WorldWideScience

Sample records for audible warning devices in vehicles

  1. 30 CFR 57.14208 - Warning devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Warning devices. 57.14208 Section 57.14208... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14208 Warning devices. (a) Visible warning devices shall be used when parked mobile equipment creates a hazard to persons in other mobile...

  2. The Use of Audible Traffic Signals in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, A. F.; Uslan, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses audible traffic signals (ATS) and their use by visually impaired pedestrians in the United States and other countries. Areas of concern are noted, including the types of intersections at which ATS should be installed, the locations of poles and buttons for activating the system, and the specific type of device used.…

  3. Research of the Warning Alarm Device of Vehicle Rollover%汽车侧翻预警报警装置的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈启鹏; 熊巧巧; 周成

    2012-01-01

    阐述了汽车侧翻的危害,以及我国汽车侧翻预警装置的研究现状.简述了汽车侧翻预警报警装置的工作原理,提出了一种基于侧向加速度和基于横向载荷转移率为侧翻判断条件的侧翻预警的方法.指出侧向加速度和横向载荷转移率是开发实用汽车侧翻预警报警系统的关键技术,并对汽车侧翻预警报警装置的实用性进行了探讨.%This paper states the damage of vehicle rollover, and the research status of the warning alarm device of vehicle rollover at home. Additionally, it supplely states the warning alarm device of vehicle rollover,which presents a rollover warning method that based on lateral acceleration and lateral load transfer ratio. And finally,it points out lateral acceleration and lateral load transfer ratio are the key technology of exploiting the application vehicle rollover warning alarm system, and discuss the practicability of vehicle rollover warning alarm device.

  4. Audibility and visual biasing in speech perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Bart Richard

    Although speech perception has been considered a predominantly auditory phenomenon, large benefits from vision in degraded acoustic conditions suggest integration of audition and vision. More direct evidence of this comes from studies of audiovisual disparity that demonstrate vision can bias and even dominate perception (McGurk & MacDonald, 1976). It has been observed that hearing-impaired listeners demonstrate more visual biasing than normally hearing listeners (Walden et al., 1990). It is argued here that stimulus audibility must be equated across groups before true differences can be established. In the present investigation, effects of visual biasing on perception were examined as audibility was degraded for 12 young normally hearing listeners. Biasing was determined by quantifying the degree to which listener identification functions for a single synthetic auditory /ba-da-ga/ continuum changed across two conditions: (1)an auditory-only listening condition; and (2)an auditory-visual condition in which every item of the continuum was synchronized with visual articulations of the consonant-vowel (CV) tokens /ba/ and /ga/, as spoken by each of two talkers. Audibility was altered by presenting the conditions in quiet and in noise at each of three signal-to- noise (S/N) ratios. For the visual-/ba/ context, large effects of audibility were found. As audibility decreased, visual biasing increased. A large talker effect also was found, with one talker eliciting more biasing than the other. An independent lipreading measure demonstrated that this talker was more visually intelligible than the other. For the visual-/ga/ context, audibility and talker effects were less robust, possibly obscured by strong listener effects, which were characterized by marked differences in perceptual processing patterns among participants. Some demonstrated substantial biasing whereas others demonstrated little, indicating a strong reliance on audition even in severely degraded acoustic

  5. Vehicle Dynamics Approach to Driver Warning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef A. Ghoneim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a concept for enhanced active safety by introducing a driver warning system based on vehicle dynamics that predicts a potential loss of control condition prior to stability control activation. This real-time warning algorithm builds on available technologies such as the Electronic Stability Control (ESC. The driver warning system computes several indices based on yaw rate, side-slip velocity, and vehicle understeer using ESC sensor suite. An arbitrator block arbitrates between the different indices and determines the status index of the driving vehicle. The status index is compared to predetermined stability levels which correspond to high and low stability levels. If the index exceeds the high stability level, a warning signal (haptic, acoustic, or visual is issued to alert the driver of a potential loss of control and ESC activation. This alert will remain in effect until the index is less than the low stability level at which time the warning signal will be terminated. A vehicle speed advisory algorithm is integrated with the warning algorithm to provide a desired vehicle speed of a vehicle traveling on a curve. Simulation results and vehicle tests were conducted to illustrate the effectiveness of the warning algorithm.

  6. 49 CFR 571.125 - Standard No. 125; Warning devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.125 Standard No. 125; Warning devices. S1. Scope. This standard... vehicles. S3. Application. This standard applies to devices, without self-contained energy sources, that... vehicle, except for devices designed to be permanently affixed to the vehicle. S4. Definitions....

  7. Auditory Warnings for Electric Vehicles: Detectability in Normal-Vision and Visually-Impaired Listeners

    OpenAIRE

    Parizet, Etienne; Ellermeier, Wolfgang; Robart, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Electrical vehicles operating at low speed are often too quiet to be detected by pedestrians in time. In order to study the efficiency of additional auditory warning signals they might be equipped with, a sample of 100 sighted and 53 blind listeners was exposed to a virtual road-crossing scenario in which they had to detect whether an approaching vehicle came from the right or left. Nine warning signals, designed to differ in particular sound features such as FM, AM or the number of harmonics...

  8. Factors ensuring consistent audibility in pediatric hearing aid fitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuk, Francis; Marcoux, Andre

    2002-10-01

    Ensuring consistent audibility is an important objective when fitting hearing aids to children. This article reviews the factors that could affect the audibility of the speech signals to children. These factors range from a precise determination of the child's hearing loss to an accurate specification of gain in the chosen hearing aids. In addition, hearing aid technology and features such as multichannel processing, directional microphones, and feedback cancellation that could affect the achievement of consistent audibility are reviewed. PMID:12416935

  9. Early warning device for detection of pollutants in water

    OpenAIRE

    Perez de Vargas Sansalvador, Isabel; Fay, Cormac; Cleary, John; Turner, Geraldine; Nightingale, Adrian; Mowlem, Matthew; Diamond, Dermot

    2014-01-01

    Due to a growing need to protect water resources from contamination, there is a requirement for the development of more reliable and cost effective devices for water quality monitoring. The aim of the AQUAWARN project is to develop and deploy a fully autonomous water quality monitoring device that can measure nitrite, nitrate, phosphate and pH colorimetrically in fresh water and wastewater, and communicate the information to stakeholders in real time.

  10. Application of Machine Vision to Vehicle Automatic Collision Warning Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jiang-feng; GAO Feng; XU Guo-yan; YAO Sheng-zhuo

    2008-01-01

    Using the new technologies such as information technology, communication technology and electronic control technology, vehicle collision warning system(CWS) can acquire road condition, adjacent vehicle march condition as well as its dynamics performance continuously, then it can forecast the oncoming potential collision and give a warning. Based on the analysis of driver's driving behavior, algorithm's warning norms are determined. Based on warning norms adopting machine vision method, the cooperation collision warning algorithm(CWA) model with multi-input and multi-output is established which is used in supporting vehicle CWS. The CWA is tested using the actual data and the result shows that this algorithm can identify and carry out warning for vehicle collision efficiently, which has important meaning for improving the vehicle travel safety.

  11. Early warning pollution detection device for application in water quality

    OpenAIRE

    Perez de Vargas Sansalvador, Isabel; Fay, Cormac; Cleary, John; Turner, Geraldine; Nightingale, Adrian; Mowlem, Matthew; Diamond, Dermot

    2014-01-01

    It has been well recognised that water is a valuable resource and the quality of our water systems require sampling at a higher temporal and spatial frequency than is currently taking place. The AQUAWARN project aims to meet this challenge through the development of commercially competitive water quality monitoring devices. These will be capable of performing analytical measurements in situ - primarily aimed at freshwater and wastewater systems. The analytes of interest are mainly phosphate, ...

  12. Audible Aliasing Distortion in Digital Audio Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schimmel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with aliasing distortion in digital audio signal synthesis of classic periodic waveforms with infinite Fourier series, for electronic musical instruments. When these waveforms are generated in the digital domain then the aliasing appears due to its unlimited bandwidth. There are several techniques for the synthesis of these signals that have been designed to avoid or reduce the aliasing distortion. However, these techniques have high computing demands. One can say that today's computers have enough computing power to use these methods. However, we have to realize that today’s computer-aided music production requires tens of multi-timbre voices generated simultaneously by software synthesizers and the most of the computing power must be reserved for hard-disc recording subsystem and real-time audio processing of many audio channels with a lot of audio effects. Trivially generated classic analog synthesizer waveforms are therefore still effective for sound synthesis. We cannot avoid the aliasing distortion but spectral components produced by the aliasing can be masked with harmonic components and thus made inaudible if sufficient oversampling ratio is used. This paper deals with the assessment of audible aliasing distortion with the help of a psychoacoustic model of simultaneous masking and compares the computing demands of trivial generation using oversampling with those of other methods.

  13. 30 CFR 56.14208 - Warning devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Warning devices. 56.14208 Section 56.14208 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14208 Warning devices. (a) Visible warning devices...

  14. Microsimulation modelling of driver behaviour towards alternative warning devices at railway level crossings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tey, Li-Sian; Zhu, Sicong; Ferreira, Luis; Wallis, Guy

    2014-10-01

    Level crossings are amongst the most complex of road safety issues, due to the addition of rail infrastructure, trains and train operations. The differences in the operational characteristics of different warning devices together with varying crossing, traffic or/and train characteristics, cause different driver behaviour at crossings. This paper compares driver behaviour towards two novel warning devices (rumble strips and in-vehicle audio warning) with two conventional warning devices (flashing light and stop sign) at railway level crossings using microsimulation modelling. Two safety performance indicators directly related to collision risks, violation and time-to-collision, were adopted. Results indicated the active systems were more effective at reducing likely collisions compared to passive devices. With the combined application of driving simulation and traffic microsimulation modelling, traffic safety performance indicators for a level crossing can be estimated. From these, relative safety comparisons for the different traffic devices are derived, or even for absolute safety evaluation with proper calibration from field investigations.

  15. Audibility of spectral differences in head-related transfer functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Pablo F.F.; Møller, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    The spatial resolution at which head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) are available is an important aspect in the implementation of three-dimensional sound. Specifically, synthesis of moving sound requires that HRTFs are sufficiently close so the simulated sound is perceived as moving smoothly....... How close they must be, depends directly on how much the characteristics of neighboring HRTFs differ, and, most important, when these differences become audible. Differences between HRTFs exist in the interaural delay (ITD) and in the spectral characteristics, i.e. the magnitude spectrum of the HRTFs....... The present study investigates the audibility of the spectral characteristics. To this purpose, binaural and monaural audibility thresholds of differences between minimum-phase representations of HRTFs are measured and evaluated....

  16. 30 CFR 75.208 - Warning devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Warning devices. 75.208 Section 75.208 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Roof Support § 75.208 Warning devices. Except during...

  17. Audible punctuation: performative pause in Homeric prosody

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankenborg, R.J.J.

    2015-01-01

    The association between physical proximity and relationship formation as a classic finding in psychological science. In the current dissertation, this classic association was examined in an entirely different and surprisingly understudied setting: the school classroom. We examined whether and how ph

  18. Audible Aliasing Distortion in Digital Audio Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    J. Schimmel

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with aliasing distortion in digital audio signal synthesis of classic periodic waveforms with infinite Fourier series, for electronic musical instruments. When these waveforms are generated in the digital domain then the aliasing appears due to its unlimited bandwidth. There are several techniques for the synthesis of these signals that have been designed to avoid or reduce the aliasing distortion. However, these techniques have high computing demands. One can say that today'...

  19. Audible and infrasonic noise levels in the cabins of modern agricultural tractors — Does the risk of adverse, exposure-dependent effects still exist?

    OpenAIRE

    Bartosz Bilski

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The agricultural tractor is one of the most commonly used vehicles on farms and one of the most prominent sources of noise. This article presents an exemplary assessment of the audible and infrasonic noise levels in the cabins of selected modern wheeled agricultural tractors. Materials and Methods: Operator-perceived audible and infrasonic noise levels in the cabins were examined for 20 types of modern tractors during typical conditions of work. The tractors had been in use for ...

  20. The Effect of Speed Camera Warning Sign on Vehicle Speed in School Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Rohani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Driving too fast is one of the most prevalent factors that contribute to traffic crashes. In school zones, staying alert and obeying the posted speed limit especially during the school period are imperative for public safety, particularly involving children. Encouraging motorists to travel at safe speeds through the installation of yellow transverse bars at Seri Sabak Uni School and Pintas Puding School was found to be ineffective. Drivers were observed to have violated the 30 km/h speed limit and more seriously, driven over the speed limits of adjoining roads. Consequently, speed camera warning signs were erected as a pre-emptive measure to curtail speeding problems in the school zones. From impact studies carried out to measure the effectiveness of these signs, it was found that the speed camera warning signs were also not able to change driver behavior.

  1. 30 CFR 75.1103-3 - Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; minimum requirements; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic fire sensor and warning device...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1103-3 Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; minimum requirements; general. Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems installed in belt haulageways...

  2. Development of a driver information and warning system with vehicle hardware-in-the-loop simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gietelink, O.J.; Ploeg, J.; Schutter, B. de; Verhaegen, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for the design and validation of advanced driver assistance systems (ADASs). With vehicle hardware-in-the-loop (VeHIL) simulations the development process, and more specifically the validation phase, of intelligent vehicles is carried out safer, cheaper, and more man

  3. Audible reflection density for different late reflection criteria in rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krueger, Donata; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Brunskog, Jonas;

    2012-01-01

    For reasonably accurate but practical auralizations, some simplifications and approximations are needed. The main issue in the present investigation is that the reflection density of a room impulse response, in theory, increases so fast as a quadratic function of the elapsed time, even assuming...... only specular reflections. Therefore in this study, the upper threshold for audible reflection density is investigated for four different transition times of 25, 50, 75, and 100 ms through a headphone listening test. Binaural impulse responses and speech signals simulated in three rooms with different...... characteristics (an empty office, a lecture room, and an auditorium) are used as stimuli. Subjects are asked to increase/decrease the reflection density of a stimulus until they cannot distinguish it from the stimulus that follows the theoretical reflection density for the different transition times in the three...

  4. 33 CFR 143.15 - Lights and warning devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lights and warning devices. 143... devices. (a) OCS facilities must meet the lights and warning devices requirements under part 67 of this... devices requirements under the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea 1972 or...

  5. Audibility of time differences in adjacent head-related transfer functions (HRTFs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Pablo F.F.; Møller, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Changes in the temporal and spectral characteristics of the sound reaching the two ears are known to be of great importance for the perception of spatial sound. The smallest change that can be reliably perceived provides a measure of how accurate directional hearing is. The present study...... investigates audibility of changes in the temporal characteristics of HRTFs. A listening test is conducted to measure the smallest change in the interaural time difference (ITD) that produces an audible difference of any nature. Results show a large inter-individual variation with a range of audibility...

  6. Vibration and Audible Noise of Filter Capacitors in HVDC Converter Stations%Vibration and Audible Noise of Filter Capacitors in HVDC Converter Stations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Ling-yu; JI Sheng-chang

    2011-01-01

    The filter capacitor stack is one of the main acoustic noise sources in high-voltage DC (HVDC) converter stations. As HVDC systems are built more and more recently, it is significant to research the audible noise of filter capacitors. In this paper, the current situation of research on vibration and audible noise of filter capacitors in HVDC converter stations, which is departed into three parts--generation mechanism, prediction methods, and reduction measures, is presented and the research achievements are discussed. Scholars have built the model that the alternating electric force caused by the voltage conduces to the vibration, which propagates to the enclosure and radiates audible noise. As a result, the parts contributing most to the generation of audible noise are the top and the bottom of capacitors. In the noise level prediction respect, several methods have been prospected including impact hammer, sweep frequency, impact current, monopole and Kirchhoff formula method, which are suitable for single capacitors or capacitors stacks individually. However, the sweep frequency method is restricted by experiment condition, and the impact current method needs further research and verified. On the other hand, CIGRE WG14.26 provides three sound reduction measures, but all of them are not so practicable, while MPP absorber and compressible space absorber prospected by Dr. Wu Peng are proved to be effective. The sound barriers are also considered by scholars, and the acoustic directivity performance of capacitors is also researched. Besides, the developing direction of each research field is prospected in corresponding part.

  7. Objective Evaluation of the Audibility of Transient Errors in an Adaptive A/D Conversion Channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marker-Villumsen, Niels; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger; Bruun, Erik

    2014-01-01

    An adaptive analog-to-digital conversion channel for audio, using automatic gain control, generates transient errors that may be audible. Evaluating the audibility of such errors requires subjective evaluation using listening tests. From an electrical circuit design point-of-view this is not feas......An adaptive analog-to-digital conversion channel for audio, using automatic gain control, generates transient errors that may be audible. Evaluating the audibility of such errors requires subjective evaluation using listening tests. From an electrical circuit design point......-of-view this is not feasible, due to design time constraints. This paper investigates the use of the model output variables (MOVs) from the Perceptual Evaluation of Audio Quality (PEAQ) method, for objectively evaluating the transient errors of the conversion channel, in order to optimize the design and reduce design time....... The objective method is compared with results from an alternative forced choice listening test. The comparison shows that the objective method can be used to evaluate the audibility of the transient errors; thus the method can be applied when designing the circuit implementing the channel....

  8. 76 FR 58301 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Automatic Fire Sensor and Warning Device...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ... Sensor and Warning Device Systems; Examination and Test Requirements ACTION: Notice of request for public... Coal Mining. OMB 1219-0145 has been renamed Automatic Fire Sensor and Warning Device Systems... to a task in July 2011; OMB 1219-0073 subsumed Sec. 75.1103-5(a)(2)(ii) Automatic fire sensor...

  9. Utility of Ochrobactrum anthropi YC152 in a Microbial Fuel Cell as an Early Warning Device for Hexavalent Chromium Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guey-Horng Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fast hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI determination is important for environmental risk and health-related considerations. We used a microbial fuel cell-based biosensor inoculated with a facultatively anaerobic, Cr(VI-reducing, and exoelectrogenic Ochrobactrum anthropi YC152 to determine the Cr(VI concentration in water. The results indicated that O. anthropi YC152 exhibited high adaptability to pH, temperature, salinity, and water quality under anaerobic conditions. The stable performance of the microbial fuel cell (MFC-based biosensor indicated its potential as a reliable biosensor system. The MFC voltage decreased as the Cr(VI concentration in the MFC increased. Two satisfactory linear relationships were observed between the Cr(VI concentration and voltage output for various Cr(VI concentration ranges (0.0125–0.3 mg/L and 0.3–5 mg/L. The MFC biosensor is a simple device that can accurately measure Cr(VI concentrations in drinking water, groundwater, and electroplating wastewater in 45 min with low deviations (<10%. The use of the biosensor can help in preventing the violation of effluent regulations and the maximum allowable concentration of Cr(VI in water. Thus, the developed MFC biosensor has potential as an early warning detection device for Cr(VI determination even if O. anthropi YC152 is a possible opportunistic pathogen.

  10. Utility of Ochrobactrum anthropi YC152 in a Microbial Fuel Cell as an Early Warning Device for Hexavalent Chromium Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guey-Horng; Cheng, Chiu-Yu; Liu, Man-Hai; Chen, Tzu-Yu; Hsieh, Min-Chi; Chung, Ying-Chien

    2016-01-01

    Fast hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) determination is important for environmental risk and health-related considerations. We used a microbial fuel cell-based biosensor inoculated with a facultatively anaerobic, Cr(VI)-reducing, and exoelectrogenic Ochrobactrum anthropi YC152 to determine the Cr(VI) concentration in water. The results indicated that O. anthropi YC152 exhibited high adaptability to pH, temperature, salinity, and water quality under anaerobic conditions. The stable performance of the microbial fuel cell (MFC)-based biosensor indicated its potential as a reliable biosensor system. The MFC voltage decreased as the Cr(VI) concentration in the MFC increased. Two satisfactory linear relationships were observed between the Cr(VI) concentration and voltage output for various Cr(VI) concentration ranges (0.0125-0.3 mg/L and 0.3-5 mg/L). The MFC biosensor is a simple device that can accurately measure Cr(VI) concentrations in drinking water, groundwater, and electroplating wastewater in 45 min with low deviations (water. Thus, the developed MFC biosensor has potential as an early warning detection device for Cr(VI) determination even if O. anthropi YC152 is a possible opportunistic pathogen. PMID:27537887

  11. Audible and infrasonic noise levels in the cabins of modern agricultural tractors — Does the risk of adverse, exposure-dependent effects still exist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Bilski

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The agricultural tractor is one of the most commonly used vehicles on farms and one of the most prominent sources of noise. This article presents an exemplary assessment of the audible and infrasonic noise levels in the cabins of selected modern wheeled agricultural tractors. Materials and Methods: Operator-perceived audible and infrasonic noise levels in the cabins were examined for 20 types of modern tractors during typical conditions of work. The tractors had been in use for no longer than 3 years, with rated power between 96 kW and 227 kW, designed and produced by world-renowned companies. Noise level measurements were performed in accordance with PN-EN ISO 9612:2011 (ISO 9612:2009. Results: Audible noise levels (A-weighted ranged from 62.1 to 87.4 dB-A (average: 68.2 to 83.8 dB-A for different work tasks. The factors influencing noise levels include performed tasks, soil, weather conditions and the skills of individual drivers. In spectrum analysis, the highest noise levels occurred at frequencies 250 Hz, 1 and 2 kHz. Infrasound noise levels (G-weighted ranged from 87.3 to 111.3 dB-G. The driver-experienced exposure to infrasound was found to increase significantly when the vehicle was in motion. Conclusions: Average audible noise levels have no potential to adversely affect the hearing organ during tasks performed inside the closed cabins of the analysed modern agricultural tractors. Due to the relatively low audible noise levels inside the cabins of modern agricultural tractors, non-auditory effects are the only adverse symptoms that can develop. Modern agricultural tractors emit considerable infrasonic noise levels. All tractors introduced into the market should be subjected to tests with regard to infrasonic noise levels.

  12. Key Parameters Estimation and Adaptive Warning Strategy for Rear-End Collision of Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Song

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The rear-end collision warning system requires reliable warning decision mechanism to adapt the actual driving situation. To overcome the shortcomings of existing warning methods, an adaptive strategy is proposed to address the practical aspects of the collision warning problem. The proposed strategy is based on the parameter-adaptive and variable-threshold approaches. First, several key parameter estimation algorithms are developed to provide more accurate and reliable information for subsequent warning method. They include a two-stage algorithm which contains a Kalman filter and a Luenberger observer for relative acceleration estimation, a Bayesian theory-based algorithm of estimating the road friction coefficient, and an artificial neural network for estimating the driver’s reaction time. Further, the variable-threshold warning method is designed to achieve the global warning decision. In the method, the safety distance is employed to judge the dangerous state. The calculation method of the safety distance in this paper can be adaptively adjusted according to the different driving conditions of the leading vehicle. Due to the real-time estimation of the key parameters and the adaptive calculation of the warning threshold, the strategy can adapt to various road and driving conditions. Finally, the proposed strategy is evaluated through simulation and field tests. The experimental results validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed strategy.

  13. Poster Abstract: Automatic Calibration of Device Attitude in Inertial Measurement Unit Based Traffic Probe Vehicles

    KAUST Repository

    Mousa, Mustafa

    2016-04-28

    Probe vehicles consist in mobile traffic sensor networks that evolve with the flow of vehicles, transmitting velocity and position measurements along their path, generated using GPSs. To address the urban positioning issues of GPSs, we propose to replace them with inertial measurement units onboard vehicles, to estimate vehicle location and attitude using inertial data only. While promising, this technology requires one to carefully calibrate the orientation of the device inside the vehicle to be able to process the acceleration and rate gyro data. In this article, we propose a scheme that can perform this calibration automatically by leveraging the kinematic constraints of ground vehicles, and that can be implemented on low-end computational platforms. Preliminary testing shows that the proposed scheme enables one to accurately estimate the actual accelerations and rotation rates in the vehicle coordinates. © 2016 IEEE.

  14. Audible Noise Measurement and Analysis of the Main Power Apparatus in UHV GIS Substations

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou Nian Guang; Tang Qi; Wu Xiao Wen; Hu Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Investigation of audible noise characteristics of the main power apparatus in UHV GIS substations provides essential statistics for the noise prediction and control. Noise pressure level, spectrum and attenuation characteristics of the main transformers and high voltage (HV) reactors are measured and analyzed in this paper. The result shows that the main transformer and HV reactor have identical A-weighted equivalent sound pressure level. The medium- and low-frequency noises are the primary c...

  15. Silent and a audible stereotypes: The constitution of "ethnic character" in Serbian epic poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đerić Gordana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the explanatory relevance of the concept of stereotype in one of its original meanings - as a "mental image". This meaning of the term is the starting point for further differentiations, such as: between linguistic and behavioral stereotypes (in the sense of nonverbal, expected responses; universal and particular stereotypes; self representative and introspective stereotypes; permanent and contemporary stereotypes; and finally, what is most important for our purposes, the difference between silent and audible stereotypes. These distinctions, along with the functions of stereotype, are discussed in the first part of the paper. In the second part, the relations of silent and audible stereotypes are tested against the introduction of "innovative vocabularies" in popular lore. In other words, the explanatory power of this differentiation is checked through an analysis of unconventional motives in Serbian epic poems. The goal of the argument is to clarify the procedure of self creation of masculinity as a relevant feature of the "national character" through "tactic games" of silent and audible stereotypes. The examination of these "poetic strategies" serves a twofold purpose: to illustrate the process of constructing particular features of the "ethno type", on one hand, and to check hypotheses and models which are taken as frameworks in analyzing stereotypes, on the other.

  16. Effect of In-Vehicle Audio Warning System on Driver’s Speed Control Performance in Transition Zones from Rural Areas to Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xuedong; Wang, Jiali; Wu, Jiawei

    2016-01-01

    Speeding is a major contributing factor to traffic crashes and frequently happens in areas where there is a mutation in speed limits, such as the transition zones that connect urban areas from rural areas. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of an in-vehicle audio warning system and lit speed limit sign on preventing drivers’ speeding behavior in transition zones. A high-fidelity driving simulator was used to establish a roadway network with the transition zone. A total of 41 participants were recruited for this experiment, and the driving speed performance data were collected from the simulator. The experimental results display that the implementation of the audio warning system could significantly reduce drivers’ operating speed before they entered the urban area, while the lit speed limit sign had a minimal effect on improving the drivers’ speed control performance. Without consideration of different types of speed limit signs, it is found that male drivers generally had a higher operating speed both upstream and in the transition zones and have a larger maximum deceleration for speed reduction than female drivers. Moreover, the drivers who had medium-level driving experience had the higher operating speed and were more likely to have speeding behaviors in the transition zones than those who had low-level and high-level driving experience in the transition zones. PMID:27347990

  17. Effect of In-Vehicle Audio Warning System on Driver's Speed Control Performance in Transition Zones from Rural Areas to Urban Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xuedong; Wang, Jiali; Wu, Jiawei

    2016-01-01

    Speeding is a major contributing factor to traffic crashes and frequently happens in areas where there is a mutation in speed limits, such as the transition zones that connect urban areas from rural areas. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of an in-vehicle audio warning system and lit speed limit sign on preventing drivers' speeding behavior in transition zones. A high-fidelity driving simulator was used to establish a roadway network with the transition zone. A total of 41 participants were recruited for this experiment, and the driving speed performance data were collected from the simulator. The experimental results display that the implementation of the audio warning system could significantly reduce drivers' operating speed before they entered the urban area, while the lit speed limit sign had a minimal effect on improving the drivers' speed control performance. Without consideration of different types of speed limit signs, it is found that male drivers generally had a higher operating speed both upstream and in the transition zones and have a larger maximum deceleration for speed reduction than female drivers. Moreover, the drivers who had medium-level driving experience had the higher operating speed and were more likely to have speeding behaviors in the transition zones than those who had low-level and high-level driving experience in the transition zones. PMID:27347990

  18. 14 CFR 125.187 - Landing gear: Aural warning device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Landing gear: Aural warning device. 125.187 Section 125.187 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING...

  19. 14 CFR 121.289 - Landing gear: Aural warning device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Landing gear: Aural warning device. 121.289 Section 121.289 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG,...

  20. Prospects for the application of GaN power devices in hybrid electric vehicle drive systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GaN, a wide bandgap semiconductor successfully implemented in optical and high-speed electronic devices, has gained momentum in recent years for power electronics applications. Along with rapid progress in material and device processing technologies, high-voltage transistors over 600 V have been reported by a number of teams worldwide. These advances make GaN highly attractive for the growing market of electrified vehicles, which currently employ bipolar silicon devices in the 600–1200 V class for the traction inverter. However, to capture this billion-dollar power market, GaN has to compete with existing IGBT products and deliver higher performance at comparable or lower cost. This paper reviews key achievements made by the GaN semiconductor industry, requirements of the automotive electric drive system and remaining challenges for GaN power devices to fit in the inverter application of hybrid vehicles. (invited review)

  1. Prospects for the application of GaN power devices in hybrid electric vehicle drive systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ming; Chen, Chingchi; Rajan, Siddharth

    2013-07-01

    GaN, a wide bandgap semiconductor successfully implemented in optical and high-speed electronic devices, has gained momentum in recent years for power electronics applications. Along with rapid progress in material and device processing technologies, high-voltage transistors over 600 V have been reported by a number of teams worldwide. These advances make GaN highly attractive for the growing market of electrified vehicles, which currently employ bipolar silicon devices in the 600-1200 V class for the traction inverter. However, to capture this billion-dollar power market, GaN has to compete with existing IGBT products and deliver higher performance at comparable or lower cost. This paper reviews key achievements made by the GaN semiconductor industry, requirements of the automotive electric drive system and remaining challenges for GaN power devices to fit in the inverter application of hybrid vehicles.

  2. 21 CFR 801.63 - Medical devices; warning statements for devices containing or manufactured with...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical devices; warning statements for devices containing or manufactured with chlorofluorocarbons and other class I ozone-depleting substances. 801.63 Section 801.63 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING...

  3. 78 FR 24817 - Visual-Manual NHTSA Driver Distraction Guidelines for In-Vehicle Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... Visual-Manual NHTSA Driver Distraction Guidelines for In-Vehicle Electronic Devices; Notice #0;#0;Federal... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Visual-Manual NHTSA Driver Distraction Guidelines for In... by the driver to perform secondary tasks (communications, entertainment, information...

  4. 77 FR 24764 - Visual-Manual NHTSA Driver Distraction Guidelines for In-Vehicle Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... published February 24, 2012, at 77 FR 11200, is extended. You should submit your comments early enough to... Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78) or you may visit http://DocketInfo.dot.gov... proposing voluntary NHTSA Driver Distraction Guidelines for in-vehicle electronic devices (77 FR 11200)....

  5. Audible pedestrian signals :a feasibility study

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver, Morris Bernard

    1989-01-01

    This report represents a concentrated effort that determines the feasibility of audible pedestrian signals. These signals are devices which give auditory cues to help the visually impaired cross safely at difficult intersections. Surveys were sent out to over 100 organizations, audible signal manufacturers, and cities who have knowledge of the devices, and responses were analyzed. The devices were found to be feasible but only at certain complex and confusing intersect...

  6. 30 CFR 75.1103-4 - Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; installation; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic fire sensor and warning device...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1103-4 Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; installation; minimum requirements. (a) Effective December 31, 2009, automatic fire sensor and warning...

  7. Research and implement of remote vehicle monitoring and early-warning system based on GPS/GPRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiwu; Tian, Jingjing; Yang, Zhifa; Qiao, Feiyan

    2013-03-01

    Concerning the problem of road traffic safety, remote monitoring and early-warning of vehicle states was the key to prevent road traffic accidents and improve the transportation effectiveness. Through the embedded development technology, a remote vehicle monitoring and early-warning system was developed based on UNO2170 industrial computer of Advantech with WinCE operating system using Embedded Visual C++ (EVC), which combined with multisensor data acquisition technology, global positioning system (GPS) and general packet radio service (GPRS). It achieved the remote monitoring and early-warning of commercial vehicle. This system was installed in a CA1046L2 light truck. Through many road tests, test results showed that the system reacted rapidly for abnormal vehicle states and had stable performance.

  8. A Warning System for Overspeed at the Corner Using Visible Light Based Road-To-Vehicle Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuniyoshi Okuda

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available When a car enters a corner with over speed, it rises the accident risk higher. To warn the risk and urging the caution to drivers, many of the accident-prone corners have warning rights. The driver can decelerate the car smoothly and pass through the corner safety by those devices. However, appropriate speed for each corner is different by curvature of the corner and characteristics of the vehicle. The driver has to suppose the safe speed for every corner only by experience, usually. Of course too much slow causes traffic jam. Especially at the first road in the first place for the driver, it is difficult to suppose the curvatures of the corners. Then, we propose a visible light communication system so that the warning lights in the corner send appropriate warning information. Visible light communication transmits a signal by blinking the light. One of the characteristics of visible light communication is that it can use existing lighting equipment as a transmitter. In our system, we can distribute the warning information to the driver using the visible light communication. Though the curvature(R:radious of the corner does not change, the speed of each vehicle to approach the corner always to different. Focusing the distance from the corner to the car, we consider a communication system to send different kind of information according to that distance. If the distance is enough long, the driver has a plenty of time to decelerate the vehicle. The more the distance becomes short, the more the driver is required rapid deceleration. Therefore, to distribute the appropriate warning information to the driver, dividing the distance from the corner into some areas, we make the system to send different information in each area. Generally in communication system, modulation primarily changes the amplitude, phase or frequency. In visible light communication, change of the amplitude changes the brightness, which causes flickering that burdens the drivers

  9. An Adaptation Level Theory of Tinnitus Audibility

    OpenAIRE

    Grant eSearchfield; Kei eKobayashi; Michael eSanders

    2012-01-01

    Models of tinnitus suggest roles for auditory, attention, and emotional networks in tinnitus perception. A model of tinnitus audibility based on Helson’s (1964) adaptation level theory (ALT) is hypothesized to explain the relationship between tinnitus audibility, personality, memory, and attention. This theory attempts to describe how tinnitus audibility or detectability might change with experience and context. The basis of ALT and potential role of auditory scene analysis in tinnitus percep...

  10. Integrated chassis control for vehicle rollover prevention with neural network time-to-rollover warning metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Zhu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The rollover of road vehicles is one of the most serious problems related to transportation safety. In this article, a novel rollover prevention control system composed of rollover warning and integrated chassis control algorithm is proposed. First, a conventional time-to-rollover warning algorithm was presented based on the 3-degree of freedom vehicle model. In order to improve the precision of vehicle rollover prediction, a back-propagation neural network was adopted to regulate time to rollover online by considering multi-state parameters of the vehicle. Second, a rollover prevention algorithm based on integrated chassis control was investigated, where the active front steering and the active yaw moment control were coordinated by model predictive control methodology. Finally, the algorithms were evaluated under several typical maneuvers utilizing MATLAB/Simulink and Carsim co-simulation. The results show that the proposed neural network time-to-rollover metrics can be a good measure of the danger of rollover, and the roll stability of the simulated vehicle is improved significantly with reduced side slip angle and yaw rate by the proposed integrated chassis control rollover prevention system.

  11. Audible Noise Measurement and Analysis of the Main Power Apparatus in UHV GIS Substations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Nian Guang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of audible noise characteristics of the main power apparatus in UHV GIS substations provides essential statistics for the noise prediction and control. Noise pressure level, spectrum and attenuation characteristics of the main transformers and high voltage (HV reactors are measured and analyzed in this paper. The result shows that the main transformer and HV reactor have identical A-weighted equivalent sound pressure level. The medium- and low-frequency noises are the primary components in the spectral. More attention should be paid to the low-frequency bands in the noise control process. The noise of cooling fan has a large influence on that of the main transformer. Without the consideration of corona noise, the average A-weighted sound pressure level shows an overall decreasing trend with the increase of the propagation distance. Obvious interference phenomenon of the noises at 100 and 200Hz exists in the noise propagation process.

  12. Haptic Addition to a Visual Menu Selection Interface Controlled by an In-Vehicle Rotary Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Grane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, several vehicles are equipped with a visual display combined with a haptic rotary device for handling in-vehicle information system tasks while driving. This experimental study investigates whether a haptic addition to a visual interface interferes with or supports secondary task performance and whether haptic information could be used without taking eyes off road. Four interfaces were compared during simulated driving: visual only, partly corresponding visual-haptic, fully corresponding visual-haptic, and haptic only. Secondary task performance and subjective mental workload were measured. Additionally, the participants were interviewed. It was found that some haptic support improved performance. However, when more haptic information was used, the results diverged in terms of task completion time and interface comprehension. Some participants did not sense all haptics provided, some did not comprehend the correspondence between the haptic and visual interfaces, and some did. Interestingly, the participants managed to complete the tasks when using haptic-only information.

  13. Malaria early warning in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Simon I. Hay; Rogers, David J.; Shanks, G. Dennis; Monica F. Myers; Robert W Snow

    2001-01-01

    Kenya displays large spatiotemporal diversity in its climate and ecology. It follows that malaria transmission will reflect this environmental heterogeneity in both space and time. In this article, we discuss how such heterogeneity, and its epidemiological consequences, should be considered in the development of early warning systems for malaria epidemics.

  14. An audible demonstration of the speed of sound in bubbly liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Preston S.; Roy, Ronald A.

    2008-10-01

    The speed of sound in a bubbly liquid is strongly dependent upon the volume fraction of the gas phase, the bubble size distribution, and the frequency of the acoustic excitation. At sufficiently low frequencies, the speed of sound depends primarily on the gas volume fraction. This effect can be audibly demonstrated using a one-dimensional acoustic waveguide, in which the flow rate of air bubbles injected into a water-filled tube is varied by the user. The normal modes of the waveguide are excited by the sound of the bubbles being injected into the tube. As the flow rate is varied, the speed of sound varies as well, and hence, the resonance frequencies shift. This can be clearly heard through the use of an amplified hydrophone and the user can create aesthetically pleasing and even musical sounds. In addition, the apparatus can be used to verify a simple mathematical model known as Wood's equation that relates the speed of sound of a bubbly liquid to its void fraction.

  15. The Practical Design of In-vehicle Telematics Device with GPS and MEMS Accelerometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Dramićanin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The latest generation of vehicle tracking devices relies not only on Global Positioning System (GPS but also uses low-cost Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS accelerometers. This combination supports new services such as driving style characterization and Automatic Crash Notification (ACN. Our focus will be on practical considerations of such a telematics unit. The paper will consider the boundaries of allowed errors and minimal requirements for sensors and mounting requirements. Sensor range for crash detection and impact angle estimation was tested on field trials with two units containing accelerometers range of 18g and 2g. The kinematic orientation of vehicle is evaluated in a series of field trials with a resulting standard deviation of estimation of 1.67°. The second run of experiments considers the dynamic range and sampling rate of sensors during collision. A sensor range of 8g (typical for present-day telematics devices can be used to detect crash without accurate knowledge of impact angle.

  16. 30 CFR 75.1103-8 - Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; examination and test requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic fire sensor and warning device...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1103-8 Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; examination and test requirements. (a) Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems shall be examined...

  17. Meteorological Monitoring And Warning Computer Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Randolph J.; Dianic, Allan V.; Moore, Lien N.

    1996-01-01

    Meteorological monitoring system (MMS) computer network tracks weather conditions and issues warnings when weather hazards are about to occur. Receives data from such meteorological instruments as wind sensors on towers and lightning detectors, and compares data with weather restrictions specified for outdoor activities. If weather violates restriction, network generates audible and visible alarms to alert people involved in activity. Also displays weather and toxic diffusion data and disseminates weather forecasts, advisories, and warnings to workstations.

  18. Evaluation of X-38 Crew Return Vehicle Input Control Devices in a Microgravity Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welge, Kirsten; Moore, Alicia; Pope, Ruth Ann; Shivers, Suzette; Fox, Jeffrey

    2000-01-01

    This report was created by students from Longview High School, Longview, Texas. Longview High School was selected from a group of Texas high schools to participate in the 1999 Texas Fly High Program. This program gives Texas high school students a chance to work with NASA engineers to design and fly a real-world experiment aboard the KC-135 during zero-g parabolas. Jeffrey Fox's role was to provide a concept for the experiment and to mentor the students in its design and testing. The students were responsible for executing all phases of the project. The X-38 Project Office at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center Johnson Space is designing a crew return vehicle (CRV) to be docked at the International Space Station for crew rescue in an emergency. Vehicle controls will be almost completely automated, but a few functions will be manually controlled. Four crew input control devices were selected for evaluation by Longview High School students as part of the 1999 Texas Fly High program. These were (1) Logitech Trackman Marble (optical trackball), (2) Smart Cat Touchpad. (3) Microsoft SideWinder 3D-Pro Joystick, and (4) Microsoft SideWinder Gamepad. In two flight tests in the KC-135 aircraft and a series of ground tests, the devices were evaluated for ability to maneuver an on-screen cursor, level of accuracy, ease of handling blind operations, and level of user comfort in microgravity. The tests results led to recommendation of further tests with the Joystick and the Trackman by astronauts and actual space station residents.

  19. In-vehicle extremity injuries from improvised explosive devices: current and future foci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Arul; Masouros, Spyros D; Newell, Nicolas; Hill, Adam M; Proud, William G; Brown, Katherine A; Bull, Anthony M J; Clasper, Jon C

    2011-01-27

    The conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan have been epitomized by the insurgents' use of the improvised explosive device against vehicle-borne security forces. These weapons, capable of causing multiple severely injured casualties in a single incident, pose the most prevalent single threat to Coalition troops operating in the region. Improvements in personal protection and medical care have resulted in increasing numbers of casualties surviving with complex lower limb injuries, often leading to long-term disability. Thus, there exists an urgent requirement to investigate and mitigate against the mechanism of extremity injury caused by these devices. This will necessitate an ontological approach, linking molecular, cellular and tissue interaction to physiological dysfunction. This can only be achieved via a collaborative approach between clinicians, natural scientists and engineers, combining physical and numerical modelling tools with clinical data from the battlefield. In this article, we compile existing knowledge on the effects of explosions on skeletal injury, review and critique relevant experimental and computational research related to lower limb injury and damage and propose research foci required to drive the development of future mitigation technologies.

  20. Cortical Auditory Evoked Potentials Reveal Changes in Audibility with Nonlinear Frequency Compression in Hearing Aids for Children: Clinical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Teresa Y C; Zhang, Vicky W; Hou, Sanna; Van Buynder, Patricia

    2016-02-01

    Hearing loss in children is detected soon after birth via newborn hearing screening. Procedures for early hearing assessment and hearing aid fitting are well established, but methods for evaluating the effectiveness of amplification for young children are limited. One promising approach to validating hearing aid fittings is to measure cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs). This article provides first a brief overview of reports on the use of CAEPs for evaluation of hearing aids. Second, a study that measured CAEPs to evaluate nonlinear frequency compression (NLFC) in hearing aids for 27 children (between 6.1 and 16.8 years old) who have mild to severe hearing loss is reported. There was no significant difference in aided sensation level or the detection of CAEPs for /g/ between NLFC on and off conditions. The activation of NLFC was associated with a significant increase in aided sensation levels for /t/ and /s/. It also was associated with an increase in detection of CAEPs for /t/ and /s/. The findings support the use of CAEPs for checking audibility provided by hearing aids. Based on the current data, a clinical protocol for using CAEPs to validate audibility with amplification is presented. PMID:27587920

  1. Identical fracture patterns in combat vehicle blast injuries due to improvised explosive devices; a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Commandeur Joris

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In November 2008, a surgical team from the Red Cross Hospital Beverwijk, the Netherlands, was deployed in Afghanistan for three months to attend in the army hospital of Kandahar. During their stay, four incidents of armored personnel carriers encountering an improvised explosive device were assessed. In each incident, two soldiers were involved, whose injuries were strikingly similar. Case presentation The described cases comprise paired thoracic vertebral fractures, radial neck fractures, calcaneal fractures and talar fractures. Moreover, the different types of blast injury are mentioned and related to the injuries described in our series. Acknowledging the different blast mechanisms is important for understanding possible injury patterns. Conclusion From this case series, as well as the existing literature on injury patterns caused by blast injuries, it seems appropriate to pay extra attention to bodily areas that were injured in other occupants of the same vehicle. Obviously, the additional surveillance for specific injuries should be complementary to the regular trauma work-up (e.g., ATLS.

  2. A Mobile Device System for Early Warning of ECG Anomalies

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Szczepański; Khalid Saeed

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid increase in computational power of mobile devices the amount of ambient intelligence-based smart environment systems has increased greatly in recent years. A proposition of such a solution is described in this paper, namely real time monitoring of an electrocardiogram (ECG) signal during everyday activities for identification of life threatening situations. The paper, being both research and review, describes previous work of the authors, current state of the art in the context...

  3. Universal Safety Distance Alert Device for Road Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matic Virant

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Driving with too short of a safety distance is a common problem in road traffic, often with traffic accidents as a consequence. Research has identified a lack of vehicle-mountable devices for alerting the drivers of trailing vehicles about keeping a sufficient safe distance. The principal requirements for such a device were defined. A conceptual study was performed in order to select the components for the integration of the device. Based on the results of this study, a working prototype of a flexible, self-contained device was designed, built and tested. The device is intended to be mounted on the rear of a vehicle. It uses radar as the primary distance sensor, assisted with a GPS receiver for velocity measurement. A Raspberry Pi single-board computer is used for data acquisition and processing. The alerts are shown on an LED-matrix display mounted on the rear of the host vehicle. The device software is written in Python and provides automatic operation without requiring any user intervention. The tests have shown that the device is usable on almost any motor vehicle and performs reliably in simulated and real traffic. The open issues and possibilities for future improvements are presented in the Discussion.

  4. The Audible Human Project: Modeling Sound Transmission in the Lungs and Torso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zoujun

    Auscultation has been used qualitatively by physicians for hundreds of years to aid in the monitoring and diagnosis of pulmonary diseases. Alterations in the structure and function of the pulmonary system that occur in disease or injury often give rise to measurable changes in lung sound production and transmission. Numerous acoustic measurements have revealed the differences of breath sounds and transmitted sounds in the lung under normal and pathological conditions. Compared to the extensive cataloging of lung sound measurements, the mechanism of sound transmission in the pulmonary system and how it changes with alterations of lung structural and material properties has received less attention. A better understanding of sound transmission and how it is altered by injury and disease might improve interpretation of lung sound measurements, including new lung imaging modalities that are based on an array measurement of the acoustic field on the torso surface via contact sensors or are based on a 3-dimensional measurement of the acoustic field throughout the lungs and torso using magnetic resonance elastography. A long-term goal of the Audible Human Project (AHP ) is to develop a computational acoustic model that would accurately simulate generation, transmission and noninvasive measurement of sound and vibration within the pulmonary system and torso caused by both internal (e.g. respiratory function) and external (e.g. palpation) sources. The goals of this dissertation research, fitting within the scope of the AHP, are to develop specific improved theoretical understandings, computational algorithms and experimental methods aimed at transmission and measurement. The research objectives undertaken in this dissertation are as follows. (1) Improve theoretical modeling and experimental identification of viscoelasticity in soft biological tissues. (2) Develop a poroviscoelastic model for lung tissue vibroacoustics. (3) Improve lung airway acoustics modeling and its

  5. Validation of exposure visualization and audible distance emission for navigated temporal bone drilling in phantoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard H J Voormolen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A neuronavigation interface with extended function as compared with current systems was developed to aid during temporal bone surgery. The interface, named EVADE, updates the prior anatomical image and visualizes the bone drilling process virtually in real-time without need for intra-operative imaging. Furthermore, EVADE continuously calculates the distance from the drill tip to segmented temporal bone critical structures (e.g. the sigmoid sinus and facial nerve and produces audiovisual warnings if the surgeon drills in too close vicinity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and surgical utility of EVADE in physical phantoms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed 228 measurements assessing the position accuracy of tracking a navigated drill in the operating theatre. A mean target registration error of 1.33±0.61 mm with a maximum error of 3.04 mm was found. Five neurosurgeons each drilled two temporal bone phantoms, once using EVADE, and once using a standard neuronavigation interface. While using standard neuronavigation the surgeons damaged three modeled temporal bone critical structures. No structure was hit by surgeons utilizing EVADE. Surgeons felt better orientated and thought they had improved tumor exposure with EVADE. Furthermore, we compared the distances between surface meshes of the virtual drill cavities created by EVADE to actual drill cavities: average maximum errors of 2.54±0.49 mm and -2.70±0.48 mm were found. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results demonstrate that EVADE gives accurate feedback which reduces risks of harming modeled critical structures compared to a standard neuronavigation interface during temporal bone phantom drilling.

  6. Towards direct realisation of the SI unit of sound pressure in the audible hearing range based on optical free-field acoustic particle measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the introduction of the International System of Units (the SI system) in 1960, weights, measures, standardised approaches, procedures, and protocols have been introduced, adapted, and extensively used. A major international effort and activity concentrate on the definition and traceability of the seven base SI units in terms of fundamental constants, and consequently those units that are derived from the base units. In airborne acoustical metrology and for the audible range of frequencies up to 20 kHz, the SI unit of sound pressure, the pascal, is realised indirectly and without any knowledge or measurement of the sound field. Though the principle of reciprocity was originally formulated by Lord Rayleigh nearly two centuries ago, it was devised in the 1940s and eventually became a calibration standard in the 1960s; however, it can only accommodate a limited number of acoustic sensors of specific types and dimensions. International standards determine the device sensitivity either through coupler or through free-field reciprocity but rely on the continuous availability of specific acoustical artefacts. Here, we show an optical method based on gated photon correlation spectroscopy that can measure sound pressures directly and absolutely in fully anechoic conditions, remotely, and without disturbing the propagating sound field. It neither relies on the availability or performance of any measurement artefact nor makes any assumptions of the device geometry and sound field characteristics. Most importantly, the required units of sound pressure and microphone sensitivity may now be experimentally realised, thus providing direct traceability to SI base units

  7. Wheeled mobility device transportation safety in fixed route and demand-responsive public transit vehicles within the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Karen L; van Roosmalen, Linda; Bertocci, Gina; Cross, Douglas J

    2012-01-01

    An overview of the current status of wheelchair transportation safety in fixed route and demand-responsive, non-rail, public transportation vehicles within the US is presented. A description of each mode of transportation is provided, followed by a discussion of the primary issues affecting safety, accessibility, and usability. Technologies such as lifts, ramps, securement systems, and occupant restraint systems, along with regulations and voluntary industry standards have been implemented with the intent of improving safety and accessibility for individuals who travel while seated in their wheeled mobility device (e.g., wheelchair or scooter). However, across both fixed route and demand-responsive transit systems a myriad of factors such as nonuse and misuse of safety systems, oversized wheeled mobility devices, vehicle space constraints, and inadequate vehicle operator training may place wheeled mobility device (WhMD) users at risk of injury even under non-impact driving conditions. Since WhMD-related incidents also often occur during the boarding and alighting process, the frequency of these events, along with factors associated with these events are described for each transit mode. Recommendations for improving WhMD transportation are discussed given the current state of PMID:22876731

  8. An Adaptation Level Theory of tinnitus audibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant eSearchfield

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Models of tinnitus suggest roles for auditory, attention and emotional networks in tinnitus perception. A model of tinnitus audibility based on Helson’s (1964 Adaptation Level Theory (ALT is hypothesized to explain the relationship between tinnitus audibility, personality, memory and attention. This theory attempts to describe how tinnitus audibility or detectability might change with experience and context. The basis of ALT and potential role of Auditory Scene Analysis in tinnitus perception are discussed. The proposed psychoacoustic model lends itself to incorporation into existing neurophysiological models of tinnitus perception. It is hoped that the ALT hypothesis will allow for greater empirical investigation of factors influencing tinnitus perception, such as attention and tinnitus sound therapies.

  9. A Mobile Device System for Early Warning of ECG Anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Szczepański

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid increase in computational power of mobile devices the amount of ambient intelligence-based smart environment systems has increased greatly in recent years. A proposition of such a solution is described in this paper, namely real time monitoring of an electrocardiogram (ECG signal during everyday activities for identification of life threatening situations. The paper, being both research and review, describes previous work of the authors, current state of the art in the context of the authors’ work and the proposed aforementioned system. Although parts of the solution were described in earlier publications of the authors, the whole concept is presented completely for the first time along with the prototype implementation on mobile device—a Windows 8 tablet with Modern UI. The system has three main purposes. The first goal is the detection of sudden rapid cardiac malfunctions and informing the people in the patient’s surroundings, family and friends and the nearest emergency station about the deteriorating health of the monitored person. The second goal is a monitoring of ECG signals under non-clinical conditions to detect anomalies that are typically not found during diagnostic tests. The third goal is to register and analyze repeatable, long-term disturbances in the regular signal and finding their patterns.

  10. 49 CFR 393.19 - Hazard warning signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hazard warning signals. 393.19 Section 393.19... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Electrical Wiring § 393.19 Hazard warning signals. The hazard warning signal operating unit on each commercial motor vehicle shall...

  11. Audible radiation monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odell, D.M.C.

    1992-12-31

    This invention consists of a method and apparatus for monitoring ionizing radiation comprising radiation detectors in electrical connection with an isotopic analyzer and a device for producing chords to which each isotope is mapped so that the device produces a unique chord for each isotope. Preferably the chords are pleasing to the ear, except for chords representing unexpected isotopes, and are louder or softer depending on the level of radioactivity produced by each isotope, and musical instrument voices may be simulated in producing the chords as an aid to distinguishing similar-sounding chords. Because of the representation by chords, information regarding the level and composition of the radiation in an area can be conveyed to workers in that area more effectively and yet without distracting them.

  12. Audibility of dispersion error in room acoustic finite-difference time-domain simulation as a function of simulation distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarelma, Jukka; Botts, Jonathan; Hamilton, Brian; Savioja, Lauri

    2016-04-01

    Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation has been a popular area of research in room acoustics due to its capability to simulate wave phenomena in a wide bandwidth directly in the time-domain. A downside of the method is that it introduces a direction and frequency dependent error to the simulated sound field due to the non-linear dispersion relation of the discrete system. In this study, the perceptual threshold of the dispersion error is measured in three-dimensional FDTD schemes as a function of simulation distance. Dispersion error is evaluated for three different explicit, non-staggered FDTD schemes using the numerical wavenumber in the direction of the worst-case error of each scheme. It is found that the thresholds for the different schemes do not vary significantly when the phase velocity error level is fixed. The thresholds are found to vary significantly between the different sound samples. The measured threshold for the audibility of dispersion error at the probability level of 82% correct discrimination for three-alternative forced choice is found to be 9.1 m of propagation in a free field, that leads to a maximum group delay error of 1.8 ms at 20 kHz with the chosen phase velocity error level of 2%. PMID:27106330

  13. Vehicle Embedded Data Stream Processing Platform for Android Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingo Akiyama

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Automotive information services utilizing vehicle data are rapidly expanding. However, there is currently no data centric software architecture that takes into account the scale and complexity of data involving numerous sensors. To address this issue, the authors have developed an in-vehicle data-stream management system for automotive embedded systems (eDSMS as data centric software architecture. Providing the data stream functionalities to drivers and passengers are highly beneficial. This paper describes a vehicle embedded data stream processing platform for Android devices. The platform enables flexible query processing with a dataflow query language and extensible operator functions in the query language on the platform. The platform employs architecture independent of data stream schema in in-vehicle eDSMS to facilitate smoother Android application program development. This paper presents specifications and design of the query language and APIs of the platform, evaluate it, and discuss the results.

  14. 77 FR 11199 - Visual-Manual NHTSA Driver Distraction Guidelines for In-Vehicle Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78) or you may visit http://DocketInfo.dot.gov . Docket... Administration FMVSS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard FR Federal Register GES General Estimates System...

  15. An Experiment on Horizontal and Vertical Wind Turbines with Incorporation of Rounded Shroud Device Using Wind Simulation in a Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Rachman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The detrimental impact on the environment over the utilization of the conventional energy based fossil fuel is obvious. Thus, the effort on the reduction on the dependency on this unclean fuel is salient. The application of the clean renewable wind power can be one of the appropriate measures in supporting the effort in reducing the dependency on the unclean fuel. Performance is one of the essential aspects in determining the economic attractiveness on the technology application. One of the factors responsible to the performance of the power technology is the wind velocity acting on the rotor blade. The addition of a shroud element is believed to have a great promise to increase the velocity at rotor, thus possibly improving the performance of the wind turbine. This study presents an experiment on horizontal and vertical wind turbines incorporated with rounded shroud devices. The experiment is conducted in a vehicle to simulate the effect of the flow of wind. The results on this experiment indicate that the addition of the shroud device with geometry of diffuser improves the performance of the horizontal axis wind turbine. For the nozzle shroud geometry, it seems to less significantly improve the performance of the horizontal axis wind turbine. For the vertical turbine, the incorporation of the shroud devices, both nozzle and diffuser, has almost no effect to increase the performance. This study also presents the discussion for the reasons behind the experimental results by relating to the condition of the turbine rotation and the wind velocity inside the shroud devices.

  16. Audible Ecosystems and emergent sound structures in Di Scipio's music. Music philosophy enhances musical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Meric, Renaud; Solomos, Makis

    2008-01-01

    International audience While composing with an ecosystemic approach, Di Scipio creates an audio system that interacts with the environment, i.e. space. This space, in which and from which music emerges, is also the listener's space. The notion of emergence is complex: what emerges is the result of a confrontation between the listener's cognitive system and the audio system used in the musical work. This emergent result can be termed musical "structure" or sound "structure", but it is diffi...

  17. "With This You Can Meet Your Baby": Fetal Personhood and Audible Heartbeats in Oaxacan Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes-Mischel, Rebecca

    2016-06-01

    This article examines how amplified fetal heartbeats may be used to make claims about fetuses' social presence. These claims are supported by the Mexican Public Health system's selection of the maternal-child relationship as a key site of clinical intervention, intertwining medical and moral discourses. Drawing on the robust literature on cross-cultural propositions of "fetal personhood," this analysis uses ethnographic material from public health institutions in Oaxaca, Mexico, to explore how doctors use diagnostic technology to materialize fetuses for their patients. I argue that Spanish's epistemological distinction between saber (to have knowledge about) and conocer (to be acquainted with) is key to how diagnostic technologies may be deployed to make social claims. I use one doctor's attempts to use technology to shift her patient from saber to conocer as illustrative of underlying cultural logics about fetal embodiment and its proof. Focused on the under-theorized socio-medical deployment of audio fetal heartbeat technology, this article suggests that sound-in addition to sight-is a potent tool for constructing fetal personhood. PMID:25572137

  18. "Consumption and Enviromment" Early-warning Mechanism for Export of Autos Will Be Improved in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ As the amount of export for the complete vehicle and its components & parts from China are increasing rapidly, the early-warning mechanism for export of autos in China will have to be improved to reduce the injuries that the auto industry suffers.

  19. High-frequency audibility: benefits for hearing-impaired listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, C A; Turner, C W

    1998-07-01

    The present study was a systematic investigation of the benefit of providing hearing-impaired listeners with audible high-frequency speech information. Five normal-hearing and nine high-frequency hearing-impaired listeners identified nonsense syllables that were low-pass filtered at a number of cutoff frequencies. As a means of quantifying audibility for each condition, Articulation Index (AI) was calculated for each condition for each listener. Most hearing-impaired listeners demonstrated an improvement in speech recognition as additional audible high-frequency information was provided. In some cases for more severely impaired listeners, increasing the audibility of high-frequency speech information resulted in no further improvement in speech recognition, or even decreases in speech recognition. A new measure of how well hearing-impaired listeners used information within specific frequency bands called "efficiency" was devised. This measure compared the benefit of providing a given increase in speech audibility to a hearing-impaired listener to the benefit observed in normal-hearing listeners for the same increase in speech audibility. Efficiencies were calculated using the old AI method and the new AI method (which takes into account the effects of high speech presentation levels). There was a clear pattern in the results suggesting that as the degree of hearing loss at a given frequency increased beyond 55 dB HL, the efficacy of providing additional audibility to that frequency region was diminished, especially when this degree of hearing loss was present at frequencies of 4000 Hz and above. A comparison of analyses from the "old" and "new" AI procedures suggests that some, but not all, of the deficiencies of speech recognition in these listeners was due to high presentation levels.

  20. Tweeting Tsunami: Early Warning Networks in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Oldring, Amanda Olivia Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Influential Twitter users can enhance disaster warning by diffusing risk awareness through networks. While Twitter networks are frequently active during disaster warning, little work in social network analysis has been applied to the Pacific Northwest Coast, encapsulating British Columbia in Canada, and Alaska, Washington, Oregon, and California in the United States. This region is vulnerable to tsunamis, and Twitter’s speed, reach, and volume could enhance early warning. This thesis locates ...

  1. Flood Warning and Forecasting System in Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leskova, Danica

    2016-04-01

    In 2015, it finished project Flood Warning and Forecasting System (POVAPSYS) as part of the flood protection in Slovakia till 2010. The aim was to build POVAPSYS integrated computerized flood forecasting and warning system. It took a qualitatively higher level of output meteorological and hydrological services in case of floods affecting large territorial units, as well as local flood events. It is further unfolding demands on performance and coordination of meteorological and hydrological services, troubleshooting observation, evaluation of data, fast communication, modeling and forecasting of meteorological and hydrological processes. Integration of all information entering and exiting to and from the project POVAPSYS provides Hydrological Flood Forecasting System (HYPOS). The system provides information on the current hydrometeorological situation and its evolution with the generation of alerts and notifications in case of exceeding predefined thresholds. HYPOS's functioning of the system requires flawless operability in critical situations while minimizing the loss of its key parts. HYPOS is a core part of the project POVAPSYS, it is a comprehensive software solutions based on a modular principle, providing data and processed information including alarms, in real time. In order to achieve full functionality of the system, in proposal, we have put emphasis on reliability, robustness, availability and security.

  2. A Quantitative Analysis of Variability Warnings in Linux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melo, Jean; Flesborg, Elvis; Brabrand, Claus;

    2015-01-01

    In order to get insight into challenges with quality in highly-configurable software, we analyze one of the largest open source projects, the Linux kernel, and quantify basic properties of configuration-related warnings. We automatically analyze more than 20 thousand valid and distinct random...... configurations, in a computation that lasted more than a month. We count and classify a total of 400,000 warnings to get an insight in the distribution of warning types, and the location of the warnings. We run both on a stable and unstable version of the Linux kernel. The results show that Linux contains...

  3. Hot gas handling device and motorized vehicle comprising the device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Geltink, J.; Beukers, A.; Van Tooren, M.J.L.; Koussios, S.

    2012-01-01

    The invention relates to a device for handling hot exhaust gasses discharged from an internal combustion engine. The device comprises a housing (2), enclosing a space (3) for transporting the exhaust gasses. The housing (2) is provided with an entrance - opening (4) for the exhaust gasses discharged

  4. Users' acceptance and societal acceptability of new Traffic technologies- safety implications of in-vehicle devices

    OpenAIRE

    PETICA, S; Flipo, F; SARDI, GM

    2003-01-01

    HOTEL How To Analyse Life Quality : an accompanying measure within the EU fifth framework programme key-action improving the socio economic knowledge base. The project hotel takes a starting point in a heuristic approach that focuses on different disciplines' practice in connection with the assessment and consideration of quality of life and underline mobility and transport preconditions.

  5. Intelligent behaviors through vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Richard D.; Sturgeon, Purser; Brown, Mike

    2012-06-01

    The last decade has seen a significant increase in intelligent safety devices on private automobiles. These devices have both increased and augmented the situational awareness of the driver and in some cases provided automated vehicle responses. To date almost all intelligent safety devices have relied on data directly perceived by the vehicle. This constraint has a direct impact on the types of solutions available to the vehicle. In an effort to improve the safety options available to a vehicle, numerous research laboratories and government agencies are investing time and resources into connecting vehicles to each other and to infrastructure-based devices. This work details several efforts in both the commercial vehicle and the private auto industries to increase vehicle safety and driver situational awareness through vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure communication. It will specifically discuss intelligent behaviors being designed to automatically disable non-compliant vehicles, warn tractor trailer vehicles of unsafe lane maneuvers such as lane changes, passing, and merging, and alert drivers to non-line-of-sight emergencies.

  6. 77 FR 15452 - Visual-Manual NHTSA Driver Distraction Guidelines for In-Vehicle Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... proposed NHTSA Guidelines must be received by April 24, 2012 (77 FR 11200). ADDRESSES: The March 23, 2012... Guidelines were published in the Federal Register on February 24, 2012 (77 FR 11200) and are available on...

  7. Hot gas handling device and motorized vehicle comprising the device

    OpenAIRE

    Klein Geltink, J.; Beukers, A.; Van Tooren, M.J.L.; Koussios, S.

    2012-01-01

    The invention relates to a device for handling hot exhaust gasses discharged from an internal combustion engine. The device comprises a housing (2), enclosing a space (3) for transporting the exhaust gasses. The housing (2) is provided with an entrance - opening (4) for the exhaust gasses discharged from the engine and an exit-opening (5) for transporting the exhaust gasses away from the engine, and comprises a flexible thermal insulating layer, arranged for resisting the temperature of the e...

  8. Perception and meaning of warning signals in urban context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Corsin; Polack, Jean-Dominique; Castellengo, Michèle;

    1999-01-01

    Perception of warning signals in urban context points out the question of their efficiency, that is, whether they are identified or not. Results show that contextual constraints influence the perceptual threshold and the identification. The classes of signals obtained can be used to determine new...... acoustical features for efficient warning signals....

  9. Early Warning System Ghana: how to successfully implement a disaster early warning system in a data scarce region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, Job; Jungermann, Nicole

    2016-04-01

    Ghana is a country frequently struck by natural disasters like floods and droughts. Timely warning or detection of such disasters will mitigate the negative impact on lives and property. However, local data and monitoring systems necessary to provide such a warning are hardly available. The availability and improvement of internet, mobile phones and satellites has provided new possibilities for disaster warning systems in data scarce regions such as Ghana. Our presentation describes the development of an early warning system (EWS) in Ghana completely based on satellite based open data. The EWS provides a flood or drought hazard warning on sub-catchment level and links the warning to a more detailed flood or drought risk map, to enable the disaster coordinator to send warnings or relieve more efficiently to areas that have the highest risk. This is especially relevant because some areas for which the system is implemented are very remote. The system is developed and tested to be robust and operational especially in remote areas. This means that the necessary information is also available under limited internet conditions and not dependent on local computer facilities. In many rural areas in Ghana communities rely on indigenous knowledge when it comes to flood or drought disaster forecasting. The EWS has a feature that allows indigenous knowledge indicators to be taken into account in the warning and makes easy comparison possible with the satellite based warnings.

  10. Intelligent Speed Adaptation in Company Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Niels; Tradisauskas, Nerius; Waagepetersen, Rasmus;

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes an intelligent speed adaptation project for company vehicles. The intelligent speed adaptation function in the project is both information and incentive, which means that the intelligent speed adaptation equipment gives a warning as well as penalty points if the driver...

  11. 78 FR 51381 - Early Warning Reporting, Foreign Defect Reporting, and Motor Vehicle and Equipment Recall...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ..., and medium-heavy vehicle manufacturers, and forward collision avoidance, lane departure prevention... Control Systems ii. Forward Collision Avoidance and Lane Departure Prevention iii. Segregate ``Service... avoidance, lane departure prevention, and backover prevention; the new medium-heavy vehicle...

  12. 78 FR 78321 - Early Warning Reporting, Foreign Defect Reporting, and Motor Vehicle and Equipment Recall...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... agency's Web site for purposes of learning vehicle recall information. See 78 FR 51382, 51401. This... Reporting, Foreign Defect Reporting, and Motor Vehicle and Equipment Recall Regulations; Meeting AGENCY... electronic transfer of manufacturer recall data to NHTSA when a consumer submits VIN information to...

  13. Design and Experimental Verification of Vibration Suppression Device on the Lift of Wheelchair-accessible Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, Yasuyoshi; Takahashi, Masaki

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, the number of wheelchair-accessible vehicles has increased with the aging of the population. Such vehicles are effective in reducing the burden on caregivers because the wheelchair user does not have to move from his/her wheelchair to a seat of the vehicle. Wheelchair-accessible vehicles are expected to be widely used in the future. However, wheelchair users have reported poor ride comfort. It is thus necessary to suppress the vibration of the vehicle considering the wheelchair user. We designed a passive damping device on the lift of wheelchair-accessible vehicles to improve the ride comfort for wheelchair users. The vibration due to road disturbances reaches the wheelchair user's body through the vehicle and wheelchair. Our control device decreases the acceleration of the torso and improves the ride comfort by ensuring that the frequency of the vibration reaching the wheelchair user differs from the resonance frequency band of the acceleration of the torso, which is the body part that feels the most discomfort. The effectiveness of the control device is verified experimentally.

  14. Modeling of in-vehicle magnetic refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Ulrik Lund; Bahl, Christian R.H.; Engelbrecht, Kurt;

    2014-01-01

    A high-performance magnetic refrigeration device is considered as a potential technology for in-vehicle air conditioners in electric vehicles. The high power consumption of a conventional air conditioner in an electric vehicle has considerable impacts on cruising distance. For this purpose...... on control of the axial thermal conductivity. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and IIR. All rights reserved....

  15. Modeling of In-vehicle Magnetic refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Ulrik Lund; Bahl, Christian; Engelbrecht, Kurt;

    2012-01-01

    A high-performance magnetic refrigeration device is considered as a potential technology for in-vehicle air conditioners in electric vehicles. The high power consumption of a conventional air conditioner in an electric vehicle has considerable impacts on cruising distance. For this purpose...

  16. Paradoxical Effects of Warning in the Production of Children's False Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Prete, Francesco; Mirandola, Chiara; Konishi, Mahiko; Cornoldi, Cesare; Ghetti, Simona

    2014-01-01

    The effects of warning on false recognition and associated subjective experience of false recollection and familiarity were investigated in 7-to 13-year-old children and young adults (N = 259) using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. Two warning conditions (warning with an example of a critical lure and warning without an example of a…

  17. ENERGY-LOADING OF DISKS IN FRICTION PAIRS OF “DISC-PAD” OF BRAKING DEVICES IN VEHICLES (part two

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasin P. S.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the materials of the article we mention the regularities of changes in the volume and surface solid temperature gradients and self-ventilated brake discs and illustrate their impact on the main operating parameters of the friction pairs of disk-to-pad brakes of the A 172 bus; the relationship between thermo-physical parameters of polished and matte surfaces with areas of brake discs of various types. The influence of the type of tests on the pairs of loaded with energy friction disk and pad brakes of the vehicle. We have set the intensity of heat exchange processes from the surfaces of the brake discs of various types. It is shown that this leads to increased surface temperature gradient. The volume and the surface temperature gradients of the brake discs were determined with the involvement of the hypothesis of summation of temperatures on the surface when you post the generated electric currents. It was found that in the surface layer of the working surface of a solid brake disc at its pulse heating under the influence of the temperature of the flash nucleate cracks due to the thermal fatigue of the material of the disk. The features of the design of the brake discs were considered as well. On the basis of the calculation and the experimental data we have shown a correlation between the emissivity of brushed and polished surfaces and their areas in the disk-to-pad brakes when using solid and self-ventilated discs

  18. 77 FR 55605 - Early Warning Reporting, Foreign Defect Reporting, and Motor Vehicle and Equipment Recall...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ...-heavy vehicle manufacturers, and forward collision avoidance, lane departure prevention, and backover... Control Systems 2. Forward Collision Avoidance and Lane Departure Prevention 3. Backover Prevention F..., forward collision avoidance, lane departure prevention, and backover prevention; the new...

  19. Health-Based Audible Noise Guidelines Account for Infrasound and Low-Frequency Noise Produced by Wind Turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, Robert G.; Ashtiani, Payam; Ollson, Christopher A; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa; McCallum, Lindsay C.; Leventhall, Geoff; Knopper, Loren D.

    2015-01-01

    Setbacks for wind turbines have been established in many jurisdictions to address potential health concerns associated with audible noise. However, in recent years, it has been suggested that infrasound (IS) and low-frequency noise (LFN) could be responsible for the onset of adverse health effects self-reported by some individuals living in proximity to wind turbines, even when audible noise limits are met. The purpose of this paper was to investigate whether current audible noise-based guide...

  20. Health-based Audible Noise Guidelines Account for Infrasound and Low Frequency Noise Produced by Wind Turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, Robert G.; Payam eAshtiani; Ollson, Christopher A; Melissa eWhitfield Aslund; McCallum, Lindsay C.; Geoff eLeventhall; Knopper, Loren D.

    2015-01-01

    Setbacks for wind turbines have been established in many jurisdictions to address potential health concerns associated with audible noise. However, in recent years it has been suggested that infrasound (IS) and low frequency noise (LFN) could be responsible for the onset of adverse health effects self-reported by some individuals living in proximity to wind turbines, even when audible noise limits are met. The purpose of this paper was to investigate whether current audible noise-based guidel...

  1. Large-eddy simulation of a turbulent flow over a heavy vehicle with drag reduction devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangseung; Kim, Myeongkyun; You, Donghyun

    2015-11-01

    Aerodynamic drag contributes to a considerable amount of energy loss of heavy vehicles. To reduce the energy loss, drag reduction devices such as side skirts and boat tails, are often installed to the side and the rear of a heavy vehicle. In the present study, turbulent flow around a heavy vehicle with realistic geometric details is simulated using large-eddy simulation (LES), which is capable of providing unsteady flow physics responsible for aerodynamic in sufficient detail. Flow over a heavy vehicle with and without a boat tail and side skirts as drag reduction devices is simulated. The simulation results are validated against accompanying in-house experimental measurements. Effects of a boat tail and side skirts on drag reduction are discussed in detail. Supported by the Korea Agency for Infrastructure Technology Advancement (KAIA) Grant NTIS 1615007940.

  2. Towards a nationwide Early Warning System in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmureanu, A.; Ionescu, C.; Manea, L.

    2012-04-01

    The need to use early warning methods to reduce natural risks in modern societies is related to their unprecedented dependence upon technology. The strong deep events originating from Vrancea-Romania (Mw =7.5) area and shallow events originating from Banat-Romania or Shabla-Bulgaria areas can generate destructive effects in Romania and neighbor countries, and may seriously affect high risk manmade structures. EWS for deep Vrancea earthquakes uses the time interval (28-32 sec.) between the moment when the earthquake is detected by the local seismic network installed in the epicenter area (Vrancea) and the arrival time of the seismic waves in the protected area (Bucharest) to send earthquake warning to users. For the shallow events several methodologies to rapidly estimate earthquake magnitude are under testing. NIEP developed an early warning system that is able to evaluate rapidly earthquake magnitude after detection in the epicenter. In the last years, NIEP upgraded its seismic network in order to cover better the seismic zones of Romania. The early warning system consists of seismic stations that allow rapid communication of data, several software modules developed at NIEP and a communication network. The system allows estimation of earthquake magnitude and permits to send earthquake alarm very fast to users. The early warning software modules minimize communication latencies present in other communication protocols in order to have a rapid magnitude determination. This software was developed by NIEP and is running in present at our institute in real time.

  3. Conspicuity, memorability, comprehension, and priming in road hazard warning signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Samuel G

    2006-05-01

    This study assessed driver reactions to 16 road hazard warning signs of various formats by projecting life-sized video of road scenes to drivers in a driving simulator. A range of measures, including attentional and search conspicuity, implicit and explicit recognition, dynamic and static comprehension, and sign priming were collected. Of the signs tested, road works and school warning signs were most often detected, remembered, and understood. Slippery surface warnings were associated with some of the lowest detection and comprehension rates. The effectiveness of the different formats depended on the type of hazard sign. In the case of road works warnings, a flashing variable message format was only slightly more conspicuous than the large dimension format, equal in comprehensibility, and perhaps somewhat worse in terms of memorability. For the school warnings, however, the flashing variable message format appeared to convey a greater sense of potential hazard, produced superior search conspicuity and priming, and was equal in terms of memorability and comprehensibility. The range of measures worked well as a whole with the two measures of conspicuity and the measure of static comprehension showing the greatest consistency.

  4. 医疗设备智能定位预警系统的研究%Research on intelligent positionig system of warning device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟东宁; 王丹; 蒋知新; 李侠

    2014-01-01

    Objective:Achieving evaluating soldier injury by infrared imaging method and information management of early warning equipment, boosting the using efficiency of device, lowering the administrative cost of device, serving effectively on clinical, establishing the Internet of Things (IOT) administrative system platform, achieving digitalizing, informative administrative mode.Methods: Adopting RFID radio frequence recognitive technology, designing the intelligence dynamic tracking administrative system.Results: In the using period of equipment in wartime, controlling the status of device at any time, obtaining the working data, bringing about the intellectual informative administration by identity recognition.Conclusion: Using RFID theory and character, combining the device-administrative controlling platform, may achieve the using and flowing condition of real time monitoring device, reflect the mobile tracking record and warning, the administrative statistic statement of device. In order to build an early warning mechanism management which advanced, standard and optimized.%目的:实现战时评估战伤伤情的红外影像方法与设备预警信息化管理,提高设备使用效率,降低设备的管理成本,有效服务于战争环境。方法:采用射频识别(RFID)技术,设计智能动态定位管理系统。建立管理物联网系统平台,实现设备智能定位预警数字化、信息化管理模式。结果:智能定位预警系统的建立,可实时了解战时环境医疗设备的使用周期和使用状态,及时获取有效数据,通过身份识别与定位,实现医疗设备的预警智能信息化管理。结论:利用RFID的原理、特点及医疗设备管理监控平台,能够实时监控医疗设备的使用和流动情况,可实现对医疗设备的移动跟踪记录、报警以及设备的统计报表等管理目标,进一步规范和优化医疗设备的预警管理机制。

  5. Human factors research problems in electronic voice warning system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, C. A.; Williams, D. H.

    1975-01-01

    The speech messages issued by voice warning systems must be carefully designed in accordance with general principles of human decision making processes, human speech comprehension, and the conditions in which the warnings can occur. The operator's effectiveness must not be degraded by messages that are either inappropriate or difficult to comprehend. Important experimental variables include message content, linguistic redundancy, signal/noise ratio, interference with concurrent tasks, and listener expectations generated by the pragmatic or real world context in which the messages are presented.

  6. Operational thermal conditions of optoelectronic devices for МС-2-8 space vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Grеnyuk I. Ye.; Khominich V. I.; Rogachev V. A.; Khayrnasov S. М.; Rassamakin B. М.

    2008-01-01

    Description of ТВК-2.5 simulation plant for thermal vacuum tests on space applied equipment and devices are given. Thermal vacuum test results on thermal mock-up of МС-2-8 small space vehicle (SP) with mounted on-board optoelectronic devices (OED) and with simulators of external and internal thermal radiation are adduced. Thermal vacuum tests were carried out in order to ensure OED reliability in orbit.

  7. Road Accident Prevention with Instant Emergency Warning Message Dissemination in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokulakrishnan, P; Ganeshkumar, P

    2015-01-01

    A Road Accident Prevention (RAP) scheme based on Vehicular Backbone Network (VBN) structure is proposed in this paper for Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET). The RAP scheme attempts to prevent vehicles from highway road traffic accidents and thereby reduces death and injury rates. Once the possibility of an emergency situation (i.e. an accident) is predicted in advance, instantly RAP initiates a highway road traffic accident prevention scheme. The RAP scheme constitutes the following activities: (i) the Road Side Unit (RSU) constructs a Prediction Report (PR) based on the status of the vehicles and traffic in the highway roads, (ii) the RSU generates an Emergency Warning Message (EWM) based on an abnormal PR, (iii) the RSU forms a VBN structure and (iv) the RSU disseminates the EWM to the vehicles that holds the high Risk Factor (RF) and travels in High Risk Zone (HRZ). These vehicles might reside either within the RSU's coverage area or outside RSU's coverage area (reached using VBN structure). The RAP scheme improves the performance of EWM dissemination in terms of increase in notification and decrease in end-to-end delay. The RAP scheme also reduces infrastructure cost (number of RSUs) by formulating and deploying the VBN structure. The RAP scheme with VBN structure improves notification by 19 percent and end-to-end delay by 14.38 percent for a vehicle density of 160 vehicles. It is also proved from the simulation experiment that the performance of RAP scheme is promising in 4-lane highway roads.

  8. Reactions to Graphic Health Warnings in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonnemaker, James M.; Choiniere, Conrad J.; Farrelly, Matthew C.; Kamyab, Kian; Davis, Kevin C.

    2015-01-01

    This study reports consumer reactions to the graphic health warnings selected by the Food and Drug Administration to be placed on cigarette packs in the United States. We recruited three sets of respondents for an experimental study from a national opt-in e-mail list sample: (i) current smokers aged 25 or older, (ii) young adult smokers aged 18-24…

  9. Famines in Africa: is early warning early enough?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeeyon Janet Kim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Following the second Sahelian famine in 1984–1985, major investments were made to establish Early Warning Systems. These systems help to ensure that timely warnings and vulnerability information are available to decision makers to anticipate and avert food crises. In the recent crisis in the Horn of Africa, alarming levels of acute malnutrition were documented from March 2010, and by August 2010, an impending food crisis was forecast. Despite these measures, the situation remained unrecognised, and further deteriorated causing malnutrition levels to grow in severity and scope. By the time the United Nations officially declared famine on 20 July 2011, and the humanitarian community sluggishly went into response mode, levels of malnutrition and mortality exceeded catastrophic levels. At this time, an estimated 11 million people were in desperate and immediate need for food. With warnings of food crises in the Sahel, South Sudan, and forecast of the drought returning to the Horn, there is an immediate need to institutionalize change in the health response during humanitarian emergencies. Early warning systems are only effective if they trigger an early response.

  10. The Food Early Warning System Project in Somalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leblanc, M.

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes shortly the objectives of a Food Early Warning System (FEWS project, as well as its organisation. The specifie case of Somalia, where the project had to evolve in increasingly difficult situations, and the solutions used so as to preserve the output, are described.

  11. The pathway to earthquake early warning in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R. M.; Given, D. D.; Heaton, T. H.; Vidale, J. E.; West Coast Earthquake Early Warning Development Team

    2013-05-01

    The development of earthquake early warning capabilities in the United States is now accelerating and expanding as the technical capability to provide warning is demonstrated and additional funding resources are making it possible to expand the current testing region to the entire west coast (California, Oregon and Washington). Over the course of the next two years we plan to build a prototype system that will provide a blueprint for a full public system in the US. California currently has a demonstrations warning system, ShakeAlert, that provides alerts to a group of test users from the public and private sector. These include biotech companies, technology companies, the entertainment industry, the transportation sector, and the emergency planning and response community. Most groups are currently in an evaluation mode, receiving the alerts and developing protocols for future response. The Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) system is the one group who has now implemented an automated response to the warning system. BART now stops trains when an earthquake of sufficient size is detected. Research and development also continues to develop improved early warning algorithms to better predict the distribution of shaking in large earthquakes when the finiteness of the source becomes important. The algorithms under development include the use of both seismic and GPS instrumentation and integration with existing point source algorithms. At the same time, initial testing and development of algorithms in and for the Pacific Northwest is underway. In this presentation we will review the current status of the systems, highlight the new research developments, and lay out a pathway to a full public system for the US west coast. The research and development described is ongoing at Caltech, UC Berkeley, University of Washington, ETH Zurich, Southern California Earthquake Center, and the US Geological Survey, and is funded by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation and the US Geological

  12. Using warnings to reduce categorical false memories in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Anna M; Gutchess, Angela H

    2016-07-01

    Warnings about memory errors can reduce their incidence, although past work has largely focused on associative memory errors. The current study sought to explore whether warnings could be tailored to specifically reduce false recall of categorical information in both younger and older populations. Before encoding word pairs designed to induce categorical false memories, half of the younger and older participants were warned to avoid committing these types of memory errors. Older adults who received a warning committed fewer categorical memory errors, as well as other types of semantic memory errors, than those who did not receive a warning. In contrast, young adults' memory errors did not differ for the warning versus no-warning groups. Our findings provide evidence for the effectiveness of warnings at reducing categorical memory errors in older adults, perhaps by supporting source monitoring, reduction in reliance on gist traces, or through effective metacognitive strategies. PMID:26274627

  13. TSUNAMI WARNING SYSTEM IN THE PACIFIC: Brief Historical Review of its Establishment and Institutional Support

    OpenAIRE

    George Pararas-Carayannis

    2015-01-01

    The year 2015 marks the 50th anniversary of operations of the International Tsunami Warning System in the Pacific Ocean. The present report describes briefly the establishment of the rudimentary early tsunami warning system in 1948 by the USA after the disastrous tsunami of April 1, 1946, generated by a great earthquake in the Aleutian Islands, struck without warning the Hawaiian Islands and other parts of the Pacific. Also reviewed are the progressive improvements made to the U.S. warning sy...

  14. Near-field tsunami early warning and emergency planning in the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerassimos A. Papadopoulos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The new European project Near-field Tsunami Early Warning and Emergency Planning in the Mediterranean Sea (NEARTOWARN faces the need to develop operational tsunami early warning systems in near-field (local conditions where the travel time of the first tsunami wave is very short, that is less than 30 min, which is a typical case in the North East Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea region but also elsewhere around the globe. The operational condition that should be fulfilled is that the time of tsunami detection, plus the time of warning transmitting, plus the time of evacuation should not exceed the travel time of the first tsunami wave from its source to the closest evacuation zone. To this goal the time to detect of the causative earthquake should be compressed at the very minimum. In this context the core of the proposed system is a network of seismic early warning devices, which activate and send alert in a few seconds after the generation of a near-field earthquake, when a seismic ground motion exceeding a prescribed threshold is detected. Then civil protection mobilizes to manage the earthquake crisis but also to detect and manage a possible tsunami through a geographical risk management system. For the tsunami detection the system is supported by tide-gauges of radar type, a database of presimulated tsunami scenarios, and a local tsunami decision matrix. The island of Rhodes in the eastern termination of the Hellenic Arc and Trench has been selected for a pilot and operational development of the local tsunami warning system given that the island is a highly popular tourist destination, historically it was hit by large tsunamigenic earthquakes and was recently the master test-site for the pan-European FP6 tsunami research project Tsunami Risk ANd Strategies For the European Region (TRANSFER.

  15. Reproduction of Realistic Background Noise for Testing Telecommunications Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gil Corrales, Juan David; Song, Wookeun; MacDonald, Ewen

    2015-01-01

    A method for reproduction of sound, based on crosstalk cancellation using inverse filters, was implemented in the context of testing telecommunications devices. The effect of the regularization parameter, number of loudspeakers, type of background noise, and a technique to attenuate audible artif......, the performance was equally good when using eight or four loudspeakers, and the reproduction method was shown to be robust for different program materials. The proposed technique to reduce audible artifacts increased the perceived similarity....

  16. Aerodynamic and Electromagnetic Characteristics Research of High-altitude Long-endurance Early Warning Unmanned Aerial Vehicles%高空长航时无人预警机气动及电磁特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任武; 周洲; 王正平

    2012-01-01

    高空长航时无人预警机具有反应迅速、成本低廉、覆盖范围广等优点,是侦察卫星、高空飞艇等侦察平台的重要补充.基于天线特性,提出两种将柱面天线与高空长航时无人机融合的布局形式,将雷达反射面天线布置于无人机中段,并分析两种布局在气动及电磁特性的差异,为此类特种高空长航时无人预警机的设计提供了一定的理论依据.%The high-altitude long-endurance ( HALE) early warning unmanned aerial vehicles ( UAV) had become an important complementarity of reconnaissance satellite and high-altitude airship as reconnaissance platform, since it was excellence in quick response, low cost, vast coverage area, etc. Based on the character of antenna, two high-altitude long-endurance early warning unmanned aerial vehicles layouts combined with antenna which was set in the middle of the whole plane were put forward. And then analyzed the aerodynamic and electromagnetic character difference between the two layouts. A certain theory evidence is provided for the design of these special high altitude long-endurance early warning aircraft.

  17. Simulated Evaluation of Vehicle Collision Warning System Taking Account of Driver's Behavior%考虑驾驶员行为的车辆防撞系统仿真评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李聪颖; 蔡光林; 朱彤

    2011-01-01

    为评价车辆防撞警告算法的有效性,建立了以有效警告率、误警率等为主要评价指标的评价体系.根据实际道路交通情况,设计仿真场景,根据有无防撞警告系统条件设计实验组与对照组.采用Visual Basic 2005对微观交通仿真软件VISSIM进行二次开发,实现了警告算法仿真评价平台,实现了VB端参数输入、仿真结果输出以及指标自动统计等功能.实验中考虑了驾驶员反应时间与车辆减速度不同带来的影响.在仿真平台上,以Honda与PATH两种警告算法为例,进行仿真评价分析与比较.实验结果表明,前者有效警告率较低,而后者有效警告率较高,但同时误警率也较高.上述结论与相关研究一致,表明该评价方法能够对各种警告算法进行有效而低成本的定量分析评价.%In order to evaluate vehicle collision avoidance systems, and to optimize the warning algorithm, this paper proposes a serial of indexes, including the effective warning rate and the wrong warning rate. According to the actual road conditions, simulation scenarios and experimental procedures are designed, for the experimental group and the control group, with and without warning system. A simulation evaluation method is used to obtain the corresponding indexes. According to the method, a platform for the warning algorithm simulation evaluation is built by the secondary development of the microscopic traffic simulation software VISSIM based on Visual Basic 2005. Various functions are implemented, including the parameter input, the result output at the VB port, the simulation process control, and the automatic statistical analysis. Honda and PATH algorithms are evaluated on the platform. It is shown that the latter algorithm has a higher effective warning rate and lower wrong warning rate as compared with the former one. The evaluation results are consistent with other related studies, which shows that the method is an effective quantitative

  18. Arm7 Based Evolution in Vehicle Mobility and Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. N. S. Vaidya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The “Arm7 Based Evolution In Vehicle Mobility And Automation”, various sensor is used to detect various parameters of the vehicle system like Temperature sensor is used to detect engine temperature, Light sensor is used to switch on head light at night automatically, proximity sensor are used for driver as well as driver side seat belt wearing information, figure print sensor are used to open the vehicle as well as start the car. Micro serial data card reader is used here to work as a black box of the vehicle, whenever accident happen it can give all the last information which is stored in to memory card to the investigator, which is easy to detect the cause of accident. The smartness of this vehicle is to tell all the information or sensor output data audibly to the vehicle owner or driver and driver side seat passenger. All the things can be controlled by one system which is ARM7 and information is also displayed on LCD monitor

  19. Alcohol Warning Posters: How To Get Legislation Passed in Your City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Science in the Public Interest, Washington, DC.

    This manual was developed to assist citizens seeking alcohol warning posters wherever alcoholic beverages are sold. Warning posters can include health information about drinking during pregnancy, the danger of using alcohol while driving or using machinery, or alcohol dependency and addiction. Warning posters are now required in cities such as New…

  20. Longer Term Impact of Cigarette Package Warnings in Australia Compared with the United Kingdom and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua; Cummings, Kenneth M.; Thrasher, James F.; Hitchman, Sara C.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Hammond, David; Bansal-Travers, Maansi

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effects of different cigarette package warnings in Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom up to 5 years post-implementation. The data came from the International Tobacco Control Surveys. Measures included salience of warnings, cognitive responses, forgoing cigarettes and avoiding warnings. Although salience of the UK…

  1. Near-Field Tsunami Early Warning and Preparedeness in the Mediterranean: the EU NEARTOWARN Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Gerasimos; Karastathis, Vasilis; Novikova, Tatyana; Fokaefs, Anna; Minadakis, George; Papageorgiou, Antonia; Tinti, Stefano; Armigliato, Alberto; Ausilia Paparo, Maria; Zaniboni, Filippo; Georgiou, George; Aniel Quiroga, Inigo; Gonzalez, Mauricio; Alvarez-Gomez, Jose Antonio; Lesne, Olivia; Renou, Camille; Mangin, Antoine; Schindele, Francois; Argyris, Ilias

    2014-05-01

    The Mediterranean Sea region is characterized by near-field tsunamis (travel times less than 30 min.). An efficient end-to-end warning system should fulfill the condition that the time needed from an earthquake detection to evacuation is less than the arrival time of the first wave, which is a very hard task in the Mediterranean. The project NEARTOWARN, which is supported by the EU DG-ECHO prevention program aims, among others, to establish a pilot system in Rhodes island, SE Aegean Sea, Greece, with the purpose to meet needs for local tsunami early warning but applicable in other coastal zones of the Mediterranean and beyond. To minimize emergency time in less than 30 sec, seismic alert devices (SEDs) make the core component of alerting. SEDs are activated and send alerting signals as soon as a P- phase of seismic wave is detected in the near-field domain and for a predetermined threshold of ground motion. Then, emergency starts while SEDs activate remotely other devices, such as computers with data bases of pre-calculated tsunami simulations, surveillance cameras etc. The system is completed with tide- gauges, simulated tsunami scenarios and emergency planning supported by a Geographical Management System. Rhodes island in Dodecanese, Greece, has been selected as a test- area for the development of the prototype system. To promote the future development of such local systems in other coastal zones of the Mediterranean the NEARTOWARN partners review current status of early warning systems, produce digital inventories of wave travel times from several tsunami sources to a number of forecasting points, standardize data bases for pre-simulated tsunami scenarios and optimize triggering thresholds for the SED alerting networks. A local system such as the one developed by NEARTOWARN is expected to function in synergy with national and regional warning systems such as the one coordinated NEAMTWS.

  2. Collision warning system based on probability density functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, T.H.A. van den; Ploeg, J.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a collision warning method between the host vehicle and target object(s) is studied. A probabilistic collision warning method is proposed, which is, in particular, useful for objects, e.g. vulnerable road users, which trajectories can rapidly change heading and/or velocity with respec

  3. Design of Expressway communication protocol for automotive collision warning systems%高速公路汽车防碰撞预警系统的通信协议设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹光寿; 蔡启仲; 蓝全钊; 翁超; 包华倩; 潘绍明

    2013-01-01

    文章根据自主设计的一种高速公路汽车防碰撞预警系统,车载装置检测车辆运行状况,判断车辆运行是否异常或有故障,自动或手动发送信息预警,高速公路路边装置接收车载装置的信息,根据信息类型向该车辆行驶方向后面的路边装置发送信息,后面的路边装置将车辆前方的交通异常状况发送给车载装置。文章中构建Zigbee无线网络,设计无线通信协议,规范了车载装置与路边装置,路边装置相互之间,车载装置与入口测试启动装置,出口关闭装置,通信频率设置的通信协议,给出了程序流程图,经过测试满足高速公路汽车防碰撞预警系统的应用要求。%Presented a highway motor vehicle collision warning systems, autonomous speed highway-vehicle devices on vehicles, and to determine whether the vehicle speed set security value below the highway automatically, you can manually send message warning, freeway on-ramp test starter on highway vehicle performance testing device, start the highway-vehicle device, set up safe speed limit, Highway closed highways closed device-vehicle device features Highway direction of travel frequency settings, device settings Highway truck-mounted communications device in the highway direction frequencies, expressway monitoring and communication device real-time monitoring of vehicle travel, and while the vehicles are in normal form, anti-collision warning output; The highway vehicle collision warning systems can be monitored in real time and receive the abnormal traffic safety warnings ahead, sent the safe speed limit values due to weather and road conditions change, improves the safety of highway traffic.

  4. The Research and Implementation of Vehicle Bluetooth Hands-free Devices Key Parameters Downloading Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-bo; Wang, Zhi-xue; Li, Jian-xin; Ma, Jian-hui; Li, Yang; Li, Yan-qiang

    In order to facilitate Bluetooth function realization and information can be effectively tracked in the process of production, the vehicle Bluetooth hands-free devices need to download such key parameters as Bluetooth address, CVC license and base plate numbers, etc. Therefore, it is the aim to search simple and effective methods to download parameters for each vehicle Bluetooth hands-free device, and to control and record the use of parameters. In this paper, by means of Bluetooth Serial Peripheral Interface programmer device, the parallel port is switched to SPI. The first step is to download parameters is simulating SPI with the parallel port. To perform SPI function, operating the parallel port in accordance with the SPI timing. The next step is to achieve SPI data transceiver functions according to the programming parameters of options. Utilizing the new method, downloading parameters is fast and accurate. It fully meets vehicle Bluetooth hands-free devices production requirements. In the production line, it has played a large role.

  5. Role of remote sensing in desert locust early warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cressman, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria, Forskål) plagues have historically had devastating consequences on food security in Africa and Asia. The current strategy to reduce the frequency of plagues and manage desert locust infestations is early warning and preventive control. To achieve this, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations operates one of the oldest, largest, and best-known migratory pest monitoring systems in the world. Within this system, remote sensing plays an important role in detecting rainfall and green vegetation. Despite recent technological advances in data management and analysis, communications, and remote sensing, monitoring desert locusts and preventing plagues in the years ahead will continue to be a challenge from a geopolitical and financial standpoint for affected countries and the international donor community. We present an overview of the use of remote sensing in desert locust early warning.

  6. The Forecasting and Warning System of Geological Disasters in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YaoXuexiang; XuJing

    2004-01-01

    Geological disasters such as landslide and mudslide can be caused by many factors. Collaborations among different governmental agencies and multi-disciplines are necessary to establish a forecasting and warning system of geological disasters ( FWSGD). A FWSGD in China has been in operation since June 1 , 2003 as a joint project between the China Meteorological Administration (CMA) and the Ministry of Land and Resources ( MLR). This system has successfully shown very good social and economic benefits. The temporal-spatial distributions of China geological disasters and their causes have been analyzed in this paper. The FWSGD is described and its possible existing issues are also discussed. Authors suggest a new approach to study these disasters from interactions of the earth systems. Finally, a monitoring, forecasting, warning and preventing system for geological disasters in China is proposed.

  7. Alerting prefixes for speech warning messages. [in helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, N. M.; Voorhees, J. W.; Karl, R. L.; Werner, E.

    1984-01-01

    A major question posed by the design of an integrated voice information display/warning system for next-generation helicopter cockpits is whether an alerting prefix should precede voice warning messages; if so, the characteristics desirable in such a cue must also be addressed. Attention is presently given to the results of a study which ascertained pilot response time and response accuracy to messages preceded by either neutral cues or the cognitively appropriate semantic cues. Both verbal cues and messages were spoken in direct, phoneme-synthesized speech, and a training manipulation was included to determine the extent to which previous exposure to speech thus produced facilitates these messages' comprehension. Results are discussed in terms of the importance of human factors research in cockpit display design.

  8. Supernova Early Warning in Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Hanyu Wei for the Daya Bay collaboration

    2013-01-01

    Providing an early warning of a galactic supernova using neutrino signals is of importance in studying both supernova dynamics and neutrino physics. The Daya Bay reactor neutrino experiment, with a unique feature of multiple liquid scintillator detectors separated in space, is sensitive to the full energy spectrum of supernova burst electron-antineutrinos. By deploying 8 Antineutrino Detectors (ADs) in three different experimental halls, we obtain a more powerful and prompt rejection of muon ...

  9. Identifying the Key Factors Affecting Warning Message Dissemination in VANET Real Urban Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Manzoni

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, new architectures and technologies have been proposed for Vehicular Ad Hoc networks (VANETs. Due to the cost and complexity of deploying such networks, most of these proposals rely on simulation. However, we find that most of the experiments made to validate these proposals tend to overlook the most important and representative factors. Moreover, the scenarios simulated tend to be very simplistic (highways or Manhattan-based layouts, which could seriously affect the validity of the obtained results. In this paper, we present a statistical analysis based on the 2k factorial methodology to determine the most representative factors affecting traffic safety applications under real roadmaps. Our purpose is to determine which are the key factors affecting Warning Message Dissemination in order to concentrate research tests on such parameters, thus avoiding unnecessary simulations and reducing the amount of simulation time required. Simulation results show that the key factors affecting warning messages delivery are the density of vehicles and the roadmap used. Based on this statistical analysis, we consider that VANET researchers must evaluate the benefits of their proposals using different vehicle densities and city scenarios, to obtain a broad perspective on the effectiveness of their solution. Finally, since city maps can be quite heterogeneous, we propose a roadmap profile classification to further reduce the number of cities evaluated.

  10. Identifying the key factors affecting warning message dissemination in VANET real urban scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogue, Manuel; Garrido, Piedad; Martinez, Francisco J; Cano, Juan-Carlos; Calafate, Carlos T; Manzoni, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, new architectures and technologies have been proposed for Vehicular Ad Hoc networks (VANETs). Due to the cost and complexity of deploying such networks, most of these proposals rely on simulation. However, we find that most of the experiments made to validate these proposals tend to overlook the most important and representative factors. Moreover, the scenarios simulated tend to be very simplistic (highways or Manhattan-based layouts), which could seriously affect the validity of the obtained results. In this paper, we present a statistical analysis based on the 2k factorial methodology to determine the most representative factors affecting traffic safety applications under real roadmaps. Our purpose is to determine which are the key factors affecting Warning Message Dissemination in order to concentrate research tests on such parameters, thus avoiding unnecessary simulations and reducing the amount of simulation time required. Simulation results show that the key factors affecting warning messages delivery are the density of vehicles and the roadmap used. Based on this statistical analysis, we consider that VANET researchers must evaluate the benefits of their proposals using different vehicle densities and city scenarios, to obtain a broad perspective on the effectiveness of their solution. Finally, since city maps can be quite heterogeneous, we propose a roadmap profile classification to further reduce the number of cities evaluated. PMID:23604026

  11. Warning against the dangers of wildfires in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozny, M.; Bares, D.; Virag, M.; Stalmacher, J.

    2009-04-01

    Many fire risk models have been developed for various temporal and spatial scales and application purposes. The integrated warning service in the Czech Republic is used for wildfire risk assessment model of FDI (Fire Danger Index). The FDI model is being developed in the Doksany observatory based on evaluation of weather conditions. FDI model describes danger of wildfire for vegetation covered countryside. There are five levels of danger: 1 - very low risk, 2 - low risk, 3 - moderate risk, 4 - high risk, 5 - very high risk. Simply say higher index value, reflects to higher risk of wildfire. As input data, the model uses measured values from the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute stations network as well as ALADIN's model predicted conditions. The modelling process computes upper soil profile moisture, surface moistening and the spreading speed of fire. Early warning system for wildfires prevention in the Czech Republic is used since 2006.

  12. Kinetic energy recovery systems in motor vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śliwiński, C.

    2016-09-01

    The article draws attention to the increasing environmental pollution caused by the development of vehicle transport and motorization. Different types of design solutions used in vehicles for the reduction of fuel consumption, and thereby emission of toxic gasses into the atmosphere, were specified. Historical design solutions concerning energy recovery devices in mechanical vehicles which used flywheels to accumulate kinetic energy were shown. Developmental tendencies in the area of vehicle manufacturing in the form of hybrid electric and electric devices were discussed. Furthermore, designs of energy recovery devices with electrical energy storage from the vehicle braking and shock absorbing systems were presented. A mechanical energy storing device using a flywheel operating under vacuum was presented, as were advantages and disadvantages of both systems, the limitations they impose on individual constructions and safety issues. The paper also discusses a design concept of an energy recovery device in mechanical vehicles which uses torsion springs as the main components of energy accumulation during braking. The desirability of a cooperation of both the mechanical- and electrical energy recovery devices was indicated.

  13. Early warning signals of tipping points in periodically forced systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Mark S.; Bathiany, Sebastian; Lenton, Timothy M.

    2016-04-01

    The prospect of finding generic early warning signals of an approaching tipping point in a complex system has generated much interest recently. Existing methods are predicated on a separation of timescales between the system studied and its forcing. However, many systems, including several candidate tipping elements in the climate system, are forced periodically at a timescale comparable to their internal dynamics. Here we use alternative early warning signals of tipping points due to local bifurcations in systems subjected to periodic forcing whose timescale is similar to the period of the forcing. These systems are not in, or close to, a fixed point. Instead their steady state is described by a periodic attractor. For these systems, phase lag and amplification of the system response can provide early warning signals, based on a linear dynamics approximation. Furthermore, the Fourier spectrum of the system's time series reveals harmonics of the forcing period in the system response whose amplitude is related to how nonlinear the system's response is becoming with nonlinear effects becoming more prominent closer to a bifurcation. We apply these indicators as well as a return map analysis to a simple conceptual system and satellite observations of Arctic sea ice area, the latter conjectured to have a bifurcation type tipping point. We find no detectable signal of the Arctic sea ice approaching a local bifurcation.

  14. Energy storage devices for future hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karden, Eckhard; Ploumen, Servé; Fricke, Birger; Miller, Ted; Snyder, Kent

    Powertrain hybridization as well as electrical energy management are imposing new requirements on electrical storage systems in vehicles. This paper characterizes the associated vehicle attributes and, in particular, the various levels of hybrids. New requirements for the electrical storage system are derived, including: shallow-cycle life, high dynamic charge acceptance particularly for regenerative braking and robust service life in sustained partial-state-of-charge usage. Lead/acid, either with liquid or absorptive glass-fibre mat electrolyte, is expected to remain the predominant battery technology for 14 V systems, including micro-hybrids, and with a cost-effective battery monitoring system for demanding applications. Advanced AGM batteries may be considered for mild or even medium hybrids once they have proven robustness under real-world conditions, particularly with respect to cycle life at partial-states-of-charge and dynamic charge acceptance. For the foreseeable future, NiMH and Li-ion are the dominating current and potential battery technologies for higher-functionality HEVs. Li-ion, currently at development and demonstration stages, offers attractive opportunities for improvements in performance and cost. Supercapacitors may be considered for pulse power applications. Aside from cell technologies, attention to the issue of system integration of the battery into the powertrain and vehicle is growing. Opportunities and challenges for potential "battery pack" system suppliers are discussed.

  15. Seasonal Water Balance Forecasts for Drought Early Warning in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirig, Christoph; Bhend, Jonas; Liniger, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Droughts severely impact Ethiopian agricultural production. Successful early warning for drought conditions in the upcoming harvest season therefore contributes to better managing food shortages arising from adverse climatic conditions. So far, however, meteorological seasonal forecasts have not been used in Ethiopia's national food security early warning system (i.e. the LEAP platform). Here we analyse the forecast quality of seasonal forecasts of total rainfall and of the meteorological water balance as a proxy for plant available water. We analyse forecast skill of June to September rainfall and water balance from dynamical seasonal forecast systems, the ECMWF System4 and EC-EARTH global forecasting systems. Rainfall forecasts outperform forecasts assuming a stationary climate mainly in north-eastern Ethiopia - an area that is particularly vulnerable to droughts. Forecasts of the water balance index seem to be even more skilful and thus more useful than pure rainfall forecasts. The results vary though for different lead times and skill measures employed. We further explore the potential added value of dynamically downscaling the forecasts through several dynamical regional climate models made available through the EU FP7 project EUPORIAS. Preliminary results suggest that dynamically downscaled seasonal forecasts are not significantly better compared with seasonal forecasts from the global models. We conclude that seasonal forecasts of a simple climate index such as the water balance have the potential to benefit drought early warning in Ethiopia, both due to its positive predictive skill and higher usefulness than seasonal mean quantities.

  16. Progress in developing an Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning System (IOTWS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detweiler, S.; Mooney, W. D.; Kelly, A.; Atwater, B.; Sipkin, S.; Petersen, M.; Hudnut, K.

    2007-12-01

    Nearly three years following the devastating 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, there is much progress to report on building a new Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning System (IOTWS) which will provide tsunami early warnings and framework for disaster management and response systems. To date, the IOTWS has utilized the leadership and technical expertise of many countries including Indonesia, Thailand, India, Sri Lanka, and the Maldives, together with assistance from international partners. Inter-agency cooperation has combined expertise in a broad range of disciplines to accomplish several goals including: 1) developing infrastructures for both real-time analysis of seismic data and rapid communication and warnings (including the upgrade of several Indonesian seismic and GPS stations), 2) land use planning and community preparation aimed at minimizing damage and loss of life from future disasters, and 3) international support for logistics, communications, training, management and administration. Throughout the implementation of the IOTWS, a primary focus was placed on "in-country capacity building," so that individual nations can be self-sustaining in their efforts. We believe that this has been accomplished through extensive training sessions, workshops and site visits.

  17. The role of warning behaviors in threat assessment: an exploration and suggested typology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid Meloy, J; Hoffmann, Jens; Guldimann, Angela; James, David

    2012-01-01

    The concept of warning behaviors offers an additional perspective in threat assessment. Warning behaviors are acts which constitute evidence of increasing or accelerating risk. They are acute, dynamic, and particularly toxic changes in patterns of behavior which may aid in structuring a professional's judgment that an individual of concern now poses a threat - whether the actual target has been identified or not. They require an operational response. A typology of eight warning behaviors for assessing the threat of intended violence is proposed: pathway, fixation, identification, novel aggression, energy burst, leakage, directly communicated threat, and last resort warning behaviors. Previous research on risk factors associated with such warning behaviors is reviewed, and examples of each warning behavior from various intended violence cases are presented, including public figure assassination, adolescent and adult mass murder, corporate celebrity stalking, and both domestic and foreign acts of terrorism. Practical applications and future research into warning behaviors are suggested. PMID:22556034

  18. Study of Disseminating Landslide Early Warning Information in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koay, Swee Peng; Lateh, Habibah; Tien Tay, Lea; Ahamd, Jamilah; Chan, Huah Yong; Sakai, Naoki; Jamaludin, Suhaimi

    2015-04-01

    In Malaysia, rain induced landslides are occurring more often than before. The Malaysian Government allocates millions of Malaysian Ringgit for slope monitoring and slope failure remedial measures in the budget every year. In rural areas, local authorities also play a major role in monitoring the slope to prevent casualty by giving information to the residents who are staying near to the slopes. However, there are thousands of slopes which are classified as high risk slopes in Malaysia. Implementing site monitoring system in these slopes to monitor the movement of the soil in the slopes, predicting the occurrence of slopes failure and establishing early warning system are too costly and almost impossible. In our study, we propose Accumulated Rainfall vs. Rainfall Intensity prediction method to predict the slope failure by referring to the predicted rainfall data from radar and the rain volume from rain gauges. The critical line which determines if the slope is in danger, is generated by simulator with well-surveyed the soil property in the slope and compared with historical data. By establishing such predicting system, the slope failure warning information can be obtained and disseminated to the surroundings via SMS, internet and siren. However, establishing the early warning dissemination system is not enough in disaster prevention, educating school children and the community by giving knowledge on landslides, such as landslide's definition, how and why does the slope failure happen and when will it fail, to raise the risk awareness on landslides will reduce landslides casualty, especially in rural area. Moreover, showing video on the risk and symptom of landslides in school will also help the school children gaining the knowledge of landslides. Generating hazard map and landslides historical data provides further information on the occurrence of the slope failure. In future, further study on fine tuning of landslides prediction method, applying IT technology to

  19. Debris flow early warning systems in Norway: organization and tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleivane, I.; Colleuille, H.; Haugen, L. E.; Alve Glad, P.; Devoli, G.

    2012-04-01

    In Norway, shallow slides and debris flows occur as a combination of high-intensity precipitation, snowmelt, high groundwater level and saturated soil. Many events have occurred in the last decades and are often associated with (or related to) floods events, especially in the Southern of Norway, causing significant damages to roads, railway lines, buildings, and other infrastructures (i.e November 2000; August 2003; September 2005; November 2005; Mai 2008; June and Desember 2011). Since 1989 the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE) has had an operational 24 hour flood forecasting system for the entire country. From 2009 NVE is also responsible to assist regions and municipalities in the prevention of disasters posed by landslides and snow avalanches. Besides assisting the municipalities through implementation of digital landslides inventories, susceptibility and hazard mapping, areal planning, preparation of guidelines, realization of mitigation measures and helping during emergencies, NVE is developing a regional scale debris flow warning system that use hydrological models that are already available in the flood warning systems. It is well known that the application of rainfall thresholds is not sufficient to evaluate the hazard for debris flows and shallow slides, and soil moisture conditions play a crucial role in the triggering conditions. The information on simulated soil and groundwater conditions and water supply (rain and snowmelt) based on weather forecast, have proved to be useful variables that indicate the potential occurrence of debris flows and shallow slides. Forecasts of runoff and freezing-thawing are also valuable information. The early warning system is using real-time measurements (Discharge; Groundwater level; Soil water content and soil temperature; Snow water equivalent; Meteorological data) and model simulations (a spatially distributed version of the HBV-model and an adapted version of 1-D soil water and energy balance

  20. Drought early warning and risk management in a changing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulwarty, R. S.

    2011-12-01

    Drought has long been recognized as falling into the category of incremental but long-term and cumulative environmental changes, also termed slow-onset or creeping events. These event types would include: air and water quality decline, desertification processes, deforestation and forest fragmentation, loss of biodiversity and habitats, and nitrogen overloading, among others. Climate scientists continue to struggle with recognizing the onset of drought and scientists and policy makers continue to debate the basis (i.e., criteria) for declaring an end to a drought. Risk-based management approaches to drought planning at the national and regional levels have been recommended repeatedly over the years but their prototyping, testing and operational implementation have been limited. This presentation will outline two avenues for disaster risk reduction in the context of drought (1) integrated early warning information systems, and (2) linking disaster risk reduction to climate change adaptation strategies. Adaptation involves not only using operational facilities and infrastructure to cope with the immediate problems but also leaving slack or reserve for coping with multiple stress problems that produce extreme impacts and surprise. Increasing the 'anticipatability' of an event, involves both monitoring of key indicators from appropriate baseline data, and observing early warning signs that assumptions in risk management plans are failing and critical transitions are occurring. Illustrative cases will be drawn from the IPCC Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters (2011), the UN Global Assessment of Disaster Risk Reduction (2011) and implementation activities in which the author has been engaged. Most drought early warning systems have tended to focus on the development and use of physical system indicators and forecasts of trends and thresholds. We show that successful early warning systems that meet expectations of risk management also have

  1. FURTHER DEVELOPMENTS OF MULTI-PURPOSE UNDERWATER DATA COLLECTION DEVICES DEPLOYED WITH REMOTELY OPERATED VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MITRUT CARAIVAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is following further development of the common framework model for multi-purpose underwater data collection devices focusing on second generation of simulation techniques VMAX2.0 on Perry-Slingsby ROV simulator. It is addressing physics-based simulation differences and their impact on the previous research for deployment challenges of underwater sensor networks called "Safe-Nets" by using Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROV in the Black Sea area.

  2. Road Accident Prevention with Instant Emergency Warning Message Dissemination in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Gokulakrishnan

    Full Text Available A Road Accident Prevention (RAP scheme based on Vehicular Backbone Network (VBN structure is proposed in this paper for Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET. The RAP scheme attempts to prevent vehicles from highway road traffic accidents and thereby reduces death and injury rates. Once the possibility of an emergency situation (i.e. an accident is predicted in advance, instantly RAP initiates a highway road traffic accident prevention scheme. The RAP scheme constitutes the following activities: (i the Road Side Unit (RSU constructs a Prediction Report (PR based on the status of the vehicles and traffic in the highway roads, (ii the RSU generates an Emergency Warning Message (EWM based on an abnormal PR, (iii the RSU forms a VBN structure and (iv the RSU disseminates the EWM to the vehicles that holds the high Risk Factor (RF and travels in High Risk Zone (HRZ. These vehicles might reside either within the RSU's coverage area or outside RSU's coverage area (reached using VBN structure. The RAP scheme improves the performance of EWM dissemination in terms of increase in notification and decrease in end-to-end delay. The RAP scheme also reduces infrastructure cost (number of RSUs by formulating and deploying the VBN structure. The RAP scheme with VBN structure improves notification by 19 percent and end-to-end delay by 14.38 percent for a vehicle density of 160 vehicles. It is also proved from the simulation experiment that the performance of RAP scheme is promising in 4-lane highway roads.

  3. Road Accident Prevention with Instant Emergency Warning Message Dissemination in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokulakrishnan, P; Ganeshkumar, P

    2015-01-01

    A Road Accident Prevention (RAP) scheme based on Vehicular Backbone Network (VBN) structure is proposed in this paper for Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET). The RAP scheme attempts to prevent vehicles from highway road traffic accidents and thereby reduces death and injury rates. Once the possibility of an emergency situation (i.e. an accident) is predicted in advance, instantly RAP initiates a highway road traffic accident prevention scheme. The RAP scheme constitutes the following activities: (i) the Road Side Unit (RSU) constructs a Prediction Report (PR) based on the status of the vehicles and traffic in the highway roads, (ii) the RSU generates an Emergency Warning Message (EWM) based on an abnormal PR, (iii) the RSU forms a VBN structure and (iv) the RSU disseminates the EWM to the vehicles that holds the high Risk Factor (RF) and travels in High Risk Zone (HRZ). These vehicles might reside either within the RSU's coverage area or outside RSU's coverage area (reached using VBN structure). The RAP scheme improves the performance of EWM dissemination in terms of increase in notification and decrease in end-to-end delay. The RAP scheme also reduces infrastructure cost (number of RSUs) by formulating and deploying the VBN structure. The RAP scheme with VBN structure improves notification by 19 percent and end-to-end delay by 14.38 percent for a vehicle density of 160 vehicles. It is also proved from the simulation experiment that the performance of RAP scheme is promising in 4-lane highway roads. PMID:26636576

  4. Calculation Model for the Propagation of Audible Noise from High Voltage Transmission Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xuebao; CUI Xiang; LU Tiebing; HE Jiamei

    2013-01-01

    Audible noise from high voltage transmission lines' corona discharge has become one of the decisive factors affecting design of high voltage transmission lines,thus it is very important to study the spatial propagation characteristics of audible noise for its accurate prediction.A calculation model for the propagation of audible noise is presented in this paper,which is based on the basic equation of the sound wave and can involve the influences of the atmosphere absorption and ground effects.The effects of different ground impedances and the atmospheric attenuation on the distribution of sound pressure level are discussed in this paper.The results show that the atmospheric absorption may increase the attenuation of the audible noise,and the ground surface affects both the amplitude and phase of the sound.The spatial distribution fluctuates considering the ground effects.The atmospheric attenuation and the ground effect are closely related to the frequency of the noise.In the frequency range of the audible noise,the influence of atmospheric attenuation on the spatial propagation characteristics is more obvious in high frequency while ground has significant influences in low frequency.

  5. Flowslide Early Warning System in pyroclastic deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Lucio; Damiano, Emila; De Cristofaro, Martina; Roberto, Greco; Mollo, Luigi; Netti, Nadia; Capparelli, Giovanna

    2015-04-01

    Most of the mountains of Campania are covered by airfall pyroclastic deposits in primary deposition generally in unsaturated conditions. These deposits are periodically subjected to rainfall induced landslides that may evolve into catastrophic flowslides. To protect towns EWS can be implemented in order to correctly and promptly predict the trigger. In the paper we detect some 'essential ingredients' for effective EWSs which are new with respect to those already employed and essentially based on pluviometric thresholds (Greco et. Al., 2013) and extremely simplified models not able to correctly follow the physical phenomena which are responsible of flowslides generation (Olivares et Al. 2009). Complex models, able to correctly simulate those physical phenomena such as infiltration processes and the effects of partial saturated conditions on shear strength contain the 'essential ingredients' that we discuss in the paper. A particular attention is devoted to define the relation between suction and shear strength and the water retention curve obtained from different techniques to assess a reliable hydro-geotechnical model to analyze the slope response of loose unsaturated pyroclastic deposits. An EWS that contains these elements can provide many advantages. In fact, catastrophic flowslides but even false alarms about such events, produce negative technological and productive shocks that strongly reduce the actual and prospective value added of investment in the areas at risk suggesting the opportunity of their shrinking and postponement. Of course this severely compromises the economic development of those areas. In the paper we propose to examine this subject in the Dixit e Pindyck framework of the Real Option Valuation Approach in order to explain the socio-economic value of effective EWS. In fact, such EWSs will embed valuable new real options in the investment opportunities in the areas at risk increasing their actual and prospective values. Keywords: slope

  6. Wind gust warning verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primo, Cristina

    2016-07-01

    Operational meteorological centres around the world increasingly include warnings as one of their regular forecast products. Warnings are issued to warn the public about extreme weather situations that might occur leading to damages and losses. In forecasting these extreme events, meteorological centres help their potential users in preventing the damage or losses they might suffer. However, verifying these warnings requires specific methods. This is due not only to the fact that they happen rarely, but also because a new temporal dimension is added when defining a warning, namely the time window of the forecasted event. This paper analyses the issues that might appear when dealing with warning verification. It also proposes some new verification approaches that can be applied to wind warnings. These new techniques are later applied to a real life example, the verification of wind gust warnings at the German Meteorological Centre ("Deutscher Wetterdienst"). Finally, the results obtained from the latter are discussed.

  7. Feasibility study of earthquake early warning (EEW) in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Weston A.; Hotovec-Ellis, Alicia J.; Bodin, Paul

    2016-09-30

    The effects of earthquake shaking on the population and infrastructure across the State of Hawaii could be catastrophic, and the high seismic hazard in the region emphasizes the likelihood of such an event. Earthquake early warning (EEW) has the potential to give several seconds of warning before strong shaking starts, and thus reduce loss of life and damage to property. The two approaches to EEW are (1) a network approach (such as ShakeAlert or ElarmS) where the regional seismic network is used to detect the earthquake and distribute the alarm and (2) a local approach where a critical facility has a single seismometer (or small array) and a warning system on the premises.The network approach, also referred to here as ShakeAlert or ElarmS, uses the closest stations within a regional seismic network to detect and characterize an earthquake. Most parameters used for a network approach require observations on multiple stations (typically 3 or 4), which slows down the alarm time slightly, but the alarms are generally more reliable than with single-station EEW approaches. The network approach also benefits from having stations closer to the source of any potentially damaging earthquake, so that alarms can be sent ahead to anyone who subscribes to receive the notification. Thus, a fully implemented ShakeAlert system can provide seconds of warning for both critical facilities and general populations ahead of damaging earthquake shaking.The cost to implement and maintain a fully operational ShakeAlert system is high compared to a local approach or single-station solution, but the benefits of a ShakeAlert system would be felt statewide—the warning times for strong shaking are potentially longer for most sources at most locations.The local approach, referred to herein as “single station,” uses measurements from a single seismometer to assess whether strong earthquake shaking can be expected. Because of the reliance on a single station, false alarms are more common than

  8. "Warning card" as a prevention of prolonged apnea in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajtman, Z; Surina, B; Bartolek, D; Car, D; Gasparović, S; Kirincić, N; Rudez, J

    2002-12-01

    Human butyrylcholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.8) (BChE) is present in serum mainly as "usual UU" form, but it has also been found in variant forms known as "atypical" BChE. The most important predictive value of BChE phenotype is for anesthetist to prevent prolonged apnea. BChE has an important role in the hydrolysis of neuromuscular relaxant succinylcholine (suxamethonium, scoline) used during anesthesia. In order to detect atypical variants of BChE and give these findings to the anesthetists-surgeons before an operation to avoid the prolonged apnea, we phenotyped 542 sera of children before tonsillectomies. Total BChE activity was measured using butyrylthiocholine as substrate and dibucaine, fluoride, urea and dimethylcarbamate Ro 02-0683 were used as inhibitors. The frequencies of phenotypes in 542 children were: UU, UA, US, SS, AS and AA--92.25%, 7.01%, 0.18%, 0.18%, 0.18%, 0.18% respectively. Once established phenotype of BChE does not change during the lifetime. Therefore the carriers of atypical phenotype of BChE received a "Warning card", which is a permanent warning for succinylcholine application, as well as a sign to the members of the families to test their own phenotype of BChE. In our study three "Warning cards" were given: two to the carriers of atypical phenotype and third to a child presented as SS phenotype with low total activity of BChE. The present study is the first clinical evaluation of this genetic abnormality in the Republic of Croatia. PMID:12674844

  9. Implementing the national AIGA flash flood warning system in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organde, Didier; Javelle, Pierre; Demargne, Julie; Arnaud, Patrick; Caseri, Angelica; Fine, Jean-Alain; de Saint Aubin, Céline

    2015-04-01

    The French national hydro-meteorological and flood forecasting centre (SCHAPI) aims to implement a national flash flood warning system to improve flood alerts for small-to-medium (up to 1000 km2) ungauged basins. This system is based on the AIGA method, co-developed by IRSTEA these last 10 years. The method, initially set up for the Mediterranean area, is based on a simple event-based hourly hydrologic distributed model run every 15 minutes (Javelle et al. 2014). The hydrologic model ingests operational radar-gauge rainfall grids from Météo-France at a 1-km² resolution to produce discharges for successive outlets along the river network. Discharges are then compared to regionalized flood quantiles of given return periods and warnings (expressed as the range of the return period estimated in real-time) are provided on a river network map. The main interest of the method is to provide forecasters and emergency services with a synthetic view in real time of the ongoing flood situation, information that is especially critical in ungauged flood prone areas. In its enhanced national version, the hourly event-based distributed model is coupled to a continuous daily rainfall-runoff model which provides baseflow and a soil moisture index (for each 1-km² pixel) at the beginning of the hourly simulation. The rainfall-runoff models were calibrated on a selection of 700 French hydrometric stations with Météo-France radar-gauge reanalysis dataset for the 2002-2006 period. To estimate model parameters for ungauged basins, the 2 hydrologic models were regionalised by testing both regressions (using different catchment attributes, such as catchment area, soil type, and climate characteristic) and spatial proximity techniques (transposing parameters from neighbouring donor catchments), as well as different homogeneous hydrological areas. The most valuable regionalisation method was determined for each model through jack-knife cross-validation. The system performance was then

  10. Geoethical issues involved in Tsunami Warning System concepts and operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalampakis, Marinos; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos A.; Tinti, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    The main goal of a Tsunami Warning System (TWS) is to mitigate the effect of an incoming tsunami by alerting coastal population early enough to allow people to evacuate safely from inundation zones. Though this representation might seem oversimplified, nonetheless, achieving successfully this goal requires a positive synergy of geoscience, communication, emergency management, technology, education, social sciences, politics. Geoethical issues arise always when there is an interaction between geoscience and society, and TWS is a paradigmatic case where interaction is very strong and is made critical because a) the formulation of the tsunami alert has to be made in a time as short as possible and therefore on uncertain data, and b) any evaluation error (underestimation or overestimation) can lead to serious (and sometimes catastrophic) consequences involving wide areas and a large amount of population. From the geoethical point of view three issues are critical: how to (i) combine forecasts and uncertainties reasonably and usefully, (ii) cope and possibly solve the dilemma whether it is better over-alerting or under-alerting population and (iii) deal with responsibility and liability of geoscientists, TWS operators, emergency operators and coastal population. The discussion will be based on the experience of the Hellenic National Tsunami Warning Center (HL-NTWC, Greece), which operates on 24/7 basis as a special unit of the Institute of Geodynamics, National Observatory of Athens, and acts also as Candidate Tsunami Service Provider (CTSP) in the framework of the North-Eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and connected seas Tsunami Warning System (NEAMTWS) of the IOC/UNESCO. Since August 2012, when HL-NTWC was officially declared as operational, 14 tsunami warning messages have been disseminated to a large number of subscribers after strong submarine earthquakes occurring in Greece and elsewhere in the eastern Mediterranean. It is recognized that the alerting process

  11. Accuracy and speed of response to different voice types in a cockpit voice warning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, J.; Rumbaugh, W. A.

    1983-09-01

    Voice warning systems (VWS) in aircraft cockpits provide a valuable means of warning identification. Improvements in technology have made the VWS a viable addition to aircraft warning systems. This thesis was an experiment to determine the best voice type (male, female, or neutral machine) for use in a VWS for military aircraft. Different levels of engine background noise, signal to noise ratio of the warning message, and precursor delivery formats were used. The experiment had ten subjects performing a primary tracking task; at random intervals a voice warning was interjected, requiring that the subjects respond by pushing the correct button. The results of this experiment contradict some previous beliefs and findings. The male voice was associated with more accurate responses for voice warning systems in the military aircraft environment. For speed of response the results were more complicated; the male voice was generally more closely associated with faster response times for accurate responses.

  12. Feasibility study on thermoelectric device to energy storage system of an electric vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EVs (Electric vehicles) have garnered much of attention over the past few decades as a promising solution to greenhouse gases in transportation. In this paper, a feasibility study is performed applying a TE (thermoelectric) device to the energy storage system of an electric vehicle. By applying a TE device to the Li-family battery system, the effectiveness of the TE device for possible cooling or pre-heating of the battery, or to recover the electrical energy from the waste heat are investigated. Based on the simulated flow field and temperature distribution, the effective locations of thermoelectric devices are identified and installed, and their performances in view of heat recovery or pre-heating during winter and cooling performance during summer are evaluated by simulation. In addition, the results are verified through an experimental setup under a controlled environment of air flow and temperature. Based on the simulation and experiment, the overall effectiveness of cooling or heating, and waste heat recovery quantity is evaluated. It is found that, though the cooling or pre-heating energy is small, the functional benefit to the efficiency and charging/discharging performance of battery system can contribute significantly to sound battery operation, hence to the reliability and overall performance of EVs. - Highlights: • A feasibility study is conducted on a thermoelectric device on a battery pack. • The flow and thermal design are important in battery efficiency and reliability. • The effect of thermoelectric device in cooling during summer is proved. • The effect of pre-heating and waste heat recovery during winter is quantified

  13. Warning systems and public warning response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, J.H.

    1993-09-01

    This background paper reviews current knowledge on warning systems and human response to warnings. It expands on an earlier paper prepared for a workshop on the Second Assessment on Natural Hazards, held in Estes Park, Colorado in July 1992. Although it has a North American perspective, many of the lessons learned are universally applicable. The paper addresses warning systems in terms of dissemination and does not cover physical science issues associated with prediction and forecast. Finally, it covers hazards with relatively short lead times -- 48 hours or less. It does not address topics such as long-term forecasts of earthquakes or volcanic eruptions or early famine warning systems.

  14. Young Adults’ Perceptions of Cigarette Warning Labels in the United States and Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle O’Hegarty, PhD

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionFor the past 20 years, there have been no changes to the text-only cigarette warning labels in the United States. During this same time period, other countries placed large graphic warning labels on cigarette packages. The purpose of this study was to investigate the reactions of U.S. young adult smokers and nonsmokers aged 18 to 24 years to Canadian cigarette label text and graphic warnings. The study focused on determining their perceptions and the potential impact of Canadian labels on smoking, and study participants were asked for suggestions for modifications of U.S. cigarette warning labels so they would be effective for smoking deterrence and cessation.Methods During January and February 2002, 11 focus groups consisting of 54 smokers and 41 nonsmokers were conducted in the Detroit metropolitan area. Current smokers were defined as those who had smoked a cigarette within the past 30 days. Participants were asked about their knowledge and perceptions of current U.S. cigarette warning labels and their impressions of Canadian cigarette warning labels.AnalysisA content analysis and a word index were applied to the transcripts of all focus groups to identify and clarify themes and domains that appeared in group discussions and to compare results across different groups.ResultsFocus group participants reported that Canadian cigarette warning labels were more visible and informative than U.S. cigarette warning labels. Messages perceived to be relevant to smokers were considered effective. Education level did not appear related to how participants responded to warning labels. There were some differences for warning labels that had sex-specific messages.DiscussionWarning labels are one component of comprehensive tobacco control and smoking cessation efforts. Stronger warnings on cigarette packages need to be part of a larger U.S. public health educational effort.

  15. Tsunami Warning Center in Turkey : Status Update 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meral Ozel, N.; Necmioglu, O.; Yalciner, A. C.; Kalafat, D.; Yilmazer, M.; Comoglu, M.; Sanli, U.; Gurbuz, C.; Erdik, M.

    2012-04-01

    This is an update to EGU2011-3094 informing on the progress of the establishment of a National Tsunami Warning Center in Turkey (NTWC-TR) under the UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission - Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Tsunami Early Warning and Mitigation System in the North-eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and connected seas (IOC-ICG/NEAMTWS) initiative. NTWC-TR is integrated into the 24/7 operational National Earthquake Monitoring Center (NEMC) of KOERI comprising 129 BB and 61 strong motion sensors. Based on an agreement with the Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency (DEMP), data from 10 BB stations located in the Aegean and Mediterranean Coast is now transmitted in real time to KOERI. Real-time data transmission from 6 primary and 10 auxiliary stations from the International Monitoring System will be in place in the very near future based on an agreement concluded with the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) in 2011. In an agreement with a major Turkish GSM company, KOERI is enlarging its strong-motion network to promote real-time seismology and to extend Earthquake Early Warning system countrywide. 25 accelerometers (included in the number given above) have been purchased and installed at Base Transceiver Station Sites in coastal regions within the scope of this initiative. Data from 3 tide gauge stations operated by General Command of Mapping (GCM) is being transmitted to KOERI via satellite connection and the aim is to integrate all tide-gauge stations operated by GCM into NTWC-TR. A collaborative agreement has been signed with the European Commission - Joint Research Centre (EC-JRC) and MOD1 Tsunami Scenario Database and TAT (Tsunami Analysis Tool) are received by KOERI and user training was provided. The database and the tool are linked to SeisComp3 and currently operational. In addition KOERI is continuing the work towards providing contributions to JRC in order to develop an improved database

  16. Flood early warning system in I.R. of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the close of the twentieth century, natural hazards and disasters are one of the most common forms of disasters around the world. Natural disasters cause in significant loss of life and serious economic, environmental and social impacts that greatly retard the development process. Careful hazard assessment and planning, and a range of social, economic and political measures, can significantly contain these threats. Risk is defined as the potential for loss or damage as the result of a particular action or decision and Risk Management is a process consisting of well-defined steps which, when taken in sequence, support better decision making by contributing to a greater insight into risks and their impacts. Most commonly, there are three components in a natural disaster plan: monitoring and early warning; risk assessment; and mitigation and response. Given the improved tools and technologies available today, it is possible to provide disaster information and minimize the potential damage of disasters. In the following parts of the report, the national early warning systems for flood would be discussed, as one of the important component of natural disaster risk management. In 1. R. of Iran, also, different types of natural disasters occur, such as drought, flood, earthquake, sea-level rise, dust storm, hail, freezing and etc, but Flood hazard and disaster is one of the most frequent and damaging types of natural disasters. They have been the most common type of geophysical disaster in the latter half of the twentieth century in Iran, generating an estimated more than 20 percent of all disasters from 1950 to 2003. One of the hazardous floods of Iran occurred in Golestan and north of Khorasan provinces, located in north-east of the country, on August 2001 and 2002. In this regard, according to the responsibility of I. R. of Iran Meteorological Organization (IRIMO) on the flood forecasting, the early warning issue of the mentioned flood, issued within 48 hour's in

  17. Transmissions in vehicles 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    ) Electromechanically actuated double clutch and EV transmissions (S. Rietentiet); (36) Linear actuation as a future choice to reduce costs and improve transmission efficiency (J. Behrenroth); (37) Forward-looking solutions for transmissions in electric vehicles - Transmission concepts for electric vehicle/potentials from system and component perspective (M.J. Derse); (38) Rotor position sensor for hybrid drives and electric drives - New generation eddy current position sensor (R. Moeller); (39) Electric axle drive with torque-vectoring-functionality (B.-R. Hoehn); (40) Extreme shift times and high comfort with the DCT are not a contradiction. - The function development and application of the DCT in the Mercedes-BenzSLS AMG (M. Hart); (41) The next generation of GETRAG PowerShift {sup registered} transmissions for FWD applications (S. Bungart); (42) Modular dual clutch transmission as all-wheel drivevariant for a sports car in the tip performance class (M. Fischer); (43) Potential of sintered friction linings in synchronizers (O. Back); (44) Friction between sliding pads and sleeve - Effects on the shifting process (T. Skubacz); (45) New developments in cold forging of hollow gear parts - Extension of the geometrical design of cold formed gear construction parts (S. Rudolf); (46) Start-up device for passenger cars based on a hydrodynamic coupling (A. Menne); (47) State and parameter estimation for the determination of clutch characteristics for wet clutches (A. Tarasow); (48) Control engineering in system development - Additional benefit thanks to control engineering using the example of active vibration damping (G. Bauer).

  18. An Early Warning System for fluvial flooding in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Femke; Stam, Jasper; Sprokkereef, Eric; van Dijk, Marc

    2013-04-01

    Fluvial flooding is one of the major natural hazards in the modern world. In a densely populated area, such as The Netherlands, the possibility of flooding of the Rhine and Meuse poses a significant threat to society. There is a clear need for reliable and robust hydrological forecasting. The Water Management Centre for the Netherlands and Deltares have developed an early warning system that uses real-time data provided by a large number of European meteorological and hydrological gauging stations, weather forecasts from three different weather services, and rainfall-runoff and hydraulic models. Data assimilation techniques are used to update both model states and parameter outputs. In addition, a post processing method, quantile regression, is applied to hydrological ensemble output. This presentation will demonstrate the operational flood early warning system (based on Delft-FEWS) applied to these rivers. Recent challenges are, for example, the visualization of uncertainties on deterministic and probabilistic forecasts, the clear communication and visualization of the enormous amount of data available, and snow modelling.

  19. Ethical and Practical Considerations in Removing Black Box Warnings from Drug Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, James S; Sarpatwari, Ameet; Kesselheim, Aaron S

    2016-08-01

    Boxed warnings-also known as "black box" warnings-can be a powerful tool in communicating drug risks to physicians and patients. The overall number of boxed warnings has grown in recent years as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved more drugs on the basis of limited pre-marketing information and as new safety issues for marketed drugs have been identified. Two recent manufacturers' petitions to remove boxed warnings on the drugs rosiglitazone (Avandia) and varenicline (Chantix) have led to divergent FDA decisions and revealed different considerations involved in boxed warning imposition and removal. For ethical and practical reasons, the FDA is justified in applying a higher standard for boxed warning removal than for imposition, as removal of a boxed warning may have unintended effects on physician and patient behavior. However, no guidelines on boxed warning removal currently exist. To promote safe use of approved prescription drugs, the FDA should adopt a uniform and transparent process governing decisions to impose or remove boxed warnings. PMID:27000800

  20. Feasibility study of earthquake early warning (EEW) in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Weston A.; Hotovec-Ellis, Alicia J.; Bodin, Paul

    2016-09-30

    The effects of earthquake shaking on the population and infrastructure across the State of Hawaii could be catastrophic, and the high seismic hazard in the region emphasizes the likelihood of such an event. Earthquake early warning (EEW) has the potential to give several seconds of warning before strong shaking starts, and thus reduce loss of life and damage to property. The two approaches to EEW are (1) a network approach (such as ShakeAlert or ElarmS) where the regional seismic network is used to detect the earthquake and distribute the alarm and (2) a local approach where a critical facility has a single seismometer (or small array) and a warning system on the premises.The network approach, also referred to here as ShakeAlert or ElarmS, uses the closest stations within a regional seismic network to detect and characterize an earthquake. Most parameters used for a network approach require observations on multiple stations (typically 3 or 4), which slows down the alarm time slightly, but the alarms are generally more reliable than with single-station EEW approaches. The network approach also benefits from having stations closer to the source of any potentially damaging earthquake, so that alarms can be sent ahead to anyone who subscribes to receive the notification. Thus, a fully implemented ShakeAlert system can provide seconds of warning for both critical facilities and general populations ahead of damaging earthquake shaking.The cost to implement and maintain a fully operational ShakeAlert system is high compared to a local approach or single-station solution, but the benefits of a ShakeAlert system would be felt statewide—the warning times for strong shaking are potentially longer for most sources at most locations.The local approach, referred to herein as “single station,” uses measurements from a single seismometer to assess whether strong earthquake shaking can be expected. Because of the reliance on a single station, false alarms are more common than

  1. Miniature solid-state lasers for pointing, illumination, and warning devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D. C.; Singley, J. M.; Yager, E.; Kowalewski, K.; Lotito, B.; Guelzow, J.; Hildreth, J.; Kuper, J. W.

    2008-04-01

    In this paper we review the current status of and progress towards higher power and more wavelength diverse diode-pumped solid-state miniature lasers. Snake Creek Lasers now offers unprecedented continuous wave (CW) output power from 9.0 mm and 5.6 mm TO type packages, including the smallest green laser in the world, the MicroGreen TM laser, and the highest density green laser in the world, the MiniGreen TM laser. In addition we offer an infrared laser, the MiniIR TM, operating at 1064 nm, and have just introduced a blue Mini laser operating at 473 nm in a 9.0 mm package. Recently we demonstrated over 1 W of output power at 1064 nm from a 12 mm TO type package, and green output power from 300-500 mW from the same 12 mm package. In addition, the company is developing a number of other innovative new miniature CW solid-state lasers operating at 750 nm, 820 nm, 458 nm, and an eye-safe Q-switched laser operating at 1550 nm. We also review recently demonstrated combining volume Bragg grating (VBG) technology has been combined with automatic power control (APC) to produce high power MiniGreen TM lasers whose output is constant to +/- 10 % over a wide temperature range, without the use of a thermoelectric cooler (TEC). This technology is expected to find widespread application in military and commercial applications where wide temperature operation is particularly important. It has immediate applications in laser pointers, illuminators, and laser flashlights, and displays.

  2. Use of Cancer-Linked Fibroid Device Declines After FDA Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The report was published Aug. 23 in the Journal of the American Medical Association . For the study, Wright and colleagues collected ... Huntington Hospital, N.Y.; Aug. 23/30, 2016, Journal of the American Medical Association HealthDay Copyright (c) 2016 HealthDay . All rights ...

  3. VEHICLES LICENSED IN SWITZERLAND

    CERN Multimedia

    Service des Relations avec les Pays-Hôtes

    2000-01-01

    1.\tVehicle licensinga)\tTime limitsVehicles must have a Swiss registration document and Swiss number plates: -\tif the owner has been residing in Switzerland for more than one year without a break of more than three consecutive months and has been using it for more than one month on Swiss territory, or -\tif the vehicle itself has been on Swiss territory for more than one year without a break of more than three consecutive months. b)\tTechnical details Vehicles belonging to non-Swiss members of the personnel who hold a carte de légitimation issued by the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs (hereinafter referred to as 'DFAE') and who were not permanently resident in Switzerland before taking up their appointment may be licensed in Switzerland with virtually no restrictions provided that their owner produces: -\tthe vehicle registration document and number plates of the country in which the car was previously registered, or -\ta manufacturer's certi...

  4. Threat assessment of a possible Vehicle-Born Improvised Explosive Device using DSmT

    CERN Document Server

    Dezert, Jean

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the solution about the threat of a VBIED (Vehicle-Born Improvised Explosive Device) obtained with the DSmT (Dezert-Smarandache Theory). This problem has been proposed recently to the authors by Simon Maskell and John Lavery as a typical illustrative example to try to compare the different approaches for dealing with uncertainty for decision-making support. The purpose of this paper is to show in details how a solid justified solution can be obtained from DSmT approach and its fusion rules thanks to a proper modeling of the belief functions involved in this problem.

  5. Design of device management framework based on Android in vehicle terminal%基于Android车载终端的设备管理框架设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李培明; 孙甲松

    2016-01-01

    为了实现对Android车载终端平台新增的许多非Android原生系统中的外围设备进行统一管理,本文提出了一种基于Android LocalSocket和Service的设备管理框架。该设备管理框架的整体层次结构包括应用程序、设备管理服务、守护进程、设备功能动态库、内核设备驱动,以及设备硬件等多个层次。实际应用表明,该设备管理框架逻辑结构清晰,能够较好地支持上层和底层的数据互通,有效地将Android系统中非Android原生的设备进行统一控制和管理,显著提升了设备系统的稳定性,达到了设计要求。%In order to manage the devices which are not in the primary system of Android, a framework for management of devices which based on LocalSocket and Service is proposed. The framework of the overall hierarchical structure consists of the application, the service for management of peripheral devices, the guardian process, the dynamic library for devices, the kernel device drivers, the device hardware, and so on. Practical application shows that the framework for management of peripheral devices have many advantages, including the clear framework of logic structure, better to support the data interoperability between upper layer and bottom layer, effectively control and manage the peripheral devices which are not in the primary system of Android. The stability of the system is significantly improved, and the design requirement is achieved.

  6. Distributed Control in Multi-Vehicle Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Avery

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Southwest Research Institute (SwRI Mobile Autonomous Robotics Technology Initiative (MARTI program has enabled the development of fully-autonomous passenger-sized commercial vehicles and military tactical vehicles, as well as the development of cooperative vehicle behaviors, such as cooperative sensor sharing and cooperative convoy operations. The program has also developed behaviors to interface intelligent vehicles with intelligent road-side devices. The development of intelligent vehicle behaviors cannot be approached as stand-alone phenomena; rather, they must be understood within a context of the broader traffic system dynamics. The study of other complex systems has shown that system-level behaviors emerge as a result of the spatio-temporal dynamics within a system's constituent parts. The design of such systems must therefore account for both the system-level emergent behavior, as well as behaviors of individuals within the system. It has also become clear over the past several years, for both of these domains, that human trust in the behavior of individual vehicles is paramount to broader technology adoption. This paper examines the interplay between individual vehicle capabilities, vehicle connectivity, and emergent system behaviors, and presents some considerations for a distributed control paradigm in a multi-vehicle system.

  7. Cluster Based Message Dissemination for Broadcasting the Emergency/Warning Messages using a Novel Scheduling in VANETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Berlin,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular ad hoc networks are a special case of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs. Unlike MANETs, VANET nodes are moving very fast. It becomes quite challenging to maintain a stable path for broadcasting Emergency and Warning (E/ W messages from a risk zone. So routing takes an important role in VANETs. Reducing network overhead, avoiding network congestion, traffic congestion andincreasing packet delivery ratio are the major issues of routing in VANETs. So it is essential to broadcast the risk notification (RN messages such as accident and injury prevention messages, congestion control messages, road condition and other emergency/ warning messages in time to the rear vehicles. In this paper we propose a novel approach to categorize the messages and to give priority for the E/ W messages using a scheduling algorithm. The neighboring vehicles broadcast the RN messages from the risk zone using inter- zone clusters and intra- zone clusters communication to the rear vehicle by applying the proposed scheduling algorithm. Our simulation results show that this approach performs well and produce less network overhead, congestion control and high packet delivery ratio. We compared our approach with the existing protocol.

  8. Development of Pneumatic Aerodynamic Devices to Improve the Performance, Economics, and Safety of Heavy Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert J. Englar

    2000-06-19

    Under contract to the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies, the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) is developing and evaluating pneumatic (blown) aerodynamic devices to improve the performance, economics, stability and safety of operation of Heavy Vehicles. The objective of this program is to apply the pneumatic aerodynamic aircraft technology previously developed and flight-tested by GTRI personnel to the design of an efficient blown tractor-trailer configuration. Recent experimental results obtained by GTRI using blowing have shown drag reductions of 35% on a streamlined automobile wind-tunnel model. Also measured were lift or down-load increases of 100-150% and the ability to control aerodynamic moments about all 3 axes without any moving control surfaces. Similar drag reductions yielded by blowing on bluff afterbody trailers in current US trucking fleet operations are anticipated to reduce yearly fuel consumption by more than 1.2 billion gallons, while even further reduction is possible using pneumatic lift to reduce tire rolling resistance. Conversely, increased drag and down force generated instantaneously by blowing can greatly increase braking characteristics and control in wet/icy weather due to effective ''weight'' increases on the tires. Safety is also enhanced by controlling side loads and moments caused on these Heavy Vehicles by winds, gusts and other vehicles passing. This may also help to eliminate the jack-knifing problem if caused by extreme wind side loads on the trailer. Lastly, reduction of the turbulent wake behind the trailer can reduce splash and spray patterns and rough air being experienced by following vehicles. To be presented by GTRI in this paper will be results developed during the early portion of this effort, including a preliminary systems study, CFD prediction of the blown flowfields, and design of the baseline conventional tractor-trailer model and the pneumatic wind-tunnel model.

  9. The communications in early warning network for radiation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of early warning network are: The determination of gamma radiation (background) levels in air which depend on location and time, evaluation of any situation resulting from radiation or nuclear accident out of boarder, and after that reporting the emergency situation to relevant authorities on the national and international levels. Monitoring stations were installed using Gm tubes to cover boarder lines from south to north and east to west as follows: Damascus, Darra, Latakia, Tartous, Aleppo, Kamishly, Ragaa, and Qunitra. The following modes of communication: Telephone line, leased line, direct connection, and Syrian data network were used in the Syrian early network. This project was carried out in cooperation with IAEA under project no. RER/9/003. (author). 22 figs., 1 tab

  10. 32 CFR 644.531 - Warning to public of danger in handling explosive missiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Warning to public of danger in handling explosive... Contamination from Proposed Excess Land and Improvements § 644.531 Warning to public of danger in handling... of contaminants remaining on the land and the inherent danger of handling explosives or...

  11. Warning signals are under positive frequency-dependent selection in nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouteau, Mathieu; Arias, Mónica; Joron, Mathieu

    2016-02-23

    Positive frequency-dependent selection (FDS) is a selection regime where the fitness of a phenotype increases with its frequency, and it is thought to underlie important adaptive strategies resting on signaling and communication. However, whether and how positive FDS truly operates in nature remains unknown, which hampers our understanding of signal diversity. Here, we test for positive FDS operating on the warning color patterns of chemically defended butterflies forming multiple coexisting mimicry assemblages in the Amazon. Using malleable prey models placed in localities showing differences in the relative frequencies of warningly colored prey, we demonstrate that the efficiency of a warning signal increases steadily with its local frequency in the natural community, up to a threshold where protection stabilizes. The shape of this relationship is consistent with the direct effect of the local abundance of each warning signal on the corresponding avoidance knowledge of the local predator community. This relationship, which differs from purifying selection acting on each mimetic pattern, indicates that predator knowledge, integrated over the entire community, is saturated only for the most common warning signals. In contrast, among the well-established warning signals present in local prey assemblages, most are incompletely known to local predators and enjoy incomplete protection. This incomplete predator knowledge should generate strong benefits to life history traits that enhance warning efficiency by increasing the effective frequency of prey visible to predators. Strategies such as gregariousness or niche convergence between comimics may therefore readily evolve through their effects on predator knowledge and warning efficiency. PMID:26858416

  12. Early warning score predicts acute mortality in stroke patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liljehult, J; Christensen, T

    2016-01-01

    was to investigate whether the aggregate weighted track and trigger system early warning score (EWS) can be used as a simple observational tool to identify patients at risk and predict mortality in a population of patients with acute stroke. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients admitted with acute stroke...... at the Copenhagen University Hospital, Nordsjaellands Hospital, Denmark, from May to September 2012 were enrolled in a retrospective cohort study (n = 274). Vital signs were measured immediately after admission and consistently during the hospitalization period. Based on the vital signs, a single composite EWS...... the EWS at admission (AUROC 0.856; 95% CI 0.760-0.951; P-value score is a simple and valid...

  13. Early-warning signals of topological collapse in interbank networks

    CERN Document Server

    Squartini, Tiziano; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2013-01-01

    The financial crisis marked a paradigm shift, from traditional studies of individual risk to recent research on the "systemic risk" generated by whole networks of institutions. However, the reverse effects of realized defaults on network topology are poorly understood. Here we analyze the Dutch interbank network over the period 1998-2008, ending with the global crisis. We find that many topological properties, after controlling for overall density effects, display an abrupt change in 2008, thus providing a clear but unpredictable signature of the crisis. By contrast, if the intrinsic heterogeneity of banks is controlled for, the same properties undergo a slow and continuous transition, gradually connecting the crisis period to a much earlier stationary phase. This early-warning signal begins in 2005, and is preceded by an even earlier period of "risk autocatalysis" characterized by anomalous debt loops. These remarkable precursors are undetectable if the network is reconstructed from partial bank-specific inf...

  14. Vehicle roof with solar power supply and contact device. Fahrzeugdach mit Solarstromquelle und Kontakteinrichtung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paetz, W.; Meiler, K.; Schumacher, T.; Bienert, H.; Hirschberger, A.; Pfisterer, H.; Hoeller, M.

    1991-05-02

    Vehicle roof with at least one cover, carrying a solar power supply for optional covering or at least for partial uncovering of a roof opening. In addition, with at least one load driven by the solar power supply which is arranged separately from the cover and with a contact device for establishing of an electric connection between the solar power supply and the load. The contact device is designed as a switching configuration and the cover is a part of this switching configuration, so that depending on the adjustment motion of the cover, the load is connected to the solar power supply in one or several predetermined cover positions, and is disconnected in all other covert positions.

  15. Designing the upgrade of the Early Warning System in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When designing an upgrade of early warning network for radiological emergencies one has to consider physical criteria as well as technical and financial possibilities, making the system the best possible compromise between the above mentioned aspects. In the case of the Slovenian Early Warning System (EWS) upgrade, the design was even harder because of the need to implement the existing measuring sites into the new scheme. We plan to add 35 new locations with external radiation and meteorology measurements to the 42 already existing sites. In the article we will describe the selection criteria for measuring sites and the requirements for the measuring equipment as well as a discussion of the physical quantities that need to be measured. In addition to gamma dose rate measurements, which are essential for radiological emergencies, meteorological measurements also provide vital information for the assessment of the situation. Especially we describe an additional necessary meteorological equipment which has to be installed. Today's communication technologies offer many possibilities for data transfer from the measuring site to the central data gathering unit and one has to choose the most appropriate one, primarily considering reliability but also cost effectiveness. For that reason new measuring sites will be at the locations already used for meteorological measurements by the Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia. The Central Unit (CU) of such a network is the core of the system were all data have to be controlled, analysed and presented to the operator providing him with as much data as possible in a simple and clear fashion. (author)

  16. Application of the Haines Index in the fire warning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalin, Lovro; Marija, Mokoric; Tomislav, Kozaric

    2016-04-01

    Croatia, as all Mediterranean countries, is strongly affected by large wildfires, particularly in the coastal region. In the last two decades the number and intensity of fires has been significantly increased, which is unanimously associated with climate change, e.g. global warming. More extreme fires are observed, and the fire-fighting season has been expanded to June and September. The meteorological support for fire protection and planning is therefore even more important. At the Meteorological and Hydrological Service of Croatia a comprehensive monitoring and warning system has been established. It includes standard components, such as short term forecast of Fire Weather Index (FWI), but long range forecast as well. However, due to more frequent hot and dry seasons, FWI index often does not provide additional information of extremely high fire danger, since it regularly takes the highest values for long periods. Therefore the additional tools have been investigated. One of widely used meteorological products is the Haines index (HI). It provides information of potential fire growth, taking into account only the vertical instability of the atmosphere, and not the state of the fuel. Several analyses and studies carried out at the Service confirmed the correlation of high HI values with large and extreme fires. The Haines index forecast has been used at the Service for several years, employing European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) global prediction model, as well as the limited-area Aladin model. The verification results show that these forecast are reliable, when compared to radiosonde measurements. All these results provided the introduction of the additional fire warnings, that are issued by the Service's Forecast Department.

  17. Geo-hazards risk zonation and warning system based on GIS in Anshan City of Liaoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhishuang YANG; Mao PAN; Xiaopeng WANG

    2006-01-01

    Debris flow and Karst collapse are the main parts of geological disasters in Anshan, which have affected on the construction and development of the social economy of Anshan. In order to enhance the studies of rules of disaster and give scientific estimation and alarm ahead of schedule warning, we established the warning system of Anshan and investigated the corresponding software, which are based on the deep discussions about the crisis estimation and methods of prediction of disasters. In this paper, the foundation of model used in estimating the alarm ahead of schedule for disaster and the methods of appraisal for the alarm ahead of schedule are discussed. This system for warning and evaluating is the combination of the models of warning and GIS flat roof, with so many virtues, such as complete functions, convenience, applicability, which has considered the output of data, analyses of space, chooses of model, output of production, report of information for warning and the statements and help of system.

  18. Coordinate control of initiative mating device for autonomous underwater vehicle based on TDES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Zhe-ping; HOU Shu-ping

    2005-01-01

    A novel initiative mating device, which has four 2-degree manipulators around the mating skirt, is proposed to mate between a skirt of AUV (autonomons underwater vehicle) and a disabled submarine. The primary function of the device is to keep exact mating between skirt and disabled submarine in a badly sub sea environment. According to the characteristic of rescue, an automaton model is brought forward to describe the mating proceed between AUV and manipulators. The coordinated control is implemented by the TDES(time discrete event system).After taking into account the time problem, it is a useful method to control mating by simulation testing. The result shows that it reduces about 70 seconds after using intelligent co-ordinate control based on TDES through the whole mating procedure.

  19. CDC Warns of Dangers of Plastic Surgery in Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a very mutilating infection. They're going for cosmetic surgery, and they will be scarred. It's a terrible ... postoperative infections, particularly ones that are related to cosmetic surgery," Daley said. The CDC report warns about the ...

  20. Ultrathin skin cloaks with metasurfaces for audible sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Shilong; Chen, Huaijun; Ding, Changlin; Li, Linlin; Shen, Fangliang; Luo, Chunrong; Zhao, Xiaopeng

    2016-06-01

    We report a design of 2D acoustic skin cloaks by using ultrathin metasurfaces in audible range. The microunit of this metasurface is constructed by a cavity coupled with a membrane. This cloak can completely compensate the wave front discrepancy generated by the scattering of the hidden object because the microunits are capable of arbitrarily modulating the reflected amplitude and phase. The operating frequency ranges from 3.54 kHz to 3.93 kHz. The tolerated maximum incident angle decreases as the height of the hidden object increases. Moreover, the cloak’s thickness is only approximately λ/10, so that we can make an object in almost any shape undetectable without obviously increasing the size of the whole system. This intriguing feature forms a sharp contrast to most bulky cloaks on the basis of coordination transformations.

  1. Audibility-based predictions of speech recognition for children and adults with normal hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreery, Ryan W; Stelmachowicz, Patricia G

    2011-12-01

    This study investigated the relationship between audibility and predictions of speech recognition for children and adults with normal hearing. The Speech Intelligibility Index (SII) is used to quantify the audibility of speech signals and can be applied to transfer functions to predict speech recognition scores. Although the SII is used clinically with children, relatively few studies have evaluated SII predictions of children's speech recognition directly. Children have required more audibility than adults to reach maximum levels of speech understanding in previous studies. Furthermore, children may require greater bandwidth than adults for optimal speech understanding, which could influence frequency-importance functions used to calculate the SII. Speech recognition was measured for 116 children and 19 adults with normal hearing. Stimulus bandwidth and background noise level were varied systematically in order to evaluate speech recognition as predicted by the SII and derive frequency-importance functions for children and adults. Results suggested that children required greater audibility to reach the same level of speech understanding as adults. However, differences in performance between adults and children did not vary across frequency bands.

  2. Impacts of Fog Characteristics, Forward Illumination, and Warning Beacon Intensity Distribution on Roadway Hazard Visibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Warning beacons are critical for the safety of transportation, construction, and utility workers. These devices need to produce sufficient luminous intensity to be visible without creating glare to drivers. Published standards for the photometric performance of warning beacons do not address their performance in conditions of reduced visibility such as fog. Under such conditions light emitted in directions other than toward approaching drivers can create scattered light that makes workers and other hazards less visible. Simulations of visibility of hazards under varying conditions of fog density, forward vehicle lighting, warning beacon luminous intensity, and intensity distribution were performed to assess their impacts on visual performance by drivers. Each of these factors can influence the ability of drivers to detect and identify workers and hazards along the roadway in work zones. Based on the results, it would be reasonable to specify maximum limits on the luminous intensity of warning beacons in directions that are unlikely to be seen by drivers along the roadway, limits which are not included in published performance specifications. PMID:27314058

  3. Impacts of Fog Characteristics, Forward Illumination, and Warning Beacon Intensity Distribution on Roadway Hazard Visibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullough, John D; Rea, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    Warning beacons are critical for the safety of transportation, construction, and utility workers. These devices need to produce sufficient luminous intensity to be visible without creating glare to drivers. Published standards for the photometric performance of warning beacons do not address their performance in conditions of reduced visibility such as fog. Under such conditions light emitted in directions other than toward approaching drivers can create scattered light that makes workers and other hazards less visible. Simulations of visibility of hazards under varying conditions of fog density, forward vehicle lighting, warning beacon luminous intensity, and intensity distribution were performed to assess their impacts on visual performance by drivers. Each of these factors can influence the ability of drivers to detect and identify workers and hazards along the roadway in work zones. Based on the results, it would be reasonable to specify maximum limits on the luminous intensity of warning beacons in directions that are unlikely to be seen by drivers along the roadway, limits which are not included in published performance specifications. PMID:27314058

  4. Impacts of Fog Characteristics, Forward Illumination, and Warning Beacon Intensity Distribution on Roadway Hazard Visibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullough, John D; Rea, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    Warning beacons are critical for the safety of transportation, construction, and utility workers. These devices need to produce sufficient luminous intensity to be visible without creating glare to drivers. Published standards for the photometric performance of warning beacons do not address their performance in conditions of reduced visibility such as fog. Under such conditions light emitted in directions other than toward approaching drivers can create scattered light that makes workers and other hazards less visible. Simulations of visibility of hazards under varying conditions of fog density, forward vehicle lighting, warning beacon luminous intensity, and intensity distribution were performed to assess their impacts on visual performance by drivers. Each of these factors can influence the ability of drivers to detect and identify workers and hazards along the roadway in work zones. Based on the results, it would be reasonable to specify maximum limits on the luminous intensity of warning beacons in directions that are unlikely to be seen by drivers along the roadway, limits which are not included in published performance specifications.

  5. Developing a NIDIS Drought Early Warning Information System for Coastal Ecosystems in the Carolinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, L. S.; Dow, K.; Lackstrom, K.; Brennan, A.; Tufford, D. L.; Conrads, P.; Pulwarty, R. S.; Webb, R. S.; Verdin, J. P.; Mcnutt, C. A.; Deheza, V.

    2013-12-01

    The National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS) is in the process of developing drought early warning systems in areas of the U.S. where the coordination of drought information is critically needed. These regional drought early warning systems will become the backbone of a national drought early warning information system. Plans for the first drought early warning system started in the fall of 2008 in the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB), with an initial focus on the water supply in the head waters region of the Colorado River and the impacts of changes in the water supply on the UCRB. Since the establishment of the UCRB drought early warning system, other regional programs have begun in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin, four regions in the state of California, the Southern Plains, and the Four Corners region. (At this time these are considered pilot drought early warning programs, not full-fledged drought early warning systems such as the UCRB.) Activities in each of these regions are tailored to the needs of stakeholders, and all incorporate hydrometeorological predictions. However, in all of these areas NIDIS has not focused on the specific needs of coastal ecosystems during times of drought. Over the past year, NIDIS has started a pilot drought early warning system that addresses drought in the coastal ecosystems of North and South Carolina. This pilot is being developed in partnership with the Carolinas Integrated Sciences and Assessments (CISA), a NOAA Regional Sciences and Assessments program housed at the University of South Carolina. Currently the focus of the Carolinas pilot includes the promotion of enhanced drought impact reporting to better understand the impacts of low flows on coastal ecosystems and the development of a USGS real-time salinity network for a few coastal gage stations in the Carolinas. The roles of the enhanced drought impact assessments in coastal ecosystems and the knowledge gained from a real

  6. Variation in predator species abundance can cause variable selection pressure on warning signaling prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkonen, Janne K; Nokelainen, Ossi; Niskanen, Martti; Kilpimaa, Janne; Björklund, Mats; Mappes, Johanna

    2012-01-01

    Predation pressure is expected to drive visual warning signals to evolve toward conspicuousness. However, coloration of defended species varies tremendously and can at certain instances be considered as more camouflaged rather than conspicuous. Recent theoretical studies suggest that the variation in signal conspicuousness can be caused by variation (within or between species) in predators' willingness to attack defended prey or by the broadness of the predators' signal generalization. If some of the predator species are capable of coping with the secondary defenses of their prey, selection can favor reduced prey signal conspicuousness via reduced detectability or recognition. In this study, we combine data collected during three large-scale field experiments to assess whether variation in avian predator species (red kite, black kite, common buzzard, short-toed eagle, and booted eagle) affects the predation pressure on warningly and non-warningly colored artificial snakes. Predation pressure varied among locations and interestingly, if common buzzards were abundant, there were disadvantages to snakes possessing warning signaling. Our results indicate that predator community can have important consequences on the evolution of warning signals. Predators that ignore the warning signal and defense can be the key for the maintenance of variation in warning signal architecture and maintenance of inconspicuous signaling. PMID:22957197

  7. Health-based audible noise guidelines account for infrasound and low-frequency noise produced by wind turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Robert G; Ashtiani, Payam; Ollson, Christopher A; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa; McCallum, Lindsay C; Leventhall, Geoff; Knopper, Loren D

    2015-01-01

    Setbacks for wind turbines have been established in many jurisdictions to address potential health concerns associated with audible noise. However, in recent years, it has been suggested that infrasound (IS) and low-frequency noise (LFN) could be responsible for the onset of adverse health effects self-reported by some individuals living in proximity to wind turbines, even when audible noise limits are met. The purpose of this paper was to investigate whether current audible noise-based guidelines for wind turbines account for the protection of human health, given the levels of IS and LFN typically produced by wind turbines. New field measurements of indoor IS and outdoor LFN at locations between 400 and 900 m from the nearest turbine, which were previously underrepresented in the scientific literature, are reported and put into context with existing published works. Our analysis showed that indoor IS levels were below auditory threshold levels while LFN levels at distances >500 m were similar to background LFN levels. A clear contribution to LFN due to wind turbine operation (i.e., measured with turbines on in comparison to with turbines off) was noted at a distance of 480 m. However, this corresponded to an increase in overall audible sound measures as reported in dB(A), supporting the hypothesis that controlling audible sound produced by normally operating wind turbines will also control for LFN. Overall, the available data from this and other studies suggest that health-based audible noise wind turbine siting guidelines provide an effective means to evaluate, monitor, and protect potential receptors from audible noise as well as IS and LFN.

  8. Health-based Audible Noise Guidelines Account for Infrasound and Low Frequency Noise Produced by Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G Berger

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Setbacks for wind turbines have been established in many jurisdictions to address potential health concerns associated with audible noise. However, in recent years it has been suggested that infrasound (IS and low frequency noise (LFN could be responsible for the onset of adverse health effects self-reported by some individuals living in proximity to wind turbines, even when audible noise limits are met. The purpose of this paper was to investigate whether current audible noise-based guidelines for wind turbines account for the protection of human health, given the levels of IS and LFN typically produced by wind turbines. New field measurements of indoor IS and outdoor LFN at locations between 400 m and 900 m from the nearest turbine, which were previously underrepresented in the scientific literature, are reported and put into context with existing published works. Our analysis showed that indoor IS levels were below auditory threshold levels while LFN levels at distances >500 m were similar to background LFN levels. A clear contribution to LFN due to wind turbine operation (i.e., measured with turbines on in comparison to with turbines off was noted at a distance of 480 m. However, this corresponded to an increase in overall audible sound measures as reported in dB(A, supporting the hypothesis that controlling audible sound produced by normally operating wind turbines will also control for LFN. Overall, the available data from this and other studies suggest that health-based audible noise wind turbine siting guidelines provide an effective means to evaluate, monitor, and protect potential receptors from audible noise as well as IS and LFN.

  9. Health-based audible noise guidelines account for infrasound and low-frequency noise produced by wind turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Robert G; Ashtiani, Payam; Ollson, Christopher A; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa; McCallum, Lindsay C; Leventhall, Geoff; Knopper, Loren D

    2015-01-01

    Setbacks for wind turbines have been established in many jurisdictions to address potential health concerns associated with audible noise. However, in recent years, it has been suggested that infrasound (IS) and low-frequency noise (LFN) could be responsible for the onset of adverse health effects self-reported by some individuals living in proximity to wind turbines, even when audible noise limits are met. The purpose of this paper was to investigate whether current audible noise-based guidelines for wind turbines account for the protection of human health, given the levels of IS and LFN typically produced by wind turbines. New field measurements of indoor IS and outdoor LFN at locations between 400 and 900 m from the nearest turbine, which were previously underrepresented in the scientific literature, are reported and put into context with existing published works. Our analysis showed that indoor IS levels were below auditory threshold levels while LFN levels at distances >500 m were similar to background LFN levels. A clear contribution to LFN due to wind turbine operation (i.e., measured with turbines on in comparison to with turbines off) was noted at a distance of 480 m. However, this corresponded to an increase in overall audible sound measures as reported in dB(A), supporting the hypothesis that controlling audible sound produced by normally operating wind turbines will also control for LFN. Overall, the available data from this and other studies suggest that health-based audible noise wind turbine siting guidelines provide an effective means to evaluate, monitor, and protect potential receptors from audible noise as well as IS and LFN. PMID:25759808

  10. APPLICATION OF FUZZY OPTIMIZATION MODEL IN ECOLOGICAL SECURITY PRE-WARNING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Kai-ya; HU Shu-heng; SUN Shi-qun

    2005-01-01

    Ecological security is a vital problem that people all over the world today have to face and solve, and the situation of ecological security is getting more and more severe and has begun to impede heavily the sustainable development of social economy. Ecological environment pre-warning has become a hotspot for the modern environment science. This paper introduces the theories of ecological security pre-warning and tries to constitute a pre-warning model of ecological security. In terms of pressure-state-response model, the pre-warning guide line of ecological security is constructed while the pre-warning degree judging model of ecological security is established based on fuzzy optimization. As a case, the model is used to assess the present condition pre-warning of the ecological security of Anhui Province. The result is in correspondence with the real condition: the ecological security situations of 8 cities are dangerous and 9 cities are secure. The result shows that this model is scientific and effective for regional ecological security pre-warning.

  11. The Application of Big data Mining in Risk Warning for Food Safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yajie; WANG; Bing; YANG; Yan; LUO; Jinlin; HE; Hong; TAN

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive evaluation and warning is very important and difficult in food safety. This paper mainly focuses on introducing the application of using big data mining in food safety warning field. At first,we introduce the concept of big data miming and three big data methods. At the same time,we discuss the application of the three big data miming methods in food safety areas. Then we compare these big data miming methods,and propose how to apply Back Propagation Neural Network in food safety risk warning.

  12. TSUNAMI WARNING SYSTEM IN THE PACIFIC: Brief Historical Review of its Establishment and Institutional Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Pararas-Carayannis

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The year 2015 marks the 50th anniversary of operations of the International Tsunami Warning System in the Pacific Ocean. The present report describes briefly the establishment of the rudimentary early tsunami warning system in 1948 by the USA after the disastrous tsunami of April 1, 1946, generated by a great earthquake in the Aleutian Islands, struck without warning the Hawaiian Islands and other parts of the Pacific. Also reviewed are the progressive improvements made to the U.S. warning system, following the destructive tsunamis of 1952, 1957, 1960 and 1964, and of the early, support efforts undertaken in the U.S.A., initially by the Hawaii Institute of Geophysics of the University of Hawaii, by the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey and by the Honolulu Observatory - later renamed Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC. Following the 1964 Alaska tsunami, there was increased international cooperation, which resulted in a better understanding of the tsunami phenomenon and the development of a new field of Science of Tsunami Hazards in support of the early U.S. Warning System. Continuous supporting international cooperative efforts after 1965, resulted in the integration of the U.S. early warning system with other early regional tsunami warning systems of other nations to become the International Tsunami Warning System under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC of UNESCO for the purpose of mitigating the disaster’s impact in the Pacific, but later expanded to include other regions. Briefly reviewed in this paper is the subsequent institutional support of the International Tsunami Warning System in the Pacific, by the International Tsunami Information Center (ITIC, the International Tsunami Coordination Group (ICG/ITS, the Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (ATWC, the Joint Tsunami Research Effort (JTRE, NOAA’s National Geophysical Center (NGDC, the Pacific Marine Laboratory (PMEL of NOAA and of the later

  13. Reality Check Algorithm for Complex Sources in Early Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakus, G.; Heaton, T. H.

    2013-12-01

    In almost all currently operating earthquake early warning (EEW) systems, presently available seismic data are used to predict future shaking. In most cases, location and magnitude are estimated. We are developing an algorithm to test the goodness of that prediction in real time. We monitor envelopes of acceleration, velocity, and displacement; if they deviate significantly from the envelope predicted by Cua's envelope gmpe's then we declare an overfit (perhaps false alarm) or an underfit (possibly a larger event has just occurred). This algorithm is designed to provide a robust measure and to work as quickly as possible in real-time. We monitor the logarithm of the ratio between the envelopes of the ongoing observed event and the envelopes derived from the predicted envelopes of channels of ground motion of the Virtual Seismologist (VS) (Cua, G. and Heaton, T.). Then, we recursively filter this result with a simple running median (de-spiking operator) to minimize the effect of one single high value. Depending on the result of the filtered value we make a decision such as if this value is large enough (e.g., >1), then we would declare, 'that a larger event is in progress', or similarly if this value is small enough (e.g., <-1), then we would declare a false alarm. We design the algorithm to work at a wide range of amplitude scales; that is, it should work for both small and large events.

  14. Progress of the earthquake early warning system in Fujian, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xing; Wei, Yongxiang; Li, Jun; Zhang, Hongcai; Ma, Qiang; Kang, Lanchi

    2013-12-01

    In this article, we systematically introduce the latest progress of the earthquake early warning (EEW) system in Fujian, China. We focus on the following key technologies and methods: continuous earthquake location and its error evaluation; magnitude estimation; reliability judgment of EEW system information; use of double-parameter principle in EEW system information release threshold; real-time estimation of seismic intensity and available time for target areas; seismic-monitoring network and data sharing platform; EEW system information release and receiving platform; software test platform; and test results statistical analysis. Based on strong ground motion data received in the mainshock of the Wenchuan earthquake, the EEW system developed by the above algorithm is simulated online, and the results show that the system can reduce earthquake hazards effectively. In addition, we analyzed four earthquake cases with magnitude greater than 5.5 processed by our EEW system since the online-testing that was started one year ago, and results indicate that our system can effectively reduce earthquake hazards and have high practical significance.

  15. In-vehicle human factors for integrated multi-function systems: Making ITS user-friendly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spelt, P.F.; Scott, S.

    1998-04-01

    As more and more Intelligent Transportation System in-vehicle equipment enters the general consumer market, the authors are about to find out how different design engineers are from ordinary drivers. Driver information systems are being developed and installed in vehicles at an ever-increasing rate. These systems provide information on diverse topics of concern and convenience to the driver, such as routing and navigation, emergency and collision warnings, and a variety of motorists services, or yellow pages functions. Most of these systems are being developed and installed in isolation from each other, with separate means of gathering the information and of displaying it to the driver. The current lack of coordination among on-board systems threatens to create a situation in which different messages on separate displays will be competing with each other for the drivers attention. Urgent messages may go unnoticed, and the number of messages may distract the driver from the most critical task of controlling the vehicle. Thus, without good human factors design and engineering for integrating multiple systems in the vehicle, consumers may find ITS systems confusing and frustrating to use. The current state of the art in human factors research and design for in-vehicle systems has a number of fundamental gaps. Some of these gaps were identified during the Intelligent Vehicle Initiative Human Factors Technology Workshop, sponsored by the US Department of Transportation, in Troy, Michigan, December 10--11, 1997. One task for workshop participants was to identify needed research areas or topics relating to in-vehicle human factors. The top ten unmet research needs from this workshop are presented. Many of these gaps in human factors research knowledge indicate the need for standardization in the functioning of interfaces for safety-related devices such as collision avoidance systems (CAS) and adaptive cruise controls (ACC). Such standards and guidelines will serve to make

  16. Users’ Perception And Reported Effects Of Long-term Access To In-Vehicle Traffic Information Services Mediated Through Nomadic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skoglund Tor

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ICT-mediated traffic information has been argued to contribute to a more sustainable transport system through affecting drivers. Nevertheless, long-term effects of travellers having access to nomadic in-vehicle systems for traveller information are not well known. This study presents the results from a multi-national large-scale field operational test (FOT. The results show that the users in general were positive to the tested systems and that there were several effects on their driving behaviour but in many cases the effects were limited. Moreover the effects varied between system types. Positive effects were related to comfort, as well as individual and system efficiency. One could also notice that perceived effects were not as high as the participants had expected, leading to some disappointment. Most of the times this was due to the tested systems functioning in a less than optimal way.

  17. Sensing and detoxification devices in public building spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traberg-Borup, Steen; Gunnarsen, Lars Bo; Afshari, Alireza

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes commonly used ventilation principles and where sensig and detoxification devices could be integrated in public buidings in an effort to warn and protect citizens against surprise attacks by toxic agents. The release of toxic agents may be outdoors, in a single indoor spot...

  18. DNA Nanostructures as Smart Drug-Delivery Vehicles and Molecular Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linko, Veikko; Ora, Ari; Kostiainen, Mauri A

    2015-10-01

    DNA molecules can be assembled into custom predesigned shapes via hybridization of sequence-complementary domains. The folded structures have high spatial addressability and a tremendous potential to serve as platforms and active components in a plethora of bionanotechnological applications. DNA is a truly programmable material, and its nanoscale engineering thus opens up numerous attractive possibilities to develop novel methods for therapeutics. The tailored molecular devices could be used in targeting cells and triggering the cellular actions in the biological environment. In this review we focus on the DNA-based assemblies - primarily DNA origami nanostructures - that could perform complex tasks in cells and serve as smart drug-delivery vehicles in, for example, cancer therapy, prodrug medication, and enzyme replacement therapy. PMID:26409777

  19. DNA Nanostructures as Smart Drug-Delivery Vehicles and Molecular Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linko, Veikko; Ora, Ari; Kostiainen, Mauri A

    2015-10-01

    DNA molecules can be assembled into custom predesigned shapes via hybridization of sequence-complementary domains. The folded structures have high spatial addressability and a tremendous potential to serve as platforms and active components in a plethora of bionanotechnological applications. DNA is a truly programmable material, and its nanoscale engineering thus opens up numerous attractive possibilities to develop novel methods for therapeutics. The tailored molecular devices could be used in targeting cells and triggering the cellular actions in the biological environment. In this review we focus on the DNA-based assemblies - primarily DNA origami nanostructures - that could perform complex tasks in cells and serve as smart drug-delivery vehicles in, for example, cancer therapy, prodrug medication, and enzyme replacement therapy.

  20. 有声的中国——“演说”与近现代中国文章变革%An audible China:Speech and the innovation in modern Chinese writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈平原; Bai Ruixia

    2009-01-01

    "有声的中国"是相对于"无声的中国"而言,不仅指"舍掉古文而生存",而且可以从"声音"的角度探讨中国现代文化演进的新路径.本文从近现代的"演说"入手,着重讨论作为"传播文明三利器"之一的"演说",如何与"报章"、"学校"结盟,促成了白话文运动的成功,并实现了近现代中国文章(包括述学文体)的变革.%The image of an " audible China " is one opposed to the traditional China's as " voiceless. " Not only does it refer to the survival of modern Chinese out of the abandoned Classical Chinese, it also provides a new means to examine modern China's cultural transformation and development in terms of " voice. " This essay will discuss mainly how speech, one of " the three best tools for spreading civilization. " together with newspapers and magazines and schools, contributes to the success of the Vernacular Chinese Movement (Baihuawen yundong 白话文运动, CE 1917-1919)and the innovation in modern Chinese writing (including Chinese academic writing style).

  1. Drugs related to motor vehicle crashes in northern European countries: A study of fatally injured drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørland, Jørg; Steentoft, Anni; Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese;

    2011-01-01

    with other vehicles. In single vehicle accidents, 66% of the drivers under 30 years of age had alcohol and/or drugs in their blood (alcohol only – 40%; drugs only – 12%; alcohol and drugs – 14%). The drugs found were mostly illicit drugs and psychoactive medicinal drugs with warning labels (in 57% and 58......% respectively of the drivers under 30 with drugs present). Similar findings were obtained for drivers 30–49 years of age (63% with alcohol and/or drugs). In drivers aged 50 years and above, killed in single vehicle crashes (48% with alcohol and/or drugs) illicit drugs were found in only one case...... or in combination. The drugs involved were often illicit and/or psychoactive drugs with warning labels. Therefore a large proportion of single vehicle accidents appear to be preventable, if more effective measures against driving after intake of alcohol and drugs can be implemented....

  2. Toxic Algae and Early Warning Management in Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song; Lun; Song; Guangjun; Song; Yonggang; Xu; Xiaohong

    2014-01-01

    The research status of toxic algae in Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea are reviewed from the aspects of toxicity characteristics,toxic mechanism and early warning management,and the existing toxic algae and their toxicity in Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea are analyzed in the paper. The early warning level of toxic algae in Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea of China is put forward,and the research direction of shellfish poisoning in future is summarized.

  3. Geoethical considerations in early warning of flooding and landslides: Case study from Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devoli, Graziella; Kleivane Krøgli, Ingeborg; Dahl, Mads Peter; Colleuille, Hervé; Nykjær Boje, Søren; Sund, Monica

    2015-04-01

    The Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE) runs the national early warning systems (EWS) for flooding and shallow landslides in Norway. The two EWSs have been operational since the late 1980s and 2013 respectively, and are based on weather forecasts, various hydro-meteorological prognosis and expert evaluation. Daily warning levels and related information to the public is prepared and presented through custom build internet platforms. In natural hazards sciences, the risk of a specific threat is defined as the product of hazard and consequence. In this context an EWS is intended to work as a mitigation measure in lowering the consequence and thus the risk of the threat. One of several factors determining the quality of such an EWS, is how warnings are communicated to the public. In contrary to what is common practice in some other countries, experts working with EWS in Norway cannot be held personally responsible for consequences of warnings being issued or not. However, the communication of warnings for flooding and landslides at NVE still implies many considerations of geoethical kind. Which are the consequences today for the forecasters when erroneous warning messages are sent because based on a poorly documented analysis? What is for example the most responsible way to describe uncertainties in warnings issued? What is the optimal compromise between avoiding false alarms and not sending out a specific warning? Is it responsible to rely on a "gut feeling"? Some authorities complain in receiving warning messages too often. Is it responsible to begin notifying these, only in cases of "high hazard level" and no longer in cases of "moderate hazard level"? Is it acceptable to issue general warnings for large geographical areas without being able to pinpoint the treat on local scale? What responsibility lies within the EWS in recommending evacuation or other practical measures to local authorities? By presenting how early warnings of flooding and

  4. Drought early warning system in I.R. of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drought is a normal, recurring feature of climate; it occurs in virtually all climatic regimes. It occurs in high as well as low rainfall areas. Drought is the consequence of a natural reduction in the amount of precipitation received over an extended period of time, usually a season or more in length, although other climatic factors (such as high temperatures, high winds, and low relative humidity) are often associated with it in many regions of the world and can significantly aggravate the severity of the event. Most parts of the 1. R. of Iran have a high degree of aridity and pronounced rainfall variability in large parts of their territories and are therefore highly vulnerable to drought. Therefore, drought is one of greatest natural disasters in our country. Among all natural disasters, droughts occur the most frequently, have the longest duration, cover the largest area, and cause the greatest losses in agricultural production. The quantification of impacts and the provision of disaster relief are far more difficult tasks for drought than they are for other natural hazards. Since, the drought is a normal part of climate, it is difficult to determine its onset, development, and end. This fact emphasizes the importance of developing comprehensive monitoring or early warning systems. Drought prediction (monthly, seasonal, or yearly trends) is particularly useful for the drought planning and mitigation. Drought Early Warning System is applied as a pilot study during the last two years. The NDEWSI is based on the monitoring drought indices, such as SPI, Palmer and NDVI, and preparedness, where will be discussed in this paper. In this paper, we have presented a brief drought analysis using the SPI and demonstrated its potential use for drought analysis with minimal data requirements. It is our view that development of a drought monitoring system, based largely on meteorological and climatic information, can be a great help for early assessment of drought impacts in

  5. Early warning for geo-hazards based on the weather condition in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuanzheng LIU; Yanhui LIU; Mingsheng WEN; Can TANG; Tiefeng LI; Jianfa LIAN

    2006-01-01

    According to national early warning practice for geo-hazards from 2003 to 2005, it is systematically concluded that the basic characteristics of geo-hazards, early warning method and forecast result based on the geological maps of China in a scale 1∶6 000 000. With the contrast of different characters between sustained rainfall and typhoon rainfall inducing geo-hazards, the disaster reduction result and some problems are preliminarily analyzed. Some basic recognition is that early warning to geo-hazards is feasible, national scale forecast is only to call attention, but can't immediately be used to disaster reduction decision-making. And, the future direction is to build a united disaster reduction framework of early warning system including national, provincial and county levels based on weather factors in different scale of area.

  6. Viewing alcohol warning advertising reduces urges to drink in young adults: an online experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Stautz, Kaidy; Marteau, Theresa M

    2016-01-01

    Background Tobacco counter-advertising is effective at promoting smoking cessation. Few studies have evaluated the impact of alcohol warning advertising on alcohol consumption and possible mechanisms of effect. This pilot study aimed to assess whether alcohol warning advertising is effective in reducing urges to drink alcohol, if emotional responses to advertising explain any such effect or perceived effectiveness, and whether effects differ among heavier drinkers. Methods One hundred fifty-t...

  7. Information systems in a changing climate: Early warnings and drought risk management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger S. Pulwarty

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Drought is among the most damaging, and least understood, of all “natural” hazards. Although some droughts last a single season and affect only small areas, the instrumental and paleoclimate records show that droughts have sometimes continued for decades and have impacted millions of square kilometers in North America, West Africa, and East Asia. To cross the spectrum of potential drivers and impacts, drought information systems have multiple sub-systems which include an integrated risk assessment, communication and decision support system of which early warning is a central component and output. An early warning system is much more than a forecast – it is a linked risk information (including people׳s perception of risk and communication system that actively engages communities involved in preparedness. There are numerous drought systems warning systems being implemented at different scales of governance. We draw on the lessons of over 21 drought early warning systems around the world, in both developing and developed countries and at regional, national and community levels. The successes illustrate that effective early warning depends upon a multi-sectoral and interdisciplinary collaboration among all concerned actors at each stage in the warning process from monitoring to response and evaluation. However, the links between the community-based approach and the national and global EWSs are relatively weak. Using the rich experience of information systems across the globe, this paper identifies pathways for knowledge management and action at the relevant scales for decision-making in response to a changing climate.

  8. People-centred landslide early warning systems in the context of risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haß, S.; Asch, K.; Fernandez-Steeger, T.; Arnhardt, C.

    2009-04-01

    In the current hazard research people-centred warning becomes more and more important, because different types of organizations and groups have to be involved in the warning process. This fact has to be taken into account when developing early warning systems. The effectiveness of early warning depends not only on technical capabilities but also on the preparedness of decision makers and their immediate response on how to act in case of emergency. Hence early warning systems have to be regarded in the context of an integrated and holistic risk management. Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) measures include people-centred, timely and understandable warning. Further responsible authorities have to be identified in advance and standards for risk communication have to be established. Up to now, hazard and risk assessment for geohazards focuses on the development of inventory, susceptibility, hazard and risk maps. But often, especially in Europe, there are no institutional structures for managing geohazards and in addition there is a lack of an authority that is legally obliged to alarm on landslides at national or regional level. One of the main characteristics within the warning process for natural hazards e.g. in Germany is the split of responsibility between scientific authorities (wissenschaftliche Fachbehörde) and enforcement authorities (Vollzugsbehörde). The scientific authority provides the experts who define the methods and measures for monitoring and evaluate the hazard level. The main focus is the acquisition and evaluation of data and subsequently the distribution of information. The enforcement authority issues official warnings about dangerous natural phenomena. Hence the information chain in the context of early warning ranges over two different institutions, the forecast service and the warning service. But there doesn't exist a framework for warning processes in terms of landslides as yet. The concept for managing natural disasters is often reduced to

  9. Enhancement of Delivery of Warning Messages for Mobile Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Sheng Tsai

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V communication systems have been studied extensively in recent years by transportation experts worldwide. Such systems enable the transmission of warning messages (alarms between vehicles without additional roadside infrastructure. Thus, messages can be sent faster than through base stations. Because of these advantages, researchers worldwide are exploring how this technology can improve traffic safety. However, the various V2V schemes proposed thus far share the same problem: (1 unnecessary repetition of warning messages and (2 transmission to inapplicable respondents. This study proposes a new method for delivering V2V warning messages which reduces the redundant messages common in current schemes. Here, three schemes to deliver alarms are considered. One is blind flooding to broadcast alarms. Warning messages are routed by AODV protocol. Another is called Two Lanes. The broadcasting region of alarms is limited in two traffic lanes nearby a traffic accident only. And the last one is the proposed strategy where a warning message received by a car will be simply checked the prime number carried within the alarm header and decided whether the car is responsible to deliver it. If necessary, it will be forwarded to the next nodes. Otherwise, the redundant warning message shall be discarded to release system load and avoid to suspend other normal transmission proceeding. The results reveal that minimizing the delays caused by such redundant messages enables warnings to be sent to drivers more rapidly. Also, it prioritizes warning messages so that drivers are apprised of the most serious and dangerous traffic accidents. Moreover, another key finding in this paper is that the radii of the broadcasting coverage shall be adjusted carefully and adaptively to optimize the system performance.

  10. Rhetorical Devices in English Advertisements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈芃

    2011-01-01

    In order to achieve persuasive and convincing effects,rhetorical devices are frequently applied in English advertisements.The paper classifies rhetorical devices into four basic categories: phonetic devices,lexical devices,syntactic devices and figures of

  11. Evaluation of Flood Forecast and Warning in Elbe river basin - Impact of Forecaster's Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danhelka, Jan; Vlasak, Tomas

    2010-05-01

    Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI) is responsible for flood forecasting and warning in the Czech Republic. To meet that issue CHMI operates hydrological forecasting systems and publish flow forecast in selected profiles. Flood forecast and warning is an output of system that links observation (flow and atmosphere), data processing, weather forecast (especially NWP's QPF), hydrological modeling and modeled outputs evaluation and interpretation by forecaster. Forecast users are interested in final output without separating uncertainties of separate steps of described process. Therefore an evaluation of final operational forecasts was done for profiles within Elbe river basin produced by AquaLog forecasting system during period 2002 to 2008. Effects of uncertainties of observation, data processing and especially meteorological forecasts were not accounted separately. Forecast of flood levels exceedance (peak over the threshold) during forecasting period was the main criterion as flow increase forecast is of the highest importance. Other evaluation criteria included peak flow and volume difference. In addition Nash-Sutcliffe was computed separately for each time step (1 to 48 h) of forecasting period to identify its change with the lead time. Textual flood warnings are issued for administrative regions to initiate flood protection actions in danger of flood. Flood warning hit rate was evaluated at regions level and national level. Evaluation found significant differences of model forecast skill between forecasting profiles, particularly less skill was evaluated at small headwater basins due to domination of QPF uncertainty in these basins. The average hit rate was 0.34 (miss rate = 0.33, false alarm rate = 0.32). However its explored spatial difference is likely to be influenced also by different fit of parameters sets (due to different basin characteristics) and importantly by different impact of human factor. Results suggest that the practice of interactive

  12. Sensors in Unmanned Robotic Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Rohini

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned tracked vehicles are developed for deployment in dangerous zones that are notsafe for human existence. These vehicles are to be fitted with various sensors for safe manoeuvre.Wide range of sensors for vehicle control, vision, and navigation are employed. The main purposeof the sensors is to infer the intended parameter precisely for further utilisation. Software isinseparable part of the sensors and plays major role in scaling, noise reduction, and fusion.Sensor fusion is normally adapted to enhance the decision-making. Vehicle location  andorientation can be sensed through global positioning system, accelerometer, gyroscope, andcompass. The unmanned vehicle can be navigated with the help of CCD camera, radar, lidar,ultrasonic sensor, piezoelectric sensor, microphone, etc.  Proximity sensors like capacitive andRF proximity detectors can detect obstacles in close vicinity.  This paper presents an overviewof sensors normally deployed in unmanned tracked vehicles.

  13. Comparative study of the effects of occupational exposure to infrasound and low frequency noise with those of audible noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Pawlas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The study aimed to compare effects of occupational exposure to low frequency noise (LFN in comparison with those of audible noise (AN. Material and methods. Three groups of 307 workers (I – exposed to LFN, II – exposed to audible noise – AN, and III- controls were examined. Results. Blood pressure and other biochemical parameters were worse in the group exposed. All parameters of hearing were worse in the AN group in comparison with LFN one in whole range of frequency. The same trends were found in posturography. Conclusions. The results of the study showed that audible noise is more hazardous than LFN. The results did not support thesis on vibroacoustic disease.

  14. A fault-tolerant control architecture for different battery topologies in electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gholami, Mehdi; Esen, Hasan; Schiøler, Henrik;

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a variety of battery conguration topologies for electrical vehicles (EV)are investigated w.r.t. reliability and expected lifetime along with the possibility of applying active fault detection to provide early warnings for the driver. Dierent congurations are investigated ranging from...

  15. Tsunami Warning in the Near Field: the Approach in Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, G. J.; Hirshorn, B.; McCreery, C. S.; Cessaro, R. K.; Weinstein, S. A.

    2005-12-01

    Tsunami warnings must always be made from imperfect and limited data, but uncertainties become especially acute in the near field, where a tsunami reaches its target coastline in a half-hour or less. In the absence of a warning (either because there is no warning system or because the system responds too slowly) the usual advice is ``When the ground shakes so severely that it's difficult to stand, move away from the ocean.'' The severe shaking criterion reduces the chance of unnecessary evacuation (rapid evacuation has its own considerable perils, and must be avoided unless absolutely necessary), but what if shaking is not severe? There is no guarantee that tsunami hazard will be restricted to the meizoseismal region. Worse, if the earthquake has slow rupture (large displacement but mild shaking) the ``severe'' criterion will be tragically misleading: in Nicaragua 1992, for example, hundreds were injured and 179 killed by a tsunami from an offshore earthquake that few onshore even felt. Where such potential failures of the usual near-field advice are suspected, we must attempt to issue useful (i.e. rapid) warnings. Local warning systems, however, must be tailored to the local conditions. The difficulties of local warning are well demonstrated by the Hawaiian Islands, where deep water close offshore means rapid tsunami propagation out of the region of extreme shaking. An earthquake on the Kona (west) coast of the Island of Hawai`i should warn residents there that a damaging tsunami is likely within ten minutes, but the gentler shaking at Kihei on Maui (the next island to the west) would provide little clue of the tsunami to come 18 minutes later. In Honolulu, almost 300 km from the source, many would not even be aware of the earthquake, but the tsunami would arrive 30 minutes later. Even more troubling is the possibility of a tsunami earthquake: the slow rupture of the Kalapana Earthquake of 1975, together with ``silent'' earthquakes detected by GPS, suggest that

  16. Seasonal associations and atmospheric transport distances of fungi in the genus Fusarium collected with unmanned aerial vehicles and ground-based sampling devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Binbin; Ross, Shane D.; Prussin, Aaron J.; Schmale, David G.

    2014-09-01

    Spores of fungi in the genus Fusarium may be transported through the atmosphere over long distances. New information is needed to characterize seasonal trends in atmospheric loads of Fusarium and to pinpoint the source(s) of inoculum at both local (farm) and regional (state or country) scales. We hypothesized that (1) atmospheric concentrations of Fusarium spores in an agricultural ecosystem vary with height and season and (2) transport distances from potential inoculum source(s) vary with season. To test these hypotheses, spores of Fusarium were collected from the atmosphere in an agricultural ecosystem in Blacksburg, VA, USA using a Burkard volumetric sampler (BVS) 1 m above ground level and autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) 100 m above ground level. More than 2200 colony forming units (CFUs) of Fusarium were collected during 104 BVS sampling periods and 180 UAV sampling periods over four calendar years (2009-2012). Spore concentrations ranged from 0 to 13 and 0 to 23 spores m-3 for the BVS and the UAVs, respectively. Spore concentrations were generally higher in the fall, spring, and summer, and lower in the winter. Spore concentrations from the BVS were generally higher than those from the UAVs for both seasonal and hourly collections. A Gaussian plume transport model was used to estimate distances to the potential inoculum source(s) by season, and produced mean transport distances of 1.4 km for the spring, 1.7 km for the summer, 1.2 km for the fall, and 4.1 km for the winter. Environmental signatures that predict atmospheric loads of Fusarium could inform disease spread, air pollution, and climate change.

  17. Jamming of fingers: an experimental study to determine force and deflection in participants and human cadaver specimens for development of a new bionic test device for validation of power-operated motor vehicle side door windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohendorff, Bernd; Weidermann, Christian; Pollinger, Philipp; Burkhart, Klaus J; Müller, Lars Peter

    2013-02-01

    The deformability of human fingers is central to addressing the real-life hazard of finger jamming between the window and seal entry of a power-operated motor vehicle side door window. The index and little fingers of the left hand of 109 participants and of 20 cadaver specimens were placed in a measurement setup. Participants progressively jammed their fingers at five different dorsal-palmar jam positions up to the maximum tolerable pain threshold, whereas the cadaver specimens were jammed up to the maximum possible deflection. Force-deflection curves were calculated corresponding to increasing deflection of the compressed tissue layers of the fingers. The average maximum force applied by the participants was 42 N to the index finger and 35 N to the little finger. In the cadaver fingers, the average of the maximum force applied was 1886 N for the index finger and 1833 N for the little finger. In 200 jam positions, 25 fractures were observed on radiographs; fractures occurred at an average force of 1485 N. These data assisted the development of a prototype of a bionic test device for more realistic validation of power-operated motor vehicle windows.

  18. Fuel Cell Powered Vehicles Using Supercapacitors: Device Characteristics, Control Strategies, and Simulation Results

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Hengbing; Burke, Andy

    2010-01-01

    The fuel cell powered vehicle is one of the most attractive candidates for the future due to its high efficiency and capability to use hydrogen as the fuel. However, its relatively poor dynamic response, high cost, and limited life time have impeded its widespread adoption. With the emergence of large supercapacitors (also know as ultracapacitors, UCs) with high power density and the shift to hybridization in the vehicle technology, fuel cell/supercapacitor hybrid fuel cell vehicles are gaini...

  19. Web-based Tsunami Early Warning System with instant Tsunami Propagation Calculations in the GPU Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammitzsch, M.; Spazier, J.; Reißland, S.

    2014-12-01

    Usually, tsunami early warning and mitigation systems (TWS or TEWS) are based on several software components deployed in a client-server based infrastructure. The vast majority of systems importantly include desktop-based clients with a graphical user interface (GUI) for the operators in early warning centers. However, in times of cloud computing and ubiquitous computing the use of concepts and paradigms, introduced by continuously evolving approaches in information and communications technology (ICT), have to be considered even for early warning systems (EWS). Based on the experiences and the knowledge gained in three research projects - 'German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System' (GITEWS), 'Distant Early Warning System' (DEWS), and 'Collaborative, Complex, and Critical Decision-Support in Evolving Crises' (TRIDEC) - new technologies are exploited to implement a cloud-based and web-based prototype to open up new prospects for EWS. This prototype, named 'TRIDEC Cloud', merges several complementary external and in-house cloud-based services into one platform for automated background computation with graphics processing units (GPU), for web-mapping of hazard specific geospatial data, and for serving relevant functionality to handle, share, and communicate threat specific information in a collaborative and distributed environment. The prototype in its current version addresses tsunami early warning and mitigation. The integration of GPU accelerated tsunami simulation computations have been an integral part of this prototype to foster early warning with on-demand tsunami predictions based on actual source parameters. However, the platform is meant for researchers around the world to make use of the cloud-based GPU computation to analyze other types of geohazards and natural hazards and react upon the computed situation picture with a web-based GUI in a web browser at remote sites. The current website is an early alpha version for demonstration purposes to give the

  20. The SAFER-Project and Seismic Early Warning in Europe (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zschau, J.; Gasparini, P.

    2009-12-01

    SAFER (Seismic EArly Warning For EuRope) is the first large scale scientific project in Europe on earthquake early warning. It is funded by the European Commission in the context of Framework Program 6 under the theme Sustainable Development, Global Change and Ecosystems. Its general objective is to develop knowledge and tools for increasing the capability of effective earthquake early warning in Europe and to implement and test these tools in selected European cities. The SAFER project was carried out between 2006 and 2009 by a consortium formed by 20 institutes from 11 European and Mediterranean countries (Germany, Italy, Greece, Romania, Switzerland, Norway, France, the Netherlands, Iceland, Turkey and Egypt) and one each from Japan, Taiwan and USA. Five major earthquake prone cities were chosen as test areas: Athens, Bucharest, Cairo, Istanbul and Naples. The combined population of these cities is about 40 million inhabitants and all have experienced severe earthquakes in recent years. SAFER is strongly multi-disciplinary, calling upon expertise in seismology, structural and geotechnical engineering, informatics and statistics. Some of the specific problems addressed are related to - the rapid determination of earthquake size, complex earthquake features, and damage potential; - the implementation of a fully probabilistic framework for applications of earthquake early warning based on cost-benefit analysis; - the development of a new generation of early warning systems being decentralised and people-centred, and - the implementation of the real-time “shake map”-technology in large European cities. The presentation will review the major scientific findings, comment on the improvements of the earthquake early warning capabilities achieved by SAFER in the five test cities, and present some ideas for the future development of earthquake early warning in Europe.

  1. Hybrid and Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-05-20

    Hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles use electricity either as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. This new generation of vehicles, often called electric drive vehicles, can be divided into three categories: hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles(PHEVs), and all-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, they have great potential to reduce U.S. petroleum use.

  2. Recovery of DNA and fingermarks following deployment of render-safe tools for vehicle-borne improvised explosive devices (VBIED).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, S; Houspian, A; Knott, F

    2011-07-15

    Improvised explosive devices (IED) are responsible for a significant proportion of combat and civilian deaths around the world. Given the ease with which IEDs can be made, the large quantity of explosive which can be contained within or on a vehicle, and the use of VBIED in the past (for example the 2002 Bali bombing) in terrorist activities, VBIED are an ongoing concern for Defence and law enforcement agencies. Fingermark and DNA analyses are routinely used by police and forensic analysts to identify suspects involved in illegal activities. There is limited information available on the feasibility of obtaining fingermarks, fibres, hair and DNA samples following an explosive incident, or a situation whereby an IED has been rendered safe following the utilisation of an appropriate defeat or render-safe tool. The main objective of this study was to determine if fingermarks and/or DNA (from saliva and hair samples) placed on the interior and exterior of road vehicles, and on inanimate objects (such as plastic or glass bottles), are able to be obtained and analysed following the use of a vehicle-borne IED (VBIED) render-safe tool on a vehicle containing simulated explosives. The identification of fingermarks on the exterior (67.2±8.5%) and interior (43.8±17.8%) of the vehicles was possible following the use of the render-safe tool, though this was more challenging in the latter than the former. Fingermarks were also able to be identified from both plastic and glass bottles placed inside the vehicles. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques yielded DNA profiles that were able to be identified from saliva and hair samples. These preliminary results suggest that both fingermarks and DNA profiles, obtained from vehicles that have been subjected to a VBIED render-safe tool, may be used to identify persons of interest.

  3. The Role of Kenya Meteorological Service in Weather Early Warning in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zablon W. Shilenje

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Early warning in weather forecasting entails provision of timely and effective weather information that allows individuals, organisations, or communities exposed to likely weather hazards to take action that avoids or reduces their exposure to risks. Various sectors have developed different ways to mitigate the effects of climate anomalies. The study reviews the existing monitoring and response structures, and communications flow channels of weather data at different levels, focusing on the role of Kenya Meteorological Service (KMS. The methodology employed was literature review of various documents. The study argues that early warning and weather information communication are essential elements for effective governance of weather risks through a well-developed warning system. At the end, the study recommends strengthening the existing structures with respect to weather monitoring, processing, and dissemination of weather products to end users.

  4. Floods in 2002 and 2013: comparing flood warnings and emergency measures from the perspective of affected parties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreibich, Heidi; Pech, Ina; Schröter, Kai; Müller, Meike; Thieken, Annegret

    2016-04-01

    Early warning is essential for protecting people and mitigating damage in case of flood events. However, early warning is only helpful if the flood-endangered parties are reached by the warning and if they know how to react effectively. Finding suitable methods for communicating helpful warnings to the "last mile" remains a challenge, but not much information is available. Surveys were undertaken after the August 2002 and the June 2013 floods in Germany, asking affected private households and companies about warnings they received and emergency measures they undertook. Results show, that in 2002 early warning did not work well: in too many areas warnings came too late or were too imprecise and many people (27%) and companies (45%) did not receive a flood warning. Afterwards, the warning systems were significantly improved, so that in 2013 only a small share of the affected people (7%) and companies (7 %) was not reached by any warning. Additionally, private households and companies were hardly aware of the flood risk in the Elbe catchment before 2002, mainly due to a lack of flood experience. For instance, in 2002 only 14% of private households clearly knew how to protect themselves and their assets when the warning reached them, in 2013 this fraction was 46 %. Although the share of companies which had an emergency plan in place had increased from 10 % in 2002 to 26 % in 2013, and the share of those conducting regular emergency exercises had increased from 4 % to 13 %, there is still plenty of room for improvement. Therefore, integrated early warning systems from monitoring through to the reaction of the affected parties as well as effective risk and emergency communication need continuous further improvement to protect people and mitigate residual risks in case of floods.

  5. Simulation of Nano-TiO2 Spraying Uniformity in All-terrain Vehicle Device%车载纳米TiO2装备喷洒均匀度计算模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王汝佳; 于建国

    2012-01-01

    根据纳米TiO2的特性,在全路况车上设计装备纳米TiO2喷洒装备,并在4种车速下对平面喷洒量进行数值计算模拟,利用Delaunay三角剖分法和MATLAB科学计算软件,对平面上纳米TiO2喷洒点的分布均匀度,通过三次样条多次插值计算,将喷头的喷洒点分布数据转换为网格型。对喷头的方形组合喷洒特性情况进行理论分析,结果表明在喷洒面积相同情况下,全路况车速为2.0m/s(7.2km/h)时,正方形组合布置喷洒点的数据分布较为均匀。%In this paper,according to the characteristics of nano-TiO2,the nano-TiO2 spraying device is designed and equipped on the all-terrain vehicle.The Delaunay triangulation method and MATLAB scientific computer software are used to analysis the all-terrain vehicle spray equipment spraying characteristics at different speeds.Based on the all-terrain vehicle TiO2 nanometer spraying point’s data distribution uniformity,the method of cubic spline interpolation is used to convert the data of the nozzle spray distribution to a grid type.Based on theoretical analysis,the square combination of the nozzle spraying characteristics is analyzed;the result shows that in the spraying area,when the all-terrain vehicle speeds at 2.0m/s(7.2km/h),the spray point data of the square combination arrangement are more uniform.

  6. Seismic Activity: Public Alert and Warning: Legal Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zocchetti, D.

    2007-12-01

    As science and technology evolve in ways that increase our ability to inform the public of potentially destructive seismic activity, there are significant legal issues for consideration. Even though countries and even states within the United States have differing legal tenets that could either change or at least re-shape the outcome of specific legal questions that this session will be pondering, there are fundamental legal principals that will permeate. It is often said that the law lags behind society and in particular its technological developments. No doubt in the area of warning the public of impending destructive forces of nature or society, the law will need to do some catching up. The law is probably adequately developed for at least some preliminary discussion of the key issues. No matter the legal scheme, if there is a failure or perceived failure in the system to warn people of a pending emergencies, albeit an earthquake, tsunami, or other predictable event, those who are harmed or believe they are harmed will seek relief under the law. Every day there are situations wherein the failure to warn or to adequately warn is key, such as with faulty or defective consumer products, escaped prisoners, and police high-speed vehicle chases. With alert and warning systems for disaster, however, we have a unique set of facts. Generally, the systems and their failures occur during emergencies or at least during situations under apparently exigent circumstances when the disaster's predictability is widely recognized as less than 100 percent. The law, in particular United States tort law, has been particularly lenient when people and organizations are operating during compressed timeframes and their actions are generally considered necessary to address circumstances relative to public safety. The legal system has been forgiving when the actor that failed or appeared to fail was government. The courts have liberally applied the principal of sovereign immunity to

  7. Health warnings on tobacco packaging in Italy: do they describe all possible smoking-related conditions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittoria Colamesta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This report aims to evaluate the adherence between the health warnings on tobacco products in Italy and the smoking-related conditions known in the scientific literature. The Legislative Decree 2003 and 2012 established the general and the additional warnings on tobacco packaging. Regarding the smoking-related conditions, the health damages presented in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC report are reported. Also a narrative review was performed. Respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, adverse reproductive outcomes and childhood neurobehavioral disorders are well reported in the textual health warning. Also there is at least one message indicating that the exposure of secondhand smoke is harmful. Conversely, several smoking-related cancers and other adverse health effects (diabetes, hip fractures, low bone density in postmenopausal women, rheumatoid arthritis, mental decline, acne and allergy, etc are not considered. The health warnings represent an important mean for communicating that may change smokers’ attitudes and behaviours, therefore, it’s important to implement them, also considering the introduction of graphical warnings, to maintain their effectiveness over time.

  8. Smart materials and active noise and vibration control in vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doppenberg, E.J.J.; Berkhoff, A.P.; Overbeek, M. van [TNO Institute of Applied Physics, Delft (Netherlands)

    2001-07-01

    Results are presented for the reduction of sound radiated from a structure using different control methodologies. Two approaches for active structural acoustic control are mentioned to reduce sound radiated by the structure: the acoustic approach or the vibro-acoustic approach. In both cases integrated actuators in structure materials are necessary to realise feasible products. Furthermore the development of an efficient shaker for Active Isolation techniques is described. The prototype of TNO TPD can produce a force of 400 N up to 250 Hz at a good performance-volume ratio. To enhance the robustness of the active control applications, the use of the subspace identification based control methods are developed. The robustness property of subspace identification methods forms the basis of an accurate model updating mechanism, using small size data batches. The performed simulations reveal excellent robustness performance under very general noise conditions or during operation of the control system. Furthermore the development of the techniques can be exploited to realise sound comfort requirements to enhance audible communications of vehicle related applications. To anticipate to these developments in the automotive industry, TNO has set up a Sound and Vibrations Research Centre with Twente University and a research program on Smart Panels with the Delft University. To investigate the potential markets and applications for sound comfort in the means of transportation, TNO-TPD and the Institute of Sound and Vibration Research in England (ISVR) have agreed on a cooperative venture to develop and realise 'active control of electroacoustics' (ACE). (orig.)

  9. Flood warnings in coastal areas: how do social and behavioural patterns influence alert services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescaroli, G.; Magni, M.

    2015-01-01

    Many studies discuss the economic and technical aspects of flood warnings. Less attention has been given to the social and psychological patterns that affect alert services. In particular, the literature focuses on warnings activated in river basins or marine environments without providing clear evidence of relevance to Mediterranean coastal areas, even though these are subjected to growing flood risk related to climate change. This paper is a first attempt to bridge this gap. Our research develops an in- depth analysis of the village of Cesenatico on the Adriatic Sea coast. Here the municipality adopted two complementary warning systems: a siren and an alert via Short Message Service (SMS). The analysis focuses on a survey conducted in 2011 and 2012 with 228 participants. The relationships between social and behavioural variables and warning services are investigated, and so are flood preparedness and information dissemination. Qualitative evidence from informal interviews is used to support the understanding of key responses. The conclusions show how different social and behavioural patterns can influence the effectiveness and use of warning systems, regardless of the technology adopted and the structural mitigation measures implemented. Education, training and accountability are seen to be critical elements for improvement. Finally, the statistical output is used to suggest new questions and new directions for research.

  10. Flood warnings in coastal areas: how do experience and information influence responses to alert services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescaroli, G.; Magni, M.

    2015-04-01

    Many studies discuss the economic and technical aspects of flood warnings. Less attention has been given to the social and behavioural patterns that affect alert services. In particular, the literature focuses on warnings activated in river basins or marine environments without providing clear evidence on Mediterranean coastal areas, even though these are subjected to growing flood risk related to climate change. This paper is a first attempt to bridge this gap. Our research develops an in-depth analysis of the village of Cesenatico on the Adriatic Sea coast. Here the municipality adopted two complementary warning systems: a siren and an alert via short message service (SMS). The analysis focuses on a survey conducted in 2011 and 2012 with 228 participants. The relationships between social and behavioural variables and warning services are investigated as well as flood preparedness and information dissemination. Qualitative evidence from informal interviews is used to support the understanding of key responses. The conclusions show how different social and behavioural patterns can influence the effectiveness and use of warning systems, regardless of the technology adopted and the structural mitigation measures implemented. Education, training and accountability are seen to be critical elements for implementation. Finally, the statistical output is used to suggest new questions and new directions for research.

  11. Development of the Effective Underwater Speaker Sound Modulated by Audible Sound Frequency Range of Large Cetaceans for Avoidance with Ship Collision

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroko Yamada; Nozomi Kobayashi; Tatsunori Nakashima; Hidehiro Kato

    2015-01-01

    The underwater speaker (UWS) has been installed on high speed vessels; hydrofoils (HF) with low-noise during their cruises, to avoid sudden collisions with large cetaceans, while its performance has remained uncertain because of the problem in quality of the produced sound. Thus, we developed a sound source for the UWS by modulating the sound based on the audible range of major large cetaceans so as to increase its utilities. To investigate the audible sound frequency range of cetacean, we tr...

  12. Research of indoor smoke warning and air purification equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wangronglong; Zhaoyexing; Fuyunhua

    2015-01-01

    In order to reduce indoor smoke concentration and improve indoor air quality,we put forward the intelligent indoor smoke warning and air purification device. This device can quickly reduce the concentration of indoor smoke by the air purification and fire alarm function. It provides a suitable living environment for people.

  13. Flash Flood Risks and Warning Decisions: A Mental Models Study of Forecasters, Public Officials, and Media Broadcasters in Boulder, Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morss, Rebecca E; Demuth, Julie L; Bostrom, Ann; Lazo, Jeffrey K; Lazrus, Heather

    2015-11-01

    Timely warning communication and decision making are critical for reducing harm from flash flooding. To help understand and improve extreme weather risk communication and management, this study uses a mental models research approach to investigate the flash flood warning system and its risk decision context. Data were collected in the Boulder, Colorado area from mental models interviews with forecasters, public officials, and media broadcasters, who each make important interacting decisions in the warning system, and from a group modeling session with forecasters. Analysis of the data informed development of a decision-focused model of the flash flood warning system that integrates the professionals' perspectives. Comparative analysis of individual and group data with this model characterizes how these professionals conceptualize flash flood risks and associated uncertainty; create and disseminate flash flood warning information; and perceive how warning information is (and should be) used in their own and others' decisions. The analysis indicates that warning system functioning would benefit from professionals developing a clearer, shared understanding of flash flood risks and the warning system, across their areas of expertise and job roles. Given the challenges in risk communication and decision making for complex, rapidly evolving hazards such as flash floods, another priority is development of improved warning content to help members of the public protect themselves when needed. Also important is professional communication with members of the public about allocation of responsibilities for managing flash flood risks, as well as improved system-wide management of uncertainty in decisions. PMID:25988286

  14. Impact of Waterpipe Tobacco Pack Health Warnings on Waterpipe Smoking Attitudes: A Qualitative Analysis among Regular Users in London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Mohammed; Bakir, Ali; Ali, Mohammed; Grant, Aimee

    2015-01-01

    Background. Despite the rise in prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking, it has received little legislative enforcement from governing bodies, especially in the area of health warning labels. Methods. Twenty regular waterpipe tobacco smokers from London took part in five focus groups discussing the impact of waterpipe tobacco pack health warnings on their attitudes towards waterpipe smoking. We presented them with existing and mock waterpipe tobacco products, designed to be compliant with current and future UK/EU legislation. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Results. Participants felt packs were less attractive and health warnings were more impactful as health warnings increased in size and packaging became less branded. However, participants highlighted their lack of exposure to waterpipe tobacco pack health warnings due to the inherent nature of waterpipe smoking, that is, smoking in a café with the apparatus already prepacked by staff. Health warnings at the point of consumption had more reported impact than health warnings at the point of sale. Conclusions. Waterpipe tobacco pack health warnings are likely to be effective if compliant with existing laws and exposed to end-users. Legislations should be reviewed to extend health warning labels to waterpipe accessories, particularly the apparatus, and to waterpipe-serving premises. PMID:26273642

  15. Impact of Waterpipe Tobacco Pack Health Warnings on Waterpipe Smoking Attitudes: A Qualitative Analysis among Regular Users in London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Jawad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Despite the rise in prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking, it has received little legislative enforcement from governing bodies, especially in the area of health warning labels. Methods. Twenty regular waterpipe tobacco smokers from London took part in five focus groups discussing the impact of waterpipe tobacco pack health warnings on their attitudes towards waterpipe smoking. We presented them with existing and mock waterpipe tobacco products, designed to be compliant with current and future UK/EU legislation. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Results. Participants felt packs were less attractive and health warnings were more impactful as health warnings increased in size and packaging became less branded. However, participants highlighted their lack of exposure to waterpipe tobacco pack health warnings due to the inherent nature of waterpipe smoking, that is, smoking in a café with the apparatus already prepacked by staff. Health warnings at the point of consumption had more reported impact than health warnings at the point of sale. Conclusions. Waterpipe tobacco pack health warnings are likely to be effective if compliant with existing laws and exposed to end-users. Legislations should be reviewed to extend health warning labels to waterpipe accessories, particularly the apparatus, and to waterpipe-serving premises.

  16. Evaluation of Atypical Lymphocyte Warnings of Sysmex XE-4000 in Outpatient Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xueling GUO; Tingbo ZHANG; Maofan WANG

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the atypical lymphocyte warnings of Sysmex XE-4000 in outpatient children. [Method] Randomly 280 specimens of outpatient children were selected to analyze atypical lymphocytes with Sysmex XE-4000 and artificial smear microscopy simultaneously. [Result] With artificial smear microscopy as the gold standard, the atypical lymphocyte warnings of Sysmex XE-4000 in outpatient children exhibited a sensitivity of 97.4%, specificity of 69.3%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 55%, and negative predictive value (NPV) of 98.5%. [Conclusion] Sysmex XE-4000 shows a high sensitivity in atypical lymphocyte warnings, which can reduce the number of blood smears, improve the specificity of microscopy, and decline the labor intensity of inspection personnel. However, there are stil certain false positives to be confirmed by artificial microscopy.

  17. An Approach to Driverless Vehicles in Highways

    OpenAIRE

    Milanés, Vicente; Onieva, Enrique; Pérez Rastelli, Joshué; Godoy, Jorge; Villagra, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    International audience This paper presents AUTOPIA program results towards autonomous vehicles in highways. Based on our previous experience in automatic driving systems, a high-speed controller has been developed to perform vehicle's guidance autonomously. The map is generated in real time by the leading vehicle via vehicle-to-vehicle communications, permitting the vehicle equipped with the automatic system driving in any real circumstance in highways as can be lane-change maneuver. The s...

  18. An integrated earthquake early warning system and its performance at schools in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bing-Ru; Hsiao, Nai-Chi; Lin, Pei-Yang; Hsu, Ting-Yu; Chen, Chiou-Yun; Huang, Shieh-Kung; Chiang, Hung-Wei

    2016-06-01

    An earthquake early warning (EEW) system with integration of regional and onsite approaches was installed at nine demonstration stations in several districts of Taiwan for taking advantages of both approaches. The system performance was evaluated by a 3-year experiment at schools, which experienced five major earthquakes during this period. The blind zone of warning was effectively reduced by the integrated EEW system. The predicted intensities from EEW demonstration stations showed acceptable accuracy compared to field observations. The operation experience from an earthquake event proved that students could calmly carry out correct action before the seismic wave arrived using some warning time provided by the EEW system. Through successful operation in practice, the integrated EEW system was verified as an effective tool for disaster prevention at schools.

  19. Warning systems in a computerized nursing process for Intensive Care Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Couto Carvalho Barra

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid study combining technological production and methodological research aiming to establish associations between the data and information that are part of a Computerized Nursing Process according to the ICNP® Version 1.0, indicators of patient safety and quality of care. Based on the guidelines of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and the American Association of Critical Care Nurses for the expansion of warning systems, five warning systems were developed: potential for iatrogenic pneumothorax, potential for care-related infections, potential for suture dehiscence in patients after abdominal or pelvic surgery, potential for loss of vascular access, and potential for endotracheal extubation. The warning systems are a continuous computerized resource of essential situations that promote patient safety and enable the construction of a way to stimulate clinical reasoning and support clinical decision making of nurses in intensive care.

  20. The Influence of Cochlear Mechanical Dysfunction, Temporal Processing Deficits, and Age on the Intelligibility of Audible Speech in Noise for Hearing-Impaired Listeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesen, Peter T.; Pérez-González, Patricia; Kalluri, Sridhar; Blanco, José L.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relative importance of cochlear mechanical dysfunction, temporal processing deficits, and age on the ability of hearing-impaired listeners to understand speech in noisy backgrounds. Sixty-eight listeners took part in the study. They were provided with linear, frequency-specific amplification to compensate for their audiometric losses, and intelligibility was assessed for speech-shaped noise (SSN) and a time-reversed two-talker masker (R2TM). Behavioral estimates of cochlear gain loss and residual compression were available from a previous study and were used as indicators of cochlear mechanical dysfunction. Temporal processing abilities were assessed using frequency modulation detection thresholds. Age, audiometric thresholds, and the difference between audiometric threshold and cochlear gain loss were also included in the analyses. Stepwise multiple linear regression models were used to assess the relative importance of the various factors for intelligibility. Results showed that (a) cochlear gain loss was unrelated to intelligibility, (b) residual cochlear compression was related to intelligibility in SSN but not in a R2TM, (c) temporal processing was strongly related to intelligibility in a R2TM and much less so in SSN, and (d) age per se impaired intelligibility. In summary, all factors affected intelligibility, but their relative importance varied across maskers. PMID:27604779

  1. The Influence of Cochlear Mechanical Dysfunction, Temporal Processing Deficits, and Age on the Intelligibility of Audible Speech in Noise for Hearing-Impaired Listeners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter T. Johannesen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the relative importance of cochlear mechanical dysfunction, temporal processing deficits, and age on the ability of hearing-impaired listeners to understand speech in noisy backgrounds. Sixty-eight listeners took part in the study. They were provided with linear, frequency-specific amplification to compensate for their audiometric losses, and intelligibility was assessed for speech-shaped noise (SSN and a time-reversed two-talker masker (R2TM. Behavioral estimates of cochlear gain loss and residual compression were available from a previous study and were used as indicators of cochlear mechanical dysfunction. Temporal processing abilities were assessed using frequency modulation detection thresholds. Age, audiometric thresholds, and the difference between audiometric threshold and cochlear gain loss were also included in the analyses. Stepwise multiple linear regression models were used to assess the relative importance of the various factors for intelligibility. Results showed that (a cochlear gain loss was unrelated to intelligibility, (b residual cochlear compression was related to intelligibility in SSN but not in a R2TM, (c temporal processing was strongly related to intelligibility in a R2TM and much less so in SSN, and (d age per se impaired intelligibility. In summary, all factors affected intelligibility, but their relative importance varied across maskers.

  2. The Influence of Cochlear Mechanical Dysfunction, Temporal Processing Deficits, and Age on the Intelligibility of Audible Speech in Noise for Hearing-Impaired Listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesen, Peter T; Pérez-González, Patricia; Kalluri, Sridhar; Blanco, José L; Lopez-Poveda, Enrique A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relative importance of cochlear mechanical dysfunction, temporal processing deficits, and age on the ability of hearing-impaired listeners to understand speech in noisy backgrounds. Sixty-eight listeners took part in the study. They were provided with linear, frequency-specific amplification to compensate for their audiometric losses, and intelligibility was assessed for speech-shaped noise (SSN) and a time-reversed two-talker masker (R2TM). Behavioral estimates of cochlear gain loss and residual compression were available from a previous study and were used as indicators of cochlear mechanical dysfunction. Temporal processing abilities were assessed using frequency modulation detection thresholds. Age, audiometric thresholds, and the difference between audiometric threshold and cochlear gain loss were also included in the analyses. Stepwise multiple linear regression models were used to assess the relative importance of the various factors for intelligibility. Results showed that (a) cochlear gain loss was unrelated to intelligibility, (b) residual cochlear compression was related to intelligibility in SSN but not in a R2TM, (c) temporal processing was strongly related to intelligibility in a R2TM and much less so in SSN, and (d) age per se impaired intelligibility. In summary, all factors affected intelligibility, but their relative importance varied across maskers. PMID:27604779

  3. Monitoring Regional Forest Disturbances across the US with Near Real Time MODIS NDVI Products included in the ForWarn Forest Threat Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, J.; Hargrove, W. W.; Gasser, J.; Norman, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    Forest threats across the US have become increasingly evident in recent years. These include regionally extensive disturbances (e.g., from drought, bark beetle outbreaks, and wildfires) that can occur across multiyear durations and result in extensive forest mortality. In addition, forests can be subject to ephemeral, sometimes yearly defoliation from various insects and types of storm damage. After prolonged severe disturbance, signs of forest recovery can vary in terms of satellite-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values. The increased extent and threat of forest disturbances in part led to the enactment of the 2003 Healthy Forest Restoration Act, which mandated that a national forest threat Early Warning System (EWS) be deployed. In response, the US Forest Service collaborated with NASA, DOE Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the USGS Eros Data Center to build the near real time ForWarn forest threat EWS for monitoring regionally evident forest disturbances, starting on-line operations in 2010. Given the diversity of disturbance types, severities, and durations, ForWarn employs multiple historical baselines used with current NDVI to derive a suite of six nationwide 'weekly' forest change products. ForWarn uses daily 232 meter MODIS Aqua and Terra satellite NDVI data, including MOD13 products for deriving historical baseline NDVIs and eMODIS products for compiling current NDVI. Separately pre-processing the current and historical NDVIs, the Time Series Product Tool and the Phenological Parameters Estimation Tool are used to temporally reduce noise, fuse, and aggregate MODIS NDVIs into 24 day composites refreshed every 8 days with 46 dates of forest change products per year. The 24 day compositing interval typically enables new disturbances to be detected, while minimizing the frequency of residual atmospheric contamination. ForWarn's three standard forest change products compare current NDVI to that from the previous year, previous 3 years, and

  4. Emotional reaction facilitates the brain and behavioral impact of graphic cigarette warning labels in smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, An-Li; Lowen, Steven B; Romer, Daniel; Giorno, Mario; Langleben, Daniel D

    2015-01-01

    Background Warning labels on cigarette packages are an important venue for information about the hazards of smoking. The 2009 US Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act mandated replacing the current text-only labels with graphic warning labels. However, labels proposed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) were challenged in court by the tobacco companies, who argued successfully that the proposed labels needlessly encroached on their right to free speech, in part because they included images of high emotional salience that indiscriminately frightened rather than informed consumers. Methods We used functional MRI to examine the effects of graphic warning labels' emotional salience on smokers' brain activity and cognition. Twenty-four smokers viewed a random sequence of blocks of graphic warning labels that have been rated high or low on an ‘emotional reaction’ scale in previous research. Results We found that labels rated high on emotional reaction were better remembered, associated with reduction in the urge to smoke, and produced greater brain response in the amygdala, hippocampi, inferior frontal gyri and the insulae. Conclusions Recognition memory and craving are, respectively, correlates of effectiveness of addiction related public health communications and interventions, and amygdala activation facilitates the encoding of emotional memories. Thus, our results suggest that emotional reaction to graphic warning labels contributes to their public health impact and may be an integral part of the neural mechanisms underlying their effectiveness. Given the urgency of the debate about the constitutional risks and public health benefits of graphic warning labels, these preliminary findings warrant consideration while longitudinal clinical studies are underway PMID:25564288

  5. 16 CFR 307.2 - Required warnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... on the package or in the advertisement (unless the advertisement is an outdoor billboard) of a smokeless tobacco product. The warning statements required by the Act are as follows: WARNING: THIS PRODUCT MAY CAUSE MOUTH CANCER WARNING: THIS PRODUCT MAY CAUSE GUM DISEASE AND TOOTH LOSS WARNING:...

  6. Realization and Application of Customer Attrition Early Warning Model in Security Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Yizhen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose the customer attrition early warning model based on data warehouse and data mining technologies, which is achieved and applied in our security company. The modeling variables can be selected by means of the combination with decision tree and the gradual regression in Logistic regression. Then customer attrition early warning model can be constructed based on Logistic regression. The results show that the model can strongly promote the customer attrition capturing rate, push on the building of the company customer marketing management and customer service management organization, and economize the marketing cost. The company profits promotion and trade competitive power can be promised.

  7. Current Situations and Future Development Trend of Farmland Pre-warning Researches in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongqi; JIANG; Xiangli; WU

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarized theory discussion,main research methods,contents,empirical and engineering researches of farmland prewarning in China.It stated that future researches of farmland pre-warning in China will focus on deepening application of farmland security prewarning models,revealing mechanism of changes in different farmland resources,establishing pre-warning models suitable for research areas,accurate evaluation and prediction of farmland security,and exploring establishing and improving farmland security monitoring system and operating mechanism of all levels.

  8. Vehicle Position Awareness in Roadside-to-Vehicle Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Yang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The roadside-to-vehicle communication system is an infrastructure network to be deployed along the roads, which is an important part of the vehicular Ad Hoc networks for future intelligent transportation systems. Vehicle position estimation is a key technology for roadside-to-vehicle communication. In this study, a roadside-to-vehicle communication system is proposed where a camera is fixed on the roadside infrastructure for taking snapshoot of the target vehicle. Then target detecting and pixels counting is performed through certain image processing technology. After that, the function relationship between the vehicular pixels and the distance between the vehicle and the infrastructure is obtained by using the machine learning method, whose training data comes from our field trial. The vehicle position information acquired will be used for the parameters selection of OFDM transmission. The simulation results show that in the vehicular wireless fading channel model, the roadside-to-vehicle system which has position awareness can effectively implement adaptive modulation and coding scheme and, thereby, achieve greater throughput over a fixed modulation and coding scheme.

  9. A bio-inspired device for drag reduction on a three-dimensional model vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongri; Lee, Hoon; Yi, Wook; Choi, Haecheon

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we introduce a bio-mimetic device for the reduction of the drag force on a three-dimensional model vehicle, the Ahmed body (Ahmed et al 1984 SAE Technical Paper 840300). The device, called automatic moving deflector (AMD), is designed inspired by the movement of secondary feathers on bird's wing suction surface: i.e., secondary feathers pop up when massive separation occurs on bird's wing suction surface at high angles of attack, which increases the lift force at landing. The AMD is applied to the rear slanted surface of the Ahmed body to control the flow separation there. The angle of the slanted surface considered is 25° at which the drag coefficient on the Ahmed body is highest. The wind tunnel experiment is conducted at Re H  = 1.0 × 10(5)-3.8 × 10(5), based on the height of the Ahmed body (H) and the free-stream velocity (U ∞). Several AMDs of different sizes and materials are tested by measuring the drag force on the Ahmed body, and showed drag reductions up to 19%. The velocity and surface-pressure measurements show that AMD starts to pop up when the pressure in the thin gap between the slanted surface and AMD is much larger than that on the upper surface of AMD. We also derive an empirical formula that predicts the critical free-stream velocity at which AMD starts to operate. Finally, it is shown that the drag reduction by AMD is mainly attributed to a pressure recovery on the slanted surface by delaying the flow separation and suppressing the strength of the longitudinal vortices emanating from the lateral edges of the slanted surface. PMID:26963693

  10. A bio-inspired device for drag reduction on a three-dimensional model vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongri; Lee, Hoon; Yi, Wook; Choi, Haecheon

    2016-03-10

    In this paper, we introduce a bio-mimetic device for the reduction of the drag force on a three-dimensional model vehicle, the Ahmed body (Ahmed et al 1984 SAE Technical Paper 840300). The device, called automatic moving deflector (AMD), is designed inspired by the movement of secondary feathers on bird's wing suction surface: i.e., secondary feathers pop up when massive separation occurs on bird's wing suction surface at high angles of attack, which increases the lift force at landing. The AMD is applied to the rear slanted surface of the Ahmed body to control the flow separation there. The angle of the slanted surface considered is 25° at which the drag coefficient on the Ahmed body is highest. The wind tunnel experiment is conducted at Re H  = 1.0 × 10(5)-3.8 × 10(5), based on the height of the Ahmed body (H) and the free-stream velocity (U ∞). Several AMDs of different sizes and materials are tested by measuring the drag force on the Ahmed body, and showed drag reductions up to 19%. The velocity and surface-pressure measurements show that AMD starts to pop up when the pressure in the thin gap between the slanted surface and AMD is much larger than that on the upper surface of AMD. We also derive an empirical formula that predicts the critical free-stream velocity at which AMD starts to operate. Finally, it is shown that the drag reduction by AMD is mainly attributed to a pressure recovery on the slanted surface by delaying the flow separation and suppressing the strength of the longitudinal vortices emanating from the lateral edges of the slanted surface.

  11. A study of landslide warning based on the RTI model in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Byung-Gon; Liu, Ko-Fei; Choi, Junghae

    2016-04-01

    This study performed a feasibility study to make a warning of landslides in Korea based on the Rainfall Triggering Index (RTI) model which had been proposed by Jan et al. (2004). The RTI model is a hyperbolic I-R model, which is defined as the product of rainfall intensity (mm/hr) and effective accumulated rainfall (mm). Time of the calculated RTI value exceeding the threshold of RTI 70, meaning landslide probability of 70%, is a pre-warning time of landslide and a period between a pre-warning time and a landslide occurrence time is a responding time. Rainfall data which had been provided by the Korea Meteorological Administration was acquired at multiple locations near landslide areas. The starting time of rainfall was defined as the time at which the hourly rainfall (mm) larger than 4 mm, and when hourly rainfall (mm) less than 4mm and lasting at least 6 hours was the rainfall event ending time (Jan, 2004). The period of antecedent rainfall was determined as two days prior to landslide occurrence, because average permeability coefficient in soils is large and average duration of the effective rainfall is not exceeded two days in Korea. To analyze appropriate threshold of RTI values for landslide pre-warning, this study evaluated rainfall intensities to calculate reasonable RTI values. Based on the original RTI model using 60 minutes rainfall intensity, rainfall intensities for 30 minutes and 10 minutes were analyzed. Results show that there was no false warning using 10 minute model, but there are 20% events are never warned using 60 minutes model. The pre-warning time in 10 minutes model is earlier than 60 minutes model in most of the cases. The evacuation time can get 1 hour to 12 hours with 10 minutes model than using 60 minutes model. However, 10 minutes model is more sensitive than 60 minutes model. If we apply 10 minutes warning model in the future, it may increase the false alert rate. Therefore it needs more events of landslides to modify this model

  12. Detection and Elimination of a Potential Fire in Engine and Battery Compartments of Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macam S. Dattathreya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel fuzzy deterministic noncontroller type (FDNCT system and an FDNCT inference algorithm (FIA. The FDNCT uses fuzzy inputs and produces a deterministic non-fuzzy output. The FDNCT is an extension and alternative for the existing fuzzy singleton inference algorithm. The research described in this paper applies FDNCT to build an architecture for an intelligent system to detect and to eliminate potential fires in the engine and battery compartments of a hybrid electric vehicle. The fuzzy inputs consist of sensor data from the engine and battery compartments, namely, temperature, moisture, and voltage and current of the battery. The system synthesizes the data and detects potential fires, takes actions for eliminating the hazard, and notifies the passengers about the potential fire using an audible alarm. This paper also presents the computer simulation results of the comparison between the FIA and singleton inference algorithms for detecting potential fires and determining the actions for eliminating them.

  13. Vehicle to Vehicle Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe Rørbæk

    2008-01-01

    As computing devices, sensors, and actuators pervade our surroundings, new applications emerge with accompanying research challenges. In the transportation domain vehicles are being linked by wireless communication and equipped with an array of sensors and actuators that make is possible to provide...... location aware infotainment, increase safety, and lessen environmental strain. This dissertation is about service oriented architecture for pervasive computing with an emphasis on vehicle to vehicle applications. If devices are exposed as services, applications can be created by composing a set of services...... and governing the flow of data among them. In pervasive computing, composing services is, however, not the whole story. To fully realize their potential, applications must also deal with challenges such as device heterogeneity, context awareness, openendedness, and resilience to dynamism in network connectivity...

  14. Electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell electric vehicles: what in the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maggetto, G.; Van Mierlo, J. [Vrije Universiteit, Brussel (Belgium)

    2000-07-01

    In urban area, due to their beneficial effect on environment, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell electric vehicles are an important factor for improvement of traffic and more particular for a healthier environment. Moreover, the need for alternative energy source is growing and the price competition of alternatives against oil is becoming more and more realistic. Electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell electric vehicles are offering the best possibility for the use of new energy sources, because electricity can result from a transformation with high efficiency of these sources and is always used with the highest possible efficiency in systems with electric drives or components. Some basic considerations about the situation today and in a mid and long-term perspective, are presented together with the infrastructure developments.

  15. A piezoelectric polymer cavitation sensor installed in an emulsion generation microchannel device and an evaluation of cavitation state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Takefumi; Yabumoto, Masaki; Suzumori, Koichi

    2016-07-01

    In previous works, ultrasonic emulsification was realized using small microchannel devices oscillated by piezoelectric transducers. By using the devices, the emulsification in the flow process was also realized. In these devices, the driving frequency was higher than 2 MHz. This value is higher than the maximum audible field. On the other hand, the frequency is too high to utilize the cavitation effect. This is because the cavitation threshold depends on the frequency. The aim of this study is to confirm the cavitation state in the microchannel device using a piezoelectric polymer sensor. A micropatterned cavitation detection sensor has been fabricated by a photolithography technique and evaluated in a high-intensity ultrasound field. The emulsification state in the microchannel device has been evaluated using the fabricated sensor.

  16. Validity of different pediatric early warning scores in the emergency department

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Seiger (Nienke); I.K. MacOnochie (Ian); R. Oostenbrink (Rianne); H.A. Moll (Henriëtte)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Pediatric early warning scores (PEWS) are being advocated for use in the emergency department (ED). The goal of this study was to compare the validity of different PEWS in a pediatric ED. Methods: Ten different PEWS were evaluated in a large prospective cohort. We included chi

  17. 16 CFR 307.12 - Rotation, display, and dissemination of warning statements in smokeless tobacco advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... in the advertisement for each brand of the product. Any rotational system, however, may take into... satisfactory plan for advertising in newspapers, magazines, or other periodicals could provide for rotation... advertising materials, the warning statement as it would appear in different sizes of advertisements,...

  18. [Senses and meanings of health socialized by cultural devices: readings of the warning images on cigarettes packs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renovato, Rogério Dias; Bagnato, Maria Helena Salgado; Missio, Lourdes; Murback, Silvana Elisa Sauaia Lopes; da Cruz, Lúcia Pedroso; Bassinello, Greicelene Aparecida Hespanhol

    2009-10-01

    This article analyzes the images publicized on cigarettes packs that are part of the strategies from the Ministry of Health to combat the tabagism and available from the Cancer National Institute. These images bring the official speech of specialists and build narratives, understood such as truths, based on scientific knowledge. We have supported our thesis on theoretical referential of Cultural Studies, since its reflections help to understand that the subjectiveness is social and culturally built by different speeches and devices. We do not deny what is represented, but we establish dialogues with other possibilities of readings that can be present at these devices.We understand the propagated images as cultural pedagogies that behave as texts to be read, building up representations that can be assumed as true effect, and attributes to the citizen the necessity of constant control of its action. Reassuring the biomedicine and the health institutions, an onedimensional vision is propagated disregarding the complexity of this problem. We understand that the cultural pedagogies are part of competition territories, where the directions and meanings can be re-prepared producing hybrid identities that build up its own identity origins over this tangle of power relations. PMID:19750369

  19. Exposure to a Mnemonic Interferes with Recall of Suicide Warning Signs in a Community-Based Suicide Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Craig J.; Steiner-Pappalardo, Nicole; Rudd, M. David

    2009-01-01

    The incremental impact of adding a mnemonic to remember suicide warning signs to the Air Force Suicide Prevention Program (AFSPP) community awareness briefing was investigated with a sample of young, junior-enlisted airmen. Participants in the standard briefing significantly increased their ability to list suicide warning signs and improved…

  20. Developing effective warning systems: Ongoing research at Ruapehu volcano, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Graham S.; Johnston, David M.; Paton, Douglas; Christianson, Amy; Becker, Julia; Keys, Harry

    2008-05-01

    PurposeThis paper examines the unique challenges to volcanic risk management associated with having a ski area on an active volcano. Using a series of simulated eruption/lahar events at Ruapehu volcano, New Zealand, as a context, a model of risk management that integrates warning system design and technology, risk perceptions and the human response is explored. Principal resultsDespite increases in the observed audibility and comprehension of the warning message, recall of public education content, and people's awareness of volcanic risk, a persistent minority of the public continued to demonstrate only moderate awareness of the correct actions to take during a warning and failed to respond effectively. A relationship between level of staff competence and correct public response allowed the level of public response to be used to identify residual risk and additional staff training needs. The quality of staff awareness, action and decision-making has emerged as a critical factor, from detailed staff and public interviews and from exercise observations. Staff actions are especially important for mobilising correct public response at Ruapehu ski areas due to the transient nature of the visitor population. Introduction of education material and staff training strategies that included the development of emergency decision-making competencies improved knowledge of correct actions, and increased the proportion of people moving out of harm's way during blind tests. Major conclusionsWarning effectiveness is a function of more than good hazard knowledge and the generation and notification of an early warning message. For warning systems to be effective, these factors must be complemented by accurate knowledge of risk and risk management actions. By combining the Ruapehu findings with those of other warning system studies in New Zealand, and internationally, a practical five-step model for effective early warning systems is discussed. These steps must be based upon sound and

  1. FDA cigarette warning labels lower craving and elicit frontoinsular activation in adolescent smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Kathy T; Galván, Adriana

    2015-11-01

    Cigarette smoking is an economically and epidemiologically expensive public health concern. Most adult smokers become addicted during adolescence, rendering it a crucial period for prevention and intervention. Although litigation claims have delayed implementation, graphic warning labels proposed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) may be a promising way to achieve this goal. We aimed to determine the efficacy of the labels in reducing in-scanner craving and to characterize the neurobiological responses in adolescent and adult smokers and non-smokers. While undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging, thirty-nine 13- to 18-year-old adolescent and forty-one 25- to 30-year-old adult smokers and non-smokers rated their desire to smoke when presented with emotionally graphic warning labels and comparison non-graphic labels. Compared with adult smokers, adolescent smokers exhibited greater craving reduction in response to the warning labels. Although smokers evinced overall blunted recruitment of insula and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) relative to non-smokers, an effect that was stronger in adolescent smokers, parametrically increasing activation of these regions was associated with greater craving reduction. Functional connectivity analyses suggest that greater DLPFC regulation of limbic regions predicted cigarette craving. These data underscore a prominent role of frontoinsular circuitry in predicting the efficacy of FDA graphic warning labels in craving reduction in adult and adolescent smokers.

  2. Real-time earthquake monitoring for tsunami warning in the Indian Ocean and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanka, W.; Saul, J.; Weber, B.; Becker, J.; Harjadi, P.; Fauzi; Gitews Seismology Group

    2010-12-01

    The Mw = 9.3 Sumatra earthquake of 26 December 2004 generated a tsunami that affected the entire Indian Ocean region and caused approximately 230 000 fatalities. In the response to this tragedy the German government funded the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) Project. The task of the GEOFON group of GFZ Potsdam was to develop and implement the seismological component. In this paper we describe the concept of the GITEWS earthquake monitoring system and report on its present status. The major challenge for earthquake monitoring within a tsunami warning system is to deliver rapid information about location, depth, size and possibly other source parameters. This is particularly true for coast lines adjacent to the potential source areas such as the Sunda trench where these parameters are required within a few minutes after the event in order to be able to warn the population before the potential tsunami hits the neighbouring coastal areas. Therefore, the key for a seismic monitoring system with short warning times adequate for Indonesia is a dense real-time seismic network across Indonesia with densifications close to the Sunda trench. A substantial number of supplementary stations in other Indian Ocean rim countries are added to strengthen the teleseismic monitoring capabilities. The installation of the new GITEWS seismic network - consisting of 31 combined broadband and strong motion stations - out of these 21 stations in Indonesia - is almost completed. The real-time data collection is using a private VSAT communication system with hubs in Jakarta and Vienna. In addition, all available seismic real-time data from the other seismic networks in Indonesia and other Indian Ocean rim countries are acquired also directly by VSAT or by Internet at the Indonesian Tsunami Warning Centre in Jakarta and the resulting "virtual" network of more than 230 stations can jointly be used for seismic data processing. The seismological processing software as part

  3. Investigation on forecasting and warning systems, experience from a project in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, Jørgen Aagaard; Munk, Lisa; Ørum, Jens Erik;

    2011-01-01

    This paper is dealing with the results of a knowledge synthesis on monitoring, warning and decision systems made for the Danish environmental protection agency during 2011. The knowledge synthesis document is a volume of about 160 pages written in Danish and the present paper is the English version...

  4. Interpretation and misinterpretation of warning signage: perceptions of rockfalls in a naturalistic setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucote, Helen M; Miner, Anthony; Dahlhaus, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the factors relating to non-adherence to warning signs about falling rocks from coastal cliff faces. Face-to-face interviews (n = 62) in a naturalistic setting (in the vicinity of a high-risk rockfall area) were conducted to investigate attention to and comprehension of warning signs, as well as beliefs relating to non-adherence of the signage. It was found that, while most participants could correctly identify the danger in the area and had noticed the warning signage, less than half of the participants could correctly interpret the signage. The perception of danger did not differ significantly between the participants who had, or had not, entered the high-risk zone. Differences in knowledge and beliefs between local residents and visitors to the area were identified. It was concluded that the warning signs did not provide enough detail for people to make informed decisions about safe behaviours. Comprehension of the signage may have been hampered by a lack of prior-knowledge of the particular risk, a failure to think carefully about the situation (i.e. low-effort processing), and the pictorial representation on the signs misleading the participants as to the true danger.

  5. Beyond institutional capacity: political motivation and parliamentary behaviour in the early warning system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Gattermann; C. Hefftler

    2015-01-01

    The Early Warning System gives national parliaments the right to intervene in European Union policy-making. This article investigates their incentives to submit reasoned opinions. It analyses the reactions of 40 parliamentary chambers to 411 draft legislative acts between 1 January 2010 and 31 Decem

  6. Initial application of the maximum likelihood earthquake location method to early warning system in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, D. H.; Seong, Y. J.; Park, J. H.; Lim, I. S.

    2015-12-01

    From the early of this year, the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) began to operate the first stage of an earthquake early warning system (EEWS) and provide early warning information to the general public. The earthquake early warning system (EEWS) in the KMA is based on the Earthquake Alarm Systems version 2 (ElarmS-2), developed at the University of California Berkeley. This method estimates the earthquake location using a simple grid search algorithm that finds the location with the minimum variance of the origin time on successively finer grids. A robust maximum likelihood earthquake location (MAXEL) method for early warning, based on the equal differential times of P arrivals, was recently developed. The MAXEL has been demonstrated to be successful in determining the event location, even when an outlier is included in the small number of P arrivals. This presentation details the application of the MAXEL to the EEWS of the KMA, its performance evaluation over seismic networks in South Korea with synthetic data, and comparison of statistics of earthquake locations based on the ElarmS-2 and the MAXEL.

  7. Early warning of snow-caused disasters in pastoral areas on the Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Wang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study develops a model for early warning of snow-caused livestock disasters on a county basis and proposes a method of qualitative risk assessment of snow disasters at 500 m resolution for pastoral areas on the Tibetan Plateau (TP. Data used for the model development include remote sensing data, statistical data of weather, livestock, and social economy, and 45 typical snow disaster cases from 2000 to 2010. The principal component analysis (PCA approach is used to choose 7 crucial factors that contribute over 85% of information for early warning snow disasters on the TP. They are mean annual probability of snow disaster, number of snow-covered days, livestock stocking rate, continual days of mean daily temperature below −10 °C, grassland burial index, rate of snow-covered grassland, and per livestock gross domestic product. The chosen 411 cases from 2008 to 2010 are used to validate the prediction results from the developed early warning model, with an overall accuracy of 85.64% in predicting snow disasters and no disasters. This suggests that the early warning approach developed in the study has operational potential for predicting snow disasters on the TP.

  8. Physics of the environment: possible Sumatra Tsunami warning times for large animals in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, David G.; Scheifele, Peter M.; Vonwinkle, William A.

    2005-04-01

    There has previously been significant anecdotal evidence that animals can anticipate or sense seismic events. It is known that large animals, specifically elephants, sense and utilize low frequency sound. The object of this paper is to estimate the possible warning times that large animals in Sri Lanka could have had of the Sumatra Tsunami, assuming they could sense low frequency wave transmission from the initial earthquake arriving by either atmospheric, ocean, or bottom paths. The atmospheric path appears to be the least efficient due to relatively high attenuation and poor coupling to the source. It would also give the shortest warning time: approximately 30 minutes. The ocean path via the deep sound channel, which has been shown by a previous Bermuda experiment to be an efficient means of coupling seismic energy to an island, would give a warning time of more than 1.5 hours. The bottom path(s), which gave strong received signals at a Sri Lanka seismic station, would give a warning time of about 2 hours. These estimates should provide a context for animal behavior reports.

  9. APPLICATION OF MOUNTING FRAMES IN SPECIAL VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz SZCZĘŚNIAK

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the design solutions and fastening mounting frames in special vehicles. Special Vehicles is an interesting and growing market in the production of heavy vehicles. Due to the nature of the use of these vehicles of their design solutions require constant change and adaptation, which opens up the possibility of a utilitarian research

  10. Lunar Landing Research Vehicle (LLRV) in flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    In this 1965 NASA Flight Reserch Center photograph the Lunar Landing Research Vehicle (LLRV) is shown at near maximum altitude over the south base at Edwards Air Force Base. When Apollo planning was underway in 1960, NASA was looking for a simulator to profile the descent to the moon's surface. Three concepts surfaced: an electronic simulator, a tethered device, and the ambitious Dryden contribution, a free-flying vehicle. All three became serious projects, but eventually the NASA Flight Research Center's (FRC) Landing Research Vehicle (LLRV) became the most significant one. Hubert M. Drake is credited with originating the idea, while Donald Bellman and Gene Matranga were senior engineers on the project, with Bellman, the project manager. Simultaneously, and independently, Bell Aerosystems Company, Buffalo, N.Y., a company with experience in vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) aircraft, had conceived a similar free-flying simulator and proposed their concept to NASA headquarters. NASA Headquarters put FRC and Bell together to collaborate. The challenge was; to allow a pilot to make a vertical landing on earth in a simulated moon environment, one sixth of the earth's gravity and with totally transparent aerodynamic forces in a 'free flight' vehicle with no tether forces acting on it. Built of tubular aluminum like a giant four-legged bedstead, the vehicle was to simulate a lunar landing profile from around 1500 feet to the moon's surface. To do this, the LLRV had a General Electric CF-700-2V turbofan engine mounted vertically in gimbals, with 4200 pounds of thrust. The engine, using JP-4 fuel, got the vehicle up to the test altitude and was then throttled back to support five-sixths of the vehicle's weight, simulating the reduced gravity of the moon. Two hydrogen-peroxide lift rockets with thrust that could be varied from 100 to 500 pounds handled the LLRV's rate of descent and horizontal translations. Sixteen smaller hydrogen-peroxide rockets, mounted in pairs

  11. Response of skin to audible signal and skin-hearing aid%皮肤对于声音信号响应与皮肤听声器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建文; 于晓明; 曹力佳

    2008-01-01

    ①介绍了皮肤听声器的基本组成与昕声效果.这种新型的助听工具可使任何人通过皮肤获得听觉,但辨析语音的效果还不理想.②为了进一步研究皮肤响应声音信号的理论,构造了测试皮肤响应声音信号的实验环境.通过实验测试了皮肤响应声音信号的关键部件音频变压器、平面电极与皮肤听声之间的临界频率电压特性曲线,讨论了皮肤响应声音信号的关键部件与皮肤听声效果之间的关系,说明了通过声一电转换实现皮肤听声的特点和可行性.③介绍了新型可便携、低功耗助听产品一皮肤听声器,并与助听器、电子耳蜗、导聋犬等传统的助听工具进行了对比,说明了皮肤听声器的优越性能.%This study was designed to introduce basic components and sound-receiving effects of skin-hearing aid with transformer. This new device helped all people receive audible signals via skin, but the effects on discriminating phone were still not ideal.The experimental environment of the response of skin to audible signals was constructed for the theory research. The response on critical frequency and voltage among the transformer, the flat electrode and the skin has gotten in the experiment. It was discussed that the effect of the response of skin to audible signal between the key parts of device of hearing by skin with transformer and the skin. It was illustrated the practicability of skin hearing by sound-electricity converting.The skin-hearing aid, a low power consumption aid, was compared with traditional tools, such as hearing aid, electronic cochlea, and guide dogs, and the results proved the superiority of skin-hearing aid.

  12. Dynamic changes in antibody levels as an early warning of Salmonella Dublin in bovine dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stockmarr, Anders; Bødker, Rene; Nielsen, L. R.

    2013-01-01

    tank milk measurements of antibodies directed against Salmonella Dublin at 3-mo intervals. In this study, an “alarm herd” concept, based on the dynamic progression of these repeated measurements, was formulated such that it contains predictive power for Salmonella Dublin herd classification change from...... “likely free of infection” to “likely infected” in the following quarter of the year, thus warning the farmer 3mo earlier than the present system. The alarm herd concept was defined through aberrations from a stable development over time of antibody levels. For suitable parameter choices, alarm herd...... herds being “likely infected” according to the existing classification system in the present quarter. The alarm herd concept can be used as a new early warning element in the existing surveillance program. Additionally, to improve accuracy of herd classification, the alarm herd concept could be...

  13. A New Lane Departure Warning Algorithm Considering the Driver’s Behavior Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Lun Hui Xu; San Gen Hu; Qiang Luo

    2015-01-01

    In order to meet the driving safety warning required for different driver types and situations, a new lane departure warning (LDW) algorithm was proposed. Its adaptability is much better through setting the different thresholds of time to lane crossing (TLC) using fuzzy control method for driver with different driving behaviors in different lanes and different vehicle movements. To ensure the accuracy of computation of TLC under the different actual driving scenarios, the algorithm was establ...

  14. VEHICLE FOR SLAVE ROBOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goertz, R.C.; Lindberg, J.F.

    1962-01-30

    A reeling device is designed for an electrical cable supplying power to the slave slde of a remote control manipulator mounted on a movable vehicle. As the vehicle carries the slave side about in a closed room, the device reels the cable in and out to maintain a variable length of the cable between the vehicle and a cable inlet in the wall of the room. The device also handles a fixed length of cable between the slave side and the vehicle, in spite of angular movement of the slave side with respect to the vehicle. (AEC)

  15. Hardware-in-the-loop simulation for undersea vehicle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelf, Michael A.

    2001-08-01

    Torpedoes and other Unmanned Undersea Vehicles (UUV) are employed by submarines and surface combatants, as well as aircraft, for undersea warfare. These vehicles are autonomous devices whose guidance systems rival the complexity of the most sophisticated air combat missiles. The tactical environment for undersea warfare is a difficult one in terms of target detection,k classification, and pursuit because of the physics of underwater sounds. Both hardware-in-the-loop and all-digital simulations have become vital tools in developing and evaluating undersea weapon and vehicle guidance performance in the undersea environment.

  16. Experimental evaluation of fog warning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghamdi, Ali S

    2007-11-01

    Highway safety is a major concern to the public and to transportation professionals, so the number of crashes caused by poor visibility due to fog form an alarming statistic. Drivers respond to poor visibility conditions in different ways: some slow down; others do not. Many drivers simply follow the taillights of the vehicle ahead. Accordingly, hazardous conditions are created in which speeds are both too high for the prevailing conditions and highly variable. Findings are presented from a study of traffic crashes due to fog in the southern region of Saudi Arabia. The primary objective was to assess the effectiveness of fog detection and warning system on driver behavior regarding speed and headway. This warning system includes visibility sensors that automatically activate a variable message sign that posts an advisory speed when hazardous conditions due to fog occur. The system was installed on a 2 km section of a two-lane, rural highway. A data set of 36,013 observations from both experimental and control sections at two study sites was collected and analyzed. The data included vehicle speed, volume, and classification; time headway, time of day, and visibility distance. Although the warning system was ineffective in reducing speed variability, mean speed throughout the experimental sections was reduced by about 6.5 kph. This reduction indicates that the warning system appeared to have a positive effect on driver behavior in fog even though the observed mean speeds were still higher than the posted advisory speed. From relationships found in the literature between mean driving speed and number of crashes, a speed reduction of only 5 kph would yield a 15% decrease in the number of crashes.

  17. The Role of Kenya Meteorological Service in Weather Early Warning in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Zablon W. Shilenje; Bob A. Ogwang

    2015-01-01

    Early warning in weather forecasting entails provision of timely and effective weather information that allows individuals, organisations, or communities exposed to likely weather hazards to take action that avoids or reduces their exposure to risks. Various sectors have developed different ways to mitigate the effects of climate anomalies. The study reviews the existing monitoring and response structures, and communications flow channels of weather data at different levels, focusing on the r...

  18. The Audible Life of the Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Wills

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available "Since at least 1980 Godard’s cinema has been explicitly looking for (its music, as if for its outside. In Sauve qui peut (la vie Paul Godard hears, and asks about it, coming through the hotel room wall, and it follows him down to the lobby, but remains “off,” like Marguerite Duras’s voice, in spite of his questions, until the final sequence. At that moment, at the end of the section entitled “Music,” the protagonist is at the same time struck by a car and struck by the entrance of the music into the diegetic present of the film, as the camera pans past an orchestra playing on the sidewalk while Paul fades off under the quizzical gaze of his daughter. By 2004, with Notre musique, it would seem to have taken over the whole text, for the film was announced as being about the collaboration between Godard and German record label ECM. In the context of that film it is difficult to determine both what that music is and who we are, although this discussion will try to advance a hypothesis in that regard. In fact, my main contention will be that music in Godard’s films functions as something like the absent image(s, not those it has lost but rather its cinema to come, what remains to be discovered and live within it, the survival of it. Not a cinema that cannot be seen, rather the image that can perhaps only be heard; and not the romantic or psychedelic dream of a synaesthetic apotheosis either, rather the technological coincidence of sonimage that has also been the precise direction of Godard’s cinematic research for more than thirty years. For the argument I will be making here is inscribed within my own investigation of what I call “technological life,” the means by which, in “prosthetic” symbiosis, or “dorsal” umbrality, a form lives beyond the simplistic opposition of animate and inanimate, or against the reductive presuppositions of autokinetic ipseity..."

  19. System and Method for Providing a Real Time Audible Message to a Pilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Walter W. (Inventor); Lachter, Joel B. (Inventor); Battiste, Vernol (Inventor); Koteskey, Robert W. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A system and method for providing information to a crew of the aircraft while in-flight. The system includes a module having: a receiver for receiving a message while in-flight; a filter having a set of screening parameters and operative to filter the message based on the set of screening parameters; and a converter for converting the message into an audible message. The message includes a pilot report having at least one of weather information, separation information, congestion information, flight deviation information and destination information. The message is sent to the aircraft by another aircraft or an air traffic controller.

  20. Advancements in Topical Antifungal Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kircik, Leon H

    2016-02-01

    The primary treatment for superficial fungal infections is antifungal topical formulations, and allylamines and azoles represent the two major classes of topical formulations that are used to treat these infections. The stratum corneum (SC) is composed of keratinocytes that are surrounded by a matrix of lipids. The efficacy of topically applied formulations depends on their ability to penetrate this lipid matrix, and the vehicle plays an integral role in the penetration of active molecule into skin. There are several challenges to formulating topical drugs, which include the biotransformation of the active molecules as they pass through the SC and the physical changes that occur to the vehicle itself when it is applied to the skin. This article will review current and emerging topical antifungal vehicles. PMID:26885798

  1. Cataphoric devices in spoken discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernsbacher, M A; Jescheniak, J D

    1995-08-01

    We propose that speakers mark key words with cataphoric devices. Cataphoric devices are counterparts to anaphoric devices: Just as anaphoric devices enable backward reference, cataphoric devices enable forward reference. And just as anaphoric devices mark concepts that have been mentioned before, cataphoric devices mark concepts that are likely to be mentioned again. We investigated two cataphoric devices: spoken stress and the indefinite this. Our experiments demonstrated three ways that concepts marked by cataphoric devices gain a privileged status in listeners' mental representations: Cataphoric devices enhance the activation of the concepts that they mark; cataphoric devices suppress the activation of previously mentioned concepts; and cataphoric devices protect the concepts that they mark from being suppressed by subsequently mentioned concepts. PMID:7641525

  2. The Rosetta phone: a hand-held device for automatic translation of signs in natural images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafri, Syed Ali Raza; Mikkilineni, Aravind K.; Boutin, Mireille; Delp, Edward J.

    2008-02-01

    When traveling in a region where the local language is not written using the Roman alphabet, translating written text (e.g., documents, road signs, or placards) is a particularly difficult problem since the text cannot be easily entered into a translation device or searched using a dictionary. To address this problem, we are developing the "Rosetta Phone," a handheld device (e.g., PDA or mobile telephone) capable of acquiring a picture of the text, identifying the text within the image, and producing both an audible and a visual English interpretation of the text. We started with English, as a developement language, for which we achieved close to 100% accuracy in identifying and reading text. We then modified the system to be able to read and translate words written using the Arabic character set. We currently achieve approximately 95% accuracy in reading words from a small directory of town names.

  3. Joint NOAA/NWS/USGS prototype debris flow warning system for recently burned areas in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, P.; Jorgensen, D.P.; Cannon, S.H.; Costa, J.; Laber, J.; Major, J.; Martner, B.; Purpura, J.; Werner, K.

    2008-01-01

    Debris flows, also known as mudslides, are composed gravity-driven mixtures of sediment and water that travel through steep channels, over open hillslopes, and the like. Addressing this issue, US Geological Survey (USGS) and NOAA have established a debris-flow warning system that has the ability to monitor and forecast precipitation and issue timely weather hazard warning. In 2005, this joint NOAA-USGS prototype debris-flow warning system was issued in Southern California and as a result, it has provided valuable information to emergency managers in affected communities.

  4. Ecodriver. D12.2: Multi-modal in-vehicle and nomadic device eco-driving support for car drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hibberd, D.; Jamson, H.; Pauwelussen, J.J.A.; Obdeijn, C.; Hof, T.; Weerdt, C.A. van der; Paradies, G.L.; et al

    2014-01-01

    This deliverable provides a report of the work conducted in Work Package 12: eco-driving system development and HMI feedback. The tasks required development of simple eco-driving feedback model algorithms and test scenarios and an assessment of basic systems and feedback modalities. These assessment

  5. Early warning scores: a sign of deterioration in patients and systems

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fox, A

    2015-02-01

    The early warning score is a decision-making tool that has a simple design, yet its implementation in healthcare organisations is proving complex. This article reports the results of a survey that evaluated the nurses’ experiences of using the NEWS (National Early Warning Score) in an acute hospital in Ireland. Staff reported that the NEWS was easy to use, did not increase workload and enhanced their ability to identify deteriorating patients. However, they also identified problems related to doctors’ delayed response times, doctors lack of training in the use of the tool, and a failure by doctors to modify parameters for patients with chronic conditions. NEWS enhances nurses’ role in early detection of patient deterioration but delays in response times by doctors, exposes systematic flaws in healthcare. This suggests that it is not only an indicator of patient deterioration but also of deteriorating healthcare systems.

  6. Hearing Sensation Changes When a Warning Predicts a Loud Sound in the False Killer Whale (Pseudorca crassidens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachtigall, Paul E; Supin, Alexander Y

    2016-01-01

    Stranded whales and dolphins have sometimes been associated with loud anthropogenic sounds. Echolocating whales produce very loud sounds themselves and have developed the ability to protect their hearing from their own signals. A false killer whale's hearing sensitivity was measured when a faint warning sound was given just before the presentation of an increase in intensity to 170 dB. If the warning occurred within 1-9 s, as opposed to 20-40 s, the whale showed a 13-dB reduction in hearing sensitivity. Warning sounds before loud pulses may help mitigate the effects of loud anthropogenic sounds on wild animals. PMID:26611027

  7. Overview of main challenges for EarlyWarning Systems for Food Security inWest Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Genesio, L.; Bacci, M.; C. Baron; Diarra, B.; Di Vecchia, A.; Traoré, S.; Hassane, I.; Ndiaye, M.; Philippon, Nathalie; Tarchiani, V.

    2010-01-01

    In West Africa Early Warning Systems (EWSs) for food security have been widely recognized to have contributed in the last twenty years to better face famine emergencies. The improved understanding of the environmental and socio-economic dynamics of the region, a change in the causes for food insecurity and the evolution of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) have favored the introduction of new approaches and the involvement of a network of stakeholders. In recent years the impro...

  8. Mobility in Turkey. Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazgan, M. [Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Turan Gunes Bulvari, Hollanda Caddesi, No.5,06550 Yildiz-Ankara (Turkey)

    2013-01-15

    The purpose of this report is to provide information about electric vehicles (EVs) and e-mobility as an emerging market in Turkey. EVs receive attention from the Turkish government for a number of reasons: Turkey has a strong automotive industry and needs to follow the technological developments taking place regarding intelligent vehicles and intelligent transport systems, as well as electric transportation technologies. Secondly, a considerable amount of carbon emissions from motor vehicles is of great concern in relation to climate change. EVs might be an alternative which can break the dependence of Turkey on imported fuel that has a negative influence on its current account deficit (CAD). On top of these factors, the Prime Minister of Turkey has a desire to have a 'Local Brand Vehicle' before the 100th year of the establishment of the Republic in 2023 and preferably an 'EV'. EVs are included in the strategy documents and action plans of almost all ministries and public institutions. Among all ministries, the Ministry of Science, Industry and Technology (MoSI and T) takes a leading position. It holds bi-annual meetings with stakeholders to monitor and evaluate progress about the level of actualization of the identified policies on e-mobility. MoSI and T's related institution of the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) co-ordinates the R and D activities and provides generous R and D incentives. EVs have been put on sale in Turkey in 2012 and are still very limited in number. Public institutions are taking the lead by converting their vehicle fleet to EVs. EVs are also more suitable for businesses/ duties with a fixed/short route; therefore it is expected that the growth of the sector will mainly come from the vehicle fleet of the public organisations and institutions, followed by the private vehicle fleet of companies, e.g. freight companies. Although there are some on-going test drives, it is not yet proven

  9. ʿHello! I'm behind you’: Warnings at trouble moments in forklift driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nevile, Maurice Richard; Wagner, Johannes

    to a different video recording corpus of highly experienced professional drivers, our impression is that warning moments are far less common in more skilled performance. Warning moments might therefore reveal something of the nature and emergence of the professional individual, collaborative, and interactive...... Benjamins. Haddington, Pentti / Keisanen, Tiina / Nevile, Maurice (eds) 2012. Meaning in Motion: Interaction in Cars. Special Issue for Semiotica, 191, 1/4. Haddington, Pentti / Mondada, Lorenza / Nevile, Maurice (eds) 2013. Interaction and Mobility: Language and the Body in Motion. Berlin and New York: De...... Interaction. 48(2): 121-151. Nevile, Maurice / Haddington, Pentti / Heinemann, Trine / Rauniomaa, Mirka (eds) 2014. Interacting with Objects: Language, Materiality, and Social Activity. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Streeck, Juergen / Goodwin, Charles / LeBaron, Curt (eds) 2011. Embodied Interaction...

  10. Monitoring and prediction in Early Warning Systems (EWS) for rapid mass movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stähli, M.; Sättele, M.; Huggel, C.; McArdell, B. W.; Lehmann, P.; Van Herwijnen, A.; Berne, A.; Schleiss, M.; Ferrari, A.; Kos, A.; Or, D.; Springman, S. M.

    2014-11-01

    Rapid mass movements (RMM) pose a substantial risk to people and infrastructure. Reliable and cost-efficient measures have to be taken to reduce this risk. One of these measures includes establishing and advancing the State of Practice in the application of Early Warning Systems (EWS). EWS have been developed during the past decades and are rapidly increasing. In this document, we focus on the technical part of EWS, i.e. the prediction and timely recognition of imminent hazards, as well as on monitoring slopes at risk and released mass movements. Recent innovations in assessing spatial precipitation, as well as monitoring and modelling precursors, the triggering and deformation of RMM offer new opportunities for next-generation EWS. However, technical advancement can only be transferred into more reliable, operational EWS with an intense dialog between scientists, engineers and those in charge of warning. To this end, further experience with new comprehensive prototype systems jointly operated by scientists and practitioners will be essential.

  11. Food Security, Decision Making and the Use of Remote Sensing in Famine Early Warning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.

    2008-01-01

    Famine early warning systems use remote sensing in combination with socio-economic and household food economy analysis to provide timely and rigorous information on emerging food security crises. The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) is the US Agency for International Development's decision support system in 20 African countries, as well as in Guatemala, Haiti and Afghanistan. FEWS NET provides early and actionable policy guidance for the US Government and its humanitarian aid partners. As we move into an era of climate change where weather hazards will become more frequent and severe, understanding how to provide quantitative and actionable scientific information for policy makers using biophysical data is critical for an appropriate and effective response.

  12. Early Warning/Track-and-Trigger Systems to Detect Deterioration and Improve Outcomes in Hospitalized Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiloh, Ariel L; Lominadze, George; Gong, Michelle N; Savel, Richard H

    2016-02-01

    As a global effort toward improving patient safety, a specific area of focus has been the early recognition and rapid intervention in deteriorating ward patients. This focus on "failure to rescue" has led to the construction of early warning/track-and-trigger systems. In this review article, we present a description of the data behind the creation and implementation of such systems, including multiple algorithms and strategies for deployment. Additionally, the strengths and weaknesses of the various systems and their evaluation in the literature are emphasized. Despite the limitations of the current literature, the potential benefit of these early warning/track-and-trigger systems to improve patient outcomes remains significant. PMID:26820276

  13. UHMWPE纤维的表面改性及其在网式阻车器中的应用%RESEARCH ON SURFACE MODIFICATION OF UHMWPE FIBER AND ITS APPLICATION IN VEHICLE ARRESTING DEVICE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄维伟; 乔咏梅; 庄私炜

    2012-01-01

    本文简要介绍了超高分子量聚乙烯(UHMWPE)纤维的性能,总结了超高分子量聚乙烯纤维等离子处理法、氧化处理法、电晕放电处理法、辐射引发表面接枝处理等多种表面处理万法,讨论了这些表面处理万法对纤维增强复合材料粘结性能和本体力学性能的影响,分析了这些万法的处理效果、处理工艺等对实现连续化、工业化可行性的影响,并介绍了由UHMWPE纤维为原料制成的特种纤维网片在网式阻车器这个反恐领域的特殊应用.%The properties of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene ( UHMWPE) fibers are introduced briefly, and the surface modification methods of UHMWPE fibers are summarized, such as plasma treatment, oxidation treatment, corona discharge treatment and so on. This paper centers on the discussion of the interfacial bonding strength and mechanical properties of treated UHMWPE fibers reinforced resin composites, and the effect of treatment effect, treatment process and other aspects of these methods on feasibility of achieving continuous and industrial production are discussed. At the mean time, the application of special mesh made of UHMWPE fibers used in vehicle arresting device attached to the counter-terrorism is introduced.

  14. Charge-flow structures as polymeric early-warning fire alarm devices. M.S. Thesis; [metal oxide semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechen, C. M.; Senturia, S. D.

    1977-01-01

    The charge-flow transistor (CFT) and its applications for fire detection and gas sensing were investigated. The utility of various thin film polymers as possible sensing materials was determined. One polymer, PAPA, showed promise as a relative humidity sensor; two others, PFI and PSB, were found to be particularly suitable for fire detection. The behavior of the charge-flow capacitor, which is basically a parallel-plate capacitor with a polymer-filled gap in the metallic tip electrode, was successfully modeled as an RC transmission line. Prototype charge-flow transistors were fabricated and tested. The effective threshold voltage of this metal oxide semiconductor was found to be dependent on whether surface or bulk conduction in the thin film was dominant. Fire tests with a PFI-coated CFT indicate good sensitivity to smouldering fires.

  15. An online operational rainfall-monitoring resource for epidemic malaria early warning systems in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceccato Pietro

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Periodic epidemics of malaria are a major public health problem for many sub-Saharan African countries. Populations in epidemic prone areas have a poorly developed immunity to malaria and the disease remains life threatening to all age groups. The impact of epidemics could be minimized by prediction and improved prevention through timely vector control and deployment of appropriate drugs. Malaria Early Warning Systems are advocated as a means of improving the opportunity for preparedness and timely response. Rainfall is one of the major factors triggering epidemics in warm semi-arid and desert-fringe areas. Explosive epidemics often occur in these regions after excessive rains and, where these follow periods of drought and poor food security, can be especially severe. Consequently, rainfall monitoring forms one of the essential elements for the development of integrated Malaria Early Warning Systems for sub-Saharan Africa, as outlined by the World Health Organization. The Roll Back Malaria Technical Resource Network on Prevention and Control of Epidemics recommended that a simple indicator of changes in epidemic risk in regions of marginal transmission, consisting primarily of rainfall anomaly maps, could provide immediate benefit to early warning efforts. In response to these recommendations, the Famine Early Warning Systems Network produced maps that combine information about dekadal rainfall anomalies, and epidemic malaria risk, available via their Africa Data Dissemination Service. These maps were later made available in a format that is directly compatible with HealthMapper, the mapping and surveillance software developed by the WHO's Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response Department. A new monitoring interface has recently been developed at the International Research Institute for Climate Prediction (IRI that enables the user to gain a more contextual perspective of the current rainfall estimates by comparing them to

  16. An operational food warning system in Andalucía (Spain): Presentation and first successfully results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versini, Pierre-Antoine; Corral, Carles; Sempere-Torres, Daniel; Santiago-Gahette, Antonio

    2010-05-01

    The Guadalhorce basin (3200 km2, 130000 inhabitants) is located in Andalucía (South of Spain). Historically the river represents an important risk for the city of Malaga and periodically causes floods along its course. In 2008 the regional government implemented an operational flood warning system with the aim of minimising risk to people, economic activity, and guiding water resources management. The system is oriented to provide distributed warnings based on surface rainfall accumulations and runoff forecasts (at 1 km resolution). These risk warnings are related to hazard probability expressed in terms of return periods. Rainfall accumulation maps are generated according to the following two alternatives: (1) interpolation of the measurements of a network of 40 rain gauges covering the basin, and (2) measurements of the Mijas C-band radar located at 1173 m and covering the whole basin. Radar data are processed according to a complete chain of algorithms including ground clutter elimination, rainfall type classification (convective/stratiform) and correction with a vertical profile of reflectivity. Runoff forecasts are computed with a grid-based rainfall-runoff model incorporating the SCS equations at cell scale. The routing is done with a linear diffusive wave unit hydrograph, separating the hillslope and river-channelled process. Because of the miss of the lack of hydrological records, this model was calibrated a priori on a large part of the basin area. After presenting in details the operational system, it will be illustrated through a concrete example. It has successfully performed during a recent storm (7 January 2010). During this event -the most important since the system works- over 50 mm of rainfall dropped in few hours around Malaga, which resulted in flooding of parts of the city and road submersions. First results show how the warning system performed well and was able to forecast the location and timing of flooded areas.

  17. Crowd-Sourced Global Earthquake Early Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minson, S. E.; Brooks, B. A.; Glennie, C. L.; Murray, J. R.; Langbein, J. O.; Owen, S. E.; Iannucci, B. A.; Hauser, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Although earthquake early warning (EEW) has shown great promise for reducing loss of life and property, it has only been implemented in a few regions due, in part, to the prohibitive cost of building the required dense seismic and geodetic networks. However, many cars and consumer smartphones, tablets, laptops, and similar devices contain low-cost versions of the same sensors used for earthquake monitoring. If a workable EEW system could be implemented based on either crowd-sourced observations from consumer devices or very inexpensive networks of instruments built from consumer-quality sensors, EEW coverage could potentially be expanded worldwide. Controlled tests of several accelerometers and global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers typically found in consumer devices show that, while they are significantly noisier than scientific-grade instruments, they are still accurate enough to capture displacements from moderate and large magnitude earthquakes. The accuracy of these sensors varies greatly depending on the type of data collected. Raw coarse acquisition (C/A) code GPS data are relatively noisy. These observations have a surface displacement detection threshold approaching ~1 m and would thus only be useful in large Mw 8+ earthquakes. However, incorporating either satellite-based differential corrections or using a Kalman filter to combine the raw GNSS data with low-cost acceleration data (such as from a smartphone) decreases the noise dramatically. These approaches allow detection thresholds as low as 5 cm, potentially enabling accurate warnings for earthquakes as small as Mw 6.5. Simulated performance tests show that, with data contributed from only a very small fraction of the population, a crowd-sourced EEW system would be capable of warning San Francisco and San Jose of a Mw 7 rupture on California's Hayward fault and could have accurately issued both earthquake and tsunami warnings for the 2011 Mw 9 Tohoku-oki, Japan earthquake.

  18. The Crywolf Issue in Earthquake Early Warning Applications for the Campania Region

    OpenAIRE

    Iervolino, I.; Dipartimento di Analisi e Progettazione Strutturale, Università di Napoli Federico II, Naples, Italy; Convertito, V.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione OV, Napoli, Italia; Giorgio, M.;  Dipartimento di Ingegneria Aerospaziale e Meccanica, Seconda Università di Napoli, Aversa, Italy; Manfredi, G.; Dipartimento di Analisi e Progettazione Strutturale, Università di Napoli Federico II, Naples, Italy; Zollo, A.;  RISSC-Lab, Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Università di Napoli Federico II, Naples, Italy

    2007-01-01

    Earthquake early warning systems (EEWS), based on real-time prediction of ground motion or structural response measures, may play a role in re- ducing vulnerability and/or exposure of buildings and lifelines. Indeed, seismologists have recently developed efficient methods for real-time es- timation of an event’s magnitude and location based on limited informa- tion of the P-waves. Therefore, when an event occurs, estimates of magni- tude and source-to-site dis...

  19. An online operational rainfall-monitoring resource for epidemic malaria early warning systems in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover-Kopec, Emily; Kawano, Mika; Klaver, Robert W.; Blumenthal, Benno; Ceccato, Pietro; Connor, Stephen J.

    2005-01-01

    Periodic epidemics of malaria are a major public health problem for many sub-Saharan African countries. Populations in epidemic prone areas have a poorly developed immunity to malaria and the disease remains life threatening to all age groups. The impact of epidemics could be minimized by prediction and improved prevention through timely vector control and deployment of appropriate drugs. Malaria Early Warning Systems are advocated as a means of improving the opportunity for preparedness and timely response.

  20. The UNESCO-IOC framework - establishing an international early warning infrastructure in the Indian Ocean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterjung, J.; Koltermann, P.; Wolf, U.; Sopaheluwakan, J.

    2010-12-01

    The Sumatra-Andaman earthquake with a magnitude of 9.3, and the subsequent destructive tsunami which caused more than 225 000 fatalities in the region of the Indian Ocean, happened on 26 December 2004. Less than one month later, the United Nations (UN) World Conference on Disaster Reduction took place in Kobe, Japan to commemorate the 1995 Kobe earthquake. The importance of preparedness and awareness on regional, national and community levels with respect to natural disasters was discussed during this meeting, and resulted in the approval of the Hyogo Declaration on Disaster Reduction. Based on this declaration the UN mandated the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of UNESCO (United Nations Education, Science and Cultural Organization), taking note of its over 40 years of successful coordination of the Pacific Tsunami Warning System (PTWC), to take on the international coordination of national early-warning efforts for the Indian Ocean and to guide the process of setting up a Regional Tsunami Early Warning System for the Indian Ocean.

  1. 基于车联网的高速公路安全预警系统的设计%Design of Expressway Security Early Warning Systems Based on Internet of Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹城; 廖惜春

    2015-01-01

    Traffic accidents occur frequently on expressways with secondary accidents following, endangering the safety of occupants of the related vehicles. Also geological disasters can often cause traffic congestion. In order to improve our expressways' intelligent information management, ensure the personnel safety of drivers and passengers, and improve the road flow rate, we designed an expressway safety early warning system consisting of vehicle-borne equipment, routing nodes and control centers, by using wireless communication and networking technology. In addition, in light of the specific environment of expressways, we designed a MAC protocol based on TDMA and a cluster based on a routing protocol to solve the problems of conflict of information chains, information interference and routing and path choice. We further set up a wireless chain network by means of the communication protocol for wireless sensor networks to ensure real-time monitoring and broadcasting of the information of the road conditions, safety hazards, traffic accident location positioning and other traffic information, and improve the intelligent management of expressways.%高速公路交通事故时有发生,并伴有二次事故,危害车内人员生命安全,而遇到地质灾害时,又容易造成交通拥堵. 为了提高我国高速公路智能化、信息化的管理水平,保证行车人员人身安全、提高道路畅通率,本文运用无线通信与组网技术,设计了由车载设备、路由节点和控制中心等组成的高速公路安全预警系统,并针对高速公路的特定环境,设计了基于TDMA的MAC协议与分簇式链式路由协议解决信息冲突、信息干扰以及路由路径选择等问题,借鉴无线传感网络的通信协议,实现无线链状网络组网,以确保对高速公路路况、安全隐患、交通事故定位以及其他交通信息进行实时监测和广播,提升高速公路智能化管理水平.

  2. Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-05-01

    Hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), all-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, they have great potential to cut U.S. petroleum use and vehicle emissions.

  3. Development of empirical relationship between P wave initial slopes and epicentral distance for early warning in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, S.; Sheen, D. H.

    2015-12-01

    Earthquake early warning aims to rapidly provide the information of an earthquake to minimize earthquake damage. The location accuracy of an earthquake is crucial for the accurate estimation of the source property. While standard location procedure can take the advantages of using combined P-wave and S-wave information, early warning information should be given before arriving S-wave. Odaka et al. (2003) found that P-wave initial slopes decrease almost linearly with increasing epicentral distance and proposed a method for estimating epicentral distance from P-wave initial slope. The early warning system in the Japan Meteorological Agency uses this method for locating an earthquake when only one station triggers. For developing the empirical relationship for earthquake early warning in South Korea, we investigate the relationship from 585 local earthquakes with magnitude larger than 2.0 and 147 regional earthquakes over magnitude 6.0 that occurred in and around the Korean Peninsula from 2005 to 2015.

  4. Research on early warning technology for spacecraft in-orbit fault influenced by space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhenyan, Zhao; Ping, Yang; Wendong, Li; Xi, Chen; Peng, Liu; Zhihui, Wang; Zhen, Wu

    2016-07-01

    The number of China's current satellite on orbit is nearly 150. Satellites are often influenced by space environment, and the on-orbit operation tasks are interrupted. Analysis of relevant data and looking for the right warning method become one of the important means, which can ensure the safety of satellite in orbit. Firstly, the data of satellite on-orbit from 2008 to 2015 and space environment are studied. Through the methods of correlation analysis and ratio analysis, we select the sensitive parameters which are more affected by the environment change. Through the analysis of the satellite fault which often happens, we get the location distribution, time distribution of the fault and the characteristic data such as environmental changes. Using the comprehensive factor calculation method, according to environment data and sensitive parameters, data information such as failure characteristics, we calculate the early warning value, which can provide the basis for the spacecraft operation management when the space environment changes. At the same time, we put forward the possible suggestion for space-based early warning information application, and the further suggestion of using sensitive parameter study on space environment change.

  5. Sugary Drink Warnings Hit Home with Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160860.html Sugary Drink Warnings Hit Home With Teens Fewer choose sweetened ... Health warning labels can steer teens away from sugary drinks, a new study suggests. "The average teen in ...

  6. Slope Failure Prediction and Early Warning Awareness Education for Reducing Landslides Casualty in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koay, S. P.; Tay, L. T.; Fukuoka, H.; Koyama, T.; Sakai, N.; Jamaludin, S. B.; Lateh, H.

    2015-12-01

    Northeast monsoon causes heavy rain in east coast of Peninsular Malaysia from November to March, every year. During this monsoon period, besides the happening of flood along east coast, landslides also causes millions of Malaysian Ringgit economical losses. Hence, it is essential to study the prediction of slope failure to prevent the casualty of landslides happening. In our study, we introduce prediction method of the accumulated rainfall affecting the stability of the slope. If the curve, in the graph, which is presented by rainfall intensity versus accumulated rainfall, crosses over the critical line, the condition of the slope is considered in high risk where the data are calculated and sent from rain gauge in the site via internet. If the possibility of slope failure is going high, the alert message will be sent out to the authorities for decision making on road block or setting the warning light at the road side. Besides road block and warning light, we propose to disseminate short message, to pre-registered mobile phone user, to notify the public for easing the traffic jam and avoiding unnecessary public panic. Prediction is not enough to prevent the casualty. Early warning awareness of the public is very important to reduce the casualty of landslides happening. IT technology does not only play a main role in disseminating information, early warning awareness education, by using IT technology, should be conducted, in schools, to give early warning awareness on natural hazard since childhood. Knowing the pass history on landslides occurrence will gain experience on the landslides happening. Landslides historical events with coordinate information are stored in database. The public can browse these historical events via internet. By referring to such historical landslides events, the public may know where did landslides happen before and the possibility of slope failure occurrence again is considered high. Simulation of rainfall induced slope failure mechanism

  7. An electrophysiological study of the impact of a forward collision warning system in a simulator driving task

    OpenAIRE

    BUENO, Mercedes; Fabrigoule, Colette; DELEURENCE, Philippe; Ndiaye, Daniel; Fort, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Driver distraction has been identified as the most important contributing factor in rear-end collisions. In this context, Forward Collision Warning Systems (FCWS) have been developed specifically to warn drivers of potential rear-end collisions. The main objective of this work is to evaluate the impact of a surrogate FCWS and of its reliability according to the driver's attentional state by recording both behavioral and electrophysiological data. Participants drove following a lead motorcycle...

  8. Electric Vehicles in Imperfect Electricity Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Schill, Wolf-Peter

    2011-01-01

    We use a game-theoretic model to analyze the impacts of a hypothetical fleet of plug-in electric vehicles on the imperfectly competitive German electricity market. Electric vehicles bring both additional demand and additional storage capacity to the market. We determine the effects on prices, welfare, and electricity generation for various cases with different players in charge of vehicle operations. Vehicle loading increases generator profits, but decreases consumer surplus in the power mark...

  9. Battery Test Manual For Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey R. Belt

    2010-09-01

    This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Program. It is based on technical targets established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for PHEV’s. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for power-assist hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, a revision including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures is expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices.

  10. Battery Test Manual For Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey R. Belt

    2010-12-01

    This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Program. It is based on technical targets established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for PHEV’s. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for power-assist hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, a revision including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures is expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices.

  11. Vehicle crashworthiness ratings in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, M; Mach, T; Neiger, D; Graham, A; Ramsay, R; Pappas, M; Haley, J

    1994-08-01

    The paper reviews the published vehicle safety ratings based on mass crash data from the United States, Sweden, and Great Britain. It then describes the development of vehicle crashworthiness ratings based on injury compensation claims and police accident reports from Victoria and New South Wales, the two most populous states in Australia. Crashworthiness was measured by a combination of injury severity (of injured drivers) and injury risk (of drivers involved in crashes). Injury severity was based on 22,600 drivers injured in crashes in the two states. Injury risk was based on 70,900 drivers in New South Wales involved in crashes after which a vehicle was towed away. Injury risk measured in this way was compared with the "relative injury risk" of particular model cars involved in two car crashes in Victoria (where essentially only casualty crashes are reported), which was based on the method developed by Folksam Insurance in Sweden from Evans' double-pair comparison method. The results include crashworthiness ratings for the makes and models crashing in Australia in sufficient numbers to measure their crash performance adequately. The ratings were normalised for the driver sex and speed limit at the crash location, the two factors found to be strongly related to injury risk and/or severity and to vary substantially across makes and models of Australian crash-involved cars. This allows differences in crashworthiness of individual models to be seen, uncontaminated by major crash exposure differences. PMID:7916859

  12. Perspectives for Electric Vehicles in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horstmann, Jørgen; Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Review of the present knowledge on electric vehicles and analysis of the energy and environmental consequences of the introduction of electric vehicles in Denmark. The report focuses on the 10-15 year time perspective.......Review of the present knowledge on electric vehicles and analysis of the energy and environmental consequences of the introduction of electric vehicles in Denmark. The report focuses on the 10-15 year time perspective....

  13. Real-time earthquake monitoring for tsunami warning in the Indian Ocean and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Hanka

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Mw = 9.3 Sumatra earthquake of 26 December 2004 generated a tsunami that affected the entire Indian Ocean region and caused approximately 230 000 fatalities. In the response to this tragedy the German government funded the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS Project. The task of the GEOFON group of GFZ Potsdam was to develop and implement the seismological component. In this paper we describe the concept of the GITEWS earthquake monitoring system and report on its present status. The major challenge for earthquake monitoring within a tsunami warning system is to deliver rapid information about location, depth, size and possibly other source parameters. This is particularly true for coast lines adjacent to the potential source areas such as the Sunda trench where these parameters are required within a few minutes after the event in order to be able to warn the population before the potential tsunami hits the neighbouring coastal areas. Therefore, the key for a seismic monitoring system with short warning times adequate for Indonesia is a dense real-time seismic network across Indonesia with densifications close to the Sunda trench. A substantial number of supplementary stations in other Indian Ocean rim countries are added to strengthen the teleseismic monitoring capabilities. The installation of the new GITEWS seismic network – consisting of 31 combined broadband and strong motion stations – out of these 21 stations in Indonesia – is almost completed. The real-time data collection is using a private VSAT communication system with hubs in Jakarta and Vienna. In addition, all available seismic real-time data from the other seismic networks in Indonesia and other Indian Ocean rim countries are acquired also directly by VSAT or by Internet at the Indonesian Tsunami Warning Centre in Jakarta and the resulting "virtual" network of more than 230 stations can jointly be used for seismic data processing. The

  14. Application of SOA (Service Oriented Architecture) in Early Warning Systems for Tsunamis and other Natural Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendholt, Matthias; Hammitzsch, Martin; Wächter, Joachim

    2010-05-01

    The DEWS (Distant Early Warning System) [1] project, funded under the 6th Framework Programme of the European Union, has the target to create a new generation of interoperable early warning systems. Two major objectives have steered the development process: usage of free and open source software (FOSS) and compliance to the principles of a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). The second objective was mainly driven by the superior ambition of the development of a generic early warning framework not only for tsunamis but also for other natural hazards. The development of a reference architecture enforced the clear separation between hazard-specific and generic functionality. Integration of sensor networks was realized with Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) [2] Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) [3] services. Sensor types are relatively specific for different hazard types: while inundation sensors can be used both for tsunami and floodwater hazards, contamination meters requires a complete different semantic integration into the client application. Based on sensor measurements a simulation system supports the operator with forecasts to enable the dissemination of precise warning messages. The simulation integration was realized with the Web Processing Service (WPS) [4] but here again semantic integration is simulation specific and has to be realized inside the client application. In contrast the integration of Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) via Web Mapping Service (WMS) [5] and Web Feature Service (WFS) [6] to complete the situation report is independent from any hazard type and depends on the data availability and requirements of each warning centre. The downstream component - the message dissemination from the operator via information logistics to the dissemination channel endpoints - has been realized independently from any specific hazard type. Using the Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) [7] and Emergency Data Exchange Language (EDXL) [8] enables the re-usage for all kind

  15. 奥德博有声出版公司研究%A Case Study on Audible Inc

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺钰滢

    2016-01-01

    Taking Audible Inc., an Amazon.com subsidiary as a case, the paper analyzes the profile of audiobooks’listeners in the United States and introduces the company’s history, then it deeply explores how Audible produces, distributes and promotes its downloadable audiobooks.%以亚马逊旗下的奥德博(Audible)公司为研究对象,介绍美国有声读物的受众特点,梳理奥德博公司的发展历程,并重点对其有声产品开发、发行与推广环节进行深入探究。

  16. Road traffic safety in conjunction with in-vehicle ITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja TOPOLŠEK

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Interest in Intelligent Transportation Systems comes from the problems caused by traffic congestion, road accidents and air pollution. Traffic congestion continues to grow worldwide as a result of increased motorization, population growth, changes in population density and urbanization. Interest in ITS can also be attributed to reducing road accidents and increasing traffic safety. The most common causes for road accidents are excessive speed, inattentive driving and ignorance of the right-of-way rules. To eliminate these causes, experience, knowledge of traffic regulations and a new car are not enough – vehicle safety systems have to take part as well. Therefore, the European Union issued a directive on the installation of intelligent systems, whose functions are active support during driving, warning the driver in dangerous situations and alerting passengers of the car in case of irregularities in motor function or actions carried out by the driver that may cause danger, such as swerving while falling asleep. These systems help drivers to avoid accidents, and in the event of a collision, an emergency call is automatically made. Furthermore, they can be used to regulate traffic patterns or to reduce engine performance, which would reduce pollution. With these benefits in mind, the EU has indicated to the automotive industry that installation of these new Intelligent Transportation Systems should be mandatory in their new vehicles.

  17. 基于DSP和FPGA的汽车防撞高速数据采集系统%A high speed data acquisition system for automotive collision warning devices based on DSP-FPGA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋伟

    2012-01-01

    With the continuous development of information technology, data acquisition technology has become an important modern tool, and is also expanding its scope of application. It has been widely used in communication, radar, medical, remote sensing and other fields. This data acquisition system designed is based on a high-speed DSP-FPGA data acquisition, primarily for high-speed acquisition and processing on laser radar echo signal in automotive collision warning devices.%随着信息技术的不断发展,数据采集技术已成为重要的现代化的工具,并且其应用范围也在不断扩大,在通信、雷达、医疗、遥测遥感等领域得到了广泛的应用。本文为了汽车防撞报警设备高速信号处理的目的.采用了DSP和FPGA处理器加上相关算法,实现了对激光雷达回波信号能够高速的采集和处理。

  18. Cryotanks in future vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydenreich, R.

    Cryogenic storage of liquid hydrogen and oxygen is a need in future transportation systems. Therefore, MAN Technologie is studying various concepts for cryogenic tanks made of carbon reinforced plastics (CFRP) material. For space application the demand of a CFRP cryotank derives from the mechanical loads in combination with the thermal environment. Mass saving has priority for single stage launchers. In order to separate the influence of complex requirements on the tank components test samples are proposed with the help of scaling factors. For future aircraft the need for replacement of kerosene is growing. Due to the storage conditions the insulation requirement is very stringent. For ground traffic there are relatively small and cheap tanks to be produced in future. An overview on all these applications is given. The advantage of composite in relation to metallic tanks is maximum for use in spacecraft.

  19. Effectiveness of 3-D audio for warnings in the cockpit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oving, A.B.; Veltman, J.A.; Bronkhorst, A.W.

    2004-01-01

    Een tweetal vliegsimulator experimenten lieten zien dat piloten sneller reagereerden op de auditieve waarschuwingen van het TCAS systeem in de civiele cockpit, waneer deze waarschuwingen werden gepresenteerd met 3D-audio in vergelijking tot mono geluid.

  20. Panel warns of a crisis in american Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Overbye, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    "Physics in America is at a crossroads and in crisis, just as humanity stands on the verge of great discoveries about the nature of matter and the universe, a panel from the National Academy of sciences concludes in a new report."

  1. Stress Management in Education: Warning Signs and Coping Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Richard D.

    2007-01-01

    Only in recent years have researchers begun to study stress in the workplace. Psychologists and other stress analysts have discovered that the most trying professions are those that involve high pressure and serious responsibilities, often beyond the control of the individuals employed. Most interesting, the American Institute of Stress revealed…

  2. Study warns of radiation risk in medical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2009-10-01

    A study of a million US patients suggests that some who undergo medical imaging could be exposed to more ionizing radiation than those who work with radioactive materials in nuclear power plants. The study, reported in The New England Journal of Medicine (361 849), implies that current exposure to radiation from conventional X-ray equipment as well as computed tomography (CT) and positron-emission tomography (PET) scanners could lead to tens of thousands of extra cases of cancer in the US alone.

  3. Does Reactance against Cigarette Warning Labels Matter? Warning Label Responses and Downstream Smoking Cessation amongst Adult Smokers in Australia, Canada, Mexico and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yoo Jin; Thrasher, James F.; Swayampakala, Kamala; Yong, Hua-Hie; McKeever, Robert; Hammond, David; Anshari, Dien; Cummings, K. Michael; Borland, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Objective Some researchers have raised concerns that pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) on cigarette packages may lead to message rejection and reduced effectiveness of HWL messages. This study aimed to determine how state reactance (i.e., negative affect due to perceived manipulation) in response to both pictorial and text-only HWLs is associated with other types of HWL responses and with subsequent cessation attempts. Methods Survey data were collected every 4 months between September 2013 and 2014 from online panels of adult smokers in Australia, Canada, Mexico, and the US were analyzed. Participants with at least one wave of follow-up were included in the analysis (n = 4,072 smokers; 7,459 observations). Surveys assessed psychological and behavioral responses to HWLs (i.e., attention to HWLs, cognitive elaboration of risks due to HWLs, avoiding HWLs, and forgoing cigarettes because of HWLs) and cessation attempts. Participants then viewed specific HWLs from their countries and were queried about affective state reactance. Logistic and linear Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) models regressed each of the psychological and behavioral HWL responses on reactance, while controlling for socio-demographic and smoking-related variables. Logistic GEE models also regressed having attempted to quit by the subsequent survey on reactance, each of the psychological and behavioral HWL responses (analyzed separately), adjustment variables. Data from all countries were initially pooled, with interactions between country and reactance assessed; when interactions were statistically significant, country-stratified models were estimated. Results Interactions between country and reactance were found in all models that regressed psychological and behavioral HWL responses on study variables. In the US, stronger reactance was associated with more frequent reading of HWLs and thinking about health risks. Smokers from all four countries with stronger reactance reported greater

  4. OVERVIEW OF THE CAAMPL EARLY WARNING SYSTEM IN ROMANIAN BANKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IMOLA DRIGĂ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The uniform bank rating system is a specific instrument for the supervising activity and has its origins in the USA; it has later been borrowed by German, Italian, Great Britain authorities, which use influential components in their banking system; later on, their system was adopted by most central banks within the European Union. In Romania, the uniform bank rating system has been implemented by NBR (the National Bank of Romania since 2000; the specific components are: the capital adequacy (C, the quality of assets (A, the quality of the stock holding (A, the management (M, profitability (P, liquidities (L and sensitivity (S starting from the year 2005. For short, this system is called CAAMPL. The evaluation of these specific elements represents an important criterion for establishing a compound rating, which means assigning scores to each bank. The compound rating for the banking system is established based on economic – financial indicators and prudence indicators.

  5. Warning: feeding animals hydrophilic fiber sources in dry diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struthers, B J

    1986-01-01

    Feeding animals large quantities of dry hydrophilic fiber sources, such as psyllium husk or guar gum, may lead to intestinal obstruction or to other mechanical effects unrelated to the normal function of these materials in human diets. Such fiber sources should be hydrated prior to feeding, rather than being incorporated into dry diets as is. The water-holding capacity of psyllium hydrophilic mucilloid, for example, is greater than or equal to 40 g/g, compared to 2-3 g/g of wheat bran. Consumption of the psyllium product dry would be much more likely to produce intestinal dehydration than would consumption of dry bran. Because of possible untoward effects of high levels of these materials, it may also be more appropriate to feed such fiber sources in quantities approximating that of their potential human dietary consumption, rather than very high quantities that would be unlikely to be attained in human diets. PMID:3003290

  6. Thrombosis warning in children suffering from Henoch-Schonlein Purpura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luan Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Henoch-Schonlein Purpura (HSP is one of the most common types of vasculitis in children. The characteristic clinical manifestations include non-thrombocytopenic purpura, arthritis or arthralgia, abdominal pain, gastrointestinal hemorrhage and renal abnormalities. Thrombosis has been reported as, a rare complication of HSP. We present the case of a 14-year-old boy who was diagnosed with HSP and suspected superior mesenteric vein thrombosis. We reviewed the relevant literature and found eight similar reported cases. HSP is associated with thrombosis and HSP itself and some risk factors may result in thrombosis. We suggest that physicians should monitor patients with HSP who are at a higher risk of developing thrombosis more closely.

  7. A Video Camera Road Sign System of the Early Warning from Collision with the Wild Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matuska Slavomir

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a camera road sign system of the early warning, which can help to avoid from vehicle collision with the wild animals. The system consists of camera modules placed down the particularly chosen route and the intelligent road signs. The camera module consists of the camera device and the computing unit. The video stream is captured from video camera using computing unit. Then the algorithms of object detection are deployed. Afterwards, the machine learning algorithms will be used to classify the moving objects. If the moving object is classified as animal and this animal can be dangerous for safety of the vehicle, warning will be displayed on the intelligent road sings.

  8. Resting tachycardia, a warning sign in anorexia nervosa: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krantz Mori J

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among psychiatric disorders, anorexia nervosa has the highest mortality rate. During an exacerbation of this illness, patients frequently present with nonspecific symptoms. Upon hospitalization, anorexia nervosa patients are often markedly bradycardic, which may be an adaptive response to progressive weight loss and negative energy balance. When anorexia nervosa patients manifest tachycardia, even heart rates in the 80–90 bpm range, a supervening acute illness should be suspected. Case presentation A 52-year old woman with longstanding anorexia nervosa was hospitalized due to progressive leg pain, weakness, and fatigue accompanied by marked weight loss. On physical examination she was cachectic but in no apparent distress. She had fine lanugo-type hair over her face and arms with an erythematous rash noted on her palms and left lower extremity. Her blood pressure was 96/50 mm Hg and resting heart rate was 106 bpm though she appeared euvolemic. Laboratory tests revealed anemia, mild leukocytosis, and hypoalbuminemia. She was initially treated with enteral feedings for an exacerbation of anorexia nervosa, but increasing leukocytosis without fever and worsening left leg pain prompted the diagnosis of an indolent left lower extremity cellulitis. With antibiotic therapy her heart rate decreased to 45 bpm despite minimal restoration of body weight. Conclusions Bradycardia is a characteristic feature of anorexia nervosa particularly with significant weight loss. When anorexia nervosa patients present with nonspecific symptoms, resting tachycardia should prompt a search for potentially life-threatening conditions.

  9. Stem cells in clinical practice: applications and warnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmieri Beniamino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Stem cells are a relevant source of information about cellular differentiation, molecular processes and tissue homeostasis, but also one of the most putative biological tools to treat degenerative diseases. This review focuses on human stem cells clinical and experimental applications. Our aim is to take a correct view of the available stem cell subtypes and their rational use in the medical area, with a specific focus on their therapeutic benefits and side effects. We have reviewed the main clinical trials dividing them basing on their clinical applications, and taking into account the ethical issue associated with the stem cell therapy. Methods We have searched Pubmed/Medline for clinical trials, involving the use of human stem cells, using the key words "stem cells" combined with the key words "transplantation", "pathology", "guidelines", "properties" and "risks". All the relevant clinical trials have been included. The results have been divided into different categories, basing on the way stem cells have been employed in different pathological conditions.

  10. Variable friction device for structural control based on duo-servo vehicle brake: Modeling and experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liang; Downey, Austin; Laflamme, Simon; Taylor, Douglas; Ricles, James

    2015-07-01

    Supplemental damping can be used as a cost-effective method to reduce structural vibrations. In particular, passive systems are now widely accepted and have numerous applications in the field. However, they are typically tuned to specific excitations and their performances are bandwidth-limited. A solution is to use semi-active devices, which have shown to be capable of substantially enhanced mitigation performance. The authors have recently proposed a new type of semi-active device, which consists of a variable friction mechanism based on a vehicle duo-servo drum brake, a mechanically robust and reliable technology. The theoretical performance of the proposed device has been previously demonstrated via numerical simulations. In this paper, we further the understanding of the device, termed Modified Friction Device (MFD) by fabricating a small scale prototype and characterizing its dynamic behavior. While the dynamics of friction is well understood for automotive braking technology, we investigate for the first time the dynamic behavior of this friction mechanism at low displacements and velocities, in both forward and backward directions, under various hydraulic pressures. A modified 3-stage dynamic model is introduced. A LuGre friction model is used to characterize the friction zone (Stage 1), and two pure stiffness regions to characterize the dynamics of the MFD once the rotation is reversed and the braking shoes are sticking to the drum (Stage 2) and the rapid build up of forces once the shoes are held by the anchor pin (Stage 3). The proposed model is identified experimentally by subjecting the prototype to harmonic excitations. It is found that the proposed model can be used to characterize the dynamics of the MFD, and that the largest fitting error arises at low velocity under low pressure input. The model is then verified by subjecting the MFD to two different earthquake excitations under different pressure inputs. The model is capable of tracking the

  11. A Feasibility Study for Earthquake Early Warning in a School in Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emolo, A.; Martino, C.; Picozzi, M.; Zollo, A.; Elia, L.; Festa, G.; Colombelli, S.; Caruso, A.; Brondi, P.; Miranda, N.

    2015-12-01

    We present the results of a feasibility study on the application of earthquake early-warning procedures in the high school ITIS E. Majorana, Somma Vesuviana, Naples, located about 80 km far from the seismogenic Irpinia region. The study was performed in the framework of the European REAKT project. The school was equipped with an EEWS composed of: a small seismic network of accelerometers, the PRESToPlus software platform, and an actuator, named Sentinel. The Sentinel is made up of low-cost hardware (i.e., Arduino®) programmed to accomplish three main tasks: 1) listen and interpret messages delivered by the EEW system PRESToPlus on the ground motion severity expected at the target site; 2) provides different warnings as alert levels by the control of different hardware (i.e., alarm bells, emergency lights, and so on); 3) declare the end of the most threatening condition, which will assist the emergency coordinator starting the evacuation plan defined by the current legislation. The Sentinel was developed within REAKT in close collaboration with the students and the teachers of the school. The EEW system and the Sentinel were successfully tested during some blind drills performed during normal school activities.

  12. Development of a Tow Capacity Test Device for Small Unmanned Vehicles.

    OpenAIRE

    Barnett, Shane

    2005-01-01

    Unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) will increasingly be used for tasks such as retrieving injured soldiers from a battlefield, transporting supplies, and towing other small vehicles and payloads. To date, the unmanned test community has not standardized on an apparatus or test operating procedure (TOP) specifically for evaluating the towing capacity of small unmanned ground vehicles. Draw-bar testing has been adapted by several groups to quantify small unmanned ground vehicle (SUGV) tow capaci...

  13. Applied analysis and construction of Prevention, Monitoring and Early Warning System of Mountain Torrent Disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Jamil

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available To prevent from the hazards of mountain torrent disasters, today's monitoring and early warning system is widely used in mountain areas to keep alert from the rainstorm. Mountain torrent disaster caused by the rainstorm and is one of the most important reasons, resulting in transportation blocks and mass casualties. Mountain torrent disaster occurs frequently depends on the weather of mountain's country. It can be distinguished and predicted by monitoring and early warning system to provide the safety reference in disaster presentation and reduction. This paper presents the analysis and key management of monitoring and early warning system of mountain torrent which mainly includes monitoring system and early warning system of water and rain information. In order to achieve better effect of disaster prevention and reduction, establish an organization system of mass observation and mass prevention and enhance training propaganda. The monitoring system of water and rain information mainly includes network layout of water and rain monitoring station, information acquisition, information transmission and communication networking and configuration of devices. Early warning system of mountain torrent is composed of platform-based early warning system of torrent defense and early warning system of torrent mass observation and mass prevention. And also appended short description of publicity and training includes popularization of knowledge about disaster prevention; preparations of disaster prevention, maintenance and operation of monitoring and warning facilities, publicity and rehearsal of proposal.

  14. Sound-light Warning Device on Low-water Display of Self-control High-level Water Tank%自制高位水箱低位显示水位声光报警装置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟育东

    2013-01-01

      水位报警装置,实现了对高位水箱水位的实时监测低位显示功能,其功能的实现主要由水箱、连通管、浮筒、控制器等组成。与现有技术相比,方便了由于水箱设置较高,在相对低位水箱水位的观察与监测,从而根据水箱水温变化,及时控制出水温度。同时降低了员工的劳动强度,提高了工作效率。%The water level warning device complete real-time supervision display on water level of head water tank. Its functions enforcement depends on water tank, communicating pipe, float and controller. The main operating principles of water level monitoring device are as follows:1. connect the communicating pipe and set magnetic float on side wall of the water tank; 2.set the magnetic switch on the ectotheca of communicating pipe that may make magnetic float change with the water table, thus the magnetic switch is under control and the corresponding water level condition can be displayed. Compared with the available technology, it is convenient to observe and monitor the water level;accordingly, the temperature of exceeding water can change by water temperature in the tank;meanwhile, it lowers labour intensity and improves work efficiency.

  15. A Collaborative Approach to Flood Early Warning Systems In South East Westmoreland, Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    Jamaica is prone to climatic, tectonic and technological hazards, with climatic hazards being the most prevalent. Specifically, flood events from cyclonic activity are the most common and widespread. Jamaica also experiences frequent flash floods, usually with insufficient lead time to enact efficient and targeted responses. On average, there is at least one disastrous flood every four years in Jamaica, and from 1800 to 2003 fifty-four major floods took place, causing 273 fatalities and economic losses of over US2 billion. Notably, the 1979 flood event in Western Jamaica caused 41 deaths and economic losses of US 27 Million, and which also has a 50 year return period. To date, no Flood Warning System exists in Western Jamaica and there are limited rain and river gauges. Additionally, responses to climatic events within South-East Westmoreland communities are ad hoc, with little coordination. Many of the hazard responses have been reactive and some stakeholders have delayed to their detriment.[1] The use of Flood Early Warning Systems (FEWS) to address such challenges is thus an option being considered by the community associations. The Rio Cobre FEWS in the parish of St. Catherine serves as a best practice example of community driven flood warning systems in Jamaica. This is because of the collaborative approach to flood risk, strengthened by institutional arrangements between the Meteorological Service, Water Resources Authority, Office of Disaster Management, Scientists and residents of the surrounding communities. The Community Associations in South-East Westmoreland are thus desirous of implementing a FEWS similar to the Rio Cobre FEWS. This paper thus aims to analyse the implementation process in terms of key stakeholders involved, governance approach and the socio-economic impact of a collaborative approach on infrastructure and livelihoods, in the case of future flooding events. [1] (especially in the case of Hurricane Ivan 2004)

  16. Research on Heterogeneous Data Sharing in Early Warning System for Grain Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Heng-chuan; ZHAO Guo-zeng

    2010-01-01

    The data nodes with heterogeneous database in early waming system for grain security seriously hampered the effective data collection in this system.In this article,the existing middleware technologies was analyzed,the problem-solution approach of heterogeneous data sharing was discussed through middleware technologies.Based on this method,and according to the characteristics of early warning system for grain security,the technology of data sharing in this system were researched and explored to solve the issues of collection of heterogeneous data sharing.

  17. Driver's adaptive glance behavior to in-vehicle information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yiyun; Boyle, Linda Ng

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the adaptive behavior of drivers as they engage with in-vehicle devices over time and in varying driving situations. Behavioral adaptation has been shown to occur among drivers after prolonged use of in-vehicle devices, but few studies have examined drivers' risk levels across different driving demands. A multi-day simulator study was conducted with 28 young drivers (under 30 years old) as they engaged in different text entry and reading tasks while driving in two different traffic conditions. Cluster analysis was used to categorize drivers based on their risk levels and random coefficient models were used to assess changes in drivers' eye glance behavior. Glance duration significantly increased over time while drivers were performing text entry tasks but not for text reading tasks. High-risk drivers had longer maximum eyes-off-road when performing long text entry tasks compared to low-risk drivers, and this difference increased over time. The traffic condition also had a significant impact on drivers' glance behavior. This study suggests that drivers may exhibit negative behavioral adaptation as they become more comfortable with using in-vehicle technologies over time. Results of this paper may provide guidance for the design of in-vehicle devices that adapt based on the context of the situation. It also demonstrates that random coefficient models can be used to obtain better estimations of driver behavior when there are large individual differences. PMID:26406538

  18. Landslide monitoring and early warning systems in Lower Austria - current situation and new developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiebes, Benni; Glade, Thomas; Schweigl, Joachim; Jäger, Stefan; Canli, Ekrem

    2014-05-01

    Landslides represent significant hazards in the mountainous areas of Austria. The Regional Geological Surveys are responsible to inform and protect the population, and to mitigate damage to infrastructure. Efforts of the Regional Geological Survey of Lower Austria include detailed site investigations, the planning and installation of protective structures (e.g. rock fall nets) as well as preventive measures such as regional scale landslide susceptibility assessments. For potentially endangered areas, where protection works are not feasible or would simply be too costly, monitoring systems have been installed. However, these systems are dominantly not automatic and require regular field visits to take measurements. Therefore, it is difficult to establish any relation between initiating and controlling factors, thus to fully understand the underlying process mechanism which is essential for any early warning system. Consequently, the implementation of new state-of-the-art monitoring and early warning systems has been started. In this presentation, the design of four landslide monitoring and early warning systems is introduced. The investigated landslide process types include a deep-seated landslide, a rock fall site, a complex earth flow, and a debris flow catchment. The monitoring equipment was chosen depending on the landslide processes and their activity. It aims to allow for a detailed investigation of process mechanisms in relation to its triggers and for reliable prediction of future landslide activities. The deep-seated landslide will be investigated by manual and automatic inclinometers to get detailed insights into subsurface displacements. In addition, TDR sensors and a weather station will be employed to get a better understanding on the influence of rainfall on sub-surface hydrology. For the rockfall site, a wireless sensor network will be installed to get real-time information on acceleration and inclination of potentially unstable blocks. The movement

  19. A Study on the Safety-Capacity Tradeoff Improvement by Warning Communications

    OpenAIRE

    MOURLLION, B; Gruyer, D.; Lambert, A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the contribution of warning communications in a vehicles string. After having presented the capacity and safety motions, two approaches of the evaluation of the communication impact on the safety-capacity tradeoff are presented. The first approach proposes a formal expression of the number of collisions in an uniform vehicles string (unequipped or fully equipped in communication means). The second approach is complementary to the first one. It focuses on the gain in safety ...

  20. Serious adverse events in a hospital using early warning score - what went wrong?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, John Asger; Mackel, Rebecca; Antonsen, Kristian;

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the performance of a new early warning score (EWS) system by reviewing all serious adverse events in our hospital over a 6-month time period. METHOD: All incidents of unexpected death (UD), cardiac arrest (CA) and unanticipated intensive care unit admission(UICU) of adult patients......%. On call physicians provided adequate care in 49% of cases of UICU and 29% of cases of the CO. Senior staff was involved according to protocol in 53% and 36% of cases of UICU and CO, respectively. CONCLUSION: Poor compliance with the escalation protocol was commonly found when serious adverse events...

  1. On the utility of in situ soil moisture observations for flash drought early warning in Oklahoma, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Trent W.; McRoberts, D. Brent; Quiring, Steven M.; Hall, Ryann E.

    2015-11-01

    Drought early warning systems are a vital component of drought monitoring and require information at submonthly time scales because of the rapidly evolving nature of drought. This study evaluates the utility of in situ soil moisture observations for drought early warning in Oklahoma. Soil moisture was used to identify drought events, and the results were compared with the U.S. Drought Monitor with respect to the identification of drought onset. Soil moisture observations consistently identify rapid-onset (flash) drought events earlier than the U.S. Drought Monitor. Our results show that soil moisture percentiles provide a 2-3 week lead time over the U.S. Drought Monitor based on five flash drought events that occurred in Oklahoma between 2000 and 2013. We conclude that in situ soil moisture observations are an important source of information for early warning of flash drought events in the Oklahoma.

  2. System of prediction and warning of floods in the water basin of Struma/ Strymonas River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struma is collecting waters from four countries: Bulgaria, Serbia, FYROM and Greece. Most of its basin area is located in Bulgaria and Greece, while the upper part of its basin is in Bulgaria. There are important hydro technical structures just below the Bulgarian-Greek border, and the floods generated in the Bulgarian part of the basin could significantly affect the security of those structures and their operational rules. That is why several years ago a project related to flood warning at Struma/ Strymonas river basin was formulated and its first phase was completed in 2000. The main objective of the project was to demonstrate the principal possibility for issuing reliable warnings for hazardous flood events with sufficient lead-time to organize flood mitigation measures. The project implementation team included various scientists from the Agricultural University of Athens-Greece (leader), from the Center of Remote Sensing, Bristol University-UK, and from the National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology of Sofia - Bulgaria. The work program of the first project phase included a range of activities implemented by the Bulgarian and Greek team members, coordinated by the Agricultural University of Athens. Among the activities of the Project are included: a) a preliminary model for peak flood hydrographs and specifications of an early warning system, b) a real time flood forecasting by routing flood hydrographs through the system of the river and Kerkini lake, c) thematic maps of vegetation and land cover derived by satellite remote sensing, d) satellite snow monitoring in the basin, e) an adaptation of the Alladin Weather Forecast Model at the hydrological basin and scaling of the Crocus Snow Model at a preliminary stage, and f) development of a geo environmental recording system.(Author)

  3. Numerical Study of the Generic Sports Utility Vehicle Design with a Drag Reduction Add-On Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubham Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available CFD simulations using ANSYS FLUENT 6.3.26 have been performed on a generic SUV design and the settings are validated using the experimental results investigated by Khalighi. Moreover, an add-on inspired by the concept presented by Englar at GTRI for drag reduction has been designed and added to the generic SUV design. CFD results of add-on model and the basic SUV model have been compared for a number of aerodynamic parameters. Also drag coefficient, drag force, mean surface pressure, mean velocities, and Cp values at different locations in the wake have been compared for both models. The main objective of the study is to present a new add-on device which may be used on SUVs for increasing the fuel efficiency of the vehicle. Mean pressure results show an increase in the total base pressure on the SUV after using the device. An overall reduction of 8% in the aerodynamic drag coefficient on the add-on SUV has been investigated analytically in this study.

  4. A flexible hydrological warning system in Denmark for real-time surface water and groundwater simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xin; Stisen, Simon; Wiese, Marianne B.; Jørgen Henriksen, Hans

    2015-04-01

    In Denmark, increasing focus on extreme weather events has created considerable demand for short term forecasts and early warnings in relation to groundwater and surface water flooding. The Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) has setup, calibrated and applied a nationwide water resources model, the DK-Model, primarily for simulating groundwater and surface water flows and groundwater levels during the past 20 years. So far, the DK-model has only been used in offline historical and future scenario simulations. Therefore, challenges arise in operating such a model for online forecasts and early warnings, which requires access to continuously updated observed climate input data and forecast data of precipitation, temperature and global radiation for the next 48 hours or longer. GEUS has a close collaboration with the Danish Meteorological Institute in order to test and enable this data input for the DK model. Due to the comprehensive physical descriptions of the DK-Model, the simulation results can potentially be any component of the hydrological cycle within the models domain. Therefore, it is important to identify which results need to be updated and saved in the real-time mode, since it is not computationally economical to save every result considering the heavy load of data. GEUS have worked closely with the end-users and interest groups such as water planners and emergency managers from the municipalities, water supply and waste water companies, consulting companies and farmer organizations, in order to understand their possible needs for real time simulation and monitoring of the nationwide water cycle. This participatory process has been supported by a web based questionnaire survey, and a workshop that connected the model developers and the users. For qualifying the stakeholder engagement, GEUS has selected a representative catchment area (Skjern River) for testing and demonstrating a prototype of the web based hydrological warning system at the

  5. The Early-Warning System for incoming storm surge and tide in the Republic of Mauritius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaard, Tom; de Lima Rego, Joao; Vatvani, Deepak; Virasami, Renganaden; Verlaan, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The Republic of Mauritius (ROM) is a group of islands in the South West of the Indian Ocean, consisting of the main islands of Mauritius, Rodrigues and Agalega and the archipelago of Saint Brandon. The ROM is particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change, especially in the coastal zone, where a convergence of accelerating sea level rise and increasing intensity of tropical cyclones is expected to result in considerable economic loss, humanitarian stresses, and environmental degradation. Storm surges and swell waves are expected to be aggravated through sea level rise and climate change effects on weather patterns. Adaptation to increased vulnerability requires a re-evaluation of existing preparedness measures. The focus of this project is on more effective preparedness and issuing of alerts developing a fully-automated Early-Warning System for incoming storm surge and tide, together with the Mauritius Meteorological Services and the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Centre (NDRRMC), such that coastal communities in Mauritius, Rodrigues and Agalega Islands are able to evacuate timely and safely in case of predicted extreme water levels. The Mauritius Early-Warning System for storm surge and tide was implemented using software from Deltares' Open-Source and free software Community. A set of five depth-averaged Delft3D-FLOW hydrodynamic models are run every six-hours with a forecast horizon of three days, simulating water levels along the coast of the three main islands. Two regional models of horizontal resolution 5km force the three detailed models of 500m resolution; all models are forced at the surface by the 0.25° NOAA/GFS meteorological forecasts. In addition, our Wind-Enhancement Scheme is used to blend detailed cyclone track bulletin's info with the larger-scale Numerical Weather Predictions. Measured data is retrieved near real-time from available Automatic Weather Stations. All these workflows are managed by the operational

  6. Current status and challenges of typhoon forecasting and warning systems in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duan Yihong

    2014-01-01

    China is one of the countries most severely suffering from tropical cyclones. The exact and timely forecasting and warning is of significant importance in fighting against tropical cyclones and mitigating their im pacts on China. The numerical weather prediction(NWP)system for tropical cyclone rainfall and strong wind is going to play a more and more important role. There is also a need for timely and user friendly modern war ning services in order to provide the governments and relevant authorities at all levels and general public with ty phoon forecasts and information about the associated disasters and response strategy services.

  7. Operational analysis of electric field mills as lightning warning systems in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Aranguren

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Electrostatic field measurements taken in Bogotá, Colombia, during thunderstorms in November (the rainy season due to inter-tropical confluence zone over central Colombia were used to study the performance of an isolated electric field sensor and analyse its most important operational characteristics. The distances from each flash to the studied sensor were obtained by using the Colombian lightning location system. The DE cf distance ratio led to defining a charge model which could be used as a reference for calibrating other electrostatic field sensors to be used as lightning warning systems.

  8. Developing an early warning system for storm surge inundation in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tablazon, J.; Caro, C. V.; Lagmay, A. M. F.; Briones, J. B. L.; Dasallas, L.; Lapidez, J. P.; Santiago, J.; Suarez, J. K.; Ladiero, C.; Gonzalo, L. A.; Mungcal, M. T. F.; Malano, V.

    2014-10-01

    A storm surge is the sudden rise of sea water generated by an approaching storm, over and above the astronomical tides. This event imposes a major threat in the Philippine coastal areas, as manifested by Typhoon Haiyan on 8 November 2013 where more than 6000 people lost their lives. It has become evident that the need to develop an early warning system for storm surges is of utmost importance. To provide forecasts of the possible storm surge heights of an approaching typhoon, the Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards under the Department of Science and Technology (DOST-Project NOAH) simulated historical tropical cyclones that entered the Philippine Area of Responsibility. Bathymetric data, storm track, central atmospheric pressure, and maximum wind speed were used as parameters for the Japan Meteorological Agency Storm Surge Model. The researchers calculated the frequency distribution of maximum storm surge heights of all typhoons under a specific Public Storm Warning Signal (PSWS) that passed through a particular coastal area. This determines the storm surge height corresponding to a given probability of occurrence. The storm surge heights from the model were added to the maximum astronomical tide data from WXTide software. The team then created maps of probable area inundation and flood levels of storm surges along coastal areas for a specific PSWS using the results of the frequency distribution. These maps were developed from the time series data of the storm tide at 10 min intervals of all observation points in the Philippines. This information will be beneficial in developing early warnings systems, static maps, disaster mitigation and preparedness plans, vulnerability assessments, risk-sensitive land use plans, shoreline defense efforts, and coastal protection measures. Moreover, these will support the local government units' mandate to raise public awareness, disseminate information about storm surge hazards, and implement appropriate counter

  9. Developing an early warning system for storm surge inundation in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tablazon

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A storm surge is the sudden rise of sea water generated by an approaching storm, over and above the astronomical tides. This event imposes a major threat in the Philippine coastal areas, as manifested by Typhoon Haiyan on 8 November 2013 where more than 6000 people lost their lives. It has become evident that the need to develop an early warning system for storm surges is of utmost importance. To provide forecasts of the possible storm surge heights of an approaching typhoon, the Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards under the Department of Science and Technology (DOST-Project NOAH simulated historical tropical cyclones that entered the Philippine Area of Responsibility. Bathymetric data, storm track, central atmospheric pressure, and maximum wind speed were used as parameters for the Japan Meteorological Agency Storm Surge Model. The researchers calculated the frequency distribution of maximum storm surge heights of all typhoons under a specific Public Storm Warning Signal (PSWS that passed through a particular coastal area. This determines the storm surge height corresponding to a given probability of occurrence. The storm surge heights from the model were added to the maximum astronomical tide data from WXTide software. The team then created maps of probable area inundation and flood levels of storm surges along coastal areas for a specific PSWS using the results of the frequency distribution. These maps were developed from the time series data of the storm tide at 10 min intervals of all observation points in the Philippines. This information will be beneficial in developing early warnings systems, static maps, disaster mitigation and preparedness plans, vulnerability assessments, risk-sensitive land use plans, shoreline defense efforts, and coastal protection measures. Moreover, these will support the local government units' mandate to raise public awareness, disseminate information about storm surge hazards, and implement

  10. 城乡配电线路分段开关的网络化故障预警装置%Design of urban and rural power supply line switch fault warning device based on network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高彩霞; 王福忠; 裴素萍

    2013-01-01

    针对目前城乡10 kV配电线路真空分段开关安装后无法获取开关状态信息、对存在的安全隐患不能及时预警、易发生故障且引发火灾等问题,设计了城乡配电线路分段开关的网络化故障预警装置.侧重介绍了该系统总体方案的确定、主站硬件电路的设计、声波检测电路的设计、线路电流检测电路的设计、断路器分合闸状态检测电路的设计等内容.运行经验表明,该系统不仅可以尽早发现真空分段开关的安全隐患,防止恶性事故的发生,而且还可以在开关发生故障时及时获取故障信息并对其进行检修,有效减少了停电时间,提高了10 kV配电线路的可靠性和安全性.%For the problems that switch state information cannot be obtained after a 10 kV distribution line vacuum section switch is installed between urban and rural areas,the hidden safety problems cannot be timely warned and it is easy to cause faults even fire and other problems.Thusly,the urban and rural power supply line vacuum switch fault warning device based on network is designed,the determination of the whole scheme of a system,hardware design of the master station,the design of detection circuit for supersonic,the design of detection circuit for current,the design of a detection circuit for broken/closed state of a vacuum switch are introduced.Practice indicates:that the system cannot only detect the hidden danger of a vacuum section switch as soon as possible and prevent vicious accidents,but also acquire failure information in time and overhaul them when the switch faults occur.And this reduces the blackouts time effectively and increased the reliability and security of a 10 kV distribution circuit.

  11. A Distributed Architecture for Tsunami Early Warning and Collaborative Decision-support in Crises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moßgraber, J.; Middleton, S.; Hammitzsch, M.; Poslad, S.

    2012-04-01

    The presentation will describe work on the system architecture that is being developed in the EU FP7 project TRIDEC on "Collaborative, Complex and Critical Decision-Support in Evolving Crises". The challenges for a Tsunami Early Warning System (TEWS) are manifold and the success of a system depends crucially on the system's architecture. A modern warning system following a system-of-systems approach has to integrate various components and sub-systems such as different information sources, services and simulation systems. Furthermore, it has to take into account the distributed and collaborative nature of warning systems. In order to create an architecture that supports the whole spectrum of a modern, distributed and collaborative warning system one must deal with multiple challenges. Obviously, one cannot expect to tackle these challenges adequately with a monolithic system or with a single technology. Therefore, a system architecture providing the blueprints to implement the system-of-systems approach has to combine multiple technologies and architectural styles. At the bottom layer it has to reliably integrate a large set of conventional sensors, such as seismic sensors and sensor networks, buoys and tide gauges, and also innovative and unconventional sensors, such as streams of messages from social media services. At the top layer it has to support collaboration on high-level decision processes and facilitates information sharing between organizations. In between, the system has to process all data and integrate information on a semantic level in a timely manner. This complex communication follows an event-driven mechanism allowing events to be published, detected and consumed by various applications within the architecture. Therefore, at the upper layer the event-driven architecture (EDA) aspects are combined with principles of service-oriented architectures (SOA) using standards for communication and data exchange. The most prominent challenges on this layer

  12. Lightning risk warnings based on atmospheric electric field measurements in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio da Silva Ferro*

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology that employs the electrostatic field variations caused by thundercloud formation or displacement to generate lightning warnings over a region of interest in Southeastern Brazil. These warnings can be used to prevent accidents during hazardous operations, such as the manufacturing, loading, and test of motor-rockets. In these cases, certain equipment may be moved into covered facilities and personnel are required to take shelter. It is also possible to avoid the threat of natural and triggered lightning to launches. The atmospheric electric field database, including the summer seasons of 2007/2008 and 2008/2009 (from November to February, and, for the same period and region, the cloud-to-ground lightning data provided by the Brazilian lightning detection network – BrasilDAT – were used in order to perform a comparative analysis between the lightning warnings and the cloud-to- ground lightning strikes that effectively occurred inside the area of concern. The analysis was done for three areas surrounding the sensor installation defined as circles with 5, 10 and 15 km of radius to determine the most effective detection range. For each area it was done using several critical electric field thresholds: +/- 0.5; +/- 0.8; +/- 0.9; +/- 1.0; +/- 1.2; and +/- 1.5 kV/m. As a result of the reduction of atmospheric electric field data provided by the sensor installed in area of concern and lightning provided by BrasilDAT, it was possible, for each of the areas of alert proposals, to obtain the following parameters: the number of effective alarms; the number of false alarms; and the number of failure to warning. From the analysis of these parameters, it was possible to conclude that, apparently, the most interesting critical electric field threshold to be used is the level of 0.9 kV/m in association with a distance range of 10 km around the point where the sensor is installed.

  13. Revolutionizing Technology Prioritizing Emergency Vehicles in Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ramya Sundaram

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The following study brings to the fore a technology exclusively engineered to eradicate the snags and inadequacies persisting in the existing system of traffic control and thus aims to provide a sophisticated operation and uninterrupted course for the emergency vehicles. The traffic in Indian roads has shown a tremendous rise over the years and the conventional pre-timed traffic signals and frequent traffic congestions, delaying the road commuters, have led to outrage and chaos on several occasions. This traffic management system has proved a nuisance for the effective operation of emergency vehicles, with the public adding to the woes, as each driver races along with the signal, unmindful of the emergency vehicles. A life threatening scenario ensues when emergency vehicles get blocked by the traffic, due to inefficient traffic management system and subsequently these emergency vehicles get delayed. The existing system requires manual interruption to guide other vehicles when an emergency vehicle passes through traffic junctions. It is therefore essential to implement a self-regulating and automated system in the traffic signals to facilitate smooth movement of emergency vehicles without posing a danger to other vehicles. The innovative traffic control system devised by us provides a truly dependable alternative to monitoring traffic flow when emergency vehicles pass by.

  14. ongfeng 304 - a rollover warning device principle and experimental analysis%东风304A侧翻预警装置原理与实验分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆存远; 郭腾飞

    2014-01-01

    文章以“东风304A”中小型轮式拖拉机为研究对象,目的:提出研发侧翻预警装置的原理思想。方法:通过计算和实验来获得有效数据和分析图像,通过建模和原理分析确定方案。结论:通过侧翻预警装置的原理思想和实验数据分析来进行侧翻预警装置的研发设计,旨在避免驾驶员经验驾驶造成侧翻事故。%The report take " Dongfeng 304A " small-wheeled tractor as the object of study, the goal: Proposing the principle of designing early warning installation for rollover. We can get available data and analysis image by calcula-tion and experiment, determining a plan by modeling and data analysis. Conclusion: Through the principle and empirical data analysis of early warning equipment, we will make the research and development of early warning installation, for the purpose of avoiding rollover accident caused by expericed driving.

  15. Earthquake Early Warning Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Pei-Yang Lin

    2011-01-01

    Because of Taiwan’s unique geographical environment, earthquake disasters occur frequently in Taiwan. The Central Weather Bureau collated earthquake data from between 1901 and 2006 (Central Weather Bureau, 2007) and found that 97 earthquakes had occurred, of which, 52 resulted in casualties. The 921 Chichi Earthquake had the most profound impact. Because earthquakes have instant destructive power and current scientific technologies cannot provide precise early warnings in advance, earthquake ...

  16. Embedded Tsunami Warning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Ramya

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Today Tsunami is the very wild natural disaster that threatens the mankind. An automated warning system should be designed to measure the pressure variations under the sea. So in the case of anyabnormal rise in the pressure level under the sea, an alarm is produced as well as messages are sent to concerned persons using mobile computing. In this study a proximity capacitive sensor and embedded micro controller is designed to announce the oncoming of Tsunami to the authorized person.

  17. The Construction of Orange Drought Warning Model——A Case Study of Beibei Orangery in Chongqing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of expounding the status quo of China’s orange drought warning model research,according to the real-time monitoring data of Beibei Orangery in Chongqing City from June to August in 2010,by using factor analysis and principal component regression,we construct the drought warning model of Beibei Orangery in Chongqing City,and we conduct test and correction on drought warning model by using MAPE principle of assessment and prediction accuracy and the real-time monitoring data of September.The results show that as for the prediction of orange drought,the model has strong credibility.If we conduct continuous dynamic monitoring on the relevant indices regarding orange drought by virtue of this model,and pay attention to the analysis of variation trend of prediction value,then it will be more practical;the warning effect,to some extent,further indicates that using factor analysis and principal component analysis method to conduct drought warning is rational;as the prediction model is static and linear,so we should perfect model to promote the accuracy and practicality of model.

  18. Early warning of drought in Europe using the monthly ensemble system from ECMWF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lavaysse

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Timely forecasts of the onset or possible evolution of droughts are an important contribution to mitigate their manifold negative effects. In this paper we therefore analyse and compare the performance of the first month of the probabilistic extended range forecast and of the seasonal forecast from ECMWF in predicting droughts over the European continent. The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI is used to quantify the onset and severity of droughts. It can be shown that on average the extended range forecast has greater skill than the seasonal forecast whilst both outperform climatology. No significant spatial or temporal patterns can be observed but the scores are improved when focussing on large-scale droughts. In a second step we then analyse several different methods to convert the probabilistic forecasts of SPI into a Boolean drought warning. It can be demonstrated that methodologies which convert low percentiles of the forecasted SPI cumulative distribution function into warnings are superior in comparison with alternatives such as the mean or the median of the ensemble. The paper demonstrates that up to 40% of droughts are correctly forecasted one month in advance. Nevertheless, during false alarms or misses, we did not find significant differences in the distribution of the ensemble members that would allow for a quantitative assessment of the uncertainty.

  19. Vehicle routing problem in investment fund allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita; Mohd, Ismail

    2013-04-01

    Since its introduction by Dantzig and Ramser in 1959, vehicle routing problem keeps evolving in theories, applications and variability. The evolution in computing and technology are also important contributors to research in solving vehicle routing problem. The main sectors of interests among researchers and practitioners for vehicle routing problem are transportation, distribution and logistics. However, literature found that concept and benefits of vehicle routing problem are not taken advantages of by researchers in the field of investment. Other methods found used in investment include multi-objective programming, linear programming, goal programming and integer programming. Yet the application of vehicle routing problem is not fully explored. A proposal on a framework of the fund allocation optimization using vehicle routing problem is presented here. Preliminary results using FTSE Bursa Malaysia data testing the framework are also given.

  20. A hybrid hydrologically complemented warning model for shallow landslides induced by extreme rainfall in Korean Mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh Pradhan, Ananta Man; Kang, Hyo-Sub; Kim, Yun-Tae

    2016-04-01

    This study uses a physically based approach to evaluate the factor of safety of the hillslope for different hydrological conditions, in Mt Umyeon, south of Seoul. The hydrological conditions were determined using intensity and duration of whole Korea of known landslide inventory data. Quantile regression statistical method was used to ascertain different probability warning levels on the basis of rainfall thresholds. Physically based models are easily interpreted and have high predictive capabilities but rely on spatially explicit and accurate parameterization, which is commonly not possible. Statistical probabilistic methods can include other causative factors which influence the slope stability such as forest, soil and geology, but rely on good landslide inventories of the site. In this study a hybrid approach has described that combines the physically-based landslide susceptibility for different hydrological conditions. A presence-only based maximum entropy model was used to hybrid and analyze relation of landslide with conditioning factors. About 80% of the landslides were listed among the unstable sites identified in the proposed model, thereby presenting its effectiveness and accuracy in determining unstable areas and areas that require evacuation. These cumulative rainfall thresholds provide a valuable reference to guide disaster prevention authorities in the issuance of warning levels with the ability to reduce losses and save lives.

  1. Relative Importance of Different Attributes of Graphic Health Warnings on Tobacco Packages in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giang, Kim Bao; Chung, Le Hong; Minh, Hoang Van; Kien, Vu Duy; Giap, Vu Van; Hinh, Nguyen Duc; Cuong, Nguyen Manh; Manh, Pham Duc; Duc, Ha Anh; Yang, Jui-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Graphic health warnings (GHW) on tobacco packages have proven to be effective in increasing quit attempts among smokers and reducing initial smoking among adolescents. This research aimed to examine the relative importance of different attributes of graphic health warnings on tobacco packages in Viet Nam. A discrete choice experimental (DCE) design was applied with a conditional logit model. In addition, a ranking method was used to list from the least to the most dreadful GHW labels. With the results from DCE model, graphic type was shown to be the most important attribute, followed by cost and coverage area of GHW. The least important attribute was position of the GHW. Among 5 graphic types (internal lung cancer image, external damaged teeth, abstract image, human suffering image and text), the image of lung cancer was found to have the strongest influence on both smokers and non-smokers. With ranking method, the image of throat cancer and heart diseases were considered the most dreadful images. GHWs should be designed with these attributes in mind, to maximise influence on purchase among both smokers and non-smokers.

  2. Relative Importance of Different Attributes of Graphic Health Warnings on Tobacco Packages in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giang, Kim Bao; Chung, Le Hong; Minh, Hoang Van; Kien, Vu Duy; Giap, Vu Van; Hinh, Nguyen Duc; Cuong, Nguyen Manh; Manh, Pham Duc; Duc, Ha Anh; Yang, Jui-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Graphic health warnings (GHW) on tobacco packages have proven to be effective in increasing quit attempts among smokers and reducing initial smoking among adolescents. This research aimed to examine the relative importance of different attributes of graphic health warnings on tobacco packages in Viet Nam. A discrete choice experimental (DCE) design was applied with a conditional logit model. In addition, a ranking method was used to list from the least to the most dreadful GHW labels. With the results from DCE model, graphic type was shown to be the most important attribute, followed by cost and coverage area of GHW. The least important attribute was position of the GHW. Among 5 graphic types (internal lung cancer image, external damaged teeth, abstract image, human suffering image and text), the image of lung cancer was found to have the strongest influence on both smokers and non-smokers. With ranking method, the image of throat cancer and heart diseases were considered the most dreadful images. GHWs should be designed with these attributes in mind, to maximise influence on purchase among both smokers and non-smokers. PMID:27087187

  3. A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH TO AUTHENTICATE SONG SIGNAL WITHOUT DISTORTION OF GRANULARITY OF AUDIBLE INFORMATION (ASSDGAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uttam Kr. Mondal

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The major concern to authenticate an audio signal is restoring its basic audible properties and providing such a way that may not produce any unusual perception to listeners. Therefore, authenticating an audio signal needs to embed as less as minimum security code within tolerable range of perception. In this paper, perceptual encoding has been applied for structuring song signal in a specified manner with less modification of its amplitude values and followed by embedding formatted data in skewed pattern that will use for verifying any type of alternation by comparing its own structural format and systematic structure of song signal with neighbouring sampled values. A comparative study has been made with similar existing techniques and experimental results are also supported with mathematical formula based on Microsoft WAVE (".wav" stereo sound file.

  4. Snow accumulation/melting model (SAMM for integrated use in regional scale landslide early warning systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Martelloni

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We propose a simple snow accumulation/melting model (SAMM to be applied at regional scale in conjunction with landslide warning systems based on empirical rainfall thresholds. SAMM is based on two modules modelling the snow accumulation and the snowmelt processes. Each module is composed by two equations: a conservation of mass equation is solved to model snowpack thickness and an empirical equation for the snow density. The model depends on 13 empirical parameters, whose optimal values were defined with an optimisation algorithm (simplex flexible using calibration measures of snowpack thickness. From an operational point of view, SAMM uses as input data only temperature and rainfall measurements, bringing about the additional benefit of a relatively easy implementation. After performing a cross validation and a comparison with two simpler temperature index models, we simulated an operational employment in a regional scale landslide early warning system (EWS and we found that the EWS forecasting effectiveness was substantially improved when used in conjunction with SAMM.

  5. LIMITS OF SWOT ANALYSIS AND THEIR IMPACT ON DECISIONS IN EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin POPESCU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats analysis is useful in the decision-making process – crucial to any organization manager and/or strategist. This study aims to add value to the existing literature on SWOT, indicating its use and limitations, showing the need to link SWOT to other strategic tools and methodologies. As the current environment is turbulent and unpredictable, and economic cycles no longer comply with traditional rules, the precaution has become extremely important. That’s why SWOT should be supplemented with newer dynamic analysis capabilities and strategy tools, as early warning and opportunities system (EWOS, which can provide crucial inputs for scenario building, strategic thinking and decisions. EWOS is a novel approach based on three concepts that contribute to the ability of organization/project managers to develop outstanding capacity to "understand" and "benefit" in identifying opportunities and threats: (i business and competitive intelligence; (ii early warning thinking; (iii strategic thinking in decision making process. EWOS is of practical use for strategists and decision makers.

  6. Identification of common features of vehicle motion under drowsy/distracted driving: A case study in Wuhan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhijun; Wu, Chaozhong; Zhong, Ming; Lyu, Nengchao; Huang, Zhen

    2015-08-01

    Drowsy/distracted driving has become one of the leading causes of traffic crash. Only certain particular drowsy/distracted driving behaviors have been studied by previous studies, which are mainly based on dedicated sensor devices such as bio and visual sensors. The objective of this study is to extract the common features for identifying drowsy/distracted driving through a set of common vehicle motion parameters. An intelligent vehicle was used to collect vehicle motion parameters. Fifty licensed drivers (37 males and 13 females, M=32.5 years, SD=6.2) were recruited to carry out road experiments in Wuhan, China and collecting vehicle motion data under four driving scenarios including talking, watching roadside, drinking and under the influence of drowsiness. For the first scenario, the drivers were exposed to a set of questions and asked to repeat a few sentences that had been proved valid in inducing driving distraction. Watching roadside, drinking and driving under drowsiness were assessed by an observer and self-reporting from the drivers. The common features of vehicle motions under four types of drowsy/distracted driving were analyzed using descriptive statistics and then Wilcoxon rank sum test. The results indicated that there was a significant difference of lateral acceleration rates and yaw rate acceleration between "normal driving" and drowsy/distracted driving. Study results also shown that, under drowsy/distracted driving, the lateral acceleration rates and yaw rate acceleration were significantly larger from the normal driving. The lateral acceleration rates were shown to suddenly increase or decrease by more than 2.0m/s(3) and the yaw rate acceleration by more than 2.5°/s(2). The standard deviation of acceleration rate (SDA) and standard deviation of yaw rate acceleration (SDY) were identified to as the common features of vehicle motion for distinguishing the drowsy/distracted driving from the normal driving. In order to identify a time window for

  7. Geospatiotemporal Data Mining in an Early Warning System for Forest Threats in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Forrest M [ORNL; Mills, Richard T [ORNL; Kumar, Jitendra [ORNL; Vulli, Srinivasa S [ORNL; HargroveJr., William Walter [United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), United States Forest Service (USFS)

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the potential of geospatiotemporal data mining of multi-year land surface phenology data (250~m Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) in this study) for the conterminous United States as part of an early warning system to identify threats to forest ecosystems. Cluster analysis of this massive data set, using high-performance computing, provides a basis for several possible approaches to defining the bounds of ``normal'' phenological patterns, indicating healthy vegetation in a given geographic location. We demonstrate the applicability of such an approach, using it to identify areas in Colorado, USA, where an ongoing mountain pine beetle outbreak has caused significant tree mortality.

  8. Application of GIS technology in monitoring and warning system for crop diseases and insect pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaofang; Wang, Changwei; Xu, Zhiyong; Hu, Yueming

    2008-10-01

    By researching and analyzing the crop diseases and insect pests, we find the distribution and spread of crop diseases and insect pests have tight touch with the time and space information, which provides a premise of applying geography information system (GIS) and spatial interpolation technology especially. By considering the particularity of spatial interpolation on the plant diseases and insect pests in agriculture, the authors bring forward one new method: multifactors spatial interpolation model. It is made up of many factors, such as spatial orientation relationship, topological relationship, distance relationship and national weather conditions so on. Then, on the basis of building the multi-factors spatial interpolation model, the monitor and warning system of crop diseases and insect pests is constructed by using GIS technology and ArcIMS software. The basic functions, such as map visualization, information query, data input, data management, spatial interpolation, are implemented. What's more, by using the multi-factors spatial interpolation model, the effluence and spread speed of crop diseases and insect pests are showed and the monitoring and early-warning of crop diseases and insect pests is implemented.

  9. Earthquake Early Warning: User Education and Designing Effective Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, E. R.; Sellnow, D. D.; Jones, L.; Sellnow, T. L.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and partners are transitioning from test-user trials of a demonstration earthquake early warning system (ShakeAlert) to deciding and preparing how to implement the release of earthquake early warning information, alert messages, and products to the public and other stakeholders. An earthquake early warning system uses seismic station networks to rapidly gather information about an occurring earthquake and send notifications to user devices ahead of the arrival of potentially damaging ground shaking at their locations. Earthquake early warning alerts can thereby allow time for actions to protect lives and property before arrival of damaging shaking, if users are properly educated on how to use and react to such notifications. A collaboration team of risk communications researchers and earth scientists is researching the effectiveness of a chosen subset of potential earthquake early warning interface designs and messages, which could be displayed on a device such as a smartphone. Preliminary results indicate, for instance, that users prefer alerts that include 1) a map to relate their location to the earthquake and 2) instructions for what to do in response to the expected level of shaking. A number of important factors must be considered to design a message that will promote appropriate self-protective behavior. While users prefer to see a map, how much information can be processed in limited time? Are graphical representations of wavefronts helpful or confusing? The most important factor to promote a helpful response is the predicted earthquake intensity, or how strong the expected shaking will be at the user's location. Unlike Japanese users of early warning, few Californians are familiar with the earthquake intensity scale, so we are exploring how differentiating instructions between intensity levels (e.g., "Be aware" for lower shaking levels and "Drop, cover, hold on" at high levels) can be paired with self-directed supplemental

  10. Firewood preparation devices in 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the market situation regarding firewood preparation devices is presented. The information was collected from the answers to a mail questionnaire. The review is assumed to include all the leading manufacturers and importers. Firewood production devices were available from 26 manufacturers. The range of models amounted to over 70. These may be divided into three categories: 1. cutting devices: the most common solution being a cross-cutting circular saw. There were only a few of these on sale as it is quite easy to include a splitting device on the same frame. 2. Splitting devices: e.g. screw splitter and hydraulically powered splitter. About 20 models are available on the markets. Cross cutting and splitting devices: these are the most popular devices. A cross-cutting circular saw with screw or hydraulic splitter is the most common type. There are about 50 models available on the markets. Cross-cutting and splitting devices are often equipped with conveyor for transferring the split wood e.g. into a trailer. Chopping devices are delivered as tractor powered devices, as electric motor powered devices or as combustion engine powered devices. Some of them are equipped with a time saving feeding device enabling the next stem to be lifted into position while the previous one is being chopped. The Finnish Work Efficiency Institute's studies show that when cross-cutting and splitting of stems into pieces of 35-50 cm in length, productivity for one operator varies in between 0.8 - 3.2 m3/h, depending on the device and work method used. (6 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.)

  11. DeviceNet-based device-level control in SSRF

    CERN Document Server

    Leng Yong Bin; Lu Cheng Meng; Miao Hai Feng; Liu Song Qiang; Shen Guo Bao

    2002-01-01

    The control system of Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility is an EPICS-based distributed system. One of the key techniques to construct the system is the device-level control. The author describes the design and implementation of the DeviceNet-based device controller. A prototype of the device controller was tested in the experiments of magnet power supply and the result showed a precision of 3 x 10 sup - sup 5

  12. The challenge of installing a tsunami early warning system in the vicinity of the Sunda Arc, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lauterjung

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is located along the most prominent active continental margin in the Indian Ocean, the so-called Sunda Arc and, therefore, is one of the most threatened regions of the world in terms of natural hazards such as earthquakes, volcanoes, and tsunamis. On 26 December 2004 the third largest earthquake ever instrumentally recorded (magnitude 9.3, Stein and Okal, 2005 occurred off-shore northern Sumatra and triggered a mega-tsunami affecting the whole Indian Ocean. Almost a quarter of a million people were killed, as the region was not prepared either in terms of early-warning or in terms of disaster response.

    In order to be able to provide, in future, a fast and reliable warning procedure for the population, Germany, immediately after the catastrophe, offered during the UN World Conference on Disaster Reduction in Kobe, Hyogo/Japan in January 2005 technical support for the development and installation of a tsunami early warning system for the Indian Ocean in addition to assistance in capacity building in particular for local communities. This offer was accepted by Indonesia but also by other countries like Sri Lanka, the Maldives and some East-African countries. Anyhow the main focus of our activities has been carried out in Indonesia as the main source of tsunami threat for the entire Indian Ocean. Challenging for the technical concept of this warning system are the extremely short warning times for Indonesia, due to its vicinity to the Sunda Arc. For this reason the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS integrates different modern and new scientific monitoring technologies and analysis methods.

  13. Early warnings of the potential for malaria transmission in Rural Africa using the Hydrology, Entomology and Malaria Transmission Simulator (HYDREMATS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamana, T. K.; Eltahir, E. A.

    2010-12-01

    Early warnings of malaria transmission allow health officials to better prepare for future epidemics. Monitoring rainfall is recognized as an important part of malaria early warning systems, as outlined by the Roll Back Malaria Initiative. The Hydrology, Entomology and Malaria Simulator (HYDREMATS) is a mechanistic model that relates rainfall to malaria transmission, and could be used to provide early warnings of malaria epidemics. HYDREMATS is used to make predictions of mosquito populations and vectorial capacity for 2005, 2006, and 2007 in Banizoumbou village in western Niger. HYDREMATS is forced by observed rainfall, followed by a rainfall prediction based on the seasonal mean rainfall for a period two or four weeks into the future. Predictions made using this method provided reasonable estimates of mosquito populations and vectorial capacity, two to four weeks in advance. The predictions were significantly improved compared to those made when HYDREMATS was forced with seasonal mean rainfall alone.

  14. Space Vehicle Reliability Modeling in DIORAMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tornga, Shawn Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-12

    When modeling system performance of space based detection systems it is important to consider spacecraft reliability. As space vehicles age the components become prone to failure for a variety of reasons such as radiation damage. Additionally, some vehicles may lose the ability to maneuver once they exhaust fuel supplies. Typically failure is divided into two categories: engineering mistakes and technology surprise. This document will report on a method of simulating space vehicle reliability in the DIORAMA framework.

  15. Preliminary evaluation of wheelchair occupant restraint system usage in motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Roosmalen, Linda; Bertocci, Gina E; Hobson, Douglas A; Karg, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    Individuals using wheeled mobility devices (WMDs) often use them as motor vehicle seats during transportation. Wheelchair occupant restraint systems (WORSs), consisting of upper torso and pelvic restraints, are usually mounted to the structure of transit vehicles to secure individuals within their wheelchair seats. This preliminary study attempts to evaluate the use and satisfaction of currently installed vehicle-mounted WORSs for individuals using WMD as seats in motor vehicles. A survey was conducted among 33 adults who use their WMD to travel in motor vehicles. Results from the survey showed that upper torso and pelvic restraints installed in private vehicles are quick, comfortable, and easy to use. However, WORS installed in mass transit and paratransit are often uncomfortable to wear, difficult to reach, and time-consuming to use. This preliminary study documents the growing need for developing alternative WORS that are safe, comfortable, and that allow independent usage for wheelchair occupants while traveling in a motor vehicle.

  16. Modeling vehicle emissions in different types of Chinese cities: Importance of vehicle fleet and local features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a method to simulate vehicle emissions in Chinese cities of different sizes and development stages. Twenty two cities are examined in this study. The target year is 2007. Among the cities, the vehicle emission factors were remarkably different (the highest is 50-90% higher than the lowest) owing to their distinct local features and vehicle technology levels, and the major contributors to total vehicle emissions were also different. A substantial increase in vehicle emissions is foreseeable unless stronger measures are implemented because the benefit of current policies can be quickly offset by the vehicle growth. Major efforts should be focused on all cities, especially developing cities where the requirements are lenient. This work aims a better understanding of vehicle emissions in all types of Chinese cities. The proposed method could benefit national emission inventory studies in improving accuracy and help in designing national and local policies for vehicle emission control. - Highlights: → We examine vehicle emissions in 22 Chinese cities of different types and locations. → Vehicle emission factors of the cities differ by 50-90% due to distinct local features. → Each vehicle type contributes differently to total emissions among the cities. → A substantial increase in vehicle emissions in most Chinese cities is foreseeable. → City-specific fleet and local features are important in research and policy making. - Vehicle emission characteristics of Chinese cities are remarkably different, and local features need to be taken into account in vehicle emission studies and control strategy.

  17. An overview of the applications for early warning and mapping of the flood events in New Brunswick

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mioc, Darka; McGillivray, E.; Anton, F.;

    2014-01-01

    , quantified and displayed on digital maps allowing decision makers and the general population to comprehend and visualize the possible area and impact of the flooding. The WebGIS applications that are available from the “River Watch” web site provide snow reports and maps, flood warnings and interactive maps......This paper gives an overview of the on-line flood warning implementation in the province of New Brunswick, Canada. The on-line flood warning applications are available via the “River Watch” website provided by the New Brunswick Department of Environment. Advanced GIS technology combined...... with hydrological modelling, provide a mapping and visualization tool that can be used by emergency managers and the general public to predict possible flood zones. The applications developed for “River Watch” support the processing of large amounts of digital terrain and hydrological data, which are then...

  18. The Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) and Emergency Data Exchange Language (EDXL) - Application in Early Warning Systems for Natural Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendholt, Matthias; Hammitzsch, Martin; Wächter, Joachim

    2010-05-01

    The Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) [1] is an XML-based data format for exchanging public warnings and emergencies between alerting technologies. In conjunction with the Emergency Data Exchange Language (EDXL) Distribution Element (-DE) [2] these data formats can be used for warning message dissemination in early warning systems for natural hazards. Application took place in the DEWS (Distance Early Warning System) [3] project where CAP serves as central message format containing both human readable warnings and structured data for automatic processing by message receivers. In particular the spatial reference capabilities are of paramount importance both in CAP and EDXL. Affected areas are addressable via geo codes like HASC (Hierarchical Administrative Subdivision Codes) [4] or UN/LOCODE [5] but also with arbitrary polygons that can be directly generated out of GML [6]. For each affected area standardized criticality values (urgency, severity and certainty) have to be set but also application specific key-value-pairs like estimated time of arrival or maximum inundation height can be specified. This enables - together with multilingualism, message aggregation and message conversion for different dissemination channels - the generation of user-specific tailored warning messages. [1] CAP, http://www.oasis-emergency.org/cap [2] EDXL-DE, http://docs.oasis-open.org/emergency/edxl-de/v1.0/EDXL-DE_Spec_v1.0.pdf [3] DEWS, http://www.dews-online.org [4] HASC, "Administrative Subdivisions of Countries: A Comprehensive World Reference, 1900 Through 1998" ISBN 0-7864-0729-8 [5] UN/LOCODE, http://www.unece.org/cefact/codesfortrade/codes_index.htm [6] GML, http://www.opengeospatial.org/standards/gml

  19. Internal combustion engines in hybrid vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourad, S.; Weijer, C.J.T. van de; Beckman, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the use of internal combustion engines in hybrid powertrains is investigated. The substantial difference between the use of internal combustion engines in conventional and in hybrid vehicles mean that engines for hybrid vehicles should be designed specifically for the purpose. At the T

  20. Finite Fault Modeling in Near-Real Time for Tsunami Warning Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, S. A.; Lundgren, P.

    2004-12-01

    The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) provides notification to its clients in the Pacific basin of large earthquakes with an assessment of their potential for tsunamigenesis. It is our goal to issue our message products as soon as possible after the detection of a Pacific basin earthquake. Typically, our first official messages are issued within 15 minutes of an earthquake. The Achilles heel of the warning system has been its inability to predict the size of the waves when they arrive on shore. Due to taking a conservative posture, this has resulted in false evacuations. The tsunami modeling community has developed tools that give the tsunami warning system a nascent ability to forecast wave heights. This study is a step towards using a more realistic source, rather than rule of thumb source prescriptions based on Mw, which may be inadequate for complex events resulting in modeling errors in the near and regional fields. We are experimenting with computing slip distributions in near real time in an effort to provide a more realistic source for the purpose of tsunami modeling. The PTWC currently receives broadband data from as many as 100 stations at any given time. Hence we are well situated to do the fault modeling in near real time. The procedure requires a fault plane solution. We use a variant of the method used by Mendoza (SRL, Vol. 67, 19-26, 1996) to perform the inversion. Tests on synthetic earthquakes illustrate the limitations and parameter trade-offs inherent to bodywave inverse solutions. We have so far applied this technique to the Mw 8.4 2001 Peru earthquake and have obtained results that are broadly consistent with those found by previous studies Giovanni et al., ( GRL, Vol. 29, 14-1 - 14-4, 2002), Bilek and Ruff (GRL Vol. 29, 21-1 - 21-4, 2002) and Kikuchi ( wwweic.eri.u-tokyo.ac.jp/EIC/EIC_News/105E.html ). The resulting source time function as found by other studies is primarily bimodal, with one peak occurring at 15 sec, and a much larger

  1. r.massmov: a GRASS GIS module for landslide runout assessment in early warning monitoring systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannata, Massimiliano; Molinari, Monia; Meisina, Claudia

    2013-04-01

    In the last decades, early warning systems have become a precious support in hazard management by helping in reducing the possible damages caused by natural and anthropic hazards. Furthermore, in the last years, thanks to the rapid advances in science and technology a new concept of innovative early warning systems has been developed taking advantage of the decreasing costs of sensors and the wide diffusion and coverage of internet services (WFS, WMS, WPS, SOS, etc.). In this concept, simulation models can play an important role: in fact, by allowing the objective assessment of the location and intensity of a possible disaster, they can provide valuable information to support decision makers in taking timely and appropriate disaster responses. r.massmov is a new GRASS GIS module for landslide runout simulation over complex topographies developed to meet the expectation of innovative early warning systems modeling services, identified by the authors through four key requirements: i) low simulation times, ii) geospatial capabilities, iii) three-dimensional analysis and iv) open source approach. The model, based on the combined use of shallow water equations and rheological formulas, is the result of a series of enhancements to the original Massmov2D code (Begueria et al. 2009) to significantly improve algorithms and computational times. With this work the authors want to illustrate the main characteristics of r.massmov model: the governing equations, the input/output data, the algorithms and the results of the model application on a case study located in Tessin (Switzerland) that highlighted the effectiveness of the changes performed to the original code in terms of time performances. Furthermore, the authors want to present a set of GRASS GIS specific tools for r.massmov (r.massmov.sensitivity, r.massmov.calibration, r.ucode), developed to systematize and simplify model sensitivity analysis and calibration procedures. References: Begueria S, Van Asch T W J, Malet J

  2. Stroke awareness in the general population: knowledge of stroke risk factors and warning signs in older adults.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hickey, Anne

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stroke is a leading cause of death and functional impairment. While older people are particularly vulnerable to stroke, research suggests that they have the poorest awareness of stroke warning signs and risk factors. This study examined knowledge of stroke warning signs and risk factors among community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: Randomly selected community-dwelling older people (aged 65+) in Ireland (n = 2,033; 68% response rate). Participants completed home interviews. Questions assessed knowledge of stroke warning signs and risk factors, and personal risk factors for stroke. RESULTS: Of the overall sample, 6% had previously experienced a stroke or transient ischaemic attack. When asked to identify stroke risk factors from a provided list, less than half of the overall sample identified established risk factors (e.g., smoking, hypercholesterolaemia), hypertension being the only exception (identified by 74%). Similarly, less than half identified established warning signs (e.g., weakness, headache), with slurred speech (54%) as the exception. Overall, there were considerable gaps in awareness with poorest levels evident in those with primary level education only and in those living in Northern Ireland (compared with Republic of Ireland). CONCLUSION: Knowledge deficits in this study suggest that most of the common early symptoms or signs of stroke were recognized as such by less than half of the older adults surveyed. As such, many older adults may not recognise early symptoms of stroke in themselves or others. Thus, they may lose vital time in presenting for medical attention. Lack of public awareness about stroke warning signs and risk factors must be addressed as one important contribution to reducing mortality and morbidity from stroke.

  3. Stroke awareness in the general population: knowledge of stroke risk factors and warning signs in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley Emer

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stroke is a leading cause of death and functional impairment. While older people are particularly vulnerable to stroke, research suggests that they have the poorest awareness of stroke warning signs and risk factors. This study examined knowledge of stroke warning signs and risk factors among community-dwelling older adults. Methods Randomly selected community-dwelling older people (aged 65+ in Ireland (n = 2,033; 68% response rate. Participants completed home interviews. Questions assessed knowledge of stroke warning signs and risk factors, and personal risk factors for stroke. Results Of the overall sample, 6% had previously experienced a stroke or transient ischaemic attack. When asked to identify stroke risk factors from a provided list, less than half of the overall sample identified established risk factors (e.g., smoking, hypercholesterolaemia, hypertension being the only exception (identified by 74%. Similarly, less than half identified established warning signs (e.g., weakness, headache, with slurred speech (54% as the exception. Overall, there were considerable gaps in awareness with poorest levels evident in those with primary level education only and in those living in Northern Ireland (compared with Republic of Ireland. Conclusion Knowledge deficits in this study suggest that most of the common early symptoms or signs of stroke were recognized as such by less than half of the older adults surveyed. As such, many older adults may not recognise early symptoms of stroke in themselves or others. Thus, they may lose vital time in presenting for medical attention. Lack of public awareness about stroke warning signs and risk factors must be addressed as one important contribution to reducing mortality and morbidity from stroke.

  4. Emergency department syndromic surveillance providing early warning of seasonal respiratory activity in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, H E; Morbey, R; Hughes, T C; Locker, T E; Pebody, R; Green, H K; Ellis, J; Smith, G E; Elliot, A J

    2016-04-01

    Seasonal respiratory infections place an increased burden on health services annually. We used a sentinel emergency department syndromic surveillance system to understand the factors driving respiratory attendances at emergency departments (EDs) in England. Trends in different respiratory indicators were observed to peak at different points during winter, with further variation observed in the distribution of attendances by age. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed acute respiratory infection and bronchitis/bronchiolitis ED attendances in patients aged 1-4 years were particularly sensitive indicators for increasing respiratory syncytial virus activity. Using near real-time surveillance of respiratory ED attendances may provide early warning of increased winter pressures in EDs, particularly driven by seasonal pathogens. This surveillance may provide additional intelligence about different categories of attendance, highlighting pressures in particular age groups, thereby aiding planning and preparation to respond to acute changes in EDs, and thus the health service in general. PMID:26415918

  5. Improving power grid transient stability by plug-in electric vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Gajduk, A.; Todorovski, M.; Kurths, J.; L. Kocarev

    2014-01-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) can serve in discharge mode as distributed energy and power resources operating as vehicle-to-grid (V2G) devices and in charge mode as loads or grid-to-vehicle (G2V) devices. It has been documented that PEVs serving as V2G systems can offer possible backup for renewable power sources, can provide reactive power support, active power regulation, load balancing, peak load shaving,% and current harmonic filtering, can provide ancillary services as frequency contr...

  6. Early Warning System in ASEAN Countries Using Capital Market Index Return: Modified Markov Regime Switching Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Wahyudi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Asia's inancial crisis in July 1997 affects currency, capital market, and real market throughout Asian countries. Countries in southeast region (ASEAN, including Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand, are some of the countries where the crisis hit the most. In these countries, where inancial sectors are far more developed than real sectors and the money market sectors, most of the economic activities are conducted in capital market. Movement in the capital market could be a proxy to describe the overall economic situation and therefore the prediction of it could be an early warning system of economic crises. This paper tries to investigate movement in ASEAN (Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand capital market to build an early warning system from inancial sectors perspective. This paper will be very beneicial for the government to anticipate the forthcoming crisis. The insight of this paper is from Hamilton (1990 model of regime switching process in which he divide the movement of currency into two regimes, describe the switching transition based on Markov process and creates different model for each regimes. Differ from Hamilton, our research focuses on index return instead of currency to model the regime switching. This research aimed to ind the probability of crisis in the future by combining the probability of switching and the probability distribution function of each regime. Probability of switching is estimated by categorizing the movement in index return into two regimes (negative return in regime 1 and positive return in regime 2 then measuring the proportion of switching to regime 1 in t given regime 1 in t-1 (P11 and to regime 2 in t given regime 2 in t-1 (P22. The probability distribution function of each regime is modeled using t-student distribution. This paper is able to give signal of the 1997/8 crisis few periods prior the crisis.

  7. Manaus city Flow Warning system and extreme events monitoring in the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A. L. M. R.; Oliveira, D.; Oliveira, M. A.; Moreira, D.; Maciel, J. S. C.

    2012-04-01

    The Amazon basin is the biggest watershed in the world, in the center of this basin, there is a city called Manaus, with population next to 2 million habitants. Manaus city is bounded by Negro River; one of the main rivers in Amazon, this river has its level checked by Fluvial Station in the Manaus harbor, which has a range of 100 years of hydrological data records. The hydrological cycle in the region next to Manaus has certain regularity, its common variety is considered of 7 months of rising river, in other words, the fluvial quotes rising and 5 months of falling (ebb). Although, the water level variation in Manaus Harbor, from its draft to flow can achieve the variation up to 16 meters of water level height, this difference can affect all the Amazon region, happening impacts such as the interference of regional agriculture and fluvial transportation, besides the economic activities in the harbor and local population welfare, arising from extreme events. Considering the relevance of prediction and accompanying of flows and drafts, the Geologic Survey of Brazil implemented, since 1989, a warning system to these extreme events. This paper focused to demonstrate the a warning system implemented from equations based on the Manaus Harbor quotes, since Negro River has a regular hydrological cycle, thus, it is possible to predict the highest quotes in the hydrological year, in advance till 75 days with accurate prediction, in a gap of 45 to 15 days before the flow. This paper presents, also, the biggest events occurred in a hundred years of records collected by Manaus Harbor, as example, the draft happened in December 2010 and the flow in June 2009, as well demonstrating the values and impacts in the Amazon region.

  8. Toward tsunami early warning system in Indonesia by using rapid rupture durations estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madlazim [Physics Department, Faculty Mathematics and Sciences of Surabaya State University (UNESA) Jl. Ketintang, Surabaya 60231 (Indonesia)

    2012-06-20

    Indonesia has Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (Ina-TEWS) since 2008. The Ina-TEWS has used automatic processing on hypocenter; Mwp, Mw (mB) and Mj. If earthquake occurred in Ocean, depth < 70 km and magnitude > 7, then Ina-TEWS announce early warning that the earthquake can generate tsunami. However, the announcement of the Ina-TEWS is still not accuracy. Purposes of this research are to estimate earthquake rupture duration of large Indonesia earthquakes that occurred in Indian Ocean, Java, Timor sea, Banda sea, Arafura sea and Pasific ocean. We analyzed at least 330 vertical seismogram recorded by IRIS-DMC network using a direct procedure for rapid assessment of earthquake tsunami potential using simple measures on P-wave vertical seismograms on the velocity records, and the likelihood that the high-frequency, apparent rupture duration, T{sub dur}. T{sub dur} can be related to the critical parameters rupture length (L), depth (z), and shear modulus ({mu}) while T{sub dur} may be related to wide (W), slip (D), z or {mu}. Our analysis shows that the rupture duration has a stronger influence to generate tsunami than Mw and depth. The rupture duration gives more information on tsunami impact, Mo/{mu}, depth and size than Mw and other currently used discriminants. We show more information which known from the rupture durations. The longer rupture duration, the shallower source of the earthquake. For rupture duration greater than 50 s, the depth less than 50 km, Mw greater than 7, the longer rupture length, because T{sub dur} is proportional L and greater Mo/{mu}. Because Mo/{mu} is proportional L. So, with rupture duration information can be known information of the four parameters. We also suggest that tsunami potential is not directly related to the faulting type of source and for events that have rupture duration greater than 50 s, the earthquakes generated tsunami. With available real-time seismogram data, rapid calculation, rupture duration discriminant

  9. Early warning research on salt-alkalization desertification in western Songnen Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Desertification is an environmental issue in the world. The salt-alkalization desertification land area formed by both primary and secondary salt-alkalization has extended in a large scale, which has become a significant eco-environmental problem. Based on the characteristics of eco-environment and the situation ofdesertification in western Songnen plain, this paper reports the analyzes of its formation in background and cause. An early warning system on the salt-alkalization desertification is established and the GIS technology is used to abstract the information of desertification evaluation index. Supported by the integrated technology of the GIS and ANN, the orientation and quantitative result of desertification are gained, which is helpful to the eco-environment protection and resource development in western Songnen Plain.

  10. A Paradox of Power: Voices of Warning and Reason in the Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Douglas

    As a culture, we are faced with a series of increasingly complex environmental problems. As geoscientists, we are often asked to assume the role of technical experts to provide guidance or solutions to these difficult dilemmas. Unfortunately, the political, social, economic, and judicial aspects of environmental management often require geoscientists to advocate choices or provide definitive answers that are in conflict with our training as never-ending hypothesis testers and unbiased observers of nature.A Paradox of Power: Voices of Warning and Reason in the Geosciences addresses this topic by providing a collection of works that highlights various discrepancies between standard scientific procedures and the public decision-making process. The book presents a range of views and examples that provides geoscientists with a background on the issues surrounding the use of their expertise and analyses in typical law and policy decisions.

  11. Can pictorial warning labels on cigarette packages address smoking-related health disparities?: Field experiments in Mexico to assess warning label content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, James F.; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Villalobos, Victor; Pérez-Hernández, Rosaura; Hammond, David; Carter, Jarvis; Sebrié, Ernesto; Sansores, Raul; Regalado-Piñeda, Justino

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to determine the most effective content of pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) and whether educational attainment moderates these effects. Methods Field experiments were conducted with 529 adult smokers and 530 young adults (258 nonsmokers; 271 smokers), wherein participants reported responses to different HWLs printed on cigarette packages. One experiment involved manipulating textual form (testimonial narrative vs didactic) and the other involved manipulating imagery type (diseased organs vs human suffering). Results Tests of mean ratings and rankings indicated that HWLs with didactic textual forms had equivalent or significantly higher credibility, relevance, and impact than HWLs with testimonial forms. Results from mixed-effects models confirmed these results. However, responses differed by participant educational attainment: didactic forms were consistently rated higher than testimonials among participants with higher education, whereas the difference between didactic and testimonial narrative forms was weaker or not statistically significant among participants with lower education. In the second experiment, with textual content held constant, greater credibility, relevance and impact was found for graphic imagery of diseased organs than imagery of human suffering. Conclusions Pictorial HWLs with didactic textual forms appear to work better than with testimonial narratives. Future research should determine which pictorial HWL content has the greatest real-world impact among consumers from disadvantaged groups, including assessment of how HWL content should change to maintain its impact as tobacco control environments strengthen and consumer awareness of smoking-related risks increases. PMID:22350859

  12. Pilot system on extreme climate monitoring and early warning for long range forecast in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, K.; Park, B. K.; E-hyung, P.; Gong, Y.; Kim, H. K.; Park, S.; Min, S. K.; Yoo, H. D.

    2015-12-01

    Recently, extreme weather/climate events such as heat waves, flooding/droughts etc. have been increasing in frequency and intensity under climate change over the world. Also, they can have substantial impacts on ecosystem and human society (agriculture, health, and economy) of the affected regions. According to future projections of climate, extreme weather and climate events in Korea are expected to occure more frequently with stronger intensity over the 21st century. For the better long range forecast, it is also fundamentally ruquired to develop a supporting system in terms of extreme weather and climate events including forequency and trend. In this context, the KMA (Korea Meteorological Administration) has recently initiated a development of the extreme climate monintoring and early warning system for long range forecast, which consists of three sub-system components; (1) Real-time climate monitoring system, (2) Ensemble prediction system, and (3) Mechanism analysis and display system for climate extremes. As a first step, a pilot system has been designed focusing on temperature extremes such heat waves and cold snaps using daily, monthly and seasonal observations and model prediction output on the global, regional and national levels. In parallel, the skills of the KMA long range prediction system are being evaluated comprehensively for weather and climate extremes, for which varous case studies are conducted to better understand the observed variations of extrem climates and responsible mechanisms and also to assess predictability of the ensemble prediction system for extremes. Details in the KMA extreme climate monitoring and early warning system will be intorduced and some preliminary results will be discussed for heat/cold waves in Korea.

  13. Fluctuations in quantum devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.Haken

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Logical gates can be formalized by Boolean algebra whose elementary operations can be realized by devices that employ the interactions of macroscopic numbers of elementary excitations such as electrons, holes, photons etc. With increasing miniaturization to the nano scale and below, quantum fluctuations become important and can no longer be ignored. Based on Heisenberg equations of motion for the creation and annihilation operators of elementary excitations, I determine the noise sources of composite quantum systems.

  14. Fluctuations in quantum devices

    OpenAIRE

    Haken, H.

    2004-01-01

    Logical gates can be formalized by Boolean algebra whose elementary operations can be realized by devices that employ the interactions of macroscopic numbers of elementary excitations such as electrons, holes, photons etc. With increasing miniaturization to the nano scale and below, quantum fluctuations become important and can no longer be ignored. Based on Heisenberg equations of motion for the creation and annihilation operators of elementary excitations, I determine the noise sources of c...

  15. Spintronics in nanoscale devices

    CERN Document Server

    Hedin, Eric R

    2013-01-01

    By exploiting the novel properties of quantum dots and nanoscale Aharonov-Bohm rings together with the electronic and magnetic properties of various semiconductor materials and graphene, researchers have conducted numerous theoretical and computational modeling studies and experimental tests that show promising behavior for spintronics applications. Spin polarization and spin-filtering capabilities and the ability to manipulate the electron spin state through external magnetic or electric fields have demonstrated the promise of workable nanoscale devices for computing and memory applications.

  16. Violating confidentiality to warn of a risk of HIV infection: ethical work in progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, B

    1991-12-01

    The old literature on whether medical confidentiality may be breached to warn a spouse of a risk of contracting syphilis from his/her partner - a deep and rich literature - has become relevant once again in the context of HIV infection and AIDS. This paper examines the reasoning and method employed in: the Catholic approach centered around the patient's (property) right to the secret; a (generic) model of justice, utilizing minimal principles of non-aggression and restitution; and an approach involving the elimination of unstable alternatives: the view that public health officials, but not the spouse, may/must be notified; and, that maintaining that the physician is at liberty to disclose but is not obliged to do so. The theory and method behind confidentiality turns out to be deeper than you might have anticipated.

  17. Mixing in a Microfluid Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Deryabin, Mikhail

    Mixing of fluids in microchannels cannot rely on turbulence since the flow takes place at extremly low Reynolds numbers. Various active and passive devices have been developed to induce mixing in microfluid flow devices. We describe here a model of an active mixer where a transverse periodic flow...

  18. Emissions from light and medium goods vehicles in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1996-01-01

    The article analyses atmospheric pollution of light goods vehicles (i.e. freight vehicles lighter than 6 tonnes) and medium goods vehicles (i.e. 6-24 t delivery trucks) in Denmark, and evaluated the scope for emission reductions. Light goods vehicles are very inefficient vehicles, and moreover have...... inappropriate utilisation patterns, while medium goods vehicles, in comparison, are more efficient with regard to both construction and utilisation. An emission inventory of these vehicles is produced, covering fuel consumption and a range of emissions, and including heavy goods vehicles (i.e. vehicles over 24...

  19. FloodNet: Coupling Adaptive Sampling with Energy Aware Routing in a Flood Warning System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Zhou; David De Roure

    2007-01-01

    We describe the design of FloodNet, a flood warning system, which uses a grid-based flood predictor model developed by environmental experts to make flood predictions based on readings of water level collected by a set of sensor nodes.To optimize battery consumption, the reporting frequency of sensor nodes is required to be adaptive to local conditions as well as the flood predictor model.We therefore propose an energy aware routing protocol which allows sensor nodes to consume energy according to this need.This system is notable both for the adaptive sampling regime and the methodology adopted in the design of the adaptive behavior, which involved development of simulation tools and very close collaboration with environmental experts.

  20. Flow control using audio tones in resonant microfluidic networks: towards cell-phone controlled lab-on-a-chip devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Reid H; Jain, Rahil; Browning, Yoni; Shah, Rachana; Kauffman, Peter; Dinh, Doan; Lutz, Barry R

    2016-08-16

    Fluid control remains a challenge in development of portable lab-on-a-chip devices. Here, we show that microfluidic networks driven by single-frequency audio tones create resonant oscillating flow that is predicted by equivalent electrical circuit models. We fabricated microfluidic devices with fluidic resistors (R), inductors (L), and capacitors (C) to create RLC networks with band-pass resonance in the audible frequency range available on portable audio devices. Microfluidic devices were fabricated from laser-cut adhesive plastic, and a "buzzer" was glued to a diaphragm (capacitor) to integrate the actuator on the device. The AC flowrate magnitude was measured by imaging oscillation of bead tracers to allow direct comparison to the RLC circuit model across the frequency range. We present a systematic build-up from single-channel systems to multi-channel (3-channel) networks, and show that RLC circuit models predict complex frequency-dependent interactions within multi-channel networks. Finally, we show that adding flow rectifying valves to the network creates pumps that can be driven by amplified and non-amplified audio tones from common audio devices (iPod and iPhone). This work shows that RLC circuit models predict resonant flow responses in multi-channel fluidic networks as a step towards microfluidic devices controlled by audio tones. PMID:27416111

  1. Flow control using audio tones in resonant microfluidic networks: towards cell-phone controlled lab-on-a-chip devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Reid H; Jain, Rahil; Browning, Yoni; Shah, Rachana; Kauffman, Peter; Dinh, Doan; Lutz, Barry R

    2016-08-16

    Fluid control remains a challenge in development of portable lab-on-a-chip devices. Here, we show that microfluidic networks driven by single-frequency audio tones create resonant oscillating flow that is predicted by equivalent electrical circuit models. We fabricated microfluidic devices with fluidic resistors (R), inductors (L), and capacitors (C) to create RLC networks with band-pass resonance in the audible frequency range available on portable audio devices. Microfluidic devices were fabricated from laser-cut adhesive plastic, and a "buzzer" was glued to a diaphragm (capacitor) to integrate the actuator on the device. The AC flowrate magnitude was measured by imaging oscillation of bead tracers to allow direct comparison to the RLC circuit model across the frequency range. We present a systematic build-up from single-channel systems to multi-channel (3-channel) networks, and show that RLC circuit models predict complex frequency-dependent interactions within multi-channel networks. Finally, we show that adding flow rectifying valves to the network creates pumps that can be driven by amplified and non-amplified audio tones from common audio devices (iPod and iPhone). This work shows that RLC circuit models predict resonant flow responses in multi-channel fluidic networks as a step towards microfluidic devices controlled by audio tones.

  2. Study on anti-slip decisions of the stopped vehicle in wind area station and improved design for the anti-slip device%风区车站停留车辆防溜决策探讨及防溜设备改进设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓兴贵; 梁习锋; 鲁寨军; 李靖南

    2011-01-01

    Strong wind and railway electrification has made the anti - slip of standing vehicles in the wind field one of the most important issues to be solved in Xingjiang. This paper analysised the source of the slip force of the standing vehicles in the wind field and structured the analysis chart of the standing vehicles' runaway resistance, designed a new kind of anti - slip device( a pair of iron shoes which can bear a force of 176.4 kN with its stoppers and nut hand brakes). According to the wind - force produced by different levels of strong wind, the runaway resistance needed to prevent the running is calculated. Making anti - slip decisions. For example, the anti - slip decisions for a train with 50 empty freight vehicles is as the following: On the condition of 7 to 9 level and below wind - force, the vehicle mainly depends on the hand brakes to prevent slip. When it reaches 10 to 11 level ,a pair of iron shoes and stoppers are needed to be placed against the direction of the wind under the wheel of the first vehicles and 2 hand brakes are needed to be tightened besides the above measures. As to 12 to 17 level, 4,8,12,18,24,31 hand brakes are needed to be tightened besides the above measures. By using finite element analysis software ANSYS, the strength of iron shoes, stoppers and the hand brake is analyzed. Besides, affluent parts of the structural strength are adjusted and weaknesses are improved to increase the reliability of the anti - slip device. The above - mentioned anti - slip measures and new kind of devices are used to prevent the running of standing vehicles effectively, as the result of which the working efficiency is improved.%强大的风力和铁路电气化改造,使新疆风区停站车辆的防溜成了亟待解决问题.分析了车辆溜逸力的来源,构建了车辆溜逸阻力分析图,改进了防溜设备(一对能承受176.4 kN力的铁鞋及其止动器和左右螺母式手制动机),根据来袭大风风力,计算出防溜逸阻力需

  3. Estimation of flood warning runoff thresholds in ungauged basins with asymmetric error functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Toth

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In many real-world flood forecasting systems, the runoff thresholds for activating warnings or mitigation measures correspond to the flow peaks with a given return period (often the 2-year one, that may be associated with the bankfull discharge. At locations where the historical streamflow records are absent or very limited, the threshold can be estimated with regionally-derived empirical relationships between catchment descriptors and the desired flood quantile. Whatever is the function form, such models are generally parameterised by minimising the mean square error, that assigns equal importance to overprediction or underprediction errors. Considering that the consequences of an overestimated warning threshold (leading to the risk of missing alarms generally have a much lower level of acceptance than those of an underestimated threshold (leading to the issuance of false alarms, the present work proposes to parameterise the regression model through an asymmetric error function, that penalises more the overpredictions. The estimates by models (feedforward neural networks with increasing degree of asymmetry are compared with those of a traditional, symmetrically-trained network, in a rigorous cross-validation experiment referred to a database of catchments covering the Italian country. The analysis shows that the use of the asymmetric error function can substantially reduce the number and extent of overestimation errors, if compared to the use of the traditional square errors. Of course such reduction is at the expense of increasing underestimation errors, but the overall accurateness is still acceptable and the results illustrate the potential value of choosing an asymmetric error function when the consequences of missed alarms are more severe than those of false alarms.

  4. Analysis of clinical features and early warning indicators of death from hand,foot and mouth disease in Shandong province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘涛

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand the clinical features of death from hand,foot and mouth disease(HFMD)and to explore the early warning index of HFMD death.Methods A total of41HFMD death cases were collected as case group in

  5. Building a Framework in Improving Drought Monitoring and Early Warning Systems in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, T.; Wall, N.; Haigh, T.; Shiferaw, A. S.; Beyene, S.; Demisse, G. B.; Zaitchik, B.

    2015-12-01

    Decision makers need a basic understanding of the prediction models and products of hydro-climatic extremes and their suitability in time and space for strategic resource and development planning to develop mitigation and adaptation strategies. Advances in our ability to assess and predict climate extremes (e.g., droughts and floods) under evolving climate change suggest opportunity to improve management of climatic/hydrologic risk in agriculture and water resources. In the NASA funded project entitled, "Seasonal Prediction of Hydro-Climatic Extremes in the Greater Horn of Africa (GHA) under Evolving Climate Conditions to Support Adaptation Strategies," we are attempting to develop a framework that uses dialogue between managers and scientists on how to enhance the use of models' outputs and prediction products in the GHA as well as improve the delivery of this information in ways that can be easily utilized by managers. This process is expected to help our multidisciplinary research team obtain feedback on the models and forecast products. In addition, engaging decision makers is essential in evaluating the use of drought and flood prediction models and products for decision-making processes in drought and flood management. Through this study, we plan to assess information requirements to implement a robust Early Warning Systems (EWS) by engaging decision makers in the process. This participatory process could also help the existing EWSs in Africa and to develop new local and regional EWSs. In this presentation, we report the progress made in the past two years of the NASA project.

  6. Development of a national Flash flood warning system in France using the AIGA method: first results and main issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javelle, Pierre; Organde, Didier; Demargne, Julie; de Saint-Aubin, Céline; Garandeau, Léa; Janet, Bruno; Saint-Martin, Clotilde; Fouchier, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    Developing a national flash flood (FF) warning system is an ambitious and difficult task. On one hand it rises huge expectations from exposed populations and authorities since induced damages are considerable (ie 20 casualties in the recent October 2015 flood at the French Riviera). But on the other hand, many practical and scientific issues have to be addressed and limitations should be clearly stated. The FF warning system to be implemented by 2016 in France by the SCHAPI (French national service in charge of flood forecasting) will be based on a discharge-threshold flood warning method called AIGA (Javelle et al. 2014). The AIGA method has been experimented in real time in the south of France in the RHYTMME project (http://rhytmme.irstea.fr). It consists in comparing discharges generated by a simple conceptual hourly hydrologic model run at a 1-km² resolution to reference flood quantiles of different return periods, at any point along the river network. The hydrologic model ingests operational rainfall radar-gauge products from Météo-France. Model calibration was based on ~700 hydrometric stations over the 2002-2015 period and then hourly discharges were computed at ~76 000 catchment outlets, with areas ranging from 10 to 3 500 km², over the last 19 years. This product makes it possible to calculate reference flood quantiles at each outlet. The on-going evaluation of the FF warnings is currently made at two levels: in a 'classical' way, using discharges available at the hydrometric stations, but also in a more 'exploratory' way, by comparing past flood reports and warnings issued by the system over the 76 000 catchment outlets. The interest of the last method is that it better fit the system objectives since it is designed to monitor small ungauged catchments. Javelle, P., Demargne, J., Defrance, D, .Pansu, J, .Arnaud, P. (2014). Evaluating flash-flood warnings at ungauged locations using post-event surveys: a case study with the AIGA warning system

  7. 30 CFR 56.6202 - Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicles. 56.6202 Section 56.6202 Mineral... Vehicles. (a) Vehicles containing explosive material shall be— (1) Maintained in good condition and shall... device being used in the loading operation. (b) Vehicles containing explosives shall have— (1)...

  8. A global approach to warn the drivers before a curve by considering the decrease of skid resistance due to the rain

    OpenAIRE

    Cerezo, Véronique; Do, Minh Tan; Violette, Eric

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a research project called IRCAD, which aimed at developing a global system to warn drivers in real time, when their behaviour is not adapted to infrastructure characteristics. The warning system is based on the comparison between the speed of a vehicle before a curve and a safety speed. This safety speed is defined as the maximum speed value before crash all along the curve (safety speed profile). These thresholds values of speed are calculated in real time ...

  9. Abiding Geocast for Warning Message Dissemination in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Qiangyuan; Heijenk, Geert

    2008-01-01

    Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) are emerging as a new network environment for intelligent transportation systems (ITS). In many applications envisaged for VANETs, traffic information needs to be disseminated to a group of relevant vehicles and maintained for a duration of time. Here a system of a

  10. SafeLand guidelines for landslide monitoring and early warning systems in Europe - Design and required technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazin, S.

    2012-04-01

    Landslide monitoring means the comparison of landslide characteristics like areal extent, speed of movement, surface topography and soil humidity from different periods in order to assess landslide activity. An ultimate "universal" methodology for this purpose does not exist; every technology has its own advantages and disadvantages. End-users should carefully consider each one to select the methodologies that represent the best compromise between pros and cons, and are best suited for their needs. Besides monitoring technology, there are many factors governing the choice of an Early Warning System (EWS). A people-centred EWS necessarily comprises five key elements: (1) knowledge of the risks; (2) identification, monitoring, analysis and forecasting of the hazards; (3) operational centre; (4) communication or dissemination of alerts and warnings; and (5) local capabilities to respond to the warnings received. The expression "end-to-end warning system" is also used to emphasize that EWSs need to span all steps from hazard detection through to community response. The aim of the present work is to provide guidelines for establishing the different components for landslide EWSs. One of the main deliverables of the EC-FP7 SafeLand project addresses the technical and practical issues related to monitoring and early warning for landslides, and identifies the best technologies available in the context of both hazard assessment and design of EWSs. This deliverable targets the end-users and aims to facilitate the decision process by providing guidelines. For the purpose of sharing the globally accumulated expertise, a screening study was done on 14 EWSs from 8 different countries. On these bases, the report presents a synoptic view of existing monitoring methodologies and early-warning strategies and their applicability for different landslide types, scales and risk management steps. Several comprehensive checklists and toolboxes are also included to support informed

  11. Vehicle/guideway interaction in maglev systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Y.; Chen, S.S.; Rote, D.M.

    1992-03-01

    Dynamic interactions between the vehicle and guideway in a high-speed ground transportation system based on magnetically levitated (maglev) vehicles were studied, with an emphasis on the effects of vehicle and guideway parameters. Two dynamic models for the vehicle are presented. In one model, the vehicle is considered to be a moving force traveling at various speeds on a simply supported single- or two-span beam. In the second model, the vehicle is considered to be one-dimensional and has two degrees of freedom; this model consists of the primary and secondary suspensions of the vehicle, with lumped masses, linear springs, and dampings. The Bernoulli-Euler beam equation is used to model the characteristics of a flexible guideway, and the guideway synthesis is based on modal analysis. Analyses were performed to gain an understanding of response characteristics under various loading conditions and to provide benchmark data for verification of existing comprehensive computer programs and some basic design guidelines for maglev systems. Finally, the German Transrapid maglev system was evaluated. 19 ref.

  12. WATER WARNINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    As the country's water supply goes down the drain, conservation and wastewater recycling have become urgent tasks for China At a news briefing ahead of the World Water Congress and Exhibition in Beijing, scheduled to begin September 10, Acting Chairman of the Organizing Committee and Vice Minister of Construction Qiu Baoxing delivered a statement that cut to the heart of the problem:

  13. Public and vehicle lighting in residential areas.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    Requirements for the lighting of various types of roads and streets in residential areas are discussed. Emphasis in placed on the "woonerf" concept. The lighting of motor vehicles is discussed. The interaction between the two lighting modes is briefly indicated.

  14. Macro finance early warning system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guihuan ZHENG; Xun ZHANG; Wei SHANG; Shanying XU

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a financial early warning informa-tion system is developed based on the multi-dimensional cli-mate approach that is featured with a multi-dimensional in-dex construction and the relevant multi-dimensional analy-sis. Requirement analysis and design issues of building an information system supporting this multi-dimensional cli-mate approach are discussed in detail. And a case using this system to study the macro financial issues is presented to illustrate how the proposed multi-dimensional approach works in the information system we design. This research is an interdisciplinary work of economic theories, macro finan-cial empirical studies, and software engineering. With ad-vanced macro financial early warning theories implemented in a web application, the Macro Financial Early Warning System (FEWS) developed in this research has been proved to be effective in a trial running in the Forecasting research institute of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  15. Radiation effects in optoelectronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose of this report is to provide not only a summary of radiation damage studies at Sandia National Laboratories, but also of those in the literature on the components of optoelectronic systems: light emitting diodes (LEDs), laser diodes, photodetectors, optical fibers, and optical isolators. This review of radiation damage in optoelectronic components is structured according to device type. In each section, a brief discussion of those device properties relevant to radiation effects is given

  16. 一种新型无人机机载电源浪涌保护器的设计%Research on a New Kind of DC - DC Power Surge Protective Device in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁旭猛; 郭晓义

    2011-01-01

    为减小瞬态电压、浪涌电压等对无人机机载DC-DC电源和电子设备造成的危害,针对当前机载电源系统的特点,提出了一种直流浪涌保护器的设计思路和实现方法.首先分析了机载电源浪涌的成因和解决方法,对浪涌保护器的类型和特性进行简单介绍;然后详细说明了新型无人机机载电源浪涌保护器的工作原理和具体实施方案;最后对系统整体进行了电路优化和实际验证,结果证明其浪涌抑制性能良好,性能指标完全能够达到应用要求.%In order to reduce the harm the transient voltage and surge voltage cause to the DC - DC power and electronic equipment in an UAV, a new kind of design and method of DC surge protective device has been proposed for the characteristics of the current airborne power system. The causes and solutions of airborne power surges are firstly analyzed, and a brief introduction for the type and features of the surge protective device is made; The operating principle and scheme of UAV airborne power surge protective device is described in detail. The circuit optimization and actual verification for the whole system is finally conduct, and the results prove that it has a good performance of surge suppression and achieve the application requirements entirely.

  17. 远程医疗会诊车在处置突发事件中的应用%Application of Telemedicine Consultation Vehicle in Dealing with Contingency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田玉兔; 李晓康

    2011-01-01

    介绍了远程医疗会诊车在处置突发事件中远程医疗会诊、视音频通讯、远程网络通信等应用模式及实现方法,比较应用了远程医疗会诊车在野战状况下外置视音频信号的连接方式及适用性,总结了远程医疗会诊车在实际应用中的可行性经验,可作为远程医疗会诊车在处置各类突发事件过程中的应用参考,具有较强的实用价值和指导意义.%The various kind application modes and implementation methods of real-time chiri-cal consmlfation, video -audio frequency communications, remote network communications of telemedicine consultation vehicle in dealing with contingency are introduced. Connection mode and applicability of outlay video-audibility signal of telemedicine consultation vehicle in field battle are applied and compared, and the feasibility experience about the practical application of telemedicine consultation vehicle are summarized, which has stronger practical value and guide significance for application of telemedicine consultation vehicle in dealing with contingency.

  18. Design and challenges for a tsunami early warning system in the Marmara Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necmioğlu, Öcal

    2016-01-01

    Since 1900, around 90,000 people have lost their lives in 76 earthquakes in Turkey, with a total affected population of around 7 million and direct losses of around 25 billion USD. Based on a time-dependent model that includes coseismic and post-seismic effects of the 1999 Kocaeli earthquake with moment magnitude Mw = 7.4, Parsons (J Geophys Res. 109, 2004) concluded that the probability of an earthquake with Mw > 7 in the Sea of Marmara near Istanbul is 35 to 70 % in the next 30 years. According to a 2011 study, an earthquake with Mw = 7.25 on the Main Marmara Fault is expected to heavily damage or destroy 2 to 4 % of around 1,000,000 buildings in Istanbul with a population around 13 million, with 9 to 15 % of the buildings receiving medium damage and 20 to 34 % of the buildings damaged lightly (Erdik, Science 341:72, 2013). In the absence of adequate post-earthquake assembly areas especially in the heavily urbanized Istanbul, it is evident that after a major earthquake, especially in the coastal parts of the city, citizens would be storming to landfill assembly and recreational areas. Besides earthquakes, around 30 tsunamis have been reported by Altınok et al. (Natural Hazards Earth System Science 11:273-293, 2011) in the Marmara Sea. Among those, catastrophic earthquakes such as 1509, 1766, and 1894 resulted in considerable tsunamis and some damage. The latest tsunami observed in Marmara was due to a triggered submarine landslide of the 1999 Mw = 7.4 Kocaeli earthquake which led to reported run-up heights of 1-3 m in most places (Tinti et al., Marine Geology 225:311-330, 2006). In this study, I propose a design for a tsunami warning system specific for the Marmara region that is strongly coupled with the earthquake early warning system (due to the short arrival times of tsunami) and stakeholders of the tsunami mitigation activities, such as local and regional components of disaster and emergency management and civil protection units, to ensure that the citizens

  19. Technology and implementation of electric vehicles and plug‐in hybrid electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kenneth; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    2011-01-01

    developments. Different business models and policies are also outlined along with a description of the on‐going research and demonstration projects. An analysis of the current and near term electric and plug‐in hybrid electric vehicles indicate that the cost for family cars will not change much, while...... the ranges of electric vehicles will increase and may even double for some family cars compared to the existing models. The average driving range in this report increases from around 150 km for existing electric vehicles to more than 200 km for near term electric vehicles (expected new models in 2012......In this report state of the art electric vehicle and plug‐in hybrid electric vehicle technology is presented to clarify the current and near term development. The current status of diffusion for electric vehicles in Denmark, Sweden and internationally is presented as well as the expected...

  20. Developing Drought Outlook Forums in Support of a Regional Drought Early Warning Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcnutt, C. A.; Pulwarty, R. S.; Darby, L. S.; Verdin, J. P.; Webb, R. S.

    2011-12-01

    The National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS) Act of 2006 (P.L. 109-430) charged NIDIS with developing the leadership and partnerships necessary to implement an integrated national drought monitoring and forecasting system that creates a drought "early warning system". The drought early warning information system should be capable of providing accurate, timely and integrated information on drought conditions at the relevant spatial scale to facilitate proactive decisions aimed at minimizing the economic, social and ecosystem losses associated with drought. As part of this effort, NIDIS has held Regional Drought Outlook Forums in several regions of the U.S. The purpose of the Forums is to inform practices that reduce vulnerability to drought through an interactive and collaborative process that includes the users of the information. The Forums have focused on providing detailed assessments of present conditions and impacts, comparisons with past drought events, and seasonal predictions including discussion of the state and expected evolution of the El Niño Southern Oscillation phenomena. Regional Climate Outlook Forums (RCOFs) that include close interaction between information providers and users are not a new concept, however. RCOFs started in Africa in the 1990s in response to the 1997-98 El Niño and have since expanded to South America, Asia, the Pacific islands, and the Caribbean. As a result of feedback from the RCOFs a large body of research has gone into improving seasonal forecasts and the capacity of the users to apply the information in a way that improves their decision-making. Over time, it has become clear that more is involved than just improving the interaction between the climate forecasters and decision-makers. NIDIS is using the RCOF approach as one component in a larger effort to develop Regional Drought Early Warning Information Systems (RDEWS) around the U.S. Using what has been learned over the past decade in the RCOF process

  1. Congestion control in charging of electric vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Carvalho, Rui; Gibbens, Richard; Kelly, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The increasing penetration of electric vehicles over the coming decades, taken together with the high cost to upgrade local distribution networks, and consumer demand for home charging, suggest that managing congestion on low voltage networks will be a crucial component of the electric vehicle revolution and the move away from fossil fuels in transportation. Here, we model the max-flow and proportional fairness protocols for the control of congestion caused by a fleet of vehicles charging on distribution networks. We analyse the inequality in the charging times as the vehicle arrival rate increases, and show that charging times are considerably more uneven in max-flow than in proportional fairness. We also analyse the onset of instability, and find that the critical arrival rate is indistinguishable between the two protocols.

  2. Emergency vehicle traffic signal preemption system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelder, Aaron D. (Inventor); Foster, Conrad F. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An emergency vehicle traffic light preemption system for preemption of traffic lights at an intersection to allow safe passage of emergency vehicles. The system includes a real-time status monitor of an intersection which is relayed to a control module for transmission to emergency vehicles as well as to a central dispatch office. The system also provides for audio warnings at an intersection to protect pedestrians who may not be in a position to see visual warnings or for various reasons cannot hear the approach of emergency vehicles. A transponder mounted on an emergency vehicle provides autonomous control so the vehicle operator can attend to getting to an emergency and not be concerned with the operation of the system. Activation of a priority-code (i.e. Code-3) situation provides communications with each intersection being approached by an emergency vehicle and indicates whether the intersection is preempted or if there is any conflict with other approaching emergency vehicles. On-board diagnostics handle various information including heading, speed, and acceleration sent to a control module which is transmitted to an intersection and which also simultaneously receives information regarding the status of an intersection. Real-time communications and operations software allow central and remote monitoring, logging, and command of intersections and vehicles.

  3. Potential Impact of Graphic Health Warnings on Cigarette Packages in Reducing Cigarette Demand and Smoking-Related Deaths in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, Hoang Van; Chung, Le Hong; Giang, Kim Bao; Duc, Duong Minh; Hinh, Nguyen Duc; Mai, Vu Quynh; Cuong, Nguyen Manh; Manh, Pham Duc; Duc, Ha Anh; Yang, Jui-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Two years after implementation of the graphic health warning intervention in Vietnam, it is very important to evaluate the intervention's potential impact. The objective of this paper was to predict effects of graphic health warnings on cigarette packages, particularly in reducing cigarette demand and smoking-associated deaths in Vietnam. In this study, a discrete choice experiment (DCE) method was used to evaluate the potential impact of graphic tobacco health warnings on smoking demand. To predict the impact of GHWs on reducing premature deaths associated with smoking, we constructed different static models. We adapted the method developed by University of Toronto, Canada and found that GHWs had statistically significant impact on reducing cigarette demand (up to 10.1% through images of lung damage), resulting in an overall decrease of smoking prevalence in Vietnam. We also found that between 428,417- 646,098 premature deaths would be prevented as a result of the GHW intervention. The potential impact of the GHW labels on reducing premature smoking-associated deaths in Vietnam were shown to be stronger among lower socio-economic groups. PMID:27087188

  4. Potential Impact of Graphic Health Warnings on Cigarette Packages in Reducing Cigarette Demand and Smoking-Related Deaths in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, Hoang Van; Chung, Le Hong; Giang, Kim Bao; Duc, Duong Minh; Hinh, Nguyen Duc; Mai, Vu Quynh; Cuong, Nguyen Manh; Manh, Pham Duc; Duc, Ha Anh; Yang, Jui-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Two years after implementation of the graphic health warning intervention in Vietnam, it is very important to evaluate the intervention's potential impact. The objective of this paper was to predict effects of graphic health warnings on cigarette packages, particularly in reducing cigarette demand and smoking-associated deaths in Vietnam. In this study, a discrete choice experiment (DCE) method was used to evaluate the potential impact of graphic tobacco health warnings on smoking demand. To predict the impact of GHWs on reducing premature deaths associated with smoking, we constructed different static models. We adapted the method developed by University of Toronto, Canada and found that GHWs had statistically significant impact on reducing cigarette demand (up to 10.1% through images of lung damage), resulting in an overall decrease of smoking prevalence in Vietnam. We also found that between 428,417- 646,098 premature deaths would be prevented as a result of the GHW intervention. The potential impact of the GHW labels on reducing premature smoking-associated deaths in Vietnam were shown to be stronger among lower socio-economic groups.

  5. Development of a flood-warning system and flood-inundation mapping in Licking County, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostheimer, Chad J.

    2012-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for selected reaches of South Fork Licking River, Raccoon Creek, North Fork Licking River, and the Licking River in Licking County, Ohio, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Ohio Department of Transportation; U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration; Muskingum Watershed Conservancy District; U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service; and the City of Newark and Village of Granville, Ohio. The inundation maps depict estimates of the areal extent of flooding corresponding to water levels (stages) at the following USGS streamgages: South Fork Licking River at Heath, Ohio (03145173); Raccoon Creek below Wilson Street at Newark, Ohio (03145534); North Fork Licking River at East Main Street at Newark, Ohio (03146402); and Licking River near Newark, Ohio (03146500). The maps were provided to the National Weather Service (NWS) for incorporation into a Web-based flood-warning system that can be used in conjunction with NWS flood-forecast data to show areas of predicted flood inundation associated with forecasted flood-peak stages. As part of the flood-warning streamflow network, the USGS re-installed one streamgage on North Fork Licking River, and added three new streamgages, one each on North Fork Licking River, South Fork Licking River, and Raccoon Creek. Additionally, the USGS upgraded a lake-level gage on Buckeye Lake. Data from the streamgages and lake-level gage can be used by emergency-management personnel, in conjunction with the flood-inundation maps, to help determine a course of action when flooding is imminent. Flood profiles for selected reaches were prepared by calibrating steady-state step-backwater models to selected, established streamgage rating curves. The step-backwater models then were used to determine water-surface-elevation profiles for up to 10 flood stages at a streamgage with corresponding streamflows ranging from approximately

  6. Exploring drought vulnerability in Africa: an indicator based analysis to inform early warning systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Naumann

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Drought vulnerability is a complex concept that includes both biophysical and socio-economic drivers of drought impact that determine capacity to cope with drought. In order to develop an efficient drought early warning system and to be prepared to mitigate upcoming drought events it is important to understand the drought vulnerability of the affected regions. We propose a composite Drought Vulnerability Indicator (DVI that reflects different aspects of drought vulnerability evaluated at Pan-African level in four components: the renewable natural capital, the economic capacity, the human and civic resources, and the infrastructure and technology. The selection of variables and weights reflects the assumption that a society with institutional capacity and coordination, as well as with mechanisms for public participation is less vulnerable to drought; furthermore we consider that agriculture is only one of the many sectors affected by drought. The quality and accuracy of a composite indicator depends on the theoretical framework, on the data collection and quality, and on how the different components are aggregated. This kind of approach can lead to some degree of scepticism; to overcome this problem a sensitivity analysis was done in order to measure the degree of uncertainty associated with the construction of the composite indicator. Although the proposed drought vulnerability indicator relies on a number of theoretical assumptions and some degree of subjectivity, the sensitivity analysis showed that it is a robust indicator and hence able of representing the complex processes that lead to drought vulnerability. According to the DVI computed at country level, the African countries classified with higher relative vulnerability are Somalia, Burundi, Niger, Ethiopia, Mali and Chad. The analysis of the renewable natural capital component at sub-basin level shows that the basins with high to moderate drought vulnerability can be subdivided in three

  7. Current challenges in autonomous vehicle development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, J.; Hong, W. S.; Mahoney, R. B., Jr.; Sparrow, D. A.

    2006-05-01

    The field of autonomous vehicles is a rapidly growing one, with significant interest from both government and industry sectors. Autonomous vehicles represent the intersection of artificial intelligence (AI) and robotics, combining decision-making with real-time control. Autonomous vehicles are desired for use in search and rescue, urban reconnaissance, mine detonation, supply convoys, and more. The general adage is to use robots for anything dull, dirty, dangerous or dumb. While a great deal of research has been done on autonomous systems, there are only a handful of fielded examples incorporating machine autonomy beyond the level of teleoperation, especially in outdoor/complex environments. In an attempt to assess and understand the current state of the art in autonomous vehicle development, a few areas where unsolved problems remain became clear. This paper outlines those areas and provides suggestions for the focus of science and technology research. The first step in evaluating the current state of autonomous vehicle development was to develop a definition of autonomy. A number of autonomy level classification systems were reviewed. The resulting working definitions and classification schemes used by the authors are summarized in the opening sections of the paper. The remainder of the report discusses current approaches and challenges in decision-making and real-time control for autonomous vehicles. Suggested research focus areas for near-, mid-, and long-term development are also presented.

  8. TIRE MODELS USED IN VEHICLE DYNAMIC APPLICATIONS AND THEIR USING IN VEHICLE ACCIDENT SIMULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman ELDOĞAN

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheel model is very important in vehicle modelling, it is because the contact between vehicle and road is achieved by wheel. Vehicle models can be dynamic models which are used in vehicle design, they can also be models used in accident simulations. Because of the importance of subject, many studies including theoretical, experimental and mixed type have been carried out. In this study, information is given about development of wheel modelling and research studies and also use of these modellings in traffic accident simulations.

  9. How important is vehicle safety in the new vehicle purchase process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Sjaanie; Charlton, Judith; Fildes, Brian; Fitzharris, Michael

    2008-05-01

    Whilst there has been a significant increase in the amount of consumer interest in the safety performance of privately owned vehicles, the role that it plays in consumers' purchase decisions is poorly understood. The aims of the current study were to determine: how important vehicle safety is in the new vehicle purchase process; what importance consumers place on safety options/features relative to other convenience and comfort features, and how consumers conceptualise vehicle safety. In addition, the study aimed to investigate the key parameters associated with ranking 'vehicle safety' as the most important consideration in the new vehicle purchase. Participants recruited in Sweden and Spain completed a questionnaire about their new vehicle purchase. The findings from the questionnaire indicated that participants ranked safety-related factors (e.g., EuroNCAP (or other) safety ratings) as more important in the new vehicle purchase process than other vehicle factors (e.g., price, reliability etc.). Similarly, participants ranked safety-related features (e.g., advanced braking systems, front passenger airbags etc.) as more important than non-safety-related features (e.g., route navigation systems, air-conditioning etc.). Consistent with previous research, most participants equated vehicle safety with the presence of specific vehicle safety features or technologies rather than vehicle crash safety/test results or crashworthiness. The key parameters associated with ranking 'vehicle safety' as the most important consideration in the new vehicle purchase were: use of EuroNCAP, gender and education level, age, drivers' concern about crash involvement, first vehicle purchase, annual driving distance, person for whom the vehicle was purchased, and traffic infringement history. The findings from this study are important for policy makers, manufacturers and other stakeholders to assist in setting priorities with regard to the promotion and publicity of vehicle safety features

  10. Potential for early warning of maalria in India using NOAA-AVHRR based vegetation health indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, R. C.; Kogan, Felix; Singh, Neeru; Singh, R. P.; Dash, A. P.

    Malaria is still a major public health problem in India with about 1 82 million cases annually and 1000 deaths As per World Health Organization WHO estimates about 1 3 million Disability Adjusted Life Years DALYs are lost annually due to malaria in India Central peninsular region of India is prone to malaria outbreaks Meteorological parameters changes in ecological conditions development of resistance in mosquito vectors development of resistance in Plasmodium falciparum parasite and lack of surveillance are the likely reasons of outbreaks Based on satellite data and climatic factors efforts have been made to develop Early Warning System EWS in Africa but there is no headway in this regard in India In order to find out the potential of NOAA satellite AVHRR derived Vegetation Condition Index VCI Temperature Condition Index TCI and a cumulative indicator Vegetation Health Index VHI were attempted to find out their potential for development of EWS Studies were initiated by analysing epidemiological data of malaria vis-a-vis VCI TCI and VHI from Bikaner and Jaisalmer districts of Rajasthan and Tumkur and Raichur districts of Karnataka Correlation coefficients between VCI and monthly malaria cases for epidemic years were computed Positive correlation 0 67 has been found with one-month lag between VCI and malaria incidence in respect of Tumkur while a negative correlation with TCI -0 45 is observed In Bikaner VCI is found to be negatively related -0 71 with malaria cases in epidemic year of 1994 Weekly

  11. A new approach for tsunami early warning using tsunami observations in a source region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanioka, Y.

    2015-12-01

    After the 2011 devastating Tohoku tsunami, improvement of tsunami early warning system is one of key issues in Japan. Japanese government was decided to install 125 ocean bottom pressure sensors and seismometers with a cable system along the Japan and Kurile trench. Each sensor is separated by 30km. We should develop a new approach for real-time tsunami forecast using those newly available data combined with GNSS data or seismic data. A well-recognized problem to use tsunami data at pressure sensors on the top of tsunami source area is a fact that a large vertical coseismic deformation due to a large earthquake cannot be observed at those sensors. The sensors observe a tsunami wave when it starts to propagate. Because of that problem, GSNN data or seismic data are typically used to estimate the coseismic deformation for the tsunami numerical simulation. In this paper, we develop a new technique, which solve the problem. Our technique uses the observations at pressure sensors on the tsunami source area as an input to compute the tsunami directly. Actual tsunami heights at the sensors on the source area is unknown because the cosismic vertical deformation is unknown. However, we can observe directly the time derivative of tsunami heights at those sensors. Time derivatives of tsunami heights at each point are used as inputs to compute the tsunami height distribution in the calculated area. Then we can numerically compute a tsunami using a traditional finite difference technique from the tsunami height distribution computed. For numerical test, first, we compute the synthetic tsunamis using the fault model with 1 minute grid system. The computed tsunami waveforms at 15 minutes x 15 minutes grid points are used as the observed data for this new technique. Each observed point is separated by 15 minutes, about 30km. The result show that the accuracy of tsunami computation is good enough for tsunami forecast. Tsunami generation with a long duration, such as tsunami

  12. Road Accident Prevention with Instant Emergency Warning Message Dissemination in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network

    OpenAIRE

    P. Gokulakrishnan; Ganeshkumar, P.

    2015-01-01

    A Road Accident Prevention (RAP) scheme based on Vehicular Backbone Network (VBN) structure is proposed in this paper for Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET). The RAP scheme attempts to prevent vehicles from highway road traffic accidents and thereby reduces death and injury rates. Once the possibility of an emergency situation (i.e. an accident) is predicted in advance, instantly RAP initiates a highway road traffic accident prevention scheme. The RAP scheme constitutes the following activities...

  13. Science and Systems in Support of Multi-hazard Early Warnings and Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulwarty, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    The demand for improved climate knowledge and information is well documented. As noted in the IPCC (SREX, AR5), the UNISDR Global Assessment Reports and other assessments, this demand has increased pressure for information to support planning under changing rates and emergence of multiple hazards including climate extremes (drought, heat waves, floods). "Decision support" is now a popular term in the climate applications research community. While existing decision support activities can be identified in many disparate settings (e.g. federal, academic, private), the challenge of changing environments (coupled physical and social) is actually one of crafting implementation strategies for improving decision quality (not just meeting "user needs"). This includes overcoming weaknesses in co-production models, moving beyond DSSs as simply "software", coordinating innovation mapping and diffusion, and providing fora and gaming tools to identify common interests and differences in the way risks are perceived and managed among the affected groups. We outline the development and evolution of multi-hazard early warning systems in the United States and elsewhere, focusing on climate-related hazards. In particular, the presentation will focus on the climate science and information needed for (1) improved monitoring and modeling, (2) generating risk profiles, (3) developing information systems and scenarios for critical thresholds, (4) the net benefits of using new information (5) characterizing and bridging the "last mile" in the context of longer-term risk management.

  14. The application of trajectory analysis for an early warning system in STEM courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Un Jung

    The retention of STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) majors has become a national concern. "Early warning systems" (EWS) are being developed to identify students who perform poorly early in the semester so that interventions can be implemented. The research reported here utilizes clicker scores and review quiz scores collected in every class session for the longitudinal analysis, as well as pre-course concept inventory scores and self-reported student characteristics. Pre course concept inventory scores were significantly predictive of final course grade. Student demographic characteristics had a smaller fraction of final course grade explained. The cumulative average student clicker score was highly predictive of final course grade. The cumulative average student review quiz score was also highly predictive of final course grade in spring 2014 semester, but was less predictive and less correlated with final course grade in the fall 2014 semester. The trajectories of transformed clicker and review quiz scores identified student longitudinal patterns of scores. Students with scores that were high at the beginning of the semester had consistently higher scores through the semester. In addition, the Bayesian Posterior Probabilities (BPPs) of clicker score trajectory were significant predictors of final course grade. In a trajectory analysis of ACF and PACF, the number of zero clicker scores was associated with final course grade. In conclusion, pre-course concept inventory scores and clicker scores were effective predictive variables for an EWS.

  15. MONITORING AND EARLY-WARNING OF METEOROLOGICAL RISK SITUATIONS IN OLTENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BURADA CRISTINA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Among the natural hazards affecting the human well-being and properties, meterological events are first to come in mind, due to their frequency, (immediate effects and (improving predictability. Assesment of these components are the first step in risk management, when the knowledge on the hazard type and characteristics is essential for defining the vulnerability and exposure and thus for preparing the mitigation plans. The spatial scale of dangerous meteorological situations is, in most cases, the regional one, but sometimes the area of major intensity or even the area of manifestation is small enough (e.g. hail, heavy rain showers to be classifed as ‚local’. Furthermore, other factors like the local geographical features, population density, goods and properties at risk (e.g. cultivated areas, buildings, infrastructure etc come into play in defining the severity of the weather event and/or the needs for interventions aiming to reduce the effects of the weather situation. In this context, the monitoring of potentially dangerous meteorological conditions and the improved forecasting capabilities and accuracy become increasingly important. In this paper, we present a short overview of the severe meteorological events affecting the Oltenia region along with aspects regarding their monitoring, early-warning and socio-economical impact in the area of interest, with a focus on the Dolj county during the 2013-2015 period.

  16. Genetic monitoring in forests - early warning and controlling system for ecosystemic changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konnert M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the context of existent programmes of environmental monitoring which have been established as efficient tools for permanently observing environmental changes, a concept for a genetic monitoring in forests was recently elaborated by a German forest geneticist working group. Genetic monitoring is assumed to contribute essentially to the estimation and valuation of the effect of factors influencing the genetic system of trees in the forests, thus making it an early warning and controlling system for ecosystemic changes. The “Concept of a Genetic Monitoring for Forest Tree Species in the Federal Republic of Germany” gives scientifically-based guidelines for monitoring the current state and dynamics of genetic systems in forest stands of diverse tree species in an extensively, harmonized manner. Both objectives and the realization of the genetic monitoring concept are presented here. The status of the genetic systems of forest tree populations is assessed on the basis of criteria, indicators and verifiers. For this purpose the genetic as well as the phenological and physiological levels are taken into consideration in order to follow temporal developments and to estimate influencing factors. The results of a pioneer study concerning the tree species Fagus sylvatica and Prunus avium are reported.

  17. Early warning of disturbances in a laboratory-scale MSW biogas process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, M; Nordberg, A; Sundh, I; Mathisen, B

    2002-01-01

    The use of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) to monitorthe dynamics of a biogas process was evaluated using multivariate data analysis. The digester was a completely stirred 8 I tank reactor fed with the organic fraction of source-sorted MSW. Intermittently the digester was overloaded with feed. Before and after overload on-line monitoring of NIR spectra and off-line analysis in the liquid and the gas phase of traditional chemical variables and microbial biomass, determined as total concentration of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA and PLEL), were done. The dynamics that occurred due to overloading could be followed using principal component analysis of the obtained NIR-spectra. In addition, the response to changes in the digester fluid was reproducible and could be detected within five minutes, which can be considered as real-time monitoring. Selected wavelengths in the region 800-2,000 nm were used to make a PLS1 -regression with propionate. The regression resulted in a good correlation for propionate (R= 0.94 and RMSEP of 0.21 g/l in the range of 0.3-3 g/l). The results indicate the possibility to develop an early warning biogas control system based on near-infrared spectroscopy monitoring of propionate. PMID:12188554

  18. New orientation and accessibility option for persons with visual impairment: transportation applications for remote infrared audible signage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, William; Bentzen, Billie Louise; Myers, Linda; Brabyn, John

    2001-05-01

    BACKGROUND: For a blind or visually impaired person, a vital prerequisite to accessing any feature of the built environment is being able to find this feature. Braille signs, even where available, do not replace the functions of print signage because they cannot be read from a distance. Remotely readable infrared signs utilise spoken infrared message transmissions to label key environmental features, so that a blind person with a suitable receiver can locate and identify them from a distance. METHODS: Three problems that are among the most challenging and dangerous faced by blind travellers are negotiating complex transit stations, locating bus stops and safely and efficiently crossing light-controlled intersections. We report the results of human factors studies using a remote infrared audible sign system (RIAS), Talking Signs(R), in these critical tasks, examining issues such as the amount of training needed to use the system, its impact on performance and safety, benefits for different population subgroups and user opinions of its value. RESULTS: Results are presented in the form of both objective performance measures and in subjects' ratings of the usefulness of the system in performing these tasks. Findings are that blind people can quickly and easily learn to use remote infrared audible signage effectively and that its use improves travel safety, efficiency and independence.? CONCLUSIONS: The technology provides equal access to a wide variety of public facilities.

  19. Vehicle concept for NET in-vessel inspection and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When considering the problem of large tokamak machines in-vessel remote maintenance, an articulated boom concept is today a favourite choice mainly because of the large experience gathered in JET and TFTR. This concept suffers however from two major drawbacks because of its cantilever design and the large dimensions and masses of its articulated links: a rather ''floppish'' structure, which causes problems during heavy components pick-up; and an inaccurate trajectory control, which practically imposes very slow boom movements inside the toroidal vessel. Within the frame of the NET Technology Programs, CEA-UGRA has undertaken the development of an alternative concept. The aim was to propose a vehicle-based design which, because of the much smaller size of the end-effector carrier (the vehicle) onto a fixed rail (installed before each intervention), would overcome these difficulties. Although it is too early to assess the full potential of the proposed design, it is worth stressing that the two reasons which usually render a vehicle concept unacceptable - i.e. rails supports inside the vessel and cable management - have been extensively analysed and that the proposed solution appear satisfactory. Should this be confirmed by the forthcoming engineering design phase, the proposed vehicle will be a very attractive device for NET in-vessel interventions. (author). 11 refs, 10 figs

  20. Rapid Extrication versus the Kendrick Extrication Device (KED: Comparison of Techniques Used After Motor Vehicle Collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bucher, Joshua

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The goal of this study was to compare application of the Kendrick Extrication Device (KED versus rapid extrication (RE by emergency medical service personnel. Our primary endpoints were movement of head, time to extrication and patient comfort by a visual analogue scale. Methods: We used 23 subjects in two scenarios for this study. The emergency medical services (EMS providers were composed of one basic emergency medical technician (EMT, one advanced EMT. Each subject underwent two scenarios, one using RE and the other using extrication involving a commercial KED. Results: Time was significantly shorter using rapid extraction for all patients. Angles of head turning were all significantly larger when using RE. Weight marginally modified the effect of KED versus RE on the “angle to right after patient moved to backboard (p= 0.029 and on subjective movement on patient questionnaire (p=0.011. No statistical differences were noted on patient discomfort or pain. Conclusion: This is a small experiment that showed decreased patient neck movement using a KED versus RE but resulted in increased patient movement in obese patients. Further studies are needed to determine if the KED improves any meaningful patient outcomes in the era of increased evidence-based medicine in emergency medical services. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(3:453–458.

  1. Assessment of current cybersecurity practices in the public domain : cyber indications and warnings domain.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamlet, Jason R.; Keliiaa, Curtis M.

    2010-09-01

    This report assesses current public domain cyber security practices with respect to cyber indications and warnings. It describes cybersecurity industry and government activities, including cybersecurity tools, methods, practices, and international and government-wide initiatives known to be impacting current practice. Of particular note are the U.S. Government's Trusted Internet Connection (TIC) and 'Einstein' programs, which are serving to consolidate the Government's internet access points and to provide some capability to monitor and mitigate cyber attacks. Next, this report catalogs activities undertaken by various industry and government entities. In addition, it assesses the benchmarks of HPC capability and other HPC attributes that may lend themselves to assist in the solution of this problem. This report draws few conclusions, as it is intended to assess current practice in preparation for future work, however, no explicit references to HPC usage for the purpose of analyzing cyber infrastructure in near-real-time were found in the current practice. This report and a related SAND2010-4766 National Cyber Defense High Performance Computing and Analysis: Concepts, Planning and Roadmap report are intended to provoke discussion throughout a broad audience about developing a cohesive HPC centric solution to wide-area cybersecurity problems.

  2. POTENTIAL DEFICIENCIES IN EDUCATION, INSTRUMENTATION, AND WARNINGS FOR LOCALLY GENERATED TSUNAMIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Walker

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of historical data for Hawaii reveals that significant tsunamis have been reported for only four of twenty-six potentially tsunamigenic earthquakes from 1868 through 2009 with magnitudes of 6.0 or greater. During the same time period, three significant tsunamis have been reported for substantially smaller earthquakes. This historical perspective, the fact that the last significant local tsunami occurred in 1975, and an understandable preoccupation with tsunamis generated around the margins of the Pacific, all combine to suggest apparent deficiencies in: (1 personal awareness of what to do in the event of a possible local tsunami; (2 the distribution of instrumentation capable of providing rapid confirmation that a local tsunami has been generated; and (3 the subsequent issuance of timely warnings for local tsunamis. With these deficiencies, far more lives may be lost in Hawaii due to local tsunamis than will result from tsunamis that have originated along the margins of the Pacific. Similar deficiencies may exist in other areas of the world threatened by local tsunamis.

  3. Turi device for radioactive source transport in the MUK device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TURI radioactive source transport device for on-line studies with a mass spectrometer in a proton beam is described. This device is a part of the multidetector MUK-device the aim of which is the measurement of the angular correlations and lifetimes observed in radioactive decay of short-lived nuclei (T1/2>0.1 s). The TURY system ensures the velocity of the radioactive target movement 1 cm per 0.25 s, and microcomputer control of experiment the accuracy of the tape stop is 0.15 mm

  4. Cataphoric Devices in Spoken Discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Gernsbacher, Morton Ann; Jescheniak, Jörg D.

    1995-01-01

    We propose that speakers mark key words with cataphoric devices. Cataphoric devices are counterparts to anaphoric devices: Just as anaphoric devices enable backward reference, cataphoric devices enable forward reference. And just as anaphoric devices mark concepts that have been mentioned before, cataphoric devices mark concepts that are likely to be mentioned again. We investigated two cataphoric devices: spoken stress and the indefinite this. Our experiments demonstrated three ways that con...

  5. Application and analysis of debris-flow early warning system in Wenchuan earthquake-affected area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D. L.; Zhang, S. J.; Yang, H. J.; Zhao, L. Q.; Jiang, Y. H.; Tang, D.; Leng, X. P.

    2016-02-01

    The activities of debris flow (DF) in the Wenchuan earthquake-affected area significantly increased after the earthquake on 12 May 2008. The safety of the lives and property of local people is threatened by DFs. A physics-based early warning system (EWS) for DF forecasting was developed and applied in this earthquake area. This paper introduces an application of the system in the Wenchuan earthquake-affected area and analyzes the prediction results via a comparison to the DF events triggered by the strong rainfall events reported by the local government. The prediction accuracy and efficiency was first compared with a contribution-factor-based system currently used by the weather bureau of Sichuan province. The storm on 17 August 2012 was used as a case study for this comparison. The comparison shows that the false negative rate and false positive rate of the new system is, respectively, 19 and 21 % lower than the system based on the contribution factors. Consequently, the prediction accuracy is obviously higher than the system based on the contribution factors with a higher operational efficiency. On the invitation of the weather bureau of Sichuan province, the authors upgraded their prediction system of DF by using this new system before the monsoon of Wenchuan earthquake-affected area in 2013. Two prediction cases on 9 July 2013 and 10 July 2014 were chosen to further demonstrate that the new EWS has high stability, efficiency, and prediction accuracy.

  6. Update on the Next Generation Earthquake Early Warning in SeisComP3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, Yannik; Boese, Maren; Smith, Deborah; Clinton, John; Meier, Men-Andrin

    2016-04-01

    An effective Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) system has to be evolutionary, updating its alerts as new data becomes available progressively in real-time. Typically, this involves combining different algorithms tailored towards providing alerts for either moderate or large sized earthquakes using either seismic or geodetic data, or a combination of both. A common approach in most algorithms is to rapidly estimate rupture parameters and then use ground motion prediction equations to compute the expected peak ground motion at a target site. For moderate size earthquakes (platform SeisComP3, combining point-source algorithms (Gutenberg algorithm: Meier et al. [2015]; Virtual Seismologist: Cua and Heaton [2007]) with a finite rupture algorithm (FinDer: Böse et al., [2012]). Relying on a widely used real-time monitoring platform, such as SeisComP3, facilitates testing and operating new algorithms in real-time in different seismic networks and thus different tectonic regimes. Special focus has also been given to modularity and extensibility of the new system, facilitating the inclusion of additional algorithms but also the portability of algorithms to different real-time monitoring platforms.

  7. Using higher organisms in biological early warning systems for real-time toxicity detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Schalie, W H; Shedd, T R; Knechtges, P L; Widder, M W

    2001-09-01

    Many biological early warning systems (BEWS) have been developed in recent years that evaluate the physiological and behavioral responses of whole organisms to water quality. Using a fish ventilatory monitoring system developed at the US Army Centre for Environmental Health Research as an example, we illustrate the operation of a BEWS at a groundwater treatment facility. During a recent 12-month period, the fish ventilatory system was operational for 99% of the time that the treatment facility was on-line. Effluent-exposed fish responded as a group about 2.8% of the time. While some events were due to equipment problems or non-toxic water quality variations, the fish system did indicate effluent anomalies that were subsequently identified and corrected. The fish monitoring BEWS increased treatment facility engineers' awareness of effluent quality and provided an extra measure of assurance to regulators and the public. Many operational and practical considerations for whole organism BEWS are similar to those for cell- or tissue-based biosensors. An effective biomonitoring system may need to integrate the responses of several biological and chemical sensors to achieve desired operational goals. Future development of an 'electronic canary', analogous to the original canary in the coal mine, could draw upon advances in signal processing and communication to establish a network of sensors in a watershed and to provide useful real-time information on water quality. PMID:11544040

  8. Satellite radar interferometry for monitoring and early-stage warning of structural instability in archaeological sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satellite interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) monitoring campaigns were performed on the archaeological heritage of the Roman Forum, Palatino and Oppio Hills in the centre of Rome, Italy, to test the capabilities of persistent scatterer interferometry techniques for the preventive diagnosis of deformation threatening the structural stability of archaeological monuments and buried structures. ERS-1/2 and RADARSAT-1/2 SAR images were processed with the permanent scatterers InSAR (PSInSAR) and SqueeSAR approaches, and the identified measurement points (MP) were radar-interpreted to map the conservation criticalities in relation to the local geohazard factors and active deterioration processes. The multi-temporal reconstruction of past/recent instability events based on the MP deformation time series provided evidences of stabilization for the Domus Tiberiana as a consequence of recent restoration works, as well as of persistent deformation for the Temple of Magna Mater on the Palatino Hill and the structures of the Baths of Trajan on the Oppio Hill. Detailed time series analysis was also exploited to back monitor and understand the nature of the 2010 collapse that occurred close to Nero's Golden House, and to establish an early-stage warning procedure useful to preventively detect potential instability. (paper)

  9. Probabilistic earthquake early warning in complex earth models using prior sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Andrew; Käufl, Paul; Trampert, Jeannot

    2016-04-01

    In an earthquake early warning (EEW) context, we must draw inferences from small, noisy seismic datasets within an extremely limited time-frame. Ideally, a probabilistic framework would be used, to recognise that available observations may be compatible with a range of outcomes, and analysis would be conducted in a theoretically-complete physical framework. However, implementing these requirements has been challenging, as they tend to increase computational demands beyond what is feasible on EEW timescales. We present a new approach, based on 'prior sampling', which implements probabilistic inversion as a two stage process, and can be used for EEW monitoring within a given region. First, a large set of synthetic data is computed for randomly-distributed seismic sources within the region. A learning algorithm is used to infer details of the probability distribution linking observations and model parameters (including location, magnitude, and focal mechanism). This procedure is computationally expensive, but can be conducted entirely before monitoring commences. In the second stage, as observations are obtained, the algorithm can be evaluated within milliseconds to output a probabilistic representation of the corresponding source model. We demonstrate that this gives robust results, and can be implemented using state-of-the-art 3D wave propagation simulations, and complex crustal structures.

  10. Research on early warning of food security using a system dynamics model: evidence from Jiangsu province in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianling; Ding, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Analyzing the early warning of food security, this paper sets the self-sufficiency rate as the principal indicator in a standpoint of supplement. It is common to use the quantitative methods to forecast and warning the insecurity. However, this paper considers more about the probable outcome when the government intervenes. By constructing the causal feedbacks among grain supplement, demand, productive input, and the policy factors to simulate the future food security in Jiangsu province, conclusions can be drawn as the following: (1) The situation of food security is insecure if the self-sufficiency rate is under 68.3% according to the development of system inertia. (2) it is difficult to guarantee the food security in Jiangsu just depending on the increase of grain sown area. (3) The valid solution to ensure the food security in Jiangsu is to improve the productivity.

  11. Development and characterization of scintillation based detectors for the use in radiological early warning networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, P.; Dombrowski, H.; Neumaier, S.

    2016-02-01

    To detect radiological incidents, all members of the European Union have installed nationwide radiological early warning networks. Most of the installed detector systems supply only dosimetric information. Novel spectrometry systems are considered to be good candidates for a new detector generation for environmental radiation monitoring because they will supply both nuclide-specific information and ambient dose equivalent rate values. Four different detector types were chosen and compared with each other (LaBr3, CeBr3, SrI2 scintillation detectors, and CdZnTe, a semiconductor detector). As a first step, the inherent background of these detectors was measured in the low background underground laboratory UDO II of PTB. As a second step, the relative detection sensitivity between the various detectors was determined at different energies. Finally, the detectors were exposed to a 4π-radiation field of radon progeny in PTB's radon chamber. The obtained results show that the investigated detectors are well suited for environmental radiation monitoring.

  12. Development and characterization of scintillation based detectors for the use in radiological early warning networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To detect radiological incidents, all members of the European Union have installed nationwide radiological early warning networks. Most of the installed detector systems supply only dosimetric information. Novel spectrometry systems are considered to be good candidates for a new detector generation for environmental radiation monitoring because they will supply both nuclide-specific information and ambient dose equivalent rate values. Four different detector types were chosen and compared with each other (LaBr3, CeBr3, SrI2 scintillation detectors, and CdZnTe, a semiconductor detector). As a first step, the inherent background of these detectors was measured in the low background underground laboratory UDO II of PTB. As a second step, the relative detection sensitivity between the various detectors was determined at different energies. Finally, the detectors were exposed to a 4π-radiation field of radon progeny in PTB's radon chamber. The obtained results show that the investigated detectors are well suited for environmental radiation monitoring

  13. The spillover effect of disclosure rules and materiality thresholds:Evidence from profit warnings issued in Hong Kong market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rencheng; Wang; Yao; Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Dual-listed firms simultaneously follow the relevant rules in their home country and in their cross-listed country.In contrast,other firms only listed in the cross-listed country are only subject to the local regulations.Previous literature has found evidence that cross-listing can improve firms’ information transparency because of more stringent listing rules in the cross-listed country.The existing research,however,has not paid enough attention to the potential influence of dual-listed firms and their home country institutional factors(e.g.unique disclosure policies) on other firms only listed in the cross-listed country(i.e.spillover effect).In the Hong Kong market,Chinese dual-listed firms are under the mandatory profit warning regulation of mainland China,but other firms listed only in Hong Kong only need to follow the voluntary disclosure rule of the Hong Kong Stock Exchange.Such a setting provides us with the opportunity to investigate a spillover effect,i.e.whether these Chinese dual-listed firms influence their peers only listed in Hong Kong to release profit warnings.We find that firms only listed in Hong Kong are more likely to issue profit warnings if their Chinese dual-listed peers have also issued warnings.We further find that this spillover effect increases with the market capitalization of Chinese duallisted firms and increases with the market share of these firms before they dominate the industry.Lastly,due to an underlying duty to disclose material information in Hong Kong,the spillover effect is weaker for firms with large earnings surprises.

  14. What's the buzz? Ultrasonic and sonic warning signals in caterpillars of the great peacock moth ( Saturnia pyri)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bura, Veronica L.; Fleming, Alan J.; Yack, Jayne E.

    2009-06-01

    Caterpillars have many natural enemies and, therefore, have evolved a diversity of antipredator strategies. Most research focuses on those strategies (crypsis, countershading, and warning coloration) targeting visually guided predators. In contrast, defensive sounds, although documented for more than a century, have been poorly studied. We report on a novel form of sound production—chirping—in caterpillars of the common European Great Peacock moth ( Saturnia pyri). Chirps are broadband, with dominant peaks ranging between the sonic (3.7 kHz) and ultrasonic (55.1 kHz) and are generated by a rapid succession of mandibular “tooth strikes.” Chirp trains are induced by simulated predator attacks and precede or accompany the secretion of a defensive chemical from integumental bristles, supporting our hypothesis that these sounds function in acoustic aposematism. We propose that these caterpillars generate multimodal warning signals (visual, chemical, and acoustic) to target the dominant sensory modalities of different predators, including birds, bats, and invertebrates.

  15. 49 CFR 229.113 - Warning notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....113 Warning notice. Whenever any steam generator has been shut down because of defects, a distinctive warning notice giving reasons for the shut-down shall be conspicuously attached near the steam generator starting controls until the necessary repairs have been made. The locomotive in which the steam...

  16. Preliminary results of very fast computation of Moment Magnitude and focal mechanism in the context of tsunami warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindelé, François; Roch, Julien; Rivera, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Various methodologies were recently developed to compute the moment magnitude and the focal mechanism, thanks to the real time access to numerous broad-band seismic data. Several methods were implemented at the CENALT, in particular the W-Phase method developed by H. Kanamori and L. Rivera. For earthquakes of magnitudes in the range 6.5-9.0, this method provides accurate results in less than 40 minutes. The context of the tsunami warning in Mediterranean, a small basin impacted in less than one hour, and with small sources but some with high tsunami potential (Boumerdes 2003), a comprehensive tsunami warning system in that region should include very fast computation of the seismic parameters. The results of the values of Mw, the focal depth and the type of fault (reverse, normal, strike-slip) are the most relevant parameters expected for the tsunami warning. Preliminary results will be presented using data in the North-eastern and Mediterranean region for the recent period 2010-2014. This work is funded by project ASTARTE - - Assessment, Strategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe - FP7-ENV2013 6.4-3, Grant 603839

  17. Using the lead vehicle as preview sensor in convoy vehicle active suspension control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mustafizur; Rideout, Geoff

    2012-12-01

    Both ride quality and roadholding of actively suspended vehicles can be improved by sensing the road ahead of the vehicle and using this information in a preview controller. Previous applications have used look-ahead sensors mounted on the front bumper to measure terrain beneath. Such sensors are vulnerable, potentially confused by water, snow, or other soft obstacles and offer a fixed preview time. For convoy vehicle applications, this paper proposes using the overall response of the preceding vehicle(s) to generate preview controller information for follower vehicles. A robust observer is used to estimate the states of a quarter-car vehicle model, from which road profile is estimated and passed on to the follower vehicle(s) to generate a preview function. The preview-active suspension, implemented in discrete time using a shift register approach to improve simulation time, reduces sprung mass acceleration and dynamic tyre deflection peaks by more than 50% and 40%, respectively. Terrain can change from one vehicle to the next if a loose obstacle is dislodged, or if the vehicle paths are sufficiently different so that one vehicle misses a discrete road event. The resulting spurious preview information can give suspension performance worse than that of a passive or conventional active system. In this paper, each vehicle can effectively estimate the road profile based on its own state trajectory. By comparing its own road estimate with the preview information, preview errors can be detected and suspension control quickly switched from preview to conventional active control to preserve performance improvements compared to passive suspensions.

  18. Audible thunder characteristic and the relation between peak frequency and lightning parameters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    OuYang Yuhua; Yuan Ping

    2012-02-01

    In recent summers, some natural lightning optical spectra and audible thunder signals were observed. Twelve events on 15 August 2008 are selected as samples since some synchronizing information about them are obtained, such as lightning optical spectra, surface E-field changes, etc. By using digital filter and Fourier transform, thunder frequency spectra in observation location have been calculated. Then the two main propagation effects, finite amplitude propagation and attenuation by air, are calculated. Upon that we take the test thunder frequency spectra and work backward to recalculate the original frequency spectra near generation location. Thunder frequency spectra and the frequency distribution varying with distance are researched. According to the theories on plasma, the channel temperature and electron density are further calculated by transition parameters of lines in lightning optical spectra. Pressure and the average ionization degree of each discharge channel are obtained by using Saha equations, charge conservation equations and particle conservation equations. Moreover, the relationship between the peak frequency of each thunder and channel parameters of the lightning is studied.

  19. Prediction and warning system of SEP events and solar flares for risk estimation in space launch operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rigo, Alberto; Núñez, Marlon; Qahwaji, Rami; Ashamari, Omar; Jiggens, Piers; Pérez, Gustau; Hernández-Pajares, Manuel; Hilgers, Alain

    2016-07-01

    A web-based prototype system for predicting solar energetic particle (SEP) events and solar flares for use by space launch operators is presented. The system has been developed as a result of the European Space Agency (ESA) project SEPsFLAREs (Solar Events Prediction system For space LAunch Risk Estimation). The system consists of several modules covering the prediction of solar flares and early SEP Warnings (labeled Warning tool), the prediction of SEP event occurrence and onset, and the prediction of SEP event peak and duration. In addition, the system acquires data for solar flare nowcasting from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS)-based techniques (GNSS Solar Flare Detector, GSFLAD and the Sunlit Ionosphere Sudden Total Electron Content Enhancement Detector, SISTED) as additional independent products that may also prove useful for space launch operators.

  20. Prediction and warning system of SEP events and solar flares for risk estimation in space launch operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Rigo Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A web-based prototype system for predicting solar energetic particle (SEP events and solar flares for use by space launch operators is presented. The system has been developed as a result of the European Space Agency (ESA project SEPsFLAREs (Solar Events Prediction system For space LAunch Risk Estimation. The system consists of several modules covering the prediction of solar flares and early SEP Warnings (labeled Warning tool, the prediction of SEP event occurrence and onset, and the prediction of SEP event peak and duration. In addition, the system acquires data for solar flare nowcasting from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS-based techniques (GNSS Solar Flare Detector, GSFLAD and the Sunlit Ionosphere Sudden Total Electron Content Enhancement Detector, SISTED as additional independent products that may also prove useful for space launch operators.

  1. The risk early-warning of gas hazard in coal mine based on Rough Set-neural network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Shui-cheng; WANG Li

    2007-01-01

    This article proposed the risk early-warning model of gas hazard based on Rough Set and neural network. The attribute quantity was reduced by Rough Set, the main characteristic attributes were withdrawn, the complexity of neural network system and the computing time was reduced, as well. Because of fault-tolerant ability, parallel processing ability, anti-jamming ability and processing non-linear problem ability of neural network system, the methods of Rough Set and neural network were combined. The examples research indicate: applying Rough Set and BP neural network to the gas hazard risk early-warning coal mines in coal mine, the BPNN structure is greatly simplified, the network computation quantity is reduced and the convergence rate is speed up.

  2. Feasibility Study of Earthquake Early Warning in Hawai`i For the Mauna Kea Thirty Meter Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, P.; Hotovec-Ellis, A. J.; Thelen, W. A.; Bodin, P.; Vidale, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    Earthquakes, including large damaging events, are as central to the geologic evolution of the Island of Hawai`i as its more famous volcanic eruptions and lava flows. Increasing and expanding development of facilities and infrastructure on the island continues to increase exposure and risk associated with strong ground shaking resulting from future large local earthquakes. Damaging earthquakes over the last fifty years have shaken the most heavily developed areas and critical infrastructure of the island to levels corresponding to at least Modified Mercalli Intensity VII. Hawai`i's most recent damaging earthquakes, the M6.7 Kiholo Bay and M6.0 Mahukona earthquakes, struck within seven minutes of one another off of the northwest coast of the island in October 2006. These earthquakes resulted in damage at all thirteen of the telescopes near the summit of Mauna Kea that led to gaps in telescope operations ranging from days up to four months. With the experiences of 2006 and Hawai`i's history of damaging earthquakes, we have begun a study to explore the feasibility of implementing earthquake early warning systems to provide advanced warnings to the Thirty Meter Telescope of imminent strong ground shaking from future local earthquakes. One of the major challenges for earthquake early warning in Hawai`i is the variety of earthquake sources, from shallow crustal faults to deeper mantle sources, including the basal decollement separating the volcanic pile from the ancient oceanic crust. Infrastructure on the Island of Hawai`i may only be tens of kilometers from these sources, allowing warning times of only 20 s or less. We assess the capability of the current seismic network to produce alerts for major historic earthquakes, and we will provide recommendations for upgrades to improve performance.

  3. Very Fast Characterization of Focal Mechanism Parameters Through W-Phase Centroid Inversion in the Context of Tsunami Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roch, Julien; Duperray, Pierre; Schindelé, François

    2016-03-01

    Most of the tsunami potential seismic sources in the NEAM region are in a magnitude range of 6.5 ≤ Mw ≤ 7.5 (e.g. the tsunami triggered by the Boumerdes earthquake of 2003 with Mw=6.9 ). The CENtre d'ALerte aux Tsunamis (CENALT), in operation since 2012 as the French National Tsunami Warning Centre (NTWC) and Candidate Tsunami Service Provider (CTSP), has to issue warning messages within 15 min of earthquake origin time. These warnings are based on the seismic source parameters (Mw magnitude, focal depth and type of fault), which are computed by focal mechanisms and centroid inversion methods. The W-phase method, developed by Kanamori and Rivera, allows quick computation of seismic source parameters due to the early arrival time between P-waves and surface waves, and is therefore particularly useful for monitoring. We assess the W-phase method with 29 events of magnitude M_w ≥ 5.8 for the period 2010-2015 in the NEAM region. Results with 10 min of signal length are in good agreement compared to the Global Centroid Moment Tensor (GCMT) catalog.

  4. Electric Vehicle Requirements for Operation in Smart Grids

    OpenAIRE

    Marra, Francesco; Sacchetti, Dario; Træholt, Chresten; Larsen, Esben

    2011-01-01

    Several European projects on smart grids are considering Electric Vehicles (EVs) as active element in future power systems. Both battery-powered vehicles and plug-in hybrid vehicles are expected to interact with the grid, sharing their energy storage capacity. Different coordination concepts for EVs are being investigated, in which vehicles can be intelligently charged or discharged feeding power back to the grid in vehicle-to-grid mode (V2G). To respond to such needs, EVs are required to sha...

  5. A Survey and Comparative Study of Broadcast Warning Message Dissemination Schemes for VANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio A. Sanguesa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V communications also known as vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs allow vehicles to cooperate to increase driving efficiency and safety on the roads. In particular, they are forecasted as one of the key technologies to increase traffic safety by providing useful traffic services. In this scope, vehicle-to-vehicle dissemination of warning messages to alert nearby vehicles is one of the most significant and representative solutions. The main goal of the different dissemination strategies available is to reduce the message delivery latency of such information while ensuring the correct reception of warning messages in the vehicle’s neighborhood as soon as a dangerous situation occurs. Despite the fact that several dissemination schemes have been proposed so far, their evaluation has been done under different conditions, using different simulators, making it difficult to determine the optimal dissemination scheme for each particular scenario. In this paper, besides reviewing the most relevant broadcast dissemination schemes available in the recent literature, we also provide a fair comparative analysis by evaluating them under the same environmental conditions, focusing on the same metrics, and using the same simulation platform. Overall, we provide researchers with a clear guideline of the benefits and drawbacks associated with each scheme.

  6. Assessment of capacity support and scattering in experimental high speed vehicle to vehicle MIMO links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eggers, Patrick Claus F.; Brown, Tim; Olesen, Kim;

    2007-01-01

    Preliminary results on the use of the vehicle to vehicle MIMO channel in a rural highway environment are presented. This is looked at both in terms of the available spatial multiplexing through singular value decomposition and also angular distribution within the channel. Results indicate a strong...... predominant line of sight link in general while instances of scattering from other vehicles will cause changes in the Doppler spectrum as well as beamforming jitter....

  7. Application of waveform stacking to the Tainan and Ilan low-cost local early warning (EEW) arrays in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, T. C.; Ting-Li, L.; Yih-Min, W.

    2014-12-01

    Taiwan has been constantly threatened by large, damaging earthquakes. Nowadays, EEWS is a useful tool for seismic hazard mitigation, and it is practical in Japan, Taiwan, Mexico, and the southern California (Kanamori, 1997). There are two types of EEWS. Generally, the front-type warning has higher accuracy than the on-site one because of the use of more stations and longer time window. On the other hand, the on-site type warning has the shorter reporting time, but lower accuracy because of using only one single or couple stations. Based on the on-site process, we installed two local early warning arrays in Ilan and Tainan city of the newly established EEW network and adopted the waveform stacking method to enhance the coherent part of early arrivals. We selected 15 events in 2013 of Central Weather Bureau earthquake catalog, and used the MPd method to estimate the magnitude. Since the EEW network is newly established and the accelerometers (named as Palert) are all installed on the building wall instead of the free surface, the present Pdattenuation relationships have to modify to account for the building effect to get the new regression equation. We show that the accuracy of magnitude estimation (MPd) for the on-site EEW mode by using the array stacking method can be significantly improved. Since the station density of the Palert network is high, more arrays can be formed especially in the metropolitan areas. Key words: EEW, EEW array, waveform stacking.

  8. [An early warning method of cucumber downy mildew in solar greenhouse based on canopy temperature and humidity modeling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Li, Mei-lan; Xu, Jian-ping; Chen, Mei-xiang; Li, Wen-yong; Li, Ming

    2015-10-01

    The greenhouse environmental parameters can be used to establish greenhouse nirco-climate model, which can combine with disease model for early warning, with aim of ecological controlling diseases to reduce pesticide usage, and protecting greenhouse ecological environment to ensure the agricultural product quality safety. Greenhouse canopy leaf temperature and air relative humidity, models were established using energy balance and moisture balance principle inside the greenhouse. The leaf temperature model considered radiation heat transfer between the greenhouse crops, wall, soil and cover, plus the heat exchange caused by indoor net radiation and crop transpiration. Furthermore, the water dynamic balance in the greenhouse including leaf transpiration, soil evaporation, cover and leaf water vapor condensation, was considered to develop a relative humidity model. The primary infection and latent period warning models for cucumber downy mildew (Pseudoperonospora cubensis) were validated using the results of the leaf temperature and relative humidity model, and then the estimated disease occurrence date of cucumber downy mildew was compared with actual disease occurrence date of field observation. Finally, the results were verified by the measured temperature and humidity data of September and October, 2014. The results showed that the root mean square deviations (RMSDs) of the measured and estimated leaf temperature were 0.016 and 0.024 °C, and the RMSDs of the measured and estimated air relative humidity were 0.15% and 0.13%, respectively. Combining the result of estimated temperature and humidity models, a cucumber disease early warning system was established to forecast the date of disease occurrence, which met with the real date. Thus, this work could provide the micro-environment data for the early warning system of cucumber diseases in solar greenhouses. PMID:26995910

  9. Adaboost Technique for Vehicle Detection in Aerial Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Sindoori

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available An approach for vehicle detection system from satellite images, which are used in many applications. Vehicle detection is done by pixelwise classification method instead sliding window and region based methods, which are used in existing system. The vital part of the paper is feature extraction and vehicle colour classification. Feature extraction includes edge and corner detection. For edgedetection, the Canny edge detector technique is applied. For, corner detection, the Harris corner detector process is applied. Adaboost is employed for vehicle colour extraction to separate vehicle and non-vehicle colours. Utterly, morphological operations are applied to enhance the vehicle detection.

  10. The UNESCO-IOC framework – establishing an international early warning infrastructure in the Indian Ocean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lauterjung

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Sumatra-Andaman earthquake with a magnitude of 9.3, and the subsequent destructive tsunami which caused more than 225 000 fatalities in the region of the Indian Ocean, happened on 26 December 2004. Less than one month later, the United Nations (UN World Conference on Disaster Reduction took place in Kobe, Japan to commemorate the 1995 Kobe earthquake. The importance of preparedness and awareness on regional, national and community levels with respect to natural disasters was discussed during this meeting, and resulted in the approval of the Hyogo Declaration on Disaster Reduction. Based on this declaration the UN mandated the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC of UNESCO (United Nations Education, Science and Cultural Organization, taking note of its over 40 years of successful coordination of the Pacific Tsunami Warning System (PTWC, to take on the international coordination of national early-warning efforts for the Indian Ocean and to guide the process of setting up a Regional Tsunami Early Warning System for the Indian Ocean.

  11. Application of a Tsunami Warning Message Metric to refine NOAA NWS Tsunami Warning Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, C. E.; Johnston, D.; Sorensen, J.; Whitmore, P.

    2013-12-01

    In 2010, the U.S. National Weather Service (NWS) funded a three year project to integrate social science into their Tsunami Program. One of three primary requirements of the grant was to make improvements to tsunami warning messages of the NWS' two Tsunami Warning Centers- the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) in Palmer, Alaska and the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) in Ewa Beach, Hawaii. We conducted focus group meetings with a purposive sample of local, state and Federal stakeholders and emergency managers in six states (AK, WA, OR, CA, HI and NC) and two US Territories (US Virgin Islands and American Samoa) to qualitatively asses information needs in tsunami warning messages using WCATWC tsunami messages for the March 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami event. We also reviewed research literature on behavioral response to warnings to develop a tsunami warning message metric that could be used to guide revisions to tsunami warning messages of both warning centers. The message metric is divided into categories of Message Content, Style, Order and Formatting and Receiver Characteristics. A message is evaluated by cross-referencing the message with the operational definitions of metric factors. Findings are then used to guide revisions of the message until the characteristics of each factor are met. Using findings from this project and findings from a parallel NWS Warning Tiger Team study led by T. Nicolini, the WCATWC implemented the first of two phases of revisions to their warning messages in November 2012. A second phase of additional changes, which will fully implement the redesign of messages based on the metric, is in progress. The resulting messages will reflect current state-of-the-art knowledge on warning message effectiveness. Here we present the message metric; evidence-based rational for message factors; and examples of previous, existing and proposed messages.

  12. Technology and implementation of electric vehicles and plug‐in hybrid electric vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Kenneth; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    2011-01-01

    In this report state of the art electric vehicle and plug‐in hybrid electric vehicle technology is presented to clarify the current and near term development. The current status of diffusion for electric vehicles in Denmark, Sweden and internationally is presented as well as the expected developments. Different business models and policies are also outlined along with a description of the on‐going research and demonstration projects.An analysis of the current and near term electric and plug‐i...

  13. Overview of main challenges for Early Warning Systems for Food Security in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genesio, Lorenzo; Bacci, Maurizio; Baron, Christian; Diarra, Birama; di Vecchia, Andrea; Traoré, Seydou; Hassane, Idrissa; Ndiaye, Mamadou; Philippon, Nathalie; Tarchiani, Vieri

    2010-05-01

    In West Africa Early Warning Systems (EWSs) for food security have been widely recognized to have contributed in the last twenty years to better face famine emergencies. The improved understanding of the environmental and socio-economic dynamics of the region, a change in the causes for food insecurity and the evolution of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) have favored the introduction of new approaches and the involvement of a network of stakeholders. In recent years the improvement of EWS has been concentrated in the adaptation and the transfer of existing tools rather than the development of the overall design of EWS in function of users needs, at the same time key scientific areas to be improved to provide major operational advancements needs to be better identified. This partially due to a difficulty of the research community to be in direct connection with operational processes and on the other side by an evident limit in following a demand driven approach due to the difficulties in modelling bio and social phenomena in a unique environment. In this context AMMA project had the ambitious objective of bridging the gap between state of the art research in the domains of geo-science and human related disciplines, and the operational EWS. The work carried out in AMMA, while improving the understanding of monsoon system, allowed to better orient research challenges in order to provide EWS with improved products effectively meeting the needs of end-users at different levels. In this work, advancements in providing appropriate information for the identification of agricultural risk zones by using short to long time forecasts are illustrated highlighting critical aspects still demanding scientific improvements.

  14. Apparatus for stopping a vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattenburg, Willard H.; McCallen, David B.

    2007-03-20

    An apparatus for externally controlling one or more brakes on a vehicle having a pressurized fluid braking system. The apparatus can include a pressurizable vessel that is adapted for fluid-tight coupling to the braking system. Impact to the rear of the vehicle by a pursuit vehicle, shooting a target mounted on the vehicle or sending a signal from a remote control can all result in the fluid pressures in the braking system of the vehicle being modified so that the vehicle is stopped and rendered temporarily inoperable. A control device can also be provided in the driver's compartment of the vehicle for similarly rendering the vehicle inoperable. A driver or hijacker of the vehicle preferably cannot overcome the stopping action from the driver's compartment.

  15. Radiation emitting devices regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radiation Emitting Devices Regulations are the regulations referred to in the Radiation Emitting Devices Act and relate to the operation of devices. They include standards of design and construction, standards of functioning, warning symbol specifications in addition to information relating to the seizure and detention of machines failing to comply with the regulations. The radiation emitting devices consist of the following: television receivers, extra-oral dental x-ray equipment, microwave ovens, baggage inspection x-ray devices, demonstration--type gas discharge devices, photofluorographic x-ray equipment, laser scanners, demonstration lasers, low energy electron microscopes, high intensity mercury vapour discharge lamps, sunlamps, diagnostic x-ray equipment, ultrasound therapy devices, x-ray diffraction equipment, cabinet x-ray equipment and therapeutic x-ray equipment

  16. Blast resistant vehicle seat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ripley, Edward B

    2013-02-12

    Disclosed are various seats for vehicles particularly military vehicles that are susceptible to attack by road-bed explosive devices such as land mines or improvised explosive devices. The seats often have rigid seat shells and may include rigid bracing for rigidly securing the seat to the chassis of the vehicle. Typically embodiments include channels and particulate media such as sand disposed in the channels. A gas distribution system is generally employed to pump a gas through the channels and in some embodiments the gas is provided at a pressure sufficient to fluidize the particulate media when an occupant is sitting on the seat.

  17. In-vehicle nitrogen dioxide concentrations in road tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ashley N.; Boulter, Paul G.; Roddis, Damon; McDonough, Liza; Patterson, Michael; Rodriguez del Barco, Marina; Mattes, Andrew; Knibbs, Luke D.

    2016-11-01

    There is a lack of knowledge regarding in-vehicle concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) during transit through road tunnels in urban environments. Furthermore, previous studies have tended to involve a single vehicle and the range of in-vehicle NO2 concentrations that vehicle occupants may be exposed to is not well defined. This study describes simultaneous measurements of in-vehicle and outside-vehicle NO2 concentrations on a route through Sydney, Australia that included several major tunnels, minor tunnels and busy surface roads. Tests were conducted on nine passenger vehicles to assess how vehicle characteristics and ventilation settings affected in-vehicle NO2 concentrations and the in-vehicle-to-outside vehicle (I/O) concentration ratio. NO2 was measured directly using a cavity attenuated phase shift (CAPS) technique that gave a high temporal and spatial resolution. In the major tunnels, transit-average in-vehicle NO2 concentrations were lower than outside-vehicle concentrations for all vehicles with cabin air recirculation either on or off. However, markedly lower I/O ratios were obtained with recirculation on (0.08-0.36), suggesting that vehicle occupants can significantly lower their exposure to NO2 in tunnels by switching recirculation on. The highest mean I/O ratios for NO2 were measured in older vehicles (0.35-0.36), which is attributed to older vehicles having higher air exchange rates. The results from this study can be used to inform the design and operation of future road tunnels and modelling of personal exposure to NO2.

  18. Critical behaviour in charging of electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Rui; Buzna, Lubos; Gibbens, Richard; Kelly, Frank

    2015-09-01

    The increasing penetration of electric vehicles over the coming decades, taken together with the high cost to upgrade local distribution networks and consumer demand for home charging, suggest that managing congestion on low voltage networks will be a crucial component of the electric vehicle revolution and the move away from fossil fuels in transportation. Here, we model the max-flow and proportional fairness protocols for the control of congestion caused by a fleet of vehicles charging on two real-world distribution networks. We show that the system undergoes a continuous phase transition to a congested state as a function of the rate of vehicles plugging to the network to charge. We focus on the order parameter and its fluctuations close to the phase transition, and show that the critical point depends on the choice of congestion protocol. Finally, we analyse the inequality in the charging times as the vehicle arrival rate increases, and show that charging times are considerably more equitable in proportional fairness than in max-flow.

  19. Usability Analysis of Collision Avoidance System in Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communication Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Cho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional intelligent vehicles have performance limitations owing to the short road and obstacle detection range of the installed sensors. In this study, to overcome this limitation, we tested the usability of a new conceptual autonomous emergency braking (AEB system that employs vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V communication technology in the existing AEB system. To this end, a radar sensor and a driving and communication environment constituting the AEB system were simulated; the simulation was then linked by applying vehicle dynamics and control logic. The simulation results show that the collision avoidance relaxation rate of V2V communication-based AEB system was reduced compared with that of existing vehicle-mounted-sensor-based system. Thus, a method that can lower the collision risk of the existing AEB system, which uses only a sensor cluster installed on the vehicle, is realized.

  20. Early warning of cotton bollworm resistance associated with intensive planting of Bt cotton in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haonan Zhang

    Full Text Available Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt toxins kill some key insect pests, but evolution of resistance by pests can reduce their efficacy. The predominant strategy for delaying pest resistance to Bt crops requires refuges of non-Bt host plants to promote survival of susceptible pests. To delay pest resistance to transgenic cotton producing Bt toxin Cry1Ac, farmers in the United States and Australia planted refuges of non-Bt cotton, while farmers in China have relied on "natural" refuges of non-Bt host plants other than cotton. Here we report data from a 2010 survey showing field-evolved resistance to Cry1Ac of the major target pest, cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera, in northern China. Laboratory bioassay results show that susceptibility to Cry1Ac was significantly lower in 13 field populations from northern China, where Bt cotton has been planted intensively, than in two populations from sites in northwestern China where exposure to Bt cotton has been limited. Susceptibility to Bt toxin Cry2Ab did not differ between northern and northwestern China, demonstrating that resistance to Cry1Ac did not cause cross-resistance to Cry2Ab, and implying that resistance to Cry1Ac in northern China is a specific adaptation caused by exposure to this toxin in Bt cotton. Despite the resistance detected in laboratory bioassays, control failures of Bt cotton have not been reported in China. This early warning may spur proactive countermeasures, including a switch to transgenic cotton producing two or more toxins distinct from Cry1A toxins.

  1. El Niño-Southern Oscillation and dengue early warning in Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, A. M.; Lowe, R.

    2012-04-01

    Dengue fever, a mosquito-borne viral disease, is one of the most important emerging tropical diseases. Dengue is hyper-endemic in coastal Ecuador, where all four serotypes co-circulate. The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) influences climate in Ecuador, with positive phase ENSO (El Niño) associated with wetter and warmer conditions over the southern coastal region. In turn, greater rainfall increases the availability of mosquito breeding sites for the dengue mosquito (Aedes aegypti), while warmer temperatures increase rates of larval development, mosquito biting, and viral replication in the mosquito. We report a statistical model for assessing the importance of climate as a driver for inter-annual variability in dengue fever in southern coastal Ecuador. Climate variables from a local meteorology station (precipitation, number of rainy days, minimum/maximum/mean air temperature), combined with gridded climate products, and anomalies of Pacific sea surface temperatures (Oceanic Niño Index, ONI) were used to predict monthly dengue standardized morbidity ratios (SMR) (1995-2010). Non-climatic confounding factors such as serotype introduction and vector control effort were also considered. Preliminary results indicated a statistically significant positive association between dengue risk and the number of rainy days during the previous month. Both the number of rainy days and dengue SMR were positively associated with the Pacific SST anomalies with a lead time of several months. Due to time lags involved in the climate-disease transmission system, monitoring El Niño / La Niña evolution in the Pacific Ocean could provide some predictive lead time for forecasting dengue epidemics. This is the first study of dengue fever and climate in this region. This research provides the foundation to develop a climate-driven early warning system for dengue fever in Ecuador.

  2. 30 CFR 75.1600-2 - Communication facilities; working sections; installation and maintenance requirements; audible or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Communication facilities; working sections; installation and maintenance requirements; audible or visual alarms. 75.1600-2 Section 75.1600-2 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Communications § 75.1600-2 Communication facilities;...

  3. Development of Integrated Weigh-in-motion System and Analysis of Traffic Flow Characteristics considering Vehicle Weight

    OpenAIRE

    AHMAD, SAIFIZUL ABDULLAH

    2011-01-01

    This study attempts to explore empirically how gross vehicle weight (GVW) will affect traffic flow characteristics in both free-flow and vehicle following situations. The success of the study is highly dependent on the empirical data provided by the traffic datacollection system. Currently, many kinds of systems or devices are available which measure or monitor or enforce traffic dedicatedly. The use of these dedicated or nonintegrated systems or devices in traffic data-coll...

  4. Developing the remote sensing-based early warning system for monitoring TSS concentrations in Lake Mead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imen, Sanaz; Chang, Ni-Bin; Yang, Y Jeffrey

    2015-09-01

    Adjustment of the water treatment process to changes in water quality is a focus area for engineers and managers of water treatment plants. The desired and preferred capability depends on timely and quantitative knowledge of water quality monitoring in terms of total suspended solids (TSS) concentrations. This paper presents the development of a suite of nowcasting and forecasting methods by using high-resolution remote-sensing-based monitoring techniques on a daily basis. First, the integrated data fusion and mining (IDFM) technique was applied to develop a near real-time monitoring system for daily nowcasting of the TSS concentrations. Then a nonlinear autoregressive neural network with external input (NARXNET) model was selected and applied for forecasting analysis of the changes in TSS concentrations over time on a rolling basis onward using the IDFM technique. The implementation of such an integrated forecasting and nowcasting approach was assessed by a case study at Lake Mead hosting the water intake for Las Vegas, Nevada, in the water-stressed western U.S. Long-term monthly averaged results showed no simultaneous impact from forest fire events on accelerating the rise of TSS concentration. However, the results showed a probable impact of a decade of drought on increasing TSS concentration in the Colorado River Arm and Overton Arm. Results of the forecasting model highlight the reservoir water level as a significant parameter in predicting TSS in Lake Mead. In addition, the R-squared value of 0.98 and the root mean square error of 0.5 between the observed and predicted TSS values demonstrates the reliability and application potential of this remote sensing-based early warning system in terms of TSS projections at a drinking water intake.

  5. Status of Public Earthquake Early Warning in the U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given, D. D.

    2013-12-01

    Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) is a proven use of seismological science that can give people and businesses outside the epicentral area of a large earthquake up to a minute to take protective actions before the most destructive shaking hits them. Since 2006 several organizations have been collaborating to create such a system in the United States. These groups include the US Geological Survey, Caltech, UC Berkeley, the University of Washington, the Southern California Earthquake Center, the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zürich, the California Office of Emergency Services, and the California Geological Survey. A demonstration version of the system, called ShakeAlert, began sending test notifications to selected users in California in January 2012. In August 2012 San Francisco's Bay Area Rapid Transit district began slowing and stopping trains in response to strong ground shaking. The next step in the project is to progress to a production prototype for the west coast. The system is built on top of the considerable technical and organizational earthquake monitoring infrastructure of the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS). While a fully functional, robust, public EEW system will require significant new investment and development in several major areas, modest progress is being made with current resources. First, high-quality sensors must be installed with sufficient density, particularly near source faults. Where possible, we are upgrading and augmenting the existing ANSS networks on the west coast. Second, data telemetry from those sensors must be engineered for speed and reliability. Next, robust central processing infrastructure is being designed and built. Also, computer algorithms to detect and characterize the evolving earthquake must be further developed and tested. Last year the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation funded USGS, Caltech, UCB and UW to accelerate R&D efforts. Every available means of distributing alerts must be used to insure the

  6. TRACKING VEHICLE IN GSM NETWORK TO SUPPORT INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Koppanyi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The penetration of GSM capable devices is very high, especially in Europe. To exploit the potential of turning these mobile devices into dynamic data acquisition nodes that provides valuable data for Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS, position information is needed. The paper describes the basic operation principles of the GSM system and provides an overview on the existing methods for deriving location data in the network. A novel positioning solution is presented that rely on handover (HO zone measurements; the zone geometry properties are also discussed. A new concept of HO zone sequence recognition is introduced that involves application of Probabilistic Deterministic Finite State Automata (PDFA. Both the potential commercial applications and the use of the derived position data in ITS is discussed for tracking vehicles and monitoring traffic flow. As a practical cutting edge example, the integration possibility of the technology in the SafeTRIP platform (developed in an EC FP7 project is presented.

  7. Tracking Vehicle in GSM Network to Support Intelligent Transportation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppanyi, Z.; Lovas, T.; Barsi, A.; Demeter, H.; Beeharee, A.; Berenyi, A.

    2012-07-01

    The penetration of GSM capable devices is very high, especially in Europe. To exploit the potential of turning these mobile devices into dynamic data acquisition nodes that provides valuable data for Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), position information is needed. The paper describes the basic operation principles of the GSM system and provides an overview on the existing methods for deriving location data in the network. A novel positioning solution is presented that rely on handover (HO) zone measurements; the zone geometry properties are also discussed. A new concept of HO zone sequence recognition is introduced that involves application of Probabilistic Deterministic Finite State Automata (PDFA). Both the potential commercial applications and the use of the derived position data in ITS is discussed for tracking vehicles and monitoring traffic flow. As a practical cutting edge example, the integration possibility of the technology in the SafeTRIP platform (developed in an EC FP7 project) is presented.

  8. 40 Years MAGLEV Vehicles in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Meisinger, Reinhold; Guangwei, Shu

    2011-01-01

    On May 6th 1971 the worldwide first MAGLEV vehicle was presented by Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm (MBB) in Ottobrunn near Munich, Germany. Till the year 2000 different test and application MAGLEV vehicles followed, but no commercial use in Germany. Since December 31st 2002 the Shang-hai MAGLEV Transportation System is successfully in operation, as the worldwide first and only one commercial used MAGLEV line. The paper in honour of Prof. Dr.-Ing. Eveline Gottzein for her 80th birthday contains in...

  9. Asthma Early Warning System in New York City (aewsnyc) Using Remote Sensing Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassebo, Yasser; Rahman, Zahidur

    2011-06-01

    Asthma is estimated to affect approximately 17.3 million Americans, including 5 million children less than 18 years of age. Of these 5 million children, 1.3 million are less than 5 years of age. Asthma is a major public health problem in NYC particularly in Bronx. 12.5% of new Yorkers have been diagnosed with asthma. 300,000 children in NYC have been diagnosed with asthma up to year of 2000. NYC children were almost twice as likely to be hospitalized due to asthma attacks as the average of US child in 2000. Queens county's diesel pollution risk ranks as the 10th unhealthiest in the US compared to over than 3000 counties. Asthma symptoms are consistent with exposure to a high level of a respiratory irritant gas, smoke fume, vapor, aerosol, particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5), and dust. Some types these environmental gaseous such as sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) can exacerbate preexisting respiratory symptoms in the short-term. Control of air pollution related diseases such as asthma, cancer, and bronchitis is difficult and inefficient due to the uncertainty in the air pollution transportation. Asthma control relies on air pollution detection and reduction. Asthma control can be improved by applying spatial tools such as Remote Sensing (RS), Geographical Information Systems (GIS). The project long-term goal is to develop a model to predict an Asthma Early Warning System for NYC (AEWSNYC), using two approaches: (1) satellite data error correction collaboratively with (2) Ground-based multiwavelength lidar measurements and NASA back trajectory tools. The proposed method can be used to create an efficient asthma control model globally.

  10. Electricity Grid: Impacts of Plug-In Electric Vehicle Charging

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Christopher; McCarthy, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    Concerns regarding air pollution, energy dependence, and, increasingly, climate change continue to motivate the search for new transportation solutions. Much of the focus is on light-duty vehicles, as they account for approximately 60% of transportation energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Battery-powered, electric-drive vehicles (EVs), such as plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs), are among the most promising of the advanced vehicle and fuel...

  11. Robust Range Estimation with a Monocular Camera for Vision-Based Forward Collision Warning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Yeong Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a range estimation method for vision-based forward collision warning systems with a monocular camera. To solve the problem of variation of camera pitch angle due to vehicle motion and road inclination, the proposed method estimates virtual horizon from size and position of vehicles in captured image at run-time. The proposed method provides robust results even when road inclination varies continuously on hilly roads or lane markings are not seen on crowded roads. For experiments, a vision-based forward collision warning system has been implemented and the proposed method is evaluated with video clips recorded in highway and urban traffic environments. Virtual horizons estimated by the proposed method are compared with horizons manually identified, and estimated ranges are compared with measured ranges. Experimental results confirm that the proposed method provides robust results both in highway and in urban traffic environments.

  12. The use of seasonal forecasts in a crop failure early warning system for West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklin, K. J.; Challinor, A.; Tompkins, A.

    2011-12-01

    Seasonal rainfall in semi-arid West Africa is highly variable. Farming systems in the region are heavily dependent on the monsoon rains leading to large variability in crop yields and a population that is vulnerable to drought. The existing crop yield forecasting system uses observed weather to calculate a water satisfaction index, which is then related to expected crop yield (Traore et al, 2006). Seasonal climate forecasts may be able to increase the lead-time of yield forecasts and reduce the humanitarian impact of drought. This study assesses the potential for a crop failure early warning system, which uses dynamic seasonal forecasts and a process-based crop model. Two sets of simulations are presented. In the first, the crop model is driven with observed weather as a control run. Observed rainfall is provided by the GPCP 1DD data set, whilst observed temperature and solar radiation data are given by the ERA-Interim reanalysis. The crop model used is the groundnut version of the General Large Area Model for annual crops (GLAM), which has been designed to operate on the grids used by seasonal weather forecasts (Challinor et al, 2004). GLAM is modified for use in West Africa by allowing multiple planting dates each season, replanting failed crops and producing parameter sets for Spanish- and Virginia- type West African groundnut. Crop yields are simulated for three different assumptions concerning the distribution and relative abundance of Spanish- and Virginia- type groundnut. Model performance varies with location, but overall shows positive skill in reproducing observed crop failure. The results for the three assumptions are similar, suggesting that the performance of the system is limited by something other than information on the type of groundnut grown. In the second set of simulations the crop model is driven with observed weather up to the forecast date, followed by ECMWF system 3 seasonal forecasts until harvest. The variation of skill with forecast date

  13. 中国农田重金属污染预警系统研究%The Warning System of Heavy Metal Pollution in the Farmland of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯彦林

    2012-01-01

    本文分析了农田重金属污染的“物质-驱动力-环境因素”的相互关系,结合中国国情,初步建立了中国农田重金属污染预警系统.它包括:农田重金属污染预警的“天-地-人通用概念模型”;国家级、省级综合预警和县级单一预警方法;粮食季单产、耕地人口密度、耕地工业产值三个预警指标;“红橙黄绿青蓝紫”7个警级;省级预警中的工业和经济开发区等标记方法,县级预警中的城郊区、矿山区、污灌区、交通线、污染水体、养殖基地等标记方法;国家级、省级预警实例.研究结果表明:系统适合中国国情;预警方法科学、通用、实用、简单;预警指标符合中国国情和实际,所需数据容易获得.%The relationship of "material-driving force-environmental factors" in farmland heavy metal pollution was analyzed and warning system of heavy metal pollution in the farmland of China was initial established combined with the situation of China. It contains: " heaven, earth and human universal conception model" of farmland heavy metal pollution warning; comprehensive warning method of national level, province level and single warning method of county level; grain yield per unit, farmland population density, farmland industrial output warning indexes; "all colors of the rainbow" 7 warning levels; labeling method for industry and economic development zone et al. in province warning and suburb, mining area, sewage irrigation area, traffic road, polluted water body and breeding base et al. in county warning; warning examples in national level and province level. Results showed that: the system is suitable for Chinese situation; the method of warning is scientific, universal, practical and simple; the index of warning meets the Chinese situation and practice, desired data is easy to obtain.

  14. Development of the Effective Underwater Speaker Sound Modulated by Audible Sound Frequency Range of Large Cetaceans for Avoidance with Ship Collision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Yamada

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The underwater speaker (UWS has been installed on high speed vessels; hydrofoils (HF with low-noise during their cruises, to avoid sudden collisions with large cetaceans, while its performance has remained uncertain because of the problem in quality of the produced sound. Thus, we developed a sound source for the UWS by modulating the sound based on the audible range of major large cetaceans so as to increase its utilities. To investigate the audible sound frequency range of cetacean, we tried two procedures, (1 indirect-estimation from relationship between cetaceans audibility and vocalization, and (2 indirect-estimation from measurements on the cochlear basal membrane. We also synthesized the two new sound sources which we can potentially expect an avoidance with large cetaceans. Through several field experiments with deploy the new sounds we reached a tentative conclusion that the new sound was effective in terms of inducing the cetaceans' avoidance reaction and would be also expected to be applied to other low-noise vessels.

  15. 空中交通管制安全风险预警决策模式%Early Warning Decision Model of Safety Risk in Air Traffic Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗帆; 杨智

    2013-01-01

    The existing decision problems in the early warning management were discussed using decision theory. The effectiveness of early warning and the accuracy improvement of the early warning signal output practice were investigated. From the level of preventing missing alarming and false alarming, the connotation of early warning decision was defined and warning decision model was designed. And the decision object which needs to be focused on in the warning decision model operation was analyzed. It was pointed out that the choice of decisions implement, restructure of the index system and threshold value definition were the main works of early warning decision-making model. It provided novel research field in the air traffic control in the early warning management theory.%针对空中交通管制安全风险预警管理中,如何实现有效预警,提高预警信号输出精度的实际问题,引入决策理论,探讨预警管理中存在的决策问题.从漏警、虚警防范的层面,定义预警决策的内涵,设计预警决策模式,并对预警决策模式运行中需要重点关注的决策对象进行了分析,指出指标体系再构、阈值界定,及以预警诊断方法为集合的决策器选择,是预警决策模式的主要工作导向,从而为空中交通管制预警管理理论导入新的研究内容.

  16. Advancement and results in hostile fire indication using potassium line missile warning sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Joel; Montgomery, Marjorie; Hardie, Russell

    2014-06-01

    M&M Aviation has been developing and conducting Hostile Fire Indication (HFI) tests using potassium line emission sensors for the Air Force Visible Missile Warning System (VMWS) to advance both algorithm and sensor technologies for UAV and other airborne systems for self protection and intelligence purposes. Work began in 2008 as an outgrowth of detecting and classifying false alarm sources for the VMWS using the same K-line spectral discrimination region but soon became a focus of research due to the high interest in both machine-gun fire and sniper geo-location via airborne systems. Several initial tests were accomplished in 2009 using small and medium caliber weapons including rifles. Based on these results, the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) funded the Falcon Sentinel program in 2010 to provide for additional development of both the sensor concept, algorithm suite changes and verification of basic phenomenology including variance based on ammunition type for given weapons platform. Results from testing over the past 3 years have showed that the system would be able to detect and declare a sniper rifle at upwards of 3km, medium machine gun at 5km, and explosive events like hand-grenades at greater than 5km. This paper will outline the development of the sensor systems, algorithms used for detection and classification, and test results from VMWS prototypes as well as outline algorithms used for the VMWS. The Falcon Sentinel Program will be outlined and results shown. Finally, the paper will show the future work for ATD and transition efforts after the Falcon Sentinel program completed.

  17. Control techniques for an automated mixed traffic vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisenholder, G. W.; Johnston, A. R.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes an automated mixed traffic vehicle (AMTV), a driverless low-speed tram designed to operate in mixed pedestrian and vehicular traffic. The vehicle is a six-passenger electric tram equipped with sensing and control which permit it to function on existing streets in an automatic mode. The design includes established wire-following techniques for steering and near-IR headway sensors. A 7-mph cruise speed is reduced to 2 mph or a complete stop in response to sensor (or passenger) inputs. The AMTV performance is evaluated by operation on a loop route and by simulation. Some necessary improvements involving sensors, sensor pattern, use of an audible signal, and control lag are discussed. It is suggested that appropriate modifications will eliminate collision incidents.

  18. Development of natural gas vehicles in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zongmin, Cheng

    1996-12-31

    Past decade and current status of development of natural gas vehicles (NGVs) in China is described. By the end of 1995, 35 CNG refueling stations and 9 LPG refueling stations had been constructed in 12 regions, and 33,100 vehicles had been converted to run on CNG or LPG. China`s automobile industry, a mainstay of the national economy, is slated for accelerated development over next few years. NGVs will help to solve the problems of environment protection, GHGs mitigation, and shortage of oil supply. The Chinese government has started to promote the development of NGVs. Projects, investment demand, GHG mitigation potential, and development barriers are discussed. China needs to import advanced foreign technologies of CNGs. China`s companies expect to cooperate with foreign partners for import of CNG vehicle refueling compressors, conversions, and light cylinders, etc.

  19. Mobile Devices in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachter, Ron

    2009-01-01

    As cell phones--with ever-expanding possibilities of texting, Web browsing, and game playing--have multiplied in recent years among teenagers and even preteens, so have the concerns of teachers and administrators about the distractions these devices can cause. A survey of students and parents earlier this year by the group Common Sense Media found…

  20. Comparison of Different Techniques for Processing GNSS Data in Real Time for Tsunami Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M.; Dragert, H.; Lu, Y.; Henton, J.; MacLeod, K.

    2012-12-01

    Real-time processing and dissemination of GNSS derived co-seismic position offsets for tsunami early warning has been under development at the Geological Survey of Canada (NRCan) for the past six years. Using streamed data from the Western Canada Deformation Array (WCDA), results from two variations of Precise Point Positioning (PPP) and two variations of network-based solutions are evaluated: NRCan's real-time PPP software, and two commercial software packages RTD and RTNET, licensed from Geodetics Inc. and GPS Solutions Inc. respectively. Of the two commercial packages, the former provides independent, epoch-by-epoch network solutions, while the latter has the capability to process data using both PPP and Network approaches. There are clear advantages and disadvantages to the independent PPP solutions vs. the network based solutions. PPP solutions (smoothed and un-smoothed) provide position estimates for single stations in a global framework. They are not reliant on 'fixed' reference stations that, if located within the seismogenic zone, will clearly experience co-seismic displacements. Under best-case scenarios, error levels of 1-2 cm horizontal and 3-6cm vertical are achievable for network based solutions whereas PPP solutions with ambiguity resolution are currently somewhat noisier. Both analysis methodologies are critically dependent on data continuity and robust tracking of all available satellites at each site. A clear case is made for the requirement for network based processing capacity for baselines of greater than 150km in order to ensure robust co-seismic displacement estimates during large earthquakes. Results from tests within the WCDA network using the different techniques are presented as well as recommendations for computational and operational improvements. NRCan's real-time web based interface offers the user community with a real-time display of position offset estimates for sites in southwestern coastal British Columbia.