WorldWideScience

Sample records for audible warning devices in vehicles

  1. Lights and siren: a review of emergency vehicle warning systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lorenzo, R A; Eilers, M A

    1991-12-01

    Emergency medical services providers routinely respond to emergencies using lights and siren. This practice is not without risk of collision. Audible and visual warning devices and vehicle markings are integral to efficient negotiation of traffic and reduction of collision risk. An understanding of warning system characteristics is necessary to implement appropriate guidelines for prehospital transportation systems. The pertinent literature on emergency vehicle warning systems is reviewed, with emphasis on potential health hazards associated with these techniques. Important findings inferred from the literature are 1) red flashing lights alone may not be as effective as other color combinations, 2) there are no data to support a seizure risk with strobe lights, 3) lime-yellow is probably superior to traditional emergency vehicle colors, 4) the siren is an extremely limited warning device, and 5) exposure to siren noise can cause hearing loss. Emergency physicians must ensure that emergency medical services transportation systems consider the pertinent literature on emergency vehicle warning systems.

  2. Augmented reality warnings in vehicles: Effects of modality and specificity on effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Felix; Fastenmeier, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    In the future, vehicles will be able to warn drivers of hidden dangers before they are visible. Specific warning information about these hazards could improve drivers' reactions and the warning effectiveness, but could also impair them, for example, by additional cognitive-processing costs. In a driving simulator study with 88 participants, we investigated the effects of modality (auditory vs. visual) and specificity (low vs. high) on warning effectiveness. For the specific warnings, we used augmented reality as an advanced technology to display the additional auditory or visual warning information. Part one of the study concentrates on the effectiveness of necessary warnings and part two on the drivers' compliance despite false alarms. For the first warning scenario, we found several positive main effects of specificity. However, subsequent effects of specificity were moderated by the modality of the warnings. The specific visual warnings were observed to have advantages over the three other warning designs concerning gaze and braking reaction times, passing speeds and collision rates. Besides the true alarms, braking reaction times as well as subjective evaluation after these warnings were still improved despite false alarms. The specific auditory warnings were revealed to have only a few advantages, but also several disadvantages. The results further indicate that the exact coding of additional information, beyond its mere amount and modality, plays an important role. Moreover, the observed advantages of the specific visual warnings highlight the potential benefit of augmented reality coding to improve future collision warnings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Vehicle Dynamics Approach to Driver Warning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef A. Ghoneim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a concept for enhanced active safety by introducing a driver warning system based on vehicle dynamics that predicts a potential loss of control condition prior to stability control activation. This real-time warning algorithm builds on available technologies such as the Electronic Stability Control (ESC. The driver warning system computes several indices based on yaw rate, side-slip velocity, and vehicle understeer using ESC sensor suite. An arbitrator block arbitrates between the different indices and determines the status index of the driving vehicle. The status index is compared to predetermined stability levels which correspond to high and low stability levels. If the index exceeds the high stability level, a warning signal (haptic, acoustic, or visual is issued to alert the driver of a potential loss of control and ESC activation. This alert will remain in effect until the index is less than the low stability level at which time the warning signal will be terminated. A vehicle speed advisory algorithm is integrated with the warning algorithm to provide a desired vehicle speed of a vehicle traveling on a curve. Simulation results and vehicle tests were conducted to illustrate the effectiveness of the warning algorithm.

  4. Validation of Essential Acoustic Parameters for Highly Urgent In-Vehicle Collision Warnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Bridget A; Eisert, Jesse L; Baldwin, Carryl L

    2017-11-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to validate the importance of key acoustic criteria for use as in-vehicle forward collision warning (FCW) systems. Background Despite recent advances in vehicle safety, automobile crashes remain one of the leading causes of death. As automation allows for more control of noncritical functions by the vehicle, the potential for disengagement and distraction from the driving task also increases. It is, therefore, as important as ever that in-vehicle safety-critical interfaces are intuitive and unambiguous, promoting effective collision avoidance responses upon first exposure even under divided-attention conditions. Method The current study used a driving simulator to assess the effectiveness of two warnings, one that met all essential acoustic parameters, one that met only some essential parameters, and a no-warning control in the context of a lead vehicle-following task in conjunction with a cognitive distractor task and collision event. Results Participants receiving an FCW comprising five essential acoustic components had improved collision avoidance responses relative to a no-warning condition and an FCW missing essential elements on their first exposure. Responses to a consistently good warning (GMU Prime) improved with subsequent exposures, whereas continued exposure to the less optimal FCW (GMU Sub-Prime) resulted in poorer performance even relative to receiving no warning at all. Conclusions This study provides support for previous warning design studies and for the validity of five key acoustic parameters essential for the design of effective in-vehicle FCWs. Application Results from this study have implications for the design of auditory FCWs and in-vehicle display design.

  5. Highway-rail intersection GPS-based in-vehicle warning systems - literature review and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    In 2008, there were 2,395 incidents at highway-rail intersections (level crossings) in the United States, resulting in 939 injuries and 287 fatalities. Crossing elimination, grade separation, and the implementation of traditional warning devices are ...

  6. The suitability of internal combustion engine sounds as artificial warning sounds for electric and hybrid vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Bolkovac

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the issue of adding artificial warning sounds to hybrid and fully electric vehicles, in order to increase traffic safety by making these vehicles audible at low speeds. The goal of this modification is to enable the pedestrians to perceive possible danger coming from such a vehicle in time to respond accordingly. Following the results of previous research which state that the sounds of internal combustion engines are valid candidates for artificial warning sounds to be added to hybrid or fully electric vehicles, a preliminary examination of the suitability and acceptability of different engine sounds in various modes of operation has been conducted. The chosen modes of operation are running in idle, at 2000 rpm and 3000 rpm with the vehicle stopped. Both gasoline and diesel engines were investigated. To expand the range of engine sounds, the type of vehicles was not limited to personal cars. The results show significant differences in suitability of engine sounds for the stated purpose, with vehicle type being the main differentiating factor.

  7. Vehicle Dynamics Approach to Driver Warning

    OpenAIRE

    Ghoneim, Youssef A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses a concept for enhanced active safety by introducing a driver warning system based on vehicle dynamics that predicts a potential loss of control condition prior to stability control activation. This real-time warning algorithm builds on available technologies such as the Electronic Stability Control (ESC). The driver warning system computes several indices based on yaw rate, side-slip velocity, and vehicle understeer using ESC sensor suite. An arbitrator block arbitrates b...

  8. Audible Aliasing Distortion in Digital Audio Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schimmel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with aliasing distortion in digital audio signal synthesis of classic periodic waveforms with infinite Fourier series, for electronic musical instruments. When these waveforms are generated in the digital domain then the aliasing appears due to its unlimited bandwidth. There are several techniques for the synthesis of these signals that have been designed to avoid or reduce the aliasing distortion. However, these techniques have high computing demands. One can say that today's computers have enough computing power to use these methods. However, we have to realize that today’s computer-aided music production requires tens of multi-timbre voices generated simultaneously by software synthesizers and the most of the computing power must be reserved for hard-disc recording subsystem and real-time audio processing of many audio channels with a lot of audio effects. Trivially generated classic analog synthesizer waveforms are therefore still effective for sound synthesis. We cannot avoid the aliasing distortion but spectral components produced by the aliasing can be masked with harmonic components and thus made inaudible if sufficient oversampling ratio is used. This paper deals with the assessment of audible aliasing distortion with the help of a psychoacoustic model of simultaneous masking and compares the computing demands of trivial generation using oversampling with those of other methods.

  9. Occupational exposure to noise from authorized emergency vehicle sirens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górski, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    Warning signals generated by sirens of authorized emergency vehicles should be audible and recognizable to all road users. Currently, there is no legislation in Poland defining sound pressure levels (SPLs) of audible warning signals generated by sirens of authorized emergency vehicles. Measured A-weighted SPLs of those signals range between 104 and 108 dB. While for road users, an audible warning signal is a source of important information and its A-weighted SPL is acceptable, it may be a source of annoying noise to an emergency vehicle crew. That is why, it is necessary to find a method of improving the acoustic comfort of the crew and, at the same time, maintaining the informational function of audible warning signals.

  10. Heavy-truck drivers' following behavior with intervention of an integrated, in-vehicle crash warning system: a field evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Shan; LeBlanc, David J; Sayer, James R; Flannagan, Carol

    2012-10-01

    This study is designed to evaluate heavy-truck drivers' following behavior and how a crash warning system influences their headway maintenance. Rear-end crashes are one of the major crash types involving heavy trucks and are more likely than other crash types to result in fatalities. Previous studies have observed positive effects of in-vehicle crash warning systems in passenger car drivers. Although heavy-truck drivers are generally more experienced, driver-related errors are still the leading factors contributing to heavy-truck-related rear-end crashes. Data from a 10-month naturalistic driving study were used. Participants were 18 professional heavy-truck drivers who received warnings during the last 8 months of the study (treatment period) but not during the first 2 months (baseline period). Time headway and driver's brake reaction time were extracted and compared with condition variables, including one between-subjects variable (driver shift) and five within-subjects variables (treatment condition, roadway types, traffic density, wiper state, and trailer configuration). The presence of warnings resulted in a 0.28-s increase of mean time headway with dense on-road traffic and a 0.20-s increase with wipers on. Drivers also responded to the forward conflicts significantly faster (by 0.26 s, a 15% enhancement) in the treatment condition compared with responses in the baseline condition. Positive effects on heavy-truck drivers' following performance were observed with the warning system. The installation of such in-vehicle crash warning systems can help heavy-truck drivers keep longer headway distances in challenging situations and respond quicker to potential traffic conflicts, therefore possibly increasing heavy-truck longitudinal driving safety.

  11. Vehicle frame measurement device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarauer, A.J.

    1987-08-04

    This patent describes a vehicle frame and body measurement apparatus for use in realigning the structure of a damaged unibody vehicle the device having a longitudinal axis utilized in a horizontal plane the apparatus comprising means for measuring the vehicle body and frame comprising, (a) means for supporting a damaged motor vehicle in a fixed position, (b) an elongated rail on each side of the supporting means spaced apart a distance greater than the width of the supporting means and the width of the vehicle, (c) a vertical upright of a length exceeding the height of the motor vehicle slidably supported by each of the rails and having a vertical axis substantially perpendicular to the horizontal plane of the vehicle, (d) a vertically adjustable horizontal bar attached to each of the uprights, substantially perpendicular to both the longitudinal axis of the rails and the vertical axis of the uprights, (e) means for affixing the horizontal bar to the uprights so that the bar is vertically adjustable, the affixing means being provided with releasable means to permit adjustable horizontal extension of the horizontal bar and (f) at least one extendable measuring means attached to each vertical upright at its junction with its associated horizontal rail and adjustably extending along the horizontal rail, the free end of the measuring means having to releasably affix it to the rail.

  12. Audible punctuation: performative pause in Homeric prosody

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankenborg, R.J.J.

    2015-01-01

    The association between physical proximity and relationship formation as a classic finding in psychological science. In the current dissertation, this classic association was examined in an entirely different and surprisingly understudied setting: the school classroom. We examined whether and how

  13. Audibility of time switching in dynamic binaural synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Pablo Faundez; Møller, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    In binaural synthesis, signals are convolved with head-related transfer functions HRTFs. In dynamic systems, the update is often done by cross-fading between signals that have been filtered in parallel with two HRTFs. An alternative to cross-fading that is attractive in terms of computing power...... is direct switching between HRTFs that are close enough in space to provide an adequate auralization of moving sound. However, direct switching between HRTFs does not only move the sound but may also generate artifacts such as audible clicks. HRTF switching involves switching of spectral characteristics...

  14. Audibility of time switching in dynamic binaural synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Pablo F.F.; Møller, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    In binaural synthesis, signals are convolved with head-related transfer functions (HRTFs). In dynamic systems, the update is often done by cross- fading between signals that have been filtered in parallel with two HRTFs. An alternative to cross-fading that is attractive in terms of computing power...... is direct switching between HRTFs that are close enough in space to provide an adequate auralization of moving sound. However, direct switching between HRTFs does not only move the sound but may also generate artifacts such as audible clicks. HRTF switching involves switching of spectral characteristics...

  15. 30 CFR 75.1103-3 - Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; minimum requirements; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic fire sensor and warning device...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1103-3 Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; minimum requirements; general. Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems installed in belt haulageways of...

  16. Audible reflection density for different late reflection criteria in rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krueger, Donata; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Brunskog, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    For reasonably accurate but practical auralizations, some simplifications and approximations are needed. The main issue in the present investigation is that the reflection density of a room impulse response, in theory, increases so fast as a quadratic function of the elapsed time, even assuming...... only specular reflections. Therefore in this study, the upper threshold for audible reflection density is investigated for four different transition times of 25, 50, 75, and 100 ms through a headphone listening test. Binaural impulse responses and speech signals simulated in three rooms with different...... characteristics (an empty office, a lecture room, and an auditorium) are used as stimuli. Subjects are asked to increase/decrease the reflection density of a stimulus until they cannot distinguish it from the stimulus that follows the theoretical reflection density for the different transition times in the three...

  17. Audible Noise Design of ISS Cargo Module "Cygnus"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destefanis, Stefano; Paron, Alberto; Bandini, Flavio

    2014-06-01

    Orbital developed the Cygnus advanced manoeuvring spacecraft to demonstrate cargo delivery services under a NASA Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) Space Act Agreement.In addition to the COTS development and demonstration program, Orbital will utilize Cygnus to perform ISS resupply flights under the Commercial Resupply Service (CRS) contract.Starting in January 2014 Orbital launched its first of eight missions to deliver approximately 20,000 kilograms of cargo to the ISS (International Space Station). Cygnus will carry crew supplies, spares and scientific experiments to the ISS.Cygnus consists of a common service module and a pressurized cargo module. The pressurized cargo module is based on the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM), developed by Thales Alenia Space for NASA. Since Cygnus pressurized cargo module will host astronauts performing daily tasks, it is required to be compliant with NASA guidelines related to acoustic comfort (working areas noise not to exceed NC-50 requirement) and safety (caution and warning alarms audibility).The main source of noise inside Cygnus is the ventilation fan, which happens to be the same model already installed on the ATV (Automated Transfer Vehicle) cargo module: however, the strategy adopted to limit its acoustic disturbance had to be differently tailored.This paper presents the activities (assumptions, design, characterization, testing) that led to define the type of noise control devices used on Cygnus, up to its first successful flight (module labelled "PCM0") to the ISS, where it reached 2nd place in the "quietest visiting modules" ranking.

  18. On the design of a (H)EV steerable warning device using acoustic beam forming and advanced numerical acoustic simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Genechten, B.; Vansant, K.; Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the simulation-based design methodology used in the eVADER project for the development of targeted acoustic warning devices for increased detectability of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles (HEVs) while, at the same time, reducing urban noise pollution. A key component of this system

  19. Epileptic Seizure Detection and Warning Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elarton, J.K.; Koepsel, K.L.

    1999-06-21

    Flint Hills Scientific, L.L.C. (FHS) has invented what is believed to be the first real-time epileptic seizure detection and short-term prediction method in the world. They have demonstrated an IBM PC prototype with a multi-channel EEG monitoring configuration. This CRADA effort applied AlliedSignal FM and T hardware design, manufacturing miniaturization, and high quality manufacturing expertise in converting the prototype into a small, portable, self-contained, multi-channel EEG epileptic seizure detection and warning device. The purpose of this project was to design and build a proof-of-concept miniaturized prototype of the FHS-developed PC-based prototype. The resultant DSP prototype, measuring 4'' x 6'' x 2'', seizure detection performance compared favorably with the FHS PC prototype, thus validating the DSP design goals. The very successful completion of this project provided valuable engineering information for FHS for future prototype commercialization as well as providing AS/FM and T engineers DSP design experience.

  20. Integrated chassis control for vehicle rollover prevention with neural network time-to-rollover warning metrics

    OpenAIRE

    Bing Zhu; Qi Piao; Jian Zhao; Litong Guo

    2016-01-01

    The rollover of road vehicles is one of the most serious problems related to transportation safety. In this article, a novel rollover prevention control system composed of rollover warning and integrated chassis control algorithm is proposed. First, a conventional time-to-rollover warning algorithm was presented based on the 3-degree of freedom vehicle model. In order to improve the precision of vehicle rollover prediction, a back-propagation neural network was adopted to regulate time to rol...

  1. Development of comprehensive unattended child warning and feedback system in vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Norizam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The cases of children being trapped and suffocated in unattended vehicle keep increasing even though the awareness campaign on the safety of children in non-moving vehicle were carried out by government. Various methods were introduced by researchers to overcome this issue but yet to be effective. Among them were the usage of capacitive sensor, microwave sensor, pressure sensor and image sensor where most of the techniques or systems were applied on the child’s seat to detect the presence of baby or infant. Thus, this research is carried out to provide a comprehensive and effective detection system to detect the presence of children including infant in unattended vehicle by using the combination of human physiological signals (voice and body odor detectors with the temperature and motion sensors. Here, once the proposed system recognizes any signals that generated from voice, odor, motion and temperature detectors in vehicle’s cabin, the system then will provide effective feedback system by sending short message to the parents first. If no response received in the specified allocation time, the system then will activate the vehicle’s horn system. Finally, the system will lower down the vehicle’s window to release the toxic gas and reduce the cabin temperature. The system is in prototyping stage where every design component was evaluated individually. Besides, the overall system was successfully tested where the detection and feedback system follow the instruction given by the microcontroller.

  2. Research on Intelligent Vehicle Collision Warning Model Based on Intervehicle Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangfeng Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Using inter-vehicle communication, vehicle real-time traveling state information, such as acceleration, is shared, and time-to-collision and time-to-avoidance matrices are established. Considering driver type and traveling relationship between leading vehicle and following vehicle, a collision warning model based on inter-vehicle communication is studied. From aspects of inter-vehicle experiment system composition, component modules are analyzed in detail. For leading vehicle stationary, sudden deceleration, and normal traveling, three experimental schemes are proposed, and model warning performance is verified using the experiment system. Experiment results show that the algorithm model can effectively identify the collision, and precise warning rate is more than 90%. Conclusion of the study can provide a reference for research in relevant fields, such as vehicle adaptive cruise control.

  3. 14 CFR 29.1413 - Safety belts: passenger warning device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety belts: passenger warning device. 29....1413 Safety belts: passenger warning device. (a) If there are means to indicate to the passengers when safety belts should be fastened, they must be installed to be operated from either pilot seat. (b) Each...

  4. Vehicle Awareness Device Data from Leesburg, Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The files in this data environment were produced using the Vehicle Awareness Device (VAD) installed on one test vehicle over a two month period. The VAD installed in...

  5. 76 FR 58301 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Automatic Fire Sensor and Warning Device...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ... Sensor and Warning Device Systems; Examination and Test Requirements ACTION: Notice of request for public... Coal Mining. OMB 1219-0145 has been renamed Automatic Fire Sensor and Warning Device Systems... to a task in July 2011; OMB 1219-0073 subsumed Sec. 75.1103-5(a)(2)(ii) Automatic fire sensor and...

  6. Effect of preferred volume setting on speech audibility in different hearing aid circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, P E; Kitch, V J

    2001-09-01

    This study compared preferred volume setting for linear peak clipping, compression limiting, and wide dynamic range compression (WDRC) amplification and quantified speech audibility at the preferred volume setting for each amplification type. Ten listeners with mild-to-moderate hearing loss were fitted monaurally with a behind-the-ear hearing aid programmed sequentially with WDRC, compression limiting, and linear peak clipping amplification. Speech was presented in quiet and in noise at a range of input levels. In each condition, the listener adjusted the volume for maximum clarity. Signal levels were measured using a probe microphone system. There was no significant difference in speech audibility between amplification strategies for any speech level regardless of the presence or absence of background noise. These results imply that the improved audibility advantage of WDRC over linear amplification demonstrated in controlled environments may not be maintained in situations where the hearing aid wearer controls the volume.

  7. 49 CFR 236.513 - Audible indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Audible indicator. 236.513 Section 236.513..., Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Standards § 236.513 Audible indicator. (a) The automatic cab signal... audible indicator will sound continuously until silenced by manual operation of an acknowledging device...

  8. Methodological approach to assess tractor stability in normal operation in field using a commercial warning device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Rondelli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Since Roll-Over Protective Structures (ROPS are mandatory on tractors, the number of fatalities caused in the event of an upset is definitely reduced. Nevertheless, fatal accidents caused by machine loss of stability are still of great concern. In fact, despite ROPS have reduced injury to agricultural operators, tractor stability is still a complex issue due to its high versatility in use, especially considering normal operations in field, when interactions with the environment such as soil morphology and climatic conditions are involved, as well as interactions with operator skills and experience. With the aim of collecting data on different variables influencing the dynamics of tractors in field, a commercial device that allows the continuous monitoring of working conditions and the active configuration of the machines was fitted on standard tractors in normal operation at the experimental farm of the Bologna University. The device consists of accelerometers, gyroscope, GSM/GPRS, GPS for geo-referencing and a transceiver for the automatic recognition of tractor-connected equipment. A microprocessor processes data and provides information, through a dedicated algorithm requiring data on the geometry of the tested tractor, on the level of risk for the operator in terms of probable loss of stability and suggests corrective measures to reduce the potential instability of the tractor.

  9. Audibility of time differences in adjacent head-related transfer functions (HRTFs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Pablo F.F.; Møller, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Changes in the temporal and spectral characteristics of the sound reaching the two ears are known to be of great importance for the perception of spatial sound. The smallest change that can be reliably perceived provides a measure of how accurate directional hearing is. The present study investig......Changes in the temporal and spectral characteristics of the sound reaching the two ears are known to be of great importance for the perception of spatial sound. The smallest change that can be reliably perceived provides a measure of how accurate directional hearing is. The present study...... investigates audibility of changes in the temporal characteristics of HRTFs. A listening test is conducted to measure the smallest change in the interaural time difference (ITD) that produces an audible difference of any nature. Results show a large inter-individual variation with a range of audibility...

  10. A Subjective Evaluation of the Minimum Audible Channel Separation in Binaural Reproduction Systems Through Loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacouture Parodi, Yesenia; Rubak, Per

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the performance of crosstalk cancellation systems the channel separation is usually used as parameter.  However, no systematic evaluation of the minimum audible channel separation has been found in the literature known by the authors.  This paper describes a set of subjective experime......To evaluate the performance of crosstalk cancellation systems the channel separation is usually used as parameter.  However, no systematic evaluation of the minimum audible channel separation has been found in the literature known by the authors.  This paper describes a set of subjective...

  11. Utility of Ochrobactrum anthropi YC152 in a Microbial Fuel Cell as an Early Warning Device for Hexavalent Chromium Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guey-Horng Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fast hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI determination is important for environmental risk and health-related considerations. We used a microbial fuel cell-based biosensor inoculated with a facultatively anaerobic, Cr(VI-reducing, and exoelectrogenic Ochrobactrum anthropi YC152 to determine the Cr(VI concentration in water. The results indicated that O. anthropi YC152 exhibited high adaptability to pH, temperature, salinity, and water quality under anaerobic conditions. The stable performance of the microbial fuel cell (MFC-based biosensor indicated its potential as a reliable biosensor system. The MFC voltage decreased as the Cr(VI concentration in the MFC increased. Two satisfactory linear relationships were observed between the Cr(VI concentration and voltage output for various Cr(VI concentration ranges (0.0125–0.3 mg/L and 0.3–5 mg/L. The MFC biosensor is a simple device that can accurately measure Cr(VI concentrations in drinking water, groundwater, and electroplating wastewater in 45 min with low deviations (<10%. The use of the biosensor can help in preventing the violation of effluent regulations and the maximum allowable concentration of Cr(VI in water. Thus, the developed MFC biosensor has potential as an early warning detection device for Cr(VI determination even if O. anthropi YC152 is a possible opportunistic pathogen.

  12. Simulation-based design of a steerable acoustic warning device to increase (H)EV detectability while reducing urban noise pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Genechten, B.; Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the simulation-based design methodology used in the eVADER project for the development of targeted acoustic warning devices for increased detectability of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles (HEVs) while, at the same time, reducing urban noise pollution compared to conventional

  13. Strobe Traffic Lights Warn of Approaching Emergency Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelder, Aaron

    2004-01-01

    Strobe-enhanced traffic signals have been developed to aid in the preemption of road intersections for emergency vehicles. The strobe-enhanced traffic signals can be incorporated into both new and pre-existing traffic-control systems in which the traffic-signal heads are of a relatively new type based on arrays of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The strobe-enhanced traffic signals offer a less expensive, less complex alternative to a recently developed system of LED-based warning signs placed next to traffic signals. Because of its visual complexity, the combination of traffic signals and warning signs is potentially confusing to motorists. The strobe-enhanced traffic signals present less visual clutter. In a given traffic-signal head, the strobe-enhanced traffic signal is embedded in the red LED array of the stop signal. Two strobe LED strips one horizontal and one vertical are made capable of operating separately from the rest of the red LED matrix. When no emergency vehicle is approaching, the red LED array functions as a normal stop signal: all the red LEDs are turned on and off together. When the intersection is to be preempted for an approaching emergency vehicle, only the LEDs in one of the strobe strips are lit, and are turned on in a sequence that indicates the direction of approach. For example (see figure), if an emergency vehicle approaches from the right, the strobe LEDs are lit in a sequence moving from right to left. Important to the success of strobe-enhanced traffic signals is conformance to city ordinances and close relation to pre-existing traffic standards. For instance, one key restriction is that new icons must not include arrows, so that motorists will not confuse new icons with conventional arrows that indicate allowed directions of movement. It is also critical that new displays like strobe-enhanced traffic signals be similar to displays used in traffic-control systems in large cities. For example, Charleston, South Carolina uses horizontal

  14. An initial study on external warning signals for Quiet Road Transport Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    The increasing number of electric and hybrid vehicles in urban areas has shown to be beneficial in reducing both air and noise pollution. However, the lack of sound when driving at low speed has negatively affected the pedestrian safety since many rely on the vehicle sound for orientation. Regulatory bodies have therefore introduced minimum sound requirements for all silent vehicles, which has resulted in a key challenge for car manufacturers to develop external warning signature sounds. The ...

  15. Audible Image Description as an Accommodation in Statewide Assessments for Students with Visual and Print Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, Kay Alicyn; Correa-Torres, Silvia M.; Howell, Jennifer Johnson; Pearson, Robert; Carver, Wendy Morrow; Groll, Amy Spencer; Anthony, Tanni L.; Matthews, Deborah; Gould, Bryan; O'Connell, Trisha; Botsford, Kathryn D,; Dewald, Hong Phangia; Smyth, Catherine A.; Dewald, Aaron John

    2017-01-01

    Introduction:Although image description has been identified as an accommodation for presentations conducted in the classroom, only a few U.S. states have approved it for use in high-stakes assessments. This study examined the use of audible image description as an assessment accommodation for students with visual and print disabilities by…

  16. Audibility of high Q-factor all-pass components in HRTFs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toledo, Daniela; Møller, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    Head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) can be decomposed into minimum phase, linear phase and all-pass components.  It is known that low Q-factor all-pass sections in HRTFs are audible as lateral shifts when the interaural group delay at low frequencies exceeds 30usec.  The goal of our investiga...

  17. Poster Abstract: Automatic Calibration of Device Attitude in Inertial Measurement Unit Based Traffic Probe Vehicles

    KAUST Repository

    Mousa, Mustafa

    2016-04-28

    Probe vehicles consist in mobile traffic sensor networks that evolve with the flow of vehicles, transmitting velocity and position measurements along their path, generated using GPSs. To address the urban positioning issues of GPSs, we propose to replace them with inertial measurement units onboard vehicles, to estimate vehicle location and attitude using inertial data only. While promising, this technology requires one to carefully calibrate the orientation of the device inside the vehicle to be able to process the acceleration and rate gyro data. In this article, we propose a scheme that can perform this calibration automatically by leveraging the kinematic constraints of ground vehicles, and that can be implemented on low-end computational platforms. Preliminary testing shows that the proposed scheme enables one to accurately estimate the actual accelerations and rotation rates in the vehicle coordinates. © 2016 IEEE.

  18. Audible and infrasonic noise levels in the cabins of modern agricultural tractors — Does the risk of adverse, exposure-dependent effects still exist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Bilski

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The agricultural tractor is one of the most commonly used vehicles on farms and one of the most prominent sources of noise. This article presents an exemplary assessment of the audible and infrasonic noise levels in the cabins of selected modern wheeled agricultural tractors. Materials and Methods: Operator-perceived audible and infrasonic noise levels in the cabins were examined for 20 types of modern tractors during typical conditions of work. The tractors had been in use for no longer than 3 years, with rated power between 96 kW and 227 kW, designed and produced by world-renowned companies. Noise level measurements were performed in accordance with PN-EN ISO 9612:2011 (ISO 9612:2009. Results: Audible noise levels (A-weighted ranged from 62.1 to 87.4 dB-A (average: 68.2 to 83.8 dB-A for different work tasks. The factors influencing noise levels include performed tasks, soil, weather conditions and the skills of individual drivers. In spectrum analysis, the highest noise levels occurred at frequencies 250 Hz, 1 and 2 kHz. Infrasound noise levels (G-weighted ranged from 87.3 to 111.3 dB-G. The driver-experienced exposure to infrasound was found to increase significantly when the vehicle was in motion. Conclusions: Average audible noise levels have no potential to adversely affect the hearing organ during tasks performed inside the closed cabins of the analysed modern agricultural tractors. Due to the relatively low audible noise levels inside the cabins of modern agricultural tractors, non-auditory effects are the only adverse symptoms that can develop. Modern agricultural tractors emit considerable infrasonic noise levels. All tractors introduced into the market should be subjected to tests with regard to infrasonic noise levels.

  19. An intelligent IoT emergency vehicle warning system using RFID and WiFi technologies for emergency medical services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yeong-Lin; Chou, Yung-Hua; Chang, Li-Chih

    2017-10-13

    Collisions between emergency vehicles for emergency medical services (EMS) and public road users have been a serious problem, impacting on the safety of road users, emergency medical technicians (EMTs), and the patients on board. The aim of this study is to develop a novel intelligent emergency vehicle warning system for EMS applications. The intelligent emergency vehicle warning system is developed by Internet of Things (IoT), radio-frequency identification (RFID), and WiFi technologies. The system consists of three major parts: a system trigger tag, an RFID system in an emergency vehicle, and an RFID system at an intersection. The RFID system either in an emergency vehicle or at an intersection contains a controller, an ultrahigh-frequency (UHF) RFID reader module, a WiFi module, and a 2.4-GHz antenna. In addition, a UHF ID antenna is especially designed for the RFID system in an emergency vehicle. The IoT system provides real-time visual warning at an intersection and siren warning from an emergency vehicle in order to effectively inform road users about an emergency vehicle approaching. The developed intelligent IoT emergency vehicle warning system demonstrates the capabilities of real-time visual and siren warnings for EMS safety.

  20. Key Parameters Estimation and Adaptive Warning Strategy for Rear-End Collision of Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Song

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The rear-end collision warning system requires reliable warning decision mechanism to adapt the actual driving situation. To overcome the shortcomings of existing warning methods, an adaptive strategy is proposed to address the practical aspects of the collision warning problem. The proposed strategy is based on the parameter-adaptive and variable-threshold approaches. First, several key parameter estimation algorithms are developed to provide more accurate and reliable information for subsequent warning method. They include a two-stage algorithm which contains a Kalman filter and a Luenberger observer for relative acceleration estimation, a Bayesian theory-based algorithm of estimating the road friction coefficient, and an artificial neural network for estimating the driver’s reaction time. Further, the variable-threshold warning method is designed to achieve the global warning decision. In the method, the safety distance is employed to judge the dangerous state. The calculation method of the safety distance in this paper can be adaptively adjusted according to the different driving conditions of the leading vehicle. Due to the real-time estimation of the key parameters and the adaptive calculation of the warning threshold, the strategy can adapt to various road and driving conditions. Finally, the proposed strategy is evaluated through simulation and field tests. The experimental results validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed strategy.

  1. Haptic Addition to a Visual Menu Selection Interface Controlled by an In-Vehicle Rotary Device

    OpenAIRE

    Camilla Grane; Peter Bengtsson

    2012-01-01

    Today, several vehicles are equipped with a visual display combined with a haptic rotary device for handling in-vehicle information system tasks while driving. This experimental study investigates whether a haptic addition to a visual interface interferes with or supports secondary task performance and whether haptic information could be used without taking eyes off road. Four interfaces were compared during simulated driving: visual only, partly corresponding visual-haptic, fully correspondi...

  2. Silent and a audible stereotypes: The constitution of "ethnic character" in Serbian epic poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đerić Gordana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the explanatory relevance of the concept of stereotype in one of its original meanings - as a "mental image". This meaning of the term is the starting point for further differentiations, such as: between linguistic and behavioral stereotypes (in the sense of nonverbal, expected responses; universal and particular stereotypes; self representative and introspective stereotypes; permanent and contemporary stereotypes; and finally, what is most important for our purposes, the difference between silent and audible stereotypes. These distinctions, along with the functions of stereotype, are discussed in the first part of the paper. In the second part, the relations of silent and audible stereotypes are tested against the introduction of "innovative vocabularies" in popular lore. In other words, the explanatory power of this differentiation is checked through an analysis of unconventional motives in Serbian epic poems. The goal of the argument is to clarify the procedure of self creation of masculinity as a relevant feature of the "national character" through "tactic games" of silent and audible stereotypes. The examination of these "poetic strategies" serves a twofold purpose: to illustrate the process of constructing particular features of the "ethno type", on one hand, and to check hypotheses and models which are taken as frameworks in analyzing stereotypes, on the other.

  3. 77 FR 15452 - Visual-Manual NHTSA Driver Distraction Guidelines for In-Vehicle Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Visual-Manual NHTSA Driver Distraction Guidelines for In... proposed Visual-Manual Driver Distraction Guidelines for In-Vehicle Electronic Devices. NHTSA is announcing... language interpreter or translator or whether you plan to use technological aids (e.g., audio-visuals...

  4. Patterns of Facial Fractures and Protective Device Use in Motor Vehicle Collisions From 2007 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, David A; Saha, Sandeep; Nayar, Harry S; Doyle, John F; Agarwal, Suresh K; Chaiet, Scott R

    2016-12-01

    Facial fractures after motor vehicle collisions are a significant source of facial trauma in patients seen at trauma centers. With recent changes in use of seat belts and advances in airbag technology, new patterns in the incidence of facial fractures after motor vehicle collisions have yet to be quantified. To evaluate the incidence of facial fractures and assess the influence of protective device use in motor vehicle collisions in patients treated at trauma centers in the United States. Using a data set from the National Trauma Data Bank, we retrospectively assessed facial fractures in motor vehicle collisions occurring from 2007 through 2012, reported by level I, II, III, and IV trauma centers. Data analysis was performed from March 13 to September 22, 2015. We characterized the data set by subsite of facial injury using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes including mandible, midface, and nasal fractures. We assessed the influence of variables such as age, sex, race/ethnicity, crash occupant (driver or passenger), use of protective device, and presence or suspicion of alcohol use. A total of 518 106 patients required assessment at a trauma center after a motor vehicle collision, with 56 422 (10.9%) experiencing at least 1 facial fracture. Nasal fracture was the most common facial fracture (5.6%), followed by midface (3.8%), other (3.2%), orbital (2.6%), mandible (2.2%), and panfacial fractures (0.8%). Of the subset sustaining at least 1 facial fracture, 5.8% had airbag protection only, 26.9% used a seat belt only, and 9.3% used both protective devices, while 57.6% used no protective device. Compared with no protective device, the use of an airbag alone significantly reduced the likelihood of facial fracture after a motor vehicle collision (odds ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.79-0.86); use of a seat belt alone had a greater effect (odds ratio, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.56-0.58) and use of both devices provided the greatest odds reduction (odds ratio

  5. Vibration of railway bridges in the audible frequency range

    OpenAIRE

    Herron, David

    2009-01-01

    The noise level associated with a train travelling on a bridge is normally greater than that for a train travelling on plain track. It is sometimes the bridge noise that causes the highest levels of disturbance to people in the vicinity or triggers action underregulations such as the Environmental Noise Directive. Consequently, there is a need to study means of predicting noise levels from proposed bridges, noise controlmeasures for existing structures and principles of low-noise bridge desig...

  6. Dynamic compressibility of air in porous structures at audible frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lafarge, Denis; Lemarinier, Pavel; Allard, Jean F.

    1997-01-01

    Measurements of dynamic compressibility of air-filled porous sound-absorbing materials are compared with predictions involving two parametere, the static thermal permeability k'_0 and the thermal characteristic dimension GAMMA'. Emphasis on the notion of dynamic and static thermal permeability...... of the viscous forces. Using both parameters, a simple model is constructed for the dynamic thermal permeability k', which is completely analogous to the Johnson et al. [J. Fluid Mech. vol. 176, 379 (1987)] model of dynamic viscous permeability k. The resultant modeling of dynamic compressibility provides...... predictions which are closer to the experimental results than the previously used simpler model where the compressibility is the same as in identical circular cross-sectional shaped pores, or distributions of slits, related to a given GAMMA'....

  7. 49 CFR 571.125 - Standard No. 125; Warning devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... warning device shall have a radius of not less than 0.25 inch and not more than 0.50 inch. S5.2.5All edges... equations: Boundary Equations Yellow y=0.33 White x+y=0.98 S5.3.2The color of the orange fluorescent... the following equations: Boundary Equations Yellow y=0.49 x+0.17 White x+y=0.93 Red y=0.35 The 150...

  8. The Effectiveness of Real-Time Feedback with an Audible Pulse: A Preliminary Study in Renal Doppler Ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Hee; Lee, Hae Kyung; Choi, Seo-Youn; Yi, Boem Ha

    The effectiveness of real-time feedback using an audible pulse in renal Doppler ultrasonography was evaluated. This study was approved by the institutional review board of our hospital. Written informed consent was provided by all volunteers at enrollment. The 26 healthy volunteers enrolled in this study underwent Doppler ultrasound of both kidneys using audible and inaudible pulses in randomized order and at 1-week intervals. Doppler waveforms were obtained at the interlobar or arcuate arteries using a 2-mm Doppler gate. Each session was considered complete when reproducible waveforms were obtained for 5 s in three predefined regions of the kidney. The scan times needed to obtain waveforms of the right and left kidneys were recorded separately. Measurements were compared using a paired t-test and a two-sample Wilcoxon rank-sum test. The total recorded Doppler sonography scan time for each kidney ranged from 33 to 146 s. The mean scan time was 56.83 s (right, 58.19 s; left, 55.46 s) in the audible session and 72.58 s (right, 72.08 s; left, 73.08 s) in the inaudible session. The scan times were significantly shorter in the audible than inaudible session (peffect on the total scan time. Real-time feedback using an audible pulse may encourage patient cooperation during breath-holding and can shorten the time needed to perform Doppler ultrasonography.

  9. Communicating with residential electrical devices via a vehicle telematics unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Rebecca C.; Pebbles, Paul H.

    2016-11-15

    A method of communicating with residential electrical devices using a vehicle telematics unit includes receiving information identifying a residential electrical device to control; displaying in a vehicle one or more controlled features of the identified residential electrical device; receiving from a vehicle occupant a selection of the displayed controlled features of the residential electrical device; sending an instruction from the vehicle telematics unit to the residential electrical device via a wireless carrier system in response to the received selection; and controlling the residential electrical device using the sent instruction.

  10. Research and implement of remote vehicle monitoring and early-warning system based on GPS/GPRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiwu; Tian, Jingjing; Yang, Zhifa; Qiao, Feiyan

    2013-03-01

    Concerning the problem of road traffic safety, remote monitoring and early-warning of vehicle states was the key to prevent road traffic accidents and improve the transportation effectiveness. Through the embedded development technology, a remote vehicle monitoring and early-warning system was developed based on UNO2170 industrial computer of Advantech with WinCE operating system using Embedded Visual C++ (EVC), which combined with multisensor data acquisition technology, global positioning system (GPS) and general packet radio service (GPRS). It achieved the remote monitoring and early-warning of commercial vehicle. This system was installed in a CA1046L2 light truck. Through many road tests, test results showed that the system reacted rapidly for abnormal vehicle states and had stable performance.

  11. Automation warning system against driver falling asleep in-traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dymov I. S.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the development of a new automation recognition and warning system against driver falling asleep in-traffic. The issue of the physical condition control of professional drivers on the voyage has been considered both on the part of efficiency and quality of its determination, and in terms of improving overall road safety. The existing and widely used devices for determining the transition to the stage of sleep of drivers being in-traffic have been analyzed. Their advantages and disadvantages have been detected. It has been established that the main negative factor preventing the mass introduction of pre-existing warning systems is the need to wear one or another monitoring device before starting the movement. Carried out project research work has proposed a complex monitoring of the physical and physiological condition of driving person as a new warning method against falling asleep in-traffic. The proposed variations of algorithmic implementations can be used in long-distance trucks and passenger vehicles. Two different versions of the automatic control status of the driver physical condition have been considered. The first approach has proposed the use of sensors of the biometric parameters of body, pulsus, body temperature, and hands on wheel pressure sensors. The second one has proposed using the tracking cameras. Both for the first and second versions of the automation system a toolset of control devices is being installed inside the vehicle and have no physical, so irritating action on the driver. Software approach for the false operation rejection of the devices has been developed. The paper considers the flow diagrams of the automatic systems and logical structure of analysis and decision-making. The set of impacts intended for driver's awakening has been proposed. The conclusion about the engineering perspectives of the proposed approach of projected automation systems has been made.

  12. Development of a drowsiness warning system; Inemuri unten keiho system no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneda, M.; Ueno, H.; Shiroto, R.; Nasu, T.; Murakami, K. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-06-30

    Preventing drowsiness during driving requires a method for accurately detecting a decline in driver alertness and a method for alerting and refreshing the driver. The authors have developed a drowsiness detection system that uses image processing technology. This system provides a noncontact technique for judging various levels of driver alertness and facilitates early detection of a decline in alertness during driving. When a diminished state of alertness is detected, a refreshing system issues a signal that first activates an audible warning and then generates a menthol scent and cold air from the air conditioner. Compared with the stimulative effect of an audible warning alone, experimental results show that the provision of an audible warning combined with a menthol scent and cold air is more than twice as effective in keeping the driver alert. This paper describes the fundamental hardware configuration of the compact system and its application to an actual vehicle, and discusses problem to be solved under real-world driving conditions. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  13. Integrated chassis control for vehicle rollover prevention with neural network time-to-rollover warning metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Zhu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The rollover of road vehicles is one of the most serious problems related to transportation safety. In this article, a novel rollover prevention control system composed of rollover warning and integrated chassis control algorithm is proposed. First, a conventional time-to-rollover warning algorithm was presented based on the 3-degree of freedom vehicle model. In order to improve the precision of vehicle rollover prediction, a back-propagation neural network was adopted to regulate time to rollover online by considering multi-state parameters of the vehicle. Second, a rollover prevention algorithm based on integrated chassis control was investigated, where the active front steering and the active yaw moment control were coordinated by model predictive control methodology. Finally, the algorithms were evaluated under several typical maneuvers utilizing MATLAB/Simulink and Carsim co-simulation. The results show that the proposed neural network time-to-rollover metrics can be a good measure of the danger of rollover, and the roll stability of the simulated vehicle is improved significantly with reduced side slip angle and yaw rate by the proposed integrated chassis control rollover prevention system.

  14. 75 FR 6253 - Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Hyundia-Kia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... immobilizer system and the alarm system in accordance with the EEC, UNECE, Korea standard and Hyundai in-house... device for the new vehicle line. Hyundai will install its passive Smart-key Immobilizer device and alarm... is removed from the smart-key immobilizer control unit. The audible and visual alarm system is...

  15. Audible Noise Measurement and Analysis of the Main Power Apparatus in UHV GIS Substations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Nian Guang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of audible noise characteristics of the main power apparatus in UHV GIS substations provides essential statistics for the noise prediction and control. Noise pressure level, spectrum and attenuation characteristics of the main transformers and high voltage (HV reactors are measured and analyzed in this paper. The result shows that the main transformer and HV reactor have identical A-weighted equivalent sound pressure level. The medium- and low-frequency noises are the primary components in the spectral. More attention should be paid to the low-frequency bands in the noise control process. The noise of cooling fan has a large influence on that of the main transformer. Without the consideration of corona noise, the average A-weighted sound pressure level shows an overall decreasing trend with the increase of the propagation distance. Obvious interference phenomenon of the noises at 100 and 200Hz exists in the noise propagation process.

  16. 78 FR 51381 - Early Warning Reporting, Foreign Defect Reporting, and Motor Vehicle and Equipment Recall...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... amendments to certain provisions of the early warning reporting (EWR) rule and the regulations governing motor vehicle and equipment safety recalls. The amendments to the EWR rule require light vehicle... vehicle manufacturers to segregate their Service Brake EWR data into two new discrete component categories...

  17. Haptic Addition to a Visual Menu Selection Interface Controlled by an In-Vehicle Rotary Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Grane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, several vehicles are equipped with a visual display combined with a haptic rotary device for handling in-vehicle information system tasks while driving. This experimental study investigates whether a haptic addition to a visual interface interferes with or supports secondary task performance and whether haptic information could be used without taking eyes off road. Four interfaces were compared during simulated driving: visual only, partly corresponding visual-haptic, fully corresponding visual-haptic, and haptic only. Secondary task performance and subjective mental workload were measured. Additionally, the participants were interviewed. It was found that some haptic support improved performance. However, when more haptic information was used, the results diverged in terms of task completion time and interface comprehension. Some participants did not sense all haptics provided, some did not comprehend the correspondence between the haptic and visual interfaces, and some did. Interestingly, the participants managed to complete the tasks when using haptic-only information.

  18. 21 CFR 801.433 - Warning statements for prescription and restricted device products containing or manufactured...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Warning statements for prescription and restricted... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING Special Requirements for Specific Devices § 801.433 Warning statements for prescription and restricted device products containing or manufactured with...

  19. The Effectiveness of Real-Time Feedback with an Audible Pulse: A Preliminary Study in Renal Doppler Ultrasonography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Hee Lee

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of real-time feedback using an audible pulse in renal Doppler ultrasonography was evaluated.This study was approved by the institutional review board of our hospital. Written informed consent was provided by all volunteers at enrollment. The 26 healthy volunteers enrolled in this study underwent Doppler ultrasound of both kidneys using audible and inaudible pulses in randomized order and at 1-week intervals. Doppler waveforms were obtained at the interlobar or arcuate arteries using a 2-mm Doppler gate. Each session was considered complete when reproducible waveforms were obtained for 5 s in three predefined regions of the kidney. The scan times needed to obtain waveforms of the right and left kidneys were recorded separately. Measurements were compared using a paired t-test and a two-sample Wilcoxon rank-sum test.The total recorded Doppler sonography scan time for each kidney ranged from 33 to 146 s. The mean scan time was 56.83 s (right, 58.19 s; left, 55.46 s in the audible session and 72.58 s (right, 72.08 s; left, 73.08 s in the inaudible session. The scan times were significantly shorter in the audible than inaudible session (p<0.001, whereas the difference in the scan times between the right and left kidneys was not significant. The order of the sessions had no effect on the total scan time.Real-time feedback using an audible pulse may encourage patient cooperation during breath-holding and can shorten the time needed to perform Doppler ultrasonography.

  20. The Practical Design of In-vehicle Telematics Device with GPS and MEMS Accelerometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Dramićanin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The latest generation of vehicle tracking devices relies not only on Global Positioning System (GPS but also uses low-cost Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS accelerometers. This combination supports new services such as driving style characterization and Automatic Crash Notification (ACN. Our focus will be on practical considerations of such a telematics unit. The paper will consider the boundaries of allowed errors and minimal requirements for sensors and mounting requirements. Sensor range for crash detection and impact angle estimation was tested on field trials with two units containing accelerometers range of 18g and 2g. The kinematic orientation of vehicle is evaluated in a series of field trials with a resulting standard deviation of estimation of 1.67°. The second run of experiments considers the dynamic range and sampling rate of sensors during collision. A sensor range of 8g (typical for present-day telematics devices can be used to detect crash without accurate knowledge of impact angle.

  1. Characterizing the audibility of sound field with diffusion in architectural spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utami, Sentagi Sesotya

    The significance of diffusion control in room acoustics is that it attempts to avoid echoes by dispersing reflections while removing less valuable sound energy. Some applications place emphasis on the enhancement of late reflections to promote a sense of envelopment, and on methods required to measure the performance of diffusers. What still remains unclear is the impact of diffusion on the audibility quality due to the geometric arrangement of architectural elements. The objective of this research is to characterize the audibility of the sound field with diffusion in architectural space. In order to address this objective, an approach utilizing various methods and new techniques relevant to room acoustics standards was applied. An array of microphones based on beam forming (i.e., an acoustic camera) was utilized for field measurements in a recording studio, classrooms, auditoriums, concert halls and sport arenas. Given the ability to combine a visual image with acoustical data, the impulse responses measured were analyzed to identify the impact of diffusive surfaces on the early, late, and reverberant sound fields. The effects of the room geometry and the proportions of the diffusive and absorptive surfaces were observed by utilizing geometrical room acoustics simulations. The degree of diffuseness in each space was measured by coherences from different measurement positions along with the acoustical conditions predicted by well-known objective parameters such as T30, EDT, C80, and C50. Noticeable differences of the auditory experience were investigated by utilizing computer-based survey techniques, including the use of an immersive virtual environment system, given the current software auralization capabilities. The results based on statistical analysis demonstrate the users' ability to localize the sound and to distinguish the intensity, clarity, and reverberation created within the virtual environment. Impact of architectural elements in diffusion control is

  2. 77 FR 55605 - Early Warning Reporting, Foreign Defect Reporting, and Motor Vehicle and Equipment Recall...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... certain provisions of the early warning reporting (EWR) rule and the regulations governing motor vehicle and equipment safety recalls. The amendments to the EWR rule would require light vehicle manufacturers... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For non-legal issues on EWR requirements, contact Tina Morgan, Office of...

  3. Remote infrared audible signage (RIAS) pilot program report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The Remote Infrared Audible Sign Model Accessibility Program (RIAS MAP) is a program funded by the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) to evaluate the effectiveness of remote infrared audible sign systems in enabling persons with visual and cognitiv...

  4. Audible thunder characteristic and the relation between peak ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Audible thunder characteristic and the relation between peak frequency and lightning parameters ... In recent summers, some natural lightning optical spectra and audible thunder signals were observed. ... School of Mathematics, Physics and Software Engineering, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou 730 070, China.

  5. Acoustic metamaterial panel for both fluid passage and broadband soundproofing in the audible frequency range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae Woong; Kim, Jae Eun; Lee, Jin Woo

    2018-01-01

    We present the design, including an experimental demonstration, of an acoustic metamaterial panel aimed at reducing incoming broadband noise in the audible frequency range while allowing an incoming fluid to pass through the holes formed in the panel. The noise reduction performance of the proposed acoustic metamaterial panel is attributed to an array of annular cavities enclosing the fluid passage holes. The acoustic behavior of the acoustic metamaterial panel is theoretically analyzed by the transfer matrix method, and an equivalent acoustic impedance of each annular cavity is included with its effective length in the derived transfer matrix. The effective bulk modulus for the acoustic metamaterial panel is then extracted from the transmission and reflection coefficients by using the retrieval method. It is shown that the frequency range of the negative effective bulk modulus coincides with the stop band of the acoustic metamaterial panel. The underlying physical mechanism for the negative effective bulk modulus is attributed to the out-of-phase motion of vibrating particles in adjacent annular cavities. A calculated transmission coefficient curve of the acoustic metamaterial panel is shown to be in good agreement with the measured one. The findings presented in this work should be useful in the design of a holey soundproof panel.

  6. Emergency Vehicle Siren Noise Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angela, Peter

    Navigating safely through traffic, while responding to an emergency, is often a challenge for emergency responders. To help alert other motorists, these responders use emergency lights and/or sirens. However, the former is useful only if within clear visual range of the other drivers. This shortcoming puts a greater emphasis on the importance of the audible emergency siren, which has its own shortcomings. This study considered several emergency siren systems with the goal to determine the most effective siren system(s) based on several criteria. Multiple experimental measurements and subjective analysis using jury testing using an NVH driving simulator were performed. It was found that the traditional mechanical siren was the most effective audible warning device; however, with significantly reduced electrical power requirements, the low frequency Rumbler siren, in conjunction with a more conventional electronic Yelp siren, was the preferred option. Recommendations for future work are also given.

  7. Automated Announcements of Approaching Emergency Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelder, Aaron; Foster, Conrad

    2006-01-01

    Street intersections that are equipped with traffic lights would also be equipped with means for generating audible announcements of approaching emergency vehicles, according to a proposal. The means to generate the announcements would be implemented in the intersection- based subsystems of emergency traffic-light-preemption systems like those described in the two immediately preceding articles and in "Systems Would Preempt Traffic Lights for Emergency Vehicles" (NPO-30573), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 10 (October 2004), page 36. Preempting traffic lights is not, by itself, sufficient to warn pedestrians at affected intersections that emergency vehicles are approaching. Automated visual displays that warn of approaching emergency vehicles can be helpful as a supplement to preemption of traffic lights, but experience teaches that for a variety of reasons, pedestrians often do not see such displays. Moreover, in noisy and crowded urban settings, the lights and sirens on emergency vehicles are often not noticed until a few seconds before the vehicles arrive. According to the proposal, the traffic-light preemption subsystem at each intersection would generate an audible announcement for example, emergency vehicle approaching, please clear intersection whenever a preemption was triggered. The subsystem would estimate the time of arrival of an approaching emergency vehicle by use of vehicle identity, position, and time data from one or more sources that could include units connected to traffic loops and/or transponders connected to diagnostic and navigation systems in participating emergency vehicles. The intersection-based subsystem would then start the announcement far enough in advance to enable pedestrians to leave the roadway before any emergency vehicles arrive.

  8. The effects of audibility and novel word learning ability on vocabulary level in children with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Lisa S; Geers, Ann E; Nicholas, Johanna G

    2014-07-01

    A novel word learning (NWL) paradigm was used to explore underlying phonological and cognitive mechanisms responsible for delayed vocabulary level in children with cochlear implants (CIs). One hundred and one children using CIs, 6-12 years old, were tested along with 47 children with normal hearing (NH). Tests of NWL, receptive vocabulary, and speech perception at 2 loudness levels were administered to children with CIs. Those with NH completed the NWL task and a receptive vocabulary test. CI participants with good audibility (GA) versus poor audibility (PA) were compared on all measures. Analysis of variance was used to compare performance across the children with NH and the two groups of children with CIs. Multiple regression analysis was employed to identify independent predictors of vocabulary outcomes. Children with CIs in the GA group scored higher in receptive vocabulary and NWL than children in the PA group, although they did not reach NH levels. CI-aided pure tone threshold and performance on the NWL task predicted independent variance in vocabulary after accounting for other known predictors. Acquiring spoken vocabulary is facilitated by GA with a CI and phonological learning and memory skills. Children with CIs did not learn novel words at the same rate or achieve the same receptive vocabulary levels as their NH peers. Maximizing audibility for the perception of speech and direct instruction of new vocabulary may be necessary for children with CIs to reach levels seen in peers with NH.

  9. Creation of electromechanical device for electric vehicle traction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Денис Юрьевич Зубенко

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The problems of creation of electromechanical device for electric vehicle traction are considered in the article. The aim of creation this design are the replacement of the internal combustion engine on electromechanical device. For this electromechanical device are constructed model, which describe processes that occur in the electric drive of electromechanical device. Characteristics of the main modes of motion were recorded. The introduction of electromechanical device will reduce the level of emissions and reduce noise in the cities

  10. Human factors field evaluation of automotive headway maintenance/collision warning devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingus, T A; McGehee, D V; Manakkal, N; Jahns, S K; Carney, C; Hankey, J M

    1997-06-01

    Three on-road studies were conducted to determine how headway maintenance and collision warning displays influence driver behavior. Visual perspective, visual perspective with a pointer, visual perspective combined with an auditory warning, discrete visual warning, and discrete auditory warning were assessed during both coupled headway and deceleration events. Results indicate that when drivers are provided with salient visual information regarding safe headways, they utilize the information and increase their headway when appropriate. Auditory warnings were less effective than visual warnings for increasing headways but may be helpful for improving reaction time during events that require deceleration. Drivers were somewhat insensitive to false alarm rates, at least during short-term use. Finally, and most important, driver headway maintenance increased by as much as 0.5 s when the appropriate visual display was used. However, a study to investigate the longterm effects of such displays on behavior is strongly recommended prior to mass marketing of headway maintenance/collision warning devices.

  11. Effect of audible and visual reminders on adherence in glaucoma patients using a commercially available dosing aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Y Ho

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Lawrence Y Ho1, Larissa Camejo1, Malik Y Kahook2, Robert Noecker11UMPC Eye Center, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA; 2Rocky Mountain Lions Institute, University of Colorado, CO, USAAbstract: We studied the effects of audible and visual alarms on adherence with a recommended dosing regimen in the management of glaucoma. Forty-two patients were begun on therapy with the Travatan® Dosing Aid (TDA and randomly divided into two observation groups-one with visual and audible alarm functions turned on and the other with alarms off. Dosing information was analyzed for mean rates of adherence, missed days, and dosing at the wrong time. Twenty patients were randomized to the TDA alarm on group and 22 to the alarm off group. The rates of adherence were 87.9% and 79.7% (p = 0.02, rates of missed dosing were 7.6% and 14.4% (p = 0.03, and rates of dosing at the incorrect times were 7.1% and 9.8% (p = 0.19, respectively for alarm on versus alarm off groups. In the alarm on group, the adherence rate was significantly higher and proportion of missed dosing was significantly lower. It is still yet to be determined whether there is a relationship between adherence and progression of glaucoma.Keywords: adherence, glaucoma, Travatan® Dosing Aid, audible alarms, visual alarms

  12. 30 CFR 75.1103-8 - Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; examination and test requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic fire sensor and warning device...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1103-8 Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; examination and test requirements. (a) Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems shall be examined at...

  13. Florida DOT Orlando ITS World Congress Vehicle Awareness Device

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Florida DOT (FDOT) installed Vehicle Awareness Devices (VADs) on a set of Lynx transit buses as part of a demonstration for the ITS World Congress held in Orlando in...

  14. Identical fracture patterns in combat vehicle blast injuries due to improvised explosive devices; a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Commandeur Joris

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In November 2008, a surgical team from the Red Cross Hospital Beverwijk, the Netherlands, was deployed in Afghanistan for three months to attend in the army hospital of Kandahar. During their stay, four incidents of armored personnel carriers encountering an improvised explosive device were assessed. In each incident, two soldiers were involved, whose injuries were strikingly similar. Case presentation The described cases comprise paired thoracic vertebral fractures, radial neck fractures, calcaneal fractures and talar fractures. Moreover, the different types of blast injury are mentioned and related to the injuries described in our series. Acknowledging the different blast mechanisms is important for understanding possible injury patterns. Conclusion From this case series, as well as the existing literature on injury patterns caused by blast injuries, it seems appropriate to pay extra attention to bodily areas that were injured in other occupants of the same vehicle. Obviously, the additional surveillance for specific injuries should be complementary to the regular trauma work-up (e.g., ATLS.

  15. Effect of additional warning sounds on pedestrians' detection of electric vehicles: An ecological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Sylvain; Jamet, Éric; Roussarie, Vincent; Bosc, Laure; Chamard, Jean-Christophe

    2016-12-01

    Virtually silent electric vehicles (EVs) may pose a risk for pedestrians. This paper describes two studies that were conducted to assess the influence of different types of external sounds on EV detectability. In the first study, blindfolded participants had to detect an approaching EV with either no warning sounds at all or one of three types of sound we tested. In the second study, designed to replicate the results of the first one in an ecological setting, the EV was driven along a road and the experimenters counted the number of people who turned their heads in its direction. Results of the first study showed that adding external sounds improve EV detection, and modulating the frequency and increasing the pitch of these sounds makes them more effective. This improvement was confirmed in the ecological context. Consequently, pitch variation and frequency modulation should both be taken into account in future AVAS design. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Computer Vision Based Smart Lane Departure Warning System for Vehicle Dynamics Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambarish G. Mohapatra

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Collision Avoidance System solves many problems caused by traffic congestion worldwide and a synergy of new information technologies for simulation, real-time control and communications networks. The above system is characterized as an intelligent vehicle system. Traffic congestion has been increasing world-wide as a result of increased motorization, urbanization, population growth and changes in population density. Congestion reduces utilization of the transportation infrastructure and increases travel time, air pollution, fuel consumption and most importantly traffic accidents. The main objective of this work is to develop a machine vision system for lane departure detection and warning to measure the lane related parameters such as heading angle, lateral deviation, yaw rate and sideslip angle from the road scene image using standard image processing technique that can be used for automation of steering a motor vehicle. The exact position of the steering wheel can be monitored using a steering wheel sensor. This core part of this work is based on Hough transformation based edge detection technique for the detection of lane departure parameters. The prototype designed for this work has been tested in a running vehicle for the monitoring of real-time lane related parameters.

  17. Severe thunderstorm and tornado warnings in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauhala, Jenni; Schultz, David M.

    This study summarizes the current severe thunderstorm warning and forecast operations in different European National Hydro-Meteorological Services (NHMSs), and, in doing so, suggests ways for countries developing their own warning service to learn from experiences in other countries, as well as from the warning operations in the United States of America, the longest-lived severe thunderstorm warning operations in the world. This study is based on a questionnaire sent to 39 European NHMSs of which thirty-three (85%) responded. Currently, many European NHMSs are actively developing their severe thunderstorm forecast process and warning services with 26 (79%) of respondent countries issuing severe thunderstorm warnings and 8 (24%) issuing tornado warnings. Both warning criteria and methodologies used in the warning process vary from country to country. Lead-times range from 30 min to 96 h, indicating a range of different warning philosophies for each country. Major challenges toward improving the warning operations include obtaining observations of severe weather for real-time forecasting and post-event verification, educating forecasters, and having access to state-of-the-art forecaster workstations. An additional challenge is in communicating anticipated or ongoing severe thunderstorms, both internationally between NHMSs and nationally with media and emergency authorities.

  18. Universal Safety Distance Alert Device for Road Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matic Virant

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Driving with too short of a safety distance is a common problem in road traffic, often with traffic accidents as a consequence. Research has identified a lack of vehicle-mountable devices for alerting the drivers of trailing vehicles about keeping a sufficient safe distance. The principal requirements for such a device were defined. A conceptual study was performed in order to select the components for the integration of the device. Based on the results of this study, a working prototype of a flexible, self-contained device was designed, built and tested. The device is intended to be mounted on the rear of a vehicle. It uses radar as the primary distance sensor, assisted with a GPS receiver for velocity measurement. A Raspberry Pi single-board computer is used for data acquisition and processing. The alerts are shown on an LED-matrix display mounted on the rear of the host vehicle. The device software is written in Python and provides automatic operation without requiring any user intervention. The tests have shown that the device is usable on almost any motor vehicle and performs reliably in simulated and real traffic. The open issues and possibilities for future improvements are presented in the Discussion.

  19. Cortical Auditory Evoked Potentials Reveal Changes in Audibility with Nonlinear Frequency Compression in Hearing Aids for Children: Clinical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Teresa Y C; Zhang, Vicky W; Hou, Sanna; Van Buynder, Patricia

    2016-02-01

    Hearing loss in children is detected soon after birth via newborn hearing screening. Procedures for early hearing assessment and hearing aid fitting are well established, but methods for evaluating the effectiveness of amplification for young children are limited. One promising approach to validating hearing aid fittings is to measure cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs). This article provides first a brief overview of reports on the use of CAEPs for evaluation of hearing aids. Second, a study that measured CAEPs to evaluate nonlinear frequency compression (NLFC) in hearing aids for 27 children (between 6.1 and 16.8 years old) who have mild to severe hearing loss is reported. There was no significant difference in aided sensation level or the detection of CAEPs for /g/ between NLFC on and off conditions. The activation of NLFC was associated with a significant increase in aided sensation levels for /t/ and /s/. It also was associated with an increase in detection of CAEPs for /t/ and /s/. The findings support the use of CAEPs for checking audibility provided by hearing aids. Based on the current data, a clinical protocol for using CAEPs to validate audibility with amplification is presented.

  20. Dynamic stiffness of chemically and physically ageing rubber vibration isolators in the audible frequency range. Part 1: constitutive equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kari, Leif

    2017-09-01

    The constitutive equations of chemically and physically ageing rubber in the audible frequency range are modelled as a function of ageing temperature, ageing time, actual temperature, time and frequency. The constitutive equations are derived by assuming nearly incompressible material with elastic spherical response and viscoelastic deviatoric response, using Mittag-Leffler relaxation function of fractional derivative type, the main advantage being the minimum material parameters needed to successfully fit experimental data over a broad frequency range. The material is furthermore assumed essentially entropic and thermo-mechanically simple while using a modified William-Landel-Ferry shift function to take into account temperature dependence and physical ageing, with fractional free volume evolution modelled by a nonlinear, fractional differential equation with relaxation time identical to that of the stress response and related to the fractional free volume by Doolittle equation. Physical ageing is a reversible ageing process, including trapping and freeing of polymer chain ends, polymer chain reorganizations and free volume changes. In contrast, chemical ageing is an irreversible process, mainly attributed to oxygen reaction with polymer network either damaging the network by scission or reformation of new polymer links. The chemical ageing is modelled by inner variables that are determined by inner fractional evolution equations. Finally, the model parameters are fitted to measurements results of natural rubber over a broad audible frequency range, and various parameter studies are performed including comparison with results obtained by ordinary, non-fractional ageing evolution differential equations.

  1. Quantitative HPLC analysis of active pharmaceutical ingredients in syrup vehicle using centrifugal filter devices and determination of xanthan gum in syrup vehicle using rheometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Tadey, Tanya; Hu, Mougang; Carr, Geoff; Guo, Junan

    2010-02-01

    Using rapid centrifugal filtration (membrane prevented compounds with molecular weight higher than the nominal molecular weight limit (NMWL) from transporting through the membrane, thus separating them from compounds with molecular weight smaller than NMWL, which would pass through the membrane. The purpose of this study aims to remove high molecular weight matrix (such as xanthan gum) interferences while achieving a quantitative analysis of the active pharmaceutical ingradients of interest. Two model active pharmaceutical ingredients, L-arginine and amphotericin B, were quantitatively recovered from the diluted syrup vehicle after centrifugation with the filter devices. The reproducibility [% relative standard deviation (RSD), peak area] of the filtered samples was less than 0.5%. For amphotericin B samples. The linear range was 0.28 microg/mL to 28.2 microg/mL. The limit of detection was 0.06 microg/mL. The limit of quantification was 0.28 microg/mL. The viscosity of a syrup vehicle changed linearly with the concentration of xanthan gum. A method was thus developed to determine xanthan gum in the syrup vehicle. The accuracy was within 95.0% to 105.0% at different concentration levels.

  2. Device for reducing vehicle aerodynamic resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Sean C.

    2006-08-22

    A device for reducing vehicle aerodynamic resistance for vehicles having a generally rectangular body disposed above rear wheels, comprising a plurality of load bearing struts attached to the bottom of the rectangular body adjacent its sides, a plurality of opposing flat sheets attached to the load bearing struts, and angled flaps attached to the lower edge of the opposing sheets defining an obtuse angle with the opposing flat sheets extending inwardly with respect to the sides of the rectangular body to a predetermined height above the ground, which, stiffen the opposing flat sheets, bend to resist damage when struck by the ground, and guide airflow around the rear wheels of the vehicle to reduce its aerodynamic resistance when moving.

  3. An approach for estimation of optimal energy flows in battery storage devices for electric vehicles in the smart grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vacheva Gergana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available While the number of the vehicle actuated with liquid fuels are settled, the count of electric vehicles is increasing. For the present moment most of them are scheduled for daily urban usage. This paper presents an analytical approach for estimation of the impact of electrical vehicle (EV battery charging on the distribution grid. Based on the EV charge profile, load curve and local distributed generation the grid nodes, the time variation of grid parameters is obtained. A set of typical load profiles of EV charging modes is studied and presented. A software implementation and a 24h case study of low voltage distribution network with EV charging devices is presented in order to illustrate the approach and the impacts of EV charging on the grid. In the current paper an approach using variable nonlinear algebraic equations for dynamic time domain analysis of the charge of the electric vehicles is presented. Based on the results, the challenges due to EV charging in distribution networks including renewable energy sources are discussed. This approach is widely applicable for various EV charging and distributed energy resources studies considering control algorithms, grid stability analysis, smart grid power management and other power system analysis problems.

  4. 77 FR 11199 - Visual-Manual NHTSA Driver Distraction Guidelines for In-Vehicle Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... to issuance of final NHTSA Guidelines, which will not have the force and effect of law and will not.... ``15-Second Rule'' Study C. Collision Avoidance Metrics Partnership (CAMP) Driver Workload Metrics... vehicle is in motion. NHTSA has drawn heavily upon these existing guidelines in the development of its...

  5. Effect Analysis of Early Warning for Abandoned Object on Highway Based on Internet-of-Vehicles CA Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Bao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An early warning on the highway will effectively reduce traffic accidents. Considering the influence of an abandoned object on driving behavior, a Visual-based Asymmetric Two-lane Cellular Automata model with Abandoned Object (V-ATCA-AO and an Internet-of-Vehicles-based Asymmetric Two-lane Cellular Automata model with Abandoned Object (IoV-ATCA-AO are proposed. Based on the two models, two types of traffic accidents caused by an abandoned object are analyzed: rear-end collision caused by the abandoned object ahead and collision of the vehicle with the abandoned object. Simulation results show the following: (1 the accidents occur when the road density is smaller, while the accidents will not occur when the density is larger. The results are different from the rear-end collision rate curve without abandoned object in a single lane. (2 Compared with the visual-based avoidance pattern in V-ATCA-AO, the Internet-of-Vehicles-based avoidance pattern in IoV-ATCA-AO can create an early warning for the abandoned object and tell the vehicle to make an earlier lane change and decelerate in advance, thereby significantly reducing the accident rate. (3 Spatiotemporal characteristics in front of the abandoned object directly affect the accident rate: the less the “stability” of a traffic jam in front of the abandoned object, the higher the accident rate.

  6. Drivers' eye movements as a function of collision avoidance warning conditions in red light running scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuting; Yan, Xuedong; Li, Xiaomeng; Xue, Qingwan

    2016-11-01

    The intersection collision avoidance warning systems (ICAWSs) have substantial potentials in improving driving performance and reducing the number and severity of intersection collisions, through helping drivers timely detect hazardous conflicting vehicles in precrash scenarios. However, the influences of ICAWS on drivers' visual performance have barely been discussed. This study focuses on exploring the patterns in drivers' eye movements as a function of ICAWS's warning conditions in red light running scenarios based on a driving simulation experiment. Two types of speech warning conditions including warning timings (varied form 2.5s to 5.5s) and directional information (with or without) are examined, and the no-warning condition is the baseline. The results revealed that more subjects would be likely to benefit from the ICWAS under the earlier warning timings. The warning condition of 4.5s ahead of a collision had the best effectiveness in terms of visual performances. Under such a warning timing, drivers had shorter fixation duration and higher frequency of searching for the red light running (RLR) vehicles. Compared to the warning condition without directional information, the directional warning information could capture drivers' attention more efficiently, help driver direct fixations toward the RLR vehicles more quickly and lead to more scanning activities. Compared to female drivers, male drivers had more scanning activities when approaching intersections, detected the RLR vehicles more quickly and were more likely to avoid the RLR collisions. Besides, the experiment results indicated that the female drivers were more inclined to trust the warning information and got more benefits from the RLR-ICAWS in terms of the crash risk reduction rate than male drivers. Finally, the conclusions lead the way toward warning condition design recommendations for improving the effectiveness of the RLR-ICAWSs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Audible Human Project: Modeling Sound Transmission in the Lungs and Torso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zoujun

    Auscultation has been used qualitatively by physicians for hundreds of years to aid in the monitoring and diagnosis of pulmonary diseases. Alterations in the structure and function of the pulmonary system that occur in disease or injury often give rise to measurable changes in lung sound production and transmission. Numerous acoustic measurements have revealed the differences of breath sounds and transmitted sounds in the lung under normal and pathological conditions. Compared to the extensive cataloging of lung sound measurements, the mechanism of sound transmission in the pulmonary system and how it changes with alterations of lung structural and material properties has received less attention. A better understanding of sound transmission and how it is altered by injury and disease might improve interpretation of lung sound measurements, including new lung imaging modalities that are based on an array measurement of the acoustic field on the torso surface via contact sensors or are based on a 3-dimensional measurement of the acoustic field throughout the lungs and torso using magnetic resonance elastography. A long-term goal of the Audible Human Project (AHP ) is to develop a computational acoustic model that would accurately simulate generation, transmission and noninvasive measurement of sound and vibration within the pulmonary system and torso caused by both internal (e.g. respiratory function) and external (e.g. palpation) sources. The goals of this dissertation research, fitting within the scope of the AHP, are to develop specific improved theoretical understandings, computational algorithms and experimental methods aimed at transmission and measurement. The research objectives undertaken in this dissertation are as follows. (1) Improve theoretical modeling and experimental identification of viscoelasticity in soft biological tissues. (2) Develop a poroviscoelastic model for lung tissue vibroacoustics. (3) Improve lung airway acoustics modeling and its

  8. 32 CFR 636.33 - Vehicle safety inspection criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... operable horn, capable of emitting sound audible for at least 200 feet. (9) Muffler—every vehicle will have a muffler in good working order and in constant operation. (10) Mirror—every vehicle, from which the...

  9. Validation of exposure visualization and audible distance emission for navigated temporal bone drilling in phantoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard H J Voormolen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A neuronavigation interface with extended function as compared with current systems was developed to aid during temporal bone surgery. The interface, named EVADE, updates the prior anatomical image and visualizes the bone drilling process virtually in real-time without need for intra-operative imaging. Furthermore, EVADE continuously calculates the distance from the drill tip to segmented temporal bone critical structures (e.g. the sigmoid sinus and facial nerve and produces audiovisual warnings if the surgeon drills in too close vicinity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and surgical utility of EVADE in physical phantoms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed 228 measurements assessing the position accuracy of tracking a navigated drill in the operating theatre. A mean target registration error of 1.33±0.61 mm with a maximum error of 3.04 mm was found. Five neurosurgeons each drilled two temporal bone phantoms, once using EVADE, and once using a standard neuronavigation interface. While using standard neuronavigation the surgeons damaged three modeled temporal bone critical structures. No structure was hit by surgeons utilizing EVADE. Surgeons felt better orientated and thought they had improved tumor exposure with EVADE. Furthermore, we compared the distances between surface meshes of the virtual drill cavities created by EVADE to actual drill cavities: average maximum errors of 2.54±0.49 mm and -2.70±0.48 mm were found. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results demonstrate that EVADE gives accurate feedback which reduces risks of harming modeled critical structures compared to a standard neuronavigation interface during temporal bone phantom drilling.

  10. Driving-Simulator-Based Test on the Effectiveness of Auditory Red-Light Running Vehicle Warning System Based on Time-To-Collision Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuedong Yan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The collision avoidance warning system is an emerging technology designed to assist drivers in avoiding red-light running (RLR collisions at intersections. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effect of auditory warning information on collision avoidance behaviors in the RLR pre-crash scenarios and further to examine the casual relationships among the relevant factors. A driving-simulator-based experiment was designed and conducted with 50 participants. The data from the experiments were analyzed by approaches of ANOVA and structural equation modeling (SEM. The collisions avoidance related variables were measured in terms of brake reaction time (BRT, maximum deceleration and lane deviation in this study. It was found that the collision avoidance warning system can result in smaller collision rates compared to the without-warning condition and lead to shorter reaction times, larger maximum deceleration and less lane deviation. Furthermore, the SEM analysis illustrate that the audio warning information in fact has both direct and indirect effect on occurrence of collisions, and the indirect effect plays a more important role on collision avoidance than the direct effect. Essentially, the auditory warning information can assist drivers in detecting the RLR vehicles in a timely manner, thus providing drivers more adequate time and space to decelerate to avoid collisions with the conflicting vehicles.

  11. Towards direct realisation of the SI unit of sound pressure in the audible hearing range based on optical free-field acoustic particle measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koukoulas, Triantafillos, E-mail: triantafillos.koukoulas@npl.co.uk; Piper, Ben [Acoustics Group, National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington, Middlesex TW11 0LW (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-20

    Since the introduction of the International System of Units (the SI system) in 1960, weights, measures, standardised approaches, procedures, and protocols have been introduced, adapted, and extensively used. A major international effort and activity concentrate on the definition and traceability of the seven base SI units in terms of fundamental constants, and consequently those units that are derived from the base units. In airborne acoustical metrology and for the audible range of frequencies up to 20 kHz, the SI unit of sound pressure, the pascal, is realised indirectly and without any knowledge or measurement of the sound field. Though the principle of reciprocity was originally formulated by Lord Rayleigh nearly two centuries ago, it was devised in the 1940s and eventually became a calibration standard in the 1960s; however, it can only accommodate a limited number of acoustic sensors of specific types and dimensions. International standards determine the device sensitivity either through coupler or through free-field reciprocity but rely on the continuous availability of specific acoustical artefacts. Here, we show an optical method based on gated photon correlation spectroscopy that can measure sound pressures directly and absolutely in fully anechoic conditions, remotely, and without disturbing the propagating sound field. It neither relies on the availability or performance of any measurement artefact nor makes any assumptions of the device geometry and sound field characteristics. Most importantly, the required units of sound pressure and microphone sensitivity may now be experimentally realised, thus providing direct traceability to SI base units.

  12. An Adaptation Level Theory of tinnitus audibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant eSearchfield

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Models of tinnitus suggest roles for auditory, attention and emotional networks in tinnitus perception. A model of tinnitus audibility based on Helson’s (1964 Adaptation Level Theory (ALT is hypothesized to explain the relationship between tinnitus audibility, personality, memory and attention. This theory attempts to describe how tinnitus audibility or detectability might change with experience and context. The basis of ALT and potential role of Auditory Scene Analysis in tinnitus perception are discussed. The proposed psychoacoustic model lends itself to incorporation into existing neurophysiological models of tinnitus perception. It is hoped that the ALT hypothesis will allow for greater empirical investigation of factors influencing tinnitus perception, such as attention and tinnitus sound therapies.

  13. Audibility of American English vowels produced by English-, Chinese-, and Korean-native speakers in long-term speech-shaped noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Jin, Su-Hyun

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether there were significant differences in audibility of American English vowels in noise produced by non-native and native speakers. Detection thresholds for 12 English vowels with equalized durations of 170 ms produced by 10 English-, Chinese- and Korean-native speakers were measured for young normal-hearing English-native listeners in the presence of speech-shaped noise presented at 70 dB SPL. Similar patterns of vowel detection thresholds as a function of the vowel category were found for native and non-native speakers, with the highest thresholds for /u/ and /ʊ/ and lowest thresholds for /i/ and /e/. In addition, vowel detection thresholds for non-native speakers were significantly lower and showed greater speaker variability than those for native speakers. Thresholds for vowel detection predicted from an excitation-pattern model corresponded well to behavioral thresholds, implying that vowel detection was primarily determined by the vowel spectrum regardless of speaker language background. Both behavioral and predicted thresholds showed that vowel audibility was similar or even better for non-native speakers than for native speakers, indicating that vowel audibility did not account for non-native speakers' lower-than-native intelligibility in noise. Effects of non-native speakers' English proficiency level on vowel audibility are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A Mobile Device System for Early Warning of ECG Anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Szczepański

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid increase in computational power of mobile devices the amount of ambient intelligence-based smart environment systems has increased greatly in recent years. A proposition of such a solution is described in this paper, namely real time monitoring of an electrocardiogram (ECG signal during everyday activities for identification of life threatening situations. The paper, being both research and review, describes previous work of the authors, current state of the art in the context of the authors’ work and the proposed aforementioned system. Although parts of the solution were described in earlier publications of the authors, the whole concept is presented completely for the first time along with the prototype implementation on mobile device—a Windows 8 tablet with Modern UI. The system has three main purposes. The first goal is the detection of sudden rapid cardiac malfunctions and informing the people in the patient’s surroundings, family and friends and the nearest emergency station about the deteriorating health of the monitored person. The second goal is a monitoring of ECG signals under non-clinical conditions to detect anomalies that are typically not found during diagnostic tests. The third goal is to register and analyze repeatable, long-term disturbances in the regular signal and finding their patterns.

  15. Earthquake Warning Performance in Vallejo for the South Napa Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurman, G.; Price, M.

    2014-12-01

    In 2002 and 2003, Seismic Warning Systems, Inc. installed first-generation QuakeGuardTM earthquake warning devices at all eight fire stations in Vallejo, CA. These devices are designed to detect the P-wave of an earthquake and initiate predetermined protective actions if the impending shaking is estimated at approximately Modifed Mercalli Intensity V or greater. At the Vallejo fire stations the devices were set up to sound an audio alert over the public address system and to command the equipment bay doors to open. In August 2014, after more than 11 years of operating in the fire stations with no false alarms, the five units that were still in use triggered correctly on the MW 6.0 South Napa earthquake, less than 16 km away. The audio alert sounded in all five stations, providing fire fighters with 1.5 to 2.5 seconds of warning before the arrival of the S-wave, and the equipment bay doors opened in three of the stations. In one station the doors were disconnected from the QuakeGuard device, and another station lost power before the doors opened completely. These problems highlight just a small portion of the complexity associated with realizing actionable earthquake warnings. The issues experienced in this earthquake have already been addressed in subsequent QuakeGuard product generations, with downstream connection monitoring and backup power for critical systems. The fact that the fire fighters in Vallejo were afforded even two seconds of warning at these epicentral distances results from the design of the QuakeGuard devices, which focuses on rapid false positive rejection and ground motion estimates. We discuss the performance of the ground motion estimation algorithms, with an emphasis on the accuracy and timeliness of the estimates at close epicentral distances.

  16. Vehicle energy conservation indicating device and process for use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crump, J.M.

    1980-01-29

    A vehicle energy conservation indicating device comprises an integrated instrument cluster functioning basically as a nomographic computing mechanism. The odometer distance traveled indicator computing mechanism is linked with the fuel indicating gauge mechanism such that a three variable equation computing mechanism is obtained. The three variables are distance traveled, quantity of fuel consumed and distance traveled per unit of fuel consumed. Energy conservation is achieved by operating the vehicle under such performance conditions as to produce the highest possible value for distance traveled per unit of fuel consumed. The instrument panel cluster brings the operator's attention to focus upon and continuously stimulated to conserving energy. Furthermore, the vehicle energy conservation indicating device can be adapted for recording these performance variables on tape type print out. The speedometer advises the vehicle operator when he is obeying or breaking the speed laws which are enforced and monitored by the police with specific punishment prescribed for violations of the law. At this time there is no comparable procedure for enforcing vehicle energy conservation. Thus, this direct read out of distance traveled per unit of energy will moderate the operation in an analogous manner similar to subliminal advertising. This device becomes the focal point of the instrument panel along with the speedometer, thereby providing constant motivation to obey both the speed and energy conservation laws.

  17. A validation study comparing self-reported travel diaries and objective data obtained from in-vehicle monitoring devices in older drivers with bilateral cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agramunt, Seraina; Meuleners, Lynn; Chow, Kyle Chi; Ng, Jonathon Q; Morlet, Nigel

    2017-09-01

    Advances in technology have made it possible to examine real-world driving using naturalistic data obtained from in-vehicle monitoring devices. These devices overcome the weaknesses of self-report methods and can provide comprehensive insights into driving exposure, habits and practices of older drivers. The aim of this study is to compare self-reported and objectively measured driving exposure, habits and practices using a travel diary and an in-vehicle driver monitoring device in older drivers with bilateral cataract. A cross-sectional study was undertaken. Forty seven participants aged 58-89 years old (mean=74.1; S.D.=7.73) were recruited from three eye clinics over a one year period. Data collection consisted of a cognitive test, a researcher-administered questionnaire, a travel diary and an in-vehicle monitoring device. Participants' driving exposure and patterns were recorded for one week using in-vehicle monitoring devices. They also completed a travel diary each time they drove a motor vehicle as the driver. Paired t-tests were used to examine differences/agreement between the two instruments under different driving circumstances. The data from the older drivers' travel diaries significantly underestimated the number of overall trips (pmonitoring devices. No significant differences were found between instruments for kilometres travelled under any of the driving circumstances. The results of this study found that relying solely on self-reported travel diaries to assess driving outcomes may not be accurate, particularly for estimates of the number of trips made and duration of trips. The clear advantages of using in-vehicle monitoring devices over travel diaries to monitor driving habits and exposure among an older population are evident. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Warning Signs of Vision Problems in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... However, vision problems such as a lazy eye (amblyopia) may have no warning signs, and your child ... of your pediatrician. There may be variations in treatment that your pediatrician may recommend based on individual ...

  19. Statistical characteristic in time-domain of direct current corona-generated audible noise from conductor in corona cage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuebao; Cui, Xiang; Lu, Tiebing; Ma, Wenzuo; Bian, Xingming; Wang, Donglai; Hiziroglu, Huseyin

    2016-03-01

    The corona-generated audible noise (AN) has become one of decisive factors in the design of high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission lines. The AN from transmission lines can be attributed to sound pressure pulses which are generated by the multiple corona sources formed on the conductor, i.e., transmission lines. In this paper, a detailed time-domain characteristics of the sound pressure pulses, which are generated by the DC corona discharges formed over the surfaces of a stranded conductors, are investigated systematically in a laboratory settings using a corona cage structure. The amplitude of sound pressure pulse and its time intervals are extracted by observing a direct correlation between corona current pulses and corona-generated sound pressure pulses. Based on the statistical characteristics, a stochastic model is presented for simulating the sound pressure pulses due to DC corona discharges occurring on conductors. The proposed stochastic model is validated by comparing the calculated and measured A-weighted sound pressure level (SPL). The proposed model is then used to analyze the influence of the pulse amplitudes and pulse rate on the SPL. Furthermore, a mathematical relationship is found between the SPL and conductor diameter, electric field, and radial distance.

  20. Ignoring the irrelevant: auditory tolerance of audible but innocuous sounds in the bat-detecting ears of moths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullard, James H.; Ratcliffe, John M.; Jacobs, David S.

    2008-03-01

    Noctuid moths listen for the echolocation calls of hunting bats and respond to these predator cues with evasive flight. The African bollworm moth, Helicoverpa armigera, feeds at flowers near intensely singing cicadas, Platypleura capensis, yet does not avoid them. We determined that the moth can hear the cicada by observing that both of its auditory receptors (A1 and A2 cells) respond to the cicada’s song. The firing response of the A1 cell rapidly adapts to the song and develops spike periods in less than a second that are in excess of those reported to elicit avoidance flight to bats in earlier studies. The possibility also exists that for at least part of the day, sensory input in the form of olfaction or vision overrides the moth’s auditory responses. While auditory tolerance appears to allow H. armigera to exploit a food resource in close proximity to acoustic interference, it may render their hearing defence ineffective and make them vulnerable to predation by bats during the evening when cicadas continue to sing. Our study describes the first field observation of an eared insect ignoring audible but innocuous sounds.

  1. VEHIOT: Design and Evaluation of an IoT Architecture Based on Low-Cost Devices to Be Embedded in Production Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonatan Pajares Redondo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the current vehicles are incorporating control systems in order to improve their stability and handling. These control systems need to know the vehicle dynamics through the variables (lateral acceleration, roll rate, roll angle, sideslip angle, etc. that are obtained or estimated from sensors. For this goal, it is necessary to mount on vehicles not only low-cost sensors, but also low-cost embedded systems, which allow acquiring data from sensors and executing the developed algorithms to estimate and to control with novel higher speed computing. All these devices have to be integrated in an adequate architecture with enough performance in terms of accuracy, reliability and processing time. In this article, an architecture to carry out the estimation and control of vehicle dynamics has been developed. This architecture was designed considering the basic principles of IoT and integrates low-cost sensors and embedded hardware for orchestrating the experiments. A comparison of two different low-cost systems in terms of accuracy, acquisition time and reliability has been done. Both devices have been compared with the VBOX device from Racelogic, which has been used as the ground truth. The comparison has been made from tests carried out in a real vehicle. The lateral acceleration and roll rate have been analyzed in order to quantify the error of these devices.

  2. VEHIOT: Design and Evaluation of an IoT Architecture Based on Low-Cost Devices to Be Embedded in Production Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo, Jonatan Pajares; González, Lisardo Prieto; Guzman, Javier García; Boada, Beatriz L; Díaz, Vicente

    2018-02-06

    Nowadays, the current vehicles are incorporating control systems in order to improve their stability and handling. These control systems need to know the vehicle dynamics through the variables (lateral acceleration, roll rate, roll angle, sideslip angle, etc.) that are obtained or estimated from sensors. For this goal, it is necessary to mount on vehicles not only low-cost sensors, but also low-cost embedded systems, which allow acquiring data from sensors and executing the developed algorithms to estimate and to control with novel higher speed computing. All these devices have to be integrated in an adequate architecture with enough performance in terms of accuracy, reliability and processing time. In this article, an architecture to carry out the estimation and control of vehicle dynamics has been developed. This architecture was designed considering the basic principles of IoT and integrates low-cost sensors and embedded hardware for orchestrating the experiments. A comparison of two different low-cost systems in terms of accuracy, acquisition time and reliability has been done. Both devices have been compared with the VBOX device from Racelogic, which has been used as the ground truth. The comparison has been made from tests carried out in a real vehicle. The lateral acceleration and roll rate have been analyzed in order to quantify the error of these devices.

  3. A radar vehicle detection system for four-quadrant gate warning systems and blocked crossing detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The Wavetronix Matrix Radar was adapted for use at four-quadrant gate railroad crossings for the purpose of influencing exit gate behavior upon the detection of vehicles, as an alternative to buried inductive loops. Two radar devices were utilized, o...

  4. Validity and Reliability of Visual Analog Scaling for Assessment of Hypernasality and Audible Nasal Emission in Children With Repaired Cleft Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylis, Adriane; Chapman, Kathy; Whitehill, Tara L; Group, The Americleft Speech

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the validity and reliability of multiple listener judgments of hypernasality and audible nasal emission, in children with repaired cleft palate, using visual analog scaling (VAS) and equal-appearing interval (EAI) scaling. Prospective comparative study of multiple listener ratings of hypernasality and audible nasal emission. Multisite institutional. Five trained and experienced speech-language pathologist listeners from the Americleft Speech Project. Average VAS and EAI ratings of hypernasality and audible nasal emission/turbulence for 12 video-recorded speech samples from the Americleft Speech Project. Intrarater and interrater reliability was computed, as well as linear and polynomial models of best fit. Intrarater and interrater reliability was acceptable for both rating methods; however, reliability was higher for VAS as compared to EAI ratings. When VAS ratings were plotted against EAI ratings, results revealed a stronger curvilinear relationship. The results of this study provide additional evidence that alternate rating methods such as VAS may offer improved validity and reliability over EAI ratings of speech. VAS should be considered a viable method for rating hypernasality and nasal emission in speech in children with repaired cleft palate.

  5. Quieter Cars and the Safety of Blind Pedestrians, Phase 2 : Development of Potential Specifications for Vehicle Countermeasure Sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    This project performed research to support the development of potential specifications for vehicle : sounds, (i.e., audible countermeasures) to be used in vehicles while operating in electric mode in specific low speed : conditions. The purpose of th...

  6. 78 FR 24817 - Visual-Manual NHTSA Driver Distraction Guidelines for In-Vehicle Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... the NHTSA Guidelines C. Issues Relating to the NHTSA Guidelines Scope 1. Inclusion of Conventional... Devices Can Be Disabled V. Statutory Considerations Guidelines for Reducing Visual-Manual Driver... can be turned off or otherwise disabled. Task acceptance tests except for Eye Glance Measurement Using...

  7. 76 FR 78 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard; Engine Control Module Speed Limiter Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... posted speed limit of 55 mph that was in effect in 1991. \\2\\ Comercial Motor Vehicle Speed Control... improved truck designs. \\3\\ Comercial Motor Vehicle Speed Control Devices (1991), DOT HS 807 725. TCA... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard...

  8. Instructors' Use of Trigger Warnings and Behavior Warnings in Abnormal Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boysen, Guy A.; Wells, Anna Mae; Dawson, Kaylee J.

    2016-01-01

    College students have been increasingly demanding warnings and accommodations in relation to course topics they believe will elicit strong, negative emotions. These "trigger warnings" are highly relevant to Abnormal Psychology because of the sensitive topics covered in the course (e.g., suicide, trauma, sex). A survey of Abnormal…

  9. Sensitivity of expressive linguistic domains to surgery age and audibility of speech in preschoolers with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Johanna G; Geers, Ann E

    2018-01-01

    To determine whether relative delays among domains exist in the conversational use of vocabulary, syntax, and morphology by children with cochlear implants (CIs) and whether these were differentially affected by age of implantation (AOI) and the audibility of speech. Participants in this short-term longitudinal study were 126 children with AOI of 6-38 months and a matched group of 30 children without hearing loss. Language samples of the same children at ages 3.5 and 4.5 were analyzed for the breadth of vocabulary and bound morphemes used, and sentence length. At both test ages, expressive language domains were delayed equally. Higher performance across domains was independently associated with younger AOI and better pre-implant-aided thresholds. No domain was affected differently by very early implantation, but bound morpheme breadth was associated with better CI-aided thresholds. Between 63 and 78% of children with AOI of 6-11 months scored close to hearing age-mates by 4.5, a level achieved by fewer than 25% of those with AOI of 19-24 months or later ages. Previous studies indicated greater language delays in the areas of morphology and syntax than those of vocabulary, with the earliest ages of implantation conferring the greatest benefit to those domains. The current design addressed inconsistency across studies in modes of communication used, presence/absence of other disabilities, and differences in language domains chosen as outcome measures. Linguistic domains benefitted equally from early implantation, regardless of the duration of auditory stimulation. Better pre-CI-aided hearing often compensated for later AOI. Bound morpheme use was greater with better CI-aided thresholds.

  10. GIS-aided avalanche warning in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaedicke, Christian; Syre, Egil; Sverdrup-Thygeson, Kjetil

    2014-05-01

    Avalanche warning for large areas requires the processing of an extensive amount of data. Information relating to the three basic requirements for avalanche warning - knowledge of terrain, the snow conditions, and the weather - needs to be available for the forecaster. The information is highly variable in time. The form and visualization of the data is often decisive for the use by the avalanche forecasters and therefore also for the quality of the produced forecasts. Avalanche warnings can be issued at different scales from national to regional and down to object specific. Often the same warning service is working at different scales and for different clients requiring a flexible and scalable approach. The workflow for producing avalanche forecasts must be extremely efficient - all the way from acquiring observation data, evaluating the situation, down to publishing the new forecast. In this study it has been an aim to include the entire workflow in a single web application. A Geographic Information Systems (GIS) solution was chosen to include all data needed by the forecaster for the avalanche danger evaluation. This interactive system of maps features background information for the entire country, such as topographic maps, slope steepness, aspect, hill shades and satellite images. In each avalanche warning area, all active avalanche paths are plotted including information on wind exposure. Each avalanche path is linked to a webpage with more details, such as fall height, release area elevation and pictures. The avalanche path webpage also includes information on the object at risk e.g. buildings, roads, or other objects. Thus, the forecaster can easily get an overview on the overall situation and focus on single avalanche paths to generate detailed avalanche warnings for the client.

  11. Remote Infrared Audible Signage (RIAS) Pilot Program : evaluation report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    This report presents evaluation findings on the Remote Infrared Audible Signage (RIAS) Pilot Program in the Puget Sound Region of Washington. The installation, demonstration and evaluation of RIAS were required by a provision in the Safe, Accountable...

  12. Stability Analysis of a Repairable System with Warning Device and Repairman Vacation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangli Ren

    2013-01-01

    probability analysis method, the system is first transformed into a group of integrodifferential equations. Then, the existence and uniqueness as well as regularity of the system dynamic solution are discussed with the functional analysis method. Further, the asymptotic stability, especially the exponential stability of the system dynamic solution, is studied by using the strongly continuous semigroup theory or C0 semigroup theory. The reliability indices and some applications (such as the comparisons of indices and profit of systems with and without warning device, as well as numerical examples, are presented at the end of the paper.

  13. A measure for predicting audibility discrimination thresholds for spectral envelope distortions in vowel sounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rao, Preeti; van Dinther, R.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Kohlrausch, A.

    2001-01-01

    Both in speech synthesis and in sound coding it is often beneficial to have a measure that predicts whether, and to what extent, two sounds are different. This paper addresses the problem of estimating the perceptual effects of small modifications to the spectral envelope of a harmonic sound. A

  14. Evaluating standard airborne sound insulation measures in terms of annoyance, loudness, and audibility ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H K; Bradley, J S

    2009-07-01

    This paper reports the results of an evaluation of the merits of standard airborne sound insulation measures with respect to subjective ratings of the annoyance and loudness of transmitted sounds. Subjects listened to speech and music sounds modified to represent transmission through 20 different walls with sound transmission class (STC) ratings from 34 to 58. A number of variations in the standard measures were also considered. These included variations in the 8-dB rule for the maximum allowed deficiency in the STC measure as well as variations in the standard 32-dB total allowed deficiency. Several spectrum adaptation terms were considered in combination with weighted sound reduction index (R(w)) values as well as modifications to the range of included frequencies in the standard rating contour. A STC measure without an 8-dB rule and an R(w) rating with a new spectrum adaptation term were better predictors of annoyance and loudness ratings of speech sounds. R(w) ratings with one of two modified C(tr) spectrum adaptation terms were better predictors of annoyance and loudness ratings of transmitted music sounds. Although some measures were much better predictors of responses to one type of sound than were the standard STC and R(w) values, no measure was remarkably improved for predicting annoyance and loudness ratings of both music and speech sounds.

  15. A Loud yet Hardly Audible Voice : Urban Youth Language in “Street Literature”

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linn, Stella; Sepp, Arvi; Humblé, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Conference abstract: Recent years have seen the appearance of a new use of language in the French postcolonial novel: the French urban youth vernacular or français contemporain des cités (FCC). This linguistic variety allows underprivileged youths from the banlieues to express their rebellion

  16. The lower effectiveness of text-only health warnings in China compared to pictorial health warnings in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elton-Marshall, Tara; Xu, Steve Shaowei; Meng, Gang; Quah, Anne C K; Sansone, Genevieve C; Feng, Guoze; Jiang, Yuan; Driezen, Pete; Omar, Maizurah; Awang, Rahmat; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2015-11-01

    In 2009, China changed its health warnings on cigarette packs from side-only text warnings to two text-only warnings on 30% of the bottom of the front and back of the pack. Also in 2009, Malaysia changed from similar text warnings to pictorial health warnings consistent with Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) Article 11 Guidelines. To measure the impact of the change in health warnings in China and to compare the text-only health warnings to the impact of the pictorial health warnings introduced in Malaysia. We measured changes in key indicators of warning effectiveness among a longitudinal cohort sample of smokers from Waves 1 to 3 (2006-2009) of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey and from Waves 3 to 4 (2008-2009) of the ITC Malaysia Survey. Each cohort consisted of representative samples of adult (≥18 years) smokers from six cities in China (n=6575) and from a national sample in Malaysia (n=2883). Generalised Estimating Equations (GEE) were used to examine the impact of the health warnings on subsequent changes in salience of warnings, cognitive and behavioural outcomes. Compared to Malaysia, the weak text-only warning labels in China led to a significant change in only two of six key indicators of health warning effectiveness: forgoing cigarettes and reading the warning labels. The change to pictorial health warnings in Malaysia led to significant and substantial increases in five of six indicators (noticing, reading, forgoing, avoiding, thinking about quitting). The delay in implementing pictorial health warnings in China constitutes a lost opportunity for increasing knowledge and awareness of the harms of cigarettes, and for motivating smokers to quit. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Hot gas handling device and motorized vehicle comprising the device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Geltink, J.; Beukers, A.; Van Tooren, M.J.L.; Koussios, S.

    2012-01-01

    The invention relates to a device for handling hot exhaust gasses discharged from an internal combustion engine. The device comprises a housing (2), enclosing a space (3) for transporting the exhaust gasses. The housing (2) is provided with an entrance - opening (4) for the exhaust gasses discharged

  18. 77 FR 12907 - Visual-Manual NHTSA Driver Distraction Guidelines for In-Vehicle Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Visual-Manual NHTSA Driver Distraction Guidelines for In... following dates: March 12, 2012, in Washington, DC; March 15, 2012, in Chicago, Illinois; and March 16, 2012... James R. Thompson Center, Room 16-503, 100 West Randolph Street, Chicago, IL 60601. The March 16, 2012...

  19. 77 FR 24764 - Visual-Manual NHTSA Driver Distraction Guidelines for In-Vehicle Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ...). We established this limit to encourage you to write your primary comments in a concise fashion....whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/reproducible.html . DOT's guidelines may be accessed at http://www.bts.gov/programs...

  20. Warning Triggers in Environmental Hazards: Who Should Be Warned to Do What and When?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cova, Thomas J; Dennison, Philip E; Li, Dapeng; Drews, Frank A; Siebeneck, Laura K; Lindell, Michael K

    2017-04-01

    Determining the most effective public warnings to issue during a hazardous environmental event is a complex problem. Three primary questions need to be answered: Who should take protective action? What is the best action? and When should this action be initiated? Warning triggers provide a proactive means for emergency managers to simultaneously answer these questions by recommending that a target group take a specified protective action if a preset environmental trigger condition occurs (e.g., warn a community to evacuate if a wildfire crosses a proximal ridgeline). Triggers are used to warn the public across a wide variety of environmental hazards, and an improved understanding of their nature and role promises to: (1) advance protective action theory by unifying the natural, built, and social themes in hazards research into one framework, (2) reveal important information about emergency managers' risk perception, situational awareness, and threat assessment regarding threat behavior and public response, and (3) advance spatiotemporal models for representing the geography and timing of disaster warning and response (i.e., a coupled natural-built-social system). We provide an overview and research agenda designed to advance our understanding and modeling of warning triggers. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  1. The impact of flavour, device type and warning messages on youth preferences for electronic nicotine delivery systems: evidence from an online discrete choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ce; Huang, Jidong; Chaloupka, Frank J; Emery, Sherry L

    2017-11-02

    To examine the impact of flavour, device type and health warning messages on youth preference for electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), and to provide evidence and data to inform the Food and Drug Administration's potential regulatory actions on ENDS. An online discrete choice experiment was conducted in September 2015. Each participant was given nine choice sets and asked to choose one out of two alternative ENDS products, with varying characteristics in three attributes (flavour, device type and warning message). The impact of the attributes on the probability of choosing ENDS was analysed using conditional and nested logit regressions, controlling for individual sociodemographic characteristics and current smoking status. A general population sample of 515 participants (50 ever-users and 465 never-users of ENDS) aged 14-17 years were recruited to complete the experiment using an online panel. Fruit/sweets/beverage flavours significantly increase the probability of choosing ENDS among youth (pe-cigarettes, increase (p<0.05) the probability of choosing ENDS among adolescent never-users. Warning messages reduce (p<0.01) the probability of choosing ENDS among never-users. Restricting fruit/sweets/beverage flavours in ENDS, regulating modifiable vaping devices and adopting strong health warning messages may reduce the uptake of ENDS among youth. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Intelligent behaviors through vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Richard D.; Sturgeon, Purser; Brown, Mike

    2012-06-01

    The last decade has seen a significant increase in intelligent safety devices on private automobiles. These devices have both increased and augmented the situational awareness of the driver and in some cases provided automated vehicle responses. To date almost all intelligent safety devices have relied on data directly perceived by the vehicle. This constraint has a direct impact on the types of solutions available to the vehicle. In an effort to improve the safety options available to a vehicle, numerous research laboratories and government agencies are investing time and resources into connecting vehicles to each other and to infrastructure-based devices. This work details several efforts in both the commercial vehicle and the private auto industries to increase vehicle safety and driver situational awareness through vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure communication. It will specifically discuss intelligent behaviors being designed to automatically disable non-compliant vehicles, warn tractor trailer vehicles of unsafe lane maneuvers such as lane changes, passing, and merging, and alert drivers to non-line-of-sight emergencies.

  3. A Pilot Study on Cortical Auditory Evoked Potentials in Children: Aided CAEPs Reflect Improved High-Frequency Audibility with Frequency Compression Hearing Aid Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glista, Danielle; Easwar, Vijayalakshmi; Purcell, David W; Scollie, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Background. This study investigated whether cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs) could reliably be recorded and interpreted using clinical testing equipment, to assess the effects of hearing aid technology on the CAEP. Methods. Fifteen normal hearing (NH) and five hearing impaired (HI) children were included in the study. NH children were tested unaided; HI children were tested while wearing hearing aids. CAEPs were evoked with tone bursts presented at a suprathreshold level. Presence/absence of CAEPs was established based on agreement between two independent raters. Results. Present waveforms were interpreted for most NH listeners and all HI listeners, when stimuli were measured to be at an audible level. The younger NH children were found to have significantly different waveform morphology, compared to the older children, with grand averaged waveforms differing in the later part of the time window (the N2 response). Results suggest that in some children, frequency compression hearing aid processing improved audibility of specific frequencies, leading to increased rates of detectable cortical responses in HI children. Conclusions. These findings provide support for the use of CAEPs in measuring hearing aid benefit. Further research is needed to validate aided results across a larger group of HI participants and with speech-based stimuli.

  4. Short-Term and Working Memory Impairments in Early-Implanted, Long-Term Cochlear Implant Users Are Independent of Audibility and Speech Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AuBuchon, Angela M; Pisoni, David B; Kronenberger, William G

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether early-implanted, long-term cochlear implant (CI) users display delays in verbal short-term and working memory capacity when processes related to audibility and speech production are eliminated. Twenty-three long-term CI users and 23 normal-hearing controls each completed forward and backward digit span tasks under testing conditions that differed in presentation modality (auditory or visual) and response output (spoken recall or manual pointing). Normal-hearing controls reproduced more lists of digits than the CI users, even when the test items were presented visually and the responses were made manually via touchscreen response. Short-term and working memory delays observed in CI users are not due to greater demands from peripheral sensory processes such as audibility or from overt speech-motor planning and response output organization. Instead, CI users are less efficient at encoding and maintaining phonological representations in verbal short-term memory using phonological and linguistic strategies during memory tasks.

  5. Statistical analysis of vehicle loads measured with three different vehicle weighing devices

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mkhize, ZQP

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The Stress-In-Motion (SIM) or device is illustrated in Figure 1. It consists of 4 individual pads arranged in the test pit to accommodate each tyre of a vehicle moving over it. Meas- urements are done at slow creep speeds (6 km/h or less). The mass weight... of each tyre is measured through an array of multi-axial strain gauged sensors during the single pass of a tyre. The speed of each axle is individually measured and used in the calculation of the 433 tyre mass weights. A more detailed description...

  6. Graphic warning labels in cigarette advertisements: recall and viewing patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Andrew A; Tang, Kathy Z; Romer, Daniel; Jepson, Christopher; Cappella, Joseph N

    2012-07-01

    The Family Smoking Prevention and Control Act gave the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) legal authority to mandate graphic warning labels on cigarette advertising and packaging. The FDA requires that these graphic warning labels be embedded into cigarette advertising and packaging by September 2012. The aim of this study was to examine differences in recall and viewing patterns of text-only versus graphic cigarette warning labels and the association between viewing patterns and recall. Participants (current daily smokers; N=200) were randomized to view a cigarette advertisement with either text-only or graphic warning labels. Viewing patterns were measured using eye-tracking, and recall was later assessed. Sessions were conducted between November 2008 and November 2009. Data analysis was conducted between March 2011 and July 2011. There was a significant difference in percentage correct recall of the warning label between those in the text-only versus graphic warning label condition, 50% vs 83% (χ(2)=23.74, p=0.0001). Time to first viewing of the graphic warning label text and dwell time duration (i.e., time spent looking) on the graphic image were significantly associated with correct recall. Warning labels that drew attention more quickly and resulted in longer dwell times were associated with better recall. Graphic warning labels improve smokers' recall of warning and health risks; these labels do so by drawing and holding attention. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Progress in Heat Watch Warning System Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Scott C.; Kalkstein, Laurence S.

    2004-12-01

    Among all atmospheric hazards, heat is the most deadly. With such recent notable heat events as the Chicago Heat Wave of 1995, much effort has gone into redeveloping both the methods by which it is determined whether a day will be “oppressive,” as well as the mitigation plans that are implemented when an oppressive day is forecast to occur.This article describes the techniques that have been implemented in the development of new synoptic-based heat watch warning systems. These systems are presently running for over two dozen locations worldwide, including Chicago, Illinois; Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Rome, Italy; and Shanghai, China; with plans for continued expansion. Compared to traditional systems based on arbitrary thresholds of one or two meteorological variables, these new systems account for the local human response by focusing upon the identification of the weather conditions most strongly associated with historical increases in mortality. These systems must be constructed based on the premise that weather conditions associated with increased mortality show considerable variability on a spatial scale. In locales with consistently hot summers, weather/mortality relationships are weaker, and it is only the few hottest days each year that are associated with a response. In more temperate climates, relationships are stronger, and a greater percentage of days can be associated with an increase in mortality.Considering the ease of data transfer via the World-Wide Web, the development of these systems includes Internet file transfers and Web page creation as components. Forecasts of mortality and recommendations to call excessive-heat warnings are available to local meteorological forecasters, local health officials, and other civic authorities, who ultimately determine when warnings are called and when intervention plans are instituted.

  8. Fixing famine : the politics of information in famine early warning

    OpenAIRE

    Burg, Suzanne M. M.

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation combines ethnographic, interview, and documentary data gathered in Ethiopia to analyze famine early warning systems - large-scale information systems bringing together climate, food production, market, and public health data, which have become a major focus in international famine prevention efforts since the 1970s. Famine early warning is part of a top-down international response that even many early warning experts themselves feel has been unable to solve the problems lead...

  9. A Quantitative Analysis of Variability Warnings in Linux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melo, Jean; Flesborg, Elvis; Brabrand, Claus

    2015-01-01

    In order to get insight into challenges with quality in highly-configurable software, we analyze one of the largest open source projects, the Linux kernel, and quantify basic properties of configuration-related warnings. We automatically analyze more than 20 thousand valid and distinct random...... configurations, in a computation that lasted more than a month. We count and classify a total of 400,000 warnings to get an insight in the distribution of warning types, and the location of the warnings. We run both on a stable and unstable version of the Linux kernel. The results show that Linux contains...

  10. Stopping Accidents before They Happen: Perceiving Lane-Level Moving Vehicle Danger Regions to Warn Surrounding Drivers and Pedestrians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Perceiving the location of dangerous moving vehicles and broadcasting this information to vehicles nearby are essential to achieve active safety in the Internet of Vehicles (IOV. To address this issue, we implement a real-time high-precision lane-level danger region service for moving vehicles. A traditional service depends on static geofencing and fails to deal with dynamic vehicles. To overcome this defect, we devised a new type of IOV service that manages to track dangerous moving vehicles in real time and recognize their danger regions quickly and accurately. Next, we designed algorithms to distinguish the vehicles in danger regions and broadcast the information to these vehicles. Our system can simultaneously manipulate a mass of danger regions for various dangerous vehicles and broadcast this information to surrounding vehicles at a large scale. This new system was tested in Shanghai, Guangzhou, Wuhan, and other cities; the data analysis is presented in this paper as well.

  11. Sub-Audible Speech Recognition Based upon Electromyographic Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Charles C. (Inventor); Lee, Diana D. (Inventor); Agabon, Shane T. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Method and system for processing and identifying a sub-audible signal formed by a source of sub-audible sounds. Sequences of samples of sub-audible sound patterns ("SASPs") for known words/phrases in a selected database are received for overlapping time intervals, and Signal Processing Transforms ("SPTs") are formed for each sample, as part of a matrix of entry values. The matrix is decomposed into contiguous, non-overlapping two-dimensional cells of entries, and neural net analysis is applied to estimate reference sets of weight coefficients that provide sums with optimal matches to reference sets of values. The reference sets of weight coefficients are used to determine a correspondence between a new (unknown) word/phrase and a word/phrase in the database.

  12. In-Vehicle Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Štefančić

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers different systems, including thesystems with autonomous units, which cany all their knowledgewith them, and those with communication units, which informthe driver about the current situation of the road system byradio or other means. The symbols of various messageshave three main goals: to provide instruction, to warn ofoncoming danger, or to give advice regarding parking or lookingfor alternative routes. When not used for these purposes,they are used to provide general information about/he weathe1;temperature or possible attractions. The in-vehicle informationsystems try to assist the motorist in driving, and they arepromoted as part of the comprehensive intelligent transport system.

  13. Exposure to audible and infrasonic noise by modern agricultural tractors operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilski, Bartosz

    2013-03-01

    The wheeled agricultural tractor is one of the most prominent sources of noise in agriculture. This paper presents the assessment of the operator's exposure to audible and infrasonic noise in 32 selected modern wheeled agricultural tractors designed and produced by world-renowned companies in normal working conditions. The tractors have been in use for no longer than 4 years, with rated power of 51 kW to up to 228 kW (as per 97/68 EC). Audible and infrasonic noise level measurements and occupational exposure analysis to noise were performed according to ISO 9612:2009 (strategy 1 - task-based measurements). The measurements were made in different typical work conditions inside and outside of tractors cabs. The results indicated that exposure levels to noise perceived by the operators (L(ex,Te) between 62,3 and 84,7 dB-A) and can make a small risk of potential adversely effects on hearing during tasks performed inside the closed cab. It should be remarked that uncertainty interval is wider and in in some conditions can occur transgression of audible noise occupational exposure limits. The measured audible noise levels can potentially develop the non-auditory effects. Analysed tractors emit considerable infrasonic noise levels that tend to exceed the occupational exposure limits (both inside and outside the driver's cab). The levels of infrasound: 83,8-111,4 dB-G. All tractors introduced for sale should be subjected to tests in terms of infrasonic noise levels. The applicable standards for low frequency noise and its measurement methods for vehicles, including agricultural tractors, should be scientifically revised. In the last years there has been a noticeable technical progress in reduction of audible noise exposure at the tractors operators workplaces with simultaneously lack of important works for limitation of exposure to infrasound. Author discuss possible health and ergonomic consequencies of such exposure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics

  14. In-Vehicle Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Štefančić

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The work considers different information systems, includingthe infonnation ~ystems with autonomous units, whichcany all their intelligence around with them, and those withcommunicating units, which infonn the motorist about the currentsituation of the road system by radio or other means. Thesymbols of various messages have three main objectives: to provideinstruction, to warn of oncoming dange1~ or to give adviceregarding parking or looking for altemative routes. When notused for these pwposes, they are used to provide general informationabout the weathe1~ temperature or possible attractions.The in-vehicle information systems fly to assist the motorist indriving, and they are promoted as part of the comprehensive intelligenttransport system.

  15. Evaluation of semiconductor devices for Electric and Hybrid Vehicle (EHV) ac-drive applications, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, F. C.; Chen, D. Y.; Jovanovic, M.; Hopkins, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    The results of evaluation of power semiconductor devices for electric hybrid vehicle ac drive applications are summarized. Three types of power devices are evaluated in the effort: high power bipolar or Darlington transistors, power MOSFETs, and asymmetric silicon control rectifiers (ASCR). The Bipolar transistors, including discrete device and Darlington devices, range from 100 A to 400 A and from 400 V to 900 V. These devices are currently used as key switching elements inverters for ac motor drive applications. Power MOSFETs, on the other hand, are much smaller in current rating. For the 400 V device, the current rating is limited to 25 A. For the main drive of an electric vehicle, device paralleling is normally needed to achieve practical power level. For other electric vehicle (EV) related applications such as battery charger circuit, however, MOSFET is advantageous to other devices because of drive circuit simplicity and high frequency capability. Asymmetrical SCR is basically a SCR device and needs commutation circuit for turn off. However, the device poses several advantages, i.e., low conduction drop and low cost.

  16. Issues of in-vehicle ITS information management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spelt, P.F.

    1997-12-01

    This paper presents issues associated with the introduction into road vehicles of multiple information sources related to the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS). Also, an argument is made for an In-Vehicle Information System (IVIS) to manage messages from the associated Intelligent Transportation System Services, as well as other information to be presented to the driver. The IVIS serves as the interface between the driver and all the information sources, including both input from and information display to the driver. Increasingly, aftermarket systems, such as routing and navigation aids, collision avoidance warning systems, yellow pages, can be added to vehicles to aid in travel and/or the conduct of business in the vehicle. The installation of multiple devices, each with its own driver interface, increases the likelihood of driver distraction and thus the risk of an accident. However, introduction of an IVIS raises a number of issues which relate to things such as proprietary messages, message prioritization across devices from different manufacturers, and safe access to the vehicle manufacturer`s proprietary data bus. These issues are the focus of this paper. Sections 1 and 2 of this paper present short summarizes of the efforts in a variety of areas related to in-vehicle information systems. In the first two sections, a summary of two Department of Transportation (DOT) initiatives is followed by a description of US standards development efforts. Next is a brief consideration of institutional, jurisdictional and legal issues associated with in-vehicle systems and the accompanying infrastructure. Section 3 of the paper is devoted to systems integration and driver interface engineering issues.

  17. Students' Perceptions of Trigger Warnings in Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beverly, Elizabeth A; Díaz, Sebastián; Kerr, Anna M; Balbo, Jane T; Prokopakis, Kayla E; Fredricks, Todd R

    2018-01-01

    Phenomenon: Trigger warnings are verbal statements or written warnings that alert students in advance to potentially distressing material. Medical education includes numerous subjects frequently identified as triggers, such as abuse, rape, self-injurious behaviors, eating disorders, drug and alcohol addiction, and suicide. Thus, exploring medical students' perceptions of trigger warnings may provide a valuable perspective on the use of these warnings in higher education. As part of a larger descriptive, cross-sectional survey study on medical education, we assessed 1st- and 2nd-year medical students' perceptions of trigger warnings in the preclinical curriculum. Five questions specific to trigger warnings explored students' knowledge, prior experience, and perceptions of trigger warnings in medical education. Frequencies of individual question responses were calculated, and qualitative data were analyzed via content and thematic analyses. Of the 424 medical students invited to participate, 259 completed the survey (M = 24.8 years, SD + 3.4, 51.4% female, 76.1% White, 53.7% 1st-year students). Few students (11.2%) were aware of the term trigger warning and its definition. However, after being presented with a formal definition on the online survey, 38.6% reported having had a professor use one. When asked whether they supported the use of trigger warnings in medical education, respondents were distributed fairly equally by response (yes = 31.0%, maybe = 39.2%, no = 29.7%). Qualitative analysis revealed three themes: (a) Trigger Warnings Allow Students to Know What is Coming and Prepare Themselves: Respondents believed that trigger warnings would benefit students with a history of trauma by providing them additional time to prepare for the material and, if appropriate, seek professional help; (b) Students Need to Learn How to Handle Distressing Information: Respondents agreed that they needed to learn and cope with highly sensitive material because they would be

  18. Speech act theory in support of idealised warning models | Carstens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In applied communication studies warnings (as components of instructional texts) are often characterised in terms of criteria for effectiveness. ... and evaluate actual warnings collected from information sheets for hair-dryers, indicating the heuristic value of combined insights from document design and speech act theory.

  19. Red warning for air pollution in China: Exploring residents' perceptions of the first two red warnings in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hanping; Wang, Fangping; Niu, Chence; Wang, Han; Zhang, Xiaoxue

    2018-02-01

    Air pollution early warnings have been issued in China to mitigate the effects of high pollution days. Public perceptions and views about early warning signals can affect individual behaviors and play a major role in the public's response to air pollution risks. This study examined public attitudes and responses to the first two red warnings for air pollution in Beijing in 2015. An online survey was sent out, and 664 respondents (response rate = 90%) provided their perspectives on the red warnings. Descriptive statistics, sign tests and binary logit models were used to analyze the data. More than half of the respondents reported that their life and work were affected by the red warning in December 2015. In contrast to their perceptions about the second red warning period, the public thought that the first red warning should have been issued earlier and that the number of consecutive days of warnings should have been reduced. The respondents also recommended that instead of reducing the number of red warnings, the red warning emergency measures should be adjusted. Specifically, the public preferred the installation of air purifiers in schools rather than closing schools and strengthening road flushing and dust pollution controls over restrictions on driving. Data analyses were conducted to examine the affected groups and different groups' perceptions of the necessity of implementing emergency measures. The results indicated that men and more educated respondents were more likely to be affected by driving limitations, and men were less supportive of these limitations. The age and education of respondents were significantly negatively associated with the opinion that schools should be closed, whereas wealthier respondents were more supportive of school closings. The finding of a negative attitude among the public toward the first two red warnings may be used to help local governments modify protective measures and pollution mitigation initiatives to increase

  20. development of an epidemic early warning system in Mpwapwa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to develop an early warning system in Mpwapwa district of central Tanzania. Retrospective epidemiological and ... Key words: malaria, epidemics, surveillance, early warning system, Tanzania. Introduction Muheza, Lushoto, Babati, ..... used to provide both alert and action lines. These kinds of charts have been tested and ...

  1. Warning signs prior to aggressive behavior in child psychiatric units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faay, M.D.M.; Valenkamp, M.W.; Nijman, H.L.I.

    2017-01-01

    This study aims at detecting and categorizing early warning signs of aggressive behavior in child psychiatric units. We analyzed 575 violent incident report forms and developed a coding scheme consisting of 16 warning signs. From the 575 incident report forms, a total of 1087 signs were coded. Most

  2. Evaluating automatic warning cues for visual search in vascular images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schooten, B.W.; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; Nijholt, Antinus; Reiber, Johan H.C.

    2010-01-01

    Visual search is a task that is performed in various application areas. Search can be aided by an automatic warning system, which highlights the sections that may contain targets and require the user’s attention. The effect of imperfect automatic warnings on overall performance ultimately depends on

  3. Modeling of In-vehicle Magnetic refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Ulrik Lund; Bahl, Christian; Engelbrecht, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    A high-performance magnetic refrigeration device is considered as a potential technology for in-vehicle air conditioners in electric vehicles. The high power consumption of a conventional air conditioner in an electric vehicle has considerable impacts on cruising distance. For this purpose...... the demands on cooling power density, temperature difference between hot and cold side, transient properties and COP, will be high....

  4. NOAEL-dose of a neonicotinoid pesticide, clothianidin, acutely induce anxiety-related behavior with human-audible vocalizations in male mice in a novel environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Tetsushi; Yanai, Shogo; Takada, Tadashi; Yoneda, Naoki; Omotehara, Takuya; Kubota, Naoto; Minami, Kiichi; Yamamoto, Anzu; Mantani, Youhei; Yokoyama, Toshifumi; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Hoshi, Nobuhiko

    2018-01-05

    Neonicotinoids are novel systemic pesticides acting as agonists on the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) of insects. Experimental studies have revealed that neonicotinoids pose potential risks for the nervous systems of non-target species, but the brain regions responsible for their behavioral effects remain incompletely understood. This study aimed to assess the neurobehavioral effects of clothianidin (CTD), a later neonicotinoid developed in 2001 and widely used worldwide, and to explore the target regions of neonicotinoids in the mammalian brain. A single-administration of 5 or 50mg/kg CTD to male C57BL/6N mice at or below the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) induced an acute increase in anxiety during the elevated plus-maze test. In addition, mice in the CTD-administered group spontaneously emitted human-audible vocalizations (4-16kHz), which are behavioral signs of aversive emotions, and showed increased numbers of c-fos immunoreactive cells in the paraventricular thalamic nucleus and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. In conclusion, mice exposed to NOAEL-dose CTD would be rendered vulnerable to a novel environment via the activation of thalamic and hippocampal regions related to stress responses. These findings should provide critical insight into the neurobehavioral effects of neonicotinoids on mammals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Testing assumptions implicit in the use of the 15-second rule as an early predictor of whether an in-vehicle device produces unacceptable levels of distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed-Jones, James; Trick, Lana M; Matthews, Michael

    2008-03-01

    Given the proliferation of in-vehicle technologies, techniques must be developed to ensure devices do not produce unacceptable levels of distraction. One approach is to use static time on task (e.g., the 15-second rule). However, this practice makes three critical assumptions: (1) static time on task predicts time on task while driving; (2) time on task measured in a hazard-free environment predicts time on task when drivers expect hazards; (3) time on task predicts perceived distraction, collisions, and driving errors. To test these assumptions, two tasks were compared in 32 drivers using a driving simulator. The tasks were manipulating controls of a radio/tape deck and dialling a hand-held cellular phone. Static time on task underestimated dynamic time on task, though the differences between tasks were roughly consistent across testing conditions, with the cellular task taking more time. Participants who expected hazards required slightly more time on task than those who did not, but the effect was only marginal (p=0.09) and consistent across tasks. Finally, the device with higher static time on task also produced significantly more lane deviations and perceived interference, though the predicted pattern of results did not emerge for collisions and hazard response time.

  6. Operational thermal conditions of optoelectronic devices for МС-2-8 space vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grеnyuk I. Ye.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Description of ТВК-2.5 simulation plant for thermal vacuum tests on space applied equipment and devices are given. Thermal vacuum test results on thermal mock-up of МС-2-8 small space vehicle (SP with mounted on-board optoelectronic devices (OED and with simulators of external and internal thermal radiation are adduced. Thermal vacuum tests were carried out in order to ensure OED reliability in orbit.

  7. Migraine Warning Signs May Differ in Kids, Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166388.html Migraine Warning Signs May Differ in Kids, Adults Treating ... most common symptoms that occur before children develop migraines, a new study finds. These symptoms were seen ...

  8. REWSET: A prototype seismic and tsunami early warning system in Rhodes island, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Gerasimos; Argyris, Ilias; Aggelou, Savvas; Karastathis, Vasilis

    2014-05-01

    Tsunami warning in near-field conditions is a critical issue in the Mediterranean Sea since the most important tsunami sources are situated within tsunami wave travel times starting from about five minutes. The project NEARTOWARN (2012-2013) supported by the EU-DG ECHO contributed substantially to the development of new tools for the near-field tsunami early warning in the Mediterranean. One of the main achievements is the development of a local warning system in the test-site of Rhodes island (Rhodes Early Warning System for Earthquakes and Tsunamis - REWSET). The system is composed by three main subsystems: (1) a network of eight seismic early warning devices installed in four different localities of the island, one in the civil protection, another in the Fire Brigade and another two in municipality buildings; (2) two radar-type (ultrasonic) tide-gauges installed in the eastern coastal zine of the island which was selected since research on the historical earthquake and tsunami activity has indicated that the most important, near-field tsunami sources are situated offshore to the east of Rhodes; (3) a crisis Geographic Management System (GMS), which is a web-based and GIS-based application incorporating a variety of thematic maps and other information types. The seismic early warning devices activate by strong (magnitude around 6 or more) earthquakes occurring at distances up to about 100 km from Rhodes, thus providing immediate mobilization of the civil protection. The tide-gauges transmit sea level data, while during the crisis the GMS supports decisions to be made by civil protection. In the near future it is planned the REWSET system to be integrated with national and international systems. REWSET is a prototype which certainly could be developed in other coastal areas of the Mediterranean and beyond.

  9. Intelligent Speed Adaptation in Company Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Niels; Tradisauskas, Nerius; Waagepetersen, Rasmus

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes an intelligent speed adaptation project for company vehicles. The intelligent speed adaptation function in the project is both information and incentive, which means that the intelligent speed adaptation equipment gives a warning as well as penalty points if the driver...... is speeding. Each month the driver with that monthpsilas fewest points wins an award. The paper presents results concerning speed attitude on the first three of a planned 12 months test period. In all 26 vehicles and 51 drivers from six companies participate in the project. The key result is that speeding...

  10. LATCH usability in vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    This project investigated the usability of Lower Anchors and Tethers for CHildren (LATCH) hardware by measuring LATCH implementations in 98 2011 or 2010 model-year vehicles. ISO and SAE LATCH usability rating systems were used to assess all vehicles ...

  11. Research on the correlation between corona current spectrum and audible noise spectrum of HVDC transmission line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingyi; Zhou, Lijuan; Liu, Yuanqing; Yuan, Haiwen; Ji, Liang

    2017-11-01

    Audible noise is closely related to corona current on a high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission line. In this paper, we measured a large amount of audible noise and corona current waveforms simultaneously based on the largest outdoor HVDC corona cage all over the world. By analyzing the experimental data, the related statistical regularities between a corona current spectrum and an audible noise spectrum were obtained. Furthermore, the generation mechanism of audible noise was analyzed theoretically, and the related mathematical expression between the audible noise spectrum and the corona current spectrum, which is suitable for all of these measuring points in the space, has been established based on the electro-acoustic conversion theory. Finally, combined with the obtained mathematical relation, the internal reasons for these statistical regularities appearing in measured corona current and audible noise data were explained. The results of this paper not only present the statistical association regularities between the corona current spectrum and the audible noise spectrum on a HVDC transmission line, but also reveal the inherent reasons of these associated rules.

  12. Comparison of fatal motor vehicle accidents at passive and active railway level crossings in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirkku Laapotti

    2016-07-01

    Active warning devices are effective in preventing accidents due to road user errors. Equipping the most dangerous passive level crossings with warning devices – low cost or conventional – would increase safety. Alternatively, some level crossings could be removed altogether. A minimum requirement is that the environmental factors at passive level crossings support safe crossing.

  13. Technology-limited and patient-derived versus audibility-derived fittings in bone-anchored hearing aid users: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgetts, William E; Hagler, Paul; Hakansson, Bo E V; Soli, Sigfrid D

    2011-02-01

    Current approaches to fit bone-anchored hearing aid (Baha) rely heavily on patient feedback of "loudness" and "sound quality." Audiologists are limited to this approach for two reasons: (1) the technology in current models of Baha does not allow for much fine-tuning of frequency response or maximum output on an individual basis and (2) there has not been a valid approach to verify the frequency response or maximum output on an individual basis. The objectives of this study are to (1) describe an alternative approach to fit Baha, an "audibility-derived (AD)" fitting, and (2) test whether outcomes improve with this new fitting compared with the current "patient-derived (PD)" fitting. This study used a repeated measures design where each subject experienced both the AD and PD fittings in random order. Subjects were tested on a variety of outcome measures including output levels of aided speech, hearing in noise test (quiet and in noise), consonant recognition in noise, aided loudness, and subjective percentage of words understood. Electromechanical testing revealed significantly higher aided output with the AD fitting, especially in the high frequencies. Subjects performed significantly better in all outcome measures with the AD fitting approach except when testing aided loudness and subjective perception for which the differences were nonsignificant. When the input levels to the Baha were soft, advantages for the AD fitting were emerging on these tests, but they did not reach significance. This study presents a more objective, fitting approach for Baha that leads to better outcomes in the laboratory. The next steps will be to test these fittings in the real world and to make the approach generally available to clinicians fitting Bahas.

  14. Wireless power transfer for electric vehicles and mobile devices

    CERN Document Server

    Rim, Chun T

    2017-01-01

    From mobile, cable-free re-charging of electric vehicles, smart phones and laptops to collecting solar electricity from orbiting solar farms, wireless power transfer (WPT) technologies offer consumers and society enormous benefits. Written by innovators in the field, this comprehensive resource explains the fundamental principles and latest advances in WPT and illustrates key applications of this emergent technology.

  15. Intermodal Learning in Infancy: Learning on the Basis of Two Kinds of Invariant Relations in Audible and Visible Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrick, Lorraine E.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the development of intermodal perception in infancy by means of a new method, the intermodal learning method. Results support the claim that only subjects who had been familiarized with appropriate and synchronous film and soundtrack pairs showed evidence of intermodal learning. (Author/RWB)

  16. Time-to-impact estimation in passive missile warning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahıngıl, Mehmet Cihan

    2017-05-01

    A missile warning system can detect the incoming missile threat(s) and automatically cue the other Electronic Attack (EA) systems in the suit, such as Directed Infrared Counter Measure (DIRCM) system and/or Counter Measure Dispensing System (CMDS). Most missile warning systems are currently based on passive sensor technology operating in either Solar Blind Ultraviolet (SBUV) or Midwave Infrared (MWIR) bands on which there is an intensive emission from the exhaust plume of the threatening missile. Although passive missile warning systems have some clear advantages over pulse-Doppler radar (PDR) based active missile warning systems, they show poorer performance in terms of time-to-impact (TTI) estimation which is critical for optimizing the countermeasures and also "passive kill assessment". In this paper, we consider this problem, namely, TTI estimation from passive measurements and present a TTI estimation scheme which can be used in passive missile warning systems. Our problem formulation is based on Extended Kalman Filter (EKF). The algorithm uses the area parameter of the threat plume which is derived from the used image frame.

  17. Finite Fault Modeling in a Tsunami Warning Center Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Stuart A.; Lundgren, Paul R.

    2008-04-01

    The US NOAA/NWS tsunami warning centers have relied on earthquake location and depth, and scalar measures of earthquake size and slowness to assess the potential for the generation of a destructive tsunami by an earthquake. Recent earthquakes, such as Peru 2001, Sumatra 2004 and the Java 2006, manifest some of the difficulties the warning centers face as they try to cope with unusual earthquakes. We have undertaken a study of a simple teleseismic waveform inverse model and applied it to the earthquakes of June 23, 2001 in Peru and of July 17, 2006 in Java. Synthetic numerical experiments suggest that the most salient features of the rupture history of an earthquake can be recovered. Furthermore the calculations can be conducted quickly enough to be useful in a warning center context. We have applied our technique to the Peru 2001 and recent Java 2006 earthquakes. Our overall results are consistent with those obtained from other studies. The results show why the Peru event initially looked slow to the US tsunami warning centers and that the Java event is a truly slow or tsunami earthquake. Clearly, the warning centers stand to benefit from an increased understanding of the earthquakes they monitor. Furthermore, better knowledge of the slip distribution along a fault will improve tsunami wave-height forecasts.

  18. A neutron based vehicle-borne improvised explosive device detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltick, D.; Kim, Y.; McConchie, S.; Novikov, I.; Belbot, M.; Gardner, G.

    2007-08-01

    Vehicle-borne improvised explosive devices pose significant risk to government facilities, economic centers and the general public. The detonation of large-scale explosive devices is a worldwide phenomenon. Checkpoint operations currently call for a manual search of vehicles, putting personnel at high risk. We have built a prototype, remotely controlled system to non-intrusively and non-destructively detect explosives with a vehicle inspection time of between 2 and 5 min. The system utilizes a neutron generator and high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors housed in moving components that scan the entire vehicle and allow for a single location rescan. The neutron generator operates at ∼108 neutrons per second resulting in extremely small induced radiation levels and low exposure to possible stowaways. A control software operator interface is fully automated for remote operation of the hardware components and execution of the data analysis and threat algorithm with no operator intervention. Studies have been completed to characterize the performance of the system as a function of the weight of explosive within a complete set of vehicles. The underlying physical concepts of the system development are presented.

  19. An electrophysiological study of the impact of a Forward Collision Warning System in a simulator driving task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Mercedes; Fabrigoule, Colette; Deleurence, Philippe; Ndiaye, Daniel; Fort, Alexandra

    2012-08-27

    Driver distraction has been identified as the most important contributing factor in rear-end collisions. In this context, Forward Collision Warning Systems (FCWS) have been developed specifically to warn drivers of potential rear-end collisions. The main objective of this work is to evaluate the impact of a surrogate FCWS and of its reliability according to the driver's attentional state by recording both behavioral and electrophysiological data. Participants drove following a lead motorcycle in a simplified simulator with or without a warning system which gave forewarning of the preceding vehicle braking. Participants had to perform this driving task either alone (simple task) or simultaneously with a secondary cognitive task (dual task). Behavioral and electrophysiological data contributed to revealing a positive effect of the warning system. Participants were faster in detecting the brake light when the system was perfect or imperfect, and the time and attentional resources allocation required for processing the target at higher cognitive level were reduced when the system was completely reliable. When both tasks were performed simultaneously, warning effectiveness was considerably affected at both performance and neural levels; however, the analysis of the brain activity revealed fewer differences between distracted and undistracted drivers when using the warning system. These results show that electrophysiological data could be a valuable tool to complement behavioral data and to have a better understanding of how these systems impact the driver. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Reactions to graphic health warnings in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonnemaker, James M; Choiniere, Conrad J; Farrelly, Matthew C; Kamyab, Kian; Davis, Kevin C

    2015-02-01

    This study reports consumer reactions to the graphic health warnings selected by the Food and Drug Administration to be placed on cigarette packs in the United States. We recruited three sets of respondents for an experimental study from a national opt-in e-mail list sample: (i) current smokers aged 25 or older, (ii) young adult smokers aged 18-24 and (iii) youth aged 13-17 who are current smokers or who may be susceptible to initiation of smoking. Participants were randomly assigned to be exposed to a pack of cigarettes with one of nine graphic health warnings or with a text-only warning statement. All three age groups had overall strong negative emotional (ß = 4.7, P graphic health warnings suggest that, with repeated exposures over time, graphic health warnings may influence smokers' beliefs, intentions and behaviors. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Dissecting auditory verbal hallucinations into two components: audibility (Gedankenlautwerden) and alienation (thought insertion).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Iris E; Selten, Jean-Paul; Diederen, Kelly M; Blom, Jan Dirk

    2010-01-01

    This study proposes a theoretical framework which dissects auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) into 2 essential components: audibility and alienation. Audibility, the perceptual aspect of AVH, may result from a disinhibition of the auditory cortex in response to self-generated speech. In isolation, this aspect leads to audible thoughts: Gedankenlautwerden. The second component is alienation, which is the failure to recognize the content of AVH as self-generated. This failure may be related to the fact that cerebral activity associated with AVH is predominantly present in the speech production area of the right hemisphere. Since normal inner speech is derived from the left speech area, an aberrant source may lead to confusion about the origin of the language fragments. When alienation is not accompanied by audibility, it will result in the experience of thought insertion. The 2 hypothesized components are illustrated using case vignettes. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. ENERGY-LOADING OF DISKS IN FRICTION PAIRS OF “DISC-PAD” OF BRAKING DEVICES IN VEHICLES (part two)

    OpenAIRE

    Krasin P. S.; Volchenko N. A.; Kashuba N. V.; Stadnyk O. B.

    2015-01-01

    In the materials of the article we mention the regularities of changes in the volume and surface solid temperature gradients and self-ventilated brake discs and illustrate their impact on the main operating parameters of the friction pairs of disk-to-pad brakes of the A 172 bus; the relationship between thermo-physical parameters of polished and matte surfaces with areas of brake discs of various types. The influence of the type of tests on the pairs of loaded with energy friction disk and pa...

  3. Language (In)competency, Communication Strategies, and the Development of an International Academic Teacher Identity: Becoming an Audible Minority

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllum, Kirstie

    2017-01-01

    Despite universities' enthusiasm for internationalization, international academic mobility requires considerable institutional and cultural adjustment in terms of teaching and supervision styles, research expectations, and departmental relationships. Although language competency underpins these practices, research on international academics has…

  4. Energy storage devices for future hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karden, Eckhard; Ploumen, Servé; Fricke, Birger; Miller, Ted; Snyder, Kent

    Powertrain hybridization as well as electrical energy management are imposing new requirements on electrical storage systems in vehicles. This paper characterizes the associated vehicle attributes and, in particular, the various levels of hybrids. New requirements for the electrical storage system are derived, including: shallow-cycle life, high dynamic charge acceptance particularly for regenerative braking and robust service life in sustained partial-state-of-charge usage. Lead/acid, either with liquid or absorptive glass-fibre mat electrolyte, is expected to remain the predominant battery technology for 14 V systems, including micro-hybrids, and with a cost-effective battery monitoring system for demanding applications. Advanced AGM batteries may be considered for mild or even medium hybrids once they have proven robustness under real-world conditions, particularly with respect to cycle life at partial-states-of-charge and dynamic charge acceptance. For the foreseeable future, NiMH and Li-ion are the dominating current and potential battery technologies for higher-functionality HEVs. Li-ion, currently at development and demonstration stages, offers attractive opportunities for improvements in performance and cost. Supercapacitors may be considered for pulse power applications. Aside from cell technologies, attention to the issue of system integration of the battery into the powertrain and vehicle is growing. Opportunities and challenges for potential "battery pack" system suppliers are discussed.

  5. Kinetic energy recovery systems in motor vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śliwiński, C.

    2016-09-01

    The article draws attention to the increasing environmental pollution caused by the development of vehicle transport and motorization. Different types of design solutions used in vehicles for the reduction of fuel consumption, and thereby emission of toxic gasses into the atmosphere, were specified. Historical design solutions concerning energy recovery devices in mechanical vehicles which used flywheels to accumulate kinetic energy were shown. Developmental tendencies in the area of vehicle manufacturing in the form of hybrid electric and electric devices were discussed. Furthermore, designs of energy recovery devices with electrical energy storage from the vehicle braking and shock absorbing systems were presented. A mechanical energy storing device using a flywheel operating under vacuum was presented, as were advantages and disadvantages of both systems, the limitations they impose on individual constructions and safety issues. The paper also discusses a design concept of an energy recovery device in mechanical vehicles which uses torsion springs as the main components of energy accumulation during braking. The desirability of a cooperation of both the mechanical- and electrical energy recovery devices was indicated.

  6. The Integration of GPS Navigator Device with Vehicles Tracking System for Rental Cars Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Omarah O. Alharaki; Fahad S. Alaieri; Zeki, Akram M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research is to integrate the GPS tracking system (tracking device and web-based application) with GPS navigator for rental cars, allowing the company to use various applications to monitor and manage the cars. This is enable the firms and customers to communicate with each other via the GPS navigator. The system should be developed by applying new features in GPS tracking application devices in vehicles. This paper also proposes new features that can be applied to the GPS Navi...

  7. Graphic warnings and text warning labels on cigarette packages in Riyadh Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Awareness and perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jradi, Hoda; Saddik, Basema

    2018-01-01

    Graphic warning labels have been shown to be effective in smoking initiation and cessation and were implemented in Saudi Arabia in 2012. To date, no study has assessed the effectiveness of these labels and the Saudi population's perceptions on the effectiveness of cigarette health warning labels. We used a cross-sectional qualitative study comprising of nine focus groups among 3 different community group members including health-care workers, adult women and adult men. We conducted in-depth interviews among community leaders. Both focus groups and interviews assessed awareness levels and elicited perceptions about health warning labels on cigarette boxes currently used in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. While most participants in the study were aware and supported the use of graphic warning labels on cigarette packages, the awareness of the specific details on the labels was low. Participants perceived the effectiveness of current labels somewhat vague in smoking cessation and advocated for stronger and more aggressive graphics. Community leaders, however, preferred text-only labels and did not support aggressive labels which were deemed culturally and religiously inappropriate. The study suggests that while graphic warning labels are perceived as necessary on cigarette packages the currently used messages are not clear and therefore do not serve their intended purposes. Measures should be undertaken to ensure that pictorial cigarette labels used in Saudi Arabia are culturally and ethnically appropriate and are rotated on a regular basis to ensure salience among smokers and nonsmokers alike.

  8. Current Status on Flood Forecasting and Early Warning in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiemig, V.; Roo, A.P.J. de

    2011-01-01

    An overview of the current state of flood forecasting and early warning in Africa is provided in order to identify future user needs and research. Information was collected by reviewing previously published research in the scientific literature and from institutional websites. This information was

  9. Traffic collisions between electric mobility devices (wheelchairs) and motor vehicles: Accidents, hubris, or self-destructive behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBan, Myron M; Nabity, Thomas S

    2010-07-01

    This study had its genesis in a personally observed collision between a motor vehicle and a motorized wheelchair (electric mobility device) on a busy street in the middle of the block at an unmarked crossing. To the observer, at the time, this appeared to be a suicidal act. This investigation was initiated to both delineate the number of these crashes nationally and understand this phenomena as a potentially planned act of self-destruction. An initial survey of police reports was immediately frustrated by an inability to separate motor vehicle and electric mobility device collisions from the much larger group that involved ambulatory citizens because both types were classified together as "pedestrian" accidents. Instead, the search engine NexisLexis was used to identify 107 newspaper articles each of which described a motor vehicle and electric mobility device accident. In the motor vehicle and electric mobility device collisions, men predominated women (3:1 ratio) with an average age of 56 yrs. Sixty of these accidents were fatal. Ninety-four percent involved an electric mobility device and 6% a manual wheelchair. In 50% of the cases, the motor vehicle was a truck, van, or sport utility vehicle. Fifty percent occurred at dusk or dawn or at night. The electric mobility device occupant was cited as the guilty party in 39% of the cases and the driver of the motor vehicle in 27%. Twenty percent were unwitnessed hit-and-run accidents, whereas "no fault" was found in 8% of the cases. Although many accidents do happen by chance, when an electric mobility device operator openly challenges busy traffic by attempting to traverse it in the middle of the block at an unmarked crossing, predisposing psychosocial factors must also be considered. Hubris or premeditated self-destructive behavior or both need to be explored as preeminent issues with reference to the prodromal of the "accident process."

  10. Improved Intelligence Warning in an Age of Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    Intelligence Community’s failure to warn policy makers of the 1979 fall of the Shah in Iran, the 1994 end of apartheid in South Africa, the 2010...end of apartheid because they focused on what the South African leaders were saying and rather than paying

  11. Famines in Africa: is early warning early enough?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeeyon Janet Kim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Following the second Sahelian famine in 1984–1985, major investments were made to establish Early Warning Systems. These systems help to ensure that timely warnings and vulnerability information are available to decision makers to anticipate and avert food crises. In the recent crisis in the Horn of Africa, alarming levels of acute malnutrition were documented from March 2010, and by August 2010, an impending food crisis was forecast. Despite these measures, the situation remained unrecognised, and further deteriorated causing malnutrition levels to grow in severity and scope. By the time the United Nations officially declared famine on 20 July 2011, and the humanitarian community sluggishly went into response mode, levels of malnutrition and mortality exceeded catastrophic levels. At this time, an estimated 11 million people were in desperate and immediate need for food. With warnings of food crises in the Sahel, South Sudan, and forecast of the drought returning to the Horn, there is an immediate need to institutionalize change in the health response during humanitarian emergencies. Early warning systems are only effective if they trigger an early response.

  12. The Food Early Warning System Project in Somalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leblanc, M.

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes shortly the objectives of a Food Early Warning System (FEWS project, as well as its organisation. The specifie case of Somalia, where the project had to evolve in increasingly difficult situations, and the solutions used so as to preserve the output, are described.

  13. The Ex Hoc Infrastructure - Enhancing Traffic Safety through LIfe WArning Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius; Kristensen, Lars Michael; Eskildsen, Toke

    2004-01-01

    New pervasive computing technologies for sensing and communication open up novel possibilities for enhancing traffic safety. We are currently designing and implementing the Ex Hoc infrastructure framework for communication among mobile and stationary units including vehicles. The infrastructure...... will connect sensing devices on vehicles with sensing devices on other vehicles and with stationary communication units placed alongside roads. The current application of Ex Hoc is to enable the collection and dissemination of information on road condition through LIfe Warning Systems (LIWAS) units....

  14. Near-field tsunami early warning and emergency planning in the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerassimos A. Papadopoulos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The new European project Near-field Tsunami Early Warning and Emergency Planning in the Mediterranean Sea (NEARTOWARN faces the need to develop operational tsunami early warning systems in near-field (local conditions where the travel time of the first tsunami wave is very short, that is less than 30 min, which is a typical case in the North East Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea region but also elsewhere around the globe. The operational condition that should be fulfilled is that the time of tsunami detection, plus the time of warning transmitting, plus the time of evacuation should not exceed the travel time of the first tsunami wave from its source to the closest evacuation zone. To this goal the time to detect of the causative earthquake should be compressed at the very minimum. In this context the core of the proposed system is a network of seismic early warning devices, which activate and send alert in a few seconds after the generation of a near-field earthquake, when a seismic ground motion exceeding a prescribed threshold is detected. Then civil protection mobilizes to manage the earthquake crisis but also to detect and manage a possible tsunami through a geographical risk management system. For the tsunami detection the system is supported by tide-gauges of radar type, a database of presimulated tsunami scenarios, and a local tsunami decision matrix. The island of Rhodes in the eastern termination of the Hellenic Arc and Trench has been selected for a pilot and operational development of the local tsunami warning system given that the island is a highly popular tourist destination, historically it was hit by large tsunamigenic earthquakes and was recently the master test-site for the pan-European FP6 tsunami research project Tsunami Risk ANd Strategies For the European Region (TRANSFER.

  15. Effects of intelligent advanced warnings on drivers negotiating the dilemma zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugerty, Leo; McIntyre, Scott E; Link, Drew; Zimmerman, Karl; Tolani, Devendra; Huang, Peter; Pokorny, Robert A

    2014-09-01

    We investigated whether intelligent advanced warnings of the end of green traffic signals help drivers negotiate the dilemma zone (DZ) at signalized intersections and sought to identify behavioral mechanisms for any warning-related benefits. Prior research suggested that warnings of end of green can increase slowing and stopping frequency given the DZ, but drivers may sometimes respond to warnings by speeding up. In two simulator studies, we compared six types of roadway or in-vehicle warnings with a no-warning control condition. Using multilevel modeling, we tested mediation models of the behavioral mechanisms underlying the effects of warnings. In both studies, warnings led to more stopping at DZ intersections and milder decelerations when stopping compared with no warning. Drivers' predominant response to warnings was anticipatory slowing on approaching the intersection, not speeding up. The increased stopping with warning was mediated by increased slowing. In Study I, anticipatory slowing given warnings generalized to green-light intersections where no warning was given. In Study 2, we found that lane-specific warnings (e.g., LED lights embedded in each lane) sometimes led to fewer unsafe emergency stops than did non-lane-specific roadside warnings. End-of-green warnings led to safer behavior in the DZ and on the early approach to intersections. The main mechanism for the benefits of warnings was drivers' increased anticipatory slowing on approaching an intersection. Lane-specific warnings may have some benefits over roadside warnings. Applications include performance models of how drivers use end-of-green warnings, control algorithms and warning displays for intelligent intersections, and statistical methodology in human factors research.

  16. Collision warning system based on probability density functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, T.H.A. van den; Ploeg, J.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a collision warning method between the host vehicle and target object(s) is studied. A probabilistic collision warning method is proposed, which is, in particular, useful for objects, e.g. vulnerable road users, which trajectories can rapidly change heading and/or velocity with

  17. A Joint Vehicle-Vehicle/Vehicle-Roadside Communication Protocol for Highway Traffic Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Hu; Hamid Gharavi

    2011-01-01

    A joint vehicle-vehicle/vehicle-roadside communication protocol is proposed for cooperative collision avoiding in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs). In this protocol, emergency warning messages are simultaneously transmitted via Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle-to-Roadside (V2R) communications in order to achieve multipath diversity routing. In addition, to further improve communication reliability and achieve low latency, a Multi-Channel (MC) technique based on two nonove...

  18. Recent Advances in Optical Biosensors for Environmental Monitoring and Early Warning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Zhu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The growing number of pollutants requires the development of innovative analytical devices that are precise, sensitive, specific, rapid, and easy-to-use to meet the increasing demand for legislative actions on environmental pollution control and early warning. Optical biosensors, as a powerful alternative to conventional analytical techniques, enable the highly sensitive, real-time, and high-frequency monitoring of pollutants without extensive sample preparation. This article reviews important advances in functional biorecognition materials (e.g., enzymes, aptamers, DNAzymes, antibodies and whole cells that facilitate the increasing application of optical biosensors. This work further examines the significant improvements in optical biosensor instrumentation and their environmental applications. Innovative developments of optical biosensors for environmental pollution control and early warning are also discussed.

  19. The Trend of Voluntary Warnings in Electronic Nicotine Delivery System Magazine Advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ce Shang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Some manufacturers of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS voluntarily carried health warnings in their advertisements. This study examined these voluntary warnings in magazine ads and plotted their trends between 2012 and early 2015. ENDS magazine ads were obtained through Kantar media and warnings were collected from the Chicago Public Library or the Trinkets and Trash surveillance system. The prevalence of voluntary warnings, warnings with the specific capitalized word “WARNING”, and MarkTen warnings were examined after being weighted using factors related to exposure between January 2012 and March 2015. Five brands (MarkTen, NJOY, MISTIC, and some Blu carried warnings during the study period. The prevalence of warnings post 2012 that contained a description of nicotine did not significantly increase until the launch of MarkTen, which also happened several months before April 2014 when the U.S. food and drug administration (FDA published its proposed deeming rule. In addition, none of these warnings met the criteria required by the FDA in the final rules. Voluntary warnings, particularly MarkTen warnings, significantly increased in ENDS magazine ads between 2014 and 2015. It is important to monitor how ENDS manufacturers will comply with the FDA regulation related to warnings and how this regulation will ultimately impact ENDS risk perceptions and use.

  20. Longer Term Impact of Cigarette Package Warnings in Australia Compared with the United Kingdom and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua; Cummings, Kenneth M.; Thrasher, James F.; Hitchman, Sara C.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Hammond, David; Bansal-Travers, Maansi

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effects of different cigarette package warnings in Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom up to 5 years post-implementation. The data came from the International Tobacco Control Surveys. Measures included salience of warnings, cognitive responses, forgoing cigarettes and avoiding warnings. Although salience of the UK…

  1. Vehicle Routing in Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Hasle, Geir

    2010-01-01

    Solving the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) is a key to efficiency in transportation and supply chain management. The VRP is a computationally hard problem that comes in many guises. The VRP literature contains thousands of papers, and VRP research is regarded as one of the great successes of OR. In industry and the public sector, vehicle routing tools provide substantial savings every day. An industry of routing tool vendors has emerged. Exact optimization methods of today cannot consistently ...

  2. PT-SAFE: a software tool for development and annunciation of medical audible alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Christopher L; McNeer, Richard R

    2012-03-01

    Recent reports by The Joint Commission as well as the Anesthesia Patient Safety Foundation have indicated that medical audible alarm effectiveness needs to be improved. Several recent studies have explored various approaches to improving the audible alarms, motivating the authors to develop real-time software capable of comparing such alarms. We sought to devise software that would allow for the development of a variety of audible alarm designs that could also integrate into existing operating room equipment configurations. The software is meant to be used as a tool for alarm researchers to quickly evaluate novel alarm designs. A software tool was developed for the purpose of creating and annunciating audible alarms. The alarms consisted of annunciators that were mapped to vital sign data received from a patient monitor. An object-oriented approach to software design was used to create a tool that is flexible and modular at run-time, can annunciate wave-files from disk, and can be programmed with MATLAB by the user to create custom alarm algorithms. The software was tested in a simulated operating room to measure technical performance and to validate the time-to-annunciation against existing equipment alarms. The software tool showed efficacy in a simulated operating room environment by providing alarm annunciation in response to physiologic and ventilator signals generated by a human patient simulator, on average 6.2 seconds faster than existing equipment alarms. Performance analysis showed that the software was capable of supporting up to 15 audible alarms on a mid-grade laptop computer before audio dropouts occurred. These results suggest that this software tool provides a foundation for rapidly staging multiple audible alarm sets from the laboratory to a simulation environment for the purpose of evaluating novel alarm designs, thus producing valuable findings for medical audible alarm standardization.

  3. Value of early warning scores in emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-07

    Developed in the belief that early identification and intervention of deteriorating patients would reduce the number of deaths, early warning scores (EWS) have become a routine feature of work in UK emergency departments (EDs) and are becoming increasingly common in paediatric emergency care. They are popular with managers, commissioners and clinicians, yet the authors of this report state that there is little evidence of this reduction in the literature.

  4. The Earthquake Early Warning System in Japan (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, J. J.; Yamada, M.

    2010-12-01

    In Japan, the earthquake early warning system (Kinkyu Jishin Sokuhou in Japanese) maintained by the Japan Meterological Agency (JMA) has been in operation and sending pubic information since October 1, 2007. Messages have been broadcast on television and radio to warn of strong shaking to the public. The threshold for broadcasting a message is an estimated intensity of JMA 5 lower, which is approximately equivalent to MM VII to VIII. During the period from October 2007 through August 2010, messages have been sent 9 times for earthquakes of magnitude 5.2 to 7.0. There have been a few instances of significantly over-estimating or under-estimating the predicted shaking, but in general the performance of the system has been quite good. The quality of the detection system depends on the dense network of high-quality seismometers that cover the Japanese Islands. Consequently, the system works very well for events on or close to the 4 main islands, but there is more uncertainty for events near the smaller and more distant islands where the density of instrumentation is much less The Early Warning System is also tied to an extensive education program so that the public can react appropriately in the short amount of time given by the warning. There appears to be good public support in Japan, where people have become accustomed to a high level of fast information on a daily basis. There has also been development of a number of specific safety applications in schools and industry that work off the backbone information provided in the national system.

  5. Warnings and reactions to the Tohoku tsunami in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, B. F.; Gregg, C. E.

    2012-12-01

    The 2011 Tohoku tsunami was the first chance within the USA to document and interpret large-scale response and protective action behavior with regard to a large, destructive tsunami since 1964. The 2011 tsunami offered a unique, short-lived opportunity to transform our understanding of individual and collective behavior in the US in response to a well-publicized tsunami warning and, in particular, to look at the complex interplay of official information sources, informal warnings and information-seeking in communities with significant physical impact from the 2011 tsunami. This study is focused in Hawaii, which suffered significant ($30 M), but localized damage, from the 2011 Tohoku tsunami and underwent a full-scale tsunami evacuation. The survey contrasts three Hawaiian communities which either experienced significant tsunami damage (Kona) or little physical impact (Hilo, Honolulu). It also contrasts a long-established local community with experience of evacuation, destruction and loss of life in two tsunamis (Hilo) with a metropolitan population with a large visitor presence (Honolulu) that has not experienced a damaging tsunami in decades. Many factors such as personal perceptions of risk, beliefs, past exposure to the hazard, forecast uncertainty, trust in information sources, channels of transmission of information, the need for message confirmation, responsibilities, obligations, mobility, the ability to prepare, the availability of transportation and transport routes, and an acceptable evacuation center affected behavior. We provide new information on how people reacted to warnings and tsunamis, especially with regard to social integration of official warnings and social media. The results of this study will strengthen community resilience to tsunamis, working with emergency managers to integrate strengths and weaknesses of the public responses with official response plans.

  6. Current use of early warning scores in UK emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, James R; Kidney, Elizabeth M

    2012-01-01

    There is recent evidence that the modified early warning scoring systems (MEWS) in the emergency department (ED) can identify patients at risk of deterioration. However, concerns remain that they are not sensitive enough to use as a risk assessment tool. To assess use of MEWS in UK EDs. A postal survey was undertaken of 254 adult EDs within the UK. Questionnaires were sent to the clinical lead at each department about their use of early warning scoring systems. Responses were received from 145 departments giving a response rate of 57%. 87% of respondents are currently using early warning scores (EWS). Of those, 80% are using MEWS. In 71% high EWS results in senior ED review, however in 25% it does not. Less than half of departments use high MEWS to trigger critical care input. 93% of respondents support using EWS in the ED. Despite the lack of strong evidence, the majority of UK EDs are using EWS in some form. MEWS is the most commonly used but departments vary on their use of EWS for senior ED and/or critical care review. Over 90% of respondents in this survey support EWS in the ED.

  7. Crowdsourced earthquake early warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minson, Sarah E.; Brooks, Benjamin A.; Glennie, Craig L.; Murray, Jessica R.; Langbein, John O.; Owen, Susan E.; Heaton, Thomas H.; Iannucci, Robert A.; Hauser, Darren L.

    2015-01-01

    Earthquake early warning (EEW) can reduce harm to people and infrastructure from earthquakes and tsunamis, but it has not been implemented in most high earthquake-risk regions because of prohibitive cost. Common consumer devices such as smartphones contain low-cost versions of the sensors used in EEW. Although less accurate than scientific-grade instruments, these sensors are globally ubiquitous. Through controlled tests of consumer devices, simulation of an Mw (moment magnitude) 7 earthquake on California’s Hayward fault, and real data from the Mw 9 Tohoku-oki earthquake, we demonstrate that EEW could be achieved via crowdsourcing.

  8. Financial distress in Brazilian banks: an early warning model,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Rosa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aims to propose an early warning model for predicting financial distress events in Brazilian banking institutions. Initially, a set of economic-financial indicators is evaluated, suggested by the risk management literature for identifying situations of bank insolvency and exclusively taking public information into account. For this, multivariate logistic regressions are performed, using as independent variables financial indicators involving capital adequacy, asset quality, management quality, earnings, and liquidity. The empirical analysis was based on a sample of 142 financial institutions, including privately and publicly held and state-owned companies, using monthly data from 2006 to 2014, which resulted in panel data with 12,136 observations. In the sample window there were nine cases of Brazilian Central Bank intervention or mergers and acquisitions motivated by financial distress. The results were evaluated based on the estimation of the in-sample parameters, out-of-sample tests, and the early warning model signs for a 12-month forecast horizon. These obtained true positive rates of 81%, 94%, and 89%, respectively. We conclude that typical balance-sheet indicators are relevant for the early warning signs of financial distress in Brazilian banks, which contributes to the literature on financial intermediary credit risk, especially from the perspective of bank supervisory agencies acting towards financial stability.

  9. Diversity in warning coloration is easily recognized by avian predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, L M; Stevens, M

    2017-07-01

    Warning coloration is a widespread strategy to alert predators about prey unprofitability. The success of this strategy partly depends on predators being able to learn and recognize certain signals as indicators of toxicity, and theory predicts that this is easier if signals converge on similar colours. However, the diversity in warning signal form is astonishing, contradicting predictions. Here, we quantified ladybird signal diversity with respect to avian vision, measuring how unique and discernible each signal is from one another. In addition, we measured signal conspicuousness against a series of backgrounds, namely an average green, average brown, and where we collected each species, to determine whether signals are more contrasting against the ladybirds' local substrates than compared to average ones. This allowed us to establish whether there are local adaptations in conspicuousness that promote signal diversity. We found that while ladybird signals are unique and recognizable, specialist species are more contrasting against the background they are most commonly found on. However, overall our study suggests that warning signals have evolved to be effective against a wide range of natural backgrounds, partly explaining the success of this strategy in nature. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Society for Evolutionary Biology.

  10. Early Warning Models for Systemic Banking Crises in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željka Asanović

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to create an adequate early warning model for systemic banking crises in Montenegro. The probability of banking crisis occurrence is calculated using discrete dependent variable models, more precisely, estimating logit regression. Afterwards, seven simple logit regressions that individually have two explanatory variables are estimated. Adequate weights have been assigned to all seven regressions using the technique of Bayesian model averaging. The advantage of this technique is that it takes into account the model uncertainty by considering various combinations of models in order to minimize the author’s subjective judgment when determining reliable early warning indicators. The results of Bayesian model averaging largely coincide with the results of a previously estimated dynamic logit model. Indicators of credit expansion, thanks to their performances, have a dominant role in early warning models for systemic banking crises in Montenegro. The results have also shown that the Montenegrin banking system is significantly exposed to trends on the global level.

  11. Prescriber compliance with black box warnings in older adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Judith R; Coulen, Charmaine; Berger, Jan E; Moore, Marsha C; McQueen, Angela; Jan, Saira A

    2009-11-01

    Patients prescribed medications with US Food and Drug Administration-issued black box warnings (BBWs) warrant additional vigilance by prescribers because these drugs can cause serious adverse drug events. Seniors are at greater risk for adverse drug events due to increased medication burden and greater health vulnerability. To improve our understanding of the prescribing and patient-monitoring practices of physicians prescribing medications with a BBW to patients age >or=65 years in an ambulatory care setting. A retrospective cohort study of administrative pharmacy and medical claims identified 58,190 patients age >or=65 years in the Horizon Blue Cross Blue Shield of New Jersey beneficiary population with >or=1 claim for >or=1 of the 8 targeted medications between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2005. Medications included carbamazepine, amiodarone, ketoconazole, loop diuretics, methotrexate, cyclosporine, metformin and combinations, and cilostazol. Patients were followed 12 months from the index prescription date to evaluate prescriber compliance with BBWs using operationalized definitions of compliance. Patients prescribed drugs with a drug-laboratory warning had lower rates of prescriber BBW compliance (0.7%-24.9%) than patients prescribed drugs with a drug-disease warning (84.7%-90.2%). Administrative claims analysis identified low rates of prescriber compliance with BBWs in managing patients age >or=65 years. Claims analysis may be a cost-effective strategy to monitor prescriber compliance with BBWs in older patients at higher risk.

  12. The role of warning behaviors in threat assessment: an exploration and suggested typology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid Meloy, J; Hoffmann, Jens; Guldimann, Angela; James, David

    2012-01-01

    The concept of warning behaviors offers an additional perspective in threat assessment. Warning behaviors are acts which constitute evidence of increasing or accelerating risk. They are acute, dynamic, and particularly toxic changes in patterns of behavior which may aid in structuring a professional's judgment that an individual of concern now poses a threat - whether the actual target has been identified or not. They require an operational response. A typology of eight warning behaviors for assessing the threat of intended violence is proposed: pathway, fixation, identification, novel aggression, energy burst, leakage, directly communicated threat, and last resort warning behaviors. Previous research on risk factors associated with such warning behaviors is reviewed, and examples of each warning behavior from various intended violence cases are presented, including public figure assassination, adolescent and adult mass murder, corporate celebrity stalking, and both domestic and foreign acts of terrorism. Practical applications and future research into warning behaviors are suggested. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Analysis of legal and scientific issues in court challenges to graphic tobacco warnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, John D; Baig, Sabeeh A

    2013-09-01

    Smoking is the leading preventable cause of death in the U.S., yet cigarette health warnings in the U.S. are among the weakest in the world. In 2011, the FDA issued regulations mandating that graphic warnings be displayed on every cigarette pack sold in the U.S. Almost immediately, the tobacco industry challenged the warnings on First Amendment grounds. In March 2013, the FDA withdrew the graphic warning mandate, choosing instead to pursue additional research and then issue requirements for a new set of warnings. These warnings almost certainly will be challenged by the tobacco industry. The current paper describes the legal standards that will be used to assess the warnings, and the empirical questions that must be answered in order to determine whether each standard has been met. The paper also identifies errors the FDA could make in choosing images to be evaluated that would cause the images to be unable to meet the standards, regardless of the scientific evidence the FDA can establish. To be on safest ground, the FDA should adopt images that depict factual health consequences of smoking and should avoid images that could be interpreted as opinions. The FDA will have a high likelihood of prevailing in legal challenges to the warnings if there is evidence demonstrating that graphic warnings are necessary to counter past industry deception or that graphic warnings affect smoking behavior better than textual warnings. Even without evidence of the impact of graphic warnings on behavior, strong evidence that they affect behavioral intent, and that intent predicts behavior, should be sufficient for the warnings to be upheld. Alternatively, evidence that graphic warnings lead to more accurate consumer assessment of smoking risks should also be sufficient. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Study of Disseminating Landslide Early Warning Information in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koay, Swee Peng; Lateh, Habibah; Tien Tay, Lea; Ahamd, Jamilah; Chan, Huah Yong; Sakai, Naoki; Jamaludin, Suhaimi

    2015-04-01

    In Malaysia, rain induced landslides are occurring more often than before. The Malaysian Government allocates millions of Malaysian Ringgit for slope monitoring and slope failure remedial measures in the budget every year. In rural areas, local authorities also play a major role in monitoring the slope to prevent casualty by giving information to the residents who are staying near to the slopes. However, there are thousands of slopes which are classified as high risk slopes in Malaysia. Implementing site monitoring system in these slopes to monitor the movement of the soil in the slopes, predicting the occurrence of slopes failure and establishing early warning system are too costly and almost impossible. In our study, we propose Accumulated Rainfall vs. Rainfall Intensity prediction method to predict the slope failure by referring to the predicted rainfall data from radar and the rain volume from rain gauges. The critical line which determines if the slope is in danger, is generated by simulator with well-surveyed the soil property in the slope and compared with historical data. By establishing such predicting system, the slope failure warning information can be obtained and disseminated to the surroundings via SMS, internet and siren. However, establishing the early warning dissemination system is not enough in disaster prevention, educating school children and the community by giving knowledge on landslides, such as landslide's definition, how and why does the slope failure happen and when will it fail, to raise the risk awareness on landslides will reduce landslides casualty, especially in rural area. Moreover, showing video on the risk and symptom of landslides in school will also help the school children gaining the knowledge of landslides. Generating hazard map and landslides historical data provides further information on the occurrence of the slope failure. In future, further study on fine tuning of landslides prediction method, applying IT technology to

  15. VEHICLES LICENSED IN SWITZERLAND

    CERN Multimedia

    Service des Relations avec les Pays-Hôtes

    2000-01-01

    1.\tVehicle licensinga)\tTime limitsVehicles must have a Swiss registration document and Swiss number plates: -\tif the owner has been residing in Switzerland for more than one year without a break of more than three consecutive months and has been using it for more than one month on Swiss territory, or -\tif the vehicle itself has been on Swiss territory for more than one year without a break of more than three consecutive months. b)\tTechnical details Vehicles belonging to non-Swiss members of the personnel who hold a carte de légitimation issued by the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs (hereinafter referred to as 'DFAE') and who were not permanently resident in Switzerland before taking up their appointment may be licensed in Switzerland with virtually no restrictions provided that their owner produces: -\tthe vehicle registration document and number plates of the country in which the car was previously registered, or -\ta manufacturer's certi...

  16. Debris flow early warning systems in Norway: organization and tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleivane, I.; Colleuille, H.; Haugen, L. E.; Alve Glad, P.; Devoli, G.

    2012-04-01

    In Norway, shallow slides and debris flows occur as a combination of high-intensity precipitation, snowmelt, high groundwater level and saturated soil. Many events have occurred in the last decades and are often associated with (or related to) floods events, especially in the Southern of Norway, causing significant damages to roads, railway lines, buildings, and other infrastructures (i.e November 2000; August 2003; September 2005; November 2005; Mai 2008; June and Desember 2011). Since 1989 the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE) has had an operational 24 hour flood forecasting system for the entire country. From 2009 NVE is also responsible to assist regions and municipalities in the prevention of disasters posed by landslides and snow avalanches. Besides assisting the municipalities through implementation of digital landslides inventories, susceptibility and hazard mapping, areal planning, preparation of guidelines, realization of mitigation measures and helping during emergencies, NVE is developing a regional scale debris flow warning system that use hydrological models that are already available in the flood warning systems. It is well known that the application of rainfall thresholds is not sufficient to evaluate the hazard for debris flows and shallow slides, and soil moisture conditions play a crucial role in the triggering conditions. The information on simulated soil and groundwater conditions and water supply (rain and snowmelt) based on weather forecast, have proved to be useful variables that indicate the potential occurrence of debris flows and shallow slides. Forecasts of runoff and freezing-thawing are also valuable information. The early warning system is using real-time measurements (Discharge; Groundwater level; Soil water content and soil temperature; Snow water equivalent; Meteorological data) and model simulations (a spatially distributed version of the HBV-model and an adapted version of 1-D soil water and energy balance

  17. Road Accident Prevention with Instant Emergency Warning Message Dissemination in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Gokulakrishnan

    Full Text Available A Road Accident Prevention (RAP scheme based on Vehicular Backbone Network (VBN structure is proposed in this paper for Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET. The RAP scheme attempts to prevent vehicles from highway road traffic accidents and thereby reduces death and injury rates. Once the possibility of an emergency situation (i.e. an accident is predicted in advance, instantly RAP initiates a highway road traffic accident prevention scheme. The RAP scheme constitutes the following activities: (i the Road Side Unit (RSU constructs a Prediction Report (PR based on the status of the vehicles and traffic in the highway roads, (ii the RSU generates an Emergency Warning Message (EWM based on an abnormal PR, (iii the RSU forms a VBN structure and (iv the RSU disseminates the EWM to the vehicles that holds the high Risk Factor (RF and travels in High Risk Zone (HRZ. These vehicles might reside either within the RSU's coverage area or outside RSU's coverage area (reached using VBN structure. The RAP scheme improves the performance of EWM dissemination in terms of increase in notification and decrease in end-to-end delay. The RAP scheme also reduces infrastructure cost (number of RSUs by formulating and deploying the VBN structure. The RAP scheme with VBN structure improves notification by 19 percent and end-to-end delay by 14.38 percent for a vehicle density of 160 vehicles. It is also proved from the simulation experiment that the performance of RAP scheme is promising in 4-lane highway roads.

  18. The Importance of Relevant Emotional Arousal in the Efficacy of Pictorial Health Warnings for Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhenhao; Wang, An-Li; Emery, Lydia F; Sheerin, Kaitlin M; Romer, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Warning labels for cigarettes proposed by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) were rejected by the courts partly because they were thought to be emotionally evocative but have no educational value. To address this issue, we compared three types of smoking warnings: (1) FDA-proposed warnings with pictures illustrating the smoking hazards; (2) warnings with the same text information paired with equally aversive but smoking-irrelevant images; and (3) text-only warnings. Smokers recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk were randomly assigned to one of the three conditions. They reported how many cigarettes they smoked per day (CPD) during the past week and then viewed eight different warnings. After viewing each warning, they rated its believability and perceived ability to motivate quitting. One week later, 62.3% of participants again reported CPD during the past week, rated how the warnings they viewed the week before changed their feeling about smoking, rated their intention to quit in the next 30 days, and recalled as much as they could about each of the warnings they viewed. Compared to the irrelevant image and text-only warnings, FDA warnings were seen as more believable and able to motivate quitting and at the follow-up, produced lower CPD, worse feeling about smoking, and more memory for warning information, controlling for age and baseline CPD. Emotionally evocative warning images are not effective in communicating the risks of smoking, unless they pertain to smoking-related hazards. In future versions of warning labels, pictorial contents should be pretested for the ability to enhance the health-hazard message. Our study shows that contrary to court opinions, FDA-proposed pictorial warnings for cigarettes are more effective in communicating smoking-related hazards than warnings that merely contain emotionally aversive but smoking-irrelevant images. The suggestion that FDA's proposed warnings employed emotionally arousing pictures with no information value

  19. An Infrastructure for a Traffic Warning System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe; Hansen, Klaus Marius; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    2005-01-01

    supporting inter-vehicle communication.This paper presents our results on requirementsidentication, design, and prototyping of the infrastructure.The infrastructure combines communication via mobilephones with communication based on the principles ofad-hoc networking, and it supports units in being......The LIWAS Trafc Warning System aims at providingearly warning to vehicles about road conditions, such aswhether the road is slippery. The LIWAS system is currentlybeing developed and consists of two main parts:sensors for determining the state of the road and a communicationinfrastructure...... updatedduring operation. The presented prototypes and associatedexperimental results demonstrate the main functionalitiesof the communication infrastructure, and have led to theinitial deployment of LIWAS units....

  20. Drought early warning and risk management in a changing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulwarty, R. S.

    2011-12-01

    Drought has long been recognized as falling into the category of incremental but long-term and cumulative environmental changes, also termed slow-onset or creeping events. These event types would include: air and water quality decline, desertification processes, deforestation and forest fragmentation, loss of biodiversity and habitats, and nitrogen overloading, among others. Climate scientists continue to struggle with recognizing the onset of drought and scientists and policy makers continue to debate the basis (i.e., criteria) for declaring an end to a drought. Risk-based management approaches to drought planning at the national and regional levels have been recommended repeatedly over the years but their prototyping, testing and operational implementation have been limited. This presentation will outline two avenues for disaster risk reduction in the context of drought (1) integrated early warning information systems, and (2) linking disaster risk reduction to climate change adaptation strategies. Adaptation involves not only using operational facilities and infrastructure to cope with the immediate problems but also leaving slack or reserve for coping with multiple stress problems that produce extreme impacts and surprise. Increasing the 'anticipatability' of an event, involves both monitoring of key indicators from appropriate baseline data, and observing early warning signs that assumptions in risk management plans are failing and critical transitions are occurring. Illustrative cases will be drawn from the IPCC Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters (2011), the UN Global Assessment of Disaster Risk Reduction (2011) and implementation activities in which the author has been engaged. Most drought early warning systems have tended to focus on the development and use of physical system indicators and forecasts of trends and thresholds. We show that successful early warning systems that meet expectations of risk management also have

  1. Application of Referee Functions to the Vehicle-Born Improvised Explosive Device Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Frederic Dambreville

    2011-01-01

    We propose a solution to the Vehicle-Born Improvised Explosive Device problem. This solution is based on a modelling by belief functions, and involves the construction of a combination rule dedicated to this problem. The construction of the combination rule is made possible by a tool developped in previous works, which is a generic framework dedicated to the construction of combination rules. This tool implies a tripartite architecture, with respective parts...

  2. Development of Pneumatic Aerodynamic Devices to Improve the Performance, Economics, and Safety of Heavy Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert J. Englar

    2000-06-19

    Under contract to the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies, the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) is developing and evaluating pneumatic (blown) aerodynamic devices to improve the performance, economics, stability and safety of operation of Heavy Vehicles. The objective of this program is to apply the pneumatic aerodynamic aircraft technology previously developed and flight-tested by GTRI personnel to the design of an efficient blown tractor-trailer configuration. Recent experimental results obtained by GTRI using blowing have shown drag reductions of 35% on a streamlined automobile wind-tunnel model. Also measured were lift or down-load increases of 100-150% and the ability to control aerodynamic moments about all 3 axes without any moving control surfaces. Similar drag reductions yielded by blowing on bluff afterbody trailers in current US trucking fleet operations are anticipated to reduce yearly fuel consumption by more than 1.2 billion gallons, while even further reduction is possible using pneumatic lift to reduce tire rolling resistance. Conversely, increased drag and down force generated instantaneously by blowing can greatly increase braking characteristics and control in wet/icy weather due to effective ''weight'' increases on the tires. Safety is also enhanced by controlling side loads and moments caused on these Heavy Vehicles by winds, gusts and other vehicles passing. This may also help to eliminate the jack-knifing problem if caused by extreme wind side loads on the trailer. Lastly, reduction of the turbulent wake behind the trailer can reduce splash and spray patterns and rough air being experienced by following vehicles. To be presented by GTRI in this paper will be results developed during the early portion of this effort, including a preliminary systems study, CFD prediction of the blown flowfields, and design of the baseline conventional tractor-trailer model and the pneumatic wind-tunnel model.

  3. Warning Color Changes in Response to Food Deprivation in the Pipevine Swallowtail Butterfly, Battus philenor

    OpenAIRE

    Pegram, Kimberly V.; Nahm, Alexandra C.; Ronald L. Rutowski

    2013-01-01

    Predation on distasteful animals should favor warning coloration that is relatively conspicuous and phenotypically invariable. However, even among similarly colored individuals there can be variation in their warning signals. In butterflies, individual differences in larval feeding history could cause this variation. The warning signal of the pipevine swallowtail butterfly, Battus philenor L. (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) consists of both a blue iridescent patch and pigmentbased orange spots on...

  4. Community participation in tsunami early warning system in Pangandaran town

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadian, Sapari D.; Khadijah, Ute Lies Siti; Saepudin, Encang; Budiono, Agung; Yuliawati, Ayu Krishna

    2017-07-01

    Disaster-resilient communities are communities capable of anticipating and minimizing destructive forces through adaptation. Disaster is an event very close to the people of Indonesia, especially in the small tourism town of Pangadaran located at West Java, Indonesia. On July 17, 2006, the town was hit by a Mw 7.8 earthquake and tsunami that effected over 300 km of the coastline, where the community suffered losses in which more than 600 people were killed, with run up heights exceeding 20 m. The devastation of the tsunami have made the community more alert and together with the local government and other stakeholder develop an Early Warning System for Tsunami. The study is intended to discover issues on tsunami Early Warning System (EWS), disaster risk reduction measures taken and community participation. The research method used is descriptive and explanatory research. The study describe the Tsunami EWS and community based Disaster Risk Reduction in Pangandaran, the implementation of Tsunami alert/EWS in disaster preparedness and observation of community participation in EWS. Data were gathered by secondary data collection, also primary data through interviews, focus group discussions and field observations. Research resulted in a description of EWS implementation, community participation and recommendation to reduce disaster risk in Pangandaran.

  5. Effectiveness of an audible reminder on hand hygiene adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhry, Morkos; Hanna, George B; Anderson, Oliver; Holmes, Alison; Nathwani, Dinesh

    2012-05-01

    Multimodal interventions aim to improve health care workers' adherence to hand hygiene guidelines. Visitors are not primarily targeted, but may spread epidemic infections. Effective interventions that improve the adherence of visitors to hand hygiene guidelines are needed to prevent the transmission of epidemic infections to or from health care environments. An electronic motion sensor-triggered audible hand hygiene reminder was installed at hospital ward entrances. An 8-month preinterventional and postinterventional study was carried out to measure the adherence of hospital visitors and staff to hand hygiene guidelines. Overall hand hygiene adherence increased from 7.6% to 49.9% (P staff increased immediately from 10.6% to 63.7% and from 5.3% to 34.8%, respectively (P staff (P staff (P = .341). The electronic motion sensor-triggered audible reminder immediately and significantly improved and sustained greater adherence of hospital visitors and clinical staff to hand hygiene guidelines. This is an effective addition to multimodal hand hygiene interventions and may help control epidemic infections. Copyright © 2012 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Gender and Early Warning

    OpenAIRE

    Schmeidl, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    This paper argues that the introduction of gender into early warning will lead to more practical, realistic and usable early warning approaches, especially if early warning is understood as a flexible system that is sensitive to the diverse situations or on the ground necessitating customised solution. A gender-sensitive approach can enhance early warning models in their basic assumption (what we consider as important or not and the questions we are asking), in their modelling (incorporating ...

  7. False alarms and missed events: the impact and origins of perceived inaccuracy in tornado warning systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripberger, Joseph T; Silva, Carol L; Jenkins-Smith, Hank C; Carlson, Deven E; James, Mark; Herron, Kerry G

    2015-01-01

    Theory and conventional wisdom suggest that errors undermine the credibility of tornado warning systems and thus decrease the probability that individuals will comply (i.e., engage in protective action) when future warnings are issued. Unfortunately, empirical research on the influence of warning system accuracy on public responses to tornado warnings is incomplete and inconclusive. This study adds to existing research by analyzing two sets of relationships. First, we assess the relationship between perceptions of accuracy, credibility, and warning response. Using data collected via a large regional survey, we find that trust in the National Weather Service (NWS; the agency responsible for issuing tornado warnings) increases the likelihood that an individual will opt for protective action when responding to a hypothetical warning. More importantly, we find that subjective perceptions of warning system accuracy are, as theory suggests, systematically related to trust in the NWS and (by extension) stated responses to future warnings. The second half of the study matches survey data against NWS warning and event archives to investigate a critical follow-up question--Why do some people perceive that their warning system is accurate, whereas others perceive that their system is error prone? We find that subjective perceptions are--in part-a function of objective experience, knowledge, and demographic characteristics. When considered in tandem, these findings support the proposition that errors influence perceptions about the accuracy of warning systems, which in turn impact the credibility that people assign to information provided by systems and, ultimately, public decisions about how to respond when warnings are issued. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  8. Making Thinking Audible and Visible via Cooperative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, George M.; Wang, Aili; Li, Xishuang; Xie, Yongye

    2008-01-01

    This chapter begins with a section that describes cooperative learning and explains eight cooperative learning principles. The second section looks briefly at why making thinking audible and visible enriches students' thinking. Making thinking audible means that teachers and students speak out what is going through their minds as they do a task,…

  9. Evaluation of the National Weather Service Extreme Cold Warning Experiment in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Cindy H.; Vagi, Sara J.; Wolkin, Amy F.; Martin, John Paul; Noe, Rebecca S.

    2016-01-01

    Dangerously cold weather threatens life and property. During periods of extreme cold due to wind chill, the National Weather Service (NWS) issues wind chill warnings to prompt the public to take action to mitigate risks. Wind chill warnings are based on ambient temperatures and wind speeds. Since 2010, NWS has piloted a new extreme cold warning issued for cold temperatures in wind and nonwind conditions. The North Dakota Department of Health, NWS, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention collaborated in conducting household surveys in Burleigh County, North Dakota, to evaluate this new warning. The objectives of the evaluation were to assess whether residents heard the new warning and to determine if protective behaviors were prompted by the warning. This was a cross-sectional survey design using the Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) methodology to select a statistically representative sample of households from Burleigh County. From 10 to 11 April 2012, 188 door-to-door household interviews were completed. The CASPER methodology uses probability sampling with weighted analysis to estimate the number and percentage of households with a specific response within Burleigh County. The majority of households reported having heard both the extreme cold and wind chill warnings, and both warnings prompted protective behaviors. These results suggest this community heard the new warning and took protective actions after hearing the warning. PMID:27239260

  10. Evaluation of the National Weather Service Extreme Cold Warning Experiment in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Cindy H; Vagi, Sara J; Wolkin, Amy F; Martin, John Paul; Noe, Rebecca S

    2014-01-01

    Dangerously cold weather threatens life and property. During periods of extreme cold due to wind chill, the National Weather Service (NWS) issues wind chill warnings to prompt the public to take action to mitigate risks. Wind chill warnings are based on ambient temperatures and wind speeds. Since 2010, NWS has piloted a new extreme cold warning issued for cold temperatures in wind and nonwind conditions. The North Dakota Department of Health, NWS, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention collaborated in conducting household surveys in Burleigh County, North Dakota, to evaluate this new warning. The objectives of the evaluation were to assess whether residents heard the new warning and to determine if protective behaviors were prompted by the warning. This was a cross-sectional survey design using the Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) methodology to select a statistically representative sample of households from Burleigh County. From 10 to 11 April 2012, 188 door-to-door household interviews were completed. The CASPER methodology uses probability sampling with weighted analysis to estimate the number and percentage of households with a specific response within Burleigh County. The majority of households reported having heard both the extreme cold and wind chill warnings, and both warnings prompted protective behaviors. These results suggest this community heard the new warning and took protective actions after hearing the warning.

  11. [Food safety warnings in public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Castellanos, María S

    2004-05-01

    One of the mechanisms for food alerts management is the rapid interchange of information so that the response takes place the sooner and the impact of the risk can be diminished. The structure of information transmitted, the priority and categorization of the risk, the differentiated treatment of the information, the decision on who must be informed, the confidentiality of information transmitted, and evaluations of it, the reduction of the abuse or the use of precautionary principle are questions that can serve as guidelines for an analysis of the different systems and provide a comparison perspective that can help to improve the exchange of information on risks in the present day global market of foods. The main goal of this article is to provide a proposal for improvement in the food alerts management system in our country through an analysis and comparison of the essential elements of different systems in our context.

  12. Graphic warnings and text warning labels on cigarette packages in Riyadh Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Awareness and perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda Jradi

    2018-01-01

    CONCLUSIONS: The study suggests that while graphic warning labels are perceived as necessary on cigarette packages the currently used messages are not clear and therefore do not serve their intended purposes. Measures should be undertaken to ensure that pictorial cigarette labels used in Saudi Arabia are culturally and ethnically appropriate and are rotated on a regular basis to ensure salience among smokers and nonsmokers alike.

  13. [Establishment of malaria early warning system in Jiangsu Province III effect of automatic early warning information system on the response of malaria elimination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Ming; Zhou, Hua-Yun; Liu, Yao-Bao; Cao, Yuan-Yuan; Cao, Jun; Gao, Qi

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of automatic early warning information system on the response of malaria elimination in Jiangsu Province through the operation of the national automatic early warning system of infectious diseases. The malaria early warning information was collected from the automatic early warning information subsystem in the national information system for diseases control and prevention. Malaria early warning signals were analyzed from September 1 to December 31, 2012. The statistical analysis was conducted for the completion rates of case investigation within 3 days before and after the application of malaria early warning information system. Jiangsu Province received 85 mobile phone short messages (SMS) of malaria case from early warning system from September 1 to December 31, 2012. After judgments, 23 cases were deleted including 8 repeated cases and 15 cases that were excluded through the microscopy examination and epidemiological investigation by the confirmation of county CDC. From July to December in 2012, the monthly completion rates of case investigation within 3 days were 55.56%, 78.57%, 90.00%, 100%, 100% and 100%, respectively. The completion rates of case investigation within 3 days in July, August, September and October were significantly different by chi2 test ( chi2 = 10.66, P system. The malaria warning system from the national infectious diseases can effectively improve the response to malaria cases for primary CDC. It also plays an important role for the timely confirmation and diagnosis of malaria cases.

  14. Audible sound treatment of the microalgae Picochlorum oklahomensis for enhancing biomass productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Weiming; Dunford, Nurhan Turgut; Wang, Ning; Zhu, Songming; He, Huinong

    2016-02-01

    It has been reported in the literature that exposure of microalgae cells to audible sound could promote growth. This study examined the effect of sound waves with the frequency of 1100 Hz, 2200 Hz, and 3300 Hz to stimulate the biomass productivity of an Oklahoma native strain, Picochlorum oklahomensis (PO). The effect of the frequency of sound on biomass mass was measured. This study demonstrated that audible sound treatment of the algae cultures at 2200 Hz was the most effective in terms of biomass production and volumetric oil yield. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Geoethical issues involved in Tsunami Warning System concepts and operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalampakis, Marinos; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos A.; Tinti, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    The main goal of a Tsunami Warning System (TWS) is to mitigate the effect of an incoming tsunami by alerting coastal population early enough to allow people to evacuate safely from inundation zones. Though this representation might seem oversimplified, nonetheless, achieving successfully this goal requires a positive synergy of geoscience, communication, emergency management, technology, education, social sciences, politics. Geoethical issues arise always when there is an interaction between geoscience and society, and TWS is a paradigmatic case where interaction is very strong and is made critical because a) the formulation of the tsunami alert has to be made in a time as short as possible and therefore on uncertain data, and b) any evaluation error (underestimation or overestimation) can lead to serious (and sometimes catastrophic) consequences involving wide areas and a large amount of population. From the geoethical point of view three issues are critical: how to (i) combine forecasts and uncertainties reasonably and usefully, (ii) cope and possibly solve the dilemma whether it is better over-alerting or under-alerting population and (iii) deal with responsibility and liability of geoscientists, TWS operators, emergency operators and coastal population. The discussion will be based on the experience of the Hellenic National Tsunami Warning Center (HL-NTWC, Greece), which operates on 24/7 basis as a special unit of the Institute of Geodynamics, National Observatory of Athens, and acts also as Candidate Tsunami Service Provider (CTSP) in the framework of the North-Eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and connected seas Tsunami Warning System (NEAMTWS) of the IOC/UNESCO. Since August 2012, when HL-NTWC was officially declared as operational, 14 tsunami warning messages have been disseminated to a large number of subscribers after strong submarine earthquakes occurring in Greece and elsewhere in the eastern Mediterranean. It is recognized that the alerting process

  16. Light Aircraft Piston Engine Carburetor Ice Detector/Warning Device Sensitivity/Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    serious reduction in Lae power develope], as well as the hazard of eiigine damage. It siiula br noted that carburetor heat is rarely neeied for urief...moed for cleaninn v.ith a soft cloth anid white :oiine. Copy available to DTIC does not permit fully legible repi rduction APPENDIX D RICHTER AERO

  17. 30 CFR 75.1103-4 - Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; installation; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... systems that use carbon monoxide sensors shall provide identification of fire along all belt conveyors. (1... examination for hot rollers and fire in the operating belts of a conveyor system shall be completed within 2... examination for hot rollers and fire on the operating belts of a conveyor system may commence not more than 30...

  18. Warning systems and public warning response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, J.H.

    1993-09-01

    This background paper reviews current knowledge on warning systems and human response to warnings. It expands on an earlier paper prepared for a workshop on the Second Assessment on Natural Hazards, held in Estes Park, Colorado in July 1992. Although it has a North American perspective, many of the lessons learned are universally applicable. The paper addresses warning systems in terms of dissemination and does not cover physical science issues associated with prediction and forecast. Finally, it covers hazards with relatively short lead times -- 48 hours or less. It does not address topics such as long-term forecasts of earthquakes or volcanic eruptions or early famine warning systems.

  19. The Construction of Early-warning Index System in Regional Circular Economy of China

    OpenAIRE

    Kang Yanqing; Zhang Rui

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the model of early warning system for circular economy development system was studied, the early-warning system for circular economy provides a quantitative model to support the pollution control. Specifically, this paper built an early warning index system of regional circular economy, and put forward the measure model for the development of circular economy. In addition, this paper constructed prediction model of the circulation economy development. Finally, by the proposed e...

  20. Apollo Spacecraft and Saturn V Launch Vehicle Pyrotechnics/Explosive Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The Apollo Mission employs more than 210 pyrotechnic devices per mission.These devices are either automatic of commanded from the Apollo spacecraft systems. All devices require high reliability and safety and most are classified as either crew safety critical or mission critical. Pyrotechnic devices have a wide variety of applications including: launch escape tower separation, separation rocket ignition, parachute deployment and release and electrical circuit opening and closing. This viewgraph presentation identifies critical performance, design requirements and safety measures used to ensure quality, reliability and performance of Apollo pyrotechnic/explosive devices. The major components and functions of a typical Apollo pyrotechnic/explosive device are listed and described (initiators, cartridge assemblies, detonators, core charges). The presentation also identifies the major locations and uses for the devices on: the Command and Service Module, Lunar Module and all stages of the launch vehicle.

  1. Cigarette pack warning labels in Russia: how graphic should they be?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Benjamin; Merrill, Ray M; Lindsay, Gordon B

    2011-06-01

    Tobacco warning labels on cigarette packs have been shown to reduce cigarette consumption. The current study measures the Russian population's acceptance and preference of graphic (picture + text) tobacco warning labels. Nationally representative data were collected from 1778 participants in the Russian Federation in October 2009. A cross-sectional survey was conducted through person-to-person household interviews with respondents aged ≥ 14 years. Survey questions included standard demographic queries and three study-specific questions. Participants rated the strength of 13 cigarette warning labels according to their effectiveness to deter from smoking. Smoking status and the population's acceptance of similar warning labels was also measured. A dose-response pattern is apparent between the degree of graphic content of cigarette warning labels and the public's perception regarding the warning label's ability to discourage smoking. Approximately 87% of all respondents thought Russian authorities should require tobacco manufacturers to place graphic warning labels on cigarette packs, while 80% of current smokers wanted their government to enact such enforcement. The Russian population would strongly support government policy that would require graphic warning labels to be placed on cigarette packs in their country. In order to best deter from smoking, future cigarette warning labels in Russia should be as graphic as possible.

  2. Early warning signs in social-ecological networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suweis, Samir; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    A number of social-ecological systems exhibit complex behaviour associated with nonlinearities, bifurcations, and interaction with stochastic drivers. These systems are often prone to abrupt and unexpected instabilities and state shifts that emerge as a discontinuous response to gradual changes in environmental drivers. Predicting such behaviours is crucial to the prevention of or preparation for unwanted regime shifts. Recent research in ecology has investigated early warning signs that anticipate the divergence of univariate ecosystem dynamics from a stable attractor. To date, leading indicators of instability in systems with multiple interacting components have remained poorly investigated. This is a major limitation in the understanding of the dynamics of complex social-ecological networks. Here, we develop a theoretical framework to demonstrate that rising variance--measured, for example, by the maximum element of the covariance matrix of the network--is an effective leading indicator of network instability. We show that its reliability and robustness depend more on the sign of the interactions within the network than the network structure or noise intensity. Mutualistic, scale free and small world networks are less stable than their antagonistic or random counterparts but their instability is more reliably predicted by this leading indicator. These results provide new advances in multidimensional early warning analysis and offer a framework to evaluate the resilience of social-ecological networks.

  3. Early warning signs in social-ecological networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Suweis

    Full Text Available A number of social-ecological systems exhibit complex behaviour associated with nonlinearities, bifurcations, and interaction with stochastic drivers. These systems are often prone to abrupt and unexpected instabilities and state shifts that emerge as a discontinuous response to gradual changes in environmental drivers. Predicting such behaviours is crucial to the prevention of or preparation for unwanted regime shifts. Recent research in ecology has investigated early warning signs that anticipate the divergence of univariate ecosystem dynamics from a stable attractor. To date, leading indicators of instability in systems with multiple interacting components have remained poorly investigated. This is a major limitation in the understanding of the dynamics of complex social-ecological networks. Here, we develop a theoretical framework to demonstrate that rising variance--measured, for example, by the maximum element of the covariance matrix of the network--is an effective leading indicator of network instability. We show that its reliability and robustness depend more on the sign of the interactions within the network than the network structure or noise intensity. Mutualistic, scale free and small world networks are less stable than their antagonistic or random counterparts but their instability is more reliably predicted by this leading indicator. These results provide new advances in multidimensional early warning analysis and offer a framework to evaluate the resilience of social-ecological networks.

  4. Sharing Data between Mobile Devices, Connected Vehicles and Infrastructure Task 4 / Task 10 : System Architecture and Design Document (SA/DD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-27

    This report describes the system architecture and design of the Experimental Prototype System (EPS) for the demonstration of the use of mobile devices in a connected vehicle environment. Specifically, it defines the system structure and behavior, the...

  5. Early warning indicators for challenges in underground coal storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipilä, Juha; Auerkari, Pertti; Holmström, Stefan; Vela, Iris

    2014-12-01

    Early warning or leading indicators are discussed for unexpected incidences in case of large-scale underground coal storage at a power plant. The experience is compared with above-ground stockpiles for which established procedures are available but where access for prevention and mitigation are much easier. It is suggested that while the explicit organization, procedures, and the general safety systems aim to provide the targeted levels of performance for the storage, representing new technology without much precedence elsewhere in the world, the extensive experience and tacit knowledge from above-ground open and closed storage systems can help to prepare for and to prevent unwanted incidents in the underground storage. This kind of experience has been also found useful for developing the leading or early warning indicators for underground storage. Examples are given on observed autoignition and freezing of coal in the storage silos, and on occupational hazards. Selection of the leading indicators needs to consider the specific features of the unique underground facility. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  6. A HAB warning system for shellfish harvesting in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A; Pinto, L; Rodrigues, S M; de Pablo, H; Santos, M; Moita, T; Mateus, M

    2016-03-01

    The development of sustainable shellfish aquaculture is highly dependent on the provision of reliable monitoring and predictive information on the occurrence of harmful algal blooms (HABs). The Portuguese HAB early warning system and shellfish closures presented here is a prototype, developed in the ASIMUTH project. It relies on weekly monitoring data composed of observations of HAB species and toxin concentrations within shellfish, and ocean circulation forecasts generated by an operational oceanographic model. The shellfish harvesting areas comprise coastal areas, estuaries+rías and coastal lagoons. The weekly bulletin characterizes the current shellfish closure situation and next week's forecasts for potentially impacted areas. The period analyzed ranged from 27 July 2013 to 17 March 2014, and describes the first skill assessment of the warning system. The forecast accuracy was evaluated, considering the number of forecasts that were verified to be correct the following week (85%) as well as the number of events not forecasted (false negatives, 12%) and those expected but did not occur (false positives, 3%). Variations were most visible in the first weeks of bulletin implementation and during autumn-winter months. The complementary use of field data, remote sensing and operational models led to more accurate predictions of blooms and range of the event. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Predictors of compliance with tornado warnings issued in Joplin, Missouri, in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Bimal Kanti; Stimers, Mitchel; Caldas, Marcellus

    2015-01-01

    Joplin, a city in the southwest corner of Missouri, United States, suffered an EF-5 tornado in the late afternoon of 22 May 2011. This event, which claimed the lives of 162 people, represents the deadliest single tornado to strike the US since modern record-keeping began in 1950. This study examines the factors associated with responses to tornado warnings. Based on a post-tornado survey of survivors in Joplin, it reveals that tornado warnings were adequate and timely. Multivariate logistic regression identified four statistically significant determinants of compliance with tornado warnings: number of warning sources, whether respondents were at home when the tornado struck, past tornado experience, and gender. The findings suggest several recommendations, the implementation of which will further improve responses to tornado warnings. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.

  8. Users’ Perception And Reported Effects Of Long-term Access To In-Vehicle Traffic Information Services Mediated Through Nomadic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skoglund Tor

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ICT-mediated traffic information has been argued to contribute to a more sustainable transport system through affecting drivers. Nevertheless, long-term effects of travellers having access to nomadic in-vehicle systems for traveller information are not well known. This study presents the results from a multi-national large-scale field operational test (FOT. The results show that the users in general were positive to the tested systems and that there were several effects on their driving behaviour but in many cases the effects were limited. Moreover the effects varied between system types. Positive effects were related to comfort, as well as individual and system efficiency. One could also notice that perceived effects were not as high as the participants had expected, leading to some disappointment. Most of the times this was due to the tested systems functioning in a less than optimal way.

  9. 16 CFR 307.12 - Rotation, display, and dissemination of warning statements in smokeless tobacco advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... satisfactory plan for advertising in newspapers, magazines, or other periodicals could provide for rotation... warning statements in smokeless tobacco advertising. 307.12 Section 307.12 Commercial Practices FEDERAL... warning statements in smokeless tobacco advertising. (a) In the case of advertising for a smokeless...

  10. In-vehicle human factors for integrated multi-function systems: Making ITS user-friendly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spelt, P.F.; Scott, S.

    1998-04-01

    As more and more Intelligent Transportation System in-vehicle equipment enters the general consumer market, the authors are about to find out how different design engineers are from ordinary drivers. Driver information systems are being developed and installed in vehicles at an ever-increasing rate. These systems provide information on diverse topics of concern and convenience to the driver, such as routing and navigation, emergency and collision warnings, and a variety of motorists services, or yellow pages functions. Most of these systems are being developed and installed in isolation from each other, with separate means of gathering the information and of displaying it to the driver. The current lack of coordination among on-board systems threatens to create a situation in which different messages on separate displays will be competing with each other for the drivers attention. Urgent messages may go unnoticed, and the number of messages may distract the driver from the most critical task of controlling the vehicle. Thus, without good human factors design and engineering for integrating multiple systems in the vehicle, consumers may find ITS systems confusing and frustrating to use. The current state of the art in human factors research and design for in-vehicle systems has a number of fundamental gaps. Some of these gaps were identified during the Intelligent Vehicle Initiative Human Factors Technology Workshop, sponsored by the US Department of Transportation, in Troy, Michigan, December 10--11, 1997. One task for workshop participants was to identify needed research areas or topics relating to in-vehicle human factors. The top ten unmet research needs from this workshop are presented. Many of these gaps in human factors research knowledge indicate the need for standardization in the functioning of interfaces for safety-related devices such as collision avoidance systems (CAS) and adaptive cruise controls (ACC). Such standards and guidelines will serve to make

  11. SNAKE LINE ANALYSIS FOR LAHAR FLOW WARNING SYSTEM (CASE STUDY IN PUTIH RIVER, MOUNT MERAPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Yulinsa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lahar flow in the region of Mount Merapi after an eruption of 2010 is still considered potentially to happen and threat the region along the river from the upstream. The development of warning criteria against the potential occurrence of lahar flow is a thing that should be done continuously to accommodate dynamics data availability (rainfall data and lahar flow occurrence data, although with limited data. This study aims to develop lahar warning system applying snake line as a rain phenomenon in Putih catchment area which will affect the occurrence of lahar flow and to evaluate the success rate of snake line for deciding the warning system. This study used the main reference from Guidelines for Development of Warning and Evacuation System against Sediment Disasters in Developing Countries released by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport Infrastructure Development Institute – Japan (2004. This research was conducted through several stages, i.e. secondary data collection in the form of rainfall data, lahar flow occurrence data, making correlation graph between rainfall intensity and working rainfall, determination of critical line, warning line and evacuation line. The results show that standard rainfall for warning and evacuation alert in Putih River are 22 mm, and 49 mm, respectively. The accuracy of warning criteria and the evacuation criteria against snake line for warning line is 30%, evacuation line is 61% and the critical line is 83%. The behavior of snake line that indicates lahar flow occurrence in Putih River forming an angle of 40o up to 45o.

  12. Assessing the Applicability of Earthquake Early Warning in Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massin, F.; Clinton, J. F.; Behr, Y.; Strauch, W.; Cauzzi, C.; Boese, M.; Talavera, E.; Tenorio, V.; Ramirez, J.

    2016-12-01

    Nicaragua, like much of Central America, suffers from frequent damaging earthquakes (6 M7+ earthquakes occurred in the last 100 years). Thrust events occur at the Middle America Trench where the Cocos plate subducts by 72-81 mm/yr eastward beneath the Caribbean plate. Shallow crustal events occur on-shore, with potential extensive damage as demonstrated in 1972 by a M6.2 earthquake, 5 km beneath Managua. This seismotectonic setting is challenging for Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) because the target events derive from both the offshore seismicity, with potentially large lead times but uncertain locations, and shallow seismicity in close proximity to densely urbanized areas, where an early warning would be short if available at all. Nevertheless, EEW could reduce Nicaragua's earthquake exposure. The Swiss Development and Cooperation Fund and the Nicaraguan Government have funded a collaboration between the Swiss Seismological Service (SED) at ETH Zurich and the Nicaraguan Geosciences Institute (INETER) in Managua to investigate and build a prototype EEW system for Nicaragua and the wider region. In this contribution, we present the potential of EEW to effectively alert Nicaragua and the neighbouring regions. We model alert time delays using all available seismic stations (existing and planned) in the region, as well as communication and processing delays (observed and optimal) to estimate current and potential performances of EEW alerts. Theoretical results are verified with the output from the Virtual Seismologist in SeisComP3 (VS(SC3)). VS(SC3) is implemented in the INETER SeisComP3 system for real-time operation and as an offline instance, that simulates real-time operation, to record processing delays of playback events. We compare our results with similar studies for Europe, California and New Zealand. We further highlight current capabilities and challenges for providing EEW alerts in Nicaragua. We also discuss how combining different algorithms, like e.g. VS

  13. Early warning system for Douglas-fir tussock moth outbreaks in the Western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary E. Daterman; John M. Wenz; Katharine A. Sheehan

    2004-01-01

    The Early Warning System is a pheromone-based trapping system used to detect outbreaks of Douglas-fir tussock moth (DFTM, Orgyia pseudotsugata) in the western United States. Millions of acres are susceptible to DFTM defoliation, but Early Warning System monitoring focuses attention only on the relatively limited areas where outbreaks may be...

  14. Viewing alcohol warning advertising reduces urges to drink in young adults: an online experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Stautz, Kaidy; Marteau, Theresa M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Tobacco counter-advertising is effective at promoting smoking cessation. Few studies have evaluated the impact of alcohol warning advertising on alcohol consumption and possible mechanisms of effect. This pilot study aimed to assess whether alcohol warning advertising is effective in reducing urges to drink alcohol, if emotional responses to advertising explain any such effect or perceived effectiveness, and whether e...

  15. Early-warning signals of topological collapse in interbank networks

    CERN Document Server

    Squartini, Tiziano; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2013-01-01

    The financial crisis marked a paradigm shift, from traditional studies of individual risk to recent research on the "systemic risk" generated by whole networks of institutions. However, the reverse effects of realized defaults on network topology are poorly understood. Here we analyze the Dutch interbank network over the period 1998-2008, ending with the global crisis. We find that many topological properties, after controlling for overall density effects, display an abrupt change in 2008, thus providing a clear but unpredictable signature of the crisis. By contrast, if the intrinsic heterogeneity of banks is controlled for, the same properties undergo a slow and continuous transition, gradually connecting the crisis period to a much earlier stationary phase. This early-warning signal begins in 2005, and is preceded by an even earlier period of "risk autocatalysis" characterized by anomalous debt loops. These remarkable precursors are undetectable if the network is reconstructed from partial bank-specific inf...

  16. Early warning signals of desertification transitions in semiarid ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrado, Raffaele; Cherubini, Anna Maria; Pennetta, Cecilia

    2014-12-01

    The identification of early warning signals for regime shifts in ecosystems is of crucial importance given their impact in terms of economic and social effects. We present here the results of a theoretical study on the desertification transition in semiarid ecosystems under external stress. We performed numerical simulations based on a stochastic cellular automaton model, and we studied the dynamics of the vegetation clusters in terms of percolation theory, assumed as an effective tool for analyzing the geometrical properties of the clusters. Focusing on the role played by the strength of external stresses, measured by the mortality rate m, we followed the progressive degradation of the ecosystem for increasing m, identifying different stages: first, the fragmentation transition occurring at relatively low values of m, then the desertification transition at higher mortality rates, and finally the full desertification transition corresponding to the extinction of the vegetation and the almost complete degradation of the soil, attained at the maximum value of m. For each transition we calculated the spanning probabilities as functions of m and the percolation thresholds according to different spanning criteria. The identification of the different thresholds is proposed as an useful tool for monitoring the increasing degradation of real-world finite-size systems. Moreover, we studied the time fluctuations of the sizes of the biggest clusters of vegetated and nonvegetated cells over the entire range of mortality values. The change of sign in the skewness of the size distributions, occurring at the fragmentation threshold for the biggest vegetation cluster and at the desertification threshold for the nonvegetated cluster, offers new early warning signals for desertification. Other new and robust indicators are given by the maxima of the root-mean-square deviation of the distributions, which are attained respectively inside the fragmentation interval, for the vegetated

  17. Malaria stratification, climate, and epidemic early warning in Eritrea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccato, Pietro; Ghebremeskel, Tewolde; Jaiteh, Malanding; Graves, Patricia M; Levy, Marc; Ghebreselassie, Shashu; Ogbamariam, Andom; Barnston, Anthony G; Bell, Michael; del Corral, John; Connor, Stephen J; Fesseha, Issac; Brantly, Eugene P; Thomson, Madeleine C

    2007-12-01

    Eritrea has a successful malaria control program, but it is still susceptible to devastating malaria epidemics. Monthly data on clinical malaria cases from 242 health facilities in 58 subzobas (districts) of Eritrea from 1996 to 2003 were used in a novel stratification process using principal component analysis and nonhierarchical clustering to define five areas with distinct malaria intensity and seasonality patterns, to guide future interventions and development of an epidemic early warning system. Relationships between monthly clinical malaria incidence by subzoba and monthly climate data from several sources, and with seasonal climate forecasts, were investigated. Remotely sensed climate data were averaged over the same subzoba geographic administrative units as the malaria cases. Although correlation was good between malaria anomalies and actual rainfall from ground stations (lagged by 2 months), the stations did not have sufficiently even coverage to be widely useful. Satellite derived rainfall from the Climate Prediction Center Merged Analysis of Precipitation was correlated with malaria incidence anomalies, with a lead time of 2-3 months. NDVI anomalies were highly correlated with malaria incidence anomalies, particularly in the semi-arid north of the country and along the northern Red Sea coast, which is a highly epidemic-prone area. Eritrea has 2 distinct rainy seasons in different parts of the country. The seasonal forecasting skill from Global Circulation Models for the June/July/August season was low except for the Eastern border. For the coastal October/November/December season, forecasting skill was good only during the 1997-1998 El Niño event. For epidemic control, shorter-range warning based on remotely sensed rainfall estimates and an enhanced epidemic early-detection system based on data derived for this study are needed.

  18. Smartphone-Based Earthquake and Tsunami Early Warning in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, B. A.; Baez, J. C.; Ericksen, T.; Barrientos, S. E.; Minson, S. E.; Duncan, C.; Guillemot, C.; Smith, D.; Boese, M.; Cochran, E. S.; Murray, J. R.; Langbein, J. O.; Glennie, C. L.; Dueitt, J.; Parra, H.

    2016-12-01

    Many locations around the world face high seismic hazard, but do not have the resources required to establish traditional earthquake and tsunami warning systems (E/TEW) that utilize scientific grade seismological sensors. MEMs accelerometers and GPS chips embedded in, or added inexpensively to, smartphones are sensitive enough to provide robust E/TEW if they are deployed in sufficient numbers. We report on a pilot project in Chile, one of the most productive earthquake regions world-wide. There, magnitude 7.5+ earthquakes occurring roughly every 1.5 years and larger tsunamigenic events pose significant local and trans-Pacific hazard. The smartphone-based network described here is being deployed in parallel to the build-out of a scientific-grade network for E/TEW. Our sensor package comprises a smartphone with internal MEMS and an external GPS chipset that provides satellite-based augmented positioning and phase-smoothing. Each station is independent of local infrastructure, they are solar-powered and rely on cellular SIM cards for communications. An Android app performs initial onboard processing and transmits both accelerometer and GPS data to a server employing the FinDer-BEFORES algorithm to detect earthquakes, producing an acceleration-based line source model for smaller magnitude earthquakes or a joint seismic-geodetic finite-fault distributed slip model for sufficiently large magnitude earthquakes. Either source model provides accurate ground shaking forecasts, while distributed slip models for larger offshore earthquakes can be used to infer seafloor deformation for local tsunami warning. The network will comprise 50 stations by Sept. 2016 and 100 stations by Dec. 2016. Since Nov. 2015, batch processing has detected, located, and estimated the magnitude for Mw>5 earthquakes. Operational since June, 2016, we have successfully detected two earthquakes > M5 (M5.5, M5.1) that occurred within 100km of our network while producing zero false alarms.

  19. Desire versus efficacy in smokers' paradoxical reactions to pictorial health warnings for cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romer, Daniel; Peters, Ellen; Strasser, Andrew A; Langleben, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Pictorial health warnings on cigarette packs create aversive emotional reactions to smoking and induce thoughts about quitting; however, contrary to models of health behavior change, they do not appear to alter intentions to quit smoking. We propose and test a novel model of intention to quit an addictive habit such as smoking (the efficacy-desire model) that can explain this paradoxical effect. At the core of the model is the prediction that self-efficacy and desire to quit an addictive habit are inversely related. We tested the model in an online experiment that randomly exposed smokers (N = 3297) to a cigarette pack with one of three increasing levels of warning intensity. The results supported the model's prediction that despite the effects of warnings on aversion to smoking, intention to quit smoking is an inverted U-shape function of the smoker's self-efficacy for quitting. In addition, smokers with greater (lesser) quit efficacy relative to smoking efficacy increase (decrease) intentions to quit. The findings show that previous failures to observe effects of pictorial warning labels on quit intentions can be explained by the contradictory individual differences that warnings produce. Thus, the model explains the paradoxical finding that quit intentions do not change at the population level, even though smokers recognize the implications of warnings. The model suggests that pictorial warnings are effective for smokers with stronger quit-efficacy beliefs and provides guidance for how cigarette warnings and tobacco control strategies can be designed to help smokers quit.

  20. Desire versus efficacy in smokers' paradoxical reactions to pictorial health warnings for cigarettes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Romer

    Full Text Available Pictorial health warnings on cigarette packs create aversive emotional reactions to smoking and induce thoughts about quitting; however, contrary to models of health behavior change, they do not appear to alter intentions to quit smoking. We propose and test a novel model of intention to quit an addictive habit such as smoking (the efficacy-desire model that can explain this paradoxical effect. At the core of the model is the prediction that self-efficacy and desire to quit an addictive habit are inversely related. We tested the model in an online experiment that randomly exposed smokers (N = 3297 to a cigarette pack with one of three increasing levels of warning intensity. The results supported the model's prediction that despite the effects of warnings on aversion to smoking, intention to quit smoking is an inverted U-shape function of the smoker's self-efficacy for quitting. In addition, smokers with greater (lesser quit efficacy relative to smoking efficacy increase (decrease intentions to quit. The findings show that previous failures to observe effects of pictorial warning labels on quit intentions can be explained by the contradictory individual differences that warnings produce. Thus, the model explains the paradoxical finding that quit intentions do not change at the population level, even though smokers recognize the implications of warnings. The model suggests that pictorial warnings are effective for smokers with stronger quit-efficacy beliefs and provides guidance for how cigarette warnings and tobacco control strategies can be designed to help smokers quit.

  1. Impacts of Fog Characteristics, Forward Illumination, and Warning Beacon Intensity Distribution on Roadway Hazard Visibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. Bullough

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Warning beacons are critical for the safety of transportation, construction, and utility workers. These devices need to produce sufficient luminous intensity to be visible without creating glare to drivers. Published standards for the photometric performance of warning beacons do not address their performance in conditions of reduced visibility such as fog. Under such conditions light emitted in directions other than toward approaching drivers can create scattered light that makes workers and other hazards less visible. Simulations of visibility of hazards under varying conditions of fog density, forward vehicle lighting, warning beacon luminous intensity, and intensity distribution were performed to assess their impacts on visual performance by drivers. Each of these factors can influence the ability of drivers to detect and identify workers and hazards along the roadway in work zones. Based on the results, it would be reasonable to specify maximum limits on the luminous intensity of warning beacons in directions that are unlikely to be seen by drivers along the roadway, limits which are not included in published performance specifications.

  2. Application of the Haines Index in the fire warning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalin, Lovro; Marija, Mokoric; Tomislav, Kozaric

    2016-04-01

    Croatia, as all Mediterranean countries, is strongly affected by large wildfires, particularly in the coastal region. In the last two decades the number and intensity of fires has been significantly increased, which is unanimously associated with climate change, e.g. global warming. More extreme fires are observed, and the fire-fighting season has been expanded to June and September. The meteorological support for fire protection and planning is therefore even more important. At the Meteorological and Hydrological Service of Croatia a comprehensive monitoring and warning system has been established. It includes standard components, such as short term forecast of Fire Weather Index (FWI), but long range forecast as well. However, due to more frequent hot and dry seasons, FWI index often does not provide additional information of extremely high fire danger, since it regularly takes the highest values for long periods. Therefore the additional tools have been investigated. One of widely used meteorological products is the Haines index (HI). It provides information of potential fire growth, taking into account only the vertical instability of the atmosphere, and not the state of the fuel. Several analyses and studies carried out at the Service confirmed the correlation of high HI values with large and extreme fires. The Haines index forecast has been used at the Service for several years, employing European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) global prediction model, as well as the limited-area Aladin model. The verification results show that these forecast are reliable, when compared to radiosonde measurements. All these results provided the introduction of the additional fire warnings, that are issued by the Service's Forecast Department.

  3. Real time remote monitoring and pre-warning system for Highway landslide in mountain area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yonghui; Li, Hongxu; Sheng, Qian; Wu, Kai; Chen, Guoliang

    2011-06-01

    The wire-pulling trigger displacement meter with precision of 1 mm and the grid pluviometer with precision of 0.1 mm are used to monitor the surface displacement and rainfall for Highway slope, and the measured data are transferred to the remote computer in real time by general packet radio service (GPRS) net of China telecom. The wire-pulling trigger displacement meter, grid pluviometer, data acquisition and transmission unit, and solar power supply device are integrated to form a comprehensive monitoring hardware system for Highway landslide in mountain area, which proven to be economical, energy-saving, automatic and high efficient. Meantime, based on the map and geographic information system (MAPGIS) platform, the software system is also developed for three dimensional (3D) geology modeling and visualization, data inquiring and drawing, stability calculation, displacement forecasting, and real time pre-warning. Moreover, the pre-warning methods based on monitoring displacement and rainfall are discussed. The monitoring and forecasting system for Highway landslide has been successfully applied in engineering practice to provide security for Highway transportation and construction and reduce environment disruption. Copyright © 2011 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The influence of audibility on speech recognition with nonlinear frequency compression for children and adults with hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreery, Ryan W; Alexander, Joshua; Brennan, Marc A; Hoover, Brenda; Kopun, Judy; Stelmachowicz, Patricia G

    2014-01-01

    The primary goal of nonlinear frequency compression (NFC) and other frequency-lowering strategies is to increase the audibility of high-frequency sounds that are not otherwise audible with conventional hearing aid (HA) processing due to the degree of hearing loss, limited HA bandwidth, or a combination of both factors. The aim of the present study was to compare estimates of speech audibility processed by NFC with improvements in speech recognition for a group of children and adults with high-frequency hearing loss. Monosyllabic word recognition was measured in noise for 24 adults and 12 children with mild to severe sensorineural hearing loss. Stimuli were amplified based on each listener's audiogram with conventional processing (CP) with amplitude compression or with NFC and presented under headphones using a software-based HA simulator. A modification of the speech intelligibility index (SII) was used to estimate audibility of information in frequency-lowered bands. The mean improvement in SII was compared with the mean improvement in speech recognition. All but 2 listeners experienced improvements in speech recognition with NFC compared with CP, consistent with the small increase in audibility that was estimated using the modification of the SII. Children and adults had similar improvements in speech recognition with NFC. Word recognition with NFC was higher than CP for children and adults with mild to severe hearing loss. The average improvement in speech recognition with NFC (7%) was consistent with the modified SII, which indicated that listeners experienced an increase in audibility with NFC compared with CP. Further studies are necessary to determine whether changes in audibility with NFC are related to speech recognition with NFC for listeners with greater degrees of hearing loss, with a greater variety of compression settings, and using auditory training.

  5. A pass-over-obstacle device for robotized vehicles; Dispositif de franchissement d`obstacles pour engin robotise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Littmann, F.

    1995-06-16

    A device that can be fitted on a robotized vehicle for the up- or down-over-passing of obstacles such as stairs or kerbs, is presented: a supporting bar is fixed to the vehicle structure and rotates independently from the wheels of the vehicle, thus taking its bearing on the step of the kerb or stairs. Application to industrial robotized vehicles or wheel-chairs for the disables. 10 fig.

  6. Sensing and detoxification devices in public building spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traberg-Borup, Steen; Gunnarsen, Lars Bo; Afshari, Alireza

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes commonly used ventilation principles and where sensig and detoxification devices could be integrated in public buidings in an effort to warn and protect citizens against surprise attacks by toxic agents. The release of toxic agents may be outdoors, in a single indoor spot...

  7. Health-based audible noise guidelines account for infrasound and low-frequency noise produced by wind turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Robert G; Ashtiani, Payam; Ollson, Christopher A; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa; McCallum, Lindsay C; Leventhall, Geoff; Knopper, Loren D

    2015-01-01

    Setbacks for wind turbines have been established in many jurisdictions to address potential health concerns associated with audible noise. However, in recent years, it has been suggested that infrasound (IS) and low-frequency noise (LFN) could be responsible for the onset of adverse health effects self-reported by some individuals living in proximity to wind turbines, even when audible noise limits are met. The purpose of this paper was to investigate whether current audible noise-based guidelines for wind turbines account for the protection of human health, given the levels of IS and LFN typically produced by wind turbines. New field measurements of indoor IS and outdoor LFN at locations between 400 and 900 m from the nearest turbine, which were previously underrepresented in the scientific literature, are reported and put into context with existing published works. Our analysis showed that indoor IS levels were below auditory threshold levels while LFN levels at distances >500 m were similar to background LFN levels. A clear contribution to LFN due to wind turbine operation (i.e., measured with turbines on in comparison to with turbines off) was noted at a distance of 480 m. However, this corresponded to an increase in overall audible sound measures as reported in dB(A), supporting the hypothesis that controlling audible sound produced by normally operating wind turbines will also control for LFN. Overall, the available data from this and other studies suggest that health-based audible noise wind turbine siting guidelines provide an effective means to evaluate, monitor, and protect potential receptors from audible noise as well as IS and LFN.

  8. Health-based Audible Noise Guidelines Account for Infrasound and Low Frequency Noise Produced by Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G Berger

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Setbacks for wind turbines have been established in many jurisdictions to address potential health concerns associated with audible noise. However, in recent years it has been suggested that infrasound (IS and low frequency noise (LFN could be responsible for the onset of adverse health effects self-reported by some individuals living in proximity to wind turbines, even when audible noise limits are met. The purpose of this paper was to investigate whether current audible noise-based guidelines for wind turbines account for the protection of human health, given the levels of IS and LFN typically produced by wind turbines. New field measurements of indoor IS and outdoor LFN at locations between 400 m and 900 m from the nearest turbine, which were previously underrepresented in the scientific literature, are reported and put into context with existing published works. Our analysis showed that indoor IS levels were below auditory threshold levels while LFN levels at distances >500 m were similar to background LFN levels. A clear contribution to LFN due to wind turbine operation (i.e., measured with turbines on in comparison to with turbines off was noted at a distance of 480 m. However, this corresponded to an increase in overall audible sound measures as reported in dB(A, supporting the hypothesis that controlling audible sound produced by normally operating wind turbines will also control for LFN. Overall, the available data from this and other studies suggest that health-based audible noise wind turbine siting guidelines provide an effective means to evaluate, monitor, and protect potential receptors from audible noise as well as IS and LFN.

  9. Health-Based Audible Noise Guidelines Account for Infrasound and Low-Frequency Noise Produced by Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Robert G.; Ashtiani, Payam; Ollson, Christopher A.; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa; McCallum, Lindsay C.; Leventhall, Geoff; Knopper, Loren D.

    2015-01-01

    Setbacks for wind turbines have been established in many jurisdictions to address potential health concerns associated with audible noise. However, in recent years, it has been suggested that infrasound (IS) and low-frequency noise (LFN) could be responsible for the onset of adverse health effects self-reported by some individuals living in proximity to wind turbines, even when audible noise limits are met. The purpose of this paper was to investigate whether current audible noise-based guidelines for wind turbines account for the protection of human health, given the levels of IS and LFN typically produced by wind turbines. New field measurements of indoor IS and outdoor LFN at locations between 400 and 900 m from the nearest turbine, which were previously underrepresented in the scientific literature, are reported and put into context with existing published works. Our analysis showed that indoor IS levels were below auditory threshold levels while LFN levels at distances >500 m were similar to background LFN levels. A clear contribution to LFN due to wind turbine operation (i.e., measured with turbines on in comparison to with turbines off) was noted at a distance of 480 m. However, this corresponded to an increase in overall audible sound measures as reported in dB(A), supporting the hypothesis that controlling audible sound produced by normally operating wind turbines will also control for LFN. Overall, the available data from this and other studies suggest that health-based audible noise wind turbine siting guidelines provide an effective means to evaluate, monitor, and protect potential receptors from audible noise as well as IS and LFN. PMID:25759808

  10. Combined on-board hydride slurry storage and reactor system and process for hydrogen-powered vehicles and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Kriston P; Holladay, Jamelyn D; Simmons, Kevin L; Herling, Darrell R

    2014-11-18

    An on-board hydride storage system and process are described. The system includes a slurry storage system that includes a slurry reactor and a variable concentration slurry. In one preferred configuration, the storage system stores a slurry containing a hydride storage material in a carrier fluid at a first concentration of hydride solids. The slurry reactor receives the slurry containing a second concentration of the hydride storage material and releases hydrogen as a fuel to hydrogen-power devices and vehicles.

  11. Impacts of Vehicle (In)Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chugg, J.; Rohde, K.

    2015-05-01

    Nuclear and radioactive material is routinely transported worldwide every day. Since 2010, the complexity of the transport vehicle to support such activities has grown exponentially. Many core functions of a vehicle are now handled by small embedded computer modules with more being added each year to enhance the owner’s experience and convenience. With a system as complex as today’s automobile, the potential for cyber security issues is certain. Hackers have begun exploring this new domain with public information increasingly disseminated. Because vehicles are allowed into and around secure nuclear facilities, the potential for using a vehicle as a new cyber entry point or vector into the facility is now plausible and must be mitigated. In addition, compromising such a vehicle could aide in illicit removal of nuclear material, putting sensitive cargo at risk. Because cyber attacks can now be introduced using vehicles, cyber security, needs to be integrated into an organization’s design basis threat document. Essentially, a vehicle now extends the perimeter for which security professionals are responsible.Electronic Control Units (ECU) responsible for handling all core and ancillary vehicle functions are interconnected using the controller area network (CAN) bus. A typical CAN network in a modern automobile contains 50 or more ECUs. The CAN protocol now supports a wide variety of areas, including automotive, road transportation, rail transportation, industrial automation, power generation, maritime, military vehicles, aviation, and medical devices. In many ways, the nuclear industry is employing the CAN bus protocol or other similar broadcast serial networks. This paper will provide an overview of the current state of automobile and CAN Bus security, as well as an overview of what has been publicly disclosed by many research organizations. It will then present several hypotheses of how vehicle security issues may impact nuclear activities. An initial

  12. How important is vehicle safety in the new vehicle purchase/lease process for fleet vehicles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Sjaanie; Charlton, Judith; Fildes, Brian

    2007-06-01

    Despite the potential benefits that fleet vehicle purchase decisions could have on road safety, the role that vehicle safety plays in fleet managers' purchase decisions is poorly understood. In this study, fleet managers from Sweden and Spain completed a questionnaire regarding the importance of vehicle safety in the new vehicle purchase/lease process and the importance that is placed on safety options/features relative to other convenience and comfort features. The findings of the current study suggest that vehicle safety is generally not the primary consideration in the vehicle purchase process and is consistently outranked by factors such as price and dependability/reliability. For example, when asked to indicate the vehicle factors that are included in their company's criteria for purchasing/leasing a new vehicle, fleet managers from both Sweden and Spain were more likely to list the vehicle's price, reliability, running costs, size, and fuel consumption than the vehicle's safety (defined as the vehicle's EuroNCAP rating/other safety reports). In addition, the findings of this study suggest that the importance of vehicle safety did not differ across the two countries. For example, there was no significant difference in the proportion of fleet managers who indicated that EuroNCAP ratings were part of their official policy across the two countries. The findings highlighted the need to educate fleet managers about vehicle safety in the new vehicle purchase/lease process. In addition, vehicle safety information, such as EuroNCAP results or other crash test results need to be promoted more widely and effectively so that they play a more prominent role in their new vehicle choices.

  13. Display Device Color Management and Visual Surveillance of Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Satyam

    2011-01-01

    Digital imaging has seen an enormous growth in the last decade. Today users have numerous choices in creating, accessing, and viewing digital image/video content. Color management is important to ensure consistent visual experience across imaging systems. This is typically achieved using color profiles. In this thesis we identify the limitations…

  14. Jamming of fingers: an experimental study to determine force and deflection in participants and human cadaver specimens for development of a new bionic test device for validation of power-operated motor vehicle side door windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohendorff, Bernd; Weidermann, Christian; Pollinger, Philipp; Burkhart, Klaus J; Müller, Lars Peter

    2013-02-01

    The deformability of human fingers is central to addressing the real-life hazard of finger jamming between the window and seal entry of a power-operated motor vehicle side door window. The index and little fingers of the left hand of 109 participants and of 20 cadaver specimens were placed in a measurement setup. Participants progressively jammed their fingers at five different dorsal-palmar jam positions up to the maximum tolerable pain threshold, whereas the cadaver specimens were jammed up to the maximum possible deflection. Force-deflection curves were calculated corresponding to increasing deflection of the compressed tissue layers of the fingers. The average maximum force applied by the participants was 42 N to the index finger and 35 N to the little finger. In the cadaver fingers, the average of the maximum force applied was 1886 N for the index finger and 1833 N for the little finger. In 200 jam positions, 25 fractures were observed on radiographs; fractures occurred at an average force of 1485 N. These data assisted the development of a prototype of a bionic test device for more realistic validation of power-operated motor vehicle windows.

  15. Studying the response of drivers against different collision warning systems: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzammel, M.; Yusoff, M. Zuki; Malik, A. Saeed; Mohamad Saad, M. Naufal; Meriaudeau, F.

    2017-03-01

    The number of vehicle accidents is rapidly increasing and causing significant economic losses in many countries. According to the World Health Organization, road accidents will become the fifth major cause of death by the year 2030. To minimize these accidents different types of collision warning systems have been proposed for motor vehicle drivers. These systems can early detect and warn the drivers about the potential danger, up to a certain accuracy. Many researchers study the effectiveness of these systems by using different methods, including Electroencephalography (EEG). From the literature review, it has been observed that, these systems increase the drivers' response and can help to minimize the accidents that may occur due to drivers unconsciousness. For these collision warning systems, tactile early warnings are found more effective as compared to the auditory and visual early warnings. This review also highlights the areas, where further research can be performed to fully analyze the collision warning system. For example, some contradictions are found among researchers, about these systems' performance for drivers within different age groups. Similarly, most of the EEG studies focus on the front collision warning systems and only give beep sound to alert the drivers. Therefore, EEG study can be performed for the rear end collision warning systems, against proper auditory warning messages which indicate the types of hazards. This EEG study will help to design more friendly collision warning system and may save many lives.

  16. Cable Overheating Risk Warning Method Based on Impedance Parameter Estimation in Distribution Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhang; Xiaohui, Song; Jianfang, Li; Fei, Gao

    2017-05-01

    Cable overheating will lead to the cable insulation level reducing, speed up the cable insulation aging, even easy to cause short circuit faults. Cable overheating risk identification and warning is nessesary for distribution network operators. Cable overheating risk warning method based on impedance parameter estimation is proposed in the paper to improve the safty and reliability operation of distribution network. Firstly, cable impedance estimation model is established by using least square method based on the data from distribiton SCADA system to improve the impedance parameter estimation accuracy. Secondly, calculate the threshold value of cable impedance based on the historical data and the forecast value of cable impedance based on the forecasting data in future from distribiton SCADA system. Thirdly, establish risks warning rules library of cable overheating, calculate the cable impedance forecast value and analysis the change rate of impedance, and then warn the overheating risk of cable line based on the overheating risk warning rules library according to the variation relationship between impedance and line temperature rise. Overheating risk warning method is simulated in the paper. The simulation results shows that the method can identify the imedance and forecast the temperature rise of cable line in distribution network accurately. The result of overheating risk warning can provide decision basis for operation maintenance and repair.

  17. Recovery of DNA and fingermarks following deployment of render-safe tools for vehicle-borne improvised explosive devices (VBIED).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, S; Houspian, A; Knott, F

    2011-07-15

    Improvised explosive devices (IED) are responsible for a significant proportion of combat and civilian deaths around the world. Given the ease with which IEDs can be made, the large quantity of explosive which can be contained within or on a vehicle, and the use of VBIED in the past (for example the 2002 Bali bombing) in terrorist activities, VBIED are an ongoing concern for Defence and law enforcement agencies. Fingermark and DNA analyses are routinely used by police and forensic analysts to identify suspects involved in illegal activities. There is limited information available on the feasibility of obtaining fingermarks, fibres, hair and DNA samples following an explosive incident, or a situation whereby an IED has been rendered safe following the utilisation of an appropriate defeat or render-safe tool. The main objective of this study was to determine if fingermarks and/or DNA (from saliva and hair samples) placed on the interior and exterior of road vehicles, and on inanimate objects (such as plastic or glass bottles), are able to be obtained and analysed following the use of a vehicle-borne IED (VBIED) render-safe tool on a vehicle containing simulated explosives. The identification of fingermarks on the exterior (67.2±8.5%) and interior (43.8±17.8%) of the vehicles was possible following the use of the render-safe tool, though this was more challenging in the latter than the former. Fingermarks were also able to be identified from both plastic and glass bottles placed inside the vehicles. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques yielded DNA profiles that were able to be identified from saliva and hair samples. These preliminary results suggest that both fingermarks and DNA profiles, obtained from vehicles that have been subjected to a VBIED render-safe tool, may be used to identify persons of interest. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Accuracy of a pediatric early warning score in the recognition of clinical deterioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana de Oliveira Freitas Miranda

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to evaluate the accuracy of the version of the Brighton Pediatric Early Warning Score translated and adapted for the Brazilian context, in the recognition of clinical deterioration. Method: a diagnostic test study to measure the accuracy of the Brighton Pediatric Early Warning Score for the Brazilian context, in relation to a reference standard. The sample consisted of 271 children, aged 0 to 10 years, blindly evaluated by a nurse and a physician, specialists in pediatrics, with interval of 5 to 10 minutes between the evaluations, for the application of the Brighton Pediatric Early Warning Score for the Brazilian context and of the reference standard. The data were processed and analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences and VassarStats.net programs. The performance of the Brighton Pediatric Early Warning Score for the Brazilian context was evaluated through the indicators of sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, area under the ROC curve, likelihood ratios and post-test probability. Results: the Brighton Pediatric Early Warning Score for the Brazilian context showed sensitivity of 73.9%, specificity of 95.5%, positive predictive value of 73.3%, negative predictive value of 94.7%, area under Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve of 91.9% and the positive post-test probability was 80%. Conclusion: the Brighton Pediatric Early Warning Score for the Brazilian context, presented good performance, considered valid for the recognition of clinical deterioration warning signs of the children studied.

  19. Viewing alcohol warning advertising reduces urges to drink in young adults: an online experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stautz, Kaidy; Marteau, Theresa M

    2016-07-08

    Tobacco counter-advertising is effective at promoting smoking cessation. Few studies have evaluated the impact of alcohol warning advertising on alcohol consumption and possible mechanisms of effect. This pilot study aimed to assess whether alcohol warning advertising is effective in reducing urges to drink alcohol, if emotional responses to advertising explain any such effect or perceived effectiveness, and whether effects differ among heavier drinkers. One hundred fifty-two young adult (aged 18-25) alcohol users completed an online experiment in which they were randomly assigned to view one of three sets of six advertisements: (i) alcohol warning; (ii) alcohol promoting; or (iii) advertisements for non-alcohol products. Urges to drink alcohol were self-reported post-exposure. Affective responses (pleasure and arousal) to each advertisement and perceived effectiveness of each advertisement were recorded. Typical level of alcohol consumption was measured as a potential effect modifier. Participants exposed to alcohol warning advertisements reported significantly lower urges to drink alcohol than those who viewed either alcohol promoting or non-alcohol advertisements. This effect was fully mediated by negative affective responses (displeasure) to the alcohol warning advertisements. Perceived effectiveness of alcohol warning advertisements was associated with high arousal responses. Impact of the advertisements was unaffected by typical level of alcohol consumption, although the study was not powered to detect anything other than large effects. In line with findings from the tobacco literature, alcohol warning advertisements that elicit negative affect reduce urges to drink alcohol. Their impact upon actual consumption awaits investigation.

  20. Accuracy of a pediatric early warning score in the recognition of clinical deterioration 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Juliana de Oliveira Freitas; de Camargo, Climene Laura; Nascimento, Carlito Lopes; Portela, Daniel Sales; Monaghan, Alan

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to evaluate the accuracy of the version of the Brighton Pediatric Early Warning Score translated and adapted for the Brazilian context, in the recognition of clinical deterioration. Method: a diagnostic test study to measure the accuracy of the Brighton Pediatric Early Warning Score for the Brazilian context, in relation to a reference standard. The sample consisted of 271 children, aged 0 to 10 years, blindly evaluated by a nurse and a physician, specialists in pediatrics, with interval of 5 to 10 minutes between the evaluations, for the application of the Brighton Pediatric Early Warning Score for the Brazilian context and of the reference standard. The data were processed and analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences and VassarStats.net programs. The performance of the Brighton Pediatric Early Warning Score for the Brazilian context was evaluated through the indicators of sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, area under the ROC curve, likelihood ratios and post-test probability. Results: the Brighton Pediatric Early Warning Score for the Brazilian context showed sensitivity of 73.9%, specificity of 95.5%, positive predictive value of 73.3%, negative predictive value of 94.7%, area under Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve of 91.9% and the positive post-test probability was 80%. Conclusion: the Brighton Pediatric Early Warning Score for the Brazilian context, presented good performance, considered valid for the recognition of clinical deterioration warning signs of the children studied. PMID:28699997

  1. Are Some of the Cigar Warnings Mandated in the U.S. More Believable Than Others?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen L. Jarman

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Text warnings are mandated on cigars sold in the United States (U.S., however little published research has examined effectiveness of cigar warnings. This is the first study examining the believability of cigar warnings among adults in the U.S. Methods: Adults in the U.S. (n = 5014 were randomized in a phone survey to receive one of three cigar-specific mandated warning messages (“Cigar smoking can cause cancers of the mouth and throat, even if you do not inhale”, “Cigar smoking can cause lung cancer and heart disease”, and “Cigars are not a safe alternative to cigarettes” with one of four warning sources (no source, Surgeon General, CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, FDA (Food and Drug Administration. Results: Most adults found the cigar warnings very believable (66.9%. Weighted logistic regression results indicate that the message “Cigar smoking can cause lung cancer and heart disease” was associated with higher odds of being very believable (AOR: 2.05, 95% CI: 1.55, 2.70 and the message “Cigars are not a safe alternative to cigarettes” was associated with lower odds of being very believable (AOR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.55, 0.92 compared to the message “Cigar smoking can cause cancers of the mouth and throat, even if you do not inhale”. Warning source had no impact on believability. Conclusions: We tested three of the currently mandated cigar warnings in the U.S. and found significant differences in believability between them. Further research on cigar warnings may improve communication to the public on cigar health risks, ultimately preventing uptake of cigars and promoting cessation among cigar users.

  2. Feasibility and Reliability of Pediatric Early Warning Score in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xun; Tilford, Bradley; Duffy, Elizabeth; Kobayashi, Hitomi; Ryan, Kelley; Johnson, Mindi; Page, Bethany; Martin, Claire; Caldwell, Rhonda; Mahajan, Prashant

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric early warning scores in an emergency department may be used in routine patient evaluation of illness severity and resource allocation, thereby positively impacting quality and safety in pediatric care. This prospective nursing study assessed the feasibility and reliability of pediatric early warning scores in a busy, inner-city, level 1 trauma center pediatric emergency department. The pediatric early warning scores demonstrated high interrater reliability (degree of agreement among scorers) (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.91) and intrarater reliability (multiple repetitions by a single scorer) (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.90).

  3. Role of MODIS Vegetation Phenology Products in the U.S. for Warn Early Warning System for Forest Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph; Hargrove, William; Norman, Steve; Gasser, Gerald; Smoot, James; Kuper, Philip

    2012-01-01

    U.S. forests occupy approx 751 million acres (approx 1/3 of total land). Several abiotic and biotic damage agents disturb, damage, kill, and/or threaten these forests. Regionally extensive forest disturbances can also threaten human life and property, bio-diversity and water supplies. timely regional forest disturbance monitoring products are needed to aid forest health management work at finer scales. daily MODIS data provide a means to monitor regional forest disturbances on a weekly basis, leveraging vegetation phenology. In response, the USFS and NASA began collaborating in 2006 to develop a Near Real Time (NRT) forest monitoring capability, based on MODIS NDVI data, as part of a national forest threat Early Warning System (EWS).

  4. Wireless alerting system using vibration for vehicles dashboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Sweta; Rai, Shweta; Magaramagara, Wilbert; Sivacoumar, R.

    2017-11-01

    This paper aims at improving the engine life of any vehicle through a continuous measurement and monitoring of vital engine operational parameters and providing an effective alerting to drivers for any abnormality. Vehicles currently are using audio and visible alerting signals through alarms and light as a warning to the driver but these are not effective in noisy environments and during daylight. Through the use of the sense of feeling a driver can be alerted effectively. The need to no other vehicle parameter needs to be aided through the mobile display (phone).Thus a system is designed and implements to measure engine temperature, RPM, Oil level and Coolant level using appropriate sensors and a wireless communication (Bluetooth) is established to actuate a portable vibration control device and to read the different vehicle sensor readings through an android application for display and diagnosis.

  5. [Application of exponential smoothing method in prediction and warning of epidemic mumps].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yun-ping; Ma, Jia-qi

    2010-06-01

    To analyze the daily data of epidemic Mumps in a province from 2004 to 2008 and set up exponential smoothing model for the prediction. To predict and warn the epidemic mumps in 2008 through calculating 7-day moving summation and removing the effect of weekends to the data of daily reported mumps cases during 2005-2008 and exponential summation to the data from 2005 to 2007. The performance of Holt-Winters exponential smoothing is good. The result of warning sensitivity was 76.92%, specificity was 83.33%, and timely rate was 80%. It is practicable to use exponential smoothing method to warn against epidemic Mumps.

  6. Environmental implication of electric vehicles in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Hong; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Michael Q; Streets, David G; He, Kebin

    2010-07-01

    Today, electric vehicles (EVs) are being proposed in China as one of the potential options to address the dramatically increasing energy demand from on-road transport. However, the mass use of EVs could involve multiple environmental issues, because EVs use electricity that is generated primarily from coal in China. We examined the fuel-cycle CO(2), SO(2), and NO(x) emissions of EVs in China in both current (2008) and future (2030) periods and compared them with those of conventional gasoline vehicles and gasoline hybrids. EVs do not promise much benefit in reducing CO(2) emissions currently, but greater CO(2) reduction could be expected in future if coal combustion technologies improve and the share of nonfossil electricity increases significantly. EVs could increase SO(2) emissions by 3-10 times and also double NO(x) emissions compared to gasoline vehicles if charged using the current electricity grid. In the future, EVs would be able to reach the NO(x) emission level of gasoline vehicles with advanced emission control devices equipped in thermal power plants but still increase SO(2). EVs do represent an effective solution to issues in China such as oil shortage, but critical policy support is urgently needed to address the environmental issues caused by the use of EVs to make EVs competitive with other vehicle alternatives.

  7. Operational Forecasting and Warning systems for Coastal hazards in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kwang-Soon; Kwon, Jae-Il; Kim, Jin-Ah; Heo, Ki-Young; Jun, Kicheon

    2017-04-01

    Coastal hazards caused by both Mother Nature and humans cost tremendous social, economic and environmental damages. To mitigate these damages many countries have been running the operational forecasting or warning systems. Since 2009 Korea Operational Oceanographic System (KOOS) has been developed by the leading of Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology (KIOST) in Korea and KOOS has been operated in 2012. KOOS is consists of several operational modules of numerical models and real-time observations and produces the basic forecasting variables such as winds, tides, waves, currents, temperature and salinity and so on. In practical application systems include storm surges, oil spills, and search and rescue prediction models. In particular, abnormal high waves (swell-like high-height waves) have occurred in the East coast of Korea peninsula during winter season owing to the local meteorological condition over the East Sea, causing property damages and the loss of human lives. In order to improve wave forecast accuracy even very local wave characteristics, numerical wave modeling system using SWAN is established with data assimilation module using 4D-EnKF and sensitivity test has been conducted. During the typhoon period for the prediction of sever waves and the decision making support system for evacuation of the ships, a high-resolution wave forecasting system has been established and calibrated.

  8. Motor vehicle drivers' injuries in train-motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shanshan; Khattak, Aemal

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to: (1) identify a more suitable model for modeling injury severity of motor vehicle drivers involved in train-motor vehicle crashes at highway-rail grade crossings from among three commonly used injury severity models and (2) to investigate factors associated with injury severity levels of motor vehicle drivers involved in train-motor vehicle crashes at such crossings. The 2009-2013 highway-rail grade crossing crash data and the national highway-rail crossing inventory data were combined to produce the analysis dataset. Four-year (2009-2012) data were used for model estimation while 2013 data were used for model validation. The three injury severity levels-fatal, injury and no injury-were based on the reported intensity of motor-vehicle drivers' injuries at highway-rail grade crossings. The three injury severity models evaluated were: ordered probit, multinomial logit and random parameter logit. A comparison of the three models based on different criteria showed that the random parameter logit model and multinomial logit model were more suitable for injury severity analysis of motor vehicle drivers involved in crashes at highway-rail grade crossings. Some of the factors that increased the likelihood of more severe crashes included higher train and vehicle speeds, freight trains, older drivers, and female drivers. Where feasible, reducing train and motor vehicle speeds and nighttime lighting may help reduce injury severities of motor vehicle drivers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Impact of warning against procrastination of thrombolysis in ischemic stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestre-Moreno, J F; Arnáiz-Urrutia, C; del Saz-Saucedo, P; Fernández-Pérez, M D; Vatz, K A; Feria-Vilar, I; Montiel-Navarro, L; Pineda-Martínez, A; Creus-Fernández, C; Ortega-Moreno, A

    Fibrinolysis in stroke should be carried out as soon as possible, but delays occur for various reasons. In the first 17 ischemic infarcts treated in our center we confirmed a tendency to exhaust the therapeutic window. We look now at whether warnings against this tendency, without other logistical or organizational modifications, have had an impact on delays. Neurologists were encouraged to avoid procrastination. When we reached 51 treated patients, we compared features and delay times between the first 17 (February, 2002 to June, 2004) and the 17 most recent cases (October, 2005 to April, 2006). Non-parametric tests were used (significant if p procrastination appear to be important in terms of shortening the delays. The time used for clinical-radiologic evaluation (arrival through CT)--about which there had been no action taken--had not been modified, but the time employed in the decision to treat (CT-treatment) and the 'door-to-needle' time had decreased appreciably. This effective compensatory reduction permitted treatment of late-arriving patients, such that although the overall time from onset to treatment apparently was not modified, the actual treatment rate increased.

  10. Early warning score predicts acute mortality in stroke patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liljehult, J; Christensen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Clinical deterioration and death among patients with acute stroke are often preceded by detrimental changes in physiological parameters. Systematic and effective tools to identify patients at risk of deterioration early enough to intervene are therefore needed. The aim of the study wa...... tool for identifying patients at risk of dying after acute stroke. Readily available physiological parameters are converted to a single score, which can guide both nurses and physicians in clinical decision making and resource allocation.......OBJECTIVES: Clinical deterioration and death among patients with acute stroke are often preceded by detrimental changes in physiological parameters. Systematic and effective tools to identify patients at risk of deterioration early enough to intervene are therefore needed. The aim of the study...... was to investigate whether the aggregate weighted track and trigger system early warning score (EWS) can be used as a simple observational tool to identify patients at risk and predict mortality in a population of patients with acute stroke. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients admitted with acute stroke...

  11. Reproduction of Realistic Background Noise for Testing Telecommunications Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gil Corrales, Juan David; Song, Wookeun; MacDonald, Ewen

    2015-01-01

    A method for reproduction of sound, based on crosstalk cancellation using inverse filters, was implemented in the context of testing telecommunications devices. The effect of the regularization parameter, number of loudspeakers, type of background noise, and a technique to attenuate audible...

  12. Discrimination of Effects between Directional and Nondirectional Information of Auditory Warning on Driving Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuting Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the impacts of directional and nondirectional auditory warning information in a collision warning system (CWS on driving behavior. The data on driving behavior is collected through experiment, with scenarios containing unexpected hazard events that include different warning content. As drivers approached the collision event, either a CWS auditory warning was given or no warning was given for a reference group. Discriminant analysis was used to investigate the relationship between directional auditory warning information and driving behavior. In the experiment, the CWS warnings significantly reduced brake reaction time and prompted drivers to press the brake pedal more heavily, demonstrating the effectiveness of CWS warnings in alerting drivers to avoid red-light running (RLR vehicles when approaching a signalized intersection. Providing a clear warning with directional information about an urgent hazard event could give drivers adequate time to prepare for the potential collision. In terms of deceleration, a directional information warning was shown to greatly help drivers react to critical events at signalized intersections with more moderate braking. From these results, requirements can be derived for the design of effective warning strategies for critical intersections.

  13. Self-assessment of classroom assistive listening devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odelius, Johan; Johansson, Orjan

    2010-07-01

    Self-assessment of classroom assistive listening devices (ALDs) based on induction loop systems was carried out in Swedish classes for hearing-impaired students. A questionnaire was developed and completed by 25 students (bilateral hearing aid users, 10-20 years old). Responses for hearing aid microphone mode (M) and telecoil mode (T) were collected. Two attributes, audibility and awareness, were identified and assigned to either mode. Better audibility was achieved in T-mode. Students with severe hearing loss benefited more using T-mode when compared to the better hearing students, especially in more difficult listening situations. Better awareness was achieved in M-mode; students could better hear, locate and segregate sounds in the environment around them. Depending on the situation, students make different choices between audibility and awareness. Self-assessment is a promising approach for determining what combination of ALD design and function that will best benefit the students.

  14. Apparatus for monitoring work safety in the mining industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airuni, T.N.; Kuznetsov, G.I.; Sleptsov, E.I.

    1985-01-01

    Material published in scientific and technical literature between 1978-1984 is correlated, dealing with continuous monitoring of mine atmosphere for gas and dust and with the early detection of spontaneous fires. The apparatus used is reviewed and construction of devices for intermittent and continuous recording of mine air composition is described. Detailed description is given of Soviet and foreign apparatus which provides optical indications and audible warning of toxic, explosive and noxious gases, incorporating the latest achievements in microelectronics and microcomputing. The article also provides descriptions of various types of anemometers for controlling the air flow rates in mine workings) and devices manufactured in Eastern and Western Europe for monitoring dust content of mine atmosphere. A lengthy description is also given of the apparatus used for the detection of underground fires in USSR, UK, USA, FRG and Poland. 33 references.

  15. Warning citizens; influencing self-reliance in emergencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sillem, S.

    2010-01-01

    An important part of the response to an emergency is making sure that people are able to take themselves and others to a place of safety. To make people aware that there is an emergency, there are three steps that have to be taken: there has to be a warning that something is going on, people have to

  16. Speech act theory in support of idealised warning models | Carstens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... subsuming lower level speech acts such as POINTING OUT/ALERTING, INFORMING and INSTRUCTING. Secondly, the model is used to analyse and evaluate actual warnings collected from information sheets for hair-dryers, indicating the heuristic value of combined insights from document design and speech act theory ...

  17. Viewing alcohol warning advertising reduces urges to drink in young adults: an online experiment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stautz, Kaidy; Marteau, Theresa M

    2016-01-01

    .... This pilot study aimed to assess whether alcohol warning advertising is effective in reducing urges to drink alcohol, if emotional responses to advertising explain any such effect or perceived...

  18. Analysing motives behind willingness to pay for improving early warning services for tropical cyclones in Vietnam

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nguyen, Thanh Cong; Robinson, Jackie

    2015-01-01

    ...), this study elicited values for an improved cyclone warning service in Vietnam. To examine motives or reasons behind respondents' WTP, respondents were requested to allocate 10 points among different types of values, including self...

  19. Lightning risk warnings based on atmospheric electric field measurements in Brazil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferro, Marco Antonio da Silva; Yamasaki, Jorge; Pimentel, Douglas Roberto de Matos; Naccarato, Kleber Pinheiro; Saba, Marcelo Magalhães Fares

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology that employs the electrostatic field variations caused by thundercloud formation or displacement to generate lightning warnings over a region of interest in Southeastern Brazil...

  20. Public support for graphic health warning labels in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamyab, Kian; Nonnemaker, James M; Farrelly, Matthew C

    2015-01-01

    In 2009, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration was required to mandate that graphic health warning labels be placed on cigarette packages and advertisements. To assess public support in the U.S. for graphic health warning labels from 2007 to 2012. Data from 17,498 respondents from 13 waves of the National Adult Tobacco Survey, a list-assisted random-digit-dial survey, were used. Overall support for graphic health warning labels, as well as support by smoking status, and by sociodemographics and smoker characteristics are estimated. Analyses were conducted in 2014. Since 2007, a majority of the public overall has been in favor of labels. Support increased significantly among the public overall and among non-smokers from 2007 through 2009 (pgraphic health warning labels for cigarette packs, though support among smokers declined after 2011. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The use of visual warnings in social marketing: The case of tobacco

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gallopel, Karine; Gabriel, Patrick; Le Gall-Ely, Marine; Rieunier, Sophie; Urien, Bertrand

    2011-01-01

    .... The exploratory study we conducted with French consumers to test the effectiveness of new graphic warnings proposed by the European Union in 2004 clearly demonstrates that visual messages, as opposed...

  2. Early Warning Indicators for Population-Based Monitoring of HIV Drug Resistance in 6 African Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sigaloff, Kim C. E.; Hamers, Raph L.; Menke, Jack; Labib, Moheb; Siwale, Margaret; Ive, Prudence; Botes, Mariette E.; Kityo, Cissy; Mandaliya, Kishor; Wellington, Maureen; Osibogun, Akin; Geskus, Ronald B.; Stevens, Wendy S.; van Vugt, Michèle; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.

    2012-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA testing and HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) testing are not routinely available for therapeutic monitoring of patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited settings. World Health Organization HIVDR early warning indicators (EWIs) assess ART

  3. Comparative study of the effects of occupational exposure to infrasound and low frequency noise with those of audible noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Pawlas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The study aimed to compare effects of occupational exposure to low frequency noise (LFN in comparison with those of audible noise (AN. Material and methods. Three groups of 307 workers (I – exposed to LFN, II – exposed to audible noise – AN, and III- controls were examined. Results. Blood pressure and other biochemical parameters were worse in the group exposed. All parameters of hearing were worse in the AN group in comparison with LFN one in whole range of frequency. The same trends were found in posturography. Conclusions. The results of the study showed that audible noise is more hazardous than LFN. The results did not support thesis on vibroacoustic disease.

  4. New dimensions in early flood warning across the globe using grand-ensemble weather predictions

    OpenAIRE

    Pappenberger, Florian; Bartholmes, Jens; Thielen, Jutta; Cloke, Hannah L.; Buizza, Roberto; de Roo, Ad

    2008-01-01

    Early and effective flood warning is essential to initiate timely measures to reduce loss of life and economic damage. The availability of several global ensemble weather prediction systems through the “THORPEX Interactive Grand Global Ensemble” (TIGGE) archive provides an opportunity to explore new dimensions in early flood forecasting and warning. TIGGE data has been used as meteorological input to the European Flood Alert System (EFAS) for a case study of a flood event in Romania in Octobe...

  5. ANALYSIS OF FORECASTING METHODS FROM THE POINT OF VIEW OF EARLY WARNING CONCEPT IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin POPESCU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Early warning system (EWS based on a reliable forecasting process has become a critical component of the management of large complex industrial projects in the globalized transnational environment. The purpose of this research is to critically analyze the forecasting methods from the point of view of early warning, choosing those useful for the construction of EWS. This research addresses complementary techniques, using Bayesian Networks, which addresses both uncertainties and causality in project planning and execution, with the goal of generating early warning signals for project managers. Even though Bayesian networks have been widely used in a range of decision-support applications, their application as early warning systems for project management is still new.

  6. Evaluation of a surrogate forward collision warning system in an electrophysiological perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Bueno, Mercedes; Fort, Alexandra; DELEURENCE, Philippe; NDIAYE, Daniel; Fabrigoule, Colette

    2012-01-01

    Driver distraction has been identified as the most important contributing factor in rear-end collisions. In this context, Forward Collision Warning Systems (FCWS) have been developed specifically to warn drivers of potential rear-end collisions. The main objective of this work is to evaluate the impact of a surrogate FCWS and of its reliability according to the driver's attentional state by recording both behavioural and electrophysiological data. Participants drove following a lead motorcycl...

  7. Development of an advanced radioactive airborne particle monitoring system for use in early warning networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza, A; Corbacho, J A; Caballero, J M; Ontalba, M A; Vasco, J; Valencia, D

    2017-09-25

    Automatic real-time warning networks are essential for the almost immediate detection of anomalous levels of radioactivity in the environment. In the case of Extremadura region (SW Spain), a radiological network (RARE) has been operational in the vicinity of the Almaraz nuclear power plant and in other areas farther away since 1992. There are ten air monitoring stations equipped with Geiger-Müller counters in order to evaluate the external ambient gamma dose rate. Four of these stations have a commercial system that provides estimates of the total artificial alpha and beta activity concentrations in aerosols, and of the 131 I activity (gaseous fraction). Despite experience having demonstrated the benefits and robustness of these commercial systems, important improvements have been made to one of these air monitoring systems. In this paper, the analytical and maintenance shortcomings of the original commercial air monitoring system are described first; the new custom-designed advanced air monitoring system is then presented. This system is based mainly on the incorporation of gamma spectrometry using two scintillation detectors, one of NaI:Tl and the other of LaBr 3 :Ce, and compact multichannel analysers. Next, a comparison made of the results provided by the two systems operating simultaneously at the same location for three months shows the advantages of the new advanced air monitoring system. As a result, the gamma spectrometry analysis allows passing from global alpha and beta activity determinations due to artificial radionuclides in aerosols, and the inaccurate measurement of the gaseous 131 I activity concentration, to the possibility of identifying a large number of radionuclides and quantifying each of their activity concentrations. Moreover, the new station's dual capacity is designed to work in early warning monitoring mode and surveillance monitoring mode. This is based on custom developed software that includes an intelligent system to issue the

  8. Range estimation techniques in single-station thunderstorm warning sensors based upon gated, wideband, magnetic direction finder technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pifer, Alburt E.; Hiscox, William L.; Cummins, Kenneth L.; Neumann, William T.

    1991-01-01

    Gated, wideband, magnetic direction finders (DFs) were originally designed to measure the bearing of cloud-to-ground lightning relative to the sensor. A recent addition to this device uses proprietary waveform discrimination logic to select return stroke signatures and certain range dependent features in the waveform to provide an estimate of range of flashes within 50 kms. The enhanced ranging techniques are discussed which were designed and developed for use in single station thunderstorm warning sensor. Included are the results of on-going evaluations being conducted under a variety of meteorological and geographic conditions.

  9. Viewing alcohol warning advertising reduces urges to drink in young adults: an online experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Kaidy Stautz; Marteau, Theresa M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Tobacco counter-advertising is effective at promoting smoking cessation. Few studies have evaluated the impact of alcohol warning advertising on alcohol consumption and possible mechanisms of effect. This pilot study aimed to assess whether alcohol warning advertising is effective in reducing urges to drink alcohol, if emotional responses to advertising explain any such effect or perceived effectiveness, and whether effects differ among heavier drinkers. Methods One hundred fifty-t...

  10. Viewing alcohol warning advertising reduces urges to drink in young adults: an online experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Kaidy Stautz; Marteau, Theresa M

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Tobacco counter-advertising is effective at promoting smoking cessation. Few studies have evaluated the impact of alcohol warning advertising on alcohol consumption and possible mechanisms of effect. This pilot study aimed to assess whether alcohol warning advertising is effective in reducing urges to drink alcohol, if emotional responses to advertising explain any such effect or perceived effectiveness, and whether effects differ among heavier drinkers. Methods One hundre...

  11. Failing to pay heed to health warnings in a food-associated environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Aukje A C; Watson, Poppy; de Wit, Sanne

    2018-01-01

    People often fail to adhere to food-related health information. Increasing evidence suggests that environmental stimuli interfere with good intentions by triggering choices relatively automatically. Using a Pavlovian-instrumental transfer (PIT) task, we examined whether food-associated stimuli reduce health warnings' effectiveness. We expected that people adhere to health warnings in the absence, but not presence, of food-associated stimuli. In addition, we examined timing effects, i.e., whether health warnings are more effective when they are given prior to associative learning rather than afterwards. In the PIT task, participants learned to press keys for two food rewards (instrumental learning) and associations between stimuli and these rewards (Pavlovian learning) in separated phases. Health warnings about one reward were given after associative learning (Study 1), or before versus afterwards (Study 2). During test phase, participants pressed for food outcomes while occasionally food-related stimuli were presented. In absence of food-related stimuli, participants increased responding for rewards perceived as more healthy. However, when stimuli were present, responding was biased towards the signaled outcome, regardless of health warnings or timing. Health messages influence food choice behavior, but are no longer effective when food-associated stimuli are present. This provides important insights why health warning effects might be limited in an obesogenic environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Information systems in a changing climate: Early warnings and drought risk management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger S. Pulwarty

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Drought is among the most damaging, and least understood, of all “natural” hazards. Although some droughts last a single season and affect only small areas, the instrumental and paleoclimate records show that droughts have sometimes continued for decades and have impacted millions of square kilometers in North America, West Africa, and East Asia. To cross the spectrum of potential drivers and impacts, drought information systems have multiple sub-systems which include an integrated risk assessment, communication and decision support system of which early warning is a central component and output. An early warning system is much more than a forecast – it is a linked risk information (including people׳s perception of risk and communication system that actively engages communities involved in preparedness. There are numerous drought systems warning systems being implemented at different scales of governance. We draw on the lessons of over 21 drought early warning systems around the world, in both developing and developed countries and at regional, national and community levels. The successes illustrate that effective early warning depends upon a multi-sectoral and interdisciplinary collaboration among all concerned actors at each stage in the warning process from monitoring to response and evaluation. However, the links between the community-based approach and the national and global EWSs are relatively weak. Using the rich experience of information systems across the globe, this paper identifies pathways for knowledge management and action at the relevant scales for decision-making in response to a changing climate.

  13. The Role of Cash Flow in Financial Early Warning of Agricultural Enterprises Based on Logistic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fengru

    2018-01-01

    This paper chooses the agricultural listed companies as the research object, compares the financial situation of the enterprise and the theory of financial early warning, combines the financial status of the agricultural listed companies, selects the relevant cash flow indicators, discusses the application of the Logistic financial early warning model in the agricultural listed companies, Agricultural enterprises get better development. Research on financial early warning of agricultural listed companies will help the agricultural listed companies to predict the financial crisis. Financial early warning model is simple to establish, operational and strong, the use of financial early warning model, to help enterprises in the financial crisis before taking rapid and effective measures, which can avoid losses. Help enterprises to discover signs of deterioration of the financial situation in time to maintain the sustainable development of agricultural enterprises. In addition, through the financial early warning model, investors can correctly identify the financial situation of agricultural enterprises, and can evaluate the financial situation of agricultural enterprises and to help investors to invest in scientific and rational, beneficial to investors to analyze the safety of investment. But also help the relevant regulatory agencies to effectively monitor the market and promote the healthy and stable development of the market.

  14. Desire versus Efficacy in Smokers’ Paradoxical Reactions to Pictorial Health Warnings for Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romer, Daniel; Peters, Ellen; Strasser, Andrew A.; Langleben, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Pictorial health warnings on cigarette packs create aversive emotional reactions to smoking and induce thoughts about quitting; however, contrary to models of health behavior change, they do not appear to alter intentions to quit smoking. We propose and test a novel model of intention to quit an addictive habit such as smoking (the efficacy-desire model) that can explain this paradoxical effect. At the core of the model is the prediction that self-efficacy and desire to quit an addictive habit are inversely related. We tested the model in an online experiment that randomly exposed smokers (N = 3297) to a cigarette pack with one of three increasing levels of warning intensity. The results supported the model’s prediction that despite the effects of warnings on aversion to smoking, intention to quit smoking is an inverted U-shape function of the smoker’s self-efficacy for quitting. In addition, smokers with greater (lesser) quit efficacy relative to smoking efficacy increase (decrease) intentions to quit. The findings show that previous failures to observe effects of pictorial warning labels on quit intentions can be explained by the contradictory individual differences that warnings produce. Thus, the model explains the paradoxical finding that quit intentions do not change at the population level, even though smokers recognize the implications of warnings. The model suggests that pictorial warnings are effective for smokers with stronger quit-efficacy beliefs and provides guidance for how cigarette warnings and tobacco control strategies can be designed to help smokers quit. PMID:23383006

  15. People-centred landslide early warning systems in the context of risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haß, S.; Asch, K.; Fernandez-Steeger, T.; Arnhardt, C.

    2009-04-01

    In the current hazard research people-centred warning becomes more and more important, because different types of organizations and groups have to be involved in the warning process. This fact has to be taken into account when developing early warning systems. The effectiveness of early warning depends not only on technical capabilities but also on the preparedness of decision makers and their immediate response on how to act in case of emergency. Hence early warning systems have to be regarded in the context of an integrated and holistic risk management. Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) measures include people-centred, timely and understandable warning. Further responsible authorities have to be identified in advance and standards for risk communication have to be established. Up to now, hazard and risk assessment for geohazards focuses on the development of inventory, susceptibility, hazard and risk maps. But often, especially in Europe, there are no institutional structures for managing geohazards and in addition there is a lack of an authority that is legally obliged to alarm on landslides at national or regional level. One of the main characteristics within the warning process for natural hazards e.g. in Germany is the split of responsibility between scientific authorities (wissenschaftliche Fachbehörde) and enforcement authorities (Vollzugsbehörde). The scientific authority provides the experts who define the methods and measures for monitoring and evaluate the hazard level. The main focus is the acquisition and evaluation of data and subsequently the distribution of information. The enforcement authority issues official warnings about dangerous natural phenomena. Hence the information chain in the context of early warning ranges over two different institutions, the forecast service and the warning service. But there doesn't exist a framework for warning processes in terms of landslides as yet. The concept for managing natural disasters is often reduced to

  16. Implementing Black Box Warnings (BBWs) in Health Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikezuagu, M.; Yang, E.; Daghstani, A.; Kaelber, D. C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To develop a practical approach for implementing clinical decision support (CDS) for medication black box warnings (BBWs) into health information systems (HIS). Methods We reviewed all existing medication BBWs and organized them into a taxonomy that identifies opportunities and challenges for implementing CDS for BBWs into HIS. Results Of the over 400 BBWs that currently exist, they can be organized into 4 categories with 9 sub-categories based on the types of information contained in the BBWs, who should be notified, and potential actions to that could be taken by the person receiving the BBW. Informatics oriented categories and sub-categories of BBWs include – interactions (13%) (drug-drug (4%) and drug-diagnosis (9%)), testing (21%) (baseline (9%) and on-going (12%)), notifications (29%) (drug prescribers (7%), drug dispensers (2%), drug administrators (9%), patients (10%), and third parties (1%)), and non-actionable (37%). This categorization helps identify BBWs for which CDS can be easily implemented into HIS today (such as drug-drug interaction BBWs), those that cannot be easily implemented into HIS today (such as non-actionable BBWs), and those where advanced and/or integrated HIS need to be in place to implement CDS for BBWs (such a drug dispensers BBWs). Conclusions HIS have the potential to improve patient safety by implementing CDS for BBWs. A key to building CDS for BBWs into HIS is developing a taxonomy to serve as an organizing roadmap for implementation. The informatics oriented BBWs taxonomy presented here identified types of BBWs in which CDS can be implemented easily into HIS currently (a minority of the BBWs) and those types of BBWs where CDS cannot be easily implemented today (a majority of BBWs). PMID:23616904

  17. Applications of sub-audible speech recognition based upon electromyographic signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, C. Charles (Inventor); Betts, Bradley J. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Method and system for generating electromyographic or sub-audible signals (''SAWPs'') and for transmitting and recognizing the SAWPs that represent the original words and/or phrases. The SAWPs may be generated in an environment that interferes excessively with normal speech or that requires stealth communications, and may be transmitted using encoded, enciphered or otherwise transformed signals that are less subject to signal distortion or degradation in the ambient environment.

  18. Vehicle to Vehicle Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe Rørbæk

    2008-01-01

    As computing devices, sensors, and actuators pervade our surroundings, new applications emerge with accompanying research challenges. In the transportation domain vehicles are being linked by wireless communication and equipped with an array of sensors and actuators that make is possible to provide...... location aware infotainment, increase safety, and lessen environmental strain. This dissertation is about service oriented architecture for pervasive computing with an emphasis on vehicle to vehicle applications. If devices are exposed as services, applications can be created by composing a set of services...... and governing the flow of data among them. In pervasive computing, composing services is, however, not the whole story. To fully realize their potential, applications must also deal with challenges such as device heterogeneity, context awareness, openendedness, and resilience to dynamism in network connectivity...

  19. Electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell electric vehicles: what in the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maggetto, G.; Van Mierlo, J. [Vrije Universiteit, Brussel (Belgium)

    2000-07-01

    In urban area, due to their beneficial effect on environment, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell electric vehicles are an important factor for improvement of traffic and more particular for a healthier environment. Moreover, the need for alternative energy source is growing and the price competition of alternatives against oil is becoming more and more realistic. Electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell electric vehicles are offering the best possibility for the use of new energy sources, because electricity can result from a transformation with high efficiency of these sources and is always used with the highest possible efficiency in systems with electric drives or components. Some basic considerations about the situation today and in a mid and long-term perspective, are presented together with the infrastructure developments.

  20. Evaluation of Flood Forecast and Warning in Elbe river basin - Impact of Forecaster's Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danhelka, Jan; Vlasak, Tomas

    2010-05-01

    Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI) is responsible for flood forecasting and warning in the Czech Republic. To meet that issue CHMI operates hydrological forecasting systems and publish flow forecast in selected profiles. Flood forecast and warning is an output of system that links observation (flow and atmosphere), data processing, weather forecast (especially NWP's QPF), hydrological modeling and modeled outputs evaluation and interpretation by forecaster. Forecast users are interested in final output without separating uncertainties of separate steps of described process. Therefore an evaluation of final operational forecasts was done for profiles within Elbe river basin produced by AquaLog forecasting system during period 2002 to 2008. Effects of uncertainties of observation, data processing and especially meteorological forecasts were not accounted separately. Forecast of flood levels exceedance (peak over the threshold) during forecasting period was the main criterion as flow increase forecast is of the highest importance. Other evaluation criteria included peak flow and volume difference. In addition Nash-Sutcliffe was computed separately for each time step (1 to 48 h) of forecasting period to identify its change with the lead time. Textual flood warnings are issued for administrative regions to initiate flood protection actions in danger of flood. Flood warning hit rate was evaluated at regions level and national level. Evaluation found significant differences of model forecast skill between forecasting profiles, particularly less skill was evaluated at small headwater basins due to domination of QPF uncertainty in these basins. The average hit rate was 0.34 (miss rate = 0.33, false alarm rate = 0.32). However its explored spatial difference is likely to be influenced also by different fit of parameters sets (due to different basin characteristics) and importantly by different impact of human factor. Results suggest that the practice of interactive

  1. VERIFICATION OF CENSUS DEVICES IN TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Petrů

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a comparison of three devices and two methods that are used to count traffic flow. All measurements were carried out at a roundabout in Ostrava, where the following devices were used: Viacount II, Icoms TSM-SA, and Nu-Metrics NC-200 traffic analyzers. The methods of manual counting of vehicles and of counting vehicles based on video footage were used. The article also provides a comparison of the results obtained, namely in terms of traffic intensity, and of the measurements of the length and speed of vehicles. Further, we evaluate the results and explore the deviations from reality and the reasons why they occur. The article concludes with the recommended procedure designed to eliminate the identified problems, in order to ensure the most accurate results, with no significant deviations.

  2. Strategy and Evaluation of Vehicle Collision Avoidance Control via Hardware-in-the-Loop Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sin-Li Chen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel control approach for vehicle collision avoidance of urban vehicles. For safe driving in urban environments, this paper presents both one-dimensional and two-dimensional solutions, which can be applied to the collision avoidance via steering assistance, automatic braking, and warning of collision. Strategies are verified under the software CarSim, and the experimental evaluations are carried out under the combination of CarSim with a hardware-in-the-loop platform. The results show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm on vehicle collision avoidance.

  3. 40 CFR 610.21 - Device functional category and vehicle system effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria Evaluation...) The devices evaluated in this program are organized into categories for purposes of definition and... characteristics (other than fuel economy) may be adversely affected by installation or use of the device. (b) A...

  4. Assessing Early Warning Systems; How Have they Worked in Practice?

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Berg; Eduardo Borensztein; Catherine A Pattillo

    2004-01-01

    Since 1999, IMF staff have been tracking several early warning system (EWS) models of currency crisis. The results have been mixed. One of the long-horizon models has performed well relative to pure guesswork and to available non-model-based forecasts, such as agency ratings and private analysts' currency crisis risk scores. The data do not speak clearly on the other long-horizon EWS model. The two short-horizon private sector models generally performed poorly. Copyright 2005, International M...

  5. Temporal patterns in road crossing behaviour in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) at sites with wildlife warning reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämmerle, Jim-Lino; Kröschel, Max; Hagen, Robert; Storch, Ilse; Suchant, Rudi

    2017-01-01

    Every year, there are millions of documented vehicle collisions involving cervids across Europe and North America. While temporal patterns in collision occurrence are relatively well described, few studies have targeted deer behaviour as a critical component of collision prevention. In this study, we investigated weekly and daily patterns in road crossing behaviour in roe deer. Using road crossing events and movement data obtained from GPS telemetry, we employed mixed-effect models to explain frequency and timing of crossings at five road segments by a number of predictors including traffic volume, deer movement activity and the presence of wildlife warning reflectors. We analysed 13,689 road crossing events by 32 study animals. Individual variation in crossing frequency was high but daily patterns in crossing events were highly consistent among animals. Variation in the intensity of movement activity on a daily and seasonal scale was the main driver of road crossing behaviour. The seasonal variation in crossing frequency reflected differences in movement activity throughout the reproductive cycle, while daily variation in the probability to cross exhibited a clear nocturnal emphasis and reflected crepuscular activity peaks. The frequency of road crossings increased as a function of road density in the home-range, while traffic volume only exerted marginal effects. Movement activity of roe deer in our study coincided with commuter traffic mainly in the early morning and late afternoon during winter and during periods of high spatial activity such as the rut. Both timing and frequency of crossing events remained unchanged in the presence of reflectors. Our results emphasise the importance of behavioural studies for understanding roe deer vehicle-collision patterns and thus provide important information for collision prevention. We suggest that mitigation of collision risk should focus on strategic seasonal measures and animal warning systems targeting drivers. PMID

  6. Implementation of a Seismic Early Warning System in Portugal Mainland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madureira, Guilherme; Carrilho, Fernando

    2017-04-01

    Portugal mainland is located near the border between the Eurasian and Nubian plates, whose interaction is the main responsible for a significant seismic activity in the area, with historical occurrence of several catastrophic events (e.g. Lisbon 1755 earthquake [Mag 8.7]), most of which haviguilhng epicenter rise in submerged area, located in the Cadiz Gulf and Southwest of San Vincent Cape. Early Warning Systems (EEWS) is presently a very effective concept to be applied in the mitigation of the effects caused by large earthquakes. For the mentioned area a feasibility study of a EEWS was made in the ALERT-ES project. It was found that the system could be effective to protect cities and infrastructures located at larger distances (ex: Lisbon) from the areas, located south and southwest of PT mainland, where the larger earthquakes are expected to be originated. Considering the use of a new strong-motion network recently implemented in the south of PT mainland, we concluded that the lead-times could be improved. We opted by the implementation of the well known computational platform PRESTO. In the adaptation of the mentioned platform to the local reality one of the challenges was the computation of fast moment magnitude estimates, because regional attenuation must be properly considered, and a specific study was made on this issue. The several simulations that were performed showed a reasonably good performance of the system, both on magnitude evaluation and epicentre location. However we also noted that the problems in the acquisition instruments are a very important source of disturbance in the performance of the EEWS, pointing to a need of a very accurate quality control of the strong-motion network. Considering end-users, we are also developing specific software for intensity estimation at the target places and to trigger visual and audio alerts in accordance to the expected level of shaking. This work is supported by the EU project TSUMAPS-NEAM, Agreement Number

  7. Web-based Tsunami Early Warning System with instant Tsunami Propagation Calculations in the GPU Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammitzsch, M.; Spazier, J.; Reißland, S.

    2014-12-01

    Usually, tsunami early warning and mitigation systems (TWS or TEWS) are based on several software components deployed in a client-server based infrastructure. The vast majority of systems importantly include desktop-based clients with a graphical user interface (GUI) for the operators in early warning centers. However, in times of cloud computing and ubiquitous computing the use of concepts and paradigms, introduced by continuously evolving approaches in information and communications technology (ICT), have to be considered even for early warning systems (EWS). Based on the experiences and the knowledge gained in three research projects - 'German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System' (GITEWS), 'Distant Early Warning System' (DEWS), and 'Collaborative, Complex, and Critical Decision-Support in Evolving Crises' (TRIDEC) - new technologies are exploited to implement a cloud-based and web-based prototype to open up new prospects for EWS. This prototype, named 'TRIDEC Cloud', merges several complementary external and in-house cloud-based services into one platform for automated background computation with graphics processing units (GPU), for web-mapping of hazard specific geospatial data, and for serving relevant functionality to handle, share, and communicate threat specific information in a collaborative and distributed environment. The prototype in its current version addresses tsunami early warning and mitigation. The integration of GPU accelerated tsunami simulation computations have been an integral part of this prototype to foster early warning with on-demand tsunami predictions based on actual source parameters. However, the platform is meant for researchers around the world to make use of the cloud-based GPU computation to analyze other types of geohazards and natural hazards and react upon the computed situation picture with a web-based GUI in a web browser at remote sites. The current website is an early alpha version for demonstration purposes to give the

  8. The SAFER-Project and Seismic Early Warning in Europe (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zschau, J.; Gasparini, P.

    2009-12-01

    SAFER (Seismic EArly Warning For EuRope) is the first large scale scientific project in Europe on earthquake early warning. It is funded by the European Commission in the context of Framework Program 6 under the theme Sustainable Development, Global Change and Ecosystems. Its general objective is to develop knowledge and tools for increasing the capability of effective earthquake early warning in Europe and to implement and test these tools in selected European cities. The SAFER project was carried out between 2006 and 2009 by a consortium formed by 20 institutes from 11 European and Mediterranean countries (Germany, Italy, Greece, Romania, Switzerland, Norway, France, the Netherlands, Iceland, Turkey and Egypt) and one each from Japan, Taiwan and USA. Five major earthquake prone cities were chosen as test areas: Athens, Bucharest, Cairo, Istanbul and Naples. The combined population of these cities is about 40 million inhabitants and all have experienced severe earthquakes in recent years. SAFER is strongly multi-disciplinary, calling upon expertise in seismology, structural and geotechnical engineering, informatics and statistics. Some of the specific problems addressed are related to - the rapid determination of earthquake size, complex earthquake features, and damage potential; - the implementation of a fully probabilistic framework for applications of earthquake early warning based on cost-benefit analysis; - the development of a new generation of early warning systems being decentralised and people-centred, and - the implementation of the real-time “shake map”-technology in large European cities. The presentation will review the major scientific findings, comment on the improvements of the earthquake early warning capabilities achieved by SAFER in the five test cities, and present some ideas for the future development of earthquake early warning in Europe.

  9. Detection and Elimination of a Potential Fire in Engine and Battery Compartments of Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macam S. Dattathreya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel fuzzy deterministic noncontroller type (FDNCT system and an FDNCT inference algorithm (FIA. The FDNCT uses fuzzy inputs and produces a deterministic non-fuzzy output. The FDNCT is an extension and alternative for the existing fuzzy singleton inference algorithm. The research described in this paper applies FDNCT to build an architecture for an intelligent system to detect and to eliminate potential fires in the engine and battery compartments of a hybrid electric vehicle. The fuzzy inputs consist of sensor data from the engine and battery compartments, namely, temperature, moisture, and voltage and current of the battery. The system synthesizes the data and detects potential fires, takes actions for eliminating the hazard, and notifies the passengers about the potential fire using an audible alarm. This paper also presents the computer simulation results of the comparison between the FIA and singleton inference algorithms for detecting potential fires and determining the actions for eliminating them.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF WARNING CRITERIA FOR LAHAR FLOW DISASTER IN GENDOL RIVER AREA OF MOUNT MERAPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernowo Ary Fibriyantoro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The eruption of Mount Merapi in 2010 leads to the lahar flow disaster in the region of the mountain slopes. Due to the impact caused by the lahar flow, it is important to develop warning criteria for lahar flow disaster with a simple method corresponding to the limitation of existing data and parameters. One of the methods is by analyzing rainfall data to predict the occurrence of lahar flow in Gendol River. It applies the setting of standard rainfall for warning and evacuation of sediment disasters based on Guidelines for the Development of Warning and Evacuation System against Sediment Disasters in Developing Countries, published by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, and Transport (MLIT Infrastructure Development Institute - Japan, 2004. This study analyzed the critical line (CL which can be used to predict the occurrence of lahar flow based on the rain characteristics namely working rainfall and rainfall intensity. Furthermore, it can be established by warning line (WL and the evacuation line (EL as a basis for determining the standard rainfall for warning (R1 and standard rainfall for evacuation (R2. The value of R1 obtained ± 6 mm and R2 ± 29 mm. The value of R1 and R2 are strongly influenced by the availability of rainfall data and occurrence of lahar flow. The results of this research were expected to be used as input for the warning criteria development of early warning system lahar flow disaster on the slopes of Mount Merapi, particularly in the area of Gendol River.

  11. Effectiveness of forward collision warning and autonomous emergency braking systems in reducing front-to-rear crash rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchino, Jessica B

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of forward collision warning (FCW) alone, a low-speed autonomous emergency braking (AEB) system operational at speeds up to 19mph that does not warn the driver prior to braking, and FCW with AEB that operates at higher speeds in reducing front-to-rear crashes and injuries. Poisson regression was used to compare rates of police-reported crash involvements per insured vehicle year in 22 U.S. states during 2010-2014 between passenger vehicle models with FCW alone or with AEB and the same models where the optional systems were not purchased, controlling for other factors affecting crash risk. Similar analyses compared rates between Volvo 2011-2012 model S60 and 2010-2012 model XC60 vehicles with a standard low-speed AEB system to those of other luxury midsize cars and SUVs, respectively, without the system. FCW alone, low-speed AEB, and FCW with AEB reduced rear-end striking crash involvement rates by 27%, 43%, and 50%, respectively. Rates of rear-end striking crash involvements with injuries were reduced by 20%, 45%, and 56%, respectively, by FCW alone, low-speed AEB, and FCW with AEB, and rates of rear-end striking crash involvements with third-party injuries were reduced by 18%, 44%, and 59%, respectively. Reductions in rear-end striking crashes with third-party injuries were marginally significant for FCW alone, and all other reductions were statistically significant. FCW alone and low-speed AEB reduced rates of being rear struck in rear-end crashes by 13% and 12%, respectively, but FCW with AEB increased rates of rear-end struck crash involvements by 20%. Almost 1 million U.S. police-reported rear-end crashes in 2014 and more than 400,000 injuries in such crashes could have been prevented if all vehicles were equipped with FCW and AEB that perform similarly as systems did for study vehicles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Seismic Activity: Public Alert and Warning: Legal Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zocchetti, D.

    2007-12-01

    As science and technology evolve in ways that increase our ability to inform the public of potentially destructive seismic activity, there are significant legal issues for consideration. Even though countries and even states within the United States have differing legal tenets that could either change or at least re-shape the outcome of specific legal questions that this session will be pondering, there are fundamental legal principals that will permeate. It is often said that the law lags behind society and in particular its technological developments. No doubt in the area of warning the public of impending destructive forces of nature or society, the law will need to do some catching up. The law is probably adequately developed for at least some preliminary discussion of the key issues. No matter the legal scheme, if there is a failure or perceived failure in the system to warn people of a pending emergencies, albeit an earthquake, tsunami, or other predictable event, those who are harmed or believe they are harmed will seek relief under the law. Every day there are situations wherein the failure to warn or to adequately warn is key, such as with faulty or defective consumer products, escaped prisoners, and police high-speed vehicle chases. With alert and warning systems for disaster, however, we have a unique set of facts. Generally, the systems and their failures occur during emergencies or at least during situations under apparently exigent circumstances when the disaster's predictability is widely recognized as less than 100 percent. The law, in particular United States tort law, has been particularly lenient when people and organizations are operating during compressed timeframes and their actions are generally considered necessary to address circumstances relative to public safety. The legal system has been forgiving when the actor that failed or appeared to fail was government. The courts have liberally applied the principal of sovereign immunity to

  13. Viewing alcohol warning advertising reduces urges to drink in young adults: an online experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaidy Stautz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco counter-advertising is effective at promoting smoking cessation. Few studies have evaluated the impact of alcohol warning advertising on alcohol consumption and possible mechanisms of effect. This pilot study aimed to assess whether alcohol warning advertising is effective in reducing urges to drink alcohol, if emotional responses to advertising explain any such effect or perceived effectiveness, and whether effects differ among heavier drinkers. Methods One hundred fifty-two young adult (aged 18–25 alcohol users completed an online experiment in which they were randomly assigned to view one of three sets of six advertisements: (i alcohol warning; (ii alcohol promoting; or (iii advertisements for non-alcohol products. Urges to drink alcohol were self-reported post-exposure. Affective responses (pleasure and arousal to each advertisement and perceived effectiveness of each advertisement were recorded. Typical level of alcohol consumption was measured as a potential effect modifier. Results Participants exposed to alcohol warning advertisements reported significantly lower urges to drink alcohol than those who viewed either alcohol promoting or non-alcohol advertisements. This effect was fully mediated by negative affective responses (displeasure to the alcohol warning advertisements. Perceived effectiveness of alcohol warning advertisements was associated with high arousal responses. Impact of the advertisements was unaffected by typical level of alcohol consumption, although the study was not powered to detect anything other than large effects. Conclusions In line with findings from the tobacco literature, alcohol warning advertisements that elicit negative affect reduce urges to drink alcohol. Their impact upon actual consumption awaits investigation.

  14. The Influence of Cochlear Mechanical Dysfunction, Temporal Processing Deficits, and Age on the Intelligibility of Audible Speech in Noise for Hearing-Impaired Listeners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter T. Johannesen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the relative importance of cochlear mechanical dysfunction, temporal processing deficits, and age on the ability of hearing-impaired listeners to understand speech in noisy backgrounds. Sixty-eight listeners took part in the study. They were provided with linear, frequency-specific amplification to compensate for their audiometric losses, and intelligibility was assessed for speech-shaped noise (SSN and a time-reversed two-talker masker (R2TM. Behavioral estimates of cochlear gain loss and residual compression were available from a previous study and were used as indicators of cochlear mechanical dysfunction. Temporal processing abilities were assessed using frequency modulation detection thresholds. Age, audiometric thresholds, and the difference between audiometric threshold and cochlear gain loss were also included in the analyses. Stepwise multiple linear regression models were used to assess the relative importance of the various factors for intelligibility. Results showed that (a cochlear gain loss was unrelated to intelligibility, (b residual cochlear compression was related to intelligibility in SSN but not in a R2TM, (c temporal processing was strongly related to intelligibility in a R2TM and much less so in SSN, and (d age per se impaired intelligibility. In summary, all factors affected intelligibility, but their relative importance varied across maskers.

  15. Looming auditory collision warnings for driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Rob

    2011-02-01

    A driving simulator was used to compare the effectiveness of increasing intensity (looming) auditory warning signals with other types of auditory warnings. Auditory warnings have been shown to speed driver reaction time in rear-end collision situations; however, it is not clear which type of signal is the most effective. Although verbal and symbolic (e.g., a car horn) warnings have faster response times than abstract warnings, they often lead to more response errors. Participants (N=20) experienced four nonlooming auditory warnings (constant intensity, pulsed, ramped, and car horn), three looming auditory warnings ("veridical," "early," and "late"), and a no-warning condition. In 80% of the trials, warnings were activated when a critical response was required, and in 20% of the trials, the warnings were false alarms. For the early (late) looming warnings, the rate of change of intensity signaled a time to collision (TTC) that was shorter (longer) than the actual TTC. Veridical looming and car horn warnings had significantly faster brake reaction times (BRT) compared with the other nonlooming warnings (by 80 to 160 ms). However, the number of braking responses in false alarm conditions was significantly greater for the car horn. BRT increased significantly and systematically as the TTC signaled by the looming warning was changed from early to veridical to late. Looming auditory warnings produce the best combination of response speed and accuracy. The results indicate that looming auditory warnings can be used to effectively warn a driver about an impending collision.

  16. The Role of Kenya Meteorological Service in Weather Early Warning in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zablon W. Shilenje

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Early warning in weather forecasting entails provision of timely and effective weather information that allows individuals, organisations, or communities exposed to likely weather hazards to take action that avoids or reduces their exposure to risks. Various sectors have developed different ways to mitigate the effects of climate anomalies. The study reviews the existing monitoring and response structures, and communications flow channels of weather data at different levels, focusing on the role of Kenya Meteorological Service (KMS. The methodology employed was literature review of various documents. The study argues that early warning and weather information communication are essential elements for effective governance of weather risks through a well-developed warning system. At the end, the study recommends strengthening the existing structures with respect to weather monitoring, processing, and dissemination of weather products to end users.

  17. Embedded alcohol messages in television series: the interactive effect of warnings and audience connectedness on viewers' alcohol beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Dale W; Russell, Cristel Antonia

    2008-05-01

    This research investigates whether warning viewers about the presence of embedded messages in the content of a television episode affects viewers' drinking beliefs and whether audience connectedness moderates the warning's impact. Two hundred fifty college students participated in a laboratory experiment approximating a real-life television viewing experience. They viewed an actual television series episode containing embedded alcohol messages, and their subsequent beliefs about alcohol consequences were measured. Experimental conditions differed based on a 2 (Connectedness Level: low vs high) x 2 (Timing of the Warning: before or after the episode) x 2 (Emphasis of Warning: advertising vs health message) design. Connectedness was measured, and the timing and emphasis of the warnings were manipulated. The design also included a control condition where there was no warning. The findings indicate that warning viewers about embedded messages in the content of a program can yield significant differences in viewers' beliefs about alcohol. However, the warning's impact differs depending on the viewers' level of connectedness to the program. In particular, in comparison with the no-warning control condition, the advertising prewarning produced lower positive beliefs about alcohol and its consequences but only for the low-connected viewers. Highly connected viewers were not affected by a warning emphasizing advertising messages embedded in the program, but a warning emphasizing health produced significantly higher negative beliefs about drinking than in the control condition. The presence of many positive portrayals of drinking and alcohol product placements in television series has led many to suggest ways to counter their influence. However, advocates of warnings should be conscious of their differential impact on high- and low-connected viewers.

  18. Embedded Alcohol Messages in Television Series: The Interactive Effect of Warnings and Audience Connectedness on Viewers' Alcohol Beliefs*

    Science.gov (United States)

    RUSSELL, DALE W.; RUSSELL, CRISTEL ANTONIA

    2014-01-01

    Objective This research investigates whether warning viewers about the presence of embedded messages in the content of a television episode affects viewers' drinking beliefs and whether audi ence connectedness moderates the warning's impact. Method Two hun dred fifty college students participated in a laboratory experiment approximating a real-life television viewing experience. They viewed an actual television series episode containing embedded alcohol messages, and their subsequent beliefs about alcohol consequences were measured. Experimental conditions differed based on a 2 (Connectedness Level: low vs high) × 2 (Timing of the Warning: before or after the episode) × 2 (Emphasis of Warning: advertising vs health message) design. Connectedness was measured, and the timing and emphasis of the warnings were manipulated. The design also included a control condition where there was no warning. Results The findings indicate that warning view ers about embedded messages in the content of a program can yield sig nificant differences in viewers' beliefs about alcohol. However, the warning's impact differs depending on the viewers' level of connectedness to the program. In particular, in comparison with the no-warning control condition, the advertising prewarning produced lower positive beliefs about alcohol and its consequences but only for the low-connected viewers. Highly connected viewers were not affected by a warning emphasizing advertising messages embedded in the program, but a warning emphasizing health produced significantly higher negative be liefs about drinking than in the control condition. Conclusions The presence of many positive portrayals of drinking and alcohol product placements in television series has led many to suggest ways to counter their influence. However, advocates of warnings should be conscious of their differential impact on high- and low-connected viewers. PMID:18432390

  19. An Operational Comparison of Lightning Warning Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. L.; Janota, D. E.; Hay, J. E.

    1982-05-01

    During the spring-summer of 1979, six lightning warning devices were evaluated in a side-by-side comparison study at three test sites. Stock commercial devices were selected based upon distinct concepts of operation. The devices tested included a sferics counter, a corona point, a radioactive probe, a field mill, an azimuth/range locator and a triangulation locator. The test sites were chosen to provide varied thunderstorm conditions: 1) San Antonio, Texas (cold air advection), 2) Kennedy Space Center, Florida (localized surface heating) and 3) Langmuir Laboratory, New Mexico (orographic effects). The evaluation parameters were advance warning time, time to clear after hazard, alarm reliability, and false alarm and failure to alarm probabilities. The triangulation locator provided the best overall performance; however, all systems indicated a need for improvement in the failure to alarm rate.

  20. Health warnings on tobacco packaging in Italy: do they describe all possible smoking-related conditions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittoria Colamesta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This report aims to evaluate the adherence between the health warnings on tobacco products in Italy and the smoking-related conditions known in the scientific literature. The Legislative Decree 2003 and 2012 established the general and the additional warnings on tobacco packaging. Regarding the smoking-related conditions, the health damages presented in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC report are reported. Also a narrative review was performed. Respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, adverse reproductive outcomes and childhood neurobehavioral disorders are well reported in the textual health warning. Also there is at least one message indicating that the exposure of secondhand smoke is harmful. Conversely, several smoking-related cancers and other adverse health effects (diabetes, hip fractures, low bone density in postmenopausal women, rheumatoid arthritis, mental decline, acne and allergy, etc are not considered. The health warnings represent an important mean for communicating that may change smokers’ attitudes and behaviours, therefore, it’s important to implement them, also considering the introduction of graphical warnings, to maintain their effectiveness over time.

  1. Early warning system scores for clinical deterioration in hospitalized patients: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M E Beth; Chiovaro, Joseph C; O'Neil, Maya; Kansagara, Devan; Quiñones, Ana R; Freeman, Michele; Motu'apuaka, Makalapua L; Slatore, Christopher G

    2014-11-01

    Early warning system (EWS) scores are used by hospital care teams to recognize early signs of clinical deterioration and trigger more intensive care. To systematically review the evidence on the ability of early warning system scores to predict a patient's risk of clinical deterioration and the impact of early warning system implementation on health outcomes and resource utilization. We searched the MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases through May 2014. We included English-language studies of early warning system scores used with adults admitted to medical or surgical wards. We abstracted study characteristics, including population, setting, sample size, duration, and criteria used for early warning system scoring. For predictive ability, the primary outcomes were modeled for discrimination on 48-hour mortality, cardiac arrest, or pulmonary arrest. Outcomes for the impact of early warning system implementation included 30-day mortality, cardiovascular events, use of vasopressors, respiratory failure, days on ventilator, and resource utilization. We assessed study quality using a modified Quality in Prognosis Studies assessment tool where applicable. Of 11,183 citations studies reviewed, one controlled trial and 20 observational studies of 13 unique models met our inclusion criteria. In eight studies, researchers addressed the predictive ability of early warning system tools and found a strong predictive value for death (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUROC], 0.88-0.93) and cardiac arrest (AUROC, 0.74-0.86) within 48 hours. In 13 studies (one controlled trial and 12 pre-post observational studies), researchers addressed the impact on health outcomes and resource utilization and had mixed results. The one controlled trial was of good quality, and the researchers found no difference in mortality, transfers to the ICU, or length of hospital stay. The pre-post designs of the remaining studies have

  2. An ergonomic evaluation of a patient handling device: the elevate and transfer vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bon, C; Forrester, C

    1997-01-01

    This study evaluated a Patient Handling Device (PHD) called the Elevate and Transfer Vehicle (ETV). The ETV works on the principle of leverage to transfer a patient from one seated position to another. Three types of product evaluation were used: expert appraisal; user trials; and performance tests. Expert appraisal was conducted by a panel of 11 people including an ergonomist, an industrial designer, two engineers, including one employed as an academic in a School of Mechanical, Manufacturing and Medical Engineering, and seven health professionals. The experts evaluated the ETV using a checklist and group discussions. They generally agreed that the advantages of the ETV tested were it's simplicity, the convenient position to adjust clothing for toileting and the need for only one carer. They noted comfort, security of straps, centre of gravity and manoeuvrability as the main areas for improvement. User trials consisted of nine male and nine female volunteer users assigned to carer/patient pairs. Following a training period, each user subjectively evaluated the ETV by structured interview. User trial results indicated ease of use, prevention of back injuries in carers and minimal body contact were advantages of the ETV. The main problems with using the ETV appeared to be the inadequate 'prop' and straps, the 'jolt' and lack of dignity for the patient. Several critical performance tests were conducted to determine compliance to Australian Standards for design. Areas of non-compliance included strength of frame and static stability. The findings suggest that most of the identified problems of the ETV could be overcome with minor design improvements. The general consensus of participants was to keep the design simple, maintain fast transfers and maintain the position of the patient to enable ease of clothing adjustment for toileting.

  3. Establishing an early warning alert and response network following the Solomon Islands tsunami in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilve, Augustine; Nogareda, Francisco; Joshua, Cynthia; Ross, Lester; Betcha, Christopher; Durski, Kara; Fleischl, Juliet; Nilles, Eric

    2014-11-01

    On 6 February 2013, an 8.0 magnitude earthquake generated a tsunami that struck the Santa Cruz Islands, Solomon Islands, killing 10 people and displacing over 4700. A post-disaster assessment of the risk of epidemic disease transmission recommended the implementation of an early warning alert and response network (EWARN) to rapidly detect, assess and respond to potential outbreaks in the aftermath of the tsunami. Almost 40% of the Santa Cruz Islands' population were displaced by the disaster, and living in cramped temporary camps with poor or absent sanitation facilities and insufficient access to clean water. There was no early warning disease surveillance system. By 25 February, an EWARN was operational in five health facilities that served 90% of the displaced population. Eight priority diseases or syndromes were reported weekly; unexpected health events were reported immediately. Between 25 February and 19 May, 1177 target diseases or syndrome cases were reported. Seven alerts were investigated. No sustained transmission or epidemics were identified. Reporting compliance was 85%. The EWARN was then transitioned to the routine four-syndrome early warning disease surveillance system. It was necessary to conduct a detailed assessment to evaluate the risk and potential impact of serious infectious disease outbreaks, to assess whether and how enhanced early warning disease surveillance should be implemented. Local capacities and available resources should be considered in planning EWARN implementation. An EWARN can be an opportunity to establish or strengthen early warning disease surveillance capabilities.

  4. Establishing an early warning alert and response network following the Solomon Islands tsunami in 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilve, Augustine; Nogareda, Francisco; Joshua, Cynthia; Ross, Lester; Betcha, Christopher; Durski, Kara; Fleischl, Juliet

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Problem On 6 February 2013, an 8.0 magnitude earthquake generated a tsunami that struck the Santa Cruz Islands, Solomon Islands, killing 10 people and displacing over 4700. Approach A post-disaster assessment of the risk of epidemic disease transmission recommended the implementation of an early warning alert and response network (EWARN) to rapidly detect, assess and respond to potential outbreaks in the aftermath of the tsunami. Local setting Almost 40% of the Santa Cruz Islands’ population were displaced by the disaster, and living in cramped temporary camps with poor or absent sanitation facilities and insufficient access to clean water. There was no early warning disease surveillance system. Relevant changes By 25 February, an EWARN was operational in five health facilities that served 90% of the displaced population. Eight priority diseases or syndromes were reported weekly; unexpected health events were reported immediately. Between 25 February and 19 May, 1177 target diseases or syndrome cases were reported. Seven alerts were investigated. No sustained transmission or epidemics were identified. Reporting compliance was 85%. The EWARN was then transitioned to the routine four-syndrome early warning disease surveillance system. Lesson learnt It was necessary to conduct a detailed assessment to evaluate the risk and potential impact of serious infectious disease outbreaks, to assess whether and how enhanced early warning disease surveillance should be implemented. Local capacities and available resources should be considered in planning EWARN implementation. An EWARN can be an opportunity to establish or strengthen early warning disease surveillance capabilities. PMID:25378746

  5. Flood warnings in coastal areas: how do social and behavioural patterns influence alert services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescaroli, G.; Magni, M.

    2015-01-01

    Many studies discuss the economic and technical aspects of flood warnings. Less attention has been given to the social and psychological patterns that affect alert services. In particular, the literature focuses on warnings activated in river basins or marine environments without providing clear evidence of relevance to Mediterranean coastal areas, even though these are subjected to growing flood risk related to climate change. This paper is a first attempt to bridge this gap. Our research develops an in- depth analysis of the village of Cesenatico on the Adriatic Sea coast. Here the municipality adopted two complementary warning systems: a siren and an alert via Short Message Service (SMS). The analysis focuses on a survey conducted in 2011 and 2012 with 228 participants. The relationships between social and behavioural variables and warning services are investigated, and so are flood preparedness and information dissemination. Qualitative evidence from informal interviews is used to support the understanding of key responses. The conclusions show how different social and behavioural patterns can influence the effectiveness and use of warning systems, regardless of the technology adopted and the structural mitigation measures implemented. Education, training and accountability are seen to be critical elements for improvement. Finally, the statistical output is used to suggest new questions and new directions for research.

  6. Climatic hazards warning process in Bangladesh: Experience of, and lessons from, the 1991 April cyclone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, C. Emdad

    1995-09-01

    Science and technology cannot control entirely the causes of natural hazards. However, by using multifaceted programs to modify the physical and human use systems, the potential losses from disasters can effectively be minized. Predicting, identifying, monitoring, and forecasting extreme meteorological events are the preliminary actions towards mitigating the cyclone-loss potential of coastal inhabitants, but without the successful dissemination of forecasts and relevant information, and without appropriate responses by the potential victims, the loss potential would probably remain the same. This study examines the process through which warning of the impending disastrous cyclone of April 1991 was received by the local communities and disseminated throughout the coastal regions of Bangladesh. It is found that identification of the threatening condition due to atmospheric disturbance, monitoring of the hazard event, and dissemination of the cyclone warning were each very successful. However, due to a number of socioeconomic and cognitive factors, the reactions and responses of coastal inhabitants to the warning were in general passive, resulting in a colossal loss, both at the individual and national level. The study recommends that the hazard mitigation policies should be integrated with national economic development plans and programs. Specifically, it is suggested that, in order to attain its goals, the cyclone warning system should regard the aspects of human response to warnings as a constituent part and accommodate human dimensions in its operational design.

  7. Motivation to quit smoking and acceptability of shocking warnings on cigarette packages in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layoun N

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Nelly Layoun,1,2 Pascal Salameh,2,3 Mirna Waked,4 Z Aoun Bacha,5 Rony M Zeenny,6 Eric El Hitti,4 Isabelle Godin,1 Michèle Dramaix1 1Research Center in Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Clinical Research, School of Public Health, UniversitéLibre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium; 2Doctoral School of Sciences and Technologies, Lebanese University, Beirut, Lebanon; 3Clinical and Epidemiological Research Laboratory, Faculty of Pharmacy, Lebanese University, Beirut, Lebanon; 4Department of Pulmonology, St George Hospital University Medical Center; Faculty of Medicine, Balamand University, Beirut, Lebanon; 5Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Hotel-Dieu de France, Beirut, Lebanon; 6Pharmacy Practice Department, School of Pharmacy, Lebanese American University, Byblos, Lebanon Introduction: Health warnings on tobacco packages have been considered an essential pillar in filling the gap of knowledge and communicating the health risks of tobacco use to consumers. Our primary objective was to report the perception of smokers on the textual health warnings already appearing on tobacco packages in Lebanon versus shocking pictures about the health-related smoking consequences and to evaluate their impact on smoking behaviors and motivation. Methods: A pilot cross-sectional study was undertaken between 2013 and 2015 in five hospitals in Lebanon. Participants answered a questionnaire inquiring about sociodemographic characteristics, chronic respiratory symptoms, smoking behavior and motivation to quit smoking. Only-text warning versus shocking pictures was shown to the smokers during the interview. Results: Exactly 66% of the participants reported that they thought shocking pictorial warnings would hypothetically be more effective tools to reduce/quit tobacco consumption compared to only textual warnings. Also, 31.9% of the smokers who were motivated to stop smoking reported that they actually had stopped smoking for at least 1 month secondary to

  8. Short and Sweet: The Persuasive Effects of Message Framing and Temporal Context in Antismoking Warning Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollen, Saar; Engelen, Susanne; Kessels, Loes T E; van den Putte, Bas

    2017-01-01

    Current warning labels on cigarette packages are generally focused on long-term losses that can be incurred if one continues smoking. This study compares the effects of these labels against warning labels that stress short-term losses of smoking as well as labels that stress short- and long-term benefits that can be obtained when one quits smoking. A 2 (message frame: gain vs. loss) × 2 (temporal context: short vs. long term) between-subjects experiment was conducted among 132 smokers, with attitude toward quitting smoking and intention to quit smoking, as well as information-seeking behavior and message recall, as the dependent variables. Findings were in line with theory regarding message framing and temporal discounting, showing enhanced effects of gain over loss frames and short-term over long-term consequences on warning labels for attitudes and intentions. In addition, an interaction between message frame and temporal context was found. Especially, gain-framed messages showed stronger effects on intentions to quit smoking than loss-framed messages when warning labels concerned short-term outcomes. Findings suggest that current warning labels, with an emphasis on long-term negative health outcomes, should be reconsidered.

  9. Fuel cell powered vehicles using supercapacitors-device characteristics, control strategies, and simulation results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, H.; Burke, A.F. [Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California (United States)

    2010-10-15

    The fuel cell powered vehicle is one of the most attractive candidates for the future due to its high efficiency and capability to use hydrogen as the fuel. However, its relatively poor dynamic response, high cost and limited life time have impeded its widespread adoption. With the emergence of large supercapacitors (also know as ultracapacitors, UCs) with high power density and the shift to hybridisation in the vehicle technology, fuel cell/supercapacitor hybrid fuel cell vehicles are gaining more attention. Fuel cells in conjunction with supercapacitors can create high power with fast dynamic response, which makes it well suitable for automotive applications. Hybrid fuel cell vehicles with different powertrain configurations have been evaluated based on simulations performed at the Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California-Davis. The following powertrain configurations have been considered: (a)Direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) without energy storage (b)FCVs with supercapacitors directly connected in parallel with fuel cells (c)FCVs with supercapacitors coupled in parallel with fuel cells through a DC/DC converter (d)FCVs with fuel cells connected to supercapacitors via a DC/DC converter. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  10. Impact of Waterpipe Tobacco Pack Health Warnings on Waterpipe Smoking Attitudes: A Qualitative Analysis among Regular Users in London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Jawad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Despite the rise in prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking, it has received little legislative enforcement from governing bodies, especially in the area of health warning labels. Methods. Twenty regular waterpipe tobacco smokers from London took part in five focus groups discussing the impact of waterpipe tobacco pack health warnings on their attitudes towards waterpipe smoking. We presented them with existing and mock waterpipe tobacco products, designed to be compliant with current and future UK/EU legislation. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Results. Participants felt packs were less attractive and health warnings were more impactful as health warnings increased in size and packaging became less branded. However, participants highlighted their lack of exposure to waterpipe tobacco pack health warnings due to the inherent nature of waterpipe smoking, that is, smoking in a café with the apparatus already prepacked by staff. Health warnings at the point of consumption had more reported impact than health warnings at the point of sale. Conclusions. Waterpipe tobacco pack health warnings are likely to be effective if compliant with existing laws and exposed to end-users. Legislations should be reviewed to extend health warning labels to waterpipe accessories, particularly the apparatus, and to waterpipe-serving premises.

  11. Reproduction of Realistic Background Noise for Testing Telecommunications Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gil Corrales, Juan David; Song, Wookeun; MacDonald, Ewen

    2015-01-01

    A method for reproduction of sound, based on crosstalk cancellation using inverse filters, was implemented in the context of testing telecommunications devices. The effect of the regularization parameter, number of loudspeakers, type of background noise, and a technique to attenuate audible...... artifacts, were investigated. The quality of the reproduced sound was evaluated both objectively and subjectively with respect to the reference sounds, at points where telecommunications devices would be potentially placed around the head. The highest regularization value gave the best results...

  12. Early warning scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    A free app available from the Apple App Store is aimed at supporting health professionals in Wales to use the National Early Warning Score (NEWS). The tool helps staff identify patients who are developing serious illness.

  13. OPTIMAL LOCATION OF TSUNAMI WARNING BUOYS AND SEA LEVEL MONITORING STATIONS IN THE MEDITERRANEAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Gabor

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study determines the optimal location of detection components of a tsunami warning system in the Mediterranean region given the existing and planned infrastructure. Specifically, we examine the locations of existing tsunameters DART buoys and coastal sea-level monitoring stations to see if additional buoys and stations will improve the proportion of the coastal population that may receive a warning ensuring a timely response. A spreadsheet model is used to examine this issue. Based on the historical record of tsunamis and assuming international cooperation in tsunami detection, it is demonstrated that the existing network of sea level stations and tsunameters enable around ninety percent of the coastal population of the Mediterranean Sea to receive a 15 minute warning. Improvement in this result can be achieved through investment in additional real-time, coastal, sea level monitoring stations. This work was undertaken as a final year undergraduate research project.

  14. Some human factors issues in the development and evaluation of cockpit alerting and warning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randle, R. J., Jr.; Larsen, W. E.; Williams, D. H.

    1980-01-01

    A set of general guidelines for evaluating a newly developed cockpit alerting and warning system in terms of human factors issues are provided. Although the discussion centers around a general methodology, it is made specifically to the issues involved in alerting systems. An overall statement of the current operational problem is presented. Human factors problems with reference to existing alerting and warning systems are described. The methodology for proceeding through system development to system test is discussed. The differences between traditional human factors laboratory evaluations and those required for evaluation of complex man-machine systems under development are emphasized. Performance evaluation in the alerting and warning subsystem using a hypothetical sample system is explained.

  15. Solar Energetic Particle Warnings from a Coronagraph

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Cyr, O. C.; Posner, A.; Burkepile, J. T.

    2017-01-01

    We report here the concept of using near-real time observations from a coronagraph to provide early warning of a fast coronal mass ejection (CME) and the possible onset of a solar energetic particle (SEP) event. The 1 January 2016, fast CME, and its associated SEP event are cited as an example. The CME was detected by the ground-based K-Cor coronagraph at Mauna Loa Solar Observatory and by the SOHO Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph. The near-real-time availability of the high-cadence K-Cor observations in the low corona leads to an obvious question: Why has no one attempted to use a coronagraph as an early warning device for SEP events? The answer is that the low image cadence and the long latency of existing spaceborne coronagraphs make them valid for archival studies but typically unsuitable for near-real-time forecasting. The January 2016 event provided favorable CME viewing geometry and demonstrated that the primary component of a prototype ground-based system for SEP warnings is available several hours on most days. We discuss how a conceptual CME-based warning system relates to other techniques, including an estimate of the relative SEP warning times, and how such a system might be realized.

  16. [Research on the neas infrared focal plane array detector imaging technology used in the laser warning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Bin; Huang, Yan-Fei; Wang, Yao-Li; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Yan-Chao

    2014-04-01

    In order to achieve the incoming laser's accurate position, it is necessary to improve the detected laser's direction resolution. The InGaAs focal plane array detector with the type of FPA-320 x 256-C was selected as the core component of the diffraction grating laser warning device. The detection theory of laser wavelength and direction based on diffraction grating was introduced. The drive circuit was designed through the analysis of the detector's performance and parameters. Under the FPGA' s timing control, the detector's analog output was sampled by the high-speed AD. The data was cached to FPGA's extended SRAM, and then transferred to a PC through USB. Labview on a PC collects the raw data for processing and displaying. The imaging experiments were completed with the above method. With the wavelength of 1550 nm and 980 nm laser from different directions the diffraction images were detected. Through analysis the location of the zero order and one order can be determined. According to the grating diffraction theory, the wavelength and the direction of the two-dimensional angle can be calculated. It indicates that the wavelength error is less than 10 nm, and the angle error is less than 1 degrees.

  17. Warning systems in a computerized nursing process for Intensive Care Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Couto Carvalho Barra

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid study combining technological production and methodological research aiming to establish associations between the data and information that are part of a Computerized Nursing Process according to the ICNP® Version 1.0, indicators of patient safety and quality of care. Based on the guidelines of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and the American Association of Critical Care Nurses for the expansion of warning systems, five warning systems were developed: potential for iatrogenic pneumothorax, potential for care-related infections, potential for suture dehiscence in patients after abdominal or pelvic surgery, potential for loss of vascular access, and potential for endotracheal extubation. The warning systems are a continuous computerized resource of essential situations that promote patient safety and enable the construction of a way to stimulate clinical reasoning and support clinical decision making of nurses in intensive care.

  18. Constructing early warning information release system in towns enterprise clean production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuwen, Huixin; He, Xueqiu; Qian, Xinming; Yuan, Mengqi

    2017-08-01

    China’s industry boom has not only brought unprecedented prosperity, but also caused the gradual depletion of various resources and the worsening of the natural environment. Experts admit that China is facing serious environmental problem, but they believe that they can seek a new path to overcome it through joint efforts. Early warning information release and clean production are the important concepts in addressing the imminent crisis. Early warning information release system can monitor and forecast the risk that affects the clean production. The author drawn the experiences and lessons from developed countries, combined with China’s reality, put forward countermeasures and suggestions about constructing early warning information release system in process of Chinese town-scaled enterprises clean production.

  19. Simulating the Impact of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Warning Labels in Three Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bruce Y; Ferguson, Marie C; Hertenstein, Daniel L; Adam, Atif; Zenkov, Eli; Wang, Peggy I; Wong, Michelle S; Gittelsohn, Joel; Mui, Yeeli; Brown, Shawn T

    2017-12-06

    A number of locations have been considering sugar-sweetened beverage point-of-purchase warning label policies to help address rising adolescent overweight and obesity prevalence. To explore the impact of such policies, in 2016 detailed agent-based models of Baltimore, Philadelphia, and San Francisco were developed, representing their populations, school locations, and food sources, using data from various sources collected between 2005 and 2014. The model simulated, over a 7-year period, the mean change in BMI and obesity prevalence in each of the cities from sugar-sweetened beverage warning label policies. Data analysis conducted between 2016 and 2017 found that implementing sugar-sweetened beverage warning labels at all sugar-sweetened beverage retailers lowered obesity prevalence among adolescents in all three cities. Point-of-purchase labels with 8% efficacy (i.e., labels reducing probability of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption by 8%) resulted in the following percentage changes in obesity prevalence: Baltimore: -1.69% (95% CI= -2.75%, -0.97%, p<0.001); San Francisco: -4.08% (95% CI= -5.96%, -2.2%, p<0.001); Philadelphia: -2.17% (95% CI= -3.07%, -1.42%, p<0.001). Agent-based simulations showed how warning labels may decrease overweight and obesity prevalence in a variety of circumstances with label efficacy and literacy rate identified as potential drivers. Implementing a warning label policy may lead to a reduction in obesity prevalence. Focusing on warning label design and store compliance, especially at supermarkets, may further increase the health impact. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Senses and meanings of health socialized by cultural devices: readings of the warning images on cigarettes packs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renovato, Rogério Dias; Bagnato, Maria Helena Salgado; Missio, Lourdes; Murback, Silvana Elisa Sauaia Lopes; da Cruz, Lúcia Pedroso; Bassinello, Greicelene Aparecida Hespanhol

    2009-10-01

    This article analyzes the images publicized on cigarettes packs that are part of the strategies from the Ministry of Health to combat the tabagism and available from the Cancer National Institute. These images bring the official speech of specialists and build narratives, understood such as truths, based on scientific knowledge. We have supported our thesis on theoretical referential of Cultural Studies, since its reflections help to understand that the subjectiveness is social and culturally built by different speeches and devices. We do not deny what is represented, but we establish dialogues with other possibilities of readings that can be present at these devices.We understand the propagated images as cultural pedagogies that behave as texts to be read, building up representations that can be assumed as true effect, and attributes to the citizen the necessity of constant control of its action. Reassuring the biomedicine and the health institutions, an onedimensional vision is propagated disregarding the complexity of this problem. We understand that the cultural pedagogies are part of competition territories, where the directions and meanings can be re-prepared producing hybrid identities that build up its own identity origins over this tangle of power relations.

  1. Monitoring Regional Forest Disturbances across the US with Near Real Time MODIS NDVI Products included in the ForWarn Forest Threat Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, J.; Hargrove, W. W.; Gasser, J.; Norman, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    Forest threats across the US have become increasingly evident in recent years. These include regionally extensive disturbances (e.g., from drought, bark beetle outbreaks, and wildfires) that can occur across multiyear durations and result in extensive forest mortality. In addition, forests can be subject to ephemeral, sometimes yearly defoliation from various insects and types of storm damage. After prolonged severe disturbance, signs of forest recovery can vary in terms of satellite-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values. The increased extent and threat of forest disturbances in part led to the enactment of the 2003 Healthy Forest Restoration Act, which mandated that a national forest threat Early Warning System (EWS) be deployed. In response, the US Forest Service collaborated with NASA, DOE Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the USGS Eros Data Center to build the near real time ForWarn forest threat EWS for monitoring regionally evident forest disturbances, starting on-line operations in 2010. Given the diversity of disturbance types, severities, and durations, ForWarn employs multiple historical baselines used with current NDVI to derive a suite of six nationwide 'weekly' forest change products. ForWarn uses daily 232 meter MODIS Aqua and Terra satellite NDVI data, including MOD13 products for deriving historical baseline NDVIs and eMODIS products for compiling current NDVI. Separately pre-processing the current and historical NDVIs, the Time Series Product Tool and the Phenological Parameters Estimation Tool are used to temporally reduce noise, fuse, and aggregate MODIS NDVIs into 24 day composites refreshed every 8 days with 46 dates of forest change products per year. The 24 day compositing interval typically enables new disturbances to be detected, while minimizing the frequency of residual atmospheric contamination. ForWarn's three standard forest change products compare current NDVI to that from the previous year, previous 3 years, and

  2. Accuracy of a pediatric early warning score in the recognition of clinical deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Juliana de Oliveira Freitas; Camargo, Climene Laura de; Nascimento, Carlito Lopes; Portela, Daniel Sales; Monaghan, Alan

    2017-07-10

    to evaluate the accuracy of the version of the Brighton Pediatric Early Warning Score translated and adapted for the Brazilian context, in the recognition of clinical deterioration. a diagnostic test study to measure the accuracy of the Brighton Pediatric Early Warning Score for the Brazilian context, in relation to a reference standard. The sample consisted of 271 children, aged 0 to 10 years, blindly evaluated by a nurse and a physician, specialists in pediatrics, with interval of 5 to 10 minutes between the evaluations, for the application of the Brighton Pediatric Early Warning Score for the Brazilian context and of the reference standard. The data were processed and analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences and VassarStats.net programs. The performance of the Brighton Pediatric Early Warning Score for the Brazilian context was evaluated through the indicators of sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, area under the ROC curve, likelihood ratios and post-test probability. the Brighton Pediatric Early Warning Score for the Brazilian context showed sensitivity of 73.9%, specificity of 95.5%, positive predictive value of 73.3%, negative predictive value of 94.7%, area under Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve of 91.9% and the positive post-test probability was 80%. the Brighton Pediatric Early Warning Score for the Brazilian context, presented good performance, considered valid for the recognition of clinical deterioration warning signs of the children studied. avaliar a acurácia da versão traduzida e adaptada do Brighton Paediatric Early Warning Score para o contexto brasileiro, no reconhecimento da deterioração clínica. estudo de teste diagnóstico para medir a acurácia do Brighton Paediatric Early Warning Score, para o contexto brasileiro, em relação a um padrão de referência. A amostra foi composta por 271 crianças de 0 a 10 anos, avaliadas de forma cega por uma enfermeira e um médico, especialistas em pediatria, com

  3. Ecodriver. D12.2: Multi-modal in-vehicle and nomadic device eco-driving support for car drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hibberd, D.; Jamson, H.; Pauwelussen, J.J.A.; Obdeijn, C.; Hof, T.; Weerdt, C.A. van der; Paradies, G.L.; et al

    2014-01-01

    This deliverable provides a report of the work conducted in Work Package 12: eco-driving system development and HMI feedback. The tasks required development of simple eco-driving feedback model algorithms and test scenarios and an assessment of basic systems and feedback modalities. These

  4. Disparities in adult awareness of heart attack warning signs and symptoms--14 states, 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-22

    In 2005, approximately 920,000 persons in the United States had a myocardial infarction (i.e., heart attack); in 2004, approximately 157,000 heart attacks were fatal. One study indicated that approximately half of cardiac deaths occur within 1 hour of symptom onset, before patients reach a hospital. Timely access to emergency cardiac care, receipt of advanced treatment, and potential for surviving a heart attack all depend on 1) early recognition of warning signs and symptoms of a heart attack by persons who are having a heart attack and bystanders and 2) immediately calling 9-1-1. Healthy People 2010 includes an objective to increase from 46% to 50% the proportion of adults aged > or =20 years who are aware of the early warning signs and symptoms of a heart attack and the importance of accessing rapid emergency care by calling 9-1-1 (objective 12-2). To update estimates of public awareness of heart attack warning signs and symptoms and knowledge of the importance of calling 9-1-1, CDC analyzed 2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data from the 14 states that included questions on signs and symptoms of a heart attack. This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that although the awareness of certain individual warning signs was as high as 93% (i.e., for shortness of breath), awareness of all five warning signs was 31%, underscoring the need for public health measures to increase public awareness of heart attack warning signs and symptoms. In addition, disparities in awareness were observed by race/ethnicity, sex, and level of education, suggesting that new public health measures should target populations with the lowest levels of awareness.

  5. Geospatiotemporal data mining in an early warning system for forest threats in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    F.M. Hoffman; R.T. Mills; J. Kumar; S.S. Vulli; W.W. Hargrove

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the potential of geospatiotemporal data mining of multi-year land surface phenology data (250 m Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) in this study) for the conterminous United States as part of an early warning system to identify threats to forest ecosystems. Cluster...

  6. Assessment of early warning system performance and improvements since it is in operational phase in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Constantin; Marmureanu, Alexandru; Marmureanu, Gheorghe; Ortansa Cioflan, Carmen

    2017-04-01

    Earthquake represents a major natural disaster for Romanian territory. The main goal following the occurrence of a strong earthquake is to minimize the total number of fatalities. A rapid early warning system (REWS) was developed in Romania in order to provide 25-35 seconds warning time to Bucharest facilities for the earthquakes with M>5.0. The system consists of four components: a network of strong motion sensors installed in the epicentral area, a redundant communication network, an automatic analyzing system located in the Romanian Data Centre and an alert distribution system. The detection algorithm is based on the magnitude computation using strong motion data and rapid evaluation and scaling relation between the maximum P-wave acceleration measured in the epicentral area and the higher ground motion amplitude recorded in Bucharest. In order to reduce the damages caused by earthquakes, the exploitation of the up to date technology is very important. The information is the key point in the disaster management, and the internet is one of the most used instrument, implying also low costs. The Rapid Early Warning System was expanded to cover all countries affected by major earthquakes originating in the Vrancea seismic area and reduce their impact on existing installations of national interest in neighbouring Romania and elsewhere. REWS provides an efficient instrument for prevention and reaction based on the integrated system for seismic detection in South-Eastern Europe. REWS has been operational since 2013 and sends alert the authorities, hazardous facilities in Romania and Bulgaria (NPP, emergency response agencies etc.) and to public via twitter and some smartphone applications developed in the house. Also, NIEP is part of the UNESCO initiative case on developing a platform on earthquake early warning systems (IP-MEP) that aims to promote and strengthen the development of earthquake early warning systems in earthquake-prone regions of the world by sharing

  7. Perceptions and acceptability of pictorial health warning labels vs text only--a cross-sectional study in Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sychareun, Vanphanom; Hansana, Visanou; Phengsavanh, Alongkone; Chaleunvong, Kongmany; Tomson, Tanja

    2015-10-28

    In Lao PDR, health warnings were first introduced with printed warning messages on the side of the cigarette package in 1993 and again in 2004. Lao PDR same year ratified the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) but has not yet implemented pictorial health warnings. This paper aims to examine the perception and opinion of policymakers on "text-only" and "pictorial" health warnings and to understand lay people's perceptions on current health warnings and their opinions on the recommended types of health warnings. A combination of quantitative and qualitative methods were used in this cross-sectional study conducted in 2008. A purposive sample of 15 policymakers, and a representative sample of 1360 smokers and non-smokers were recruited. A range of different areas were covered including consumer attitudes towards current and proposed cigarette package design, views on health warning messages on the flip/slide and inserts, and views on the relative importance of the size, content and pictures of health warning messages. Descriptive statistics and content analysis were used. Policy makers and survey respondents said that the current health warning messages were inappropriate, ineffective, and too small in size. All respondents perceived pictorial health warnings as a potentially powerful element that could be added to the messages that can communicate quickly, and dramatically. The majority of policymakers and survey respondents strongly supported the implementation of pictorial health warnings. The non-smokers agreed that the graphic pictorial health warnings were generally more likely than written health warnings to stimulate thinking about the health risks of smoking, by conveying potential health effects, increasing and reinforcing awareness of the negative health effect of smoking, aiding memorability of the health effects and arousing fear of smoking among smokers. The study suggested that current warnings are too small and that content is

  8. Mobility in Turkey. Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazgan, M. [Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Turan Gunes Bulvari, Hollanda Caddesi, No.5,06550 Yildiz-Ankara (Turkey)

    2013-01-15

    The purpose of this report is to provide information about electric vehicles (EVs) and e-mobility as an emerging market in Turkey. EVs receive attention from the Turkish government for a number of reasons: Turkey has a strong automotive industry and needs to follow the technological developments taking place regarding intelligent vehicles and intelligent transport systems, as well as electric transportation technologies. Secondly, a considerable amount of carbon emissions from motor vehicles is of great concern in relation to climate change. EVs might be an alternative which can break the dependence of Turkey on imported fuel that has a negative influence on its current account deficit (CAD). On top of these factors, the Prime Minister of Turkey has a desire to have a 'Local Brand Vehicle' before the 100th year of the establishment of the Republic in 2023 and preferably an 'EV'. EVs are included in the strategy documents and action plans of almost all ministries and public institutions. Among all ministries, the Ministry of Science, Industry and Technology (MoSI and T) takes a leading position. It holds bi-annual meetings with stakeholders to monitor and evaluate progress about the level of actualization of the identified policies on e-mobility. MoSI and T's related institution of the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) co-ordinates the R and D activities and provides generous R and D incentives. EVs have been put on sale in Turkey in 2012 and are still very limited in number. Public institutions are taking the lead by converting their vehicle fleet to EVs. EVs are also more suitable for businesses/ duties with a fixed/short route; therefore it is expected that the growth of the sector will mainly come from the vehicle fleet of the public organisations and institutions, followed by the private vehicle fleet of companies, e.g. freight companies. Although there are some on-going test drives, it is not yet proven

  9. Warning Color Changes in Response to Food Deprivation in the Pipevine Swallowtail Butterfly, Battus philenor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegram, Kimberly V.; Nahm, Alexandra C.; Rutowski, Ronald L.

    2013-01-01

    Predation on distasteful animals should favor warning coloration that is relatively conspicuous and phenotypically invariable. However, even among similarly colored individuals there can be variation in their warning signals. In butterflies, individual differences in larval feeding history could cause this variation. The warning signal of the pipevine swallowtail butterfly, Battus philenor L. (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) consists of both a blue iridescent patch and pigmentbased orange spots on the ventral hindwing. B. philenor males also display a dorsal surface iridescent patch that functions as a sexual indicator signal. A previous study of iridescence in B. philenor found that the iridescent blue on both the dorsal and ventral hind wings is variable and significantly different between lab-reared and field-caught individuals. These differences could be the result of larval food deprivation in the field. Through experimental manipulation of larval diet, larval food deprivation was evaluated as a potential cause of the differences observed between lab and field individuals, and if food deprivation is a source of inter-individual variation in warning signals. B. philenor larvae were food restricted starting at two points in the last larval instar, and one group was fed through pupation. Adult coloration was then compared. Food deprivation led to poorer adult condition, as indicated by lower adult body mass, forewing length, and fat content of stressed individuals. As the level of food deprivation increased, the hue of the iridescent patches on both the dorsal and ventral hind wing shifted to shorter wavelengths, and the chroma of the orange spots decreased. The shifts in iridescent color did not match the differences previously found between lab and field individuals. However, the treatment differences indicate that food deprivation may be a significant source of warning color variation. The differences between the treatment groups are likely detectable by predators

  10. Using signal detection theory to understand grade crossing warning time and motorist stopping behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Motorist error or poor judgment is a significant causal factor in highway-rail grade crossing collisions. Crashes at grade crossings : equipped with warning devices often involve motorists who drive around gates or across railroad tracks while flashi...

  11. Viewing alcohol warning advertising reduces urges to drink in young adults: an online experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Stautz, Kaidy; Marteau, Theresa M.

    2016-01-01

    This is the final version of the article. It first appeared from BioMed Central via http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1186/s12889-016-3192-9 ${\\bf Background:}$ Tobacco counter-advertising is effective at promoting smoking cessation. Few studies have evaluated the impact of alcohol warning advertising on alcohol consumption and possible mechanisms of effect. This pilot study aimed to assess whether alcohol warning advertising is effective in reducing urges to drink alcohol, if emotional responses to a...

  12. The effectiveness of lane departure warning systems-A reduction in real-world passenger car injury crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternlund, Simon; Strandroth, Johan; Rizzi, Matteo; Lie, Anders; Tingvall, Claes

    2017-02-17

    The objective of this study was to estimate the safety benefits of in vehicle lane departure warning (LDW) and lane keeping aid (LKA) systems in reducing relevant real-world passenger car injury crashes. The study used an induced exposure method, where LDW/LKA-sensitive and nonsensitive crashes were compared for Volvo passenger cars equipped with and without LDW/LKA systems. These crashes were matched by car make, model, model year, and technical equipment; that is, low-speed autonomous emergency braking (AEB) called City Safety (CS). The data were extracted from the Swedish Traffic Accident Data Acquisition database (STRADA) and consisted of 1,853 driver injury crashes that involved 146 LDW-equipped cars, 11 LKA-equipped cars, and 1,696 cars without LDW/LKA systems. The analysis showed a positive effect of the LDW/LKA systems in reducing lane departure crashes. The LDW/LKA systems were estimated to reduce head-on and single-vehicle injury crashes on Swedish roads with speed limits between 70 and 120 km/h and with dry or wet road surfaces (i.e., not covered by ice or snow) by 53% with a lower limit of 11% (95% confidence interval [CI]). This reduction corresponded to a reduction of 30% with a lower limit of 6% (95% CI) for all head-on and single-vehicle driver injury crashes (including all speed limits and all road surface conditions). LDW/LKA systems were estimated to lower the driver injury risk in crash types that the systems are designed to prevent; that is, head-on and single-vehicle crashes. Though these are important findings, they were based on a small data set. Therefore, further research is desirable to evaluate the effectiveness of LDW/LKA systems under real-world conditions and to differentiate the effectiveness between technical solutions (i.e., LDW and LKA) proposed by different manufacturers.

  13. Aortic injuries in newer vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryb, Gabriel E; Dischinger, Patricia C; Kleinberger, Michael; McGwin, Gerald; Griffin, Russell L

    2013-10-01

    The occurrence of AI was studied in relation to vehicle model year (MY) among front seat vehicular occupants, age≥16 in vehicles MY≥1994, entered in the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System between 1997 and 2010 to determine whether newer vehicles, due to their crashworthiness improvements, are linked to a lower risk of aortic injuries (AI). MY was categorized as 1994-1997, 1998-2004, or 2005-2010 reflecting the introduction of newer occupant protection technology. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals for the association between AI and MY independent of possible confounders. Analysis was repeated, stratified by frontal and near lateral impacts. AI occurred in 19,187 (0.06%) of the 31,221,007 (weighted) cases, and contributed to 11% of all deaths. AIs were associated with advanced age, male gender, high BMI, near-side impact, rollover, ejection, collision against a fixed object, high ΔV, vehicle mismatch, unrestrained status, and forward track position. Among frontal crashes, MY 98-04 and MY 05-10 showed increased adjusted odds of AI when compared to MY 94-97 [OR 1.84 (1.02-3.32) and 1.99 (0.93-4.26), respectively]. In contrast, among near-side impact crashes, MY 98-04 and MY 05-10 showed decreased adjusted odds of AI [OR 0.50 (0.25-0.99) and 0.27 (0.06-1.31), respectively]. While occupants of newer vehicles experience lower odds of AI in near side impact crashes, a higher AI risk is present in frontal crashes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Forward Collision Warning: Clues to Optimal Timing of Advisory Warnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksan, Nazan; Sager, Lauren; Hacker, Sarah; Marini, Robert; Dawson, Jeffrey; Anderson, Steven; Rizzo, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    We examined the effectiveness of a heads-up Forward Collision Warning (FCW) system in 39 younger to middle aged drivers (25-50, mean = 35 years) and 37 older drivers (66-87, mean = 77 years). The warnings were implemented in a fixed based, immersive, 180 degree forward field of view simulator. The FCW included a visual advisory component consisting of a red horizontal bar which flashed in the center screen of the simulator that was triggered at time-to-collision (TTC) 4 seconds. The bar roughly overlapped the rear bumper of the lead vehicle, just below the driver's line-of-sight. A sustained auditory tone (~80 dB) was activated at TTC=2 to alert the driver to an imminent collision. Hence, the warning system differed from the industry standard in significant ways. 95% Confidence intervals for the safety gains ranged from -.03 to .19 seconds in terms of average correction time across several activations. Older and younger adults did not differ in terms of safety gains. Closer inspection of data revealed that younger to middle aged drivers were already braking (42%) on a larger proportion of FCW activations than older drivers (26%), p < .001. Conversely, older drivers were still accelerating (38%) on a larger proportion of FCW activations than younger to middle aged drivers (23%) at the time FCW was activated, p < .009. There were no differences in the proportion of activations when drivers were coasting at the time FCW was activated, p = .240. Furthermore, large individual differences in basic visual, motor, and cognitive function predicted the tendency to brake prior to FCW activation. Those who tended to be better functioning in each of these domains were more likely to be already braking prior to FCW activation at the fixed threshold of TTC=4. These findings suggest optimal timing for advisory alerts for forward events may need to be larger than TTC=4.

  15. Forward Collision Warning: Clues to Optimal Timing of Advisory Warnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksan, Nazan; Sager, Lauren; Hacker, Sarah; Marini, Robert; Dawson, Jeffrey; Anderson, Steven; Rizzo, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effectiveness of a heads-up Forward Collision Warning (FCW) system in 39 younger to middle aged drivers (25-50, mean = 35 years) and 37 older drivers (66-87, mean = 77 years). The warnings were implemented in a fixed based, immersive, 180 degree forward field of view simulator. The FCW included a visual advisory component consisting of a red horizontal bar which flashed in the center screen of the simulator that was triggered at time-to-collision (TTC) 4 seconds. The bar roughly overlapped the rear bumper of the lead vehicle, just below the driver's line-of-sight. A sustained auditory tone (~80 dB) was activated at TTC=2 to alert the driver to an imminent collision. Hence, the warning system differed from the industry standard in significant ways. 95% Confidence intervals for the safety gains ranged from −.03 to .19 seconds in terms of average correction time across several activations. Older and younger adults did not differ in terms of safety gains. Closer inspection of data revealed that younger to middle aged drivers were already braking (42%) on a larger proportion of FCW activations than older drivers (26%), p < .001. Conversely, older drivers were still accelerating (38%) on a larger proportion of FCW activations than younger to middle aged drivers (23%) at the time FCW was activated, p < .009. There were no differences in the proportion of activations when drivers were coasting at the time FCW was activated, p = .240. Furthermore, large individual differences in basic visual, motor, and cognitive function predicted the tendency to brake prior to FCW activation. Those who tended to be better functioning in each of these domains were more likely to be already braking prior to FCW activation at the fixed threshold of TTC=4. These findings suggest optimal timing for advisory alerts for forward events may need to be larger than TTC=4. PMID:27648455

  16. Developing effective warning systems: Ongoing research at Ruapehu volcano, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Graham S.; Johnston, David M.; Paton, Douglas; Christianson, Amy; Becker, Julia; Keys, Harry

    2008-05-01

    PurposeThis paper examines the unique challenges to volcanic risk management associated with having a ski area on an active volcano. Using a series of simulated eruption/lahar events at Ruapehu volcano, New Zealand, as a context, a model of risk management that integrates warning system design and technology, risk perceptions and the human response is explored. Principal resultsDespite increases in the observed audibility and comprehension of the warning message, recall of public education content, and people's awareness of volcanic risk, a persistent minority of the public continued to demonstrate only moderate awareness of the correct actions to take during a warning and failed to respond effectively. A relationship between level of staff competence and correct public response allowed the level of public response to be used to identify residual risk and additional staff training needs. The quality of staff awareness, action and decision-making has emerged as a critical factor, from detailed staff and public interviews and from exercise observations. Staff actions are especially important for mobilising correct public response at Ruapehu ski areas due to the transient nature of the visitor population. Introduction of education material and staff training strategies that included the development of emergency decision-making competencies improved knowledge of correct actions, and increased the proportion of people moving out of harm's way during blind tests. Major conclusionsWarning effectiveness is a function of more than good hazard knowledge and the generation and notification of an early warning message. For warning systems to be effective, these factors must be complemented by accurate knowledge of risk and risk management actions. By combining the Ruapehu findings with those of other warning system studies in New Zealand, and internationally, a practical five-step model for effective early warning systems is discussed. These steps must be based upon sound and

  17. Counteracting media’s thin body ideal in adolescent girls: informing is more effective than warning.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, J.; Konijn, E.A.; Seidell, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated whether information or warnings about depictions of the thin-body ideal in mass media are effective in counteracting media-induced negative body perceptions of adolescent girls. Based on counter-advertising and reactance theories, our hypotheses were tested in a 3

  18. An evaluation of the Triage Early Warning Score in an urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-03

    Dec 3, 2013 ... Original Research: An evaluation of the Triage Early Warning Score in an urban accident and emergency department. 69. Vol 56 No 1. S Afr Fam Pract 2014. Introduction. Traditionally, clinicians are well trained in history taking and physical examinations which are used to make a diagnosis. Protocols in ...

  19. Validity of different pediatric early warning scores in the emergency department

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Seiger (Nienke); I.K. MacOnochie (Ian); R. Oostenbrink (Rianne); H.A. Moll (Henriëtte)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Pediatric early warning scores (PEWS) are being advocated for use in the emergency department (ED). The goal of this study was to compare the validity of different PEWS in a pediatric ED. Methods: Ten different PEWS were evaluated in a large prospective cohort. We included

  20. Exposure to a Mnemonic Interferes with Recall of Suicide Warning Signs in a Community-Based Suicide Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Craig J.; Steiner-Pappalardo, Nicole; Rudd, M. David

    2009-01-01

    The incremental impact of adding a mnemonic to remember suicide warning signs to the Air Force Suicide Prevention Program (AFSPP) community awareness briefing was investigated with a sample of young, junior-enlisted airmen. Participants in the standard briefing significantly increased their ability to list suicide warning signs and improved…

  1. The Audible Life of the Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Wills

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available "Since at least 1980 Godard’s cinema has been explicitly looking for (its music, as if for its outside. In Sauve qui peut (la vie Paul Godard hears, and asks about it, coming through the hotel room wall, and it follows him down to the lobby, but remains “off,” like Marguerite Duras’s voice, in spite of his questions, until the final sequence. At that moment, at the end of the section entitled “Music,” the protagonist is at the same time struck by a car and struck by the entrance of the music into the diegetic present of the film, as the camera pans past an orchestra playing on the sidewalk while Paul fades off under the quizzical gaze of his daughter. By 2004, with Notre musique, it would seem to have taken over the whole text, for the film was announced as being about the collaboration between Godard and German record label ECM. In the context of that film it is difficult to determine both what that music is and who we are, although this discussion will try to advance a hypothesis in that regard. In fact, my main contention will be that music in Godard’s films functions as something like the absent image(s, not those it has lost but rather its cinema to come, what remains to be discovered and live within it, the survival of it. Not a cinema that cannot be seen, rather the image that can perhaps only be heard; and not the romantic or psychedelic dream of a synaesthetic apotheosis either, rather the technological coincidence of sonimage that has also been the precise direction of Godard’s cinematic research for more than thirty years. For the argument I will be making here is inscribed within my own investigation of what I call “technological life,” the means by which, in “prosthetic” symbiosis, or “dorsal” umbrality, a form lives beyond the simplistic opposition of animate and inanimate, or against the reductive presuppositions of autokinetic ipseity..."

  2. An evaluation of the Triage Early Warning Score in an urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Triage is an essential first step in the efficient and effective running of any emergency department. A good triage tool saves lives and reduces mortality. The Triage Early Warning Score (TEWS) is a useful tool used to identify patients in emergency departments who are at risk of deterioration and who may require ...

  3. Accuracy of an expanded early warning score for patients in general and trauma surgery wards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Smith (Tim); D. den Hartog (Dennis); T. Moerman (Tineke); P. Patka (Peter); E.M.M. van Lieshout (Esther); N.W.L. Schep (Niels)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Early warning scores (EWS) may aid the prediction of major adverse events in hospitalized patients. Recently, an expanded EWS was introduced in the Netherlands. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between this EWS and the occurrence of major adverse clinical

  4. Operational flood forecasting, warning and response for multi-scale flood risks in developing cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogelis Prada, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    Flood early warning systems are recognized as one of the most effective flood risk management instruments when correctly embedded in comprehensive flood risk management strategies and policies. Many efforts around the world are being put in place to advance the components that determine the

  5. Earthquake Prediction Research In Iceland, Applications For Hazard Assessments and Warnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefansson, R.

    Earthquake prediction research in Iceland, applications for hazard assessments and warnings. The first multinational earthquake prediction research project in Iceland was the Eu- ropean Council encouraged SIL project of the Nordic countries, 1988-1995. The path selected for this research was to study the physics of crustal processes leading to earth- quakes. It was considered that small earthquakes, down to magnitude zero, were the most significant for this purpose, because of the detailed information which they pro- vide both in time and space. The test area for the project was the earthquake prone region of the South Iceland seismic zone (SISZ). The PRENLAB and PRENLAB-2 projects, 1996-2000 supported by the European Union were a direct continuation of the SIL project, but with a more multidisciplinary approach. PRENLAB stands for "Earthquake prediction research in a natural labo- ratory". The basic objective was to advance our understanding in general on where, when and how dangerous NH10earthquake motion might strike. Methods were devel- oped to study crustal processes and conditions, by microearthquake information, by continuous GPS, InSAR, theoretical modelling, fault mapping and paleoseismology. New algorithms were developed for short term warnings. A very useful short term warning was issued twice in the year 2000, one for a sudden start of an eruption in Volcano Hekla February 26, and the other 25 hours before a second (in a sequence of two) magnitude 6.6 (Ms) earthquake in the South Iceland seismic zone in June 21, with the correct location and approximate size. A formal short term warning, although not going to the public, was also issued before a magnitude 5 earthquake in November 1998. In the presentation it will be shortly described what these warnings were based on. A general hazard assessmnets was presented in scientific journals 10-15 years ago assessing within a few kilometers the location of the faults of the two 2000 earthquakes and suggesting

  6. Media warnings about environmental pollution facilitate the acquisition of symptoms in response to chemical substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Winnie; Devriese, Stephan; Van Diest, Ilse; Nemery, Benoit; Veulemans, Hendrik; Eelen, Paul; Van de Woestijne, Karel; Van den Bergh, Omer

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies showed that somatic symptoms can be acquired in response to chemical substances using an associative learning paradigm, but only when the substance was foul smelling and not when it smelled pleasant. In this study, we investigated whether warnings about environmental pollution would facilitate acquiring symptoms, regardless of the pleasantness of the smell. One group received prior information framing the study in the context of the rapidly increasing chemical pollution of our environment. Another group received no prior information. Conditional odor stimuli (CS) were diluted ammonia (foul-smelling) and niaouli (neutral-positive smelling); the unconditional stimulus (UCS) was 10% CO2-enriched air. Each subject breathed one odor mixed with CO2 and a control odor mixed with air in 80-sec breathing trials. The type of odor mixed with CO2 was counterbalanced across participants. Next, the same breathing trials were administered without CO2. Breathing behavior was measured during each trial; subjective symptoms were assessed after each trial. Only participants who had been given warnings about environmental pollution reported more symptoms to the odor that had previously been associated with CO2, compared with the control odor. This was so for both the foul- and the pleasant-smelling odor. Symptom learning did not occur in the group that did not receive warnings. The elevated symptom level could not be accounted for by altered respiratory behavior, nor by experimental demand effects. Raising environmental awareness through warnings about chemical pollution facilitates learning of subjective health symptoms in response to chemical substances.

  7. Real-time earthquake monitoring for tsunami warning in the Indian Ocean and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanka, W.; Saul, J.; Weber, B.; Becker, J.; Harjadi, P.; Fauzi; Gitews Seismology Group

    2010-12-01

    The Mw = 9.3 Sumatra earthquake of 26 December 2004 generated a tsunami that affected the entire Indian Ocean region and caused approximately 230 000 fatalities. In the response to this tragedy the German government funded the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) Project. The task of the GEOFON group of GFZ Potsdam was to develop and implement the seismological component. In this paper we describe the concept of the GITEWS earthquake monitoring system and report on its present status. The major challenge for earthquake monitoring within a tsunami warning system is to deliver rapid information about location, depth, size and possibly other source parameters. This is particularly true for coast lines adjacent to the potential source areas such as the Sunda trench where these parameters are required within a few minutes after the event in order to be able to warn the population before the potential tsunami hits the neighbouring coastal areas. Therefore, the key for a seismic monitoring system with short warning times adequate for Indonesia is a dense real-time seismic network across Indonesia with densifications close to the Sunda trench. A substantial number of supplementary stations in other Indian Ocean rim countries are added to strengthen the teleseismic monitoring capabilities. The installation of the new GITEWS seismic network - consisting of 31 combined broadband and strong motion stations - out of these 21 stations in Indonesia - is almost completed. The real-time data collection is using a private VSAT communication system with hubs in Jakarta and Vienna. In addition, all available seismic real-time data from the other seismic networks in Indonesia and other Indian Ocean rim countries are acquired also directly by VSAT or by Internet at the Indonesian Tsunami Warning Centre in Jakarta and the resulting "virtual" network of more than 230 stations can jointly be used for seismic data processing. The seismological processing software as part

  8. The Rosetta phone: a hand-held device for automatic translation of signs in natural images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafri, Syed Ali Raza; Mikkilineni, Aravind K.; Boutin, Mireille; Delp, Edward J.

    2008-02-01

    When traveling in a region where the local language is not written using the Roman alphabet, translating written text (e.g., documents, road signs, or placards) is a particularly difficult problem since the text cannot be easily entered into a translation device or searched using a dictionary. To address this problem, we are developing the "Rosetta Phone," a handheld device (e.g., PDA or mobile telephone) capable of acquiring a picture of the text, identifying the text within the image, and producing both an audible and a visual English interpretation of the text. We started with English, as a developement language, for which we achieved close to 100% accuracy in identifying and reading text. We then modified the system to be able to read and translate words written using the Arabic character set. We currently achieve approximately 95% accuracy in reading words from a small directory of town names.

  9. Network based early warning indicators of vegetation changes in a land-atmosphere model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, Z.; Dekker, S.C.; van den Hurk, B.J.J.M.; Dijkstra, H.A.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous model studies demonstrate that ecosystems might not shift smoothly with a gradual change in resource concentration. At specific points, vegetation can suddenly shift from one stable state to another. To predict such undesirable shifts, statistical indicators are proposed for early warning

  10. Otolaryngology practice patterns in pediatric tonsillectomy: The impact of the codeine boxed warning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Julie L; Ziegler, Craig; Burckardt, Elizabeth M

    2018-01-01

    To determine if otolaryngologists at a single children's hospital were adherent to the boxed warning for codeine use in post-tonsillectomy patients and the implications for practice patterns. Case series with chart review. Charts from all patients undergoing adenotonsillectomy at a single children's hospital from January 1, 2010 through December 31, 2015 were analyzed and stratified according to date (pre- or post-boxed warning) and practitioner type (academic otolaryngologists [AO] vs. nonacademic otolaryngologists [NAO]). Demographic data, surgical technique, method of removal, narcotic prescriptions (dosage and drug), and complications were recorded. Fisher exact test was used to determine the level of significance in prescription rates pre- and postwarning. SPSS version 22 was used for statistical analysis, with P codeine prescriptions before and after the warning, with the AO group reaching zero sooner than the NAO group. There was a 5% decrease in discharge narcotic prescriptions given postwarning (P Codeine use for management of pediatric post-tonsillectomy pain was essentially zero after issuance of the boxed warning. Total narcotic use decreased significantly without increase in pain- or medication-related complications. Future research should focus on identifying markers of increased susceptibility to adverse medication events and determining the safest options for pain management. 4. Laryngoscope, 128:264-268, 2018. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  11. Investigation on forecasting and warning systems, experience from a project in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, Jørgen Aagaard; Munk, Lisa; Ørum, Jens Erik

    2011-01-01

    This paper is dealing with the results of a knowledge synthesis on monitoring, warning and decision systems made for the Danish environmental protection agency during 2011. The knowledge synthesis document is a volume of about 160 pages written in Danish and the present paper is the English versi...

  12. Transfusion-associated circulatory overload in adult, medical emergency patients with perspectives on early warning practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gosmann, Fanny; Nørgaard, Astrid; Rasmussen, Maj-Britt

    2017-01-01

    to the haemovigilance system. The clinical implications are discussed within the frame of the Early Warning Score. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective audit of electronic hospital medical records of patients receiving blood transfusion in a single medical emergency unit. Patients were admitted during a 6-month period...

  13. Establishment and Practical Application of Flood Warning Stage in Taiwan's River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sheng-Hsueh; Chia Yeh, Keh-

    2017-04-01

    In the face of extreme flood events or the possible impact of climate change, non-engineering disaster prevention and early warning work is particularly important. Taiwan is an island topography with more than 3,900 meters of high mountains. The length of the river is less than 100 kilometers. Most of the watershed catchment time is less than 24 hours, which belongs to the river with steep slope and rapid flood. Every year in summer and autumn, several typhoon events invade Taiwan. Typhoons often result in rainfall events in excess of 100 mm/hr or 250 mm/3hr. In the face of Taiwan's terrain and extreme rainfall events, flooding is difficult to avoid. Therefore, most of the river has embankment protection, so that people do not have to face every year flooding caused by economic and life and property losses. However, the river embankment protection is limited. With the increase of the hydrological data, the design criteria for the embankment protection standards in the past was 100 year of flood return period and is now gradually reduced to 25 or 50 year of flood return period. The river authorities are not easy to rise the existing embankment height. The safety of the river embankment in Taiwan is determined by the establishment of the flood warning stage to cope with the possible increase in annual floods and the impact of extreme hydrological events. The flood warning stage is equal to the flood control elevation minus the flood rise rate multiply by the flood early warning time. The control elevation can be the top of the embankment, the design flood level of the river, the embankment gap of the river section, the height of the bridge beam bottom, etc. The flood rise rate is consider the factors such as hydrological stochastic and uncertain rainfall and the effect of flood discharge operation on the flood in the watershed catchment area. The maximum value of the water level difference between the two hours or five hours before the peak value of the analysis

  14. Electric Vehicles in Imperfect Electricity Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Schill, Wolf-Peter

    2011-01-01

    We use a game-theoretic model to analyze the impacts of a hypothetical fleet of plug-in electric vehicles on the imperfectly competitive German electricity market. Electric vehicles bring both additional demand and additional storage capacity to the market. We determine the effects on prices, welfare, and electricity generation for various cases with different players in charge of vehicle operations. Vehicle loading increases generator profits, but decreases consumer surplus in the power mark...

  15. Performance Analysis of a Citywide Real-time Landslide Early Warning System in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joon-Young; Lee, Seung-Rae; Kang, Sinhang; Lee, Deuk-hwan; Nedumpallile Vasu, Nikhil

    2017-04-01

    Rainfall-induced landslide has been one of the major disasters in Korea since the beginning of 21st century when the global climate change started to give rise to the growth of the magnitude and frequency of extreme precipitation events. In order to mitigate the increasing damage to properties and loss of lives and to provide an effective tool for public officials to manage the landslide disasters, a real-time landslide early warning system with an advanced concept has been developed by taking into account for Busan, the second largest metropolitan city in Korea, as an operational test-bed. The system provides with warning information based on a five-level alert scheme (Normal, Attention, Watch, Alert, and Emergency) using the forecasted/observed rainfall data or the data obtained from ground monitoring (volumetric water content and matric suction). The alert levels are determined by applying seven different thresholds in a step-wise manner following a decision tree. In the pursuit of improved reliability of an early warning level assigned to a specific area, the system makes assessments repetitively using the thresholds of different theoretical backgrounds including statistical(empirical), physically-based, and mathematical analyses as well as direct measurement-based approaches. By mapping the distribution of the five early warning levels determined independently for each of tens of millions grids covering the entire mountainous area of Busan, the regional-scale system can also provide with the early warning information for a specific local area. The fact that the highest warning level is determined by using a concept of a numerically-modelled potential debris-flow risk is another distinctive feature of the system. This study tested the system performance by applying it for four previous rainy seasons in order to validate the operational applicability. During the rainy seasons of 2009, 2011, and 2014, the number of landslides recorded throughout Busan's territory

  16. Early warning of snow-caused disasters in pastoral areas on the Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Wang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study develops a model for early warning of snow-caused livestock disasters on a county basis and proposes a method of qualitative risk assessment of snow disasters at 500 m resolution for pastoral areas on the Tibetan Plateau (TP. Data used for the model development include remote sensing data, statistical data of weather, livestock, and social economy, and 45 typical snow disaster cases from 2000 to 2010. The principal component analysis (PCA approach is used to choose 7 crucial factors that contribute over 85% of information for early warning snow disasters on the TP. They are mean annual probability of snow disaster, number of snow-covered days, livestock stocking rate, continual days of mean daily temperature below −10 °C, grassland burial index, rate of snow-covered grassland, and per livestock gross domestic product. The chosen 411 cases from 2008 to 2010 are used to validate the prediction results from the developed early warning model, with an overall accuracy of 85.64% in predicting snow disasters and no disasters. This suggests that the early warning approach developed in the study has operational potential for predicting snow disasters on the TP.

  17. Battery Test Manual For Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey R. Belt

    2010-09-01

    This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Program. It is based on technical targets established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for PHEV’s. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for power-assist hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, a revision including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures is expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices.

  18. Battery Test Manual For Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey R. Belt

    2010-12-01

    This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Program. It is based on technical targets established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for PHEV’s. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for power-assist hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, a revision including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures is expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices.

  19. Influence of high-frequency audibility on the perceived distance of sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cubick, Jens; Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    2014-01-01

    When listening in natural environments, normal-hearing (NH) listeners usually perceive sounds out- side their head, i.e., externalized. Sounds perceived inside the head are called internalized. Hearing- impaired (HI) listeners have been reported to externalize sounds less accurately than NH....... The present study aimed at clarifying whether the perceived distance of sounds in HI listeners differs from NH data as well and, if so, whether distance-rating performance improves when reduced audibility is compensated for by amplification. Individual binaural room impulse responses (BRIRs) were mea- sured...

  20. Perspectives for Electric Vehicles in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horstmann, Jørgen; Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Review of the present knowledge on electric vehicles and analysis of the energy and environmental consequences of the introduction of electric vehicles in Denmark. The report focuses on the 10-15 year time perspective.......Review of the present knowledge on electric vehicles and analysis of the energy and environmental consequences of the introduction of electric vehicles in Denmark. The report focuses on the 10-15 year time perspective....

  1. Public responses to flood warning messages: the Floodline service in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranston, Michael; Geddes, Alistair; Black, Andrew; Ambler, Alice; Menmuir, Cordelia

    2017-04-01

    Over the past decade, efforts have been made to improve the national flood warning system in Scotland, with new capabilities in the underlying flood forecasting tools, as well as development of an active flood warning dissemination service. This paper focusses on the latter service, for which there are around 26,000 customers registered at present, and which saw over 300,000 individual messages being issued during recent floods in winter 2015/16. However, notwithstanding such promising signs of change, evidence of how (if at all) the flood warning messages disseminated by the service actually impacts on recipient behaviour remains more limited. For example, this includes knowledge of the extent to which the messages influence actions on flood preparedness and mitigation. In consequence, there are also ongoing questions over the cost-effectiveness of the service in its current format, and of its scalability to even larger numbers of recipients. This paper will present initial findings from the first detailed study of customer perceptions of the messages distributed via the Scottish flood warning system, officially known as Floodline. In particular, the primary focus will be on results generated from a web-based questionnaire survey of registered Floodline customers. The survey was designed to assess associations between multiple customer characteristics, including location and risk level, type of warning message received, prior experience of flooding, risk awareness, and demographics. The study was conducted for the Scottish Environment Protection Agency, which is responsible for running the Floodline service. More broadly it resonates with current emphases on exploring effective means of hazard communication and encouraging public engagement in flood risk management.

  2. EVALUATING EFFECTIVENESS OF MOBILE BROWSER SECURITY WARNINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronak Shah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This work precisely evaluates whether browser security warnings are as ineffective as proposed by popular sentiments and past writings. This research used different kinds of Android mobile browsers as well as desktop browsers to evaluate security warnings. Security experts and developers should give emphasis on making a user aware of security warnings and should not neglect aim of communicating this to users. Security experts and system architects should emphasis the goal of communicating security information to end users. In most of the browsers, security warnings are not emphasized, and browsers simply do not show warnings, or there are a number of ways to hide those warnings of malicious sites. This work precisely finds that how inconsistent browsers really are in prompting security warnings. In particular, majority of the modern mobile web browsers are vulnerable to these security threats. We find inconsistency in SSL warnings among web browsers. Based on this work, we make recommendations for warning designers and researchers.

  3. Design and Implementation of Vehicle Navigation System in Urban Environments using Internet of Things (Iot)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godavarthi, Bhavana; Nalajala, Paparao; Ganapuram, Vasavi

    2017-08-01

    Advanced vehicle monitoring and tracking system based on embedded Linux board and android application is designed and implemented for monitoring the school vehicle from any location A to location B at real time. The present system would make good use of new technology that based on embedded Linux namely Raspberry Pi and Smartphone android application. This system works on GPS/GPRS/GSM SIM900A. GPS finds the current location of the vehicle, GPRS sends the tracking information to the server and the GSM is used for sending alert message to vehicle’s owner mobile. This system is placed inside the vehicle whose position is to be determined on the web page and monitored at real time. There is a comparison between the current vehicle path already specified paths into the file system. Inside the raspberry pi’s file system taken from vehicle owners through android phone using android application. Means the selection of path from location A to B takes place from vehicle owner’s android application which gives more safety and secures traveling to the traveler. Hence the driver drives the vehicle only on the vehicle owner’s specified path. The driver drives the vehicle only on the vehicle owner’s specified path but if the driver drives in wrong path the message alert will be sent from this system to the vehicle owners mobile and also sent speakers alert to driver through audio jack. If the vehicles speed goes beyond the specified value of the speed, then warning message will be sent to owner mobile. This system also takes care of the traveler’s safety by using Gas leakage and Temperature sensors

  4. A mechanism for diversity in warning signals: Conspicuousness versus toxicity in poison frogs

    OpenAIRE

    Darst, Catherine R; Cummings, Molly E.; Cannatella, David C

    2006-01-01

    Many animals advertise their chemical defense to predators with conspicuous coloration and unpalatability, but little is known about the information in these signal elements. To effectively avoid predation, is it more advantageous to invest in increased conspicuousness or greater noxiousness, or to allocate equally to both signal modalities? Using natural variation among poison frog species measured with spectral reflectance and toxicity assays, we tested the relative importance of warning si...

  5. Perception and use of uncertainty in severe weather warnings by emergency services in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kox, Thomas; Gerhold, Lars; Ulbrich, Uwe

    2015-05-01

    In the course of the WEXICOM project at the Hans-Ertel-Centre for Weather Research of the Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD), a survey was conducted in autumn 2012 to question how weather warnings are communicated to professional end-users in the emergency community and how the warnings are converted into mitigation measures. 161 members of emergency services (e.g. fire fighters, police officers and civil servants) across Germany answered an online questionnaire. Questions included user's confidence in forecasts, their understanding of probabilistic information and their perception and use of uncertainty in forecasts and warnings. A large number of open questions were selected to identify new topics of interest, unknown problems, and research gaps in the field of communicating weather information in Germany. Results show that the emergency service personnel who participated in this survey generally have a good appreciation of the uncertainty of weather forecasts. Although no single probability threshold could be identified for organisations to start with preparatory mitigation measures, it became clear that emergency services tend to avoid forecast based on low probabilities as basis for their decisions. This paper suggests that when trying to enhance weather communication by reducing the uncertainty in forecasts, the focus should not only be on improving computer models and observation tools, but also on the communication aspect, as uncertainty also arises from linguistic origins. Here, improvements are also possible and thus uncertainty might be reducible.

  6. Integrating Low-Cost Mems Accelerometer Mini-Arrays (mama) in Earthquake Early Warning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nof, R. N.; Chung, A. I.; Rademacher, H.; Allen, R. M.

    2016-12-01

    Current operational Earthquake Early Warning Systems (EEWS) acquire data with networks of single seismic stations, and compute source parameters assuming earthquakes to be point sources. For large events, the point-source assumption leads to an underestimation of magnitude, and the use of single stations leads to large uncertainties in the locations of events outside the network. We propose the use of mini-arrays to improve EEWS. Mini-arrays have the potential to: (a) estimate reliable hypocentral locations by beam forming (FK-analysis) techniques; (b) characterize the rupture dimensions and account for finite-source effects, leading to more reliable estimates for large magnitudes. Previously, the high price of multiple seismometers has made creating arrays cost-prohibitive. However, we propose setting up mini-arrays of a new seismometer based on low-cost (alert-times, improving real-time shaking predictions and mitigating false alarms. We use low-resolution 14-bit Quake Catcher Network (QCN) data collected during Rapid Aftershock Mobilization Program (RAMP) in Christchurch, NZ following the M7.1 Darfield earthquake in September 2010. As the QCN network was so dense, we were able to use small sub-array of up to ten sensors spread along a maximum area of 1.7x2.2 km2 to demonstrate our approach and to solve for the BAZ of two events (Mw4.7 and Mw5.1) with less than ±10° error. We will also present the new 24-bit device details, benchmarks, and real-time measurements.

  7. Introducing Dual Suspension System in Road Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imtiaz Hussain

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of suspension system is to reduce the motions of the vehicle body with respect to road disturbances. The conventional suspension systems in road vehicles use passive elements such as springs and dampers to suppress the vibrations induced by the irregularities in the road. But these conventional suspension systems can suppress vibrations to a certain limit. This paper presents a novel idea to improve the ride quality of roads vehicles without compromising vehicle?s stability. The paper proposes the use of primary and secondary suspension to suppress the vibrations more effectively.

  8. Effects of audibility and multichannel wide dynamic range compression on consonant recognition for listeners with severe hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies-Venn, Evelyn; Souza, Pamela; Brennan, Marc; Stecker, G Christopher

    2009-10-01

    This study examined the effects of multichannel wide-dynamic range compression (WDRC) amplification and stimulus audibility on consonant recognition and error patterns. Listeners had either severe or mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss. Each listener was monaurally fit with a wearable hearing aid using typical clinical procedures, frequency-gain parameters, and a hybrid of clinically prescribed compression ratios for desired sensation level () and NAL-NL (). Consonant-vowel nonsense syllables were presented in soundfield at multiple input levels (50, 65, 80 dB SPL). Test conditions were four-channel fast-acting WDRC amplification and a control compression limiting (CL) amplification condition. Listeners identified the stimulus heard from choices presented on an on-screen display. A between-subject repeated measures design was used to evaluate consonant recognition and consonant confusion patterns. Fast-acting WDRC provided a considerable audibility advantage at 50 dB SPL, especially for listeners with severe hearing loss. Listeners with mild to moderate hearing loss received less audibility improvement from the fast-acting WDRC amplification, for conversational and high level speech, when compared with listeners with severe hearing loss. Analysis of WDRC benefit scores revealed that listeners had slightly lower scores with fast-acting WDRC amplification (relative to CL) when WDRC provided minimal improvement in audibility. The negative effect was greater for listeners with mild to moderate hearing loss compared with their counterparts with severe hearing loss. All listeners, but particularly the severe loss group, benefited from fast-acting WDRC amplification for low-level speech. For conversational and higher speech levels (i.e., when WDRC does not confer a significant audibility advantage), fast-acting WDRC amplification seems to slightly degrade performance. Listeners' consonant confusion patterns suggest that this negative effect may be partly due to

  9. Racial disparities in knowledge of stroke and heart attack risk factors and warning signs among Michigan adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fussman, Chris; Rafferty, Ann P; Reeves, Mathew J; Zackery, Shannon; Lyon-Callo, Sarah; Anderson, Beth

    2009-01-01

    To describe the level of knowledge regarding risk factors and warning signs for stroke and heart attack among White and African American adults in Michigan and to quantify racial disparities. Knowledge of stroke and heart attack risk factors and warning signs was assessed by using data from the 2004 Michigan Behavioral Risk Factor Survey. Prevalence estimates of knowledge were generated, and statistical differences in knowledge between Whites and African Americans were assessed. Adequate knowledge was defined as knowing 3 correct warning signs or risk factors. Logistic regression models were used to quantify the racial disparity in knowledge while controlling for potential confounding. Whites had substantially higher levels of adequate knowledge of risk factors (stroke: 31.6% vs 13.8%; heart attack: 52.6% vs 24.3%) and warning signs (stroke: 30.0% vs 17.2%; heart attack: 29.3% vs 13.8%) compared with African Americans (all observed differences were significant at P heart attack: AOR 3.4) and warning signs (stroke: AOR 2.0; heart attack: AOR 2.4) were significantly higher for Whites than for African Americans. A strong racial disparity in the knowledge of stroke and heart attack risk factors and warning signs exists among Michigan adults. Communitywide public education programs in conjunction with targeted interventions for at-risk populations are necessary to produce meaningful improvements in the awareness of stroke and heart attack risk factors and warning signs among Michigan adults.

  10. Road traffic safety in conjunction with in-vehicle ITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja TOPOLŠEK

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Interest in Intelligent Transportation Systems comes from the problems caused by traffic congestion, road accidents and air pollution. Traffic congestion continues to grow worldwide as a result of increased motorization, population growth, changes in population density and urbanization. Interest in ITS can also be attributed to reducing road accidents and increasing traffic safety. The most common causes for road accidents are excessive speed, inattentive driving and ignorance of the right-of-way rules. To eliminate these causes, experience, knowledge of traffic regulations and a new car are not enough – vehicle safety systems have to take part as well. Therefore, the European Union issued a directive on the installation of intelligent systems, whose functions are active support during driving, warning the driver in dangerous situations and alerting passengers of the car in case of irregularities in motor function or actions carried out by the driver that may cause danger, such as swerving while falling asleep. These systems help drivers to avoid accidents, and in the event of a collision, an emergency call is automatically made. Furthermore, they can be used to regulate traffic patterns or to reduce engine performance, which would reduce pollution. With these benefits in mind, the EU has indicated to the automotive industry that installation of these new Intelligent Transportation Systems should be mandatory in their new vehicles.

  11. Numerical Study of the Generic Sports Utility Vehicle Design with a Drag Reduction Add-On Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubham Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available CFD simulations using ANSYS FLUENT 6.3.26 have been performed on a generic SUV design and the settings are validated using the experimental results investigated by Khalighi. Moreover, an add-on inspired by the concept presented by Englar at GTRI for drag reduction has been designed and added to the generic SUV design. CFD results of add-on model and the basic SUV model have been compared for a number of aerodynamic parameters. Also drag coefficient, drag force, mean surface pressure, mean velocities, and Cp values at different locations in the wake have been compared for both models. The main objective of the study is to present a new add-on device which may be used on SUVs for increasing the fuel efficiency of the vehicle. Mean pressure results show an increase in the total base pressure on the SUV after using the device. An overall reduction of 8% in the aerodynamic drag coefficient on the add-on SUV has been investigated analytically in this study.

  12. A High-Density, High-Efficiency, Isolated On-Board Vehicle Battery Charger Utilizing Silicon Carbide Power Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitaker, B; Barkley, A; Cole, Z; Passmore, B; Martin, D; McNutt, TR; Lostetter, AB; Lee, JS; Shiozaki, K

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents an isolated on-board vehicular battery charger that utilizes silicon carbide (SiC) power devices to achieve high density and high efficiency for application in electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid EVs (PHEVs). The proposed level 2 charger has a two-stage architecture where the first stage is a bridgeless boost ac-dc converter and the second stage is a phase-shifted full-bridge isolated dc-dc converter. The operation of both topologies is presented and the specific advantages gained through the use of SiC power devices are discussed. The design of power stage components, the packaging of the multichip power module, and the system-level packaging is presented with a primary focus on system density and a secondary focus on system efficiency. In this work, a hardware prototype is developed and a peak system efficiency of 95% is measured while operating both power stages with a switching frequency of 200 kHz. A maximum output power of 6.1 kW results in a volumetric power density of 5.0 kW/L and a gravimetric power density of 3.8 kW/kg when considering the volume and mass of the system including a case.

  13. Health warnings on tobacco products - worldwide, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-22

    Many countries require that tobacco product packaging includes health warnings about the risks associated with tobacco use. Health warnings on tobacco product packages are effective in highlighting the perception of health risk, supporting the intention to quit tobacco use, discouraging the intention to begin tobacco use, and increasing cessation rates. Prominent displays of health warnings increase their effectiveness; larger warnings, with pictures, are more likely to be noticed, better communicate health risks, provoke greater emotional response, and further motivate tobacco users to quit. This report assesses the current status of tobacco packaging health warning requirements worldwide. Governments could further discourage tobacco use by requiring prominent health warnings on tobacco packaging.

  14. Early warning scores: a sign of deterioration in patients and systems

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fox, A

    2015-02-01

    The early warning score is a decision-making tool that has a simple design, yet its implementation in healthcare organisations is proving complex. This article reports the results of a survey that evaluated the nurses’ experiences of using the NEWS (National Early Warning Score) in an acute hospital in Ireland. Staff reported that the NEWS was easy to use, did not increase workload and enhanced their ability to identify deteriorating patients. However, they also identified problems related to doctors’ delayed response times, doctors lack of training in the use of the tool, and a failure by doctors to modify parameters for patients with chronic conditions. NEWS enhances nurses’ role in early detection of patient deterioration but delays in response times by doctors, exposes systematic flaws in healthcare. This suggests that it is not only an indicator of patient deterioration but also of deteriorating healthcare systems.

  15. Early warning scores: a sign of deterioration in patients and systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Adrian; Elliott, Naomi

    2015-04-01

    The early warning score system is a decision-making tool that has a simple design, yet its implementation in healthcare organisations is proving complex. This article reports the results of a survey that evaluated nurses' experiences of using the National Early Warning Score (NEWS) in an acute hospital in Ireland. Staff reported that the NEWS was easy to use, did not increase workload and enhanced their ability to identify deteriorating patients. However, they also identified problems related to doctors' delayed response times, doctors' lack of training in the use of the tool, and a failure by doctors to modify trigger parameters for patients with chronic conditions. NEWS enhances nurses' roles in early detection of patient deterioration, but delays in response times by doctors expose systematic flaws in health care. This suggests that it is not only an indicator of patient deterioration, but also of deteriorating healthcare systems.

  16. Crowd-Sourced Global Earthquake Early Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minson, S. E.; Brooks, B. A.; Glennie, C. L.; Murray, J. R.; Langbein, J. O.; Owen, S. E.; Iannucci, B. A.; Hauser, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Although earthquake early warning (EEW) has shown great promise for reducing loss of life and property, it has only been implemented in a few regions due, in part, to the prohibitive cost of building the required dense seismic and geodetic networks. However, many cars and consumer smartphones, tablets, laptops, and similar devices contain low-cost versions of the same sensors used for earthquake monitoring. If a workable EEW system could be implemented based on either crowd-sourced observations from consumer devices or very inexpensive networks of instruments built from consumer-quality sensors, EEW coverage could potentially be expanded worldwide. Controlled tests of several accelerometers and global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers typically found in consumer devices show that, while they are significantly noisier than scientific-grade instruments, they are still accurate enough to capture displacements from moderate and large magnitude earthquakes. The accuracy of these sensors varies greatly depending on the type of data collected. Raw coarse acquisition (C/A) code GPS data are relatively noisy. These observations have a surface displacement detection threshold approaching ~1 m and would thus only be useful in large Mw 8+ earthquakes. However, incorporating either satellite-based differential corrections or using a Kalman filter to combine the raw GNSS data with low-cost acceleration data (such as from a smartphone) decreases the noise dramatically. These approaches allow detection thresholds as low as 5 cm, potentially enabling accurate warnings for earthquakes as small as Mw 6.5. Simulated performance tests show that, with data contributed from only a very small fraction of the population, a crowd-sourced EEW system would be capable of warning San Francisco and San Jose of a Mw 7 rupture on California's Hayward fault and could have accurately issued both earthquake and tsunami warnings for the 2011 Mw 9 Tohoku-oki, Japan earthquake.

  17. Vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) safety applications performance requirements, vol. 4, reduced speed zone warning with lane closure (RSZW/LC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This document is the fourth of a seven volume report that describe the Performance Requirements for the connected vehicle vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) safety applications developed for the U.S. Department of Transportation (U.S. DOT). This volume ...

  18. Serious adverse events in a hospital using early warning score - what went wrong?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, John Asger; Mackel, Rebecca; Antonsen, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the performance of a new early warning score (EWS) system by reviewing all serious adverse events in our hospital over a 6-month time period. METHOD: All incidents of unexpected death (UD), cardiac arrest (CA) and unanticipated intensive care unit admission(UICU) of adult patients...... physicians provided adequate care in 49% of cases of UICU and 29% of cases of the CO. Senior staff was involved according to protocol in 53% and 36% of cases of UICU and CO, respectively. CONCLUSION: Poor compliance with the escalation protocol was commonly found when serious adverse events occurred...... but level of care provided by physicians was also a problem in a hospital with implemented early warning system. This information may prove useful in improving performance of EWS systems....

  19. A Participatory Process to Develop a Landslide Warning System: Paradoxes of Responsibility Sharing in a Case Study in Upper Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Preuner

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available During a participatory process in Gmunden, Austria, the organizational and responsibility-sharing arrangements for a landslide warning system proved to be contested issues. While questions on the warning system technology and the distribution of information, including the alarm for evacuation, could be resolved with the support of experts, controversies arose on the financial and legal responsibilities that ensure long-term and effective monitoring for the protection of the landslide-prone community. This paper examines how responsibilities can be shared among the residents, experts, and public authorities during the design and operation of landslide warning systems. In particular, we discuss the outcome and implications of three stakeholder workshops where participants deliberated on warning-system options that, in turn, were based on a discourse analysis of extensive stakeholder interviews. The results of the case study show that an end-user orientation requires the consideration of stakeholder worldviews, interests, and conflicts. Paradoxically, the public did not fully support their own involvement in the maintenance and control of the warning system, but the authorities promoted shared responsibility. Deliberative planning does not then necessarily lead to responsibility sharing, but it proved effective as a platform for information and for shared ownership in the warning system.

  20. Surveillance and early warning systems of infectious disease in China: From 2012 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Honglong; Wang, Liping; Lai, Shengjie; Li, Zhongjie; Sun, Qiao; Zhang, Peng

    2017-07-01

    Appropriate surveillance and early warning of infectious diseases have very useful roles in disease control and prevention. In 2004, China established the National Notifiable Infectious Disease Surveillance System and the Public Health Emergency Event Surveillance System to report disease surveillance and events on the basis of data sources from the National Notifiable Infectious Disease Surveillance System, China Infectious Disease Automated-alert and Response System in this country. This study provided a descriptive summary and a data analysis, from 2012 to 2014, of these 3 key surveillance and early warning systems of infectious disease in China with the intent to provide suggestions for system improvement and perfection. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Tsunami Early Warning System: Deep Sea Measurements in the Source Area.

    OpenAIRE

    Pignagnoli, Luca; Chierici, Francesco; Favali, P.; Beranzoli, L.; Embriaco, D.; Monna, S.; D'Oriano, Filippo; Zitellini, Nevio

    2011-01-01

    In the framework of the EU project NEAREST, a new Tsunami Early Warning System (TEWS), able to operate in tsunami generation areas, was developed and installed in the Gulf of Cadiz. The TEWS is based on the abyssal station GEOSTAR, placed above a major tsunamigenic structure, and on three seismic centres of Portugal, Spain and Morocco. The core of the system is a tsunami detector installed onboard of GEOSTAR. The tsunami detector communicates with a surface buoy through a dual acoustic lin...

  2. Food Security, Decision Making and the Use of Remote Sensing in Famine Early Warning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.

    2008-01-01

    Famine early warning systems use remote sensing in combination with socio-economic and household food economy analysis to provide timely and rigorous information on emerging food security crises. The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) is the US Agency for International Development's decision support system in 20 African countries, as well as in Guatemala, Haiti and Afghanistan. FEWS NET provides early and actionable policy guidance for the US Government and its humanitarian aid partners. As we move into an era of climate change where weather hazards will become more frequent and severe, understanding how to provide quantitative and actionable scientific information for policy makers using biophysical data is critical for an appropriate and effective response.

  3. Warning Signs After Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy > Postpartum care > Warning signs after birth Warning signs after birth E-mail to a friend Please ... infection Postpartum bleeding Postpartum depression (PPD) What warning signs should you look for? Call your provider if ...

  4. Driver trust in five driver assistance technologies following real-world use in four production vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, David G; Cicchino, Jessica B; Reagan, Ian J; Kerfoot, Laura B

    2017-05-29

    Information about drivers' experiences with driver assistance technologies in real driving conditions is sparse. This study characterized driver interactions with forward collision warning, adaptive cruise control, active lane keeping, side-view assist, and lane departure warning systems following real-world use. Fifty-four Insurance Institute for Highway Safety employees participated and drove a 2016 Toyota Prius, 2016 Honda Civic, 2017 Audi Q7, or 2016 Infiniti QX60 for up to several weeks. Participants reported mileage and warnings from the technologies in an online daily-use survey. Participants reported their level of agreement with five statements regarding trust in an online post-use survey. Responses were averaged to create a composite measure of trust ranging from -2 (strongly disagree) to +2 (strongly agree) for each technology. Mixed-effect regression models were constructed to compare trust among technologies and separately among the study vehicles. Participants' free-response answers about what they liked least about each system were coded and examined. Participants reported driving 33,584 miles during 4 months of data collection. At least one forward collision warning was reported in 26% of the 354 daily reports. The proportion of daily reports indicating a forward collision warning was much larger for the Honda (70%) than for the Audi (18%), Infiniti (15%), and Toyota (10%). Trust was highest for side-view assist (0.98) and lowest for active lane keeping (0.20). Trust in side-view assist was significantly higher than trust in active lane keeping and lane departure warning (0.53). Trust in active lane keeping was significantly lower than trust in adaptive cruise control (0.67) and forward collision warning (0.71). Trust in adaptive cruise control was higher for the Audi (0.72) and Toyota (0.75) compared with the Honda (0.30), and significantly higher for the Infiniti (0.93). Trust in Infiniti's side-view assist (0.58) was significantly lower than

  5. Exploring Vital Sign Data Quality in Electronic Health Records with Focus on Emergency Care Warning Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skyttberg, Niclas; Chen, Rong; Blomqvist, Hans; Koch, Sabine

    2017-08-30

    Computerized clinical decision support and automation of warnings have been advocated to assist clinicians in detecting patients at risk of physiological instability. To provide reliable support such systems are dependent on high-quality vital sign data. Data quality depends on how, when and why the data is captured and/or documented. This study aims to describe the effects on data quality of vital signs by three different types of documentation practices in five Swedish emergency hospitals, and to assess data fitness for calculating warning and triage scores. The study also provides reference data on triage vital signs in Swedish emergency care. We extracted a dataset including vital signs, demographic and administrative data from emergency care visits (n=335027) at five Swedish emergency hospitals during 2013 using either completely paper-based, completely electronic or mixed documentation practices. Descriptive statistics were used to assess fitness for use in emergency care decision support systems aiming to calculate warning and triage scores, and data quality was described in three categories: currency, completeness and correctness. To estimate correctness, two further categories - plausibility and concordance - were used. The study showed an acceptable correctness of the registered vital signs irrespectively of the type of documentation practice. Completeness was high in sites where registrations were routinely entered into the Electronic Health Record (EHR). The currency was only acceptable in sites with a completely electronic documentation practice. Although vital signs that were recorded in completely electronic documentation practices showed plausible results regarding correctness, completeness and currency, the study concludes that vital signs documented in Swedish emergency care EHRs cannot generally be considered fit for use for calculation of triage and warning scores. Low completeness and currency were found if the documentation was not completely

  6. PILOT RESULTS ON FORWARD COLLISION WARNING SYSTEM EFFECTIVENESS IN OLDER DRIVERS

    OpenAIRE

    Lester, Benjamin D.; Sager, Lauren N.; Dawson, Jeffrey; Hacker, Sarah D.; Aksan, Nazan; Rizzo, Matthew; Kitazaki, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) have largely been developed with a “one-size-fits-all” approach. This approach neglects the large inter-individual variability in perceptual and cognitive abilities that affect aging ADAS users. We investigated the effectiveness of a forward collision warning (FCW) with fixed response parameters in young and older drivers with differing levels of cognitive functioning. Drivers responded to a pedestrian stepping into the driver’s path on a simulated ur...

  7. Imperfect implementation of an early warning scoring system in a Danish teaching hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niegsch, Mark; Fabritius, Maria Louise; Anhøj, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    In 2007, the initiation of a patient safety campaign led to the introduction of Ward Observational Charts (WOC) and Medical Early Warning Score (MEWS) at Naestved Regional Hospital. This included systematic measuring of vital signs of all patients in order to prevent patient deterioration and ass...... and assure timely and correct initiation of treatment. The aim of this study was to assess to what degree WOC guidelines being followed by ward staff....

  8. Maintaining mimicry diversity: optimal warning colour patterns differ among microhabitats in Amazonian clearwing butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmott, Keith R; Robinson Willmott, Julia C; Elias, Marianne; Jiggins, Chris D

    2017-05-31

    Mimicry is one of the best-studied examples of adaptation, and recent studies have provided new insights into the role of mimicry in speciation and diversification. Classical Müllerian mimicry theory predicts convergence in warning signal among protected species, yet tropical butterflies are exuberantly diverse in warning colour patterns, even within communities. We tested the hypothesis that microhabitat partitioning in aposematic butterflies and insectivorous birds can lead to selection for different colour patterns in different microhabitats and thus help maintain mimicry diversity. We measured distribution across flight height and topography for 64 species of clearwing butterflies (Ithomiini) and their co-mimics, and 127 species of insectivorous birds, in an Amazon rainforest community. For the majority of bird species, estimated encounter rates were non-random for the two most abundant mimicry rings. Furthermore, most butterfly species in these two mimicry rings displayed the warning colour pattern predicted to be optimal for anti-predator defence in their preferred microhabitats. These conclusions were supported by a field trial using butterfly specimens, which showed significantly different predation rates on colour patterns in two microhabitats. We therefore provide the first direct evidence to support the hypothesis that different mimicry patterns can represent stable, community-level adaptations to differing biotic environments. © 2017 The Author(s).

  9. Warning signals confer advantage to prey in competition with predators: bumblebees steal nests from insectivorous birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, Piotr G; Cho, Hyun Jun; Song, Soo Rim; Kang, Chang Ku; Lee, Sang-Im

    2013-08-01

    Aposematic (warning) signals of prey help predators to recognize the defended distasteful or poisonous prey that should be avoided. The evolution of aposematism in the context of predation has been in the center of modern ecology for a long time. But, the possible roles of aposematic signals in other ecological contexts have been largely ignored. Here we address the role of aposematic signals in competition between prey and predators. Bumblebees use visual and auditory aposematic signals to warn predators about their defenses. For 2 years, we observed competition for nestboxes between chemically defended insects, Bombus ardens (and possibly also Bombus ignitus), and cavity nesting birds (Parus minor and Poecile varius). Bumblebees settled in 16 and 9 % of nestboxes (in 2010 and 2011 breeding seasons, respectively) that contained bird nests at the advanced stage of nest building or at the stage of egg laying. Presence of bumblebees prevented the birds from continuing the breeding activities in the nestboxes, while insects took over the birds' nests (a form of kleptoparasitism). Playback experiments showed that the warning buzz by bumblebees contributed to the success in ousting the birds from their nests. This demonstrates that aposematic signals may be beneficial also in the context of resource competition.

  10. An Intelligent Broadcasting Algorithm for Early Warning Message Dissemination in VANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihn-Han Bae

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular ad hoc network (VANET has gained much attention recently to improve road safety, reduce traffic congestion, and enable efficient traffic management because of its many important applications in transportation. In this paper, an early warning intelligence broadcasting algorithm is proposed, EW-ICAST, to disseminate a safety message for VANETs. The proposed EW-ICAST uses not only the early warning system on the basis of time to collision (TTC but also the intelligent broadcasting algorithm on the basis of fuzzy logic. Thus, the EW-ICAST resolves effectively broadcast storm problem and meets time-critical requirement. The performance of EW-ICAST is evaluated through simulation and compared with that of other alert message dissemination algorithms. From the simulation results, we know that EW-ICAST is superior to Simple, P-persistence, and EDB algorithms.

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY, ENERGY, AND POWER TECHNOLOGY Task Order 0012: Plug In Electric Vehicle, Vehicle to Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-05

    Electric Vehicle , Vehicle -to-Grid 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER GS05T13BMD0001 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 78611F 6. AUTHOR(S...conducted a Plug-in Electric VehicleVehicle to Grid (PEV-V2G) demonstration at four locations of non-tactical motor fleets – Los Angeles Air Force Base

  12. An online operational rainfall-monitoring resource for epidemic malaria early warning systems in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover-Kopec, Emily; Kawano, Mika; Klaver, Robert W.; Blumenthal, Benno; Ceccato, Pietro; Connor, Stephen J.

    2005-01-01

    Periodic epidemics of malaria are a major public health problem for many sub-Saharan African countries. Populations in epidemic prone areas have a poorly developed immunity to malaria and the disease remains life threatening to all age groups. The impact of epidemics could be minimized by prediction and improved prevention through timely vector control and deployment of appropriate drugs. Malaria Early Warning Systems are advocated as a means of improving the opportunity for preparedness and timely response.Rainfall is one of the major factors triggering epidemics in warm semi-arid and desert-fringe areas. Explosive epidemics often occur in these regions after excessive rains and, where these follow periods of drought and poor food security, can be especially severe. Consequently, rainfall monitoring forms one of the essential elements for the development of integrated Malaria Early Warning Systems for sub-Saharan Africa, as outlined by the World Health Organization.The Roll Back Malaria Technical Resource Network on Prevention and Control of Epidemics recommended that a simple indicator of changes in epidemic risk in regions of marginal transmission, consisting primarily of rainfall anomaly maps, could provide immediate benefit to early warning efforts. In response to these recommendations, the Famine Early Warning Systems Network produced maps that combine information about dekadal rainfall anomalies, and epidemic malaria risk, available via their Africa Data Dissemination Service. These maps were later made available in a format that is directly compatible with HealthMapper, the mapping and surveillance software developed by the WHO's Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response Department. A new monitoring interface has recently been developed at the International Research Institute for Climate Prediction (IRI) that enables the user to gain a more contextual perspective of the current rainfall estimates by comparing them to previous seasons and climatological

  13. Early Evidence on the Effects of Regulators' Suicidality Warnings on SSRI Prescriptions and Suicide in Children and Adolescents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mann, J. John; Marcus, Sue M; Brown, C. Hendricks; Herings, Ron M.C; Erkens, Joëlle A; Hur, Kwan; Gibbons, Robert D; Bhaumik, Dulal K

    2007-01-01

    .... The authors assessed whether these warnings discouraged use of antidepressants in children and adolescents and whether they led to increases in suicide rates as a result of untreated depression. Method...

  14. An operational food warning system in Andalucía (Spain): Presentation and first successfully results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versini, Pierre-Antoine; Corral, Carles; Sempere-Torres, Daniel; Santiago-Gahette, Antonio

    2010-05-01

    The Guadalhorce basin (3200 km2, 130000 inhabitants) is located in Andalucía (South of Spain). Historically the river represents an important risk for the city of Malaga and periodically causes floods along its course. In 2008 the regional government implemented an operational flood warning system with the aim of minimising risk to people, economic activity, and guiding water resources management. The system is oriented to provide distributed warnings based on surface rainfall accumulations and runoff forecasts (at 1 km resolution). These risk warnings are related to hazard probability expressed in terms of return periods. Rainfall accumulation maps are generated according to the following two alternatives: (1) interpolation of the measurements of a network of 40 rain gauges covering the basin, and (2) measurements of the Mijas C-band radar located at 1173 m and covering the whole basin. Radar data are processed according to a complete chain of algorithms including ground clutter elimination, rainfall type classification (convective/stratiform) and correction with a vertical profile of reflectivity. Runoff forecasts are computed with a grid-based rainfall-runoff model incorporating the SCS equations at cell scale. The routing is done with a linear diffusive wave unit hydrograph, separating the hillslope and river-channelled process. Because of the miss of the lack of hydrological records, this model was calibrated a priori on a large part of the basin area. After presenting in details the operational system, it will be illustrated through a concrete example. It has successfully performed during a recent storm (7 January 2010). During this event -the most important since the system works- over 50 mm of rainfall dropped in few hours around Malaga, which resulted in flooding of parts of the city and road submersions. First results show how the warning system performed well and was able to forecast the location and timing of flooded areas.

  15. Screening for warning signs of sudden cardiac death in the young: the SCD-SOS questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Providência, Rui; Silva, Joana; Seca, Luís; Gomes, Pedro Lourenço; Costa, Gisela Veríssimo; Barra, Sérgio; Mota, Paula; Costa, Marco; Leitão-Marques, António

    2010-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is one of the most common causes of death in the young. It may be preceded by "red flags", but screening for these warning signs is not routinely performed. To test a new questionnaire for fast clinical assessment of possible warning signs of serious heart disease in a young population. We studied a population of 1472 university students and hospital employees (mean age 22.3 +/- 5.9 years; maximum age 40 years; 56.5% women), using a rapid-response questionnaire, evaluating major cardiac symptoms, past pathological and family history and medication: the Sudden Cardiac Death-Screening of Risk Factors (SCD-SOS) questionnaire. Descriptive statistical analysis and comparison of quantitative and nominal variables were performed using SPSS version 16.0. Of the questionnaires, 0.3% were blank and 3.5% had 1 to 3 missing answers (of a total of 8); 42.5% had no previous cardiac complaints, 27.8% had previous syncope and 24.5% chest pain; palpitations were reported by 23.5%, cardiac murmur by 5.9%, epilepsy or antiepileptic drugs by 1.6%, cardiovascular medication by 1.4% and family history of cardiac disease by 3.3%. A history of sudden unexplained or cardiovascular death in first- or second-degree family members was reported by 2.0%. Full analysis of the questionnaires identified 69 participants (4.7%) with at least one warning sign indicating need for cardiological evaluation, among whom 17 had two warning signs and three had three. SCD-SOS detected some cases requiring careful examination by a cardiologist. It could, however, be improved in some respects (characterization of chest pain, palpitations and family history of heart disease), in order to clearly identify possible high-risk patients. Applying this questionnaire together with an ECG may be a better way of risk stratifying this population.

  16. Assessing awareness level about warning signs of cancer and its determinants in an Iranian general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizi, Awat; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan; Hosseini, Mohsen; Parsa-Yekta, Zohreh; Jamali, Jamshid

    2011-12-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the awareness level about warning signs of cancer and its determinants in an Iranian general population. This cross-sectional interview-based survey investigated 2,500 people aged 18 years and over, as a representative sample of Tehran population. Latent class regression was applied for analyzing data. A small (18.8%) proportion of the respondents had high level of knowledge, and 54.5% had moderate awareness, and 26.7% had low level of awareness. Most effective predictors for awareness were educational attainment, sex, and marital status. The findings suggest that the overall level of knowledge about warning signs of cancer among the public is low, particularly about some specific signs. Accordingly, educational and intervention programmes, with special attention placed on particular at-risk populations, to increase awareness about the disease leading to its early diagnosis are needed.

  17. Prototype Early Warning Systems for Vector-Borne Diseases in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Semenza, Jan C.

    2015-01-01

    Globalization and environmental change, social and demographic determinants and health system capacity are significant drivers of infectious diseases which can also act as epidemic precursors. Thus, monitoring changes in these drivers can help anticipate, or even forecast, an upsurge of infectious diseases. The European Environment and Epidemiology (E3) Network has been built for this purpose and applied to three early warning case studies: (1) The environmental suitability of malaria transm...

  18. Assessing Earthquake Early Warning Using Sparse Networks in Developing Countries: Case Study of the Kyrgyz Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Parolai

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The first real-time digital strong-motion network in Central Asia has been installed in the Kyrgyz Republic since 2014. Although this network consists of only 19 strong-motion stations, they are located in near-optimal locations for earthquake early warning and rapid response purposes. In fact, it is expected that this network, which utilizes the GFZ-Sentry software, allowing decentralized event assessment calculations, not only will provide useful strong motion data useful for improving future seismic hazard and risk assessment, but will serve as the backbone for regional and on-site earthquake early warning operations. Based on the location of these stations, and travel-time estimates for P- and S-waves, we have determined potential lead times for several major urban areas in Kyrgyzstan (i.e., Bishkek, Osh, and Karakol and Kazakhstan (Almaty, where we find the implementation of an efficient earthquake early warning system would provide lead times outside the blind zone ranging from several seconds up to several tens of seconds. This was confirmed by the simulation of the possible shaking (and intensity that would arise considering a series of scenarios based on historical and expected events, and how they affect the major urban centers. Such lead times would allow the instigation of automatic mitigation procedures, while the system as a whole would support prompt and efficient actions to be undertaken over large areas.

  19. Assessing earthquake early warning using sparse networks in developing countries: Case study of the Kyrgyz Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolai, Stefano; Boxberger, Tobias; Pilz, Marco; Fleming, Kevin; Haas, Michael; Pittore, Massimiliano; Petrovic, Bojana; Moldobekov, Bolot; Zubovich, Alexander; Lauterjung, Joern

    2017-09-01

    The first real-time digital strong-motion network in Central Asia has been installed in the Kyrgyz Republic since 2014. Although this network consists of only 19 strong-motion stations, they are located in near-optimal locations for earthquake early warning and rapid response purposes. In fact, it is expected that this network, which utilizes the GFZ-Sentry software, allowing decentralized event assessment calculations, not only will provide useful strong motion data useful for improving future seismic hazard and risk assessment, but will serve as the backbone for regional and on-site earthquake early warning operations. Based on the location of these stations, and travel-time estimates for P- and S-waves, we have determined potential lead times for several major urban areas in Kyrgyzstan (i.e., Bishkek, Osh, and Karakol) and Kazakhstan (Almaty), where we find the implementation of an efficient earthquake early warning system would provide lead times outside the blind zone ranging from several seconds up to several tens of seconds. This was confirmed by the simulation of the possible shaking (and intensity) that would arise considering a series of scenarios based on historical and expected events, and how they affect the major urban centres. Such lead times would allow the instigation of automatic mitigation procedures, while the system as a whole would support prompt and efficient actions to be undertaken over large areas.

  20. Clinical significance of automatic warning function of cardiac remote monitoring systems in preventing acute cardiac episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shou-Qiang; Xing, Shan-Shan; Gao, Hai-Qing

    2014-01-01

    In addition to ambulatory Holter electrocardiographic recording and transtelephonic electrocardiographic monitoring (TTM), a cardiac remote monitoring system can provide an automatic warning function through the general packet radio service (GPRS) network, enabling earlier diagnosis, treatment and improved outcome of cardiac diseases. The purpose of this study was to estimate its clinical significance in preventing acute cardiac episodes. Using 2 leads (V1 and V5 leads) and the automatic warning mode, 7160 patients were tested with a cardiac remote monitoring system from October 2004 to September 2007. If malignant arrhythmias or obvious ST-T changes appeared in the electrocardiogram records was automatically transferred to the monitoring center, the patient and his family members were informed, and the corresponding precautionary or therapeutic measures were implemented immediately. In our study, 274 cases of malignant arrhythmia, including sinus standstill and ventricular tachycardia, and 43 cases of obvious ST-segment elevation were detected and treated. Because of early detection, there was no death or deformity. A cardiac remote monitoring system providing an automatic warning function can play an important role in preventing acute cardiac episodes.

  1. Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management - Combining Fluid Loops in Electric Drive Vehicles (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rugh, J. P.

    2013-07-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles have increased vehicle thermal management complexity, using separate coolant loop for advanced power electronics and electric motors. Additional thermal components result in higher costs. Multiple cooling loops lead to reduced range due to increased weight. Energy is required to meet thermal requirements. This presentation for the 2013 Annual Merit Review discusses integrated vehicle thermal management by combining fluid loops in electric drive vehicles.

  2. Drugs related to motor vehicle crashes in northern European countries: A study of fatally injured drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørland, Jørg; Steentoft, Anni; Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese

    2011-01-01

    with other vehicles. In single vehicle accidents, 66% of the drivers under 30 years of age had alcohol and/or drugs in their blood (alcohol only – 40%; drugs only – 12%; alcohol and drugs – 14%). The drugs found were mostly illicit drugs and psychoactive medicinal drugs with warning labels (in 57% and 58...... within 24 h of the accident, in the years 2001 and 2002 in the five Nordic countries (total population about 24 million inhabitants). The samples were analysed for more than 200 different drugs in addition to alcohol, using a similar analytical programme and cut-off limits in all countries. In three......% respectively of the drivers under 30 with drugs present). Similar findings were obtained for drivers 30–49 years of age (63% with alcohol and/or drugs). In drivers aged 50 years and above, killed in single vehicle crashes (48% with alcohol and/or drugs) illicit drugs were found in only one case...

  3. Public response to alerts and warnings using social media: report of a workshop on current knowledge and research gaps

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Computer Science and Telecommunications Board; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; National Research Council

    "Following an earlier NRC workshop on public response to alerts and warnings delivered to mobile devices, a related workshop was held on February 28 and 29, 2012 to look at the role of social media in disaster response...

  4. An analysis of the early-warning system in emerging markets for reducing the financial crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiangguang; Song, Xiaozhong

    2009-07-01

    The large number of financial crises in emerging markets over the past ten years has left many observers, both from academia and financial institutions, puzzled by an apparent lack of homogenous causal relations between endogenous economic variables and the bursting of large financial shocks. The frequency of financial crises in the last 20 years can be attributed to the lack of a comprehensive theory of financial regulation to guide policy makers. Existing theories fail to define the range of regulatory models, the causes of regulatory failure, and how to measure and prevent it. Faulty design of regulatory models, and the lack of ongoing performance monitoring incorporating early warning systems, is disrupting economic and social development. The main aim of this article is to propose an early warning system (EWS) which purposes issuing warning signal against the possible financial crisis in the emerging market, and makes the emerging market survived the first wave of the crisis be able to continue their operation in the following years.

  5. Vehicle routing problem in investment fund allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita; Mohd, Ismail

    2013-04-01

    Since its introduction by Dantzig and Ramser in 1959, vehicle routing problem keeps evolving in theories, applications and variability. The evolution in computing and technology are also important contributors to research in solving vehicle routing problem. The main sectors of interests among researchers and practitioners for vehicle routing problem are transportation, distribution and logistics. However, literature found that concept and benefits of vehicle routing problem are not taken advantages of by researchers in the field of investment. Other methods found used in investment include multi-objective programming, linear programming, goal programming and integer programming. Yet the application of vehicle routing problem is not fully explored. A proposal on a framework of the fund allocation optimization using vehicle routing problem is presented here. Preliminary results using FTSE Bursa Malaysia data testing the framework are also given.

  6. Methods for detecting early warnings of critical transitions in time series illustrated using simulated ecological data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilis Dakos

    Full Text Available Many dynamical systems, including lakes, organisms, ocean circulation patterns, or financial markets, are now thought to have tipping points where critical transitions to a contrasting state can happen. Because critical transitions can occur unexpectedly and are difficult to manage, there is a need for methods that can be used to identify when a critical transition is approaching. Recent theory shows that we can identify the proximity of a system to a critical transition using a variety of so-called 'early warning signals', and successful empirical examples suggest a potential for practical applicability. However, while the range of proposed methods for predicting critical transitions is rapidly expanding, opinions on their practical use differ widely, and there is no comparative study that tests the limitations of the different methods to identify approaching critical transitions using time-series data. Here, we summarize a range of currently available early warning methods and apply them to two simulated time series that are typical of systems undergoing a critical transition. In addition to a methodological guide, our work offers a practical toolbox that may be used in a wide range of fields to help detect early warning signals of critical transitions in time series data.

  7. Early warning model based on correlated networks in global crude oil markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jia-Wei; Xie, Wen-Jie; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang

    2018-01-01

    Applying network tools on predicting and warning the systemic risks provides a novel avenue to manage risks in financial markets. Here, we construct a series of global crude oil correlated networks based on the historical 57 oil prices covering a period from 1993 to 2012. Two systemic risk indicators are constructed based on the density and modularity of correlated networks. The local maximums of the risk indicators are found to have the ability to predict the trends of oil prices. In our sample periods, the indicator based on the network density sends five signals and the indicator based on the modularity index sends four signals. The four signals sent by both indicators are able to warn the drop of future oil prices and the signal only sent by the network density is followed by a huge rise of oil prices. Our results deepen the application of network measures on building early warning models of systemic risks and can be applied to predict the trends of future prices in financial markets.

  8. Evaluation of Early Warning Alert and Response System (Ewars) Health Office in Tulang Bawang Lampung Province 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Saleh, Muhammad; Budi, Iwan Stia; Purba, Imelda G

    2015-01-01

    Background: Early Warning Alert and Response System (EWARS) is one of the surveillance tools to determine early the presence warning signals of infectious disease, outbreaks potential. Based on weekly reports in 2012 at Tulang Bawang Health Office, it was showed that the accuracy and completeness of EWARS reports had been the lowest rates among 13 offices in Lampung. In the other hand, it hand not reach the Ministry of Health standard. Method: This research was qualitative research by using ...

  9. An electrophysiological study of the impact of a forward collision warning system in a simulator driving task

    OpenAIRE

    Bueno, Mercedes; Fabrigoule, Colette; DELEURENCE, Philippe; NDIAYE, Daniel; Fort, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Driver distraction has been identified as the most important contributing factor in rear-end collisions. In this context, Forward Collision Warning Systems (FCWS) have been developed specifically to warn drivers of potential rear-end collisions. The main objective of this work is to evaluate the impact of a surrogate FCWS and of its reliability according to the driver's attentional state by recording both behavioral and electrophysiological data. Participants drove following a lead motorcycle...

  10. Slope Failure Prediction and Early Warning Awareness Education for Reducing Landslides Casualty in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koay, S. P.; Tay, L. T.; Fukuoka, H.; Koyama, T.; Sakai, N.; Jamaludin, S. B.; Lateh, H.

    2015-12-01

    Northeast monsoon causes heavy rain in east coast of Peninsular Malaysia from November to March, every year. During this monsoon period, besides the happening of flood along east coast, landslides also causes millions of Malaysian Ringgit economical losses. Hence, it is essential to study the prediction of slope failure to prevent the casualty of landslides happening. In our study, we introduce prediction method of the accumulated rainfall affecting the stability of the slope. If the curve, in the graph, which is presented by rainfall intensity versus accumulated rainfall, crosses over the critical line, the condition of the slope is considered in high risk where the data are calculated and sent from rain gauge in the site via internet. If the possibility of slope failure is going high, the alert message will be sent out to the authorities for decision making on road block or setting the warning light at the road side. Besides road block and warning light, we propose to disseminate short message, to pre-registered mobile phone user, to notify the public for easing the traffic jam and avoiding unnecessary public panic. Prediction is not enough to prevent the casualty. Early warning awareness of the public is very important to reduce the casualty of landslides happening. IT technology does not only play a main role in disseminating information, early warning awareness education, by using IT technology, should be conducted, in schools, to give early warning awareness on natural hazard since childhood. Knowing the pass history on landslides occurrence will gain experience on the landslides happening. Landslides historical events with coordinate information are stored in database. The public can browse these historical events via internet. By referring to such historical landslides events, the public may know where did landslides happen before and the possibility of slope failure occurrence again is considered high. Simulation of rainfall induced slope failure mechanism

  11. Delay of Vehicle Motion in Traffic Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bando, M; Nakanishi, K; Nakayama, A; Bando, Masako; Hasebe, Katsuya; Nakanishi, Ken; Nakayama, Akihiro

    1996-01-01

    We demonstrate that in Optimal Velocity Model (OVM) delay times of vehicles coming from the dynamical equation of motion of OVM almost explain the order of delay times observed in actual traffic flows without introducing explicit delay times. Delay times in various cases are estimated: the case of a leader vehicle and its follower, a queue of vehicles controlled by traffic lights and many-vehicle case of highway traffic flow. The remarkable result is that in most of the situation for which we can make a reasonable definition of a delay time, the obtained delay time is of order 1 second.

  12. Generic Vehicle Architecture for the integration and sharing of in-vehicle and extra-vehicle sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamaschi, Flavio; Conway-Jones, Dave; Peach, Nicholas

    2010-04-01

    In this paper we present a Generic Vehicle Architecture (GVA), developed as part of the UK MOD GVA programme that addresses the issues of dynamic platform re-role through modular capability integration and behaviour orchestration. The proposed architecture addresses the need for: a) easy integration with legacy and future systems, and architectures; b) scalability from individual sensors, individual human users, vehicles and patrols to battle groups and brigades; c) rapid introduction of new capabilities in response to a changing operational scenario; d) be agnostic of communications systems, devices, operating systems and computer platforms. The GVA leverages the use of research output and tools developed by the International Technology Alliance (ITA) in Network and Information Science1 programme, in particular the ITA Sensor Fabric2-4 developed to address the challenges in the areas of sensor identification, classification, interoperability and sensor data sharing, dissemination and consumability, commonly present in tactical ISR/ISTAR,5 and the Gaian Dynamic Distributed Federated Database (DDFD)6-8 developed the challenges of accessing distributed sources of data in an ad-hoc environment where the consumers do not have the knowledge of the location of the data within the network. The GVA also promotes the use of off-the-shelf hardware, and software which is advantageous from the aspect of easy of upgrading, lower cost of support and replacement, and speed of re-deploying platforms through a "fitted for but not with" approach. The GVA exploits the services orientated architecture (SOA) environment provided by the ITA Sensor Fabric to enhance the capability of legacy solutions and applications by enabling information exchange between them by, for example, providing direct near real-time communication between legacy systems. The GVA, a prototype implementation demonstrator of this architecture has demonstrated its utility to fusing, exploiting and sharing

  13. GEODATA: Information System Based on Geospatial for Early Warning Tracking and Analysis Agricultural Plant Diseases in Central Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, S. Y. J.; Agus, Y. H.; Dewi, C.; Simanjuntak, B. H.; Hartomo, K. D.

    2017-03-01

    The Government of Indonesia is currently faced with the problems of food, especially rice. It needs in large numbers that have to import from neighboring countries. Actually, the Indonesian government has the ability to produce rice to meet national needs but is still faced with the problem of pest attack rice annually increasing extent. One of the factors is that geographically Indonesia located on the migration path of world rice insect pests (called BPH or Brown Planthoppers) (Nilaparvata lugens Stal.) It leads endemic status annually. One proposed strategy to be applied is to use an early warning system based on a specific region of the main pest population. The proposed information system called GEODATA. GEODATA is Geospatial Outbreak of Disease Tracking and Analysis. The system works using a library ESSA (Exponential Smoothing - Spatial Autocorrelation) developed in previous studies in Satya Wacana Christian University. GEODATA built to meet the qualifications required surveillance device by BMKG (Indonesian Agency of Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics’ Central Java Provinces), BPTPH (Indonesian Agency of Plant Protection and Horticulture) Central Java Provinces, BKP-KP District Boyolali, Central Java, (Indonesian Agency of Food Security and Agriculture Field Supervisor, District Boyolali, Central Java Provinces) and farmer groups. GIS GEODATA meets the needs of surveillance devices that include: (1) mapping of the disease, (2) analysis of the dynamics of the disease, and (3) prediction of attacks / disease outbreaks in a particular region. GIS GEODATA is currently under implementation in the laboratory field observations of plant pest in Central Java province, Indonesia.

  14. A Microcontroller Based Car-Safety System Implementing Drowsiness Detection And Vehicle-Vehicle Distance Detection In Parallel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragyaditya Das.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Accidents due to drowsiness can be controlled and prevented with the help of eye blink sensor using IR rays. It consists of IR transmitter and an IR receiver. The transmitter transmits IR rays into the eye. If the eye is shut then the output is high. If the eye is open then the output is low. This output is interfaced with an alarm inside and outside the vehicle. This module can be connected to the braking system of the vehicle and can be used to reduce the speed of the vehicle. The alarm inside the vehicle will go on for a period of time until the driver is back to his senses. If the driver is unable to take control of the vehicle after that stipulated amount of time then the alarm outside the vehicle will go on to warn and tell others to help the driver.

  15. Performance evaluation of the national early warning system for shallow landslides in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Mads-Peter; Piciullo, Luca; Devoli, Graziella; Colleuille, Hervé; Calvello, Michele

    2017-04-01

    As a consequence of the increased number of rainfall-and snowmelt-induced landslides (debris flows, debris slides, debris avalanches and slush flows) occurring in Norway, a national landslide early warning system (EWS) has been developed for monitoring and forecasting the hydro-meteorological conditions potentially necessary of triggering slope failures. The system, operational since 2013, is managed by the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE) and has been designed in cooperation with the Norwegian Public Road Administration (SVV), the Norwegian National Rail Administration (JBV) and the Norwegian Meteorological Institute (MET). Decision-making in the EWS is based upon hazard threshold levels, hydro-meteorological and real-time landslide observations as well as landslide inventory and susceptibility maps. Hazard threshold levels have been obtained through statistical analyses of historical landslides and modelled hydro-meteorological parameters. Daily hydro-meteorological conditions such as rainfall, snowmelt, runoff, soil saturation, groundwater level and frost depth have been derived from a distributed version of the hydrological HBV-model. Two different landslide susceptibility maps are used as supportive data in deciding daily warning levels. Daily alerts are issued throughout the country considering variable warning zones. Warnings are issued once per day for the following 3 days with an update possibility later during the day according to the information gathered by the monitoring variables. The performance of the EWS has been evaluated applying the EDuMaP method. In particular, the performance of warnings issued in Western Norway, in the period 2013-2014 has been evaluated using two different landslide datasets. The best performance is obtained for the smallest and more accurate dataset. Different performance results may be observed as a function of changing the landslide density criterion, Lden(k), (i.e., thresholds considered to

  16. Space Vehicle Reliability Modeling in DIORAMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tornga, Shawn Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-12

    When modeling system performance of space based detection systems it is important to consider spacecraft reliability. As space vehicles age the components become prone to failure for a variety of reasons such as radiation damage. Additionally, some vehicles may lose the ability to maneuver once they exhaust fuel supplies. Typically failure is divided into two categories: engineering mistakes and technology surprise. This document will report on a method of simulating space vehicle reliability in the DIORAMA framework.

  17. [Dark urine and jaundice as warning signs in Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobón Castaño, Alberto; del Mar Cortina, Ana; Felipe Miranda, Andrés; Blair Trujillo, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    early recognition of warning signs in malarial patients allows timely identification of the patient at risk of severe malaria and provides opportune treatment. Jaundice and dark urine are frequent signs that can alert to the occurrence of severe malaria. to study the relationship between jaundice and dark urine with impaired liver and/or kidney function and anemia in malarial patients, and explore their role as warning signs. clinical and laboratory data from 199 patients with Plasmodium falciparum malaria, belonging to a case control study conducted in Colombia, were analyzed, the association between dark urine and jaundice with impairment in the urine analysis, the hepatic and renal function test, and hemoglobin were studied. there was association between dark urine and hemoglobinuria (OR = 236, 63-867), hematuria (OR = 3.2, 1.6-6.6), proteinuria (OR = 2.3, 1-5.3) and bilirubinuria (OR = 2.1, 1-4.4). Jaundice was present in 31 % of patients who had renal dysfunction (OR = 2.7, 1.1-6.4) and in 22 % of those with liver dysfunction (OR = 2.1, 0.9-4.5). Jaundice was more likely in patients with total bilirubin > 25.6 micromol/L (OR = 6.1, 2.7-13.4) and blood ureic nitrogen > 7.14 mmol/L (OR = 3.5, 1.4-8.5). jaundice in patients with malaria may be considered as a warning sign associated with liver and kidney dysfunction. Dark urine was not associated with kidney or liver dysfunction, but was related to bilirubinuria, hematuria and proteinuria, which can be early indicators of failure; dark urine must be studied to clarify its relationship with liver and kidney failure in malaria.

  18. Operational warnings issued by the SMC in the 8th March snow event in Catalonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilaclara, E.; Segalà, S.; Andrés, A.; Aran, M.

    2010-09-01

    The snowfall event of 8th March 2010 was one of the most important of the last years in Catalonia, with high societal impact in the communication and in the power distribution. Since 2002, after an agreement between Meteorological Service of Catalonia (SMC) and Civil Protection authority, the SMC is the agency responsible to carry out meteorological warnings in Catalonia. These warnings are issued depending on the thresholds which are expected to be exceeded (three different probability degrees are defined), and are characterized by a high spatial and temporal resolution. In the snow event of 8th March, forecasting team of the SMC did the first meteorological warning three days before, on 5th March. During the two following days broadcasted four different warnings, taking into account the high probability of exceeding 2 cm of snow above 200 meters, 15 above 400 m and 30 above 800 m. Furthermore, the SMC disseminated also two special press releases with the aim to extend the forecast to the public. In the afternoon of Sunday, 7th March, the snow precipitation started in some areas of Catalonia. From this moment, the SMC followed the surveillance of situation with the remote sensing tools and the Meteorological Observers Network data. This network is formed by a hundred of spotters with mobile phones able to transmit observations in real time to our web site. This surveillance and the conceptual model of snow events in Catalonia allowed the forecasters to improve the estimation of the snow level forecasted by mesoscale meteorological models. In this event, the snow level obtained from these models was higher than the real one. In spite of the accuracy of the forecast, the impact was very important in Catalonia. On one hand, it was due to the exceptionality of the event, with 3 cm of snow in Barcelona in the afternoon of a working day. On the other hand, the large amount of wet snow precipitation (until 100 mm), and the wind, contributed to an important snow

  19. Individual differences in cognitive functioning predict effectiveness of a heads-up lane departure warning for younger and older drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksan, Nazan; Sager, Lauren; Hacker, Sarah; Lester, Benjamin; Dawson, Jeffrey; Rizzo, Matthew; Ebe, Kazutoshi; Foley, James

    2017-02-01

    The effectiveness of an idealized lane departure warning (LDW) was evaluated in an interactive fixed base driving simulator. Thirty-eight older (mean age=77years) and 40 younger drivers (mean age=35years) took four different drives/routes similar in road culture composition and hazards encountered with and without LDW. The four drives were administered over visits separated approximately by two weeks to examine changes in long-term effectiveness of LDW. Performance metrics were number of LDW activations and average correction time to each LDW. LDW reduced correction time to re-center the vehicle by 1.34s on average (95% CI=1.12-1.57s) but did not reduce the number of times the drivers drifted enough in their lanes to activate the system (LDW activations). The magnitude of reductions in average correction RT was similar for older and younger drivers and did not change with repeated exposures across visits. The contribution of individual differences in basic visual and motor function, as well as cognitive function to safety gains from LDW was also examined. Cognitive speed of processing predicted lane keeping performance for older and younger drivers. Differences in memory, visuospatial construction, and executive function tended to predict performance differences among older but not younger drivers. Cognitive functioning did not predict changes in the magnitude of safety benefits from LDW over time. Implications are discussed with respect to real-world safety systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Real-time earthquake monitoring for tsunami warning in the Indian Ocean and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Hanka

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Mw = 9.3 Sumatra earthquake of 26 December 2004 generated a tsunami that affected the entire Indian Ocean region and caused approximately 230 000 fatalities. In the response to this tragedy the German government funded the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS Project. The task of the GEOFON group of GFZ Potsdam was to develop and implement the seismological component. In this paper we describe the concept of the GITEWS earthquake monitoring system and report on its present status. The major challenge for earthquake monitoring within a tsunami warning system is to deliver rapid information about location, depth, size and possibly other source parameters. This is particularly true for coast lines adjacent to the potential source areas such as the Sunda trench where these parameters are required within a few minutes after the event in order to be able to warn the population before the potential tsunami hits the neighbouring coastal areas. Therefore, the key for a seismic monitoring system with short warning times adequate for Indonesia is a dense real-time seismic network across Indonesia with densifications close to the Sunda trench. A substantial number of supplementary stations in other Indian Ocean rim countries are added to strengthen the teleseismic monitoring capabilities. The installation of the new GITEWS seismic network – consisting of 31 combined broadband and strong motion stations – out of these 21 stations in Indonesia – is almost completed. The real-time data collection is using a private VSAT communication system with hubs in Jakarta and Vienna. In addition, all available seismic real-time data from the other seismic networks in Indonesia and other Indian Ocean rim countries are acquired also directly by VSAT or by Internet at the Indonesian Tsunami Warning Centre in Jakarta and the resulting "virtual" network of more than 230 stations can jointly be used for seismic data processing. The

  1. Effectiveness of health warnings for waterpipe tobacco smoking among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Farahnaz; Salloum, Ramzi G; Nakkash, Rima; Maziak, Wasim; Thrasher, James F

    2016-07-01

    Youth have the misperception that waterpipe smoking is less harmful than cigarettes despite the evidence that it is associated with nicotine dependence and many of the diseases caused by cigarettes. There is a pressing need to identify effective health warnings that increase awareness about the harmful effects of waterpipe smoking. Our objective was to test the effectiveness of various health warning messages and their location on waterpipe devices. Adult waterpipe smokers from a large US university (N = 367) completed an internet-based survey that tested the effect of text-only and pictorial health warning labels and their location on different parts of waterpipe smoking devices. Text-only messages and pictorial labels warning about harm to children were the most effective in motivating waterpipe smokers to think about quitting. In terms of warning label location, the base, mouthpiece and stem are all equally noticeable locations. This is the first study to test waterpipe-specific warning labels and location on the waterpipe device. Placing waterpipe-specific labels on waterpipe devices may be an effective policy tool to curb waterpipe smoking.

  2. Enhancing Community Based Early Warning Systems in Nepal with Flood Forecasting Using Local and Global Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugar, Sumit; Smith, Paul; Parajuli, Binod; Khanal, Sonu; Brown, Sarah; Gautam, Dilip; Bhandari, Dinanath; Gurung, Gehendra; Shakya, Puja; Kharbuja, RamGopal; Uprety, Madhab

    2017-04-01

    Operationalising effective Flood Early Warning Systems (EWS) in developing countries like Nepal poses numerous challenges, with complex topography and geology, sparse network of river and rainfall gauging stations and diverse socio-economic conditions. Despite these challenges, simple real-time monitoring based EWSs have been in place for the past decade. A key constraint of these simple systems is the very limited lead time for response - as little as 2-3 hours, especially for rivers originating from steep mountainous catchments. Efforts to increase lead time for early warning are focusing on imbedding forecasts into the existing early warning systems. In 2016, the Nepal Department of Hydrology and Meteorology (DHM) piloted an operational Probabilistic Flood Forecasting Model in major river basins across Nepal. This comprised a low data approach to forecast water levels, developed jointly through a research/practitioner partnership with Lancaster University and WaterNumbers (UK) and the International NGO Practical Action. Using Data-Based Mechanistic Modelling (DBM) techniques, the model assimilated rainfall and water levels to generate localised hourly flood predictions, which are presented as probabilistic forecasts, increasing lead times from 2-3 hours to 7-8 hours. The Nepal DHM has simultaneously started utilizing forecasts from the Global Flood Awareness System (GLoFAS) that provides streamflow predictions at the global scale based upon distributed hydrological simulations using numerical ensemble weather forecasts from the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts). The aforementioned global and local models have already affected the approach to early warning in Nepal, being operational during the 2016 monsoon in the West Rapti basin in Western Nepal. On 24 July 2016, GLoFAS hydrological forecasts for the West Rapti indicated a sharp rise in river discharge above 1500 m3/sec (equivalent to the river warning level at 5 meters) with 53

  3. Big data managing in a landslide early warning system: experience from a ground-based interferometric radar application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intrieri, Emanuele; Bardi, Federica; Fanti, Riccardo; Gigli, Giovanni; Fidolini, Francesco; Casagli, Nicola; Costanzo, Sandra; Raffo, Antonio; Di Massa, Giuseppe; Capparelli, Giovanna; Versace, Pasquale

    2017-10-01

    A big challenge in terms or landslide risk mitigation is represented by increasing the resiliency of society exposed to the risk. Among the possible strategies with which to reach this goal, there is the implementation of early warning systems. This paper describes a procedure to improve early warning activities in areas affected by high landslide risk, such as those classified as critical infrastructures for their central role in society. This research is part of the project LEWIS (Landslides Early Warning Integrated System): An Integrated System for Landslide Monitoring, Early Warning and Risk Mitigation along Lifelines. LEWIS is composed of a susceptibility assessment methodology providing information for single points and areal monitoring systems, a data transmission network and a data collecting and processing center (DCPC), where readings from all monitoring systems and mathematical models converge and which sets the basis for warning and intervention activities. The aim of this paper is to show how logistic issues linked to advanced monitoring techniques, such as big data transfer and storing, can be dealt with compatibly with an early warning system. Therefore, we focus on the interaction between an areal monitoring tool (a ground-based interferometric radar) and the DCPC. By converting complex data into ASCII strings and through appropriate data cropping and average, and by implementing an algorithm for line-of-sight correction, we managed to reduce the data daily output without compromising the capability for performing.

  4. A Video Camera Road Sign System of the Early Warning from Collision with the Wild Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matuska Slavomir

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a camera road sign system of the early warning, which can help to avoid from vehicle collision with the wild animals. The system consists of camera modules placed down the particularly chosen route and the intelligent road signs. The camera module consists of the camera device and the computing unit. The video stream is captured from video camera using computing unit. Then the algorithms of object detection are deployed. Afterwards, the machine learning algorithms will be used to classify the moving objects. If the moving object is classified as animal and this animal can be dangerous for safety of the vehicle, warning will be displayed on the intelligent road sings.

  5. Application of SOA (Service Oriented Architecture) in Early Warning Systems for Tsunamis and other Natural Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendholt, Matthias; Hammitzsch, Martin; Wächter, Joachim

    2010-05-01

    The DEWS (Distant Early Warning System) [1] project, funded under the 6th Framework Programme of the European Union, has the target to create a new generation of interoperable early warning systems. Two major objectives have steered the development process: usage of free and open source software (FOSS) and compliance to the principles of a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). The second objective was mainly driven by the superior ambition of the development of a generic early warning framework not only for tsunamis but also for other natural hazards. The development of a reference architecture enforced the clear separation between hazard-specific and generic functionality. Integration of sensor networks was realized with Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) [2] Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) [3] services. Sensor types are relatively specific for different hazard types: while inundation sensors can be used both for tsunami and floodwater hazards, contamination meters requires a complete different semantic integration into the client application. Based on sensor measurements a simulation system supports the operator with forecasts to enable the dissemination of precise warning messages. The simulation integration was realized with the Web Processing Service (WPS) [4] but here again semantic integration is simulation specific and has to be realized inside the client application. In contrast the integration of Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) via Web Mapping Service (WMS) [5] and Web Feature Service (WFS) [6] to complete the situation report is independent from any hazard type and depends on the data availability and requirements of each warning centre. The downstream component - the message dissemination from the operator via information logistics to the dissemination channel endpoints - has been realized independently from any specific hazard type. Using the Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) [7] and Emergency Data Exchange Language (EDXL) [8] enables the re-usage for all kind

  6. Identification of common features of vehicle motion under drowsy/distracted driving: A case study in Wuhan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhijun; Wu, Chaozhong; Zhong, Ming; Lyu, Nengchao; Huang, Zhen

    2015-08-01

    Drowsy/distracted driving has become one of the leading causes of traffic crash. Only certain particular drowsy/distracted driving behaviors have been studied by previous studies, which are mainly based on dedicated sensor devices such as bio and visual sensors. The objective of this study is to extract the common features for identifying drowsy/distracted driving through a set of common vehicle motion parameters. An intelligent vehicle was used to collect vehicle motion parameters. Fifty licensed drivers (37 males and 13 females, M=32.5 years, SD=6.2) were recruited to carry out road experiments in Wuhan, China and collecting vehicle motion data under four driving scenarios including talking, watching roadside, drinking and under the influence of drowsiness. For the first scenario, the drivers were exposed to a set of questions and asked to repeat a few sentences that had been proved valid in inducing driving distraction. Watching roadside, drinking and driving under drowsiness were assessed by an observer and self-reporting from the drivers. The common features of vehicle motions under four types of drowsy/distracted driving were analyzed using descriptive statistics and then Wilcoxon rank sum test. The results indicated that there was a significant difference of lateral acceleration rates and yaw rate acceleration between "normal driving" and drowsy/distracted driving. Study results also shown that, under drowsy/distracted driving, the lateral acceleration rates and yaw rate acceleration were significantly larger from the normal driving. The lateral acceleration rates were shown to suddenly increase or decrease by more than 2.0m/s(3) and the yaw rate acceleration by more than 2.5°/s(2). The standard deviation of acceleration rate (SDA) and standard deviation of yaw rate acceleration (SDY) were identified to as the common features of vehicle motion for distinguishing the drowsy/distracted driving from the normal driving. In order to identify a time window for

  7. Interinstrument comparison of remote-sensing devices and a new method for calculating on-road nitrogen oxides emissions and validation of vehicle-specific power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Christopher E; Tate, James E; Shepherd, Simon P; Carslaw, David C

    2018-02-01

    Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) by vehicles in real driving environments are only partially understood. This has been brought to the attention of the world with recent revelations of the cheating of the type of approval tests exposed in the dieselgate scandal. Remote-sensing devices offer investigators an opportunity to directly measure in situ real driving emissions of tens of thousands of vehicles. Remote-sensing NO 2 measurements are not as widely available as would be desirable. The aim of this study is to improve the ability of investigators to estimate the NO 2 emissions and to improve the confidence of the total NOx results calculated from standard remote-sensing device (RSD) measurements. The accuracy of the RSD speed and acceleration module was also validated using state-of-the-art onboard global positioning system (GPS) tracking. Two RSDs used in roadside vehicle emissions surveys were tested side by side under off-carriageway conditions away from transient pollution sources to ascertain the consistency of their measurements. The speed correlation was consistent across the range of measurements at 95% confidence and the acceleration correlation was consistent at 95% confidence intervals for all but the most extreme acceleration cases. VSP was consistent at 95% confidence across all measurements except for those at VSP ≥ 15 kW t -1 , which show a small underestimate. The controlled distribution gas nitric oxide measurements follow a normal distribution with 2σ equal to 18.9% of the mean, compared to 15% observed during factory calibration indicative of additional error introduced into the system. Systematic errors of +84 ppm were observed but within the tolerance of the control gas. Interinstrument correlation was performed, with the relationship between the FEAT and the RSD4600 being linear with a gradient of 0.93 and an R 2 of 0.85, indicating good correlation. A new method to calculate NOx emissions using fractional NO 2 combined with NO

  8. NUMERICAL STUDY ON COOLING EFFECT POTENTIAL FROM VAPORIZER DEVICE OF LPG VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUJI SETIYO

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Over fuel consumption and increased exhaust gas due to the A/C system have become a serious problem. On the other hand, the LPG-fueled vehicle provides potential cooling from LPG phase changes in the vaporizer. Therefore, this article presents the potential cooling effect calculation from 1998 cm3 spark ignition (SI engine. A numerical study is used to calculate the potential heat absorption of latent and sensible heat transfer during LPG is expanded in the vaporizer. Various LPG compositions are also simulated through the engine speed range from 1000 to 6000 rpm. The result shows that the 1998 cm3 engine capable of generating the potential cooling effect of about 1.0 kW at 1000 rpm and a maximum of up to 1.8 kW at 5600 rpm. The potential cooling effects from the LPG vaporizer contributes about 26% to the A/C system works on eco-driving condition.

  9. Internal combustion engines in hybrid vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourad, S.; Weijer, C.J.T. van de; Beckman, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the use of internal combustion engines in hybrid powertrains is investigated. The substantial difference between the use of internal combustion engines in conventional and in hybrid vehicles mean that engines for hybrid vehicles should be designed specifically for the purpose. At the

  10. Advances in Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management and Numerical Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing demands for vehicle dynamic performance, economy, safety and comfort, and with ever stricter laws concerning energy conservation and emissions, vehicle power systems are becoming much more complex. To pursue high efficiency and light weight in automobile design, the power system and its vehicle integrated thermal management (VITM system have attracted widespread attention as the major components of modern vehicle technology. Regarding the internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV, its integrated thermal management (ITM mainly contains internal combustion engine (ICE cooling, turbo-charged cooling, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR cooling, lubrication cooling and air conditioning (AC or heat pump (HP. As for electric vehicles (EVs, the ITM mainly includes battery cooling/preheating, electric machines (EM cooling and AC or HP. With the rational effective and comprehensive control over the mentioned dynamic devices and thermal components, the modern VITM can realize collaborative optimization of multiple thermodynamic processes from the aspect of system integration. Furthermore, the computer-aided calculation and numerical simulation have been the significant design methods, especially for complex VITM. The 1D programming can correlate multi-thermal components and the 3D simulating can develop structuralized and modularized design. Additionally, co-simulations can virtualize simulation of various thermo-hydraulic behaviors under the vehicle transient operational conditions. This article reviews relevant researching work and current advances in the ever broadening field of modern vehicle thermal management (VTM. Based on the systematic summaries of the design methods and applications of ITM, future tasks and proposals are presented. This article aims to promote innovation of ITM, strengthen the precise control and the performance predictable ability, furthermore, to enhance the level of research and development (R&D.

  11. [Study on miniature static Fourier transform spectrometer used in laser warning receiver].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Er-Ming; Zhang, Ji-Long; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Zhi-Bin

    2009-03-01

    A miniature static Fourier transform spectrometer (MSFTS) as the component of coherent discriminating laser warning receiver (CDLWR) was designed in the present study by using a modified wedge interfering etalon (MWIE), a linear charge couple device (CCD) and a fast digital signal processor (DSP). The MSFTS possesses some advantages such as small volume, low cost, high speed, stable performance and good signal to noise ratio. MSFTS can detect the spectrum of HIPL, the short pulse width of laser is about 10 ns, and the spectrum scope is from 400 to 1 100 nm. The key element of MSFTS is MWIE which is composed of two triangle prisms, one of which is a right angle prism with two equal acute angles of 45 degrees, another prism has no right angle, one of the acute angles is 45 degrees, and another is slightly smaller than 45 degrees. The long sides of the two prisms were bonded by transparent glass glue, and the adhesive surface is plated with special material which serves as a beam splitter (BS). The incident laser will be split into two equal strength beams with continuously changing optical path difference, the two beams will interfere and form interferogram which will be focused by a cylinder as a line and transformed as s electronic signal by CCD. The electronic signal was processed by using a DSP, and finally we obtained the spectrum of the incident hostile laser by applying fast Fourier transform (FFT). We have established the experiment system of MSFTS, and used the system and the spectrometer Q8344A made by Advantest Company in Japan to measure the spectra of the seven lasers with different central wavelengths: 635, 650, 670, 780, 808, 850 and 980 nm. The measurement result shows that the worst wavelength resolution is 8. 845 nm at 1 100 nm, the best wavelength resolution is 1.170 nm at 400 nm, the relative average error of central wavelength is 0.269 nm, the absolute average error is 0.919 nm and signal-to-noise ratio of our experiment system is better than

  12. Vehicle replacement in government parastatals: A comparative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three major Government Replacement policies in Nigeria were compared using an economic replacement model for vehicles. ... the analysis of the data indicated that the correlation between vehicle accumulated repair and maintenance costs and its cumulative age in use was best described by an exponential function.

  13. Scheduling vehicles in automated transportation systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Matthijs C.; Ebben, Mark; Gademann, Noud; van Harten, Aart

    2002-01-01

    One of the major planning issues in large scale automated transportation systems is so-called empty vehicle management, the timely supply of vehicles to terminals in order to reduce cargo waiting times. Motivated by a Dutch pilot project on an underground cargo transportation system using Automated

  14. Connectivity of a modular electric vehicle by the use of a mobile device

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Urbina Coronado, Pedro Daniel; Ahuett-Garza, Horacio; Morales-Menendez, Ruben; Orta Castañón, Pedro; Dávila, Luis Daniel; Flores Escalera, Mendoza Rubén

    2017-01-01

    This work presents results from the project EvTec, which focus on the design, construction, and testing of an electric vehicle with special features such as modular design, multimotor, power source...

  15. Connectivity of a modular electric vehicle by the use of a mobile device

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Urbina Coronado, Pedro Daniel; Ahuett-Garza, Horacio; Morales-Menendez, Ruben; Orta Castañón, Pedro; Dávila, Luis Daniel; Flores Escalera, Mendoza Rubén

    2017-01-01

    ..., digital control, autonomy, and connectivity. The proposed architecture explores the use of the Android-based Control Ecosystem, which integrates the Operating System Android, as part of the open-source control of the vehicle...

  16. Does Reactance against Cigarette Warning Labels Matter? Warning Label Responses and Downstream Smoking Cessation amongst Adult Smokers in Australia, Canada, Mexico and the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo Jin Cho

    Full Text Available Some researchers have raised concerns that pictorial health warning labels (HWLs on cigarette packages may lead to message rejection and reduced effectiveness of HWL messages. This study aimed to determine how state reactance (i.e., negative affect due to perceived manipulation in response to both pictorial and text-only HWLs is associated with other types of HWL responses and with subsequent cessation attempts.Survey data were collected every 4 months between September 2013 and 2014 from online panels of adult smokers in Australia, Canada, Mexico, and the US were analyzed. Participants with at least one wave of follow-up were included in the analysis (n = 4,072 smokers; 7,459 observations. Surveys assessed psychological and behavioral responses to HWLs (i.e., attention to HWLs, cognitive elaboration of risks due to HWLs, avoiding HWLs, and forgoing cigarettes because of HWLs and cessation attempts. Participants then viewed specific HWLs from their countries and were queried about affective state reactance. Logistic and linear Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE models regressed each of the psychological and behavioral HWL responses on reactance, while controlling for socio-demographic and smoking-related variables. Logistic GEE models also regressed having attempted to quit by the subsequent survey on reactance, each of the psychological and behavioral HWL responses (analyzed separately, adjustment variables. Data from all countries were initially pooled, with interactions between country and reactance assessed; when interactions were statistically significant, country-stratified models were estimated.Interactions between country and reactance were found in all models that regressed psychological and behavioral HWL responses on study variables. In the US, stronger reactance was associated with more frequent reading of HWLs and thinking about health risks. Smokers from all four countries with stronger reactance reported greater likelihood of

  17. Panel warns of a crisis in american Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Overbye, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    "Physics in America is at a crossroads and in crisis, just as humanity stands on the verge of great discoveries about the nature of matter and the universe, a panel from the National Academy of sciences concludes in a new report."

  18. Stationary early warning system for bird strike prevention in aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Holger; Muenzberg, Mario; Schlemmer, Harry; Haan, Hubertus; Baader, Paul; Herden, Klaus; Fardi, Basel; Schlosshauer, Jan

    2009-05-01

    In case bird migration routes cross approach corridors near airports bird strike prevention with thermal imaging systems has advantages compared to others technologies i.e. RADAR systems. In our case a stereoscopic thermal imaging system sensitive in the mid wavelength range (3 - 5 μm) with high geometrical (640 × 512 pixel) and high thermal resolution (security controllers together with the risk potential of the swarm.

  19. Sensitivity to selected contaminants in a biological early warning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treatment with the highest concentration of SDS elicited two types of alarm response. In a second set of tests, the bivalves were exposed for 6 h to a selected concentration of each chemical. Only SDS led to a dramatic alteration of valve opening, resulting in alarms. This system would have limited applications for monitoring ...

  20. Stress Management in Education: Warning Signs and Coping Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Richard D.

    2007-01-01

    Only in recent years have researchers begun to study stress in the workplace. Psychologists and other stress analysts have discovered that the most trying professions are those that involve high pressure and serious responsibilities, often beyond the control of the individuals employed. Most interesting, the American Institute of Stress revealed…

  1. Implementation of an Economical Parking Helper Device Using Ultrasound Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Tariq

    2010-06-01

    Every motorist dreams of a car that will take the stress out of parking by finding a suitable space and then maneuvers itself into the space with minimal assistance from the driver. This paper describes a parking helper device using ultrasound sensors, mounted on the car, to monitor both sides of the street for a suitable parking space, and when a large enough parking space is detected, the helper instructs the driver to stop the car and guides him/her via a display screen and voice about steering maneuvers which will ultimately result in the car being properly parked in the given parking space. Ultrasound sensors mounted on the front and rear bumpers of the car will ensure that a safe distance is maintained to other vehicles and objects and the driver will need to operate only the accelerator and the brake pedals. A warning signal sounds if the vehicle gets too close to other objects in the parking space.

  2. Reducing deaths in single vehicle collisions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adminaite, D. Jost, G. Stipdonk, H. & Ward, H.

    2017-01-01

    A third of road deaths in the EU are caused by collisions that involve a single motorised vehicle where the driver, rider and/or passengers are killed but no other road users are involved. These single vehicle collisions (SVCs), and how to prevent them occurring, are the subject of this report.

  3. Knowledge of Stroke Risk Factors and Warning Signs in Patients with Recurrent Stroke or Recurrent Transient Ischaemic Attack in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jittima Saengsuwan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is a global burden. It is not known whether patients who are most at risk of stroke (recurrent stroke or recurrent transient ischaemic attack have enough knowledge of stroke risk factors and warning signs. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge of stroke risk factors and warning signs in this high-risk population. We performed a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study of patients with recurrent stroke or recurrent TIA admitted to Srinagarind Hospital and Khon Kaen Hospital, Thailand. A total of 140 patients were included in the study (age 65.6±11.3 years [mean ± SD], 62 females. Using an open-ended questionnaire, nearly one-third of patients (31.4% could not name any risk factors for stroke. The most commonly recognized risk factors were hypertension (35%, dyslipidemia (28.6%, and diabetes (22.9%. Regarding stroke warning signs, the most commonly recognized warning signs were sudden unilateral weakness (61.4%, sudden trouble with speaking (25.7%, and sudden trouble with walking, loss of balance, or dizziness (21.4%. Nineteen patients (13.6% could not identify any warning signs. The results showed that knowledge of stroke obtained from open-ended questionnaires is still unsatisfactory. The healthcare provider should provide structured interventions to increase knowledge and awareness of stroke in these patients.

  4. Early warning scores: a health warning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challen, Kirsty; Roland, Damian

    2016-11-01

    Early warning scores are frequently used in UK adult emergency departments (EDs) and are gaining traction in paediatric emergency care. Like many innovations with inherent face validity, they have great appeal to clinicians, managers and commissioners. However, it is important to ensure unintended consequences and balancing measures are mitigated. We review the background to their development and introduction in the ED, the evidence for their usefulness, their limitations in our field and areas for further research. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Validation of the Cardiac Children's Hospital Early Warning Score: an early warning scoring tool to prevent cardiopulmonary arrests in children with heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, Mary C; Gauvreau, Kimberlee; Connor, Jean A

    2014-01-01

    Most inpatient pediatric arrests are preventable by early recognition/treatment of deterioration. Children with cardiac disease have the highest arrest rates; however, early warning scoring systems have not been validated in this population. The objective of this study was to validate the Cardiac Children's Hospital Early Warning Score (C-CHEWS) tool in inpatient pediatric cardiac patients. The associated escalation of care algorithm directs: routine care (score 0-2), increased assessment/intervention (3-4), or cardiac intensive care unit (CICU) consult/transfer (≥5). Sensitivity and specificity were estimated based on retrospective review of patients that experienced unplanned CICU transfer/arrest (n = 64) and a comparison sample (n = 248) of admissions. The previously validated Pediatric Early Warning Score (PEWS) tool was used for comparison. Patients' highest C-CHEWS scores were compared with calculated PEWS scores. Area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve was calculated for PEWS and C-CHEWS to measure discrimination. The AUROC curve for C-CHEWS was 0.917 compared with PEWS 0.785 (P score ≥ 2), 79.7 (≥4), and 67.2 (≥5) vs. PEWS of 81.1(≥2), 37.5 (≥4), and 23.4 (≥5). C-CHEWS specificity was 58.1 (≥2), 85.5 (≥4), and 93.6 (≥5) vs. PEWS of 81.1 (≥2), 94.8 (≥4) and 97.6 (≥5). Lead time of elevated C-CHEWS scores (≥2) was a median of 9.25 hours prior to event vs. PEWS, which was 2.25 hours and lead time for critical C-CHEWS scores (≥5) was 2 hours vs. 0 hours for PEWS (P < .001). C-CHEWS has excellent discrimination to identify deterioration in children with cardiac disease and performed significantly better than PEWS both as an ordinal variable and when choosing cut points to maximize AUROC. C-CHEWS has a higher sensitivity than PEWS at all cut points. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. ShakeAlert—An earthquake early warning system for the United States west coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Erin R.; Given, Douglas D.; Jones, Lucile M.

    2014-08-29

    Earthquake early warning systems use earthquake science and the technology of monitoring systems to alert devices and people when shaking waves generated by an earthquake are expected to arrive at their location. The seconds to minutes of advance warning can allow people and systems to take actions to protect life and property from destructive shaking. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with several partners, has been working to develop an early warning system for the United States. ShakeAlert, a system currently under development, is designed to cover the West Coast States of California, Oregon, and Washington.

  7. Performance of the Obstetric Early Warning Score in critically ill patients for the prediction of maternal death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paternina-Caicedo, Angel; Miranda, Jezid; Bourjeily, Ghada; Levinson, Andrew; Dueñas, Carmelo; Bello-Muñoz, Camilo; Rojas-Suarez, José A

    2017-01-01

    Every day, about 830 women die worldwide from preventable causes related to pregnancy and childbirth. Obstetric early warning scores have been proposed as a potential tool to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality, based on the identification of predetermined abnormal values in the vital signs or laboratory parameters, to generate a rapid and effective medical response. Several early warning scores have been developed for obstetrical patients, but the majority are the result of a clinical consensus rather than statistical analyses of clinical outcome measures (ie, maternal deaths). In 2013, the Intensive Care National Audit and Research Center Case Mix Program reported the first statistically validated early warning scoring system for pregnant women. We sought to assess the performance of the Intensive Care National Audit and Research Center Obstetric Early Warning Score in predicting death among pregnant women who required admission to the intensive care unit. This retrospective cohort study included pregnant women admitted to the intensive care unit at a tertiary referral center from January 2006 through December 2011 in Colombia, a developing country, with direct and indirect obstetric-related conditions. The Obstetric Early Warning Score was calculated based on data collected during the first 24 hours of intensive care unit admission. The Obstetric Early Warning Score is calculated based on values of the following variables: systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respiratory rate, heart rate, fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) required to maintain an oxygen saturation ≥96%, temperature, and level of consciousness. The performance of the Obstetric Early Warning Score was evaluated using the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve. Outcomes selected were: maternal death, need for mechanical ventilation, and/or vasoactive support. Statistical methods included distribution appropriate univariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression

  8. PREPARING FUTURE TEACHERS TO RISK WARNING IN PEDAGOGICAL ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryna Butyrina

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to identify the peculiarities of professional activities for teachers’ physical and mental health; to implement comprehensive analysis of the negative impact on teaching profession; to disclose accidents and mental destruction of future teachers’ individuals. The professional health is an integral characteristic of functional state of human mental and physical indicators to assess his/her abilities to a certain professional activities and practice of a given duration over a period of life and endurance to adverse factors that accompany this activity. Violation of a teacher’s mental and physical health, signs of combustion syndrome affect the students’ health. So the problem of preserving and strengthening teachers’ health should be a priority in his/her life and among professional problems; the main object of study is future teachers’ training in the course “Health in the field (of education”. Distinctive features of the teaching profession reflect the state of his/her health: working as a teacher is both mental and physical activity, which combines creative, organizational and research ones; high density of interpersonal contacts; a lot of stress, high nervous and emotional tension; periodic need for the scheduled amount of work in a tightly regulated period; special responsibility for students and colleagues; the need to make operational decisions; significant mobilization of analyzers, attention, and memory functions. In educational activities along with common risk factors for mental health (such as neuro-emotional stress, information overload, hypokinesia there are specific risk factors such as a significant voice load, prevalence static load, a large amount of visual work, violation of work regime and rest points. The unfavorable effects of teaching profession, such as neuro-psychiatric and physical (static overloading teachers, in addition to occupational diseases can also lead to accidents due to

  9. OVERVIEW OF THE CAAMPL EARLY WARNING SYSTEM IN ROMANIAN BANKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IMOLA DRIGĂ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The uniform bank rating system is a specific instrument for the supervising activity and has its origins in the USA; it has later been borrowed by German, Italian, Great Britain authorities, which use influential components in their banking system; later on, their system was adopted by most central banks within the European Union. In Romania, the uniform bank rating system has been implemented by NBR (the National Bank of Romania since 2000; the specific components are: the capital adequacy (C, the quality of assets (A, the quality of the stock holding (A, the management (M, profitability (P, liquidities (L and sensitivity (S starting from the year 2005. For short, this system is called CAAMPL. The evaluation of these specific elements represents an important criterion for establishing a compound rating, which means assigning scores to each bank. The compound rating for the banking system is established based on economic – financial indicators and prudence indicators.

  10. Human Factors In the Joint Typhoon Warning Center Watch Floor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    detailed standard operating procedures for the forecast process, perhaps in the form of checklists (see Appendix, Section 5-3-2, informed by results of...necessarily indicate an opportunity for the human to intervene). For example, do bifurcated model tracks versus a “squashed spider ” indicate a situation...with associated checklists . 5-3-3. Minimizing non-mission critical interruptions of the TDO on the JTWC watch floor. 5-4. Technology to allow

  11. A Feasibility Study for Earthquake Early Warning in a School in Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emolo, A.; Martino, C.; Picozzi, M.; Zollo, A.; Elia, L.; Festa, G.; Colombelli, S.; Caruso, A.; Brondi, P.; Miranda, N.

    2015-12-01

    We present the results of a feasibility study on the application of earthquake early-warning procedures in the high school ITIS E. Majorana, Somma Vesuviana, Naples, located about 80 km far from the seismogenic Irpinia region. The study was performed in the framework of the European REAKT project. The school was equipped with an EEWS composed of: a small seismic network of accelerometers, the PRESToPlus software platform, and an actuator, named Sentinel. The Sentinel is made up of low-cost hardware (i.e., Arduino®) programmed to accomplish three main tasks: 1) listen and interpret messages delivered by the EEW system PRESToPlus on the ground motion severity expected at the target site; 2) provides different warnings as alert levels by the control of different hardware (i.e., alarm bells, emergency lights, and so on); 3) declare the end of the most threatening condition, which will assist the emergency coordinator starting the evacuation plan defined by the current legislation. The Sentinel was developed within REAKT in close collaboration with the students and the teachers of the school. The EEW system and the Sentinel were successfully tested during some blind drills performed during normal school activities.

  12. Modeling Emergency Warning Systems for Disaster Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    Emergency warning systems are the last line of defense for reducing losses from natural hazards. Well-designed systems enable populations-at-risk in impending disasters to take appropriate protective actions. There have been a limited number of research efforts designed to quantify the performance of various types of warning systems and these have been primarily technology-specific. This paper describes the result of research on developing models of warning systems based of the 3 stages of warning: deciding to issue a warning, disseminating the warning to the population-at-risk and initiating a protective action. The warning issuance stage is the time between emergency warning officials being notified of the existence of a threat and reaching a decision to activate the warning system. The warning dissemination stage is the time between that decision and individuals receiving the first warning. The protective action stage is the time between receiving the warning and initiating a protective action. A fourth stage consisting of implementing the protective action is not discussed in this paper. The basic method used in developing models of each stage of the warning process was to first review previous modeling research. Second, assemble historic data on the timing of the warning process. This included point data as well as cumulative distributions. Third, develop a modeling approach to specify a diffusion equation. Fourth, compare the empirical data to the results of the simulation. The attached figure depicts a comparision between simulated warning diffusion and empirical data For each stage, best and worst case curves are develop. Several moderate or average curves are also developed. Factors associated with identifying which curves would be appropriate for a large range of potential event scenarios are identified and discussed. Potential application to lose of life modeling and hazard mitigation strategies are also discussed.

  13. A comparative study of data-driven approaches for flood early warning in small catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzkes, Christine; Singer, Thomas; Wagner, Michael; Philipp, Andy; Kerl, Florian; Schütze, Niels

    2017-04-01

    Flood early warning for small catchments is a challenging task: As the basin response is fast, proper warning lead times strongly depend on precipitation forecasts which are subject to quantitative and spatial uncertainties. In addition, gauge data in small catchments is often sparse and therefore, the hydrological regime is hardly known. In presence of these uncertainties, the benefit of different model approaches in terms of their predictive quality and their transferability to ungauged catchments is in question. For investigating this issue, two data-driven model approaches of different complexity were developed and comparatively tested. The first model is an artificial neural network for flood forecasting, in particular a two-layer perceptron feedforward network. Precipitation and discharge here serve as forcing data. The second approach is a flood potential assessment procedure. Precipitation history and precipitation forecasts are classified based on threshold values from a precipitation analysis. From this, a score of flood potential is derived. For the model evaluation a quantile-based mapping procedure is used to assign the resulting scores to catchment-specific discharge values. The two model approaches have been tested on 50 catchments in Saxony, Germany, with areas ranging from 5 to 1000 km2. Two datasets of quantitative precipitation estimates - one from rain gauge measurements, one from radar measurements RADOLAN - and two datasets of quantitative precipitation forecasts - a probabilistic forecast based on expert knowledge Quantile Forecast and a numerical weather forecast COSMO-DE - are used as input data. Update cycles as well as lead times are varied within the tests. The model performance is evaluated using different statistical quality criteria. Based on a Leave-one-out cross-validation, the potential of model parameter transfer to ungauged catchments is examined. The large number and the wide range of considered catchments provide a

  14. Health Canada Warning on Citalopram and Escitalopram--Its Effects on Prescribing in Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, André; Noohi, Saeid; Elie, Dominique; Mahdanian, Artin A; Yu, Ching; Segal, Marilyn; Looper, Karl J; Rej, Soham

    2016-01-01

    Reports have suggested that citalopram and escitalopram may prolong the QTc interval, leading Health Canada to issue a warning to limit their dosages in 2012. Little is known about the effects of this warning and similar ones (e.g., by the Food and Drug Administration) on antidepressant prescribing in inpatients with acute medical illness, who are theoretically at high risk of QTc prolongation. The main objective of our study is to examine the effect of the Health Canada warning on citalopram/escitalopram prescribing patterns in the consultation-liaison (C-L) psychiatry setting. We performed a retrospective cohort study including 275 randomly selected inpatients with medical illness assessed by the psychiatric C-L team of a large Canadian academic hospital between 2008 and 2014. We grouped patients based on whether they were assessed by the C-L team before or after the citalopram Health Canada warning. Our primary outcome was change in citalopram/escitalopram prescribing patterns. We found that of patients seen before the Health Canada warning, a significantly higher number were prescribed citalopram/escitalopram (44.1% vs. 22.3%, χ(2) = 14.835, p escitalopram dose exceeding those recommended by the Health Canada warning was similar in both groups (8.9% vs. 12.1%, χ(2) = 0.233, p = 0.63). Overall, C-L psychiatrists were less likely to prescribe citalopram/escitalopram following the Health Canada warning, which did not translate into safer dosing. Clinicians should not avoid prescribing citalopram/escitalopram appropriately in medically vulnerable inpatients when benefits outweigh disadvantages. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Developing a dengue early warning system using time series model: Case study in Tainan, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Wei; Jan, Chyan-Deng; Wang, Ji-Shang

    2017-04-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is a climate-sensitive disease that has been emerging in southern regions of Taiwan over the past few decades, causing a significant health burden to affected areas. This study aims to propose a predictive model to implement an early warning system so as to enhance dengue surveillance and control in Tainan, Taiwan. The Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA) model was used herein to forecast dengue cases. Temporal correlation between dengue incidences and climate variables were examined by Pearson correlation analysis and Cross-correlation tests in order to identify key determinants to be included as predictors. The dengue surveillance data between 2000 and 2009, as well as their respective climate variables were then used as inputs for the model. We validated the model by forecasting the number of dengue cases expected to occur each week between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2015. In addition, we analyzed historical dengue trends and found that 25 cases occurring in one week was a trigger point that often led to a dengue outbreak. This threshold point was combined with the season-based framework put forth by the World Health Organization to create a more accurate epidemic threshold for a Tainan-specific warning system. A Seasonal ARIMA model with the general form: (1,0,5)(1,1,1)52 is identified as the most appropriate model based on lowest AIC, and was proven significant in the prediction of observed dengue cases. Based on the correlation coefficient, Lag-11 maximum 1-hr rainfall (r=0.319, Pdengue surveillance and control in Tainan, Taiwan. We conclude that this timely dengue early warning system will enable public health services to allocate limited resources more effectively, and public health officials to adjust dengue emergency response plans to their maximum capabilities.

  16. Exploring the feasibility of a nationwide earthquake early warning system in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picozzi, M.; Zollo, A.; Brondi, P.; Colombelli, S.; Elia, L.; Martino, C.

    2015-04-01

    When accompanied by appropriate training and preparedness of a population, Earthquake Early Warning Systems (EEWS) are effective and viable tools for the real-time reduction of societal exposure to seismic events in metropolitan areas. The Italian Accelerometric Network, RAN, which consists of about 500 stations installed over all the active seismic zones, as well as many cities and strategic infrastructures in Italy, has the potential to serve as a nationwide early warning system. In this work, we present a feasibility study for a nationwide EEWS in Italy obtained by the integration of the RAN and the software platform PRobabilistic and Evolutionary early warning SysTem (PRESTo). The performance of the RAN-PRESTo EEWS is first assessed by testing it on real strong motion recordings of 40 of the largest earthquakes that have occurred during the last 10 years in Italy. Furthermore, we extend the analysis to regions that did not experience earthquakes by considering a nationwide grid of synthetic sources capable of generating Gutenberg-Richter sequences corresponding to the one adopted by the seismic hazard map of the Italian territory. Our results indicate that the RAN-PRESTo EEWS could theoretically provide for higher seismic hazard areas reliable alert messages within about 5 to 10 s and maximum lead times of about 25 s. In case of large events (M > 6.5), this amount of lead time would be sufficient for taking basic protective measures (e.g., duck and cover, move away from windows or equipment) in tens to hundreds of municipalities affected by large ground shaking.

  17. Simulating Earthquake Early Warning Systems in the Classroom as a New Approach to Teaching Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessio, M. A.

    2010-12-01

    A discussion of P- and S-waves seems an ubiquitous part of studying earthquakes in the classroom. Textbooks from middle school through university level typically define the differences between the waves and illustrate the sense of motion. While many students successfully memorize the differences between wave types (often utilizing the first letter as a memory aide), textbooks rarely give tangible examples of how the two waves would "feel" to a person sitting on the ground. One reason for introducing the wave types is to explain how to calculate earthquake epicenters using seismograms and travel time charts -- very abstract representations of earthquakes. Even when the skill is mastered using paper-and-pencil activities or one of the excellent online interactive versions, locating an epicenter simply does not excite many of our students because it evokes little emotional impact, even in students located in earthquake-prone areas. Despite these limitations, huge numbers of students are mandated to complete the task. At the K-12 level, California requires that all students be able to locate earthquake epicenters in Grade 6; in New York, the skill is a required part of the Regent's Examination. Recent innovations in earthquake early warning systems around the globe give us the opportunity to address the same content standard, but with substantially more emotional impact on students. I outline a lesson about earthquakes focused on earthquake early warning systems. The introductory activities include video clips of actual earthquakes and emphasize the differences between the way P- and S-waves feel when they arrive (P arrives first, but is weaker). I include an introduction to the principle behind earthquake early warning (including a summary of possible uses of a few seconds warning about strong shaking) and show examples from Japan. Students go outdoors to simulate P-waves, S-waves, and occupants of two different cities who are talking to one another on cell phones

  18. Australian Smokers' and Nonsmokers' Exposure to Antismoking Warnings in Day-to-Day Life: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüz, Natalie; Ferguson, Stuart G

    2015-07-01

    Smokers and nonsmokers can encounter a variety of antismoking messages in their everyday life. Antismoking warnings often involve fear appeals to which particularly smokers may react in a defensive manner by avoiding or derogating the messages, or downplaying their personal risk. However, previous studies testing the effects of antismoking warnings have either been retrospective or lab-based, thus introducing potential recall biases and yielding limited ecological validity. We used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to give an overview on the number, type, and locations where individuals encounter such messages and to examine their immediate reactions. In an EMA study, 33 smokers and 37 never-smokers logged every encounter with antismoking warnings during 2.5 weeks (1,237 participant days of monitoring). After randomly selected encounters, several markers of defensiveness were assessed. On average, nonsmokers reported noticing significantly fewer warnings than smokers (M = 0.49/day vs. M = 2.14/day). Both groups saw the majority of warnings on cigarette packages. Smokers reported a significantly higher level of message derogation and a significantly lower level of message acceptance than nonsmokers. There were no differences in feelings of vulnerability between smokers and nonsmokers upon encountering the warnings. The overall number of encounters with antismoking warnings in people's everyday life is relatively low, particularly among smokers. Smokers are likely to avoid messages and respond defensively, thus limiting their potential effectiveness. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Surface gravity waves in the presence of an unsteady uniform current: application to tsunami warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubosq, S.; Francius, M.; Saillard, M.; Grilli, S.; Branger, H.; Rey, V.

    2009-04-01

    In recent years, there has been an increased interest in the possibility for tsunami radar remote sensing, owing to the effects of tsunami-induced changes on the propagation of short sea waves. Well before microwave radars, HF radars have been investigated to detect tsunami induced- current effects on ocean surface waves (Barrick, 1979). Nonetheless no warning system has been proposed with a sufficiently short warning time, say between 5 and 20min depending on the shelf width, which is more adapted to tsunami early warning system in coastal regions. Alternatively, the potential use of Ultra High Frequency (UHF) radar technology has been suggested based on recent observations of modulation processes in radar echoes, which indicates the possibility for the short wind waves to be affected by the tsunami (Troïtskaya and Ermakov, 2005). In addition to current-induced effects on short gravity waves, like for instance current-induced Doppler shift in the apparent wave frequencies, it is well known that short waves modulations could also arise from other mechanism interactions, such as wind-wave interactions and nonlinear wave-wave interactions. Thus the identification and quantification of the interaction between short waves and current-induced tsunami is very challenging, in particular for waves in the submetric range (high frequency). To achieve these tasks, we use a Higher Order Spectral (HOS) method to simulate numerically the nonlinear evolution of gravity waves in the presence of a time-varying current but spatially homogeneous. The HOS formulation of the prognostic equations has been modified to account for the presence of a time-varying current, whereas numerical time integration has been improved by using both an integrating factor method (unconditionally linearly stable) and an embedded Runge-Kutta method with variable time steps. This paper presents initial numerical results obtained with our modified HOS model. To explore the signature of tsunami induced

  20. Landslide monitoring and early warning systems in Lower Austria - current situation and new developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiebes, Benni; Glade, Thomas; Schweigl, Joachim; Jäger, Stefan; Canli, Ekrem

    2014-05-01

    Landslides represent significant hazards in the mountainous areas of Austria. The Regional Geological Surveys are responsible to inform and protect the population, and to mitigate damage to infrastructure. Efforts of the Regional Geological Survey of Lower Austria include detailed site investigations, the planning and installation of protective structures (e.g. rock fall nets) as well as preventive measures such as regional scale landslide susceptibility assessments. For potentially endangered areas, where protection works are not feasible or would simply be too costly, monitoring systems have been installed. However, these systems are dominantly not automatic and require regular field visits to take measurements. Therefore, it is difficult to establish any relation between initiating and controlling factors, thus to fully understand the underlying process mechanism which is essential for any early warning system. Consequently, the implementation of new state-of-the-art monitoring and early warning systems has been started. In this presentation, the design of four landslide monitoring and early warning systems is introduced. The investigated landslide process types include a deep-seated landslide, a rock fall site, a complex earth flow, and a debris flow catchment. The monitoring equipment was chosen depending on the landslide processes and their activity. It aims to allow for a detailed investigation of process mechanisms in relation to its triggers and for reliable prediction of future landslide activities. The deep-seated landslide will be investigated by manual and automatic inclinometers to get detailed insights into subsurface displacements. In addition, TDR sensors and a weather station will be employed to get a better understanding on the influence of rainfall on sub-surface hydrology. For the rockfall site, a wireless sensor network will be installed to get real-time information on acceleration and inclination of potentially unstable blocks. The movement

  1. Implementation and evaluation of early gastroscopy for patients with dyspepsia and warning signs in Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Alonso, Francisco Javier; Hernández Tejero, María; Rubio Benito, Elvira; Valer, Paz; Guerra, Iván; García Ceballos, Victoria Gema; Noguerol, Mar; Llinares, Victoria; Bermejo, Fernando

    2017-05-01

    Dyspepsia is a common disorder in both Primary (PC) and Specialised Care (SC). Gastroscopy is recommended at the start of the study if there are warning signs, although it is not always available in PC. We developed a pilot project establishing an early gastroscopy programme for patients with dyspepsia and warning signs in PC, subsequently extending it to the entire healthcare area. The aim was to evaluate the requirements, impact and opinion of this service at the PC level. Demographic, symptomatic and endoscopic variables on the patients referred to SC from the pilot centre were recorded. A satisfaction survey was conducted among the PC physicians. The one-year pilot study and the first year of implementation of the programme were evaluated. A total of 355 patients were included (median age 56.4 years; IQR 45.5-64.3); 61.2% (56.1-66.3%) were women. The waiting time for examination was 1.5 weeks (IQR 1.5-2.5). Gastroscopy was correctly indicated in 82.7% (78.4-86.3%) of patients. The median number of requests per month was 1.1 per 10,000 adults (range 0.8-1.6). Monthly referrals to SC clinics from the pilot centre fell by 11 subjects (95% CI 5.9-16) with respect to the previous median of 58 (IQR 48-64.5). Almost all those polled (98.4%) considered the programme useful in routine practice. The availability of an early gastroscopy programme in PC for patients with dyspepsia and warning signs reduced the number of referrals to SC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U., AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  2. Emissions from light and medium goods vehicles in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1996-01-01

    The article analyses atmospheric pollution of light goods vehicles (i.e. freight vehicles lighter than 6 tonnes) and medium goods vehicles (i.e. 6-24 t delivery trucks) in Denmark, and evaluated the scope for emission reductions. Light goods vehicles are very inefficient vehicles, and moreover have...... inappropriate utilisation patterns, while medium goods vehicles, in comparison, are more efficient with regard to both construction and utilisation. An emission inventory of these vehicles is produced, covering fuel consumption and a range of emissions, and including heavy goods vehicles (i.e. vehicles over 24...

  3. An Efficient Rapid Warning System For Earthquakes In The European-mediterranean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossu, R.; Mazet-Roux, G.; di Giovambattista, R.; Tome, M.

    Every year a few damaging earthquakes occur in the European-Mediterranean region. It is therefore indispensable to operate a real-time warning system in order to pro- vide rapidly reliable estimates of the location, depth and magnitude of these seismic events. In order to provide this information in a timely manner both to the scientific community and to the European and national authorities dealing with natural hazards and relief organisation, the European-Mediterranean Seismological Centre (EMSC) has federated a network of seismic networks exchanging their data in quasi real-time. Today, thanks to the Internet, the EMSC receives real-time information about earth- quakes from about thirty seismological institutes. As soon as data reach the EMSC, they are displayed on the EMSC Web pages (www.emsc-csem.org). A seismic alert is generated for any potentially damaging earthquake in the European-Mediterranean re- gion, potentially damaging earthquakes being defined as seismic events of magnitude 5 or more. The warning system automatically issues a message to the duty seismolo- gist mobile phone and pager. The seismologist log in to the EMSC computers using a laptop PC and relocates the earthquake by processing together all information pro- vided by the networks. The new location and magnitude are then send, by fax, telex, and email, within one hour following the earthquake occurrence, to national and inter- national organisations whose activities are related to seismic risks, and to the EMSC members. The EMSC rapid warning system has been fully operational for more than 4 years. Its distributed architecture has proved to be an efficient and reliable way for the monitoring of potentially damaging earthquakes. Furthermore, if a major problem disrupts the operational system more than 30 minutes, the duty is taken, over either by the Instituto Geografico National in Spain or by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica in Italy. The EMSC operational centre, located at the

  4. Improvements of the offshore earthquake locations in the Earthquake Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ta-Yi; Hsu, Hsin-Chih

    2017-04-01

    Since 2014 the Earthworm Based Earthquake Alarm Reporting (eBEAR) system has been operated and been used to issue warnings to schools. In 2015 the system started to provide warnings to the public in Taiwan via television and the cell phone. Online performance of the eBEAR system indicated that the average reporting times afforded by the system are approximately 15 and 28 s for inland and offshore earthquakes, respectively. The eBEAR system in average can provide more warning time than the current EEW system (3.2 s and 5.5 s for inland and offshore earthquakes, respectively). However, offshore earthquakes were usually located poorly because only P-wave arrivals were used in the eBEAR system. Additionally, in the early stage of the earthquake early warning system, only fewer stations are available. The poor station coverage may be a reason to answer why offshore earthquakes are difficult to locate accurately. In the Geiger's inversion procedure of earthquake location, we need to put an initial hypocenter and origin time into the location program. For the initial hypocenter, we defined some test locations on the offshore area instead of using the average of locations from triggered stations. We performed 20 programs concurrently running the Geiger's method with different pre-defined initial position to locate earthquakes. We assume that if the program with the pre-defined initial position is close to the true earthquake location, during the iteration procedure of the Geiger's method the processing time of this program should be less than others. The results show that using pre-defined locations for trial-hypocenter in the inversion procedure is able to improve the accurate of offshore earthquakes. Especially for EEW system, in the initial stage of the EEW system, only use 3 or 5 stations to locate earthquakes may lead to bad results because of poor station coverage. In this study, the pre-defined trial-locations provide a feasible way to improve the estimations of

  5. Initial psychoacoustic experiments on the human response to transmission line audible noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molino, J.A.; Zerdy, G.A.; Lerner, N.D.; Harwood, D.L.; Tremaine, S.G.

    1978-01-01

    A project is underway to investigate human response to transmission line audible noise. This project is developing a psychoacoustic data-base to determine the extent to which present measurement scales and human response criteria are appropriate for evaluating the environmental impact of transmission line audible noise, and to suggest different scales and criteria if necessary. A realistic listening room was used for psychoacoustic experiments in which a listener was given choices between various acoustic environments, including corona sounds, while reading a book. In another experiment groups of participants rated various sounds for their annoyance level while watching television programs. Results indicate that despite its relatively low sound level, corona noise is equally aversive to certain other environmental sounds that are 8 dB higher in sound pressure level. All of the common frequency weighting scales underestimate the aversiveness of corona noise relative to other environmental sounds. From a limited sample of comparison sounds, corona noise was found to be roughly equal in aversiveness to the noise from a room air conditioner. Knowledge of the source of the noise did not affect the relative aversiveness of corona noise as presented in the laboratory. The high-frequency hissing and crackling components of corona noise are more aversive than the low-frequency humming and buzzing components. There are distinctly different kinds of corona noise which differ both in frequency spectrum and relative aversiveness. Thus, in order to assess environmental impact, long-term sampling of corona noise from different lines may be needed. Similar results were obtained from experiments involving reading and television viewing as participant activities, indicating consistent and generalizable findings. (JGB)

  6. Early warning systems and rapid response to the deteriorating patient in hospital: A realist evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaughey, Jennifer; O'Halloran, Peter; Porter, Sam; Trinder, John; Blackwood, Bronagh

    2017-12-01

    To test the Rapid Response Systems programme theory against actual practice components of the Rapid Response Systems implemented to identify those contexts and mechanisms which have an impact on the successful achievement of desired outcomes in practice. Rapid Response Systems allow deteriorating patients to be recognized using Early Warning Systems, referred early via escalation protocols and managed at the bedside by competent staff. Realist evaluation. The research design was an embedded multiple case study approach of four wards in two hospitals in Northern Ireland which followed the principles of Realist Evaluation. We used various mixed methods including individual and focus group interviews, observation of nursing practice between June-November 2010 and document analysis of Early Warning Systems audit data between May-October 2010 and hospital acute care training records over 4.5 years from 2003-2008. Data were analysed using NiVivo8 and SPPS. A cross-case analysis highlighted similar patterns of factors which enabled or constrained successful recognition, referral and response to deteriorating patients in practice. Key enabling factors were the use of clinical judgement by experienced nurses and the empowerment of nurses as a result of organizational change associated with implementation of Early Warning System protocols. Key constraining factors were low staffing and inappropriate skill mix levels, rigid implementation of protocols and culturally embedded suboptimal communication processes. Successful implementation of Rapid Response Systems was dependent on adopting organizational and cultural changes that facilitated staff empowerment, flexible implementation of protocols and ongoing experiential learning. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. A flexible hydrological warning system in Denmark for real-time surface water and groundwater simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xin; Stisen, Simon; Wiese, Marianne B.; Jørgen Henriksen, Hans

    2015-04-01

    In Denmark, increasing focus on extreme weather events has created considerable demand for short term forecasts and early warnings in relation to groundwater and surface water flooding. The Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) has setup, calibrated and applied a nationwide water resources model, the DK-Model, primarily for simulating groundwater and surface water flows and groundwater levels during the past 20 years. So far, the DK-model has only been used in offline historical and future scenario simulations. Therefore, challenges arise in operating such a model for online forecasts and early warnings, which requires access to continuously updated observed climate input data and forecast data of precipitation, temperature and global radiation for the next 48 hours or longer. GEUS has a close collaboration with the Danish Meteorological Institute in order to test and enable this data input for the DK model. Due to the comprehensive physical descriptions of the DK-Model, the simulation results can potentially be any component of the hydrological cycle within the models domain. Therefore, it is important to identify which results need to be updated and saved in the real-time mode, since it is not computationally economical to save every result considering the heavy load of data. GEUS have worked closely with the end-users and interest groups such as water planners and emergency managers from the municipalities, water supply and waste water companies, consulting companies and farmer organizations, in order to understand their possible needs for real time simulation and monitoring of the nationwide water cycle. This participatory process has been supported by a web based questionnaire survey, and a workshop that connected the model developers and the users. For qualifying the stakeholder engagement, GEUS has selected a representative catchment area (Skjern River) for testing and demonstrating a prototype of the web based hydrological warning system at the

  8. The Early-Warning System for incoming storm surge and tide in the Republic of Mauritius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaard, Tom; de Lima Rego, Joao; Vatvani, Deepak; Virasami, Renganaden; Verlaan, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The Republic of Mauritius (ROM) is a group of islands in the South West of the Indian Ocean, consisting of the main islands of Mauritius, Rodrigues and Agalega and the archipelago of Saint Brandon. The ROM is particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change, especially in the coastal zone, where a convergence of accelerating sea level rise and increasing intensity of tropical cyclones is expected to result in considerable economic loss, humanitarian stresses, and environmental degradation. Storm surges and swell waves are expected to be aggravated through sea level rise and climate change effects on weather patterns. Adaptation to increased vulnerability requires a re-evaluation of existing preparedness measures. The focus of this project is on more effective preparedness and issuing of alerts developing a fully-automated Early-Warning System for incoming storm surge and tide, together with the Mauritius Meteorological Services and the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Centre (NDRRMC), such that coastal communities in Mauritius, Rodrigues and Agalega Islands are able to evacuate timely and safely in case of predicted extreme water levels. The Mauritius Early-Warning System for storm surge and tide was implemented using software from Deltares' Open-Source and free software Community. A set of five depth-averaged Delft3D-FLOW hydrodynamic models are run every six-hours with a forecast horizon of three days, simulating water levels along the coast of the three main islands. Two regional models of horizontal resolution 5km force the three detailed models of 500m resolution; all models are forced at the surface by the 0.25° NOAA/GFS meteorological forecasts. In addition, our Wind-Enhancement Scheme is used to blend detailed cyclone track bulletin's info with the larger-scale Numerical Weather Predictions. Measured data is retrieved near real-time from available Automatic Weather Stations. All these workflows are managed by the operational

  9. Impact of implementing alerts about medication black-box warnings in electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Donghui Tony; Seger, Diane L; Lasser, Karen E; Karson, Andrew S; Fiskio, Julie M; Seger, Andrew C; Bates, David W

    2011-02-01

    The Food and Drug Administration issues black-box warnings (BBWs) regarding medications with serious risks, yet physician adherence to the warnings is low. We evaluated the impact of delivering BBW-based alerts about drug-drug, drug-disease, and drug-laboratory interactions for prescription medications in outpatients in an electronic health record with clinical decision support. We compared the frequency of non-adherence to all BBWs about drug-drug, drug-disease, and drug-laboratory interactions for 30 drugs/drug classes, and by individual drugs/drug groups with BBWs between the pre- and post-intervention periods. We used multivariate analysis to identify independent risk factors for non-adherence to BBWs. There was a slightly higher frequency of non-adherence to BBWs after the intervention (4.8% vs. 5.1%, p=0.045). In multivariate analyses, after adjustment for patient and provider characteristics and site of care, medications prescribed during the pre-intervention period were less likely to violate BBWs compared to those prescribed during the post-intervention period (OR 0.67, 95% CI, 0.47-0.96). However, black-box warning violations did decrease after the intervention for BBWs about drug-drug interactions (6.1% vs. 1.8%, p<0.0001) and drug-pregnancy