lookouts. Roadway workers in a roadway work... or more watchmen/lookouts in accordance with the following provisions: (a) Train approach...

  8. Key Parameters Estimation and Adaptive Warning Strategy for Rear-End Collision of Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Song

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The rear-end collision warning system requires reliable warning decision mechanism to adapt the actual driving situation. To overcome the shortcomings of existing warning methods, an adaptive strategy is proposed to address the practical aspects of the collision warning problem. The proposed strategy is based on the parameter-adaptive and variable-threshold approaches. First, several key parameter estimation algorithms are developed to provide more accurate and reliable information for subsequent warning method. They include a two-stage algorithm which contains a Kalman filter and a Luenberger observer for relative acceleration estimation, a Bayesian theory-based algorithm of estimating the road friction coefficient, and an artificial neural network for estimating the driver’s reaction time. Further, the variable-threshold warning method is designed to achieve the global warning decision. In the method, the safety distance is employed to judge the dangerous state. The calculation method of the safety distance in this paper can be adaptively adjusted according to the different driving conditions of the leading vehicle. Due to the real-time estimation of the key parameters and the adaptive calculation of the warning threshold, the strategy can adapt to various road and driving conditions. Finally, the proposed strategy is evaluated through simulation and field tests. The experimental results validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed strategy.

  9. Warning signals are under positive frequency-dependent selection in nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouteau, Mathieu; Arias, Mónica; Joron, Mathieu

    2016-02-23

    Positive frequency-dependent selection (FDS) is a selection regime where the fitness of a phenotype increases with its frequency, and it is thought to underlie important adaptive strategies resting on signaling and communication. However, whether and how positive FDS truly operates in nature remains unknown, which hampers our understanding of signal diversity. Here, we test for positive FDS operating on the warning color patterns of chemically defended butterflies forming multiple coexisting mimicry assemblages in the Amazon. Using malleable prey models placed in localities showing differences in the relative frequencies of warningly colored prey, we demonstrate that the efficiency of a warning signal increases steadily with its local frequency in the natural community, up to a threshold where protection stabilizes. The shape of this relationship is consistent with the direct effect of the local abundance of each warning signal on the corresponding avoidance knowledge of the local predator community. This relationship, which differs from purifying selection acting on each mimetic pattern, indicates that predator knowledge, integrated over the entire community, is saturated only for the most common warning signals. In contrast, among the well-established warning signals present in local prey assemblages, most are incompletely known to local predators and enjoy incomplete protection. This incomplete predator knowledge should generate strong benefits to life history traits that enhance warning efficiency by increasing the effective frequency of prey visible to predators. Strategies such as gregariousness or niche convergence between comimics may therefore readily evolve through their effects on predator knowledge and warning efficiency. PMID:26858416

  10. 40 CFR 82.110 - Form of label bearing warning statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... contrast are: black letters on a dark blue or dark green background, dark red letters on a light red... warning statement shall be the standard chemical name of the substance as listed in 40 CFR part 82... size for the warning statement on any alternative placement which meets the requirements of §...

  11. 37 CFR 201.24 - Warning of copyright for software lending by nonprofit libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Warning of copyright for software lending by nonprofit libraries. 201.24 Section 201.24 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES GENERAL PROVISIONS § 201.24 Warning...

  12. 76 FR 70971 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Societal Response to Tornado Warnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... Response to Tornado Warnings AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). ACTION: Notice... examine the societal impacts of tornado warnings, specifically the methods of receipt, response, and the... Following a particularly deadly year of tornadoes in the United States despite the existence of...

  13. Caution: Alcohol Advertising and the Surgeon General's Alcohol Warnings May Have Adverse Effects on Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood, Deborah J.; Snyder, Leslie B.

    A study investigated the effects of the newly introduced Surgeon General's alcohol warnings and advertisements on college students. One hundred fifty-nine undergraduates in communication sciences at the University of Connecticut viewed slides of alcohol products, with or without advertisements and warnings. Following the viewings, subjects filled…

  14. 30 CFR 816.66 - Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings... STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.66 Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control. (a) Blasting signs. Blasting signs shall meet the specifications of § 816.11. The operator shall—...

  15. 30 CFR 817.66 - Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings... STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.66 Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control. (a) Blasting signs. Blasting signs shall meet the specifications of § 817.11. The operator...

  16. Optimal detection of short-warning near-earth object threats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavan, G.H.

    1996-05-01

    Detection of near-Earth Objects (NEOs) has concentrated on long-warning threats. LPCs (long period comets) and smaller objects do not offer such warning. Their detection on final approach is a more demanding search problem. Improvements in ground- and space-based search sensors and strategies could provide adequate search capability.

  17. Land Surface Modeling Applications for Famine Early Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, A.; Verdin, J. P.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Arsenault, K. R.; Wang, S.; Kumar, S.; Shukla, S.; Funk, C. C.; Pervez, M. S.; Fall, G. M.; Karsten, L. R.

    2015-12-01

    AGU 2015 Fall Meeting Session ID#: 7598 Remote Sensing Applications for Water Resources Management Land Surface Modeling Applications for Famine Early Warning James Verdin, USGS EROS Christa Peters-Lidard, NASA GSFC Amy McNally, NASA GSFC, UMD/ESSIC Kristi Arsenault, NASA GSFC, SAIC Shugong Wang, NASA GSFC, SAIC Sujay Kumar, NASA GSFC, SAIC Shrad Shukla, UCSB Chris Funk, USGS EROS Greg Fall, NOAA Logan Karsten, NOAA, UCAR Famine early warning has traditionally required close monitoring of agro-climatological conditions, putting them in historical context, and projecting them forward to anticipate end-of-season outcomes. In recent years, it has become necessary to factor in the effects of a changing climate as well. There has also been a growing appreciation of the linkage between food security and water availability. In 2009, Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) science partners began developing land surface modeling (LSM) applications to address these needs. With support from the NASA Applied Sciences Program, an instance of the Land Information System (LIS) was developed to specifically support FEWS NET. A simple crop water balance model (GeoWRSI) traditionally used by FEWS NET took its place alongside the Noah land surface model and the latest version of the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, and LIS data readers were developed for FEWS NET precipitation forcings (NOAA's RFE and USGS/UCSB's CHIRPS). The resulting system was successfully used to monitor and project soil moisture conditions in the Horn of Africa, foretelling poor crop outcomes in the OND 2013 and MAM 2014 seasons. In parallel, NOAA created another instance of LIS to monitor snow water resources in Afghanistan, which are an early indicator of water availability for irrigation and crop production. These successes have been followed by investment in LSM implementations to track and project water availability in Sub-Saharan Africa and Yemen, work that is now underway. Adoption of

  18. Practical microwave electron devices

    CERN Document Server

    Meurant, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Practical Microwave Electron Devices provides an understanding of microwave electron devices and their applications. All areas of microwave electron devices are covered. These include microwave solid-state devices, including popular microwave transistors and both passive and active diodes; quantum electron devices; thermionic devices (including relativistic thermionic devices); and ferrimagnetic electron devices. The design of each of these devices is discussed as well as their applications, including oscillation, amplification, switching, modulation, demodulation, and parametric interactions.

  19. Geo-hazards risk zonation and warning system based on GIS in Anshan City of Liaoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhishuang YANG; Mao PAN; Xiaopeng WANG

    2006-01-01

    Debris flow and Karst collapse are the main parts of geological disasters in Anshan, which have affected on the construction and development of the social economy of Anshan. In order to enhance the studies of rules of disaster and give scientific estimation and alarm ahead of schedule warning, we established the warning system of Anshan and investigated the corresponding software, which are based on the deep discussions about the crisis estimation and methods of prediction of disasters. In this paper, the foundation of model used in estimating the alarm ahead of schedule for disaster and the methods of appraisal for the alarm ahead of schedule are discussed. This system for warning and evaluating is the combination of the models of warning and GIS flat roof, with so many virtues, such as complete functions, convenience, applicability, which has considered the output of data, analyses of space, chooses of model, output of production, report of information for warning and the statements and help of system.

  20. Regional Integrated Meteorological Forecasting and Warning Model for Geological Hazards Based on Logistic Regression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jing; YANG Chi; ZHANG Guoping

    2007-01-01

    Information model is adopted to integrate factors of various geosciences to estimate the susceptibility of geological hazards. Further combining the dynamic rainfall observations, Logistic regression is used for modeling the probabilities of geological hazard occurrences, upon which hierarchical warnings for rainfall-induced geological hazards are produced. The forecasting and warning model takes numerical precipitation forecasts on grid points as its dynamic input, forecasts the probabilities of geological hazard occurrences on the same grid, and translates the results into likelihoods in the form of a 5-level hierarchy. Validation of the model with observational data for the year 2004 shows that 80% of the geological hazards of the year have been identified as "likely enough to release warning messages". The model can satisfy the requirements of an operational warning system, thus is an effective way to improve the meteorological warnings for geological hazards.

  1. NOAA/West coast and Alaska Tsunami warning center Atlantic Ocean response criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, P.; Refidaff, C.; Caropolo, M.; Huerfano-Moreno, V.; Knight, W.; Sammler, W.; Sandrik, A.

    2009-01-01

    West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) response criteria for earthquakesoccurring in the Atlantic and Caribbean basins are presented. Initial warning center decisions are based on an earthquake's location, magnitude, depth, distance from coastal locations, and precomputed threat estimates based on tsunami models computed from similar events. The new criteria will help limit the geographical extent of warnings and advisories to threatened regions, and complement the new operational tsunami product suite. Criteria are set for tsunamis generated by earthquakes, which are by far the main cause of tsunami generation (either directly through sea floor displacement or indirectly by triggering of sub-sea landslides).The new criteria require development of a threat data base which sets warning or advisory zones based on location, magnitude, and pre-computed tsunami models. The models determine coastal tsunami amplitudes based on likely tsunami source parameters for a given event. Based on the computed amplitude, warning and advisory zones are pre-set.

  2. PLASMA DEVICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, W.R.

    1961-08-22

    A device is described for establishing and maintaining a high-energy, rotational plasma for use as a fast discharge capacitor. A disc-shaped, current- conducting plasma is formed in an axinl magnetic field and a crossed electric field, thereby creating rotational kinetic enengy in the plasma. Such energy stored in the rotation of the plasma disc is substantial and is convertible tc electrical energy by generator action in an output line electrically coupled to the plasma volume. Means are then provided for discharging the electrical energy into an external circuit coupled to the output line to produce a very large pulse having an extremely rapid rise time in the waveform thereof. (AE C)

  3. The communications in early warning network for radiation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of early warning network are: The determination of gamma radiation (background) levels in air which depend on location and time, evaluation of any situation resulting from radiation or nuclear accident out of boarder, and after that reporting the emergency situation to relevant authorities on the national and international levels. Monitoring stations were installed using Gm tubes to cover boarder lines from south to north and east to west as follows: Damascus, Darra, Latakia, Tartous, Aleppo, Kamishly, Ragaa, and Qunitra. The following modes of communication: Telephone line, leased line, direct connection, and Syrian data network were used in the Syrian early network. This project was carried out in cooperation with IAEA under project no. RER/9/003. (author). 22 figs., 1 tab

  4. Rainfall thresholds and flood warning: an operative case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Montesarchio

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available An operative methodology for rainfall thresholds definition is illustrated, in order to provide at critical river section optimal flood warnings. Threshold overcoming could produce a critical situation in river sites exposed to alluvial risk and trigger the prevention and emergency system alert. The procedure for the definition of critical rainfall threshold values is based both on the quantitative precipitation observed and the hydrological response of the basin. Thresholds values specify the precipitation amount for a given duration that generates a critical discharge in a given cross section and are estimated by hydrological modelling for several scenarios (e.g.: modifying the soil moisture conditions. Some preliminary results, in terms of reliability analysis (presence of false alarms and missed alarms, evaluated using indicators like hit rate and false alarm rate for the case study of Mignone River are presented.

  5. Early Warning System: a juridical notion to be built

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucarelli, A.

    2007-12-01

    Early warning systems (EWS) are becoming effective tools for real time mitigation of the harmful effects arising from widely different hazards, which range from famine to financial crisis, malicious attacks, industrial accidents, natural catastrophes, etc. Early warning of natural catastrophic events allows to implement both alert systems and real time prevention actions for the safety of people and goods exposed to the risk However the effective implementation of early warning methods is hindered by the lack of a specific juridical frame. Under a juridical point of view, in fact, EWS and in general all the activities of prevention need a careful regulation, mainly with regards to responsibility and possible compensation for damage caused by the implemented actions. A preventive alarm, in fact, has an active influence on infrastructures in control of public services which in turn will suffer suspensions or interruptions because of the early warning actions. From here it is necessary to possess accurate normative references related to the typology of structures or infrastructures upon which the activity of readiness acts; the progressive order of suspension of public services; the duration of these suspensions; the corporate bodies or administrations that are competent to assume such decisions; the actors responsible for the consequences of false alarm, missed or delayed alarms; the mechanisms of compensation for damage; the insurance systems; etc In the European Union EWS are often quoted as preventive methods of mitigation of the risk. Nevertheless, a juridical notion of EWS of general use is not available. In fact, EW is a concept that finds application in many different circles, each of which require specific adaptations, and may concern subjects for which the European Union doesn't have exclusive competence as may be the responsibility of the member states to assign the necessary regulations. In so far as the juridical arrangement of the EWS, this must be

  6. Space systems for disaster warning, response, and recovery

    CERN Document Server

    Madry, Scott

    2015-01-01

    This SpringerBrief provides a general overview of the role of satellite applications for disaster mitigation, warning, planning, recovery and response. It covers both the overall role and perspective of the emergency management community as well as the various space applications that support their work. Key insights are provided as to how satellite telecommunications, remote sensing, navigation systems, GIS, and the emerging domain of social media are utilized in the context of emergency management needs and requirements. These systems are now critical in addressing major man-made and natural disasters. International policy and treaties are covered along with various case studies from around the world. These case studies indicate vital lessons that have been learned about how to use space systems more effectively in addressing the so-called “Disaster Cycle.” This book is appropriate for practicing emergency managers, Emergency Management (EM) courses, as well as for those involved in various space applica...

  7. Clairvoyance vs. common sense: therapist's duty to warn and protect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonkin, D J

    1986-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of a therapist's duty to warn and protect victims of domestic violence. In three different cases, California courts have found therapists liable for violent acts perpetrated by clients in their care. Based on the landmark Tarasoff case that mandated the therapist to report threats made by their clients regarding a specific victim, the courts have now extended the therapist's duty to include the reporting of those clients they assess as dangerous but who have not made specific threats, as well as the protection of unintended victims of violence, such as children. Therapists are concerned that the courts are expecting them to be clairvoyant and that psychologists may not be able to predict dangerousness. This article will discuss these concerns in light of the current state of the art regarding the prediction of dangerousness and its relationship to domestic violence. The author suggests specific clinical interventions for victims and perpetrators of domestic violence.

  8. Multicriteria Early Warning System of Enterprises against the Bankruptcy Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Korol

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the issue of forecasting the bankruptcy risk of the enterprises. In the article author compares the effectiveness of multicriteria early warning system with the traditional discriminant analysis model of forecasting the risks of bankruptcy of companies. In the conducted research author has used data on 185 companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange Market. This population of firms was divided into learning and testing setdata. Each company has been analyzed using the absolute values of 14 financial ratios and the dynamics of change of these ratios. Additionally, author has used the macroeconomic variables in developed multicriteria system. The author’s developed models are characterized by high efficiency. These studies are the first attempt to use fuzzy logic to predict the bankruptcy of companies in Poland and one of the first in the world. Obtained results demonstrate the great potential of this method.  

  9. Early warning score predicts acute mortality in stroke patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liljehult, J; Christensen, T

    2016-01-01

    was to investigate whether the aggregate weighted track and trigger system early warning score (EWS) can be used as a simple observational tool to identify patients at risk and predict mortality in a population of patients with acute stroke. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients admitted with acute stroke...... at the Copenhagen University Hospital, Nordsjaellands Hospital, Denmark, from May to September 2012 were enrolled in a retrospective cohort study (n = 274). Vital signs were measured immediately after admission and consistently during the hospitalization period. Based on the vital signs, a single composite EWS...... the EWS at admission (AUROC 0.856; 95% CI 0.760-0.951; P-value score is a simple and valid...

  10. Early-warning signals of topological collapse in interbank networks

    CERN Document Server

    Squartini, Tiziano; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2013-01-01

    The financial crisis marked a paradigm shift, from traditional studies of individual risk to recent research on the "systemic risk" generated by whole networks of institutions. However, the reverse effects of realized defaults on network topology are poorly understood. Here we analyze the Dutch interbank network over the period 1998-2008, ending with the global crisis. We find that many topological properties, after controlling for overall density effects, display an abrupt change in 2008, thus providing a clear but unpredictable signature of the crisis. By contrast, if the intrinsic heterogeneity of banks is controlled for, the same properties undergo a slow and continuous transition, gradually connecting the crisis period to a much earlier stationary phase. This early-warning signal begins in 2005, and is preceded by an even earlier period of "risk autocatalysis" characterized by anomalous debt loops. These remarkable precursors are undetectable if the network is reconstructed from partial bank-specific inf...

  11. Rapid estimate of earthquake source duration: application to tsunami warning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reymond, Dominique; Jamelot, Anthony; Hyvernaud, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    We present a method for estimating the source duration of the fault rupture, based on the high-frequency envelop of teleseismic P-Waves, inspired from the original work of (Ni et al., 2005). The main interest of the knowledge of this seismic parameter is to detect abnormal low velocity ruptures that are the characteristic of the so called 'tsunami-earthquake' (Kanamori, 1972). The validation of the results of source duration estimated by this method are compared with two other independent methods : the estimated duration obtained by the Wphase inversion (Kanamori and Rivera, 2008, Duputel et al., 2012) and the duration calculated by the SCARDEC process that determines the source time function (M. Vallée et al., 2011). The estimated source duration is also confronted to the slowness discriminant defined by Newman and Okal, 1998), that is calculated routinely for all earthquakes detected by our tsunami warning process (named PDFM2, Preliminary Determination of Focal Mechanism, (Clément and Reymond, 2014)). Concerning the point of view of operational tsunami warning, the numerical simulations of tsunami are deeply dependent on the source estimation: better is the source estimation, better will be the tsunami forecast. The source duration is not directly injected in the numerical simulations of tsunami, because the cinematic of the source is presently totally ignored (Jamelot and Reymond, 2015). But in the case of a tsunami-earthquake that occurs in the shallower part of the subduction zone, we have to consider a source in a medium of low rigidity modulus; consequently, for a given seismic moment, the source dimensions will be decreased while the slip distribution increased, like a 'compact' source (Okal, Hébert, 2007). Inversely, a rapid 'snappy' earthquake that has a poor tsunami excitation power, will be characterized by higher rigidity modulus, and will produce weaker displacement and lesser source dimensions than 'normal' earthquake. References: CLément, J

  12. Graphic tobacco warning labels – an improper solution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvi JD

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Joshua D SalviWeill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USAIn June 2009, President Barack Obama signed into law the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (HR 1256. This legislation required that all tobacco products and advertising must have a graphic warning covering 50 percent of the front and back of the package. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA has proposed a number of graphic designs, and the final designs were submitted in June, 2011. The proposed designs include grotesque imagery in an attempt to dissuade smoking in the USA. However, these graphic labels were invalidated in court due to violation of freedom-of-speech rights. Independent from that point, these labels, if appealed, would do more harm than good from a public health perspective. 

  13. Integration of WERA Ocean Radar into Tsunami Early Warning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzvonkovskaya, Anna; Helzel, Thomas; Kniephoff, Matthias; Petersen, Leif; Weber, Bernd

    2016-04-01

    High-frequency (HF) ocean radars give a unique capability to deliver simultaneous wide area measurements of ocean surface current fields and sea state parameters far beyond the horizon. The WERA® ocean radar system is a shore-based remote sensing system to monitor ocean surface in near real-time and at all-weather conditions up to 300 km offshore. Tsunami induced surface currents cause increasing orbital velocities comparing to normal oceanographic situation and affect the measured radar spectra. The theoretical approach about tsunami influence on radar spectra showed that a tsunami wave train generates a specific unusual pattern in the HF radar spectra. While the tsunami wave is approaching the beach, the surface current pattern changes slightly in deep water and significantly in the shelf area as it was shown in theoretical considerations and later proved during the 2011 Japan tsunami. These observed tsunami signatures showed that the velocity of tsunami currents depended on a tsunami wave height and bathymetry. The HF ocean radar doesn't measure the approaching wave height of a tsunami; however, it can resolve the surface current velocity signature, which is generated when tsunami reaches the shelf edge. This strong change of the surface current can be detected by a phased-array WERA system in real-time; thus the WERA ocean radar is a valuable tool to support Tsunami Early Warning Systems (TEWS). Based on real tsunami measurements, requirements for the integration of ocean radar systems into TEWS are already defined. The requirements include a high range resolution, a narrow beam directivity of phased-array antennas and an accelerated data update mode to provide a possibility of offshore tsunami detection in real-time. The developed software package allows reconstructing an ocean surface current map of the area observed by HF radar based on the radar power spectrum processing. This fact gives an opportunity to issue an automated tsunami identification message

  14. Some new pre-warning criteria for creep slope failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HACK; Robert

    2011-01-01

    The forecasting of the failure time of a slope remains a worldwide problem because of many different possibilities of geological conditions in combination with many varying external factors such as climate and vegetation,and not well-defined or unknown time effects in deformation and failure models.The aim of this paper is to suggest a new method to carry out the phase division and to explore tangential angular features of the displacement-time curve of creep slopes as well as the acceleration characteristics in the process of slope deformation and the pre-warning criteria for critical failure.An imminent failure is pro-ceeded with usually three basic deformation phases,namely primary creep("decelerated") ,secondary creep("steadystate") and tertiary creep("accelerated") .Mostly,only during the accelerated phase the imminence of a possible slope failure is rec-ognized.The analysis of displacement data from a series of landslides allowed to recognize different evolutionary patterns of displacement.A quantitative approach was proposed to describe the tangential angle of the displacement-time curve and a new criterion based on the angle was put forward to divide the accelerated phase into three sub-phases:initial acceleration,medium acceleration,and the critical failure.A pre-warning criterion for critical failure is also proposed consequently. Changes of acceleration showed completely different characteristics from those of cumulative displacement and displacement in the process of slope deformation.The values of acceleration usually oscillate around 0 prior to the critical failure phase,whereas the acceleration increases abruptly when the deformation moves into the critical failure phase.This allows,therefore,for a method to forecast the time of the failure.So it is possible to define different alert acceleration threshold values to be used for emergency management.

  15. Application of the Haines Index in the fire warning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalin, Lovro; Marija, Mokoric; Tomislav, Kozaric

    2016-04-01

    Croatia, as all Mediterranean countries, is strongly affected by large wildfires, particularly in the coastal region. In the last two decades the number and intensity of fires has been significantly increased, which is unanimously associated with climate change, e.g. global warming. More extreme fires are observed, and the fire-fighting season has been expanded to June and September. The meteorological support for fire protection and planning is therefore even more important. At the Meteorological and Hydrological Service of Croatia a comprehensive monitoring and warning system has been established. It includes standard components, such as short term forecast of Fire Weather Index (FWI), but long range forecast as well. However, due to more frequent hot and dry seasons, FWI index often does not provide additional information of extremely high fire danger, since it regularly takes the highest values for long periods. Therefore the additional tools have been investigated. One of widely used meteorological products is the Haines index (HI). It provides information of potential fire growth, taking into account only the vertical instability of the atmosphere, and not the state of the fuel. Several analyses and studies carried out at the Service confirmed the correlation of high HI values with large and extreme fires. The Haines index forecast has been used at the Service for several years, employing European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) global prediction model, as well as the limited-area Aladin model. The verification results show that these forecast are reliable, when compared to radiosonde measurements. All these results provided the introduction of the additional fire warnings, that are issued by the Service's Forecast Department.

  16. Hazardous thunderstorms over Lake Victoria: climate change and early warnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiery, Wim; Davin, Edouard L.; Seneviratne, Sonia I.; Bedka, Kristopher; Lhermitte, Stef; van Lipzig, Nicole

    2016-04-01

    Severe thunderstorms and associated high waves represent a constant threat to the 200,000 fishermen operating on Lake Victoria. According to the International Red Cross, presumably 3000 to 5000 fishermen die every year on the lake, thereby substantially contributing to the global death toll from natural disasters. Despite the long-known bad reputation of Lake Victoria, operational early warning systems are lacking and possible future changes of these extreme thunderstorms are unknown. Here we present the first dedicated high-resolution, coupled lake-land-atmosphere climate projection for the African Great Lakes region and analyse it in combination with new satellite data and coarser-scale ensemble projections. Our model projections for the end-of-the-century indicate that Lake Victoria amplifies the future intensification of extreme precipitation seen over the surrounding land. Under a high-emission scenario (RCP8.5), the 1% most extreme over-lake precipitation may intensify up to four times faster compared to surrounding land. Our findings are consistent with an ensemble of coarser-scale climate projections for Africa, but the lower skill of the ensemble over Lake Victoria constrains its applicability. Interestingly, the change in extremes contrasts to the change in average over-lake precipitation, which is projected to decrease by -6% for the same period. By further analyzing the high-resolution output we are able to explain this different response: while mesoscale circulation changes cause the average precipitation decline, the response of extremes is essentially thermodynamic. Finally, the study of the satellite-based detection of severe thunderstorms revealed a strong dependency of the nighttime storm intensity over Lake Victoria on the antecedent daytime land storm activity. This highlights the potential of this new satellite product for predicting intense storms over Lake Victoria. Overall, our results indicate a new major hazard associated with climate

  17. Designing the upgrade of the Early Warning System in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When designing an upgrade of early warning network for radiological emergencies one has to consider physical criteria as well as technical and financial possibilities, making the system the best possible compromise between the above mentioned aspects. In the case of the Slovenian Early Warning System (EWS) upgrade, the design was even harder because of the need to implement the existing measuring sites into the new scheme. We plan to add 35 new locations with external radiation and meteorology measurements to the 42 already existing sites. In the article we will describe the selection criteria for measuring sites and the requirements for the measuring equipment as well as a discussion of the physical quantities that need to be measured. In addition to gamma dose rate measurements, which are essential for radiological emergencies, meteorological measurements also provide vital information for the assessment of the situation. Especially we describe an additional necessary meteorological equipment which has to be installed. Today's communication technologies offer many possibilities for data transfer from the measuring site to the central data gathering unit and one has to choose the most appropriate one, primarily considering reliability but also cost effectiveness. For that reason new measuring sites will be at the locations already used for meteorological measurements by the Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia. The Central Unit (CU) of such a network is the core of the system were all data have to be controlled, analysed and presented to the operator providing him with as much data as possible in a simple and clear fashion. (author)

  18. An Envelope-Based Paradigm for Seismic Early Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cua, G. B.; Heaton, T. H.

    2003-12-01

    We present a waveform envelope-based paradigm for seismic early warning. As suggested by theoretical scaling relations and as observed from data, acceleration saturates with increasing magnitude at a faster rate than does velocity or displacement. Thus, ratios of velocity or displacement to acceleration should be indicative of the magnitude of an earthquake. We introduce an evenlope-based parameterization of ground motion, where the observed ground motion envelope is decomposed into independent P-wave, S-wave, and ambient noise envelopes. The body wave envelopes, in turn, are parameterized by a rise time, an amplitude, a duration, and two decay parameters. We apply this parameterization to a database of over 30,000 records of horizontal and vertical acceleration, velocity, and displacement recorded on digital Southern California Seismic Network stations within 200 km of 80 regional events ranging in magnitude from M2.0 to M7.3. We derive attenuation relationships that account for magnitude-dependent saturation for vertical and horizontal acceleration, velocity, and displacement for P- and S-wave amplitudes, obtain station corrections relative to the mean hard rock response, and use these relationships to examine trends with magnitude and distance of ratios of different components of ground motion. An important consequence of our parameterization is the insight it provides into P-wave characteristics. We find that various ratios of P-wave velocity and displacement to acceleration are indicative of magnitude, and may have potential as another quick method to estimate magnitude for seismic early warning.

  19. Landslide Geohazard Monitoring, Early Warning and Stabilization Control Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarczyk, Zbigniew

    2014-03-01

    This paper is a presentation of landslide monitoring, early warning and remediation methods recommended for the Polish Carpathians. Instrumentation included standard and automatic on-line measurements with the real-time transfer of data to an Internet web server. The research was funded through EU Innovative Economy Programme and also by the SOPO Landslide Counteraction Project. The landslides investigated were characterized by relatively low rates of the displacements. These ranged from a few millimetres to several centimetres per year. Colluviums of clayey flysch deposits were of a soil-rock type with a very high plasticity and moisture content. The instrumentation consisted of 23 standard inclinometers set to depths of 5-21 m. The starting point of monitoring measurements was in January 2006. These were performed every 1-2 months over the period of 8 years. The measurements taken detected displacements from several millimetres to 40 cm set at a depth of 1-17 m. The modern, on-line monitoring and early warning system was installed in May 2010. The system is the first of its kind in Poland and only one of several such real-time systems in the world. The installation was working with the Local Road Authority in Gorlice. It contained three automatic field stations for investigation of landslide parameters to depths of 12-16 m and weather station. In-place tilt transducers and innovative 3D continuous inclinometer systems with sensors located every 0.5 m were used. It has the possibility of measuring a much greater range of movements compared to standard systems. The conventional and real-time data obtained provided a better recognition of the triggering parameters and the control of geohazard stabilizations. The monitoring methods chosen supplemented by numerical modelling could lead to more reliable forecasting of such landslides and could thus provide better control and landslide remediation possibilities also to stabilization works which prevent landslides.

  20. Flow control using audio tones in resonant microfluidic networks: towards cell-phone controlled lab-on-a-chip devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Reid H; Jain, Rahil; Browning, Yoni; Shah, Rachana; Kauffman, Peter; Dinh, Doan; Lutz, Barry R

    2016-08-16

    Fluid control remains a challenge in development of portable lab-on-a-chip devices. Here, we show that microfluidic networks driven by single-frequency audio tones create resonant oscillating flow that is predicted by equivalent electrical circuit models. We fabricated microfluidic devices with fluidic resistors (R), inductors (L), and capacitors (C) to create RLC networks with band-pass resonance in the audible frequency range available on portable audio devices. Microfluidic devices were fabricated from laser-cut adhesive plastic, and a "buzzer" was glued to a diaphragm (capacitor) to integrate the actuator on the device. The AC flowrate magnitude was measured by imaging oscillation of bead tracers to allow direct comparison to the RLC circuit model across the frequency range. We present a systematic build-up from single-channel systems to multi-channel (3-channel) networks, and show that RLC circuit models predict complex frequency-dependent interactions within multi-channel networks. Finally, we show that adding flow rectifying valves to the network creates pumps that can be driven by amplified and non-amplified audio tones from common audio devices (iPod and iPhone). This work shows that RLC circuit models predict resonant flow responses in multi-channel fluidic networks as a step towards microfluidic devices controlled by audio tones. PMID:27416111

  1. Flow control using audio tones in resonant microfluidic networks: towards cell-phone controlled lab-on-a-chip devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Reid H; Jain, Rahil; Browning, Yoni; Shah, Rachana; Kauffman, Peter; Dinh, Doan; Lutz, Barry R

    2016-08-16

    Fluid control remains a challenge in development of portable lab-on-a-chip devices. Here, we show that microfluidic networks driven by single-frequency audio tones create resonant oscillating flow that is predicted by equivalent electrical circuit models. We fabricated microfluidic devices with fluidic resistors (R), inductors (L), and capacitors (C) to create RLC networks with band-pass resonance in the audible frequency range available on portable audio devices. Microfluidic devices were fabricated from laser-cut adhesive plastic, and a "buzzer" was glued to a diaphragm (capacitor) to integrate the actuator on the device. The AC flowrate magnitude was measured by imaging oscillation of bead tracers to allow direct comparison to the RLC circuit model across the frequency range. We present a systematic build-up from single-channel systems to multi-channel (3-channel) networks, and show that RLC circuit models predict complex frequency-dependent interactions within multi-channel networks. Finally, we show that adding flow rectifying valves to the network creates pumps that can be driven by amplified and non-amplified audio tones from common audio devices (iPod and iPhone). This work shows that RLC circuit models predict resonant flow responses in multi-channel fluidic networks as a step towards microfluidic devices controlled by audio tones.

  2. 有声的中国——“演说”与近现代中国文章变革%An audible China:Speech and the innovation in modern Chinese writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈平原; Bai Ruixia

    2009-01-01

    "有声的中国"是相对于"无声的中国"而言,不仅指"舍掉古文而生存",而且可以从"声音"的角度探讨中国现代文化演进的新路径.本文从近现代的"演说"入手,着重讨论作为"传播文明三利器"之一的"演说",如何与"报章"、"学校"结盟,促成了白话文运动的成功,并实现了近现代中国文章(包括述学文体)的变革.%The image of an " audible China " is one opposed to the traditional China's as " voiceless. " Not only does it refer to the survival of modern Chinese out of the abandoned Classical Chinese, it also provides a new means to examine modern China's cultural transformation and development in terms of " voice. " This essay will discuss mainly how speech, one of " the three best tools for spreading civilization. " together with newspapers and magazines and schools, contributes to the success of the Vernacular Chinese Movement (Baihuawen yundong 白话文运动, CE 1917-1919)and the innovation in modern Chinese writing (including Chinese academic writing style).

  3. Laser device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jill R.; Tremblay, Paul L.

    2007-07-10

    A laser device includes a target position, an optical component separated a distance J from the target position, and a laser energy source separated a distance H from the optical component, distance H being greater than distance J. A laser source manipulation mechanism exhibits a mechanical resolution of positioning the laser source. The mechanical resolution is less than a spatial resolution of laser energy at the target position as directed through the optical component. A vertical and a lateral index that intersect at an origin can be defined for the optical component. The manipulation mechanism can auto align laser aim through the origin during laser source motion. The laser source manipulation mechanism can include a mechanical index. The mechanical index can include a pivot point for laser source lateral motion and a reference point for laser source vertical motion. The target position can be located within an adverse environment including at least one of a high magnetic field, a vacuum system, a high pressure system, and a hazardous zone. The laser source and an electro-mechanical part of the manipulation mechanism can be located outside the adverse environment. The manipulation mechanism can include a Peaucellier linkage.

  4. Ten years after the FDA black box warning for antidepressant drugs: a critical narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Martínez-Aguayo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA has warned about the increased suicidality risk associated with the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI and venlafaxine in children and adolescents. Objectives To critically appraise the available evidence supporting the FDA Black box warning concerning to the use of antidepressants in child and adolescents. Methods A critical review of articles in Medline/PubMed and SciELO databases regarding the FDA Black box warning for antidepressants, and the impact of FDA warnings on antidepressant prescriptions and suicide rates. Results The warning was based on surveys that did not report either cases of suicide nor a significant difference supporting an increased suicidality rate. The concept was defined in an ambiguous way and there is currently more available evidence to support such definition. The use of SSRI and venlafaxine has been associated to lower suicidality rates, but the prescription fall due to the warning increased suicide rates. Discussion Suicidality is an inherent feature of depressive disorders so it would be desirable to consider how much of the phenomenon may be attributed to antidepressants per se. It would be appropriate to consider that suicide rates might increase also as a consequence of the warning.

  5. Technology-Based Early Warning Systems for Bipolar Disorder: A Conceptual Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depp, Colin; Torous, John; Thompson, Wesley

    2016-01-01

    Recognition and timely action around "warning signs" of illness exacerbation is central to the self-management of bipolar disorder. Due to its heterogeneity and fluctuating course, passive and active mobile technologies have been increasingly evaluated as adjunctive or standalone tools to predict and prevent risk of worsening of course in bipolar disorder. As predictive analytics approaches to big data from mobile health (mHealth) applications and ancillary sensors advance, it is likely that early warning systems will increasingly become available to patients. Such systems could reduce the amount of time spent experiencing symptoms and diminish the immense disability experienced by people with bipolar disorder. However, in addition to the challenges in validating such systems, we argue that early warning systems may not be without harms. Probabilistic warnings may be delivered to individuals who may not be able to interpret the warning, have limited information about what behaviors to change, or are unprepared to or cannot feasibly act due to time or logistic constraints. We propose five essential elements for early warning systems and provide a conceptual framework for designing, incorporating stakeholder input, and validating early warning systems for bipolar disorder with a focus on pragmatic considerations. PMID:27604265

  6. A visual warning system to reduce struck-by or pinning accidents involving mobile mining equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammarco, J; Gallagher, S; Mayton, A; Srednicki, J

    2012-11-01

    This paper describes an experiment to examine whether a visual warning system can improve detection of moving machine hazards that could result in struck-by or pinning accidents. Thirty-six participants, twelve each in one of three age groups, participated in the study. A visual warning system capable of providing four different modes of warning was installed on a continuous mining machine that is used to mine coal. The speed of detecting various machine movements was recorded with and without the visual warning system. The average speed of detection for forward and reverse machine movements was reduced by 75% when using the flashing mode of the visual warning system. This translated to 0.485 m of machine travel for the fast speed condition of 19.8 m/min, which is significant in the context of the confined spaces of a mine. There were no statistically significant differences among age groups in the ability to detect machine movements for the visual warning modes in this study. The visual warning system shows promise as a safety intervention for reducing struck-by or pinning accidents involving continuous mining machines. The methods and results of this study could be applied to other moving machinery used in mining or other industries where moving machinery poses struck-by or pinning hazards. PMID:22503737

  7. Variation in predator species abundance can cause variable selection pressure on warning signaling prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkonen, Janne K; Nokelainen, Ossi; Niskanen, Martti; Kilpimaa, Janne; Björklund, Mats; Mappes, Johanna

    2012-01-01

    Predation pressure is expected to drive visual warning signals to evolve toward conspicuousness. However, coloration of defended species varies tremendously and can at certain instances be considered as more camouflaged rather than conspicuous. Recent theoretical studies suggest that the variation in signal conspicuousness can be caused by variation (within or between species) in predators' willingness to attack defended prey or by the broadness of the predators' signal generalization. If some of the predator species are capable of coping with the secondary defenses of their prey, selection can favor reduced prey signal conspicuousness via reduced detectability or recognition. In this study, we combine data collected during three large-scale field experiments to assess whether variation in avian predator species (red kite, black kite, common buzzard, short-toed eagle, and booted eagle) affects the predation pressure on warningly and non-warningly colored artificial snakes. Predation pressure varied among locations and interestingly, if common buzzards were abundant, there were disadvantages to snakes possessing warning signaling. Our results indicate that predator community can have important consequences on the evolution of warning signals. Predators that ignore the warning signal and defense can be the key for the maintenance of variation in warning signal architecture and maintenance of inconspicuous signaling. PMID:22957197

  8. APPLICATION OF FUZZY OPTIMIZATION MODEL IN ECOLOGICAL SECURITY PRE-WARNING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Kai-ya; HU Shu-heng; SUN Shi-qun

    2005-01-01

    Ecological security is a vital problem that people all over the world today have to face and solve, and the situation of ecological security is getting more and more severe and has begun to impede heavily the sustainable development of social economy. Ecological environment pre-warning has become a hotspot for the modern environment science. This paper introduces the theories of ecological security pre-warning and tries to constitute a pre-warning model of ecological security. In terms of pressure-state-response model, the pre-warning guide line of ecological security is constructed while the pre-warning degree judging model of ecological security is established based on fuzzy optimization. As a case, the model is used to assess the present condition pre-warning of the ecological security of Anhui Province. The result is in correspondence with the real condition: the ecological security situations of 8 cities are dangerous and 9 cities are secure. The result shows that this model is scientific and effective for regional ecological security pre-warning.

  9. Technology-Based Early Warning Systems for Bipolar Disorder: A Conceptual Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torous, John; Thompson, Wesley

    2016-01-01

    Recognition and timely action around “warning signs” of illness exacerbation is central to the self-management of bipolar disorder. Due to its heterogeneity and fluctuating course, passive and active mobile technologies have been increasingly evaluated as adjunctive or standalone tools to predict and prevent risk of worsening of course in bipolar disorder. As predictive analytics approaches to big data from mobile health (mHealth) applications and ancillary sensors advance, it is likely that early warning systems will increasingly become available to patients. Such systems could reduce the amount of time spent experiencing symptoms and diminish the immense disability experienced by people with bipolar disorder. However, in addition to the challenges in validating such systems, we argue that early warning systems may not be without harms. Probabilistic warnings may be delivered to individuals who may not be able to interpret the warning, have limited information about what behaviors to change, or are unprepared to or cannot feasibly act due to time or logistic constraints. We propose five essential elements for early warning systems and provide a conceptual framework for designing, incorporating stakeholder input, and validating early warning systems for bipolar disorder with a focus on pragmatic considerations. PMID:27604265

  10. Earthquake Early Warning using a Seismogeodetic Approach: An operational plan for Cascadia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, B. W.; Bodin, P.; Vidale, J. E.; Schmidt, D. A.; Melbourne, T. I.; Scrivner, C. W.; Santillan, V. M.; Szeliga, W. M.; Minson, S. E.; Bock, Y.; Melgar, D.

    2013-12-01

    We present an operational plan for implementing combined seismic and geodetic time series in an earthquake early warning system for Cascadia. The Cascadian subduction zone presents one of the greatest risks for a megaquake in the continental United States. Ascertaining the full magnitude and extent of large earthquakes is problematic for earthquake early warning systems due to instability when double integrating strong-motion records to ground displacement. This problem can be mitigated by augmenting earthquake early warning systems with real-time GPS data, allowing for the progression and spatial extent of large earthquakes to be better resolved due to GPS's ability to measure both dynamic and permanent displacements. The Pacific Northwest Seismic Network (PNSN) at the University of Washington is implementing an integrated seismogeodetic approach to earthquake early warning. Regional GPS data are provided by the Pacific Northwest Geodetic Array (PANGA) at Central Washington University. Precise Point Positioning (PPP) solutions are sent from PANGA to the PNSN through JSON formatted streams and processed with a Python-based quality control (QC) module. The QC module also ingest accelerations from PNSN seismic stations through the Earthworm seismic acquisition and processing system for the purpose of detecting outliers and Kalman filtering when collocated instruments exist. The QC module outputs time aligned and cleaned displacement waveforms to ActiveMQ, an XML-based messaging broker that is currently used in seismic early warning architecture. Earthquake characterization modules read displacement information from ActiveMQ when triggered by warnings from ElarmS earthquake early warning algorithm. Peak ground displacement and P-wave scaling relationships from Kalman filtered waveforms provide initial magnitude estimates. Additional modules perform more complex source modeling such as centroid moment tensors and slip inversions that characterize the full size and

  11. Developing a NIDIS Drought Early Warning Information System for Coastal Ecosystems in the Carolinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, L. S.; Dow, K.; Lackstrom, K.; Brennan, A.; Tufford, D. L.; Conrads, P.; Pulwarty, R. S.; Webb, R. S.; Verdin, J. P.; Mcnutt, C. A.; Deheza, V.

    2013-12-01

    The National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS) is in the process of developing drought early warning systems in areas of the U.S. where the coordination of drought information is critically needed. These regional drought early warning systems will become the backbone of a national drought early warning information system. Plans for the first drought early warning system started in the fall of 2008 in the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB), with an initial focus on the water supply in the head waters region of the Colorado River and the impacts of changes in the water supply on the UCRB. Since the establishment of the UCRB drought early warning system, other regional programs have begun in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin, four regions in the state of California, the Southern Plains, and the Four Corners region. (At this time these are considered pilot drought early warning programs, not full-fledged drought early warning systems such as the UCRB.) Activities in each of these regions are tailored to the needs of stakeholders, and all incorporate hydrometeorological predictions. However, in all of these areas NIDIS has not focused on the specific needs of coastal ecosystems during times of drought. Over the past year, NIDIS has started a pilot drought early warning system that addresses drought in the coastal ecosystems of North and South Carolina. This pilot is being developed in partnership with the Carolinas Integrated Sciences and Assessments (CISA), a NOAA Regional Sciences and Assessments program housed at the University of South Carolina. Currently the focus of the Carolinas pilot includes the promotion of enhanced drought impact reporting to better understand the impacts of low flows on coastal ecosystems and the development of a USGS real-time salinity network for a few coastal gage stations in the Carolinas. The roles of the enhanced drought impact assessments in coastal ecosystems and the knowledge gained from a real

  12. Warning of and emergency response to nuclear and radiological terrorist incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper introduces mainly the research status and developing focuses of warning of and emergency response to nuclear and radiological terrorist incidents and discusses the system and technology of warning and emergency response to nuclear and radiological terrorist incident. The system of warning and response of nuclear and radiation incident is comprised of information acquirement and management, analysis and decision-making, and emergency response. The system is based on threat evaluation. The content and technology of the system is analyzed in the paper, in particular the importance of information flow, such as information collection, estimation, release and so on. (author)

  13. Research on Technology Early-Warning System Based on Dynamic Information Monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xue-feng; ZHU Dong-hua; LIU Song; LIU Jia

    2009-01-01

    Relying on the advanced information technologies,such as information monitoring,data mining,natural language processing etc.,the dynamic technology early-warning system is constructed.The system consists of technology information automatic retrieval,technology information monitoring,technology threat evaluation,and crisis response and management subsystem,which implements uninterrupted dynamic monitoring,trace and crisis early-warning to the specific technology.Empirical study testifies that the system improves the accuracy,timeliness and reliability of technology early-warning.

  14. TSUNAMI WARNING SYSTEM IN THE PACIFIC: Brief Historical Review of its Establishment and Institutional Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Pararas-Carayannis

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The year 2015 marks the 50th anniversary of operations of the International Tsunami Warning System in the Pacific Ocean. The present report describes briefly the establishment of the rudimentary early tsunami warning system in 1948 by the USA after the disastrous tsunami of April 1, 1946, generated by a great earthquake in the Aleutian Islands, struck without warning the Hawaiian Islands and other parts of the Pacific. Also reviewed are the progressive improvements made to the U.S. warning system, following the destructive tsunamis of 1952, 1957, 1960 and 1964, and of the early, support efforts undertaken in the U.S.A., initially by the Hawaii Institute of Geophysics of the University of Hawaii, by the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey and by the Honolulu Observatory - later renamed Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC. Following the 1964 Alaska tsunami, there was increased international cooperation, which resulted in a better understanding of the tsunami phenomenon and the development of a new field of Science of Tsunami Hazards in support of the early U.S. Warning System. Continuous supporting international cooperative efforts after 1965, resulted in the integration of the U.S. early warning system with other early regional tsunami warning systems of other nations to become the International Tsunami Warning System under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC of UNESCO for the purpose of mitigating the disaster’s impact in the Pacific, but later expanded to include other regions. Briefly reviewed in this paper is the subsequent institutional support of the International Tsunami Warning System in the Pacific, by the International Tsunami Information Center (ITIC, the International Tsunami Coordination Group (ICG/ITS, the Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (ATWC, the Joint Tsunami Research Effort (JTRE, NOAA’s National Geophysical Center (NGDC, the Pacific Marine Laboratory (PMEL of NOAA and of the later

  15. The Application of Big data Mining in Risk Warning for Food Safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yajie; WANG; Bing; YANG; Yan; LUO; Jinlin; HE; Hong; TAN

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive evaluation and warning is very important and difficult in food safety. This paper mainly focuses on introducing the application of using big data mining in food safety warning field. At first,we introduce the concept of big data miming and three big data methods. At the same time,we discuss the application of the three big data miming methods in food safety areas. Then we compare these big data miming methods,and propose how to apply Back Propagation Neural Network in food safety risk warning.

  16. A rainfall-based warning model for shallow landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yi-Chao; Wang, Ji-Shang; Jan, Chyan-Deng; Yin, Hsiao-Yuan; Lo, Wen-Chun

    2016-04-01

    boundaries of the probability range must be defined. The lower critical line (LRTI10) is defined as 10% of rainfall values for the historical rainfall events no matter triggering or not. An upper critical line (LRTI90) is defined as 90 % of rainfall values for all rainfall events exceeded the lower critical line. Further, the various probability of shallow landslide occurrence is analyzed between these two boundaries. Two assessing indexes are used for determining appropriate probability rainfall threshold which are the disaster-capture ratio and false-alarm ratio. The result shows that LRTI70 is preferred adopted as the warning threshold of shallow landslides in this study because of the higher disaster-capture ratio (95%) and lower false-alarm ratio (13%). By the proposed approach, the warning threshold can be determined more reliability and objectivity than the conventional methods (e.g. minimum rainfall threshold or empirical rainfall threshold). The application of the Gaoping River watershed in southern Taiwan was proved that the proposed method can effectively provide early warning before landslides occurred.

  17. Early warnings and missed alarms for abrupt monsoon transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. A. Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Palaeo-records from China (Cheng et al., 2009; Wang et al., 2008, 2001 demonstrate the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM is dominated by abrupt and large magnitude monsoon shifts on millennial timescales, switching between periods of high and weak monsoon rains. It has been hypothesised that over these timescales, the EASM exhibits two stable states with bifurcation-type tipping points between them (Schewe et al., 2012. Here we test this hypothesis by looking for early warning signals of past bifurcations in speleothem records from Sanbao Cave and Hulu Cave, China (Wang et al., 2008, 2001, spanning the penultimate glacial cycle, and in multiple model simulations derived from the data. We find hysteresis behaviour in our model simulations with transitions directly forced by solar insolation. We detect critical slowing down prior to an abrupt monsoon shift during the penultimate deglaciation consistent with long-term orbital forcing. However, such signals are only detectable when the change in system stability is sufficiently slow to be detected by the sampling resolution of the dataset, raising the possibility that the alarm was missed and a similar forcing drove earlier EASM shifts.

  18. European Neolithic societies showed early warning signals of population collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Sean S; Haas, W Randall; Shennan, Stephen J

    2016-08-30

    Ecosystems on the verge of major reorganization-regime shift-may exhibit declining resilience, which can be detected using a collection of generic statistical tests known as early warning signals (EWSs). This study explores whether EWSs anticipated human population collapse during the European Neolithic. It analyzes recent reconstructions of European Neolithic (8-4 kya) population trends that reveal regime shifts from a period of rapid growth following the introduction of agriculture to a period of instability and collapse. We find statistical support for EWSs in advance of population collapse. Seven of nine regional datasets exhibit increasing autocorrelation and variance leading up to collapse, suggesting that these societies began to recover from perturbation more slowly as resilience declined. We derive EWS statistics from a prehistoric population proxy based on summed archaeological radiocarbon date probability densities. We use simulation to validate our methods and show that sampling biases, atmospheric effects, radiocarbon calibration error, and taphonomic processes are unlikely to explain the observed EWS patterns. The implications of these results for understanding the dynamics of Neolithic ecosystems are discussed, and we present a general framework for analyzing societal regime shifts using EWS at large spatial and temporal scales. We suggest that our findings are consistent with an adaptive cycling model that highlights both the vulnerability and resilience of early European populations. We close by discussing the implications of the detection of EWS in human systems for archaeology and sustainability science. PMID:27573833

  19. Mountains as early warning indicators of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M. W.

    2015-12-01

    The panoramic splendor and complexity of mountain environments have inspired and challenged humans for centuries. These areas have been variously perceived as physical structures to be conquered, as sites of spiritual inspiration, and as some of the last untamed natural places on Earth. In our time, the perception that "mountains are forever" may provide solace to those seeking stability in a rapidly changing world. However, changes in the hydrology and in the abundance and species composition of the native flora and fauna of mountain ecosystems are potential bellwethers of global change, because these systems have a propensity to amplify environmental changes within specific portions of this landscape. Mountain areas are thus sentinels of climate change. We are seeing effects today in case histories I present from the Himalaya's, Andes, Alps, and Rocky Mountains. Furthermore, these ecosystem changes are occurring in mountain areas before they occur in downstream ecosystems. Thus, mountains are early warning indicators of perturbations such as climate change. The sensitivity of mountain ecosystems begs for enhanced protection and worldwide protection. Our understanding of the processes that control mountain ecosystems—climate interactions, snowmelt runoff, biotic diversity, nutrient cycling—is much less developed compared to downstream ecosystems where human habitation and development has resulted in large investments in scientific knowledge to sustain health and agriculture. To address these deficiencies, I propose the formation of an international mountain research consortium.

  20. Disaster warning and evacuation responses by private business employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabek, T E

    2001-03-01

    When people are advised that their place of employment is threatened with disaster, how do they respond? Interviews with employees (n = 406) of 118 businesses affected by one of seven recent disasters provide the first answers to this question. Multivariate analyses document the key variables that best predict variation are: 1) emergent perceptions of risk; 2) time of evacuation from work; 3) time of evacuation from home; 4) multiple evacuations; and 5) tension between work and family commitments. When warned of impending disaster, most employees initially responded with denial. Gradually, however, emergent perceptions of risk intensified especially among those living in communities in which the least amount of disaster planning had occurred or who resided in a mobile home or apartment. Highest levels of work and family tensions during these evacuations were reported by racial minority employees who had children living at home. Policy implications for these and other findings are discussed so as to pin-point changes business managers should make that will enable them to provide the leadership and compassion expected by employees. PMID:11244647

  1. Warning Model for Shallow Landslides Induced by Extreme Rainfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lien-Kwei Chien

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the geophysical properties of the landslide-prone catchment of the Gaoping River in Taiwan were investigated using zones based on landslide history in conjunction with landslide analysis using a deterministic approach based on the TRIGRS (Transient Rainfall Infiltration and Grid-based Regional Slope-Stability model. Typhoon Morakot in 2009 was selected as a simulation scenario to calibrate the combination of geophysical parameters in each zone before analyzing changes in the factor of safety (FS. Considering the amount of response time required for typhoons, suitable FS thresholds for landslide warnings are proposed for each town in the catchment area. Typhoon Fanapi of 2010 was used as a test scenario to verify the applicability of the FS as well as the efficacy of the cumulative rainfall thresholds derived in this study. Finally, the amount of response time provided by the FS thresholds in cases of yellow and red alerts was determined. All five of the landslide events reported by the Soil and Water Conservation Bureau were listed among the unstable sites identified in the proposed model, thereby demonstrating its effectiveness and accuracy in determining unstable areas and areas that require evacuation. These cumulative rainfall thresholds provide a valuable reference to guide disaster prevention authorities in the issuance of yellow and red alerts with the ability to reduce losses and save lives.

  2. Condition responsive truck rollover warning systems: Alternative system designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Richards, S.H. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Transportation Research Center

    1997-10-01

    Truck rollover is a serious highway safety problem, with consequences that make the occurrences important despite their relative infrequency. Truck accidents on urban freeways occur more frequently at interchange off-ramps that at any other location, accounting for about 5% of fatal truck accidents, according to accident statistics summarized in a study performed by Bellomo-McGee, Inc., for FHWA. Severe traffic disruption often results from truck rollover, and the severity of incidents can be sorely multiplied by the type of cargo the truck is hauling. Some hazardous cargos have the potential to cause true disaster is they are spilled as a result of truck rollover. Because of the severity of consequences of truck rollover accidents, it is important to seek ways to avoid such accidents. In the near-term future, the most likely means to prevent such rollover accidents is a condition responsive system that can warn truck drivers of impending rollover in time for them to take corrective actions.

  3. A Bayesian decision approach to rainfall thresholds based flood warning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. V. Martina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Operational real time flood forecasting systems generally require a hydrological model to run in real time as well as a series of hydro-informatics tools to transform the flood forecast into relatively simple and clear messages to the decision makers involved in flood defense. The scope of this paper is to set forth the possibility of providing flood warnings at given river sections based on the direct comparison of the quantitative precipitation forecast with critical rainfall threshold values, without the need of an on-line real time forecasting system. This approach leads to an extremely simplified alert system to be used by non technical stakeholders and could also be used to supplement the traditional flood forecasting systems in case of system failures. The critical rainfall threshold values, incorporating the soil moisture initial conditions, result from statistical analyses using long hydrological time series combined with a Bayesian utility function minimization. In the paper, results of an application of the proposed methodology to the Sieve river, a tributary of the Arno river in Italy, are given to exemplify its practical applicability.

  4. Global climate change: Is global warming a health warning?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rainham, D.

    1999-12-01

    Consequences to the health of human populations of ignoring various signs that global climate change is a large and qualitatively distinct environmental health hazard are discussed. Evidence is cited to illustrate how even low ambient concentrations of air pollution can have deleterious and harmful impacts on human health, and a warning is issued about the dangers of conducting an unpredictable rather massive experiment with the earth's atmosphere. Opportunities for adaptation such as conservation of freshwater and agricultural land, combined with education, technological development and individual behavioral change, and drastic reduction of anthropogenic sources of greenhouse gases to lessen the effects of impending climatic change have been much talked about, but action has been non-existent, or tentative at best. Part of the reason for the apparent lack of willingness to act is largely economic, aided by the many remaining uncertainties regarding the impact of climate change, especially in so far as human health is concerned. However, this author's view is that our limited understanding of the relationship among the growing list of atmospheric pollutants and their effect on the ecosystems on which we depend, is no reason not to take action until it becomes too late.

  5. Reality Check Algorithm for Complex Sources in Early Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakus, G.; Heaton, T. H.

    2013-12-01

    In almost all currently operating earthquake early warning (EEW) systems, presently available seismic data are used to predict future shaking. In most cases, location and magnitude are estimated. We are developing an algorithm to test the goodness of that prediction in real time. We monitor envelopes of acceleration, velocity, and displacement; if they deviate significantly from the envelope predicted by Cua's envelope gmpe's then we declare an overfit (perhaps false alarm) or an underfit (possibly a larger event has just occurred). This algorithm is designed to provide a robust measure and to work as quickly as possible in real-time. We monitor the logarithm of the ratio between the envelopes of the ongoing observed event and the envelopes derived from the predicted envelopes of channels of ground motion of the Virtual Seismologist (VS) (Cua, G. and Heaton, T.). Then, we recursively filter this result with a simple running median (de-spiking operator) to minimize the effect of one single high value. Depending on the result of the filtered value we make a decision such as if this value is large enough (e.g., >1), then we would declare, 'that a larger event is in progress', or similarly if this value is small enough (e.g., <-1), then we would declare a false alarm. We design the algorithm to work at a wide range of amplitude scales; that is, it should work for both small and large events.

  6. Progress of the earthquake early warning system in Fujian, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xing; Wei, Yongxiang; Li, Jun; Zhang, Hongcai; Ma, Qiang; Kang, Lanchi

    2013-12-01

    In this article, we systematically introduce the latest progress of the earthquake early warning (EEW) system in Fujian, China. We focus on the following key technologies and methods: continuous earthquake location and its error evaluation; magnitude estimation; reliability judgment of EEW system information; use of double-parameter principle in EEW system information release threshold; real-time estimation of seismic intensity and available time for target areas; seismic-monitoring network and data sharing platform; EEW system information release and receiving platform; software test platform; and test results statistical analysis. Based on strong ground motion data received in the mainshock of the Wenchuan earthquake, the EEW system developed by the above algorithm is simulated online, and the results show that the system can reduce earthquake hazards effectively. In addition, we analyzed four earthquake cases with magnitude greater than 5.5 processed by our EEW system since the online-testing that was started one year ago, and results indicate that our system can effectively reduce earthquake hazards and have high practical significance.

  7. Study of Enterprises Marketing Risk Early Warning System Based on BP Neural Network Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Mei-hua; WANG Fu-dong; ZHANG Hong-hong

    2006-01-01

    For effectively early warning the marketing risk caused along with the varied environment, a BP neural network method was introduced on the basis of analyzing the shortcomings of the risk early warning method, and combined with the practical conditions of dairy enterprises, the index system caused by the marketing risk was also studied. The principal component method was used for screening the indexes, the grades and critical values of the marketing risk were determined. Through the configuration of BP network, node processing and error analysis, the early warning results of the marketing risk were obtained. The results indicate that BP neural network method can be effectively applied through the function approach in the marketing early warning with incomplete information and complex varied conditions.

  8. Snow White and the Seven Warnings: Threats to Authentic Evaluation (Assessment).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Susan

    1992-01-01

    Identifies and analyzes seven threats to authentic evaluation, and predicts implications. Warns educators to beware of the term "standards"; norm-referencing; aggregation; credibility, comparability, and calibration; multiple measures; schemes that rule out varieties of excellence; and "untests." (SR)

  9. Instant tsunami early warning based on real-time GPS – Tohoku 2011 case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hoechner

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Taking the 2011 Tohoku earthquake as an example, we demonstrate the ability of real-time GPS to provide qualified tsunami early warning within minutes. While in earlier studies we demonstrated the power of the so-called GPS shield concept based on synthetic data, we here present a complete processing chain starting from actual GPS raw data and fully simulate the situation as it would be in a warning center. The procedure includes processing of GPS observations with predicted high precision orbits, inversion for slip and computation of the tsunami propagation and coastal warning levels. We show that in case of the Tohoku earthquake, it would be feasible to provide accurate tsunami warning as soon as 3 min after the beginning of the earthquake.

  10. The maternal early warning criteria: a proposal from the national partnership for maternal safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhyre, Jill M; D'Oria, Robyn; Hameed, Afshan B; Lappen, Justin R; Holley, Sharon L; Hunter, Stephen K; Jones, Robin L; King, Jeffrey C; D'Alton, Mary E

    2014-01-01

    Case reviews of maternal death have revealed a concerning pattern of delay in recognition of hemorrhage, hypertensive crisis, sepsis, venous thromboembolism, and heart failure. Early-warning systems have been proposed to facilitate timely recognition, diagnosis, and treatment for women developing critical illness. A multidisciplinary working group convened by the National Partnership for Maternal Safety used a consensus-based approach to define The Maternal Early Warning Criteria, a list of abnormal parameters that indicate the need for urgent bedside evaluation by a clinician with the capacity to escalate care as necessary in order to pursue diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. This commentary reviews the evidence supporting the use of early-warning systems, describes The Maternal Early Warning Criteria, and provides considerations for local implementation. PMID:25203897

  11. The misinformation effect is unrelated to the DRM effect with and without a DRM warning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvillo, Dustin P; Parong, Jocelyn A

    2016-01-01

    The misinformation and Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigms are used to study forms of false memories. Despite the abundance of research using these two paradigms, few studies have examined the relationship between the errors that arise from them. In the present study, 160 participants completed a misinformation task and two DRM tasks, receiving a warning about the effect before the second DRM task. Participants demonstrated misinformation and DRM effects (with and without the warning), but susceptibility to these forms of false memory were not significantly related across individuals. The DRM warning reduced the DRM effect, and signal detection analysis revealed that the DRM warning reduced a liberal response bias in this task. Sensitivity and response bias in both DRM tasks were not significantly related to these measures in the misinformation task. These findings suggest that these two forms of false memories are not interchangeable and they appear to be the result of different cognitive processes. PMID:25664935

  12. Early warning for geo-hazards based on the weather condition in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuanzheng LIU; Yanhui LIU; Mingsheng WEN; Can TANG; Tiefeng LI; Jianfa LIAN

    2006-01-01

    According to national early warning practice for geo-hazards from 2003 to 2005, it is systematically concluded that the basic characteristics of geo-hazards, early warning method and forecast result based on the geological maps of China in a scale 1∶6 000 000. With the contrast of different characters between sustained rainfall and typhoon rainfall inducing geo-hazards, the disaster reduction result and some problems are preliminarily analyzed. Some basic recognition is that early warning to geo-hazards is feasible, national scale forecast is only to call attention, but can't immediately be used to disaster reduction decision-making. And, the future direction is to build a united disaster reduction framework of early warning system including national, provincial and county levels based on weather factors in different scale of area.

  13. NOAA/NWS Short Duration Severe Weather Warnings WMS/WFS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A prototype Web Map Service (WMS) displaying NOAA National Weather Service short duration weather warning polygons. The data are updated on five minute intervals....

  14. A hazard-independent approach for the standardised multi-channel dissemination of warning messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbri Palomares, M. A.; Hammitzsch, M.; Lendholt, M.

    2012-04-01

    The tsunami disaster affecting the Indian Ocean region on Christmas 2004 demonstrated very clearly the shortcomings in tsunami detection, public warning processes as well as intergovernmental warning message exchange in the Indian Ocean region. In that regard, early warning systems require that the dissemination of early warning messages has to be executed in way that ensures that the message delivery is timely; the message content is understandable, usable and accurate. To that end, diverse and multiple dissemination channels must be used to increase the chance of the messages reaching all affected persons in a hazard scenario. In addition to this, usage of internationally accepted standards for the warning dissemination such as the Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) and Emergency Data Exchange Language (EDXL) Distribution Element specified by the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS) increase the interoperability among different warning systems enabling thus the concept of system-of-systems proposed by GEOSS. The project Distant Early Warning System (DEWS), co-funded by the European Commission under the 6th Framework Programme, aims at strengthening the early warning capacities by building an innovative generation of interoperable tsunami early warning systems based on the above mentioned concepts following a Service-oriented Architecture (SOA) approach. The project focuses on the downstream part of the hazard information processing where customized, user-tailored warning messages and alerts flow from the warning centre to the responsible authorities and/or the public with their different needs and responsibilities. The information logistics services within DEWS generate tailored EDXL-DE/CAP warning messages for each user that must receive the message according to their preferences, e.g., settings for language, interested areas, dissemination channels, etc.. However, the significant difference in the implementation and

  15. Modeling and Remote Sensing for a Dust/Health Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprigg, W. A.

    2015-12-01

    Airborne desert dust is a human health problem in much of the world. While controlling emissions from arid lands is problematic, advances in remote sensing and modeling have matured sufficiently to reduce risks of exposure. Active dust sources are identified and monitored from space-based platforms and from modeled back-trajectories. Satellite-based sensors detect and monitor airborne dust crossing oceans and circling the globe. High-resolution dust forecasts and simulations over the U.S. southwest have been successfully demonstrated. Operational dust forecast systems could warn of intercontinental dust movements and potential dust exposure hazards on spatial scales of a few kilometers and on time scales sufficient for planning and avoiding risks. This paper will show how the World Meteorological Organization's Sand and Dust Storm Warning Advisory and Assessment System could coordinate international collaboration for a worldwide Dust/Health Early Warning System modeled after the decades-long success of the international Famine Early Warning System.

  16. Current National Weather Service Watches, Warnings, or Advisories for the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Weather Service (NWS) Storm Prediction Center uses RSS feeds to disseminate all watches, warnings and advisories for the United States that are...

  17. 49 CFR 234.205 - Operating characteristics of warning system apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... limits within which the system is designed to operate. ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operating characteristics of warning system...) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SIGNAL SYSTEM SAFETY...

  18. Paint for detection of corrosion and warning of chemical and radiological attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Joseph C.

    2010-08-24

    A system for warning of corrosion, chemical, or radiological substances. The system comprises painting a surface with a paint or coating that includes an indicator material and monitoring the surface for indications of the corrosion, chemical, or radiological substances.

  19. 7 Warning Signs of Alzheimer's | Alzheimer's disease | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Alzheimer's Disease 7 Warning Signs of Alzheimer's Past Issues / Fall 2010 Table of Contents The ... Suncoast Gerontology Center, University of South Florida. How Alzheimer's Changes the Brain The only definite way to ...

  20. Progress of KOERI Tsunami Warning System for the Eastern Mediterranean, Aegean and Black Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necmioglu, Ocal; Meral Ozel, Nurcan; Ozer Sozdinler, Ceren; Yilmazer, Mehmet; Cokacar, Tulay; Comoglu, Mustafa; Pinar, Ali; Kekovali, Kivanc

    2016-04-01

    This presentation provides a progress report on the activities of the Bogazici University / Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute - Regional Earthquake and Tsunami Monitoring Center (KOERI-RETMC) which provides services as a Candidate Tsunami Service Provider (CTSP) of ICG/NEAMTWS in the Eastern Mediterranean, Aegean and Black Seas since 1 July 2012. KOERI continues to operate 178 BB and 97 strong motion and 6 short period sensors and the regional coverage includes 77 stations from GFZ and additional 16 stations through bilateral agreements. One radar-type tide-gauge has been installed in Fethiye within the framework of "Inexpensive Device for Sea-Level Measurement" (IDSL) initiative offered as donation by the EC/JRC and planning is in progress for the possible installation of three more IDSLs in selected locations in the Aegean Sea coast of Turkey. The capabilities and the limitations of HF Radar technology for the purpose of tsunami detection in the Eastern Mediterranean has been identified and the maturity and the applicability of these systems for the possible use under the Tsunami Warning System has been determined. The development of the TsuComp as a user-friendly interface to be used in the assessment of tsunamigenic potential and as a single-point entry for message dissemination has been finalized. The work towards the creation of Tsunami Inundation Maps at the Tsunami Forecast Points in Turkey is near finalization. This work is partially funded by project ASTARTE - Assessment, Strategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe - FP7-ENV2013 6.4-3, Grant 603839. The authors would like to thank EC/JRC and Mr. Alessandro Annunziato for their continuous support in the operational activities of RETMC and IDSL initiative.

  1. Geoethical considerations in early warning of flooding and landslides: Case study from Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devoli, Graziella; Kleivane Krøgli, Ingeborg; Dahl, Mads Peter; Colleuille, Hervé; Nykjær Boje, Søren; Sund, Monica

    2015-04-01

    The Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE) runs the national early warning systems (EWS) for flooding and shallow landslides in Norway. The two EWSs have been operational since the late 1980s and 2013 respectively, and are based on weather forecasts, various hydro-meteorological prognosis and expert evaluation. Daily warning levels and related information to the public is prepared and presented through custom build internet platforms. In natural hazards sciences, the risk of a specific threat is defined as the product of hazard and consequence. In this context an EWS is intended to work as a mitigation measure in lowering the consequence and thus the risk of the threat. One of several factors determining the quality of such an EWS, is how warnings are communicated to the public. In contrary to what is common practice in some other countries, experts working with EWS in Norway cannot be held personally responsible for consequences of warnings being issued or not. However, the communication of warnings for flooding and landslides at NVE still implies many considerations of geoethical kind. Which are the consequences today for the forecasters when erroneous warning messages are sent because based on a poorly documented analysis? What is for example the most responsible way to describe uncertainties in warnings issued? What is the optimal compromise between avoiding false alarms and not sending out a specific warning? Is it responsible to rely on a "gut feeling"? Some authorities complain in receiving warning messages too often. Is it responsible to begin notifying these, only in cases of "high hazard level" and no longer in cases of "moderate hazard level"? Is it acceptable to issue general warnings for large geographical areas without being able to pinpoint the treat on local scale? What responsibility lies within the EWS in recommending evacuation or other practical measures to local authorities? By presenting how early warnings of flooding and

  2. PRESTo, the earthquake early warning system for Southern Italy: Concepts, capabilities and future perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Satriano, C.; RISSC-Lab, AMRA scarl; Elia, L.; RISSC-Lab, AMRA scarl, Naples, Italy; Martino, C.; RISSC-Lab, AMRA scarl, Naples, Italy; Lancieri, M.; Ecole Normale Superieure, Paris,France; Zollo, A.; Department of Physics, University of Naples FedericoII, Naples, Italy; Iannaccone, G.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione OV, Napoli, Italia

    2011-01-01

    PRESTo (PRobabilistic and Evolutionary early warning SysTem) is a software platform for regional earthquake early warning that integrates recently developed algorithms for real-time earthquake location and magnitude estimation into a highly configurable and easily portable package. The system is under active experimentation in Southern Italy on the Irpinia Seismic Network (ISNet), which is deployed in a seismogenic area that is expected to produce a large earthquake within the next 20 years. ...

  3. Smokers' and e-cigarette users' perceptions of modified risk warnings for e-cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackowski, Olivia A; O'Connor, Richard J; Strasser, Andrew A; Hammond, David; Villanti, Andrea C; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2016-12-01

    The 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act opened the possibility for tobacco companies to apply to market their products as having "modified" or reduced risks. However, research on how to communicate comparative tobacco risks and how such messages are interpreted is limited. This study aimed to qualitatively examine perceptions of potential modified risk statements presented as warning labels for e-cigarettes. We conducted six focus groups between 2014 and 2015 with 27 adult e-cigarette users and cigarette-only smokers who provided comments on two versions of a modified risk warning for e-cigarettes: 1) "WARNING: No tobacco product is safe, but this product presents substantially lower risks to health than cigarettes" (as proposed by two companies for their smokeless tobacco products) and 2) "WARNING: This product may be harmful to health, but is substantially less harmful than cigarettes" (an alternative developed by our team). Although most personally believed that e-cigarettes are safer than cigarettes and some thought the messages were true and accurate, many were skeptical and uncomfortable with the warnings because they did not "seem like a warning" and because use of the phrase "substantially lower risks" could be misleading and difficult to understand. Several thought the second warning was stronger (e.g., more active, more specific). Modified risk messages about e-cigarettes may impact perceptions and use of the product. More research is needed to identify the framing, wording and placement (e.g. within or in addition to a warning) that could potentially increase population-level benefits and minimize harms. PMID:27486560

  4. Evaluation of the emergency warning system at the Fort St. Vrain nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fort St. Vrain power plant is the only high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) in commercial operation in the United States. All commercial reactors, regardless of technology, must conform to Nuclear Regulatory Commission emergency planning regulations developed in light of Clarification of TMI Action Plan Requirements (NUREG-0737). This report analyzes the applicability of warning-related planning requirements to HTGRs and evaluates the strengths and weaknesses of warning procedures at Fort St. Vrain

  5. Research of the Early Warning Analysis of Crop Diseases and Insect Pests

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Dengwei; Chen, Tian’en; Dong, Jing

    2013-01-01

    International audience The early warning technology of crop diseases and insect pests is a strong guarantee to respond to the increasingly dire situation of major pests and diseases and ensure national food security. At present, the method of the monitoring data collection about the information of diseases and insect pests mainly relies on a field visit carried out by the plant protection staff, sampling and analysis, which directly impacts on the accuracy of early warning analysis. Firstl...

  6. Smart Roadside System for Driver Assistance and Safety Warnings: Framework and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Han Byeog Cho; Hyun Suk Kim; Jeong Ah Jang

    2011-01-01

    The use of newly emerging sensor technologies in traditional roadway systems can provide real-time traffic services to drivers through Telematics and Intelligent Transport Systems (ITSs). This paper introduces a smart roadside system that utilizes various sensors for driver assistance and traffic safety warnings. This paper shows two road application models for a smart roadside system and sensors: a red-light violation warning system for signalized intersections, and a speed advisory system f...

  7. Insider trading on the Stockholm Stock Exchange : Non reported insider trading prior to profit warnings

    OpenAIRE

    Lindén, Patrik; Lejdelin, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Background: Studying insider trading is difficult due to its sensitive and delicate nature. Therefore it is hard to gauge the extent of such activities. This problem has resulted in a fierce debate whether it should be prohibited or not. Using a method where the effect on monopolistic information usage can be isolated insider trading can be monitored. Such an event is a profit warning. Purpose: This paper examines whether insider trading exist for companies making a profit warning between yea...

  8. Implementation of an Early Warning Scoring System to Identify Patients With Cancer at Risk for Deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, MiKaela; Mooney, Kathy; Evans, Ellen

    2016-08-01

    Early warning scoring systems are tools for nurses to help monitor their patients and improve how quickly a patient experiencing a sudden decline receives clinical care. Nurse leaders and frontline staff at a major academic medical center implemented a new early warning system that gives clear guidelines to nurses, nursing assistants, and other clinicians about vital-sign parameters and changes in patients' mental status. 
. PMID:27441509

  9. Design of the Sound-Warning System based on the Micro- Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanbin, SHI; Jian, GUO; Yanli, SHI

    The design and realization of chip type airborne sound-warning system are introduced. Taking the monolithic integrated circuit P87C52X2FN and voice chip ISD4003-8 M as the core, the hardware principle electric circuit and the main software design mentality has produced. This warning system is been provided with some merits such as the strong function, the high precision, expediently operate and so on.

  10. Toxic Algae and Early Warning Management in Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song; Lun; Song; Guangjun; Song; Yonggang; Xu; Xiaohong

    2014-01-01

    The research status of toxic algae in Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea are reviewed from the aspects of toxicity characteristics,toxic mechanism and early warning management,and the existing toxic algae and their toxicity in Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea are analyzed in the paper. The early warning level of toxic algae in Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea of China is put forward,and the research direction of shellfish poisoning in future is summarized.

  11. A New Lane Departure Warning Algorithm Considering the Driver’s Behavior Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Lun Hui Xu; San Gen Hu; Qiang Luo

    2015-01-01

    In order to meet the driving safety warning required for different driver types and situations, a new lane departure warning (LDW) algorithm was proposed. Its adaptability is much better through setting the different thresholds of time to lane crossing (TLC) using fuzzy control method for driver with different driving behaviors in different lanes and different vehicle movements. To ensure the accuracy of computation of TLC under the different actual driving scenarios, the algorithm was establ...

  12. The instrumental role of product information: a study of warning labels for non-prescription drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discenza, R; Ferguson, J M

    1992-01-01

    The study extends work in informative labeling, fear appeals, and negative information effects. Respondents were given two labels from two packages, one of which contained the experimental treatment. Warning strength was manipulated at three levels: weak, medium, and strong. The data show that, unlike labels on prescription medications, non-prescription warning labels tend to discourage use of the product. Results have implications for information theorists, marketers, and public policy makers. PMID:10124787

  13. The cognitive and behavioural impact of alcohol promoting and alcohol warning advertisements: An experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Kyle; Stautz, Kaidy; Hollands, Gareth; Winpenny, Eleanor; Marteau, Theresa

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To assess the immediate effect of alcohol promoting and alcohol warning advertisements on implicit and explicit attitudes towards alcohol and on alcohol seeking behaviour. Methods: We conducted a between-participants online experiment in which participants were randomly assigned to view one of three sets of advertisements: i. alcohol promoting, ii. alcohol warning, or iii. unrelated to alcohol. A total of 373 participants (59.5% female) aged 18 to 40 (M = 28.03) living in t...

  14. Viewing alcohol warning advertising reduces urges to drink in young adults: an online experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Stautz, Kaidy; Marteau, Theresa M

    2016-01-01

    Background Tobacco counter-advertising is effective at promoting smoking cessation. Few studies have evaluated the impact of alcohol warning advertising on alcohol consumption and possible mechanisms of effect. This pilot study aimed to assess whether alcohol warning advertising is effective in reducing urges to drink alcohol, if emotional responses to advertising explain any such effect or perceived effectiveness, and whether effects differ among heavier drinkers. Methods One hundred fifty-t...

  15. Toward a cross-border early-warning system for Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Jacek Stankiewicz; Dino Bindi; Adrien Oth; Stefano Parolai

    2015-01-01

    Rapidly expanding urban areas in Central Asia are increasingly vulnerable to seismic risk; but at present, no earthquake early warning (EEW) systems exist in the region despite their successful implementation in other earthquake-prone areas. Such systems aim to provide short (seconds to tens of seconds) warnings of impending disaster, enabling the first risk mitigation and damage control steps to be taken. This study presents the feasibility of a large scale cross-border regional system for C...

  16. Effect of Forward Collision Warning Systems on information processing: An electrophysiological study

    OpenAIRE

    BUENO, Mercedes; Fort, Alexandra; Fabrigoule, Colette

    2012-01-01

    Rear-end collisions represent approximately 30% of all car crashes and has a large economic impact on society. Driver inattention has been identified as the most important contributing factor in rear-end collisions. In this context, Forward Collision Warning Systems (FCWS) have been developed specifically to warn drivers of potential collisions. The main objective of this work is to evaluate the impact of a surrogate FCWS according to its reliability and the attentional state of the driver. P...

  17. Testing of a Prototype Tsunami Early Warning System for the Coasts of Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Romano, F.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia; Piatanesi, A.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia; Lorito, S.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia

    2009-01-01

    In the framework of the agreement between Italian Civil Protection and INGV (DPC-S3 project), we are studying the feasibility of a Tsunami Early Warning System (TEWS) for the coasts of Italy. The performances of such a prototype TEWS have been evaluated. The underlying concept is borrowed from the Japan Meteorological Agency's TEWS. This tsunami warning system is in fact based on a set of elementary submarine earthquake sources. In case of an earthquake, the wave heights generated by each ele...

  18. REMOTE OPERATION OF THE WEST COAST AND ALASKA TSUNAMI WARNING CENTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alec H. Medbery

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The remote control of real time derivation of earthquake location and magnitude and the issuance of tsunami and earthquake bulletins was done using off-the-shelf remote control software and hardware. Such remote operation of the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center can decrease the time needed to respond to an earthquake by eliminating travel from the duty standers’ home to the tsunami warning center.

  19. Estimation of Flood Warning Times for Flood Safety Management Downstream of Dams

    OpenAIRE

    Saqib Ehsan; Walter Marx; Silke Wieprecht

    2013-01-01

    Floods have always been a threat for people and property due to the extent of possible damages. The flooding could be catastrophic in case of possible dam failure and its impacts on downstream areas could also be very significant. Proper estimation of flood warning times plays a vital role in flood safety management of areas downstream of the dams. This research focuses on the realistic and precise estimation of flood warning times for the downstream areas in case of possible dam failure. As ...

  20. People-centred landslide early warning systems in the context of risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haß, S.; Asch, K.; Fernandez-Steeger, T.; Arnhardt, C.

    2009-04-01

    In the current hazard research people-centred warning becomes more and more important, because different types of organizations and groups have to be involved in the warning process. This fact has to be taken into account when developing early warning systems. The effectiveness of early warning depends not only on technical capabilities but also on the preparedness of decision makers and their immediate response on how to act in case of emergency. Hence early warning systems have to be regarded in the context of an integrated and holistic risk management. Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) measures include people-centred, timely and understandable warning. Further responsible authorities have to be identified in advance and standards for risk communication have to be established. Up to now, hazard and risk assessment for geohazards focuses on the development of inventory, susceptibility, hazard and risk maps. But often, especially in Europe, there are no institutional structures for managing geohazards and in addition there is a lack of an authority that is legally obliged to alarm on landslides at national or regional level. One of the main characteristics within the warning process for natural hazards e.g. in Germany is the split of responsibility between scientific authorities (wissenschaftliche Fachbehörde) and enforcement authorities (Vollzugsbehörde). The scientific authority provides the experts who define the methods and measures for monitoring and evaluate the hazard level. The main focus is the acquisition and evaluation of data and subsequently the distribution of information. The enforcement authority issues official warnings about dangerous natural phenomena. Hence the information chain in the context of early warning ranges over two different institutions, the forecast service and the warning service. But there doesn't exist a framework for warning processes in terms of landslides as yet. The concept for managing natural disasters is often reduced to

  1. Estimating the benefits of single value and probability forecasting for flood warning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Verkade

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Flood risk can be reduced by means of flood forecasting, warning and response systems (FFWRS. These systems include a forecasting sub-system which is imperfect, meaning that inherent uncertainties in hydrological forecasts may result in false alarms and missed events. This forecasting uncertainty decreases the potential reduction of flood risk, but is seldom accounted for in estimates of the benefits of FFWRSs. In the present paper, a method to estimate the benefits of (imperfect FFWRSs in reducing flood risk is presented. The method is based on a hydro-economic model of expected annual damage (EAD due to flooding, combined with the concept of Relative Economic Value (REV. The estimated benefits include not only the reduction of flood losses due to a warning response, but also consider the costs of the warning response itself, as well as the costs associated with forecasting uncertainty. The method allows for estimation of the benefits of FFWRSs that use either deterministic or probabilistic forecasts. Through application to a case study, it is shown that FFWRSs using a probabilistic forecast have the potential to realise higher benefits at all lead-times. However, it is also shown that provision of warning at increasing lead-time does not necessarily lead to an increasing reduction of flood risk, but rather that an optimal lead-time at which warnings are provided can be established as a function of forecast uncertainty and the cost-loss ratio of the user receiving and responding to the warning.

  2. Quantifying the effect of early warning systems for mitigating risks from alpine hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Daniel; Sättele, Martina; Bründl, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Early warning systems (EWS) are increasingly applied as flexible and non-intrusive measures for mitigating risks from alpine hazards. They are typically planed and installed in an ad-hoc manner and their effectiveness is not quantified, which is in contrast to structural risk mitigation measures. The effect of an EWS on the risk depends on human decision makers: experts interpret the signals from EWS, authorities decide on intervention measures and the public responds to the warnings. This interaction of the EWS with humans makes the quantification of their effectiveness challenging. Nevertheless, such a quantification is an important step in understanding, improving and justifying the use of EWS. We systematically discuss and demonstrate the factors that influence EWS effectiveness for alpine hazards, and present approaches and tools for analysing them. These include Bayesian network models, which are a powerful tool for an integral probabilistic assessment. The theory is illustrated through applications of warning systems for debris flow and rockfall hazards. References: Sättele M., Bründl M., Straub D. (in print). Quantifying the effectiveness of early warning systems for natural hazards. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences. Sättele M., Bründl M., Straub D. (2015). Reliability and Effectiveness of Warning Systems for Natural Hazards: Concepts and Application to Debris Flow Warning. Reliability Engineering & System Safety, 142: 192-202

  3. Conceptual design and RCS performance research of shipborne early warning aircraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kuizhi Yue; Yong Gao; Guanxiong Li; Dazhao Yu

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve the survivability of the aircraft, conceptual design and radar cross section (RCS) performance research are done. The CATIA software is used to design the 3D digital model of the shipborne early warning aircraft, and some measures are taken to reduce the RCS characteristics of the early warning aircraft at the same time. Based on the physical optics method and the equivalent electromagnetic flow method, the aircraft’s RCS characteristics and strength distribution charac-teristics are simulated numerical y, and compared with the foreign advanced shipborne early warning aircraft. The simulation results show that under the X radar band, when the incident wave pitching angle is 0◦, compared with the foreign advanced shipborne early warning aircraft, the forward RCS average value of the concep-tual shipborne early warning aircraft is reduced to 24.49%, the lateral RCS average value is reduced to 5.04%, and the backward RCS average value is reduced to 39.26%. The research results of this paper are expected to provide theoretical basis and technical support for the conceptual design and the stealth design of the shipborne early warning aircraft.

  4. Distribution of new graphic warning labels: Are tobacco companies following regulations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoek Janet

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To test the hypothesis that tobacco companies would not follow a regulation that required seven new graphic health warnings (GHWs to be evenly distributed on cigarette packs and that they would distribute fewer packs featuring warnings regarded by smokers as being more disturbing. Methods Cross-sectional survey of purchased packs (n = 168 and street-collected discarded packs (convenience sample of New Zealand cities and towns, n = 1208 packs with statistical analysis of seven types of new GHWs. A priori warning impact was judged using three criteria, which were tested against data from depth interviews with retailers. Results The GHWs on the purchased packs and street-collected packs both showed a distribution pattern that was generally consistent with the hypothesis ie, there were disproportionately more packs featuring images judged as "least disturbing" and disproportionately fewer of those with warnings judged "more disturbing". The overall patterns were statistically significant, suggesting an unequal frequency of the different warnings for both purchased (p Conclusion These results suggest that tobacco companies are not following the regulations, which requires even distribution of the seven different GHWs on cigarette packs; further monitoring is required to estimate the extent of this non-compliance. As an immediate measure, governments should strictly enforce all regulations applying to health warnings, particularly given that these are an effective tobacco control intervention that cost tax payers nothing.

  5. Information systems in a changing climate: Early warnings and drought risk management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger S. Pulwarty

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Drought is among the most damaging, and least understood, of all “natural” hazards. Although some droughts last a single season and affect only small areas, the instrumental and paleoclimate records show that droughts have sometimes continued for decades and have impacted millions of square kilometers in North America, West Africa, and East Asia. To cross the spectrum of potential drivers and impacts, drought information systems have multiple sub-systems which include an integrated risk assessment, communication and decision support system of which early warning is a central component and output. An early warning system is much more than a forecast – it is a linked risk information (including people׳s perception of risk and communication system that actively engages communities involved in preparedness. There are numerous drought systems warning systems being implemented at different scales of governance. We draw on the lessons of over 21 drought early warning systems around the world, in both developing and developed countries and at regional, national and community levels. The successes illustrate that effective early warning depends upon a multi-sectoral and interdisciplinary collaboration among all concerned actors at each stage in the warning process from monitoring to response and evaluation. However, the links between the community-based approach and the national and global EWSs are relatively weak. Using the rich experience of information systems across the globe, this paper identifies pathways for knowledge management and action at the relevant scales for decision-making in response to a changing climate.

  6. Optimization of rainfall thresholds for a flood warning system to Taiwan urban areas during storm events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hao-Yu; Pan, Tsung-Yi; Su, Ming-Daw; Hsieh, Ming-Chang; Tan, Yih-Chi

    2016-04-01

    Flood is one of the most damage disaster that always happen around the world. Because of the extreme weather change, the flood disaster damage becomes higher than before. In recent years, Taiwan suffered from flood damage frequently by excessive rainfall induced by extreme weather, like typhoons. Therefore, it is necessary to build an effective flood warning system to reduce the flood damage. The operational flood warning system in Taiwan is based on the rainfall thresholds. When cumulative rainfall over the rainfall thresholds, the flood warning system would alert the local government where region would happen flood disaster. According to the flood warning system alert, the governments have more time to prepare how to face the flood disaster before happens. Although Taiwanese government has a preliminary flood warning system, the system has still lack of theoretical background. For this reason, the alert accuracy of the system is limited. Thus it is important to develop the effective rainfall thresholds that could predict flood disaster successfully. The research aims to improve the accuracy of the system through statistical methods. When the accumulated rainfall reaches the alert value, the warning message would be announced early to government for dealing with flooding damage which would happen. According to extreme events, the data driven and statistical methods are adopted to calculate the optimum rainfall thresholds. The results of this study could be applied to enhance rainfall thresholds forecasting accuracy, and could reduce the risk of floods.

  7. The Method of Oilfield Development Risk Forecasting and Early Warning Using Revised Bayesian Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihua Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oilfield development aiming at crude oil production is an extremely complex process, which involves many uncertain risk factors affecting oil output. Thus, risk prediction and early warning about oilfield development may insure operating and managing oilfields efficiently to meet the oil production plan of the country and sustainable development of oilfields. However, scholars and practitioners in the all world are seldom concerned with the risk problem of oilfield block development. The early warning index system of blocks development which includes the monitoring index and planning index was refined and formulated on the basis of researching and analyzing the theory of risk forecasting and early warning as well as the oilfield development. Based on the indexes of warning situation predicted by neural network, the method dividing the interval of warning degrees was presented by “3σ” rule; and a new method about forecasting and early warning of risk was proposed by introducing neural network to Bayesian networks. Case study shows that the results obtained in this paper are right and helpful to the management of oilfield development risk.

  8. NOAA/WEST COAST AND ALASKA TSUNAMI WARNING CENTER PACIFIC OCEAN RESPONSE CRITERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Rogers

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available New West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC response criteria for earthquakes occurring in the Pacific basin are presented. Initial warning decisions are based on earthquake location, magnitude, depth, and - dependent on magnitude - either distance from source or pre- computed threat estimates generated from tsunami models. The new criteria will help limit the geographical extent of warnings and advisories to threatened regions, and complement the new operational tsunami product suite.Changes to the previous criteria include: adding hypocentral depth dependence, reducing geographical warning extent for the lower magnitude ranges, setting special criteria for areas not well-connected to the open ocean, basing warning extent on pre-computed threat levels versus tsunami travel time for very large events, including the new advisory product, using the advisory product for far-offshore events in the lower magnitude ranges, and specifying distances from the coast for on-shore events which may be tsunamigenic.This report sets a baseline for response criteria used by the WCATWC considering its processing and observational data capabilities as well as its organizational requirements. Criteria are set for tsunamis generated by earthquakes, which are by far the main cause of tsunami generation (either directly through sea floor displacement or indirectly by triggering of slumps. As further research and development provides better tsunami source definition, observational data streams, and improved analysis tools, the criteria will continue to adjust. Future lines of research and development capable of providing operational tsunami warning centers with better tools are discussed.

  9. NOAA/West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center Pacific Ocean response criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, P.; Benz, H.; Bolton, M.; Crawford, G.; Dengler, L.; Fryer, G.; Goltz, J.; Hansen, R.; Kryzanowski, K.; Malone, S.; Oppenheimer, D.; Petty, E.; Rogers, G.; Wilson, Jim

    2008-01-01

    New West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) response criteria for earthquakes occurring in the Pacific basin are presented. Initial warning decisions are based on earthquake location, magnitude, depth, and - dependent on magnitude - either distance from source or precomputed threat estimates generated from tsunami models. The new criteria will help limit the geographical extent of warnings and advisories to threatened regions, and complement the new operational tsunami product suite. Changes to the previous criteria include: adding hypocentral depth dependence, reducing geographical warning extent for the lower magnitude ranges, setting special criteria for areas not well-connected to the open ocean, basing warning extent on pre-computed threat levels versus tsunami travel time for very large events, including the new advisory product, using the advisory product for far-offshore events in the lower magnitude ranges, and specifying distances from the coast for on-shore events which may be tsunamigenic. This report sets a baseline for response criteria used by the WCATWC considering its processing and observational data capabilities as well as its organizational requirements. Criteria are set for tsunamis generated by earthquakes, which are by far the main cause of tsunami generation (either directly through sea floor displacement or indirectly by triggering of slumps). As further research and development provides better tsunami source definition, observational data streams, and improved analysis tools, the criteria will continue to adjust. Future lines of research and development capable of providing operational tsunami warning centers with better tools are discussed.

  10. Evaluation of Flood Forecast and Warning in Elbe river basin - Impact of Forecaster's Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danhelka, Jan; Vlasak, Tomas

    2010-05-01

    Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI) is responsible for flood forecasting and warning in the Czech Republic. To meet that issue CHMI operates hydrological forecasting systems and publish flow forecast in selected profiles. Flood forecast and warning is an output of system that links observation (flow and atmosphere), data processing, weather forecast (especially NWP's QPF), hydrological modeling and modeled outputs evaluation and interpretation by forecaster. Forecast users are interested in final output without separating uncertainties of separate steps of described process. Therefore an evaluation of final operational forecasts was done for profiles within Elbe river basin produced by AquaLog forecasting system during period 2002 to 2008. Effects of uncertainties of observation, data processing and especially meteorological forecasts were not accounted separately. Forecast of flood levels exceedance (peak over the threshold) during forecasting period was the main criterion as flow increase forecast is of the highest importance. Other evaluation criteria included peak flow and volume difference. In addition Nash-Sutcliffe was computed separately for each time step (1 to 48 h) of forecasting period to identify its change with the lead time. Textual flood warnings are issued for administrative regions to initiate flood protection actions in danger of flood. Flood warning hit rate was evaluated at regions level and national level. Evaluation found significant differences of model forecast skill between forecasting profiles, particularly less skill was evaluated at small headwater basins due to domination of QPF uncertainty in these basins. The average hit rate was 0.34 (miss rate = 0.33, false alarm rate = 0.32). However its explored spatial difference is likely to be influenced also by different fit of parameters sets (due to different basin characteristics) and importantly by different impact of human factor. Results suggest that the practice of interactive

  11. Infrared criminalistic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibin, Igor S.; Savkov, E. V.; Popov, Pavel G.

    1996-12-01

    We are presenting the devices of near-IR spectral range in this report. The devices may be used in criminalistics, in bank business, in restoration works, etc. the action principle of these devices is describing briefly.

  12. Intrauterine devices (IUD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007635.htm Intrauterine devices (IUD) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An intrauterine device (IUD) is a small plastic T-shaped device used ...

  13. Medical Device Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    A medical device is any product used to diagnose, cure, or treat a condition, or to prevent disease. They ... may need one in a hospital. To use medical devices safely Know how your device works. Keep ...

  14. Implantable electronic medical devices

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzpatrick, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Implantable Electronic Medical Devices provides a thorough review of the application of implantable devices, illustrating the techniques currently being used together with overviews of the latest commercially available medical devices. This book provides an overview of the design of medical devices and is a reference on existing medical devices. The book groups devices with similar functionality into distinct chapters, looking at the latest design ideas and techniques in each area, including retinal implants, glucose biosensors, cochlear implants, pacemakers, electrical stimulation t

  15. Drought early warning system in I.R. of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drought is a normal, recurring feature of climate; it occurs in virtually all climatic regimes. It occurs in high as well as low rainfall areas. Drought is the consequence of a natural reduction in the amount of precipitation received over an extended period of time, usually a season or more in length, although other climatic factors (such as high temperatures, high winds, and low relative humidity) are often associated with it in many regions of the world and can significantly aggravate the severity of the event. Most parts of the 1. R. of Iran have a high degree of aridity and pronounced rainfall variability in large parts of their territories and are therefore highly vulnerable to drought. Therefore, drought is one of greatest natural disasters in our country. Among all natural disasters, droughts occur the most frequently, have the longest duration, cover the largest area, and cause the greatest losses in agricultural production. The quantification of impacts and the provision of disaster relief are far more difficult tasks for drought than they are for other natural hazards. Since, the drought is a normal part of climate, it is difficult to determine its onset, development, and end. This fact emphasizes the importance of developing comprehensive monitoring or early warning systems. Drought prediction (monthly, seasonal, or yearly trends) is particularly useful for the drought planning and mitigation. Drought Early Warning System is applied as a pilot study during the last two years. The NDEWSI is based on the monitoring drought indices, such as SPI, Palmer and NDVI, and preparedness, where will be discussed in this paper. In this paper, we have presented a brief drought analysis using the SPI and demonstrated its potential use for drought analysis with minimal data requirements. It is our view that development of a drought monitoring system, based largely on meteorological and climatic information, can be a great help for early assessment of drought impacts in

  16. Optical-Fiber Strainmeters for Earthquake Early Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumberge, M. A.; Agnew, D. C.; Hatfield, W.; Wyatt, F. K.

    2015-12-01

    Earthquake early warning (EEW) includes two tasks: detecting an earthquake and estimating its size. Detection requires low instrumental noise; estimating the size can be done most simply by estimating the moment from the static (near-field) signal, which does not saturate with magnitude. The usual approach in EEW has been to use inertial sensors (detecting acceleration) for low noise, and GPS (measuring displacement) to determine the static signal. Because a strainmeter can combine low noise and broad frequency response in a single sensor, such systems should also be considered for EEW networks. While borehole strainmeters often do not record the static offset correctly, past results from longbase laser strainmeters (LSM's) show that this can be done reliably if the strain is measured over hundreds of meters. Recent developments in optical fiber LSM's have allowed the construction of low-cost, low-power long-base LSM's with low noise in the frequency band of interest. Digital processing of the interference signal makes possible a flat frequency response from 0 to 100 Hz and a high dynamic range, with the upper limit (strain of 0.1%) set by the tensioning of the fiber. Such instruments can be flexibly sited, including in locations, such as the ocean floor, impracticable for GPS. Application of such instruments to EEW will require further, though straightforward, development of processing methods and installation techniques, as well as testing under conditions of high dynamic strain; additional modeling will be needed to determine the optimal use LSM's in an EEW seismometer/GPS network.

  17. Flash flood forecasting, warning and risk management: the HYDRATE project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → We characterize flash flood events in various regions of Europe. → We provide guidance to improve observations and monitoring of flash floods. → Flash floods are associated to orography and are influenced by initial soil moisture conditions. → Models for flash flood forecasting and flash flood hazard assessment are illustrated and discussed. → We examine implications for flood risk policy and discuss recommendations received from end users. - Abstract: The management of flash flood hazards and risks is a critical component of public safety and quality of life. Flash-floods develop at space and time scales that conventional observation systems are not able to monitor for rainfall and river discharge. Consequently, the atmospheric and hydrological generating mechanisms of flash-floods are poorly understood, leading to highly uncertain forecasts of these events. The objective of the HYDRATE project has been to improve the scientific basis of flash flood forecasting by advancing and harmonising a European-wide innovative flash flood observation strategy and developing a coherent set of technologies and tools for effective early warning systems. To this end, the project included actions on the organization of the existing flash flood data patrimony across Europe. The final aim of HYDRATE was to enhance the capability of flash flood forecasting in ungauged basins by exploiting the extended availability of flash flood data and the improved process understanding. This paper provides a review of the work conducted in HYDRATE with a special emphasis on how this body of research can contribute to guide the policy-life cycle concerning flash flood risk management.

  18. USAID Expands eMODIS Coverage for Famine Early Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkerson, C.; Meyer, D. J.; Evenson, K.; Merritt, M.

    2011-12-01

    Food security in countries at risk is monitored by U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) through its Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) using many methods including Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data processed by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) into eMODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) products. Near-real time production is used comparatively with trends derived from the eMODIS archive to operationally monitor vegetation anomalies indicating threatened cropland and rangeland conditions. eMODIS production over Central America and the Caribbean (CAMCAR) began in 2009, and processes 10-day NDVI composites every 5 days from surface reflectance inputs produced using predicted spacecraft and climatology information at Land and Atmosphere Near real time Capability for Earth Observing Systems (EOS) (LANCE). These expedited eMODIS composites are backed by a parallel archive of precision-based NDVI calculated from surface reflectance data ordered through Level 1 and Atmosphere Archive and Distribution System (LAADS). Success in the CAMCAR region led to the recent expansion of eMODIS production to include Africa in 2010, and Central Asia in 2011. Near-real time 250-meter products are available for each region on the last day of an acquisition interval (generally before midnight) from an anonymous file transfer protocol (FTP) distribution site (ftp://emodisftp.cr.usgs.gov/eMODIS). The FTP site concurrently hosts the regional historical collections (2000 to present) which are also searchable using the USGS Earth Explorer (http://edcsns17.cr.usgs.gov/NewEarthExplorer). As eMODIS coverage continues to grow, these geographically gridded, georeferenced tagged image file format (GeoTIFF) NDVI composites increase their utility as effective tools for operational monitoring of near-real time vegetation data against historical trends.

  19. Drought Risk Identification: Early Warning System of Seasonal Agrometeorological Drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalecios, Nicolas; Spyropoulos, Nicos V.; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2014-05-01

    By considering drought as a hazard, drought types are classified into three categories, namely meteorological or climatological, agrometeorological or agricultural and hydrological drought and as a fourth class the socioeconomic impacts can be considered. This paper addresses agrometeorological drought affecting agriculture within the risk management framework. Risk management consists of risk assessment, as well as a feedback on the adopted risk reduction measures. And risk assessment comprises three distinct steps, namely risk identification, risk estimation and risk evaluation. This paper deals with the quantification and monitoring of agrometeorological drought, which constitute part of risk identification. For the quantitative assessment of agrometeorological or agricultural drought, as well as the computation of spatiotemporal features, one of the most reliable and widely used indices is applied, namely the Vegetation Health Index (VHI). The computation of VHI is based on satellite data of temperature and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). The spatiotemporal features of drought, which are extracted from VHI are: areal extent, onset and end time, duration and severity. In this paper, a 20-year (1981-2001) time series of NOAA/AVHRR satellite data is used, where monthly images of VHI are extracted. Application is implemented in Thessaly, which is the major agricultural region of Greece characterized by vulnerable and drought-prone agriculture. The results show that every year there is a seasonal agrometeorological drought with a gradual increase in the areal extent and severity with peaks appearing usually during the summer. Drought monitoring is conducted by monthly remotely sensed VHI images. Drought early warning is developed using empirical relationships of severity and areal extent. In particular, two second-order polynomials are fitted, one for low and the other for high severity drought, respectively. The two fitted curves offer a seasonal

  20. Flash flood warning based on fully dynamic hydrology modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejanovic, Goran; Petkovic, Slavko; Cvetkovic, Bojan; Nickovic, Slobodan

    2016-04-01

    Numerical hydrologic modeling has achieved limited success in the past due to, inter alia, lack of adequate input data. Over the last decade, data availability has improved substantially. For modelling purposes, high-resolution data on topography, river routing, and land cover and soil features have meanwhile become available, as well as the observations such as radar precipitation information. In our study, we have implemented the HYPROM model (Hydrology Prognostic Model) to predict a flash flood event at a smaller-scale basin in Southern Serbia. HYPROM is based on the full set of governing equations for surface hydrological dynamics, in which momentum components, along with the equation of mass continuity, are used as full prognostic equations. HYPROM also includes a river routing module serving as a collector for the extra surface water. Such approach permits appropriate representation of different hydrology scales ranging from flash floods to flows of large and slow river basins. The use of full governing equations, if not appropriately parameterized, may lead to numerical instability systems when the surface water in a model is vanishing. To resolve these modelling problems, an unconditionally stable numerical scheme and a method for height redistribution avoiding shortwave height noise have been developed in HYPROM, which achieve numerical convergence of u, v and h when surface water disappears. We have applied HYPROM, driven by radar-estimated precipitation, to predict flash flooding occurred over smaller and medium-size river basins. Two torrential rainfall cases have been simulated to check the accuracy of the model: the exceptional flooding of May 2014 in Western Serbia, and the convective flash flood of January 2015 in Southern Serbia. The second episode has been successfully predicted by HYPROM in terms of timing and intensity six hours before the event occurred. Such flash flood warning system is in preparation to be operationally implemented in the

  1. Investigations on Real-time GPS for Earthquake Early Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapenthin, R.; Aranha, M. A.; Melgar, D.; Allen, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Geodetic Alarm System (G-larmS) is a software system developed in a collaboration between the Berkeley Seismological Laboratory (BSL) and New Mexico Tech (NMT) primarily for real-time Earthquake Early Warning (EEW). It currently uses high rate (1Hz), low latency (inversion on these offsets to determine slip on a finite fault, which we use to estimate moment magnitude. These computations are repeated every second for the duration of the event. G-larmS has been in continuous operation at the BSL for over a year using event triggers from the California Integrated Seismic Network (CISN) ShakeAlert system and real-time position time series from a fully triangulated network consisting of BARD, PBO and USGS stations across northern California. Pairs of stations are processed as baselines using trackRT (MIT software package). G-larmS produced good results in real-time during the South Napa (M 6.0, August 2014) earthquake as well as on several replayed and simulated test cases. We evaluate the performance of G-larmS for EEW by analysing the results using a set of well defined test cases to investigate the following: (1) using multiple fault regimes and concurrent processing with the ultimate goal of achieving model generation (slip and magnitude computations) within each 1 second GPS epoch on very large magnitude earthquakes (up to M 9.0), (2) the use of Precise Point Positioning (PPP) real-time data streams of various operators, accuracies, latencies and formats along with baseline data streams, (3) collaboratively expanding EEW coverage along the U.S. West Coast on a regional network basis for Northern California, Southern California and Cascadia.

  2. CISN ShakeAlert Earthquake Early Warning System Monitoring Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, I. H.; Allen, R. M.; Neuhauser, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    CISN ShakeAlert is a prototype earthquake early warning system being developed and tested by the California Integrated Seismic Network. The system has recently been expanded to support redundant data processing and communications. It now runs on six machines at three locations with ten Apache ActiveMQ message brokers linking together 18 waveform processors, 12 event association processes and 4 Decision Module alert processes. The system ingests waveform data from about 500 stations and generates many thousands of triggers per day, from which a small portion produce earthquake alerts. We have developed interactive web browser system-monitoring tools that display near real time state-of-health and performance information. This includes station availability, trigger statistics, communication and alert latencies. Connections to regional earthquake catalogs provide a rapid assessment of the Decision Module hypocenter accuracy. Historical performance can be evaluated, including statistics for hypocenter and origin time accuracy and alert time latencies for different time periods, magnitude ranges and geographic regions. For the ElarmS event associator, individual earthquake processing histories can be examined, including details of the transmission and processing latencies associated with individual P-wave triggers. Individual station trigger and latency statistics are available. Detailed information about the ElarmS trigger association process for both alerted events and rejected events is also available. The Google Web Toolkit and Map API have been used to develop interactive web pages that link tabular and geographic information. Statistical analysis is provided by the R-Statistics System linked to a PostgreSQL database.

  3. Incorporating Hydroepidemiology into the Epidemia Malaria Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimberly, M. C.; Merkord, C. L.; Henebry, G. M.; Senay, G. B.

    2014-12-01

    Early warning of the timing and locations of malaria epidemics can facilitate the targeting of resources for prevention and emergency response. In response to this need, we are developing the Epidemic Prognosis Incorporating Disease and Environmental Monitoring for Integrated Assessment (EPIDEMIA) computer system. EPIDEMIA incorporates software for capturing, processing, and integrating environmental and epidemiological data from multiple sources; data assimilation techniques that continually update models and forecasts; and a web-based interface that makes the resulting information available to public health decision makers. The system will enable forecasts that incorporate lagged responses to environmental risk factors as well as information about recent trends in malaria cases. Because the egg, larval, and pupal stages of mosquito development occur in aquatic habitats, information about the spatial and temporal distributions of stagnant water bodies is critical for modeling malaria risk. Potential sources of hydrological data include satellite-derived rainfall estimates, evapotranspiration (ET) calculated using a simplified surface energy balance model, and estimates of soil moisture and fractional water cover from passive microwave radiometry. We used partial least squares regression to analyze and visualize seasonal patterns of these variables in relation to malaria cases using data from 49 districts in the Amhara region of Ethiopia. Seasonal patterns of rainfall were strongly associated with the incidence and seasonality of malaria across the region, and model fit was improved by the addition of remotely-sensed ET and soil moisture variables. The results highlight the importance of remotely-sensed hydrological data for modeling malaria risk in this region and emphasize the value of an ensemble approach that utilizes multiple sources of information about precipitation and land surface wetness. These variables will be incorporated into the forecasting models at

  4. Ultraefficient Themoelectric Devices Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thermoelectric (TE) devices already found a wide range of commercial, military and aerospace applications. However, at present commercially available TE devices...

  5. A Framework for Monitoring and Maintenance of a Tsunami Early Warning System using ITIL®

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gensch, Stephan; Günther, Michael; Henneberger, Ralph; Strollo, Angelo

    2013-04-01

    Within this work, we present our approach and ongoing efforts to establish monitoring and maintenance processes for Tsunami Early Warning Systems. Practical work is done within the context of the Indonesian Tsunami Warning System (INATEWS) at Badan Meteorologi, Klimatologi dan Geofisika (BMKG) in Jakarta, Indonesia. The German contribution is well known as GITEWS. INATEWS is composed of several thousand integrated system components and numerous software processes. Due to the heterogeneity and complexity of the system, as well as the high availability needs, being an operational TEWS, real-time monitoring, reporting and scheduled preventive maintenance are needed. To develop and install an organizational and operational methodology for maintenance processes for INATEWS, we asserted ITIL® methods and are in development of Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) together with BMKG operational and management staff. ITIL®-conforming methods are one means of IT Service Management which has been adopted by a variety of service oriented IT providers. An early warning system does not expose classical consumer services, but the dissemination of warning messages and an early warning as a product may nevertheless be viewed as distinct services provided by a TEWS. We applied methods from ITIL® to the modular and hierarchical components of an early warning center, where minimum requirements on service availability, reliability and correctness of the warning product exist, from dissemination down to each sensor component. We describe functions of actors that ensure management of incidents and problems, as well as managing applications, IT operations and further technical issues. For the components of the early warning system, we present a model of event detection and event resolution. Real-time monitoring provides automated health-checks. Errors lead to reports to designated targets. Preventive maintenance provides findings on data and system availability, and data quality. Each

  6. Distributed GIS for automated natural hazard zonation mapping Internet-SMS warning towards sustainable society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devanjan Bhattacharya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, open systems are needed for real time analysis and warnings on geo-hazards and over time can be achieved using Open Source Geographical Information System (GIS-based platform such as GeoNode which is being contributed to by developers around the world. To develop on an open source platform is a very vital component for better disaster information management as far as spatial data infrastructures are concerned and this would be extremely vital when huge databases are to be created and consulted regularly for city planning at different scales, particularly satellite images and maps of locations. There is a big need for spatially referenced data creation, analysis, and management. Some of the salient points that this research would be able to definitely contribute with GeoNode, being an open source platform, are facilitating the creation, sharing, and collaborative use of geospatial data. The objective is development of an automated natural hazard zonation system with Internet-short message service (SMS warning utilizing geomatics for sustainable societies. A concept of developing an internet-resident geospatial geohazard warning system has been put forward in this research, which can communicate alerts via SMS. There has been a need to develop an automated integrated system to categorize hazard and issue warning that reaches users directly. At present, no web-enabled warning system exists which can disseminate warning after hazard evaluation at one go and in real time. The objective of this research work has been to formalize a notion of an integrated, independent, generalized, and automated geo-hazard warning system making use of geo-spatial data under popular usage platform. In this paper, a model of an automated geo-spatial hazard warning system has been elaborated. The functionality is to be modular in architecture having GIS-graphical user interface (GUI, input, understanding, rainfall prediction, expert, output, and warning modules. A

  7. Performance analysis of landslide early warning systems at regional scale: the EDuMaP method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piciullo, Luca; Calvello, Michele

    2016-04-01

    Landslide early warning systems (LEWSs) reduce landslide risk by disseminating timely and meaningful warnings when the level of risk is judged intolerably high. Two categories of LEWSs, can be defined on the basis of their scale of analysis: "local" systems and "regional" systems. LEWSs at regional scale (ReLEWSs) are used to assess the probability of occurrence of landslides over appropriately-defined homogeneous warning zones of relevant extension, typically through the prediction and monitoring of meteorological variables, in order to give generalized warnings to the public. Despite many studies on ReLEWSs, no standard requirements exist for assessing their performance. Empirical evaluations are often carried out by simply analysing the time frames during which significant high-consequence landslides occurred in the test area. Alternatively, the performance evaluation is based on 2x2 contingency tables computed for the joint frequency distribution of landslides and alerts, both considered as dichotomous variables. In all these cases, model performance is assessed neglecting some important aspects which are peculiar to ReLEWSs, among which: the possible occurrence of multiple landslides in the warning zone; the duration of the warnings in relation to the time of occurrence of the landslides; the level of the warning issued in relation to the landslide spatial density in the warning zone; the relative importance system managers attribute to different types of errors. An original approach, called EDuMaP method, is proposed to assess the performance of landslide early warning models operating at regional scale. The method is composed by three main phases: Events analysis, Duration Matrix, Performance analysis. The events analysis phase focuses on the definition of landslide (LEs) and warning events (WEs), which are derived from available landslides and warnings databases according to their spatial and temporal characteristics by means of ten input parameters. The

  8. Do more graphic and aversive cigarette health warning labels affect Brazilian smokers' likelihood of quitting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szklo, André Salem; Volchan, Eliane; Thrasher, James F; Perez, Cristina; Szklo, Moysés; de Almeida, Liz Maria

    2016-09-01

    Between 2008 and 2013, Brazil experienced a large decline in smoking prevalence, with an innovative round of aversive pictorial health warnings implemented on cigarette packs and at points of sale in 2009. The objective of this study was to examine changes over time in the distribution of quitting attempts and self-reported thoughts about quitting due to health warnings among current smokers. We conducted a pre-post study to evaluate data from two nationally-representative surveys conducted in 2008 and 2013. Responses to questions on smokers' quitting attempts in the last year (yes vs. no) and whether health warnings led them to think about quitting in the last month (yes vs. no) were combined into four categories, for which the distribution of the Brazilian smoking population by year was estimated. A multinomial model was used to obtain proportions for each category, adjusted by socio-demographic variables and nicotine dependence. The proportion of smokers who reported making a quitting attempt in the last year and stated that health warnings led them think about quitting smoking statistically increased over time (from 30.0% to 33.1%; p-value=0.010). The percentage of those who answered "no" to these two questions also increased over time (from 23.5% to 32.9%; p-value≤0.001). These findings suggest that innovative warnings introduced in Brazil likely served as a "reminder" for continuing to think about cessation among those who attempted to quit in the last year. These warnings may have also triggered more avoidance of thinking about their contents than the previous warnings, which some studies have found to promote subsequent quitting activity. PMID:27161535

  9. Radar-based Flood Warning System for Houston, Texas and Its Performance Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, N.; Bedient, P.

    2009-12-01

    Houston has a long history of flooding problems as a serious nature. For instance, Houstonians suffered from severe flood inundation during Tropical Storm Allison in 2001 and Hurricane Ike in 2008. Radar-based flood warning systems as non-structural tools to provide accurate and timely warnings to the public and private entities are greatly needed for urban areas prone to flash floods. Fortunately, the advent of GIS, radar-based rainfall estimation using NEXRAD, and real-time delivery systems on the internet have allowed flood alert systems to provide important advanced warning of impending flood conditions. Thus, emergency personnel can take proper steps to mitigate against catastrophic losses. The Rice and Texas Medical Center (TMC) Flood Alert System (FAS2) has been delivering warning information with 2 to 3 hours of lead time to facility personnel in a readily understood format for more than 40 events since 1997. The system performed well during these major rainfall events with R square value of 93%. The current system has been improved by incorporating a new hydraulic prediction tool - FloodPlain Map Library (FPML). The FPML module aims to provide visualized information such as floodplain maps and water surface elevations instead of just showing hydrographs in real time based on NEXRAD radar rainfall data. During Hurricane Ike (September, 2008), FAS2 successfully provided precise and timely flood warning information to TMC with the peak flow difference of 3.6% and the volume difference of 5.6%; timing was excellent for this double-peaked event. With the funding from the Texas Department of Transportation, a similar flood warning system has been developed at a critical transportation pass along Highway 288 in Houston, Texas. In order to enable emergency personnel to begin flood preparation with as much lead time as possible, FAS2 is being used as a prototype to develop warning system for other flood-prone areas such as City of Sugar Land.

  10. GNSS Tsunami Warning System Augmentation for the Indo-Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBrecque, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    The years since the devastating Banda Aceh Earthquake of December, 2004 have repeatedly inflicted the terrible loss of life and economic disruption from large earthquakes and resulting tsunamis upon Indo-Pacific coastal populations. The hardest hit populations are those closest to the earthquake source, a scenario for which most Indo-Pacific nations lack an adequate early warning system. Following the Banda Aceh Earthquake, GNSS based techniques were developed to provide accurate, timely, estimates of ground displacements, the modeling and monitoring of tsunami propagation. Major investments are also being made to deploy and upgrade existing GNSS constellations (GPS, GLONASS, Beidou, Galileo, GZSS, and IRNSS) by the end of this decade. There have also been significant investments in multi-GNSS ground networks and analysis centers that often provide measurements in real time. These multi-national investments now present the possibility for significant improvements to the Indo-Pacific region's tsunami warning. The development of GNSS based tsunami warning integrated with existing seismic based tsunami warning systems will provide a robust, accurate, timely, and cost effective network to provide effective warning for the Indo-Pacific coastal communities. The UN General Assembly has called for the sharing of geodetic data for the mitigation of natural hazards while the IUGG and IGS recommend the implementation of a GNSS based augmentation to the Tsunami Early Warning System. The same GNSS ground networks and constellations that support the Tsunami Early Warning network also provide Positioning, Navigation, and Timing and other benefits to these communities thereby insuring a sustainable and reliable capability.

  11. The SAFER-Project and Seismic Early Warning in Europe (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zschau, J.; Gasparini, P.

    2009-12-01

    SAFER (Seismic EArly Warning For EuRope) is the first large scale scientific project in Europe on earthquake early warning. It is funded by the European Commission in the context of Framework Program 6 under the theme Sustainable Development, Global Change and Ecosystems. Its general objective is to develop knowledge and tools for increasing the capability of effective earthquake early warning in Europe and to implement and test these tools in selected European cities. The SAFER project was carried out between 2006 and 2009 by a consortium formed by 20 institutes from 11 European and Mediterranean countries (Germany, Italy, Greece, Romania, Switzerland, Norway, France, the Netherlands, Iceland, Turkey and Egypt) and one each from Japan, Taiwan and USA. Five major earthquake prone cities were chosen as test areas: Athens, Bucharest, Cairo, Istanbul and Naples. The combined population of these cities is about 40 million inhabitants and all have experienced severe earthquakes in recent years. SAFER is strongly multi-disciplinary, calling upon expertise in seismology, structural and geotechnical engineering, informatics and statistics. Some of the specific problems addressed are related to - the rapid determination of earthquake size, complex earthquake features, and damage potential; - the implementation of a fully probabilistic framework for applications of earthquake early warning based on cost-benefit analysis; - the development of a new generation of early warning systems being decentralised and people-centred, and - the implementation of the real-time “shake map”-technology in large European cities. The presentation will review the major scientific findings, comment on the improvements of the earthquake early warning capabilities achieved by SAFER in the five test cities, and present some ideas for the future development of earthquake early warning in Europe.

  12. [How would plain packaging and pictorial warning impact on smoking reduction, cessation and initiation?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannocci, Alice; Colamesta, Vittoria; Mipatrini, Daniele; Boccia, Antonio; Terzano, Claudio; La Torre, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    The European Commission has proposed a review of the directive on tobacco products on labeling and packaging of tobacco products by introducing warning text with pictorial warning that occupies 75% of the cigarette packages. The aim of the survey was to assess the impact of plain packaging and pictorial warning in smoking reduction, cessation and initiation among a sample of adult. The cross-sectional study was conducted in Rome between September and November 2012. The questionnaires administered were 227, with a response rate of 82.4%. 35.8% (No. 67) of the respondents considered the image of the gangrene the most effective in communicating smoking-related damages, followed by the image on lung cancer (No. 60; 32.1%). Distinguishing between smokers and non-smokers (both former and never smokers), the picture on lung cancer was the most effective for smokers (No. 22; 38.6%); if cigarette packages have pictorial warnings like the ones shown, more than half (No. 33; 57.9%) of smokers would change brand; 66.7% (No. 38) of them would feel uncomfortable in showing the package. Comparing the 3 packagings, classic packaging, plain packaging with textual warning, and plain packaging with both textual and pictorial warning, the majority of people declared that the third is the most effective in preventing smoking initiation (No. 169; 90.9%), in motivating to quit (No. 158; 84.9%), and in changing smoking habits (No. 149; 80.5%). The survey, although its small sample size and being not representative of all strata of Italian population, shows that the plain packaging with pictorial warning is the most convincing in the three outcomes considered. PMID:24548838

  13. Web-based Tsunami Early Warning System with instant Tsunami Propagation Calculations in the GPU Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammitzsch, M.; Spazier, J.; Reißland, S.

    2014-12-01

    Usually, tsunami early warning and mitigation systems (TWS or TEWS) are based on several software components deployed in a client-server based infrastructure. The vast majority of systems importantly include desktop-based clients with a graphical user interface (GUI) for the operators in early warning centers. However, in times of cloud computing and ubiquitous computing the use of concepts and paradigms, introduced by continuously evolving approaches in information and communications technology (ICT), have to be considered even for early warning systems (EWS). Based on the experiences and the knowledge gained in three research projects - 'German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System' (GITEWS), 'Distant Early Warning System' (DEWS), and 'Collaborative, Complex, and Critical Decision-Support in Evolving Crises' (TRIDEC) - new technologies are exploited to implement a cloud-based and web-based prototype to open up new prospects for EWS. This prototype, named 'TRIDEC Cloud', merges several complementary external and in-house cloud-based services into one platform for automated background computation with graphics processing units (GPU), for web-mapping of hazard specific geospatial data, and for serving relevant functionality to handle, share, and communicate threat specific information in a collaborative and distributed environment. The prototype in its current version addresses tsunami early warning and mitigation. The integration of GPU accelerated tsunami simulation computations have been an integral part of this prototype to foster early warning with on-demand tsunami predictions based on actual source parameters. However, the platform is meant for researchers around the world to make use of the cloud-based GPU computation to analyze other types of geohazards and natural hazards and react upon the computed situation picture with a web-based GUI in a web browser at remote sites. The current website is an early alpha version for demonstration purposes to give the

  14. Implantable CMOS Biomedical Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiko Noda

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The results of recent research on our implantable CMOS biomedical devices are reviewed. Topics include retinal prosthesis devices and deep-brain implantation devices for small animals. Fundamental device structures and characteristics as well as in vivo experiments are presented.

  15. Hip supporting device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a device for limiting movements in one or more anatomical joints, such as a device for limiting movement in the human hip joint after hip replacement surgery. This is provided by a device for limiting movement in the human hip joint, said device comprising: at least...

  16. Safety Early Warning Research for Highway Construction Based on Case-Based Reasoning and Variable Fuzzy Sets

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Liu; Ting-Hua Yi; Zhen-Jun Xu

    2013-01-01

    As a high-risk subindustry involved in construction projects, highway construction safety has experienced major developments in the past 20 years, mainly due to the lack of safe early warnings in Chinese construction projects. By combining the current state of early warning technology with the requirements of the State Administration of Work Safety and using case-based reasoning (CBR), this paper expounds on the concept and flow of highway construction safety early warnings based on CBR. The ...

  17. Floods in 2002 and 2013: comparing flood warnings and emergency measures from the perspective of affected parties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreibich, Heidi; Pech, Ina; Schröter, Kai; Müller, Meike; Thieken, Annegret

    2016-04-01

    Early warning is essential for protecting people and mitigating damage in case of flood events. However, early warning is only helpful if the flood-endangered parties are reached by the warning and if they know how to react effectively. Finding suitable methods for communicating helpful warnings to the "last mile" remains a challenge, but not much information is available. Surveys were undertaken after the August 2002 and the June 2013 floods in Germany, asking affected private households and companies about warnings they received and emergency measures they undertook. Results show, that in 2002 early warning did not work well: in too many areas warnings came too late or were too imprecise and many people (27%) and companies (45%) did not receive a flood warning. Afterwards, the warning systems were significantly improved, so that in 2013 only a small share of the affected people (7%) and companies (7 %) was not reached by any warning. Additionally, private households and companies were hardly aware of the flood risk in the Elbe catchment before 2002, mainly due to a lack of flood experience. For instance, in 2002 only 14% of private households clearly knew how to protect themselves and their assets when the warning reached them, in 2013 this fraction was 46 %. Although the share of companies which had an emergency plan in place had increased from 10 % in 2002 to 26 % in 2013, and the share of those conducting regular emergency exercises had increased from 4 % to 13 %, there is still plenty of room for improvement. Therefore, integrated early warning systems from monitoring through to the reaction of the affected parties as well as effective risk and emergency communication need continuous further improvement to protect people and mitigate residual risks in case of floods.

  18. Probabilistic rainfall warning system with an interactive user interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koistinen, Jarmo; Hohti, Harri; Kauhanen, Janne; Kilpinen, Juha; Kurki, Vesa; Lauri, Tuomo; Nurmi, Pertti; Rossi, Pekka; Jokelainen, Miikka; Heinonen, Mari; Fred, Tommi; Moisseev, Dmitri; Mäkelä, Antti

    2013-04-01

    citizens and professional end users applies SMS messages and, in near future, smartphone maps. The present interactive user interface facilitates free selection of alert sites and two warning thresholds (any rain, heavy rain) at any location in Finland. The pilot service was tested by 1000-3000 users during summers 2010 and 2012. As an example of dedicated end-user services gridded exceedance scenarios (of probabilities 5 %, 50 % and 90 %) of hourly rainfall accumulations for the next 3 hours have been utilized as an online input data for the influent model at the Greater Helsinki Wastewater Treatment Plant.

  19. Audible Aliasing Distortion in Digital Audio Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    J. Schimmel

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with aliasing distortion in digital audio signal synthesis of classic periodic waveforms with infinite Fourier series, for electronic musical instruments. When these waveforms are generated in the digital domain then the aliasing appears due to its unlimited bandwidth. There are several techniques for the synthesis of these signals that have been designed to avoid or reduce the aliasing distortion. However, these techniques have high computing demands. One can say that today'...

  20. Audible punctuation: performative pause in Homeric prosody

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankenborg, R.J.J.

    2015-01-01

    The association between physical proximity and relationship formation as a classic finding in psychological science. In the current dissertation, this classic association was examined in an entirely different and surprisingly understudied setting: the school classroom. We examined whether and how ph

  1. The Audible Life of the Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Wills

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available "Since at least 1980 Godard’s cinema has been explicitly looking for (its music, as if for its outside. In Sauve qui peut (la vie Paul Godard hears, and asks about it, coming through the hotel room wall, and it follows him down to the lobby, but remains “off,” like Marguerite Duras’s voice, in spite of his questions, until the final sequence. At that moment, at the end of the section entitled “Music,” the protagonist is at the same time struck by a car and struck by the entrance of the music into the diegetic present of the film, as the camera pans past an orchestra playing on the sidewalk while Paul fades off under the quizzical gaze of his daughter. By 2004, with Notre musique, it would seem to have taken over the whole text, for the film was announced as being about the collaboration between Godard and German record label ECM. In the context of that film it is difficult to determine both what that music is and who we are, although this discussion will try to advance a hypothesis in that regard. In fact, my main contention will be that music in Godard’s films functions as something like the absent image(s, not those it has lost but rather its cinema to come, what remains to be discovered and live within it, the survival of it. Not a cinema that cannot be seen, rather the image that can perhaps only be heard; and not the romantic or psychedelic dream of a synaesthetic apotheosis either, rather the technological coincidence of sonimage that has also been the precise direction of Godard’s cinematic research for more than thirty years. For the argument I will be making here is inscribed within my own investigation of what I call “technological life,” the means by which, in “prosthetic” symbiosis, or “dorsal” umbrality, a form lives beyond the simplistic opposition of animate and inanimate, or against the reductive presuppositions of autokinetic ipseity..."

  2. Tsunami Warning Services for the U.S. and Canadian Atlantic Coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, P. M.; Knight, W.

    2008-12-01

    In January 2005, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) developed a tsunami warning program for the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts. Within a year, this program extended further to the Atlantic coast of Canada and the Caribbean Sea. Warning services are provided to U.S. and Canadian coasts (including Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands) by the NOAA/West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) while the NOAA/Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) provides services for non-U.S. entities in the Caribbean Basin. The Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN) is also an active partner in the Caribbean Basin warning system. While the nature of the tsunami threat in the Atlantic Basin is different than in the Pacific, the warning system philosophy is similar. That is, initial messages are based strictly on seismic data so that information is provided to those at greatest risk as fast as possible while supplementary messages are refined with sea level observations and forecasts when possible. The Tsunami Warning Centers (TWCs) acquire regional seismic data through many agencies, such as the United States Geological Survey, Earthquakes Canada, regional seismic networks, and the PRSN. Seismic data quantity and quality are generally sufficient throughout most of the Atlantic area-of-responsibility to issue initial information within five minutes of origin time. Sea level data are mainly provided by the NOAA/National Ocean Service. Coastal tide gage coverage is generally denser along the Atlantic coast than in the Pacific. Seven deep ocean pressure sensors (DARTs), operated by the National Weather Service (NWS) National Data Buoy Center, are located in the Atlantic Basin (5 in the Atlantic Ocean, 1 in the Caribbean, and 1 in the Gulf of Mexico). The DARTs provide TWCs with the means to verify tsunami generation in the Atlantic and provide critical data with which to calibrate forecast models. Tsunami warning response criteria in the Atlantic Basin

  3. Early Warning System for reducing disaster risk: the technological platform DEWETRA for the Republic of Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massabo, Marco; Molini, Luca; Kostic, Bojan; Campanella, Paolo; Stevanovic, Slavimir

    2015-04-01

    Disaster risk reduction has long been recognized for its role in mitigating the negative environmental, social and economic impacts of natural hazards. Flood Early Warning System is a disaster risk reduction measure based on the capacities of institutions to observe and predict extreme hydro-meteorological events and to disseminate timely and meaningful warning information; it is furthermore based on the capacities of individuals, communities and organizations to prepare and to act appropriately and in sufficient time to reduce the possibility of harm or loss. An operational definition of an Early Warning System has been suggested by ISDR - UN Office for DRR [15 January 2009]: "EWS is the set of capacities needed to generate and disseminate timely and meaningful warning information to enable individuals, communities and organizations threatened by a hazard to prepare and to act appropriately and in sufficient time to reduce the possibility of harm or loss.". ISDR continues by commenting that a people-centered early warning system necessarily comprises four key elements: 1-knowledge of the risks; 2-monitoring, analysis and forecasting of the hazards; 3-communication or dissemination of alerts and warnings; and 4- local capabilities to respond to the warnings received." The technological platform DEWETRA supports the strengthening of the first three key elements of EWS suggested by ISDR definition, hence to improve the capacities to build real-time risk scenarios and to inform and warn the population in advance The technological platform DEWETRA has been implemented for the Republic of Serbia. DEWETRA is a real time-integrate system that supports decision makers for risk forecasting and monitoring and for distributing warnings to end-user and to the general public. The system is based on the rapid availability of different data that helps to establish up-to-date and reliable risk scenarios. The integration of all relevant data for risk management significantly

  4. Tsunami Warning in the Near Field: the Approach in Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, G. J.; Hirshorn, B.; McCreery, C. S.; Cessaro, R. K.; Weinstein, S. A.

    2005-12-01

    Tsunami warnings must always be made from imperfect and limited data, but uncertainties become especially acute in the near field, where a tsunami reaches its target coastline in a half-hour or less. In the absence of a warning (either because there is no warning system or because the system responds too slowly) the usual advice is ``When the ground shakes so severely that it's difficult to stand, move away from the ocean.'' The severe shaking criterion reduces the chance of unnecessary evacuation (rapid evacuation has its own considerable perils, and must be avoided unless absolutely necessary), but what if shaking is not severe? There is no guarantee that tsunami hazard will be restricted to the meizoseismal region. Worse, if the earthquake has slow rupture (large displacement but mild shaking) the ``severe'' criterion will be tragically misleading: in Nicaragua 1992, for example, hundreds were injured and 179 killed by a tsunami from an offshore earthquake that few onshore even felt. Where such potential failures of the usual near-field advice are suspected, we must attempt to issue useful (i.e. rapid) warnings. Local warning systems, however, must be tailored to the local conditions. The difficulties of local warning are well demonstrated by the Hawaiian Islands, where deep water close offshore means rapid tsunami propagation out of the region of extreme shaking. An earthquake on the Kona (west) coast of the Island of Hawai`i should warn residents there that a damaging tsunami is likely within ten minutes, but the gentler shaking at Kihei on Maui (the next island to the west) would provide little clue of the tsunami to come 18 minutes later. In Honolulu, almost 300 km from the source, many would not even be aware of the earthquake, but the tsunami would arrive 30 minutes later. Even more troubling is the possibility of a tsunami earthquake: the slow rupture of the Kalapana Earthquake of 1975, together with ``silent'' earthquakes detected by GPS, suggest that

  5. PEMANFAATAN VIDEO STREAMING PADA SISTEM KEAMANAN RUMAH DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN MOBILE DEVICES

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel Mahatmaputra Tedjojuwono

    2010-01-01

    This research has been produced a function prototype of video streaming with JPEG/MJPEG picture quality in a residential security system using mobile device (cell phone). The security system is an early warning system which server will deliver text messaging to client if there is an event in the censor of home webcam to detect movement. The prototype is divided into two types, server and client. The client will be installed a mobile application that automatically activated if there is inbo...

  6. REM-HF: REmote Monitoring an evaluation of implantable devices for management of Heart Failure Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, John M

    2016-01-01

    There is a pressing need to develop new ways of managing the rapidly increasing number of people living with heart failure in the UK. The epidemic of heart failure has arisen because of the rapidly ageing population and dramatic improvements in the survival from acute coronary disease and heart failure. Remote monitoring of heart failure using automated implanted devices and bespoke care pathways/protocols to give early warning of deterioration and facilitate pre-emptive action may be an impo...

  7. Flash Flood Risks and Warning Decisions: A Mental Models Study of Forecasters, Public Officials, and Media Broadcasters in Boulder, Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morss, Rebecca E; Demuth, Julie L; Bostrom, Ann; Lazo, Jeffrey K; Lazrus, Heather

    2015-11-01

    Timely warning communication and decision making are critical for reducing harm from flash flooding. To help understand and improve extreme weather risk communication and management, this study uses a mental models research approach to investigate the flash flood warning system and its risk decision context. Data were collected in the Boulder, Colorado area from mental models interviews with forecasters, public officials, and media broadcasters, who each make important interacting decisions in the warning system, and from a group modeling session with forecasters. Analysis of the data informed development of a decision-focused model of the flash flood warning system that integrates the professionals' perspectives. Comparative analysis of individual and group data with this model characterizes how these professionals conceptualize flash flood risks and associated uncertainty; create and disseminate flash flood warning information; and perceive how warning information is (and should be) used in their own and others' decisions. The analysis indicates that warning system functioning would benefit from professionals developing a clearer, shared understanding of flash flood risks and the warning system, across their areas of expertise and job roles. Given the challenges in risk communication and decision making for complex, rapidly evolving hazards such as flash floods, another priority is development of improved warning content to help members of the public protect themselves when needed. Also important is professional communication with members of the public about allocation of responsibilities for managing flash flood risks, as well as improved system-wide management of uncertainty in decisions. PMID:25988286

  8. Impact of Waterpipe Tobacco Pack Health Warnings on Waterpipe Smoking Attitudes: A Qualitative Analysis among Regular Users in London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Mohammed; Bakir, Ali; Ali, Mohammed; Grant, Aimee

    2015-01-01

    Background. Despite the rise in prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking, it has received little legislative enforcement from governing bodies, especially in the area of health warning labels. Methods. Twenty regular waterpipe tobacco smokers from London took part in five focus groups discussing the impact of waterpipe tobacco pack health warnings on their attitudes towards waterpipe smoking. We presented them with existing and mock waterpipe tobacco products, designed to be compliant with current and future UK/EU legislation. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Results. Participants felt packs were less attractive and health warnings were more impactful as health warnings increased in size and packaging became less branded. However, participants highlighted their lack of exposure to waterpipe tobacco pack health warnings due to the inherent nature of waterpipe smoking, that is, smoking in a café with the apparatus already prepacked by staff. Health warnings at the point of consumption had more reported impact than health warnings at the point of sale. Conclusions. Waterpipe tobacco pack health warnings are likely to be effective if compliant with existing laws and exposed to end-users. Legislations should be reviewed to extend health warning labels to waterpipe accessories, particularly the apparatus, and to waterpipe-serving premises. PMID:26273642

  9. Impact of Waterpipe Tobacco Pack Health Warnings on Waterpipe Smoking Attitudes: A Qualitative Analysis among Regular Users in London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Jawad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Despite the rise in prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking, it has received little legislative enforcement from governing bodies, especially in the area of health warning labels. Methods. Twenty regular waterpipe tobacco smokers from London took part in five focus groups discussing the impact of waterpipe tobacco pack health warnings on their attitudes towards waterpipe smoking. We presented them with existing and mock waterpipe tobacco products, designed to be compliant with current and future UK/EU legislation. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Results. Participants felt packs were less attractive and health warnings were more impactful as health warnings increased in size and packaging became less branded. However, participants highlighted their lack of exposure to waterpipe tobacco pack health warnings due to the inherent nature of waterpipe smoking, that is, smoking in a café with the apparatus already prepacked by staff. Health warnings at the point of consumption had more reported impact than health warnings at the point of sale. Conclusions. Waterpipe tobacco pack health warnings are likely to be effective if compliant with existing laws and exposed to end-users. Legislations should be reviewed to extend health warning labels to waterpipe accessories, particularly the apparatus, and to waterpipe-serving premises.

  10. Monitoring Regional Forest Disturbances across the US with Near Real Time MODIS NDVI Products included in the ForWarn Forest Threat Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, J.; Hargrove, W. W.; Gasser, J.; Norman, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    Forest threats across the US have become increasingly evident in recent years. These include regionally extensive disturbances (e.g., from drought, bark beetle outbreaks, and wildfires) that can occur across multiyear durations and result in extensive forest mortality. In addition, forests can be subject to ephemeral, sometimes yearly defoliation from various insects and types of storm damage. After prolonged severe disturbance, signs of forest recovery can vary in terms of satellite-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values. The increased extent and threat of forest disturbances in part led to the enactment of the 2003 Healthy Forest Restoration Act, which mandated that a national forest threat Early Warning System (EWS) be deployed. In response, the US Forest Service collaborated with NASA, DOE Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the USGS Eros Data Center to build the near real time ForWarn forest threat EWS for monitoring regionally evident forest disturbances, starting on-line operations in 2010. Given the diversity of disturbance types, severities, and durations, ForWarn employs multiple historical baselines used with current NDVI to derive a suite of six nationwide 'weekly' forest change products. ForWarn uses daily 232 meter MODIS Aqua and Terra satellite NDVI data, including MOD13 products for deriving historical baseline NDVIs and eMODIS products for compiling current NDVI. Separately pre-processing the current and historical NDVIs, the Time Series Product Tool and the Phenological Parameters Estimation Tool are used to temporally reduce noise, fuse, and aggregate MODIS NDVIs into 24 day composites refreshed every 8 days with 46 dates of forest change products per year. The 24 day compositing interval typically enables new disturbances to be detected, while minimizing the frequency of residual atmospheric contamination. ForWarn's three standard forest change products compare current NDVI to that from the previous year, previous 3 years, and

  11. Evaluation of neurological complications using who warning signs for dengue disease severity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2009 a new classification of dengue was proposed by WHO Tropical Disease Research, which classifies dengue into dengue (D), dengue with warning signs (DW) and severe dengue (SD). This classification highlights the warning signs of dengue disease severity. Neurological complications are one of the most serious complications of dengue disease. This study was carried out to see association of neurological complications of dengue patients with WHO warning signs for dengue disease severity, and their outcome. Methods: It was a cross-sectional analytical study and included 180 diagnosed and registered cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever. The participants were subjected to a detailed clinical evaluation, laboratory assessment including blood counts, hematocrit, serology for dengue fever and sonography at 24 hours and 48 hours of their admission. Results: Twenty-six percent patients were suffering from neurological complications due to dengue. The warning signs for dengue disease severity like altered sensorium (85.5%, p=0.001), raised hematocrit (n=47, p=0.029), gall bladder wall thickening, pleural effusion and ascites on sonographic report (n=47, p=0.024), were strongly associated with the neurological complications. Conclusion: Our study reveals significant association of WHO warning signs for dengue disease severity with neurological complications of dengue disease. (author)

  12. Study of Water Pollution Early Warning Framework Based on Internet of Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chengfang, H.; Xiao, X.; Dingtao, S.; Bo, C.; Xiongfei, W.

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, with the increasing world environmental pollution happening, sudden water pollution incident has become more and more frequently in China. It has posed a serious threat to water safety of the people living in the water source area. Conventional water pollution monitoring method is manual periodic testing, it maybe miss the best time to find that pollution incident. This paper proposes a water pollution warning framework to change this state. On the basis of the Internet of things, we uses automatic water quality monitoring technology to realize monitoring. We calculate the monitoring data with water pollution model to judge whether the water pollution incident is happen or not. Water pollution warning framework is divided into three layers: terminal as the sensing layer, it with the deployment of the automatic water quality pollution monitoring sensor. The middle layer is the transfer network layer, data information implementation is based on GPRS wireless network transmission. The upper one is the application layer. With these application systems, early warning information of water pollution will realize the high-speed transmission between grassroots units and superior units. The paper finally gives an example that applying this pollution warning framework to water quality monitoring of Beijing, China, it greatly improves the speed of the pollution warning responding of Beijing.

  13. Flood warnings in coastal areas: how do social and behavioural patterns influence alert services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescaroli, G.; Magni, M.

    2015-01-01

    Many studies discuss the economic and technical aspects of flood warnings. Less attention has been given to the social and psychological patterns that affect alert services. In particular, the literature focuses on warnings activated in river basins or marine environments without providing clear evidence of relevance to Mediterranean coastal areas, even though these are subjected to growing flood risk related to climate change. This paper is a first attempt to bridge this gap. Our research develops an in- depth analysis of the village of Cesenatico on the Adriatic Sea coast. Here the municipality adopted two complementary warning systems: a siren and an alert via Short Message Service (SMS). The analysis focuses on a survey conducted in 2011 and 2012 with 228 participants. The relationships between social and behavioural variables and warning services are investigated, and so are flood preparedness and information dissemination. Qualitative evidence from informal interviews is used to support the understanding of key responses. The conclusions show how different social and behavioural patterns can influence the effectiveness and use of warning systems, regardless of the technology adopted and the structural mitigation measures implemented. Education, training and accountability are seen to be critical elements for improvement. Finally, the statistical output is used to suggest new questions and new directions for research.

  14. Flood warnings in coastal areas: how do experience and information influence responses to alert services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescaroli, G.; Magni, M.

    2015-04-01

    Many studies discuss the economic and technical aspects of flood warnings. Less attention has been given to the social and behavioural patterns that affect alert services. In particular, the literature focuses on warnings activated in river basins or marine environments without providing clear evidence on Mediterranean coastal areas, even though these are subjected to growing flood risk related to climate change. This paper is a first attempt to bridge this gap. Our research develops an in-depth analysis of the village of Cesenatico on the Adriatic Sea coast. Here the municipality adopted two complementary warning systems: a siren and an alert via short message service (SMS). The analysis focuses on a survey conducted in 2011 and 2012 with 228 participants. The relationships between social and behavioural variables and warning services are investigated as well as flood preparedness and information dissemination. Qualitative evidence from informal interviews is used to support the understanding of key responses. The conclusions show how different social and behavioural patterns can influence the effectiveness and use of warning systems, regardless of the technology adopted and the structural mitigation measures implemented. Education, training and accountability are seen to be critical elements for implementation. Finally, the statistical output is used to suggest new questions and new directions for research.

  15. Health warnings on tobacco packaging in Italy: do they describe all possible smoking-related conditions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittoria Colamesta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This report aims to evaluate the adherence between the health warnings on tobacco products in Italy and the smoking-related conditions known in the scientific literature. The Legislative Decree 2003 and 2012 established the general and the additional warnings on tobacco packaging. Regarding the smoking-related conditions, the health damages presented in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC report are reported. Also a narrative review was performed. Respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, adverse reproductive outcomes and childhood neurobehavioral disorders are well reported in the textual health warning. Also there is at least one message indicating that the exposure of secondhand smoke is harmful. Conversely, several smoking-related cancers and other adverse health effects (diabetes, hip fractures, low bone density in postmenopausal women, rheumatoid arthritis, mental decline, acne and allergy, etc are not considered. The health warnings represent an important mean for communicating that may change smokers’ attitudes and behaviours, therefore, it’s important to implement them, also considering the introduction of graphical warnings, to maintain their effectiveness over time.

  16. NEAR REAL-TIME DETERMINATION OF EARTHQUAKE SOURCE PARAMETERS FOR TSUNAMI EARLY WARNING FROM GEODETIC OBSERVATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Manneela

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Exemplifying the tsunami source immediately after an earthquake is the most critical component of tsunami early warning, as not every earthquake generates a tsunami. After a major under sea earthquake, it is very important to determine whether or not it has actually triggered the deadly wave. The near real-time observations from near field networks such as strong motion and Global Positioning System (GPS allows rapid determination of fault geometry. Here we present a complete processing chain of Indian Tsunami Early Warning System (ITEWS, starting from acquisition of geodetic raw data, processing, inversion and simulating the situation as it would be at warning center during any major earthquake. We determine the earthquake moment magnitude and generate the centroid moment tensor solution using a novel approach which are the key elements for tsunami early warning. Though the well established seismic monitoring network, numerical modeling and dissemination system are currently capable to provide tsunami warnings to most of the countries in and around the Indian Ocean, the study highlights the critical role of geodetic observations in determination of tsunami source for high-quality forecasting.

  17. Near Real-Time Determination of Earthquake Source Parameters for Tsunami Early Warning from Geodetic Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manneela, Sunanda; Srinivasa Kumar, T.; Nayak, Shailesh R.

    2016-06-01

    Exemplifying the tsunami source immediately after an earthquake is the most critical component of tsunami early warning, as not every earthquake generates a tsunami. After a major under sea earthquake, it is very important to determine whether or not it has actually triggered the deadly wave. The near real-time observations from near field networks such as strong motion and Global Positioning System (GPS) allows rapid determination of fault geometry. Here we present a complete processing chain of Indian Tsunami Early Warning System (ITEWS), starting from acquisition of geodetic raw data, processing, inversion and simulating the situation as it would be at warning center during any major earthquake. We determine the earthquake moment magnitude and generate the centroid moment tensor solution using a novel approach which are the key elements for tsunami early warning. Though the well established seismic monitoring network, numerical modeling and dissemination system are currently capable to provide tsunami warnings to most of the countries in and around the Indian Ocean, the study highlights the critical role of geodetic observations in determination of tsunami source for high-quality forecasting.

  18. An integrated earthquake early warning system and its performance at schools in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bing-Ru; Hsiao, Nai-Chi; Lin, Pei-Yang; Hsu, Ting-Yu; Chen, Chiou-Yun; Huang, Shieh-Kung; Chiang, Hung-Wei

    2016-06-01

    An earthquake early warning (EEW) system with integration of regional and onsite approaches was installed at nine demonstration stations in several districts of Taiwan for taking advantages of both approaches. The system performance was evaluated by a 3-year experiment at schools, which experienced five major earthquakes during this period. The blind zone of warning was effectively reduced by the integrated EEW system. The predicted intensities from EEW demonstration stations showed acceptable accuracy compared to field observations. The operation experience from an earthquake event proved that students could calmly carry out correct action before the seismic wave arrived using some warning time provided by the EEW system. Through successful operation in practice, the integrated EEW system was verified as an effective tool for disaster prevention at schools.

  19. Analysis of false alarm for imaging space-based laser warning system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Hong-jun; ZHOU Zhong-liang; HUANG Fu-yu

    2012-01-01

    In view of the problem of false alarm in imaging space-based laser warning system,the effects of sunlight and lightning on the threaten laser detection and attack event determination are studied by analyzing and calculating the radiant energy density and space-time feature of imaging spot,respectively.The results show that the main false alarm resourses of spacebased laser warning system are sunlight and lightning.The sunlight should exposure the detector directly in one ninth of the satillite orbital period,and the imaging spot of sun is similar to the attack laser.The lightning imaging spot is similar to the illumination laser.About 1.4 lightning events can occur in the field of view (FOV) of the warning system per second.It could not discriminate spots of sun,lightning and threaten laser by the frame subtraction technology.

  20. Warning systems in a computerized nursing process for Intensive Care Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Couto Carvalho Barra

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid study combining technological production and methodological research aiming to establish associations between the data and information that are part of a Computerized Nursing Process according to the ICNP® Version 1.0, indicators of patient safety and quality of care. Based on the guidelines of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and the American Association of Critical Care Nurses for the expansion of warning systems, five warning systems were developed: potential for iatrogenic pneumothorax, potential for care-related infections, potential for suture dehiscence in patients after abdominal or pelvic surgery, potential for loss of vascular access, and potential for endotracheal extubation. The warning systems are a continuous computerized resource of essential situations that promote patient safety and enable the construction of a way to stimulate clinical reasoning and support clinical decision making of nurses in intensive care.