WorldWideScience

Sample records for audible pedestrian signals

  1. Audible pedestrian signals :a feasibility study

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver, Morris Bernard

    1989-01-01

    This report represents a concentrated effort that determines the feasibility of audible pedestrian signals. These signals are devices which give auditory cues to help the visually impaired cross safely at difficult intersections. Surveys were sent out to over 100 organizations, audible signal manufacturers, and cities who have knowledge of the devices, and responses were analyzed. The devices were found to be feasible but only at certain complex and confusing intersect...

  2. The Use of Audible Traffic Signals in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, A. F.; Uslan, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses audible traffic signals (ATS) and their use by visually impaired pedestrians in the United States and other countries. Areas of concern are noted, including the types of intersections at which ATS should be installed, the locations of poles and buttons for activating the system, and the specific type of device used.…

  3. Guidelines for Assessing the Need for Adaptive Devices for Visually Impaired Pedestrians at Signalized Intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Brian R.; de Oca, Patricia Montes

    1998-01-01

    Presents guidelines for orientation and mobility instructors and traffic engineers to assess the need for adaptive devices to make crosswalks at signalized intersections accessible to pedestrians with visual impairments. The discussions of audible and tactile pedestrian devices, along with case examples, distinguish when each device should be…

  4. Pedestrian signalization and the risk of pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions in Lima, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Quistberg, D. Alex; Koepsell, Thomas D.; Boyle, Linda Ng; Miranda, J. Jaime; Johnston, Brian D.; Ebel, Beth E.

    2014-01-01

    Safe walking environments are essential for protecting pedestrians and promoting physical activity. In Peru, pedestrians comprise of over three-quarters of road fatality victims. Pedestrian signalization plays an important role managing pedestrian and vehicle traffic and may help improve pedestrian safety. We examined the relationship between pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions and the presence of visible traffic signals, pedestrian signals, and signal timing to determine whether these counte...

  5. PEDESTRIAN RISK AT THE SIGNALIZED PEDESTRIAN CROSSING EQUIPPED WITH COUNTDOWN DISPLAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Vujanić

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we proposed method for assessing pedestrian risk at the signalized pedestrian crossing equipped with counter. Results showed that 17.5% of pedestrians were at high risk and male pedestrians are more often in dangerous situation (20.4% than female pedestrians (14.4%. About 3% of all examined pedestrians created conflict situations, more frequently in first 5 seconds and last 5 seconds of red light phase (79.7% of all offenders, but the risk that pedestrians will create a conflict situation were higher in other time of red light phase. Analysis of pedestrians’ behavior at pedestrian crossings equipped with countdown display could point to potentially safety problems for pedestrians and those analysis could give direction for proposing and implementing adequate countermeasures. Also, numerically defined pedestrian accident risk could assess road safety level for pedestrians and show accident occurrence probability.

  6. Changes in Driver Behavior Resulting from Pedestrian Countdown Signals

    OpenAIRE

    Huey, S. Brian; Ragland, David

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the effects that pedestrian countdown signals have on driver behavior. Observations of two intersections, one with pedestrian signals and one without, were made focusing specifically on driver behavior during the amber and red phases. It was found that drivers at the pedestrian countdown intersection were less likely to enter the intersection at the end of the amber phase than those at the traditional pedestrian signal intersection. It was also found that drivers at the in...

  7. Study on pedestrian crossing behavior at signalized intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisamynathan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A clear understanding of pedestrian crossing behavior under mixed traffic conditions is needed for providing necessary infrastructure and also for enhancing pedestrian safety at signalized intersections. This paper attempts to analyze the crossing behavior of pedestrians like crossing speed, compliance with signal, and pedestrian-vehicular interaction under mixed traffic conditions and to identify the influencing factors based on statistical tests. 775 pedestrian samples were observed from three signalized intersections in Mumbai, India for analyzing crossing behaviors and the significant factors affecting traffic signal compliance by pedestrians were identified by conducting Pearson’s correlation coefficient test, ANOVA test, and Student t test. Factors influencing pedestrian crossing speed had been studied and a design crossing speed had been determined for old and adult pedestrians at 0.95 m/s and 1.12 m/s respectively. Logistic regression models had been developed in which the odds of pedestrian violation and interactions were modeled and verified. This study can help researchers and practitioners to understand pedestrian crossing behavior at signalized intersections and develop pedestrian delay models under mixed traffic conditions.

  8. Ergonomic investigation on pedestrian crossing with traffic light signalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amado, Giuseppe; de Moraes, Anamaria

    2012-01-01

    This article is about the risk behavior adopted by pedestrians at crosswalks with traffic light equipment. It was observed that many pedestrians take risk to cross the Presidente Vargas Avenue. This avenue is located in downtown in Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil, and has a heavy vehicular traffic and intense pedestrian flow. Many pedestrians cross the four lanes of avenue dangerously disobeying the traffic light indications. To conduct this research about pedestrian's behavior at crosswalks, a model known as Communication-Human Information Processing Model - C-HIP Model was used. Investigating the stages by C-HIP model perspective, using methods and techniques for each stage, enabled to identify which factors can contribute to pedestrians to disobey traffic signs and adopt a risky behavior in pedestrian crossing. PMID:22317476

  9. The influence of pedestrian countdown signals on children's crossing behavior at school intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lianning; Zou, Nan

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that pedestrian countdown signals had different influences on pedestrian crossing behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the installation of countdown signals at school intersections on children's crossing behavior. A comparison analysis was carried out on the basis of observations at two different school intersections with or without pedestrian countdown signals in the city of Jinan, China. Four types of children's crossing behavior and child pedestrian-vehicle conflicts were analyzed in detail. The analysis results showed that using pedestrian countdown timers during the Red Man phase led to more children's violation and running behavior. Theses violators created more conflicts with vehicles. However, pedestrian countdown signals were effective at helping child pedestrian to complete crossing before the red light onset, avoid getting caught in the middle of crosswalk. No significant difference was found in children who started crossing during Flashing Green Man phase between the two types of pedestrian signals. Moreover, analysis results indicated that children who crossed the road alone had more violation and adventure crossing behavior than those had companions. Boys were found more likely to run crossing than girls, but there was no significant gender difference in other crossing behavior. Finally, it's recommended to remove countdown at the end of the Red Man phase to improve children's crossing behavior and reduce the conflicts with vehicles. Meanwhile other measures are proposed to improve children safety at school intersections. PMID:27261555

  10. A Model for Capacity Considering the Interference by Pedestrian Traffic at Signal Intersections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yixin Chen; Yulong He; Xiaoduan Sun

    2016-01-01

    The capacity is impacted badly by pedestrians’ violation behavior at signal intersections. In order to quantify the impact, the time⁃headway and the vehicular speed from start⁃up to reach the stable saturation flow with and without pedestrian traffic are used as the direct measurements. Using the statistical analysis, the time⁃headway of saturation flow is mainly affected by the position of pedestrians and the degree of pedestrians ’ influence is classified into four levels. Then the speed⁃time profile for the vehicular acceleration at each level is fitted by Curve Fitting Software. Based on the effect to the time⁃headway and acceleration time, the model of capacity influenced by pedestrians is established and the influence is quantified, which enriches the fundamental theory of traffic engineering. The result shows that the vehicular capacity can be decreased by 14%at the worst case ( level I ) . The conclusions obtained in this paper are valuable for better management of the signal intersection.

  11. Exploring motorcycle red-light violation in response to pedestrian green signal countdown device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ping-Ling; Pai, Chih-Wei; Jou, Rong-Chang; Saleh, Wafaa; Kuo, Ming-Shin

    2015-02-01

    Literature has suggested that angle/rear-end collisions would arise from the reality that motorists and motorcyclists tended to accelerate aggressively in response to the remaining seconds of green signal countdown device (GSCD). One safety concern, while GSCD has gradually been removed for safety in Taiwan, is pedestrian green signal countdown device (PGSCD) that is used by approaching motorists and motorcyclists that may adopt the information to travel aggressively - an unintended consequence that is detrimental to safety. Research has reported that there appeared no negative effect of PGSCD on motorist behaviours but the effect on motorcyclists' behaviours has been rarely investigated. Using video/speed cameras, the current research investigates motorcyclists' RLV (red-light violation) behaviours. The descriptive analyses indicate that the percentage of RLV at PGSCD intersection is higher than that at typical intersection, and the violating motorcycles appear to have higher travelling speeds at PGSCD intersection. Several interaction terms were examined with the binary logit framework, and the results reveal that several factors are associated with RLV, notably male/young riders, moped/large motorcycle users, higher approaching speeds of motorcycles, those with tropical helmets, and lower traffic volume. Similar determinants of early-start behaviours (for those waiting at reds and could view the PGSCDs for the crossing pedestrians at the same time) were identified. Implications of the research findings, the concluding remarks, and recommendations for future research are finally provided. PMID:25460099

  12. EFFECT OF PEDESTRIANS UN-SIGNALIZED MID-BLOCK CROSSING ON VEHICULAR SPEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Raghuram Kadali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrian is one of the important component in urban transportation system and also vulnerable at un-protected mid-block locations under mixed traffic conditions. At un-protected mid-block locations, some of the vehicles may yield to pedestrians who are already at crosswalk location. However, some of the pedestrians are using forced gaps to cross the road. Hence, while pedestrians use the mid-block crosswalk with forced gaps, which decreases the vehicular flow characteristics. The pedestrian sidewalks do not show a direct effect on the vehicular flow characteristics when the pedestrian have pleasant walking facilities. The present study has analyzed the effect of pedestrian crossing on the characteristics of vehicular flow at mid-block location under mixed traffic conditions. The results indicate that the pedestrian forced gap condition has significant effect on vehicular characteristics. The study results may be useful for decreasing the travel time for vehicular drivers by controlling usage of pedestrian forced gaps.

  13. Audibility and visual biasing in speech perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Bart Richard

    Although speech perception has been considered a predominantly auditory phenomenon, large benefits from vision in degraded acoustic conditions suggest integration of audition and vision. More direct evidence of this comes from studies of audiovisual disparity that demonstrate vision can bias and even dominate perception (McGurk & MacDonald, 1976). It has been observed that hearing-impaired listeners demonstrate more visual biasing than normally hearing listeners (Walden et al., 1990). It is argued here that stimulus audibility must be equated across groups before true differences can be established. In the present investigation, effects of visual biasing on perception were examined as audibility was degraded for 12 young normally hearing listeners. Biasing was determined by quantifying the degree to which listener identification functions for a single synthetic auditory /ba-da-ga/ continuum changed across two conditions: (1)an auditory-only listening condition; and (2)an auditory-visual condition in which every item of the continuum was synchronized with visual articulations of the consonant-vowel (CV) tokens /ba/ and /ga/, as spoken by each of two talkers. Audibility was altered by presenting the conditions in quiet and in noise at each of three signal-to- noise (S/N) ratios. For the visual-/ba/ context, large effects of audibility were found. As audibility decreased, visual biasing increased. A large talker effect also was found, with one talker eliciting more biasing than the other. An independent lipreading measure demonstrated that this talker was more visually intelligible than the other. For the visual-/ga/ context, audibility and talker effects were less robust, possibly obscured by strong listener effects, which were characterized by marked differences in perceptual processing patterns among participants. Some demonstrated substantial biasing whereas others demonstrated little, indicating a strong reliance on audition even in severely degraded acoustic

  14. 49 CFR 214.511 - Required audible warning devices for new on-track roadway maintenance machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SAFETY On-Track Roadway Maintenance Machines and Hi-Rail Vehicles § 214.511 Required audible warning...) An automatic change-of-direction alarm which provides an audible signal that is at least...

  15. Pedestrian Crossing Speed: The Case of Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boon Hoe Goh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrians are vulnerable road users, and they are always at risk when making their daily trips. Hence, roadway design and traffic’ control devices need to consider pedestrians’ safety. Pedestrian walking speed is fundamental to any roadway and traffic’ control design. Unfortunately, no specific guidelines exist for pedestrian crossing speed in Malaysia. The ultimate goals of this research are to establish the local pedestrian crossing speed and to identify the contributing factors. A total of 1579 samples on pedestrian crossing speed were collected at signalized and non-signalized crosswalks. The Bi-variate analysis (chi-square test was carried out to study statistically the association of the contributing factors. The Bi-variate analysis shows that crosswalk type, age and gender significantly contribute to pedestrian speed in Malaysia. However, lighting (daytime and night-time and race are not contributing to the pedestrians’ speed. Besides, pedestrians at non-signalized crosswalk have significantly faster crossing speed than at signalized crosswalk. Chi-square test also showed that children pedestrians are the fastest group, and elderly pedestrians are the slowest group in terms of pedestrian crossing speed. Moreover, male pedestrians have significantly faster crossing speed than female pedestrians do.

  16. Mobile Sensing of Pedestrian Flocks in Indoor Environments using WiFi Signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Wirz, Martin; Roggen, Daniel;

    2012-01-01

    In Pervasive Computing research, substantial work has been directed towards radio-based sensing of human movement patterns. This research has, however, mainly been focused on movements of individuals. This paper addresses the joint identification of the movement indoors of multiple persons forming...... a cohesive whole - specifically flocks - with clustering approaches operating on three different feature sets derived from WiFi signals which are comparatively analysed. Automatic detection of flocks has several important applications, including social and psychological sensing and emergency research studies...

  17. An Adaptation Level Theory of Tinnitus Audibility

    OpenAIRE

    Grant eSearchfield; Kei eKobayashi; Michael eSanders

    2012-01-01

    Models of tinnitus suggest roles for auditory, attention, and emotional networks in tinnitus perception. A model of tinnitus audibility based on Helson’s (1964) adaptation level theory (ALT) is hypothesized to explain the relationship between tinnitus audibility, personality, memory, and attention. This theory attempts to describe how tinnitus audibility or detectability might change with experience and context. The basis of ALT and potential role of auditory scene analysis in tinnitus percep...

  18. The effect of audibility, signal-to-noise ratio, and temporal speech cues on the benefit from fast-acting compression in modulated noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Henrik L; Olofsson, Ake; Hagerman, Björn

    2005-07-01

    The objective of the experiment was to investigate three aspects that might contribute to the benefit of fast-acting compression seen in normal-hearing listeners. Six normal-hearing listeners were tested with speech recognition in a fully modulated noise (FUM) either through a fast-acting compressor or through linear amplification. In the first experiment, three different presentation levels of the FUM noise (15, 30, and 45 dB SL) were tested. The second experiment manipulated the control signal of the compressor independently of the audio input signal at four signal-to-noise ratios (-15, 10, -5, and 0 dB). A signal correlated noise version of the speech signal was tested in the third experiment at three speech-to-noise ratios (-20, -15 and -10 dB). Results showed that performance was better with compression than with linear amplification through all of the tested conditions at least when the signal-to-noise ratio was negative. The results suggest that other aspects of the hearing impairment than those simulated here are involved in the degraded performance seen for some hearing-impaired listeners with fast-acting compression. PMID:16136792

  19. Audible Aliasing Distortion in Digital Audio Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schimmel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with aliasing distortion in digital audio signal synthesis of classic periodic waveforms with infinite Fourier series, for electronic musical instruments. When these waveforms are generated in the digital domain then the aliasing appears due to its unlimited bandwidth. There are several techniques for the synthesis of these signals that have been designed to avoid or reduce the aliasing distortion. However, these techniques have high computing demands. One can say that today's computers have enough computing power to use these methods. However, we have to realize that today’s computer-aided music production requires tens of multi-timbre voices generated simultaneously by software synthesizers and the most of the computing power must be reserved for hard-disc recording subsystem and real-time audio processing of many audio channels with a lot of audio effects. Trivially generated classic analog synthesizer waveforms are therefore still effective for sound synthesis. We cannot avoid the aliasing distortion but spectral components produced by the aliasing can be masked with harmonic components and thus made inaudible if sufficient oversampling ratio is used. This paper deals with the assessment of audible aliasing distortion with the help of a psychoacoustic model of simultaneous masking and compares the computing demands of trivial generation using oversampling with those of other methods.

  20. Pedestrian Friendly Outdoor Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, N. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Koltai, R. N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McGowan, T. K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The GATEWAY program followed two pedestrian-scale lighting projects that required multiple mockups – one at Stanford University in California and the other at Chautauqua Institution in upstate New York. The report provides insight into pedestrian lighting criteria, how they differ from street and area lighting criteria, and how solid-state lighting can be better applied in pedestrian applications.

  1. Interactions between Intersecting Pedestrian and Vehicle Flows on Roads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Ren-Yong; GUO Xi

    2011-01-01

    The crossing of vehicle How by pedestrians at either signalized crosswalks or locations away from crosswalks is studied using a car-following model. The model process is constructed, and two safe criterions deciding whether pedestrians begin to cross a road and a rule stopping vehicles at a signal intersection are proposed. Numerical results indicate that the relations of both vehicles' and pedestrians' delays to the width of pedestrian arrival interval are nonlinear; careful pedestrians unnecessarily spend more time to cross a road than aggressive ones; pedestrians crossing near a traffic signal have more influence on their and vehicles' delays. When pedestrians are permitted to cross a road using the gaps between slow vehicles, their delay may increase.%The crossing of vehicle flow by pedestrians at either signalized crosswalks or locations away from crosswalks is studied using a car-following model.The model process is constructed,and two safe criterions deciding whether pedestrians begin to cross a road and a rule stopping vehicles at a signal intersection are proposed.Numerical results indicate that the relations of both vehicles' and pedestrians' delays to the width of pedestrian arrival interval are nonlinear;careful pedestrians unnecessarily spend more time to cross a road than aggressive ones;pedestrians crossing near a traffic signal have more influence on their and vehicles' delays.When pedestrians are permitted to cross a road using the gaps between slow vehicles,their delay may increase.In recent years,intersecting pedestrian and vehicle flows on roads have been studied by using the microscopic simulation method.[1-5] In the method,the dynamics of vehicle flow are formulated by cell automata (CA) models[5] or car-following (CF) models[1-3] generally.It is well known that space is discretized into cells and the length of cells measures the moving distance of vehicles in the CA models.Thus,the CA models are used to investigate the effects of vehicles

  2. Ranking the types of intersections for assessing the safety of pedestrians using TOPSIS method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Călin ŞERBU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Every year, more than 1500 accidents with pedestrian occur in the intersections in Romania. The number of accidents involving pedestrians in roundabouts intersections type increased approximately three times in 2013 compared to 2009 in Romania. This alarming increase led to the need of assessing the safety of pedestrians in intersections with or without safety systems. The safety systems for pedestrians and drivers include: the road marking, the pedestrian crossings marking, signal intersections with road signs, traffic lights or pedestrian safety barriers. We propose to assess the types of intersections with TOPSIS method.

  3. Gap acceptance of violators at signalised pedestrian crossings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, P P; Wong, Y D

    2014-01-01

    Gap acceptance of violating pedestrians was studied at seven stretches of signalised pedestrian crossings in Singapore. The provision of the traffic light signals provide a 'safer' crossing option to these pedestrians, as compared to uncontrolled crossings and mid-block arterial roads. However, there are still people choosing to cross at the riskier period (Red Man phase). The paper discusses about the size of traffic gaps rejected and accepted by pedestrians and the behaviour of riskier pedestrians (those adapting partial gap). The likelihood of pedestrians accepting gaps between vehicular traffic as a combination of different influencing independent variables such as traffic, environmental and personal factors was studied and modelled using logistic regression. PMID:24172084

  4. Safe lighting of pedestrian crossings

    OpenAIRE

    Bláha, Zdeněk; Sokanský, Karel; Novák, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    This paper solves the lighting of pedestrian crossings. This type of lighting helps to improve the safety of pedestrians in this conflict area (means a pedestrian crossing). The research was drawn on the basis of measurements of 87 pedestrian crossings in district Ostrava because the regularities can be better understood. Pedestrian crossings were evaluated on the basis of luminance ratio and statistical data of accident rate. This paper also solves the reflectance of clothes which is also im...

  5. Pedestrian Friendly Outdoor Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Naomi J.; Koltai, Rita; McGowan, Terry

    2013-12-31

    This GATEWAY report discusses the problems of pedestrian lighting that occur with all technologies with a focus on the unique optical options and opportunities offered by LEDs through the findings from two pedestrian-focused projects, one at Stanford University in California, and one at the Chautauqua Institution in upstate New York. Incorporating user feedback this report reviews the tradeoffs that must be weighed among visual comfort, color, visibility, efficacy and other factors to stimulate discussion among specifiers, users, energy specialists, and in industry in hopes that new approaches, metrics, and standards can be developed to support pedestrian-focused communities, while reducing energy use.

  6. Normative pedestrian flow behavior theory and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendoorn, S.P.

    2001-01-01

    Gaining insights into pedestrian flow operations and assessment tools for pedestrian walking speeds and comfort is important in for instance planning and geometric design of infrastructural facilities. Additionally, management of pedestrian flows requires knowledge of pedestrian flow behavior. Howev

  7. Beta decay for pedestrians

    CERN Document Server

    Lipkin, Harry Jeannot

    1962-01-01

    The ""pedestrian approach"" was developed to describe some essentially simple experimental results and their theoretical implications in plain language. In this graduate-level text, Harry J. Lipkin presents simply, but without oversimplification, the aspects of beta decay that can be understood without reference to the formal theory; that is, the reactions that follow directly from conservation laws and elementary quantum mechanics.The pedestrian treatment is neither a substitute for a complete treatment nor a watered-down version.

  8. Melodic algorithms for pulse oximetry to allow audible discrimination of abnormal systolic blood pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chima, Ranjit S; Ortega, Rafael; Connor, Christopher W

    2014-12-01

    An anesthesiologist must remain vigilant of the patient's clinical status, incorporating many independent physiological measurements. Oxygen saturation and heart rate are represented by continuous audible tones generated by the pulse oximeter, a mandated monitoring device. Other important clinical parameters--notably blood pressure--lack any audible representation beyond arbitrarily-configured threshold alarms. Attempts to introduce further continuous audible tones have apparently foundered; the complexity and interaction of these tones have exceeded the ability of clinicians to interpret them. Instead, we manipulate the tonal and rhythmic structure of the accepted pulse oximeter tone pattern melodically. Three melodic algorithms were developed to apply tonal and rhythmic variations to the continuous pulse oximeter tone, dependent on the systolic blood pressure. The algorithms distort the original audible pattern minimally, to facilitate comprehension of both the underlying pattern and the applied variations. A panel of anesthesia practitioners (attending anesthesiologists, residents and nurse anesthetists) assessed these algorithms in characterizing perturbations in cardiopulmonary status. Twelve scenarios, incorporating combinations of oxygen desaturation, bradycardia, tachycardia, hypotension and hypertension, were tested. A rhythmic variation in which additional auditory information was conveyed only at halftime intervals, with every other "beat" of the pulse oximeter, was strongly favored. The respondents also strongly favored the use of musical chords over single tones. Given three algorithms of tones embedded in the pulse oximeter signal, anesthesiologists preferred a melodic tone to signal a significant change in blood pressure. PMID:24474369

  9. Audible reflection density for different late reflection criteria in rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krueger, Donata; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Brunskog, Jonas;

    2012-01-01

    For reasonably accurate but practical auralizations, some simplifications and approximations are needed. The main issue in the present investigation is that the reflection density of a room impulse response, in theory, increases so fast as a quadratic function of the elapsed time, even assuming...... only specular reflections. Therefore in this study, the upper threshold for audible reflection density is investigated for four different transition times of 25, 50, 75, and 100 ms through a headphone listening test. Binaural impulse responses and speech signals simulated in three rooms with different...... characteristics (an empty office, a lecture room, and an auditorium) are used as stimuli. Subjects are asked to increase/decrease the reflection density of a stimulus until they cannot distinguish it from the stimulus that follows the theoretical reflection density for the different transition times in the three...

  10. Pedestrian Dynamics - Footbridge Loads

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pirner, Miroš; Urushadze, Shota

    52 2007, č. 3 (2007), s. 269-283. ISSN 0001-7043 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA103/05/2066 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : Natural frequency * Striding velocity * Foot fall force * Pedestrian dynamics Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering

  11. Pedestrians' performance and satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Methorst, R.; Horst, A.R.A. van der

    2010-01-01

    In the framework of the PQN project, assessments have been carried out to arrive at real figures on the pedestrians’ performance and satisfaction. The results regarding key figures are: • About 50% of the pedestrians have limited abilities and about 10% of the population has severe difficulties walk

  12. Normative pedestrian flow behavior theory and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Hoogendoorn, S.P.

    2001-01-01

    Gaining insights into pedestrian flow operations and assessment tools for pedestrian walking speeds and comfort is important in for instance planning and geometric design of infrastructural facilities. Additionally, management of pedestrian flows requires knowledge of pedestrian flow behavior. However, compared to vehicular traffic, pedestrian flow operations are very complex. This is why vehicular flow simulation modeling approaches are generally not applicable to pedestrian flows. Motivated...

  13. Preferences and behaviour of pedestrians and cyclists by age and gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernhoft, Inger Marie; Carstensen, Gitte

    2008-01-01

    Preferences and behaviour of older pedestrians and cyclists (women and men, 70 years and above) in cities were studied by means of a questionnaire, and was compared to a group of people aged 40–49. The older respondents appreciate pedestrian crossings, signalized intersections and cycle paths...

  14. Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Kirsch, Uwe; Schreckenberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The 6th International Conference on Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics conference (PED2012) showcased research on human locomotion. This book presents the proceedings of PED2012. Humans have walked for eons; our drive to settle the globe began with a walk out of Africa. However, much remains to discover. As the world moves toward sustainability while racing to assess and accommodate climate change, research must provide insight on the physical requirements of walking, the dynamics of pedestrians on the move and more. We must understand, predict and simulate pedestrian behaviour, to avoid dangerous situations, to plan for emergencies, and not least, to make walking more attractive and enjoyable. PED2012 offered 70 presentations and keynotes and 70 poster presentations covering new and improved mathematical models, describing new insights on pedestrian behaviour in normal and emergency cases and presenting research based on sensors and advanced observation methods. These papers offer a starting point for innova...

  15. Influence of high-frequency audibility on the perceived distance of sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cubick, Jens; Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    2014-01-01

    When listening in natural environments, normal-hearing (NH) listeners usually perceive sounds out- side their head, i.e., externalized. Sounds perceived inside the head are called internalized. Hearing- impaired (HI) listeners have been reported to externalize sounds less accurately than NH...... listeners. In a study by Boyd et al. (2012), the average externalization ratings of NH listeners dropped and matched those of HI listeners when the signals were lowpass-filtered at 6.5 kHz. This suggested that reduced high-frequency audibility might cause a reduced externalization in HI listeners. The...

  16. Pedestrian Crossing Speed: The Case of Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Boon Hoe Goh; Kulanthayan Subramaniam; Yeong Tuck Wai; Abdullahi Ali Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Pedestrians are vulnerable road users, and they are always at risk when making their daily trips. Hence, roadway design and traffic control devices need to consider pedestrians’ safety. Pedestrian walking speed is fundamental to any roadway and traffic control design. Unfortunately, no specific guidelines exist for pedestrian crossing speed in Malaysia. The ultimate goals of this research are to establish the local pedestrian crossing speed and to identify the contributing factors. A total of...

  17. Symmetry Breaking in Pedestrian Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Morton, Nickolas A

    2016-01-01

    When two pedestrians travelling in opposite directions approach one another, each must decide on which side (the left or the right) they will attempt to pass. If both make the same choice then passing can be completed with ease, while if they make opposite choices an embarrassing stand-off or collision can occur. Pedestrians who encounter each other frequently can establish "social norms" that bias this decision. In this study we investigate the effect of binary decision-making by pedestrians when passing on the dynamics of pedestrian flows in order to study the emergence of a social norm in crowds with a mixture of individual biases. Such a situation may arise, for instance, when individuals from different communities mix at a large sporting event or at transport hubs. We construct a phase diagram that shows that a social norm can still emerge provided pedestrians are sufficiently attentive to the choices of others in the crowd. We show that this collective behaviour has the potential to greatly influence th...

  18. Foot mounted inertial system for pedestrian navigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses algorithmic concepts, design and testing of a system based on a low-cost MEMS-based inertial measurement unit (IMU) and high-sensitivity global positioning system (HSGPS) receivers for seamless personal navigation in a GPS signal degraded environment. The system developed here is mounted on a pedestrian shoe/foot and uses measurements based on the dynamics experienced by the inertial sensors on the user's foot. The IMU measurements are processed through a conventional inertial navigation system (INS) algorithm and are then integrated with HSGPS receiver measurements and dynamics derived constraint measurements using a tightly coupled integration strategy. The ability of INS to bridge the navigation solution is evaluated through field tests conducted indoors and in severely signal degraded forest environments. The specific focus is on evaluating system performance under challenging GPS conditions

  19. DATA COLLECTION METHOD FOR PEDESTRIAN MOVEMENT VARIABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime Inamura

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The need of tools for design and evaluation of pedestrian areas, subways stations, entrance hall, shopping mall, escape routes, stadium etc lead to the necessity of a pedestrian model. One approach pedestrian model is Microscopic Pedestrian Simulation Model. To be able to develop and calibrate a microscopic pedestrian simulation model, a number of variables need to be considered. As the first step of model development, some data was collected using video and the coordinate of the head path through image processing were also taken. Several numbers of variables can be gathered to describe the behavior of pedestrian from a different point of view. This paper describes how to obtain variables from video taking and simple image processing that can represent the movement of pedestrians and its variables

  20. Simplified Pedestrian Tracking Filters with Positioning and Foot-Mounted Inertial Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Pedestrian tracking is one of the bases for many ubiquitous context-aware services, but it is still an open issue in indoor environments or when GPS estimations are not optimal. In this paper, we propose two novel different data fusion algorithms to track a pedestrian using current positioning technologies (i.e., GPS, received signal strength localization from Wi-Fi or Bluetooth networks, etc.) and low cost inertial sensors. In particular, the algorithms rely, respectively, on an extended Kal...

  1. A rapid method for identifying and characterizing structural impacts using distributed sensors: An application for automotive pedestrian protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Andrew C.

    This research is motivated by recent activity to improve automotive safety, especially for pedestrians. In many parts of the world today, injuries and fatalities from road accidents are a significant problem. Safety features such as seat restraints and air bags provide considerable levels of protection for car occupants; however, no such protective measures currently exist for pedestrians. Drawing upon the success and effectiveness of occupant air bag systems, current research aims to develop similar devices for pedestrians. These active pedestrian protection systems deploy a safety feature such as an external air bag when a pedestrian is hit by a vehicle. Contact with the front bumper induces a body rotation that may result in a violent head collision. The deployable safety device provides a cushioning surface for the vulnerable pedestrian during impact. The challenge of such a system is an effective sensory unit that can rapidly and correctly discriminate pedestrian impacts from non-pedestrian ones. The fast kinematics of the automobile-pedestrian impact leaves a minimal amount of time for signal processing and computation. This research study focuses on a discrimination scheme that satisfies both the time and accuracy requirements for a proposed sensory system for pedestrian protection. A unique methodology was developed to identify structural impacts using dominant frequency features extracted from sensory data. Contact sensors mounted on the front bumper of an automobile measure the strain response from an impact event. The dominant frequencies obtained from these sensor signals are greatly influenced by the impact object's properties and can be used to discriminate between different objects. Extensive tests were conducted to gather sensor data and validate the proposed methodology and impact discrimination algorithm. Results of the impact tests indicate that the approach is sound, and the sensory system effectively identifies "pedestrian" impacts within a

  2. Simulation of counterflow pedestrian dynamics using spheropolygons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Marroquín, Fernando; Busch, Jonathan; Chiew, Coraline; Lozano, Celia; Ramírez-Gómez, Álvaro

    2014-12-01

    Pedestrian dynamic models are typically designed for comfortable walking or slightly congested conditions and typically use a single disk or combination of three disks for the shape of a pedestrian. Under crowd conditions, a more accurate pedestrian shape has advantages over the traditional single or three-disks model. We developed a method for simulating pedestrian dynamics in a large dense crowd of spheropolygons adapted to the cross section of the chest and arms of a pedestrian. Our numerical model calculates pedestrian motion from Newton's second law, taking into account viscoelastic contact forces, contact friction, and ground-reaction forces. Ground-reaction torque was taken to arise solely from the pedestrians' orientation toward their preferred destination. Simulations of counterflow pedestrians dynamics in corridors were used to gain insight into a tragic incident at the Madrid Arena pavilion in Spain, where five girls were crushed to death. The incident took place at a Halloween Celebration in 2012, in a long, densely crowded hallway used as entrance and exit at the same time. Our simulations reconstruct the mechanism of clogging in the hallway. The hypothetical case of a total evacuation order was also investigated. The results highlights the importance of the pedestrians' density and the effect of counterflow in the onset of avalanches and clogging and provides an estimation of the number of injuries based on a calculation of the contact-force network between the pedestrians.

  3. Impact of Impulse Stops on Pedestrian Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Kwak, Jaeyoung; Luttinen, Tapio; Kosonen, Iisakki

    2015-01-01

    We numerically study the impact of impulse stops on pedestrian flow for a straight corridor with multiple attractions. The impulse stop is simulated by the switching behavior model, a function of the social influence strength and the number of attendees near the attraction. When the pedestrian influx is low, one can observe a stable flow where attendees make a complete stop at an attraction and then leave the attraction after a certain amount of time. When the pedestrian influx is high, an unstable flow is observed for strong social influence. In the unstable flow, attendees near the attraction are crowded out from the clusters by others due to the interpersonal repulsion. The expelled pedestrians impede the pedestrian traffic between the left and right boundaries of the corridor. These collective patterns of pedestrian flow are summarized in a schematic phase diagram.

  4. Pedestrian injury and the built environment: an environmental scan of hotspots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crooks Valorie A

    2009-07-01

    minority of high-incident locations. More importantly, bars were highly associated with risk of pedestrian injury. This study is the basis for potential public health intervention by clearly indicating optimal locations for signalized pedestrian crosswalks.

  5. Active control of vibrations in pedestrian bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Álvaro Cunha; Carlos Moutinho

    1999-01-01

    This paper, apart from making a brief general reference to vibration problems in pedestrian bridges, as well as to the form of modelling of dynamic pedestrian loads, presents the use of a predictive control strategy for the numerical simulation of the dynamic response of actively controlled structures of this type. The consideration of this control strategy permitted the development of a computational model, which was applied to the study of a pedestrian cable-stayed bridge, in order to show ...

  6. Pedestrian detection for real-life applications

    OpenAIRE

    De Smedt, Floris

    2015-01-01

    The presence of cameras in our surroundings grows every day, allowing object detection, and more specifically pedestrian detection, to be used in a broad amount of applications. Possible applications include surveillance applications, traffic safety, blurring pedestrians for privacy issues and human-robot interaction. In the last decade, pedestrian detection received a lot of attention as a research topic, which resulted in a broad amount of available techniques. In this dissertation, we focu...

  7. Multiscale modeling of pedestrian dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Cristiani, Emiliano; Tosin, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    This book presents mathematical models and numerical simulations of crowd dynamics. The core topic is the development of a new multiscale paradigm, which bridges the microscopic and macroscopic scales taking the most from each of them for capturing the relevant clues of complexity of crowds. The background idea is indeed that most of the complex trends exhibited by crowds are due to an intrinsic interplay between individual and collective behaviors. The modeling approach promoted in this book pursues actively this intuition and profits from it for designing general mathematical structures susceptible of application also in fields different from the inspiring original one. The book considers also the two most traditional points of view: the microscopic one, in which pedestrians are tracked individually, and the macroscopic one, in which pedestrians are assimilated to a continuum. Selected existing models are critically analyzed. The work is addressed to researchers and graduate students.

  8. Multilevel models for evaluating the risk of pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions at intersections and mid-blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quistberg, D Alex; Howard, Eric J; Ebel, Beth E; Moudon, Anne V; Saelens, Brian E; Hurvitz, Philip M; Curtin, James E; Rivara, Frederick P

    2015-11-01

    Walking is a popular form of physical activity associated with clear health benefits. Promoting safe walking for pedestrians requires evaluating the risk of pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions at specific roadway locations in order to identify where road improvements and other interventions may be needed. The objective of this analysis was to estimate the risk of pedestrian collisions at intersections and mid-blocks in Seattle, WA. The study used 2007-2013 pedestrian-motor vehicle collision data from police reports and detailed characteristics of the microenvironment and macroenvironment at intersection and mid-block locations. The primary outcome was the number of pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions over time at each location (incident rate ratio [IRR] and 95% confidence interval [95% CI]). Multilevel mixed effects Poisson models accounted for correlation within and between locations and census blocks over time. Analysis accounted for pedestrian and vehicle activity (e.g., residential density and road classification). In the final multivariable model, intersections with 4 segments or 5 or more segments had higher pedestrian collision rates compared to mid-blocks. Non-residential roads had significantly higher rates than residential roads, with principal arterials having the highest collision rate. The pedestrian collision rate was higher by 9% per 10 feet of street width. Locations with traffic signals had twice the collision rate of locations without a signal and those with marked crosswalks also had a higher rate. Locations with a marked crosswalk also had higher risk of collision. Locations with a one-way road or those with signs encouraging motorists to cede the right-of-way to pedestrians had fewer pedestrian collisions. Collision rates were higher in locations that encourage greater pedestrian activity (more bus use, more fast food restaurants, higher employment, residential, and population densities). Locations with higher intersection density had a lower

  9. Fourier transformation for pedestrians

    CERN Document Server

    Butz, Tilman

    2015-01-01

    This book is an introduction to Fourier Transformation with a focus on signal analysis, based on the first edition. It is well suited for undergraduate students in physics, mathematics, electronic engineering as well as for scientists in research and development. It gives illustrations and recommendations when using existing Fourier programs and thus helps to avoid frustrations. Moreover, it is entertaining and you will learn a lot unconsciously. Fourier series as well as continuous and discrete Fourier transformation are discussed with particular emphasis on window functions. Filter effects of digital data processing are illustrated. Two new chapters are devoted to modern applications. The first deals with data streams and fractional delays and the second with the back-projection of filtered projections in tomography. There are many figures and mostly easy to solve exercises with solutions.

  10. Ultrathin skin cloaks with metasurfaces for audible sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Shilong; Chen, Huaijun; Ding, Changlin; Li, Linlin; Shen, Fangliang; Luo, Chunrong; Zhao, Xiaopeng

    2016-06-01

    We report a design of 2D acoustic skin cloaks by using ultrathin metasurfaces in audible range. The microunit of this metasurface is constructed by a cavity coupled with a membrane. This cloak can completely compensate the wave front discrepancy generated by the scattering of the hidden object because the microunits are capable of arbitrarily modulating the reflected amplitude and phase. The operating frequency ranges from 3.54 kHz to 3.93 kHz. The tolerated maximum incident angle decreases as the height of the hidden object increases. Moreover, the cloak’s thickness is only approximately λ/10, so that we can make an object in almost any shape undetectable without obviously increasing the size of the whole system. This intriguing feature forms a sharp contrast to most bulky cloaks on the basis of coordination transformations.

  11. 10 CFR 431.224 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption for traffic signal modules and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... consumption for traffic signal modules and pedestrian modules. 431.224 Section 431.224 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... measurement of energy consumption for traffic signal modules and pedestrian modules. (a) Scope. This section... traffic signal modules and pedestrian modules. For purposes of 10 CFR part 431 and EPCA, the...

  12. Uav-Based Monitoring of Pedestrian Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkert, F.; Fraundorfer, F.

    2013-08-01

    In this work we discuss the problem how pedestrians can be monitored from an eye in the sky. Pedestrian monitoring is very important for large-scale surveillance of big events like festivals or demonstrations, and similarly for normal public places. At such settings it is not only important to know if an abnormal scenario is taking place in a pedestrian crowd in general, but also what specific type of scenario is taking place. Also, monitoring authorities benefit from an additional rating if the detected scenario is potentially dangerous to be able to react in an adequate manner. Therefore, we constructed a complex event detector (CED) to detect specific and potentially dangerous scenarios in pedestrian groups. For the development and evaluation of the CED we generated a novel dataset of moving pedestrian groups. The dataset was captured from an 8-rotor helicopter and consists of image sequences of 15 group behaviour scenarios in several complexity levels. We discuss the advantages of UAV imagery in comparison to aerial imagery captured from planes for the problem of pedestrian monitoring. Furthermore, we discuss the results of our CED for pedestrian groups which is able to detect scenarios which potentially occur in moving crowds.

  13. A Pedestrian Dead Reckoning System Integrating Low-Cost MEMS Inertial Sensors and GPS Receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-feng Li

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The body-mounted inertial systems for pedestrian navigation do not require any preinstalled facilities and can run autonomously. The advantages over other technologies make it especially attractive for the applications such as first responders, military and consumer markets. The hardware platform integrating the low-cost, low-power and small-size MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical systems inertial sensors and GPS (global positioning system receiver is proposed. When the satellite signals are available, the location of the pedestrian is directly obtained from the GPS receiver. The inertial sensors are the complement of the GPS receiver in places where the GPS signals are not available, such as indoors, urban canyons and places under dense foliages. The height tracking is achieved by the barometer. The proposed PDR (pedestrian dead reckoning algorithm is real-timely implemented in the platform. The simple but effective step detection and step length estimation method are realized to reduce the computation and memory requirements on the microprocessor. A complementary filter is proposed to fuse the data from the accelerometer, gyroscope and digital compass for decreasing the heading error, which is the main error source in positioning. The reliability and accuracy of the proposed system is verified by field pedestrian walking tests in outdoors and indoors. The positioning error is less than 4% of the total traveled distance. The results indicate that the pedestrian dead reckoning system is able to provide satisfactory tracking performance.

  14. Pedestrian injury mitigation by autonomous braking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosén, Erik; Källhammer, Jan-Erik; Eriksson, Dick; Nentwich, Matthias; Fredriksson, Rikard; Smith, Kip

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this study was to calculate the potential effectiveness of a pedestrian injury mitigation system that autonomously brakes the car prior to impact. The effectiveness was measured by the reduction of fatally and severely injured pedestrians. The database from the German In-Depth Accident Study (GIDAS) was queried for pedestrians hit by the front of cars from 1999 to 2007. Case by case information on vehicle and pedestrian velocities and trajectories were analysed to estimate the field of view needed for a vehicle-based sensor to detect the pedestrians one second prior to the crash. The pre-impact braking system was assumed to activate the brakes one second prior to crash and to provide a braking deceleration up to the limit of the road surface conditions, but never to exceed 0.6 g. New impact speeds were then calculated for pedestrians that would have been detected by the sensor. These calculations assumed that all pedestrians who were within a given field of view but not obstructed by surrounding objects would be detected. The changes in fatality and severe injury risks were quantified using risk curves derived by logistic regression of the accident data. Summing the risks for all pedestrians, relationships between mitigation effectiveness, sensor field of view, braking initiation time, and deceleration were established. The study documents that the effectiveness at reducing fatally (severely) injured pedestrians in frontal collisions with cars reached 40% (27%) at a field of view of 40 degrees. Increasing the field of view further led to only marginal improvements in effectiveness. PMID:20728647

  15. Pedestrian-induced lateral vibrations of footbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingólfsson, Einar Thór

    experimental campaign involved 71 test subjects who covered approximately 55 km of walking distributed on almost 5000 individual tests. An in-depth analysis of the movement of the pedestrians that participated in the experimental campaign reveal that synchronisation is not a pre-condition for the ix...... statistically reliable analytical tool for modelling of pedestrian-induced lateral vibrations. It is shown that the modal response of a footbridge subject to a pedestrian crowd is sensitive to the selection of the pacing rate distribution within the group, the magnitude of ambient loads and the total duration...

  16. The excluded-volume effect in microscopic pedestrian simulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Ren-Yong; Guo Xi

    2012-01-01

    We propose a pedestrian position update rule,which is added to a microscopic pedestrian model to avoid pedestrian overlap.In the rule,the step size of a pedestrian moving in a selected direction at each update is in inverse proportion to the repulsive actions imposed by other pedestrians moving in a direction with an exponential rate.The positions of the pedestrians are then updated in each small time interval.In this way,a barrier between the pedestrians can be generated,and after updating their positions the pedestrians do not overlap with each other.The modified model is compared to the original model through a simulation of the evacuation process of pedestrians in a closed area.The simulation results indicate that the modified model is superior to the original model in several aspects.

  17. Pedestrian-induced lateral forces on footbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingolfsson, Einar Thor; Georgakis, Christos T.; Jönsson, Jeppe;

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the phenomenon of excessive pedestrian-induced lateral vibrations as observed on several high-profile footbridges. The vibrations are a consequence of human-structure interaction, in which the forces generated by the pedestrians depend strongly on the vibration...... of the underlying pavement. An extensive experimental analysis has been carried out to determine the lateral forces generated by pedestrians when walking on a laterally moving treadmill. Two different conditions are investigated; initially the treadmill is fixed and then it is laterally driven in a sinusoidal...... motion at varying combinations of frequencies (0.33-1.07 Hz) and amplitudes (4.5-48 mm). The component of the pedestrian-induced force which is caused by the laterally moving surface is herewith quantified through equivalent velocity and acceleration proportional coefficients. It is shown that large...

  18. Pedestrian-induced lateral forces on footbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingólfsson, Einar Thór; Georgakis, Christos T.; Jönsson, Jeppe;

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the phenomenon of excessive pedestrian-induced lateral vibrations as observed on several high-profile footbridges. The vibrations are a consequence of human-structure interaction, in which the forces generated by the pedestrians depend strongly on the vibration...... of the underlying pavement. An extensive experimental analysis has been carried out to determine the lateral forces generated by pedestrians when walking on a laterally moving treadmill. Two different conditions are investigated; initially the treadmill is fixed and then it is laterally driven in a sinusoidal...... motion at varying combinations of frequencies (0.33-1.07 Hz) and amplitudes (4.5-48 mm). The component of the pedestrian-induced force which is caused by the laterally moving surface is herewith quantified through equivalent velocity and acceleration proportional coefficients. It is shown that large...

  19. Necessity of guides in pedestrian emergency evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoxia; Dong, Hairong; Yao, Xiuming; Sun, Xubin; Wang, Qianling; Zhou, Min

    2016-01-01

    The role of guide who is in charge of leading pedestrians to evacuate in the case of emergency plays a critical role for the uninformed people. This paper first investigates the influence of mass behavior on evacuation dynamics and mainly focuses on the guided evacuation dynamics. In the extended crowd model proposed in this paper, individualistic behavior, herding behavior and environment influence are all considered for pedestrians who are not informed by the guide. According to the simulation results, herding behavior makes more pedestrians evacuate from the room in the same period of time. Besides, guided crowd demonstrates the same behavior of group dynamics which is characterized by gathering, conflicts and balance. Moreover, simulation results indicate guides with appropriate initial positions and quantity are more conducive to evacuation under a moderate initial density of pedestrians.

  20. Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics 2005

    CERN Document Server

    Gattermann, Peter; Knoflacher, Hermann; Schreckenberg, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Due to an increasing number of reported catastrophes all over the world, the safety especially of pedestrians today, is a dramatically growing field of interest, both for practitioners as well as scientists from various disciplines. The questions arising mainly address the dynamics of evacuating people and possible optimisations of the process by changing the architecture and /or the procedure. This concerns not only the case of ships, stadiums or buildings, all with restricted geometries, but also the evacuation of complete geographical regions due to natural disasters. Furthermore, also ‘simple’ crowd motion in ‘relaxed’ situations poses new questions with respect to higher comfort and efficiency since the number of involved persons at large events is as high as never before. In addition, as a new research topic in this field, collective animal behaviour is attracting increasing attention. All this was in the scope of the conference held in Vienna, September 28–30, 2005, the third one in a series ...

  1. Deep convolutional neural networks for pedestrian detection

    OpenAIRE

    Tomè, Denis; Monti, Federico; Baroffio, Luca; Bondi, Luca; Tagliasacchi, Marco; Tubaro, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Pedestrian detection is a popular research topic due to its paramount importance for a number of applications, especially in the fields of automotive, surveillance and robotics. Despite the significant improvements, pedestrian detection is still an open challenge that calls for more and more accurate algorithms. In the last few years, deep learning and in particular convolutional neural networks emerged as the state of the art in terms of accuracy for a number of computer vision tasks such as...

  2. Vision-based macroscopic pedestrian models

    OpenAIRE

    Degond, Pierre; Appert-Rolland, Cécile; Pettré, Julien; Theraulaz, Guy

    2013-01-01

    We propose a hierarchy of kinetic and macroscopic models for a system consisting of a large number of interacting pedestrians. The basic interaction rules are derived from earlier work where the dangerousness level of an interaction with another pedestrian is measured in terms of the derivative of the bearing angle (angle between the walking direction and the line connecting the two subjects) and of the time-to-interaction (time before reaching the closest distance between the two subjects). ...

  3. Data-Driven Modeling of Pedestrian Crowds

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Anders

    2009-01-01

    At the starting point of the work leading to this doctoral thesis, in January 2005, the work on pedestrians was almost exclusively oriented towards computer simulations and on evacuation experiments. Since then, there have been many studies on new methods for extracting empirical data of pedestrian movements (mainly based on video analysis, lasers, and infrared cameras), but most of the work is still focused on artificial setups for crowds moving through corridors and crowds passing bottlenec...

  4. Pedestrian Detection Using Convolutional Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Molin, David

    2015-01-01

    Pedestrian detection is an important field with applications in active safety systems for cars as well as autonomous driving. Since autonomous driving and active safety are becoming technically feasible now the interest for these applications has dramatically increased.The aim of this thesis is to investigate convolutional neural networks (CNN) for pedestrian detection. The reason for this is that CNN have recently beensuccessfully applied to several different computer vision problems. The ma...

  5. Stochastic transition model for pedestrian dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The proposed stochastic model for pedestrian dynamics is based on existing approaches using cellular automata, combined with substantial extensions, to compensate the deficiencies resulting of the discrete grid structure. This agent motion model is extended by both a grid-based path planning and mid-range agent interaction component. The stochastic model proves its capabilities for a quantitative reproduction of the characteristic shape of the common fundamental diagram of pedestrian dynamics...

  6. Modelling of Pedestrian Loading on Slender Footbridges

    OpenAIRE

    Seides, Daniel; Pontseele, Kasper Achiel Alfons Van De

    2015-01-01

    This thesis concerns itself with the dynamic response of a slender network arch bridge by means of a numerical model. The numerical model is generated using a Python code written by Ph.D. Candidate Anna Ostrycharczyk. The code was modified by the authors to include pedestrian loading. Based on a modal analysis of the bridge, the first ten natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes were extracted, and attempts at exciting each mode by simulating pedestrian loading were carried out. ...

  7. Heart murmurs audible across the room in children with mitral valve prolapse.

    OpenAIRE

    Fiddler, G I; Scott, O

    1980-01-01

    Three children are described in whom an unusual heart murmur was intermittently audible in the same room without a stethoscope. Subsequent investigations disclosed mitral valve prolapse in all three patients.

  8. Audible thunder characteristic and the relation between peak frequency and lightning parameters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    OuYang Yuhua; Yuan Ping

    2012-02-01

    In recent summers, some natural lightning optical spectra and audible thunder signals were observed. Twelve events on 15 August 2008 are selected as samples since some synchronizing information about them are obtained, such as lightning optical spectra, surface E-field changes, etc. By using digital filter and Fourier transform, thunder frequency spectra in observation location have been calculated. Then the two main propagation effects, finite amplitude propagation and attenuation by air, are calculated. Upon that we take the test thunder frequency spectra and work backward to recalculate the original frequency spectra near generation location. Thunder frequency spectra and the frequency distribution varying with distance are researched. According to the theories on plasma, the channel temperature and electron density are further calculated by transition parameters of lines in lightning optical spectra. Pressure and the average ionization degree of each discharge channel are obtained by using Saha equations, charge conservation equations and particle conservation equations. Moreover, the relationship between the peak frequency of each thunder and channel parameters of the lightning is studied.

  9. Modelling Behaviour Patterns of Pedestrians for Mobile Robot Trajectory Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Tamura

    2013-08-01

    an emphasis on safety because the behaviour of the pedestrian cannot be predicted. Experimental results show that robots can move efficiently and safely when passing by a pedestrian by applying the proposed method.

  10. Vibration and Audible Noise of Filter Capacitors in HVDC Converter Stations%Vibration and Audible Noise of Filter Capacitors in HVDC Converter Stations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Ling-yu; JI Sheng-chang

    2011-01-01

    The filter capacitor stack is one of the main acoustic noise sources in high-voltage DC (HVDC) converter stations. As HVDC systems are built more and more recently, it is significant to research the audible noise of filter capacitors. In this paper, the current situation of research on vibration and audible noise of filter capacitors in HVDC converter stations, which is departed into three parts--generation mechanism, prediction methods, and reduction measures, is presented and the research achievements are discussed. Scholars have built the model that the alternating electric force caused by the voltage conduces to the vibration, which propagates to the enclosure and radiates audible noise. As a result, the parts contributing most to the generation of audible noise are the top and the bottom of capacitors. In the noise level prediction respect, several methods have been prospected including impact hammer, sweep frequency, impact current, monopole and Kirchhoff formula method, which are suitable for single capacitors or capacitors stacks individually. However, the sweep frequency method is restricted by experiment condition, and the impact current method needs further research and verified. On the other hand, CIGRE WG14.26 provides three sound reduction measures, but all of them are not so practicable, while MPP absorber and compressible space absorber prospected by Dr. Wu Peng are proved to be effective. The sound barriers are also considered by scholars, and the acoustic directivity performance of capacitors is also researched. Besides, the developing direction of each research field is prospected in corresponding part.

  11. Trajectory Analysis and Prediction for Improved Pedestrian Safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelmose, Andreas; Trivedi, Mohan M.; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2015-01-01

    pedestrian detection systems are indeed showing impressive results. Considerably less effort has been put into processing the detections further. We present a tracking system for pedestrians, which based on detection bounding boxes tracks pedestrians and is able to predict their positions in the near future...

  12. Health-Based Audible Noise Guidelines Account for Infrasound and Low-Frequency Noise Produced by Wind Turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, Robert G.; Ashtiani, Payam; Ollson, Christopher A; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa; McCallum, Lindsay C.; Leventhall, Geoff; Knopper, Loren D.

    2015-01-01

    Setbacks for wind turbines have been established in many jurisdictions to address potential health concerns associated with audible noise. However, in recent years, it has been suggested that infrasound (IS) and low-frequency noise (LFN) could be responsible for the onset of adverse health effects self-reported by some individuals living in proximity to wind turbines, even when audible noise limits are met. The purpose of this paper was to investigate whether current audible noise-based guide...

  13. Health-based Audible Noise Guidelines Account for Infrasound and Low Frequency Noise Produced by Wind Turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, Robert G.; Payam eAshtiani; Ollson, Christopher A; Melissa eWhitfield Aslund; McCallum, Lindsay C.; Geoff eLeventhall; Knopper, Loren D.

    2015-01-01

    Setbacks for wind turbines have been established in many jurisdictions to address potential health concerns associated with audible noise. However, in recent years it has been suggested that infrasound (IS) and low frequency noise (LFN) could be responsible for the onset of adverse health effects self-reported by some individuals living in proximity to wind turbines, even when audible noise limits are met. The purpose of this paper was to investigate whether current audible noise-based guidel...

  14. Measuring and observing pedestrian activity; tracking pedestrians in Norwich, Rouen and Koblenz

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Spek, S.

    2009-01-01

    In Toronto and Melbourne I presented the development of a method to track pedestrians using GPS. Finally, in June and October 2007 pedestrians visiting the historic city centres of Norwich, Rouen and Koblenz were monitored. In total over 1300 pedestrians were observed using GPS technology. With a questionnaire we were able to collect additional information about the visitor. TU Delft, Department of Urbanism is partner in the European Union funded project “Spatial Metro” or “City on Foot...

  15. Modeling Spatially Unrestricted Pedestrian Traffic on Footbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zivanovic, Stana; Pavic, Aleksandar; Ingólfsson, Einar Thór

    2010-01-01

    The research into modelling walking-induced dynamic loading and its effects on footbridge structures and people using them has been intensified in the last decade after some high profile vibration serviceability failures. In particular, the crowd induced loading, characterised by spatially...... restricted movement of pedestrians, has kept attracting attention of researchers. However, it is the normal spatially unrestricted pedestrian traffic, and its vertical dynamic loading component, that are most relevant for vibration serviceability checks for most footbridges. Despite the existence of numerous...... design procedures concerned with this loading, the current confidence in its modelling is low due to lack of verification of the models on as-built structures. This is the motivation behind reviewing the existing design procedures for modelling normal pedestrian traffic in this paper and evaluating their...

  16. Calculation Model for the Propagation of Audible Noise from High Voltage Transmission Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xuebao; CUI Xiang; LU Tiebing; HE Jiamei

    2013-01-01

    Audible noise from high voltage transmission lines' corona discharge has become one of the decisive factors affecting design of high voltage transmission lines,thus it is very important to study the spatial propagation characteristics of audible noise for its accurate prediction.A calculation model for the propagation of audible noise is presented in this paper,which is based on the basic equation of the sound wave and can involve the influences of the atmosphere absorption and ground effects.The effects of different ground impedances and the atmospheric attenuation on the distribution of sound pressure level are discussed in this paper.The results show that the atmospheric absorption may increase the attenuation of the audible noise,and the ground surface affects both the amplitude and phase of the sound.The spatial distribution fluctuates considering the ground effects.The atmospheric attenuation and the ground effect are closely related to the frequency of the noise.In the frequency range of the audible noise,the influence of atmospheric attenuation on the spatial propagation characteristics is more obvious in high frequency while ground has significant influences in low frequency.

  17. Stochastic transition model for pedestrian dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Schultz, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The proposed stochastic model for pedestrian dynamics is based on existing approaches using cellular automata, combined with substantial extensions, to compensate the deficiencies resulting of the discrete grid structure. This agent motion model is extended by both a grid-based path planning and mid-range agent interaction component. The stochastic model proves its capabilities for a quantitative reproduction of the characteristic shape of the common fundamental diagram of pedestrian dynamics. Moreover, effects of self-organizing behavior are successfully reproduced. The stochastic cellular automata approach is found to be adequate with respect to uncertainties in human motion patterns, a feature previously held by artificial noise terms alone.

  18. Determining and Designing of Pedestrian Zones in Tekirdag City Center

    OpenAIRE

    E. E. Sisman; B. Etli

    2007-01-01

    Today, pedestrian zones have been achieved to increase open space that are increasingly disappearing and to provide comfortable and safety circulation for pedestrians.Within this paper, the existing pedestrian zones and the streets free from traffic with adequate amenities for pedestrians are indicated and projects of alternative pedestrian zones are suggested. Hükümet Street, the main axis of the downtown and the Mimar Sinan Street is planned as one way road, besides, the part of Hükümet Str...

  19. Mapping patterns of pedestrian fatal accidents in Israel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Gitelman, Victoria; Bekhor, Shlomo

    2012-01-01

    This study intends to provide insight into pedestrian accidents by uncovering their patterns in order to design preventive measures and to allocate resources for identified problems. Kohonen neural networks are applied to a database of pedestrian fatal accidents occurred during the four-year period...... between 2003 and 2006. Results show the existence of five pedestrian accident patterns: (i) elderly pedestrians crossing on crosswalks mostly far from intersections in metropolitan areas; (ii) pedestrians crossing suddenly or from hidden places and colliding with two-wheel vehicles on urban road sections...

  20. A Pedestrian Detection Scheme Using a Coherent Phase Difference Method Based on 2D Range-Doppler FMCW Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugin Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For an automotive pedestrian detection radar system, fast-ramp based 2D range-Doppler Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW radar is effective for distinguishing between moving targets and unwanted clutter. However, when a weak moving target such as a pedestrian exists together with strong clutter, the pedestrian may be masked by the side-lobe of the clutter even though they are notably separated in the Doppler dimension. To prevent this problem, one popular solution is the use of a windowing scheme with a weighting function. However, this method leads to a spread spectrum, so the pedestrian with weak signal power and slow Doppler may also be masked by the main-lobe of clutter. With a fast-ramp based FMCW radar, if the target is moving, the complex spectrum of the range- Fast Fourier Transform (FFT is changed with a constant phase difference over ramps. In contrast, the clutter exhibits constant phase irrespective of the ramps. Based on this fact, in this paper we propose a pedestrian detection for highly cluttered environments using a coherent phase difference method. By detecting the coherent phase difference from the complex spectrum of the range-FFT, we first extract the range profile of the moving pedestrians. Then, through the Doppler FFT, we obtain the 2D range-Doppler map for only the pedestrian. To test the proposed detection scheme, we have developed a real-time data logging system with a 24 GHz FMCW transceiver. In laboratory tests, we verified that the signal processing results from the proposed method were much better than those expected from the conventional 2D FFT-based detection method.

  1. Mapping patterns of pedestrian fatal accidents in Israel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Gitelman, Victoria; Bekhor, Shlomo

    2010-01-01

    -year period between 2003 and 2006. Results show the existence of five pedestrian accident patterns: (i) elderly pedestrians crossing on crosswalks far from intersection in metropolitan areas; (ii) pedestrians crossing suddenly or from hidden places and colliding with two-wheel vehicles on urban road sections......This study intends to provide insight into pedestrian accidents by uncovering their patterns in order to design preventive measures and to allocate resources for identifiable problems. Kohonen neural networks are applied to a database of pedestrian fatal accidents occurred during the four......; (iii) male pedestrians crossing at night and being hit by four-wheel vehicles on rural road sections; (iv) young male pedestrians crossing at night wide road sections in both urban and rural areas; (v) children and teenagers crossing road sections in small rural communities. From the policy perspective...

  2. Motor Schema-Based Cellular Automaton Model for Pedestrian Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Wenguo; Hasemi, Yuji; Fan, Weicheng

    A new cellular automaton model for pedestrian dynamics based on motor schema is presented. Each pedestrian is treated as an intelligent mobile robot, and motor schemas including move-to-goal, avoid-away and avoid-around drive pedestrians to interact with their environment. We investigate the phenomenon of many pedestrians with different move velocities escaping from a room. The results show that the pedestrian with high velocity have predominance in competitive evacuation, if we only consider repulsion from or avoiding around other pedestrians, and interaction with each other leads to disordered evacuation, i.e., decreased evacuation efficiency. Extensions of the model using learning algorithms for controlling pedestrians, i.e., reinforcement learning, neural network and genetic algorithms, etc. are noted.

  3. Determining and Designing of Pedestrian Zones in Tekirdag City Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Sisman

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Today, pedestrian zones have been achieved to increase open space that are increasingly disappearing and to provide comfortable and safety circulation for pedestrians.Within this paper, the existing pedestrian zones and the streets free from traffic with adequate amenities for pedestrians are indicated and projects of alternative pedestrian zones are suggested. Hükümet Street, the main axis of the downtown and the Mimar Sinan Street is planned as one way road, besides, the part of Hükümet Street extending in front of the Governorship building is designed as pedestrian zone. Dependig on the data, projects of pedestrian zones are prepared by using AutoCAD 2006 and 3ds Max 8.

  4. Objective Evaluation of the Audibility of Transient Errors in an Adaptive A/D Conversion Channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marker-Villumsen, Niels; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger; Bruun, Erik

    An adaptive analog-to-digital conversion channel for audio, using automatic gain control, generates transient errors that may be audible. Evaluating the audibility of such errors requires subjective evaluation using listening tests. From an electrical circuit design point-of-view this is not...... feasible, due to design time constraints. This paper investigates the use of the model output variables (MOVs) from the Perceptual Evaluation of Audio Quality (PEAQ) method, for objectively evaluating the transient errors of the conversion channel, in order to optimize the design and reduce design time....... The objective method is compared with results from an alternative forced choice listening test. The comparison shows that the objective method can be used to evaluate the audibility of the transient errors; thus the method can be applied when designing the circuit implementing the channel....

  5. Daily Living Movement Recognition for Pedestrian Dead Reckoning Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Martinelli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, activity recognition is a central topic in numerous applications such as patient and sport activity monitoring, surveillance, and navigation. By focusing on the latter, in particular Pedestrian Dead Reckoning navigation systems, activity recognition is generally exploited to get landmarks on the map of the buildings in order to permit the calibration of the navigation routines. The present work aims to provide a contribution to the definition of a more effective movement recognition for Pedestrian Dead Reckoning applications. The signal acquired by a belt-mounted triaxial accelerometer is considered as the input to the movement segmentation procedure which exploits Continuous Wavelet Transform to detect and segment cyclic movements such as walking. Furthermore, the segmented movements are provided to a supervised learning classifier in order to distinguish between activities such as walking and walking downstairs and upstairs. In particular, four supervised learning classification families are tested: decision tree, Support Vector Machine, k-nearest neighbour, and Ensemble Learner. Finally, the accuracy of the considered classification models is evaluated and the relative confusion matrices are presented.

  6. A Subjective Evaluation of the Minimum Audible Channel Separation in Binaural Reproduction Systems Through Loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacouture Parodi, Yesenia; Rubak, Per

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the performance of crosstalk cancellation systems the channel separation is usually used as parameter.  However, no systematic evaluation of the minimum audible channel separation has been found in the literature known by the authors.  This paper describes a set of subjective experime......To evaluate the performance of crosstalk cancellation systems the channel separation is usually used as parameter.  However, no systematic evaluation of the minimum audible channel separation has been found in the literature known by the authors.  This paper describes a set of subjective...

  7. Activity classification and dead reckoning for pedestrian navigation with wearable sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addresses an approach which integrates activity classification and dead reckoning techniques in step-based pedestrian navigation. In the proposed method, the pedestrian is equipped with a prototype wearable sensor module to record accelerations and determine the headings while walking. To improve the step detection accuracy, different types of activities are classified according to extracted features by means of a probabilistic neural network (PNN). The vertical acceleration data, which indicate the periodic vibration during gait cycle are filtered through a wavelet transform before being used to count the steps and assess the step length from which the distance traveled is estimated. By coupling the distance with the azimuth, navigation through pedestrian dead reckoning is implemented. This research provides a possible seamless pedestrian navigation solution which can be applied to a wide range of areas where the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) signal remains vulnerable. Results of two experiments in this paper reveal that the proposed approach is effective in reducing navigation errors and improving accuracy

  8. 30 CFR 75.1600-2 - Communication facilities; working sections; installation and maintenance requirements; audible or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Communication facilities; working sections; installation and maintenance requirements; audible or visual alarms. 75.1600-2 Section 75.1600-2 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Communications § 75.1600-2 Communication facilities;...

  9. The Relationship of Audibility and the Development of Canonical Babbling in Young Children with Hearing Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass-Ringdahl, Sandie M.

    2010-01-01

    This article investigated the relationship between age at onset of canonical babbling and audibility of amplified speech in children with hearing impairment. Thirteen children with severe-profound hearing impairment and two children with normal hearing participated in a longitudinal investigation of vocalization development. A nonconcurrent…

  10. Correlation Between Euro NCAP Pedestrian Test Results and Injury Severity in Injury Crashes with Pedestrians and Bicyclists in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandroth, Johan; Sternlund, Simon; Lie, Anders; Tingvall, Claes; Rizzi, Matteo; Kullgren, Anders; Ohlin, Maria; Fredriksson, Rikard

    2014-11-01

    Pedestrians and bicyclists account for a significant share of deaths and serious injuries in the road transport system. The protection of pedestrians in car-to-pedestrian crashes has therefore been addressed by friendlier car fronts and since 1997, the European New Car Assessment Program (Euro NCAP) has assessed the level of protection for most car models available in Europe. In the current study, Euro NCAP pedestrian scoring was compared with real-life injury outcomes in car-to-pedestrian and car-tobicyclist crashes occurring in Sweden. Approximately 1200 injured pedestrians and 2000 injured bicyclists were included in the study. Groups of cars with low, medium and high pedestrian scores were compared with respect to pedestrian injury severity on the Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale (MAIS)-level and risk of permanent medical impairment (RPMI). Significant injury reductions to both pedestrians and bicyclists were found between low and high performing cars. For pedestrians, the reduction of MAIS2+, MAIS3+, RPMI1+ and RPMI10+ ranged from 20-56% and was significant on all levels except for MAIS3+ injuries. Pedestrian head injuries had the highest reduction, 80-90% depending on level of medical impairment. For bicyclist, an injury reduction was only observed between medium and high performing cars. Significant injury reductions were found for all body regions. It was also found that cars fitted with autonomous emergency braking including pedestrian detection might have a 60-70% lower crash involvement than expected. Based on these results, it was recommended that pedestrian protection are implemented on a global scale to provide protection for vulnerable road users worldwide. PMID:26192956

  11. Traffic signal design and simulation for vulnerable road users safety and bus preemption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostly, pedestrian car accidents occurred at a signalized interaction is because pedestrians cannot across the intersection safely within the green light. From the viewpoint of pedestrian, there might have two reasons. The first one is pedestrians cannot speed up to across the intersection, such as the elders. The other reason is pedestrians do not sense that the signal phase is going to change and their right-of-way is going to be lost. Developing signal logic to protect pedestrian, who is crossing an intersection is the first purpose of this study. In addition, to improve the reliability and reduce delay of public transportation service is the second purpose. Therefore, bus preemption is also considered in the designed signal logic. In this study, the traffic data of the intersection of Chong-Qing North Road and Min-Zu West Road, Taipei, Taiwan, is employed to calibrate and validate the signal logic by simulation. VISSIM 5.20, which is a microscopic traffic simulation software, is employed to simulate the signal logic. From the simulated results, the signal logic presented in this study can protect pedestrians crossing the intersection successfully. The design of bus preemption can reduce the average delay. However, the pedestrian safety and bus preemption signal will influence the average delay of cars largely. Thus, whether applying the pedestrian safety and bus preemption signal logic to an intersection or not should be evaluated carefully

  12. Accessibility and user needs: pedestrian mobility and urban design in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Graeme

    2014-01-01

    It is over 18 years since the UK Disability Discrimination Act legislated for access in Britain’s built environment and in transport services. A decade on, the Manual for Streets signalled a rebalancing of the hierarchy of movement towards the pedestrian, redressing the dominance of the car and transport engineer in ensuring effective flow of traffic. The notion of social inclusion in transport also brought into play wider consideration of how the built environment, fear of crime ...

  13. Injury tolerance of tibia for the vehicle-pedestrian impact

    OpenAIRE

    MO, Fuhao; Arnoux, Pierre-Jean; JURE, Jean-Jacques; Masson, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Lower limbs are normally the first contacted body region during car-pedestrian accidents, and easily suffer serious injuries. The previous tibia bending tolerances for pedestrian safety were mainly developed from three-point bending tests on tibia mid-shaft. The tibia tolerances of other locations are still not investigated enough. In addition, tibia loading condition under the car-pedestrian impact should be explored to compare with the three-point bending. This work aims to investigate the ...

  14. The Response of a Footbridge to Pedestrians Carrying Additional Mass

    OpenAIRE

    O'Sullivan, Darragh; Caprani, Colin C.; Keogh, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Footbridges with low natural frequency are susceptible to excessive vibration serviceability problems if the pedestrian pacing frequency matches the bridge natural frequency. Much research has been done into describing the response of a footbridge to single pedestrian loading. However, many pedestrians carry additional mass such as shopping bags and backpacks, and this has generally not been accounted for in previous research. This work examines this problem using an experimental bridge excit...

  15. A cognitive human behaviour model for pedestrian behaviour simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Hollmann, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Pedestrian behaviour simulation models are being developed with the intention to simulate human behaviour in various environments in both non-emergency and emergency situations. These models are applied with the objective to understand the underlying causes and dynamics of pedestrian behaviour and how the environment or the environment’s intrinsic procedures can be adjusted in order to provide an improvement of human comfort and safety. In order to realistically model pedestrian behaviour...

  16. Does communication enhance pedestrians transport in the dark?

    OpenAIRE

    Cirillo, ENM Emilio; Colangeli, M.; Muntean, A Adrian

    2015-01-01

    We study the motion of pedestrians through an obscure tunnel where the lack of visibility hides the exits. Using a lattice model, we explore the effects of communication on the effective transport properties of the crowd of pedestrians. More precisely, we study the effect of two thresholds on the structure of the effective nonlinear diffusion coefficient. One threshold models pedestrians's communication efficiency in the dark, while the other one describes the tunnel capacity. Essentially, we...

  17. New insights into pedestrian flow through bottlenecks

    CERN Document Server

    Seyfried, A; Klingsch, W; Passon, O; Rupprecht, T; Steffen, B; Boltes, Maik; Klingsch, Wolfram; Passon, Oliver; Rupprecht, Tobias; Seyfried, Armin; Steffen, Bernhard

    2007-01-01

    Capacity estimation is an important tool for the design and dimensioning of pedestrian facilities. The literature contains different procedures and specifications which show considerable differences with respect to the estimated flow values. Moreover do new experimental data indicate a stepwise growing of the capacity with the width and thus challenge the validity of the specific flow concept. To resolve these differences we have studied experimentally the unidirectional pedestrian flow through bottlenecks under laboratory conditions. The time development of quantities like individual velocities, density and individual time gaps in bottlenecks of different width is presented. The data show a linear growth of the flow with the width. The comparison of the results with experimental data of other authors indicates that the basic assumption of the capacity estimation for bottlenecks has to be revised. In contradiction with most planning guidelines our main result is, that a jam occurs even if the incoming flow do...

  18. An intelligent floor field cellular automata model for pedestrian dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kirik, Ekaterina; Krouglov, Dmitriy

    2009-01-01

    A stochastic cellular automata (CA) model for pedestrian dynamics is presented. Our goal is to simulate different types of pedestrian movement, from regular to panic. But here we emphasize regular situations which imply that pedestrians analyze environment and choose their route more carefully. And transition probabilities have to depict such effect. The potentials of floor fields and environment analysis are combined in the model obtained. People patience is included in the model. This makes simulation of pedestrians movement more realistic. Some simulation results are presented and comparison with basic FF-model is made.

  19. Pedestrian navigation using the sense of touch

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob, Ricky; Winstanley, Adam; Togher, Naomi; Roche, Richard; Mooney, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Haptics is a feedback technology that takes advantage of the human sense of touch by applying forces, vibrations, and/or motions to a haptic-enabled user device such as a mobile phone. Historically, human–computer interaction has been visual, data, or images on a screen. Haptic feedback can be an important modality in Mobile Location-Based Services like – knowledge discovery, pedestrian navigation and notification systems. In this paper we describe a methodology for the implementa...

  20. Decision strategies for evaluating pedestrian accessibility

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Weighted linear combination and ordered weighted averaging mathematical operators were applied in the evaluation of pedestrian accessibility at the Universidad del Valle, Meléndez campus. These operators belong to fuzzy set techniques that permit the evaluation of criteria whose domains are not clearly defined, identifying for these membership levels of selected variables and accepting the aggregation of different types of information. Five evaluation scenarios were considered: pessimistic, m...

  1. Study of pedestrian impact on headlamp

    OpenAIRE

    Manzano Prieto, Juan

    2012-01-01

    The main objective in this pedestrian impact study is a correlation between the computer simulations and the basic pendulum test rig in order to propose solutions that may improve the compliance of the headlamps without affecting their basic performance. Firstly, a tensile test at three different velocities was conducted to study the strain caused by applying a load within a certain time over a dog-bone specimen and the strain rate dependency of polycarbonate was demonstrated. Despite creatin...

  2. Are pedestrians invisible in the planning process?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gemzøe, Lars

    2001-01-01

    The vehicular traffic is very visible in the planning process. One of the reasons is that there is always plenty of data on the problems of car traffic - but what about data on the pedestrians and their needs? Three major studies on people in public spaces in the Inner City of Copenhagen have...... supplied data that show the quantity, character and changes through 30 years of public life. People in Copenhagen have become visible in the planning process. cd-rom....

  3. Learning Multilayer Channel Features for Pedestrian Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Jiale; Pang, Yanwei; Li, Xuelong

    2016-01-01

    Pedestrian detection based on the combination of Convolutional Neural Network (i.e., CNN) and traditional handcrafted features (i.e., HOG+LUV) has achieved great success. Generally, HOG+LUV are used to generate the candidate proposals and then CNN classifies these proposals. Despite its success, there is still room for improvement. For example, CNN classifies these proposals by the full-connected layer features while proposal scores and the features in the inner-layers of CNN are ignored. In ...

  4. A Universal Power Law Governing Pedestrian Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamouzas, Ioannis; Skinner, Brian; Guy, Stephen J.

    2015-03-01

    Human crowds often bear a striking resemblance to interacting particle systems, and this has prompted many researchers to describe pedestrian dynamics in terms of interaction forces and potential energies. The correct quantitative form of this interaction, however, has remained an open question. Here, we introduce a novel statistical-mechanical approach to directly measure the interaction energy between pedestrians. This analysis, when applied to a large collection of human motion data, reveals a simple power law interaction that is based not on the physical separation between pedestrians but on their projected time to a potential future collision, and is therefore fundamentally anticipatory in nature. Remarkably, this simple law is able to describe human interactions across a wide variety of situations, speeds and densities. We further show, through simulations, that the interaction law we identify is sufficient to reproduce many known crowd phenomena. Work at Argonne National Laboratory is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357. Work at the University of Minnesota is supported by MnDRIVE Initiative on Robotics, Sensors, and Advanced Manufacturing.

  5. Dynamic feature analysis in bidirectional pedestrian flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao-Xia, Yang; Winnie, Daamen; Serge, Paul Hoogendoorn; Hai-Rong, Dong; Xiu-Ming, Yao

    2016-02-01

    Analysis of dynamic features of pedestrian flows is one of the most exciting topics in pedestrian dynamics. This paper focuses on the effect of homogeneity and heterogeneity in three parameters of the social force model, namely desired velocity, reaction time, and body size, on the moving dynamics of bidirectional pedestrian flows in the corridors. The speed and its deviation in free flows are investigated. Simulation results show that the homogeneous higher desired speed which is less than a critical threshold, shorter reaction time or smaller body size results in higher speed of flows. The free dynamics is more sensitive to the heterogeneity in desired speed than that in reaction time or in body size. In particular, an inner lane formation is observed in normal lanes. Furthermore, the breakdown probability and the start time of breakdown are focused on. This study reveals that the sizes of homogeneous desired speed, reaction time or body size play more important roles in affecting the breakdown than the heterogeneities in these three parameters do. Project supported jointly by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61233001) and the Fundamental Research Funds for Central Universities of China (Grant No. 2013JBZ007).

  6. Pedestrian Flow in the Mean Field Limit

    KAUST Repository

    Haji Ali, Abdul Lateef

    2012-11-01

    We study the mean-field limit of a particle-based system modeling the behavior of many indistinguishable pedestrians as their number increases. The base model is a modified version of Helbing\\'s social force model. In the mean-field limit, the time-dependent density of two-dimensional pedestrians satisfies a four-dimensional integro-differential Fokker-Planck equation. To approximate the solution of the Fokker-Planck equation we use a time-splitting approach and solve the diffusion part using a Crank-Nicholson method. The advection part is solved using a Lax-Wendroff-Leveque method or an upwind Backward Euler method depending on the advection speed. Moreover, we use multilevel Monte Carlo to estimate observables from the particle-based system. We discuss these numerical methods, and present numerical results showing the convergence of observables that were calculated using the particle-based model as the number of pedestrians increases to those calculated using the probability density function satisfying the Fokker-Planck equation.

  7. Pedestrian- and driver-related factors associated with the risk of causing collisions involving pedestrians in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Mejías, Eladio; Martínez-Ruiz, Virginia; Amezcua-Prieto, Carmen; Olmedo-Requena, Rocío; Luna-Del-Castillo, Juan de Dios; Lardelli-Claret, Pablo

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to quantify the association between pedestrian- and driver-related factors and the risk of causing road crashes involving pedestrians in urban areas in Spain between 1993 and 2011. From the nationwide police-based registry of road crashes with victims in Spain, we analyzed all 63,205 pairs of pedestrians and drivers involved in crashes in urban areas in which only the pedestrian or only the driver was at fault. Logistic regression models were used to obtain adjusted odds ratios to assess the strength of association between each individual-related variable and the pedestrian's odds of being at fault for the crash (and conversely, the driver's odds of not being at fault). The subgroups of road users at high risk of causing a road crash with a pedestrian in urban areas were young and male pedestrians, pedestrians with psychophysical conditions or health problems, the youngest and the oldest drivers, and drivers with markers of high-risk behaviors (alcohol use, nonuse of safety devices, and driving without a valid license). These subgroups should be targeted by preventive strategies intended to decrease the rate of urban road crashes involving pedestrians in Spain. PMID:27085592

  8. A Pedestrian Navigation System Using Cellular Phone Video-Conferencing Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiko Sugiura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A user’s position-specific field has been developed using the Global Positioning System (GPS technology. To determine the position using cellular phones, a device was developed, in which a pedestrian navigation unit carries the GPS. However, GPS cannot specify a position in a subterranean environment or indoors, which is beyond the reach of transmitted signals. In addition, the position-specification precision of GPS, that is, its resolution, is on the order of several meters, which is deemed insufficient for pedestrians. In this study, we proposed and evaluated a technique for locating a user’s 3D position by setting up a marker in the navigation space detected in the image of a cellular phone. By experiment, we verified the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed method. Additionally, we improved the positional precision because we measured the position distance using numerous markers.

  9. Taking the Temperature of Pedestrian Movement in Public Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Zebitz; Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B.;

    2014-01-01

    Cities require data on pedestrian movement to evaluate the use of public spaces. We propose a system using thermal cameras and Computer Vision (CV) combined with Geographical Information Systems (GIS) to track and assess pedestrian dynamics and behaviors in urban plazas. Thermal cameras operate...

  10. Pedestrian Counting with Occlusion Handling Using Stereo Thermal Cameras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Miklas Strøm; Dueholm, Jacob Velling; Gade, Rikke;

    2016-01-01

    complexity of scenes with many people occluding one another. To address these challenges, this paper introduces the use of a stereo thermal camera setup for pedestrian counting. We investigate the reconstruction of 3D points in a pedestrian street with two thermal cameras and propose an algorithm for...

  11. Pedestrian fatalities and injuries involving Irish older people.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin, A J

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been established internationally that road traffic accidents (RTAs) involving older drivers follow clearly different patterns of timing, location and outcomes from those of younger age groups. Older pedestrians are also a vulnerable group and fewer analyses have been undertaken of the phenomenology of their injuries and fatalities. We studied the pattern of pedestrian RTAs in Ireland over a five-year period with the aim of identifying differences between older pedestrians (aged 65 or older) and younger adults. METHODS: We examined the datasets of the Irish National Road Authority (now the Road Safety Authority) from 1998-2002. We analysed patterns of crashes involving older pedestrians (aged 65) and compared them with younger adults (aged 18-64). RESULTS: Older people represented 36% (n = 134) of pedestrian fatalities and 23% of serious injuries while they only account for 19% of total RTAs. Mortality in RTA is more than doubled for older pedestrians compared to younger adults (RR 2.30). Most accidents involving older pedestrians happen in daylight with good visibility (56%) and in good weather conditions (77%). CONCLUSIONS: Older pedestrians are particularly vulnerable in RTAs. These occur more frequently during daylight hours and in good weather conditions. This may point to a need for prevention strategies that are targeted at the traffic environment and other road users rather than at older people.

  12. SAVECAP: cyclist and pedestrian protection, from theory to practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel-de Nooij, M. van; Hair-Buijssen, S.H.H.M. de; Verweij, R.; Mathevon, V.

    2011-01-01

    In the Netherlands, annually 185 cyclists and 70 pedestrians are killed in traffic accidents, half of which due to an accident with a passenger car. The project SaveCAP runs a Sensor Field Test on vehicle safety systems designed to protect cyclists and pedestrians, either by avoiding an accident or

  13. Typical features of pedestrian spatial distribution in the inflow process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaodong; Song, Weiguo; Fu, Libi; Lv, Wei; Fang, Zhiming

    2016-04-01

    Pedestrian inflow is frequently observed in various pedestrian facilities. In this work, we first proposed four hypotheses concerning the inflow process. Then, we performed a series of experiments to test the hypotheses. With several analytical methods, e.g., the proxemics theory and Voronoi diagram method, the features of pedestrian inflow are analyzed in detail. Results demonstrate that the distribution of pedestrians in the room is not uniform. Boundaries are attractive for these pedestrians. The impact of two factors of the inflow are analyzed, i.e., movement rule, and first-out reward. It is found pedestrians can enter the room more effectively under the random rule or two queues. Under some hurry circumstances, pedestrians may prefer to gather around the door, and the spatial distribution is not uniform, leading to the imbalance use of the room. Practical suggestions are given for pedestrians to improve the travel efficiency in the inflow process. This experimental study is meaningful to reveal some fundamental phenomena of inflow process, which can provide the realistic basis for building the theory and mathematical-physical models.

  14. Dynamic Response to Pedestrian Loads with Statistical Frequency Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    2012-01-01

    Pedestrian loads depend on the regularity and frequency of the footfall process. Traditionally, pedestrian loads have been represented by one or more specific harmonic components with a well-defined frequency, and light footbridges have been investigated for resonance vibration generated by the h...

  15. Resonating bodies: an artist's enquiry into sympathies between the audible and the material

    OpenAIRE

    Scarfe, Dawn

    2011-01-01

    This thesis uses sounding objects to explore interactions and affinities between the audible and the material. Throughout, the emphasis is on first hand, practical engagement with resonating bodies. Antiquated acoustic instruments are re-examined, generating personal conjectures and creative explorations. The author submits herself to “therapy” with the sound of the glass harmonica, inspired by controversial physician Franz Anton Mesmer (1734-1815). Helmholtz resonators (circa 1863) are re-ma...

  16. Shoulder Manipulation After Distention Arthrography: Does Audible Cracking Affect Improvement in Adhesive Capsulitis? A Preliminary Study

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jun Kyu; Son, Seok Beom; Park, Bum Jun; Yang, Seung Nam; Yoon, Joon Shik

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether an audible cracking sound during shoulder manipulation following distention arthrography is clinically significant in patients with adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder. Methods A total of 48 patients (31 women, 17 men) with primary adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder completed the study. All participants underwent C-arm-guided arthrographic distention of the glenohumeral joint with injections of a corticosteroid and normal saline. After distention, we performe...

  17. Severity of road crashes involving pedestrians in Metro Manila, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verzosa, Nina; Miles, Rebecca

    2016-09-01

    Pedestrians are considered as one of the most vulnerable road users in less developed countries (LDCs). Yet, pedestrian safety remains poorly addressed in both urban and rural transportation plans in most LDCs. Since most pedestrian injury severity studies are conducted in developed countries, this study fills the gap with an inquiry focused on a highly urbanized region of an LDC that faces a rapid increase in car ownership and increasing pedestrian-related traffic injuries, documenting specific pedestrian safety issues and providing guidance for injury prevention measures in such places. Using the Metro Manila Accident Reporting and Analysis System (MMARAS) data from 2008 to 2011, this study combines binomial logistic regression and street level analysis that further explores the statistical results and examines other factors that contribute to collisions and increase the potential for serious injury or death in three cities in Metro Manila: Makati, Manila, and Quezon. The results of the binomial regression analysis show that traffic crashes that involve heavy and multiple vehicles, and an elderly pedestrian (60 years old and above), as well as those that occurred during the evening (7 pm to midnight) and late at night (1 am to 5 am) have significantly higher odds of resulting in a fatal outcome; when the crash involves a female pedestrian and when the road surface is wet the odds of a fatal outcome are lower. Moreover, by closely examining the environment of these roadways, the study finds that most pedestrian fatalities occur on high-speed, high-traffic-volume, multilane roadways, that are surrounded by land uses that generate a particularly problematic mix of heavy vehicular and pedestrian traffic. The street level analysis also finds that fatal pedestrian crashes occur close to different types of transit stations. The results of this study of three cities in Metro Manila, reflect the twofold challenge to pedestrian safety in rapidly urbanizing areas in

  18. Silent and a audible stereotypes: The constitution of "ethnic character" in Serbian epic poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đerić Gordana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the explanatory relevance of the concept of stereotype in one of its original meanings - as a "mental image". This meaning of the term is the starting point for further differentiations, such as: between linguistic and behavioral stereotypes (in the sense of nonverbal, expected responses; universal and particular stereotypes; self representative and introspective stereotypes; permanent and contemporary stereotypes; and finally, what is most important for our purposes, the difference between silent and audible stereotypes. These distinctions, along with the functions of stereotype, are discussed in the first part of the paper. In the second part, the relations of silent and audible stereotypes are tested against the introduction of "innovative vocabularies" in popular lore. In other words, the explanatory power of this differentiation is checked through an analysis of unconventional motives in Serbian epic poems. The goal of the argument is to clarify the procedure of self creation of masculinity as a relevant feature of the "national character" through "tactic games" of silent and audible stereotypes. The examination of these "poetic strategies" serves a twofold purpose: to illustrate the process of constructing particular features of the "ethno type", on one hand, and to check hypotheses and models which are taken as frameworks in analyzing stereotypes, on the other.

  19. Asymmetric pedestrian dynamics on a staircase landing from continuous measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Corbetta, Alessandro; Muntean, Adrian; Toschi, Federico

    2015-01-01

    We investigate via extensive experimental data the dynamics of pedestrians walking in a corridor-shaped landing in a building at Eindhoven University of Technology. With year-long automatic measurements employing a Microsoft KinectTM 3D-range sensor and ad hoc tracking techniques, we acquired few hundreds of thousands pedestrian trajectories in real-life conditions. Here we discuss the asymmetric features of the dynamics in the two walking directions with respect to the flights of stairs (i.e. ascending or descending). We provide a detailed analysis of position and speed fields for the cases of pedestrians walking alone undisturbed and for couple of pedestrians in counter-flow. Then, we show average walking velocities exploring all the observed combinations in terms of numbers of pedestrians and walking directions.

  20. Pedestrian Counting with Occlusion Handling Using Stereo Thermal Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklas S. Kristoffersen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of pedestrians walking the streets or gathered in public spaces is a valuable piece of information for shop owners, city governments, event organizers and many others. However, automatic counting that takes place day and night is challenging due to changing lighting conditions and the complexity of scenes with many people occluding one another. To address these challenges, this paper introduces the use of a stereo thermal camera setup for pedestrian counting. We investigate the reconstruction of 3D points in a pedestrian street with two thermal cameras and propose an algorithm for pedestrian counting based on clustering and tracking of the 3D point clouds. The method is tested on two five-minute video sequences captured at a public event with a moderate density of pedestrians and heavy occlusions. The counting performance is compared to the manually annotated ground truth and shows success rates of 95.4% and 99.1% for the two sequences.

  1. Applications guide to pedestrian SNM monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehlau, P.E.

    1986-02-01

    The applications guide introduces readers to the pedestrian special nuclear material (SNM) monitors that provide nuclear material control at DOE contractor facilities. It explains the principles of operation, the strong and weak points, and steps for calibration and maintenance of the monitors. Administrators and security specialists will find an overview of pedestrain monitor application and upkeep in Part 1 of the guide and a descriptive catalog of present-day monitors in Part 3. Technically oriented readers will be interested in the more detailed discussion of SNM monitoring physics and SNM monitor design principles found in Part 2. 18 refs., 33 figs., 9 tabs.

  2. Applications guide to pedestrian SNM monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The applications guide introduces readers to the pedestrian special nuclear material (SNM) monitors that provide nuclear material control at DOE contractor facilities. It explains the principles of operation, the strong and weak points, and steps for calibration and maintenance of the monitors. Administrators and security specialists will find an overview of pedestrain monitor application and upkeep in Part 1 of the guide and a descriptive catalog of present-day monitors in Part 3. Technically oriented readers will be interested in the more detailed discussion of SNM monitoring physics and SNM monitor design principles found in Part 2. 18 refs., 33 figs., 9 tabs

  3. The Use of Quick Response (QR Codes in Landmark-Based Pedestrian Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahid Basiri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle navigation systems usually simply function by calculating the shortest fastest route over a road network. In contrast, pedestrian navigation can have more diverse concerns. Pedestrians are not constrained to road/path networks; their route may involve going into buildings (where accurate satellite locational signals are not available and they have different priorities, for example, preferring routes that are quieter or more sheltered from the weather. In addition, there are differences in how people are best directed: pedestrians noticing landmarks such as buildings, doors, and steps rather than junctions and sign posts. Landmarks exist both indoors and outdoors. A system has been developed that uses quick response (QR codes affixed to registered landmarks allowing users to localise themselves with respect to their route and with navigational instructions given in terms of these landmarks. In addition, the system includes images of each landmark helping users to navigate visually in addition to through textual instructions and route maps. The system runs on a mobile device; the users use the device’s camera to register each landmark’s QR code and so update their position (particularly indoors and progress through the route itinerary.

  4. Psychological Differences toward Pedestrian Red Light Crossing between University Students and Their Peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Qinghui; Zhang, Daming

    2016-01-01

    Based on our site investigation conducted in 2013, we found that the pedestrian red light crossing at the midblock connecting the campus of Southwest University and living area was low, where most of pedestrians are university students and staff. This paper reports a supplementary work applying the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to identify any psychological differences toward pedestrian red light crossing between university students and their peers. Three social groups participated in the investigation. The first group is the university students in Grade one (Group 1), the other two groups are their previous senior middle school classmates who are now working full time (Group 2) or who are now out of work and school (Group 3). The statistical results indicated The TPB components accounted for 42.9%, 55.3% and 55.4% of the variance of red signal crossing intention for Group 1, Group 2 and Group 3 in the depicted road crossing scenario. The data also showed that there are obvious differences among the participants' responses to "refrain from crossing" between university students and others, and the subsequent regression analysis revealed the ability to "refrain from crossing" played the most important role in the intention of red light crossing in the depicted scenario. PMID:26824667

  5. Psychological Differences toward Pedestrian Red Light Crossing between University Students and Their Peers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghui Suo

    Full Text Available Based on our site investigation conducted in 2013, we found that the pedestrian red light crossing at the midblock connecting the campus of Southwest University and living area was low, where most of pedestrians are university students and staff. This paper reports a supplementary work applying the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB to identify any psychological differences toward pedestrian red light crossing between university students and their peers. Three social groups participated in the investigation. The first group is the university students in Grade one (Group 1, the other two groups are their previous senior middle school classmates who are now working full time (Group 2 or who are now out of work and school (Group 3. The statistical results indicated The TPB components accounted for 42.9%, 55.3% and 55.4% of the variance of red signal crossing intention for Group 1, Group 2 and Group 3 in the depicted road crossing scenario. The data also showed that there are obvious differences among the participants' responses to "refrain from crossing" between university students and others, and the subsequent regression analysis revealed the ability to "refrain from crossing" played the most important role in the intention of red light crossing in the depicted scenario.

  6. Evacuation dynamics of asymmetrically coupled pedestrian pairs

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Frank

    2016-01-01

    We propose and analyze extended floor field cellular automaton models for evacuation dynamics of inhomogeneous pedestrian pairs which are coupled by asymmetric group interactions. Such pairs consist of a leader, who mainly determines the couple's motion and a follower, who has a defined tendency to follow the leader. Examples for such pairs are mother and child or two siblings of different age. We examine the system properties and compare them to the case of a homogeneous crowd. We find a strong impact on evacuation times for the regime of strong pair coupling due to the occurrence of a clogging phenomenon. In addition we obtain a non-trivial dependence of evacuation times on the followers' coupling to the static floor field, which carries the information of the shortest way to the exit location. In particular we find that systems with fully passive followers, who are solely coupled to their leaders, show lower evacuation times than homogeneous systems where all pedestrians have an equal tendency to move towa...

  7. User Equilibrium Route Assignment for Microscopic Pedestrian Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Kretz, Tobias; Hofsäß, Ingmar

    2014-01-01

    For the simulation of pedestrians a method is introduced to find routing alternatives from any origin position to a given destination area in a given geometry composed of walking areas and obstacles. The method includes a parameter which sets a threshold for the approximate minimum size of obstacles to generate routing alternatives. The resulting data structure for navigation is constructed such that it does not introduce artifacts to the movement of simulated pedestrians and that locally pedestrians prefer to walk on the shortest path. The generated set of routes can be used with iterating static or dynamic assignment methods.

  8. Car impact to pedestrian – fast 2D numerical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Čechová H.; Hynčík L.

    2011-01-01

    The paper concerns a modelling approach for fast 2D car to pedestrian impact analysis. The pedestrian model is composed using the Lagrange equations with multipliers. The model consists of rigid bodies defining the major human body segments. The bodies are connected by rotational joints with non-linear response. The model is scalable based on the age and the gender. The car model is multi-segment composed as an open polygon. Between the pedestrian and the car, there are contacts defined and m...

  9. Friction Effects in Pedestrian Headform Impacts with Engine Hoods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Qi; XIA Yong; ZHOU Qing

    2009-01-01

    In the pedestrian headform impact test mandated by the European pedestrian safety requirements, the contact friction between the headform and the engine hood affects the headform kinematics and head injury criterion (HIC) to some extent. This study shows that the friction effect is more significant with child headform impact than with adult headform impact and the relative angle between the headform impact di-rection and the hood surface greatly affects the headform impact sensitivity to the friction coefficient. The sensitivity of the headform kinematics to the friction coefficient is also analyzed. The results show that ac-curate friction coefficients are needed to improve predictions of pedestrian headform impacts with hoods.

  10. Health-based Audible Noise Guidelines Account for Infrasound and Low Frequency Noise Produced by Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G Berger

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Setbacks for wind turbines have been established in many jurisdictions to address potential health concerns associated with audible noise. However, in recent years it has been suggested that infrasound (IS and low frequency noise (LFN could be responsible for the onset of adverse health effects self-reported by some individuals living in proximity to wind turbines, even when audible noise limits are met. The purpose of this paper was to investigate whether current audible noise-based guidelines for wind turbines account for the protection of human health, given the levels of IS and LFN typically produced by wind turbines. New field measurements of indoor IS and outdoor LFN at locations between 400 m and 900 m from the nearest turbine, which were previously underrepresented in the scientific literature, are reported and put into context with existing published works. Our analysis showed that indoor IS levels were below auditory threshold levels while LFN levels at distances >500 m were similar to background LFN levels. A clear contribution to LFN due to wind turbine operation (i.e., measured with turbines on in comparison to with turbines off was noted at a distance of 480 m. However, this corresponded to an increase in overall audible sound measures as reported in dB(A, supporting the hypothesis that controlling audible sound produced by normally operating wind turbines will also control for LFN. Overall, the available data from this and other studies suggest that health-based audible noise wind turbine siting guidelines provide an effective means to evaluate, monitor, and protect potential receptors from audible noise as well as IS and LFN.

  11. Health-based audible noise guidelines account for infrasound and low-frequency noise produced by wind turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Robert G; Ashtiani, Payam; Ollson, Christopher A; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa; McCallum, Lindsay C; Leventhall, Geoff; Knopper, Loren D

    2015-01-01

    Setbacks for wind turbines have been established in many jurisdictions to address potential health concerns associated with audible noise. However, in recent years, it has been suggested that infrasound (IS) and low-frequency noise (LFN) could be responsible for the onset of adverse health effects self-reported by some individuals living in proximity to wind turbines, even when audible noise limits are met. The purpose of this paper was to investigate whether current audible noise-based guidelines for wind turbines account for the protection of human health, given the levels of IS and LFN typically produced by wind turbines. New field measurements of indoor IS and outdoor LFN at locations between 400 and 900 m from the nearest turbine, which were previously underrepresented in the scientific literature, are reported and put into context with existing published works. Our analysis showed that indoor IS levels were below auditory threshold levels while LFN levels at distances >500 m were similar to background LFN levels. A clear contribution to LFN due to wind turbine operation (i.e., measured with turbines on in comparison to with turbines off) was noted at a distance of 480 m. However, this corresponded to an increase in overall audible sound measures as reported in dB(A), supporting the hypothesis that controlling audible sound produced by normally operating wind turbines will also control for LFN. Overall, the available data from this and other studies suggest that health-based audible noise wind turbine siting guidelines provide an effective means to evaluate, monitor, and protect potential receptors from audible noise as well as IS and LFN. PMID:25759808

  12. Pedestrian Areas in Los Angeles: Influence of design features and market area on pedestrian activity. A case study of three commercial strips

    OpenAIRE

    Soto, Manuel Antonio

    2012-01-01

    This thesis examines the spatial, social, and economic aspects of pedestrianism in three active pedestrian areas of Los Angeles to identify the causes of their activity, and to shed light on how these aspects work together to achieve pedestrian vibrancy. Three old commercial strips were selected to reflect a wide range of demographic, socioeconomic, and urban space characteristics; these three cases were analyzed to determine qualitative and quantitative factors that influence pedestrian flo...

  13. System and Method for Providing a Real Time Audible Message to a Pilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Walter W. (Inventor); Lachter, Joel B. (Inventor); Battiste, Vernol (Inventor); Koteskey, Robert W. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A system and method for providing information to a crew of the aircraft while in-flight. The system includes a module having: a receiver for receiving a message while in-flight; a filter having a set of screening parameters and operative to filter the message based on the set of screening parameters; and a converter for converting the message into an audible message. The message includes a pilot report having at least one of weather information, separation information, congestion information, flight deviation information and destination information. The message is sent to the aircraft by another aircraft or an air traffic controller.

  14. Modeling Unidirectional Pedestrian Movement: An Investigation of Diffusion Behavior in the Built Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Unidirectional pedestrian movement is a special phenomenon in the evacuation process of large public buildings and urban environments at pedestrian scale. Several macroscopic models for collective behaviors have been built to predict pedestrian flow. However, current models do not explain the diffusion behavior in pedestrian crowd movement, which can be important in representing spatial-temporal crowd density differentiation in the movement process. This study builds a macroscopic model for describing crowd diffusion behavior and evaluating unidirectional pedestrian flow. The proposed model employs discretization of time and walking speed in geometric distribution to calculate downstream pedestrian crowd flow and analyze movement process based on upstream number of pedestrians and average walking speed. The simulated results are calibrated with video observation data in a baseball stadium to verify the model precision. Statistical results have verified that the proposed pedestrian diffusion model could accurately describe pedestrian macromovement behavior within the margin of error.

  15. The simulation and analysis of pedestrian crowd and behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU QingMei; FANG WeiNing; JIA YuQuan; DENG Ye

    2009-01-01

    Pedestrian crowd in public buildings is usually a hidden trouble. The more serious the crowd, the higher the accident risk, and the heavier the casualties and loss may be. Based on the social force model, this paper puts forward an improved model which takes into account the anisotropic charac-teristic of pedestrian movement and the avoidance of dynamic congested areas. Furthermore, the al-gorithm has been optimized with the help of static force grid, so the simulation becomes more veritable and computational speed is also greatly accelerated. The improved model is also applied to research on the characters of pedestrian crowd, and the conclusion can provide a basis for the risk assessment of pedestrian crowd and the design of public buildings.

  16. The simulation and analysis of pedestrian crowd and behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Pedestrian crowd in public buildings is usually a hidden trouble.The more serious the crowd,the higher the accident risk,and the heavier the casualties and loss may be.Based on the social force model,this paper puts forward an improved model which takes into account the anisotropic charac-teristic of pedestrian movement and the avoidance of dynamic congested areas.Furthermore,the al-gorithm has been optimized with the help of static force grid,so the simulation becomes more veritable and computational speed is also greatly accelerated.The improved model is also applied to research on the characters of pedestrian crowd,and the conclusion can provide a basis for the risk assessment of pedestrian crowd and the design of public buildings.

  17. Simulation of counter flow pedestrian dynamics in hallways using spheropolygons

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso-Marroquin, Fernando; Ramirez-Gomez, Alvaro; Busch, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    We developed a method for simulating pedestrian dynamics in a large, dense crowd. Our numerical model calculates pedestrian motion from Newton second laws, taking into account visco-elastic contact forces, contact friction, and ground reaction forces. In our computer simulation, non-spherical shapes (spheropolygons) modelled the positions of the chest and arms in the packing arrangement of pedestrian bodies, based on a cross-sectional profile using data from the US National Library of Medicine. Motive torque was taken to arise solely from the pedestrians orientation toward their preferred destination. The objective was to gain insight into a tragic incident at the Madrid Arena Pavilion in Spain, where five girls were crushed to death. The incident took place at a Halloween Celebration in 2012, in a long, densely crowded hallway used as entrance and exit at the same time. Our simulations reconstruct the mechanics of clogging in the hallway. The hypothetical case of a total evacuation order was also investigate...

  18. Study on bi-directional pedestrian movement using ant algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibel, Gokce; Ozhan, Kayacan

    2016-01-01

    A cellular automata model is proposed to simulate bi-directional pedestrian flow. Pedestrian movement is investigated by using ant algorithms. Ants communicate with each other by dropping a chemical, called a pheromone, on the substrate while crawling forward. Similarly, it is considered that oppositely moving pedestrians drop ‘visual pheromones’ on their way and the visual pheromones might cause attractive or repulsive interactions. This pheromenon is introduced into modelling the pedestrians’ walking preference. In this way, the decision-making process of pedestrians will be based on ‘the instinct of following’. At some densities, the relationships of velocity-density and flux-density are analyzed for different evaporation rates of visual pheromones. Lane formation and phase transition are observed for certain evaporation rates of visual pheromones.

  19. University to promote Virginia Cycling and Pedestrian Awareness Week

    OpenAIRE

    West, Hilary

    2009-01-01

    Virginia Tech has joined DRIVE SMART Virginia, Bike Walk Virginia, the Virginia Highway Safety Office of the Commonwealth's Department of Motor Vehicles to promote Virginia Cycling and Pedestrian Awareness Week scheduled for Sept. 13-20.

  20. Car impact to pedestrian – fast 2D numerical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čechová H.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper concerns a modelling approach for fast 2D car to pedestrian impact analysis. The pedestrian model is composed using the Lagrange equations with multipliers. The model consists of rigid bodies defining the major human body segments. The bodies are connected by rotational joints with non-linear response. The model is scalable based on the age and the gender. The car model is multi-segment composed as an open polygon. Between the pedestrian and the car, there are contacts defined and modelled explicitly by force-penetration dependence. For a given car profile design and a given human gender, age and percentile, the pedestrian impact consequences can be evaluated quickly by means of virtual numerical analysis.

  1. Cellular automata pedestrian movement model considering human behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Lizhong; FANG Weifeng; LI Jian; HUANG Rui; FAN Weicheng

    2003-01-01

    The pedestrian movement is more complex than vehicular flow for the reason that people are more flexible and intelligent than car. Without the limit of "lanes" pedestrian movement is loose and free. Furthermore, they are easily affected by other walkers as well as the environment around. In this paper some special technique is introduced considering human behavior to make the rules more reasonable. By simulating the two-dimension pedestrian movement, the phase transition phenomena of pedestrian movement, including the up walkers moving from the bottom to the upper boundary and the right walkers moving from the left to the right boundary, are presented. Studying on the effect of the system size on the critical density shows that the critical density is independent of the system size in the scope studied in this paper.

  2. Effects of switching behavior for the attraction on pedestrian dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kwak, Jaeyoung; Luttinen, Tapio; Kosonen, Iisakki

    2014-01-01

    Walking is a fundamental activity of our daily life not only for moving to other places but also for interacting with surrounding environment. While walking on the streets, pedestrians can be aware of attractions like shopping windows. They can be influenced by the attractions and some of them might shift their attention towards the attractions, namely switching behavior. As a first step to incorporate the switching behavior, this study investigates collective effects of switching behavior for an attraction by developing a behavioral model. Numerical simulations exhibit different patterns of pedestrian behavior depending on the strength of the social influence and the average length of stay. When the social influence is strong along with a long length of stay, a saturated phase can be defined at which all the pedestrians have visited the attraction. If the social influence is not strong enough, an unsaturated phase appears where one can observe that some pedestrians head for the attraction while others walk i...

  3. Academic Training: String Theory for Pedestrians

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    2006-2007 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 29, 30, 31 January 2007, from 11:00 to 12:00 Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 on 29 and 30 January, TH Auditorium, Bldg 4, 3-006, on 31 January String Theory for Pedestrians B. ZWIEBACH, MIT, Cambridge, USA In this 3-lecture series I will discuss the basics of string theory, some physical applications, and the outlook for the future. I will begin with the main concepts of the classical theory and the application to the study of cosmic superstrings. Then I will turn to the quantum theory and discuss applications to the investigation of hadronic spectra and the recently discovered quark-gluon plasma. I will conclude with a sketch of string models of particle physics and showing some avenues that may lead to a complete formulation of string theory.

  4. Consistent evolution in a pedestrian flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Junbiao; Wang, Kaihua

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, pedestrian evacuation considering different human behaviors is studied by using a cellular automaton (CA) model combined with the snowdrift game theory. The evacuees are divided into two types, i.e. cooperators and defectors, and two different human behaviors, herding behavior and independent behavior, are investigated. It is found from a large amount of numerical simulations that the ratios of the corresponding evacuee clusters are evolved to consistent states despite 11 typically different initial conditions, which may largely owe to self-organization effect. Moreover, an appropriate proportion of initial defectors who are of herding behavior, coupled with an appropriate proportion of initial defectors who are of rationally independent thinking, are two necessary factors for short evacuation time.

  5. Distracted walking: Examining the extent to pedestrian safety problems

    OpenAIRE

    Judith Mwakalonge; Saidi Siuhi; Jamario White

    2015-01-01

    Pedestrians, much like drivers, have always been engaged in multi-tasking like using hand-held devices, listening to music, snacking, or reading while walking. The effects are similar to those experienced by distracted drivers. However, distracted walking has not received similar policies and effective interventions as distracted driving to improve pedestrian safety. This study reviewed the state-of-practice on policies, campaigns, available data, identified research needs, and opportunities ...

  6. Autonomous navigation for mobile service robots in urban pedestrian environments

    OpenAIRE

    Trulls, Eduard; Corominas Murtra, Andreu; Pérez-Ibarz, J.; Ferrer, Gonzalo; Vasquez, D.; Mirats-Tur, Josep M.; Sanfeliu, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a fully autonomous navigation solution for urban, pedestrian environments. The task at hand, undertaken within the context of the European project URUS, was to enable two urban service robots, based on Segway RMP200 platforms and using planar lasers as primary sensors, to navigate around a known, large (10,000 m2), pedestrian-only environment with poor global positioning system coverage. Special consideration is given to the nature of our robots, highly mobile but two-whee...

  7. Compound Models for Vision-Based Pedestrian Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Enzweiler, Markus

    2011-01-01

    This thesis addresses the problem of recognizing pedestrians in video images acquired from a moving camera in real-world cluttered environments. Instead of focusing on the development of novel feature primitives or pattern classifiers, we follow an orthogonal direction and develop feature- and classifier-independent compound techniques which integrate complementary information from multiple image-based sources with the objective of improved pedestrian classification performance. After establi...

  8. An Intensive Pedestrian Safety Engineering Study Using Computerized Crash Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ragland, David R.; Markowitz, Frank; MacLeod, Kara E.

    2003-01-01

    Over the past year, the San Francisco Department of Parking and Traffic (DPT) conducted an intensive pedestrian-safety engineering study, the PedSafe Study. PedSafe was funded by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)*, which also funded companion studies in Las Vegas and Miami. The study was designed to analyze pedestrian injuries by zones (i.e., neighborhoods or districts) and to identify those most amenable to prevention efforts. The DPT expects to utilize the methodology and informat...

  9. Indoor Pedestrian Positioning Tracking Algorithm with Sparse Anchor Nodes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou Yong; Cai Zehui; Chen Pengpeng

    2013-01-01

    In order to solve the indoor pedestrian positioning and tracking problems under the condition of sparse anchor nodes, this paper presents a new tracking scheme which predicts the staff position under the condition of indoor location fingerprints based on particle filter. In the proposed algorithm, the indoor topology is adopted to constrain and correct the results. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can significantly improve the accuracy of indoor pedestrian positioning and t...

  10. STEPPING - Smartphone-Based Portable Pedestrian Indoor Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukianto, C.; Sternberg, H.

    2011-12-01

    Many current smartphones are fitted with GPS receivers, which, in combination with a map application form a pedestrian navigation system for outdoor purposes. However, once an area with insufficient satellite signal coverage is entered, these navigation systems cease to function. For indoor positioning, there are already several solutions available which are usually based on measured distances to reference points. These solutions can achieve resolutions as low as the sub-millimetre range depending on the complexity of the set-up. STEPPING project, developed at HCU Hamburg Germany aims at designing an indoor navigation system consisting of a small inertial navigation system and a new, robust sensor fusion algorithm running on a current smartphone. As this system is theoretically able to integrate any available positioning method, it is independent of a particular method and can thus be realized on a smartphone without affecting user mobility. Potential applications include --but are not limited to: Large trade fairs, airports, parking decks and shopping malls, as well as ambient assisted living scenarios.

  11. Virtual and Real World Adaptation for Pedestrian Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, David; López, Antonio M; Marín, Javier; Ponsa, Daniel; Gerónimo, David

    2014-04-01

    Pedestrian detection is of paramount interest for many applications. Most promising detectors rely on discriminatively learnt classifiers, i.e., trained with annotated samples. However, the annotation step is a human intensive and subjective task worth to be minimized. By using virtual worlds we can automatically obtain precise and rich annotations. Thus, we face the question: can a pedestrian appearance model learnt in realistic virtual worlds work successfully for pedestrian detection in real-world images? Conducted experiments show that virtual-world based training can provide excellent testing accuracy in real world, but it can also suffer the data set shift problem as real-world based training does. Accordingly, we have designed a domain adaptation framework, V-AYLA, in which we have tested different techniques to collect a few pedestrian samples from the target domain (real world) and combine them with the many examples of the source domain (virtual world) in order to train a domain adapted pedestrian classifier that will operate in the target domain. V-AYLA reports the same detection accuracy than when training with many human-provided pedestrian annotations and testing with real-world images of the same domain. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work demonstrating adaptation of virtual and real worlds for developing an object detector. PMID:26353201

  12. Pedestrians have the right of way at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    At CERN, we are all pedestrians, often drivers, and occasionally cyclists. But our means of locomotion do not matter so long as we exercise caution and remember that a pedestrian has equal rights as a road user, except that he runs greater risks.   Whether we also travel by bike or car, irrrespective of our means of locomotion at CERN we are all pedestrians! Whether going on foot to our office, the cafeteria or a building where colleagues work, we are much more in harm's way than as a driver sitting in the shell of steel that is a car. There are some 8000 people working on the different sites of CERN. That means 8000 potential pedestrians and 8000 reasons for trying to keep the roads safe. Whether behind the steering wheel or on a bike, we sometimes forget that the roadway is not just for vehicles. Pedestrians are also fully fledged road users with equal rights. That is why drivers must remain alert and take care not to block pedestrian crossings, pavements or access ways, and why special caution...

  13. Analysis of dynamic road risk for pedestrian evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Huang, Hong; Su, Boni; Zhao, Jinlong

    2015-07-01

    Knowing the dynamic road risk for pedestrian evacuation and having an efficient evacuation plan play a very important role in the serious disasters such as earthquake, tsunami and hurricane. In this paper, the dynamic road risk for pedestrian evacuation in a densely populated area of Beijing was studied with consideration of different influencing factors. Firstly, the eight influencing factors including road width, node degree, safety betweenness, road resistor coefficient, building threat, pedestrian counterflow, illegal vehicle parking and traffic flow were considered to assess the road risk for pedestrian evacuation. Secondly, based on complex network theory, electric circuit theory and real situation of the roads, the comprehensive assessment function for road risk was developed quantitatively based on the eight influencing factors. Thirdly, we analyzed road risk for pedestrian evacuation considering different situations: current condition, regular condition, and optimal condition; the risk distribution maps were drawn to directly show the risk level. Through assessments, the roads with high risk for pedestrian evacuation were found, and an optimized evacuation plan was obtained and analyzed. This mathematical model can guide the emergency evacuation in real time. The process and the results are essential for improving the efficiency of evacuations which should considerably reduce the possibility of injuries, deaths and other losses in the disaster.

  14. Pedestrian Detection by Laser Scanning and Depth Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsi, A.; Lovas, T.; Molnar, B.; Somogyi, A.; Igazvolgyi, Z.

    2016-06-01

    Pedestrian flow is much less regulated and controlled compared to vehicle traffic. Estimating flow parameters would support many safety, security or commercial applications. Current paper discusses a method that enables acquiring information on pedestrian movements without disturbing and changing their motion. Profile laser scanner and depth camera have been applied to capture the geometry of the moving people as time series. Procedures have been developed to derive complex flow parameters, such as count, volume, walking direction and velocity from laser scanned point clouds. Since no images are captured from the faces of pedestrians, no privacy issues raised. The paper includes accuracy analysis of the estimated parameters based on video footage as reference. Due to the dense point clouds, detailed geometry analysis has been conducted to obtain the height and shoulder width of pedestrians and to detect whether luggage has been carried or not. The derived parameters support safety (e.g. detecting critical pedestrian density in mass events), security (e.g. detecting prohibited baggage in endangered areas) and commercial applications (e.g. counting pedestrians at all entrances/exits of a shopping mall).

  15. Robust Pedestrian Classification Based on Hierarchical Kernel Sparse Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rui; Zhang, Guanghai; Yan, Xiaoxing; Gao, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Vision-based pedestrian detection has become an active topic in computer vision and autonomous vehicles. It aims at detecting pedestrians appearing ahead of the vehicle using a camera so that autonomous vehicles can assess the danger and take action. Due to varied illumination and appearance, complex background and occlusion pedestrian detection in outdoor environments is a difficult problem. In this paper, we propose a novel hierarchical feature extraction and weighted kernel sparse representation model for pedestrian classification. Initially, hierarchical feature extraction based on a CENTRIST descriptor is used to capture discriminative structures. A max pooling operation is used to enhance the invariance of varying appearance. Then, a kernel sparse representation model is proposed to fully exploit the discrimination information embedded in the hierarchical local features, and a Gaussian weight function as the measure to effectively handle the occlusion in pedestrian images. Extensive experiments are conducted on benchmark databases, including INRIA, Daimler, an artificially generated dataset and a real occluded dataset, demonstrating the more robust performance of the proposed method compared to state-of-the-art pedestrian classification methods. PMID:27537888

  16. Comparative study of the effects of occupational exposure to infrasound and low frequency noise with those of audible noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Pawlas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The study aimed to compare effects of occupational exposure to low frequency noise (LFN in comparison with those of audible noise (AN. Material and methods. Three groups of 307 workers (I – exposed to LFN, II – exposed to audible noise – AN, and III- controls were examined. Results. Blood pressure and other biochemical parameters were worse in the group exposed. All parameters of hearing were worse in the AN group in comparison with LFN one in whole range of frequency. The same trends were found in posturography. Conclusions. The results of the study showed that audible noise is more hazardous than LFN. The results did not support thesis on vibroacoustic disease.

  17. Analisis Kinerja Jalur Pedestrian di Kota Surabaya (Studi Kasus: Jl. Pemuda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhlas Hanif Wigananda

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Kota Surabaya merupakan kota dengan tingkat perkembangan pembangunan jalur pedestrian yang sangat pesat di berbagai ruas jalan utamanya. Salah satu ruas jalan dengan jalur pedestrian yang berkembang adalah Jl. Pemuda. Namun, perkembangan jalur pedestrian tersebut ternyata belum diimbangi dengan jumlah studi terkait tingkat pemanfaatannya selama ini. Tugas Akhir ini merupakan sebuah penelitian untuk menganalisis kinerja jalur pedestrian di ruas Jl. Pemuda. Aspek-aspek yang dianalisis meliputi tingkat pelayanan jalur pedestrian, aspek asal-tujuan pedestrian, aspek tata guna lahan di Jl. Pemuda serta tingkat kepuasan pedestrian. Dari penelitian ini diperoleh hasil tingkat pelayanan (level of service jalur pedestrian Jl. Pemuda termasuk dalam kategori tipe A (<23 orang/meter/menit dengan nilai pedestrian flow rata-rata sebesar 3,81 orang/meter/menit, karakteristik asal-tujuan pedestrian yang didominasi berasal dari dan menuju ke gedung/persil berada di jalur pedestrian Jl. Pemuda sisi utara, karakteristik kawasan Pemuda yang merupakan kawasan dengan fungsi kegiatan perdangan jasa dan niaga sebagai salah satu pusat aktivitas masyarakat di Kota Surabaya, serta persepsi pedestrian yang secara umum sudah cukup aman dan nyaman dengan jalur pedestrian Jl. Pemuda sekalipun ada beberapa faktor yang perlu ditingkatkan kinerjanya seperti faktor kebersihan, penerangan, ketersediaan fasilitas yang memudahkan orang berkebutuhan khusus (penyandang cacat

  18. Integration of GPS and low cost INS for pedestrian navigation aided by building layout

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Wenquan; Zhao Hongbo; Zhao Qi; Li Jingwen

    2013-01-01

    In outdoor environments, GPS is often used for pedestrian navigation by utilizing its sig-nals for position computation, but in indoor or semi-obstructed environments, GPS signals are often unavailable. Therefore, pedestrian navigation for these environments should be realized by the integration of GPS and inertial navigation system (INS). However, the lowcost INS could induce errors that may result in a large position drift. The problem can be minimized by mounting the sensors on the pedestrian’s foot, using zero velocity update (ZUPT) method with the standard navigation algorithm to restrict the error growth. However, heading drift still remains despite using ZUPT measurements since the heading error is unobservable. Also, foot mounted INS suffers from the initialization ambiguity of position and heading from GPS. In this paper, a novel algorithm is developed to mitigate the heading drift problem when using ZUPT. The method uses building lay-out to aid the heading measurement in Kalman filter, and it could also be combined for the initial-ization. The algorithm has been investigated with real field trials using the low cost Microstrain 3DM-GX3-25 inertial sensor, a Leica GS10 GPS receiver and a uBlox EVK-6T GPS receiver. It could be concluded that the proposed method offers a significant improvement in position accuracy for the long period, allowing pedestrian navigation for nearly40 min with mean position error less than 2.8 m. This method also has a considerable effect on the accuracy of the initialization.

  19. Traffic calming policy can reduce inequalities in child pedestrian injuries: database study

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, S; Lyons, R.; John, A.; Palmer, S.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether area wide traffic calming distribution reflects known inequalities in child pedestrian injury rates. To determine whether traffic calming is associated with changes in childhood pedestrian injury rates.

  20. Analisis Kinerja Jalur Pedestrian di Kota Surabaya (Studi Kasus: Jl. Pemuda)

    OpenAIRE

    Muhlas Hanif Wigananda; Anak Agung Gde Kartika

    2012-01-01

    Kota Surabaya merupakan kota dengan tingkat perkembangan pembangunan jalur pedestrian yang sangat pesat di berbagai ruas jalan utamanya. Salah satu ruas jalan dengan jalur pedestrian yang berkembang adalah Jl. Pemuda. Namun, perkembangan jalur pedestrian tersebut ternyata belum diimbangi dengan jumlah studi terkait tingkat pemanfaatannya selama ini. Tugas Akhir ini merupakan sebuah penelitian untuk menganalisis kinerja jalur pedestrian di ruas Jl. Pemuda. Aspek-aspek yang dianalisis meliputi ...

  1. Two-way multi-lane traffic model for pedestrians in corridors

    OpenAIRE

    Appert-Rolland, Cécile; Degond, Pierre; Motsch, Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    We extend the Aw-Rascle macroscopic model of car traffic into a two-way multi-lane model of pedestrian traffic. Within this model, we propose a technique for the handling of the congestion constraint, i.e. the fact that the pedestrian density cannot exceed a maximal density corresponding to contact between pedestrians. In a first step, we propose a singularly perturbed pressure relation which models the fact that the pedestrian velocity is considerably reduced, if not blocked, at congestion. ...

  2. Distributed Pedestrian Detection Alerts Based on Data Fusion with Accurate Localization

    OpenAIRE

    Arturo de la Escalera; José Eugenio Naranjo; José Javier Anaya; José María Armingol; Felipe Jiménez; Fernando García

    2013-01-01

    Among Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) pedestrian detection is a common issue due to the vulnerability of pedestrians in the event of accidents. In the present work, a novel approach for pedestrian detection based on data fusion is presented. Data fusion helps to overcome the limitations inherent to each detection system (computer vision and laser scanner) and provides accurate and trustable tracking of any pedestrian movement. The application is complemented by an efficient communic...

  3. A street-crossing simulator to study the decisions and behaviors of older pedestrians

    OpenAIRE

    Dommes, Aurélie; Cavallo, Viola; Vienne, Fabrice

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the communication is to address the opportunities of a street-crossing simulator to study the decisions and behaviors of older pedestrians in a safe and controlled environment. Older pedestrians are well-known to be over-involved in streetcrossing fatalities. For example, in France, people older than 75 years represent 37% of all pedestrians killed on the road, although they account for less than 9% of the population. For over one decade, pedestrian safety research has investigated...

  4. Child and Adult Pedestrian Impact: The Influence of Vehicle Type on Injury Severity

    OpenAIRE

    Henary, Basem Y.; Crandall, Jeff; Bhalla, Kavi; Mock, Charles N.; Roudsari, Bahman S

    2003-01-01

    In the United States, the vehicle fleet is shifting from predominantly passenger cars (automobiles) to SUVs, light trucks, and vans (LTV). This study investigates how pedestrian severe injury and mortality are associated with vehicle type and pedestrian age. The Pedestrian Crash Data Study (PCDS) database for years 1994–1998 was used for a cross-sectional study design. Outcome measures were Injury Severity Score, Maximum Abbreviated Injury Score, Abbreviated Injury Scale, Pedestrian Mortality...

  5. Audible Noise Measurement and Analysis of the Main Power Apparatus in UHV GIS Substations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Nian Guang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of audible noise characteristics of the main power apparatus in UHV GIS substations provides essential statistics for the noise prediction and control. Noise pressure level, spectrum and attenuation characteristics of the main transformers and high voltage (HV reactors are measured and analyzed in this paper. The result shows that the main transformer and HV reactor have identical A-weighted equivalent sound pressure level. The medium- and low-frequency noises are the primary components in the spectral. More attention should be paid to the low-frequency bands in the noise control process. The noise of cooling fan has a large influence on that of the main transformer. Without the consideration of corona noise, the average A-weighted sound pressure level shows an overall decreasing trend with the increase of the propagation distance. Obvious interference phenomenon of the noises at 100 and 200Hz exists in the noise propagation process.

  6. Pedestrian Detection Using Gradient Local Binary Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ning; Xu, Jiu; Goto, Satoshi

    In recent years, local pattern based features have attracted increasing interest in object detection and recognition systems. Local Binary Pattern (LBP) feature is widely used in texture classification and face detection. But the original definition of LBP is not suitable for human detection. In this paper, we propose a novel feature named gradient local binary patterns (GLBP) for human detection. In this feature, original 256 local binary patterns are reduced to 56 patterns. These 56 patterns named uniform patterns are used for generating a 56-bin histogram. And gradient value of each pixel is set as the weight which is always same in LBP based features in histogram calculation to computing the values in 56 bins for histogram. Experiments are performed on INRIA dataset, which shows the proposal GLBP feature is discriminative than histogram of orientated gradient (HOG), Semantic Local Binary Patterns (S-LBP) and histogram of template (HOT). In our experiments, the window size is fixed. That means the performance can be improved by boosting methods. And the computation of GLBP feature is parallel, which make it easy for hardware acceleration. These factors make GLBP feature possible for real-time pedestrian detection.

  7. Academic training : String Theory for Pedestrians

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES 29, 30, 31 January 2007 from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 on 29 and 30 January TH Auditorium, Bldg 4, 3-006, on 31 January String Theory for Pedestrians B. ZWIEBACH/MIT, Cambridge, USA In this 3-lecture series I will discuss the basics of string theory, some physical applications, and the outlook for the future.  I will begin with the main concepts of the classical theory and the application to the study of cosmic superstrings. Then I will turn  to the quantum theory and discuss applications to the investigation of hadronic spectra and the recently discovered quark-gluon plasma.  I will conclude with a sketch of string models of particle physics and showing some avenues that may lead to a complete formulation of string theory.  

  8. Review of safety and mobility issues among older pedestrians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournier, Isabelle; Dommes, Aurélie; Cavallo, Viola

    2016-06-01

    Although old people make up an extremely vulnerable road-user group, older pedestrians' difficulties have been studied less extensively than those of older drivers, and more knowledge of this issue is still required. The present paper reviews current knowledge of older-adult problems with the main components of pedestrian activity, i.e., walking and obstacle negotiation, wayfinding, and road crossing. Compared to younger ones, old pedestrians exhibit declining walking skills, with a walking speed decrease, less stable balance, less efficient wayfinding strategies, and a greater number of unsafe road crossing behaviors. These difficulties are linked to age-related changes in sensorial, cognitive, physical, and self-perception abilities. It is now known that visual impairment, physical frailty, and attention deficits have a major negative impact on older pedestrians' safety and mobility, whereas the roles of self-evaluation and self-regulation are still poorly understood. All these elements must be taken into consideration, not only in developing effective safety interventions targeting older pedestrians, but also in designing roads and cars. Recent initiatives are presented here and some recommendations are proposed. PMID:26950033

  9. Validity of instruments to assess students' travel and pedestrian safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranowski Tom

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Safe Routes to School (SRTS programs are designed to make walking and bicycling to school safe and accessible for children. Despite their growing popularity, few validated measures exist for assessing important outcomes such as type of student transport or pedestrian safety behaviors. This research validated the SRTS school travel survey and a pedestrian safety behavior checklist. Methods Fourth grade students completed a brief written survey on how they got to school that day with set responses. Test-retest reliability was obtained 3-4 hours apart. Convergent validity of the SRTS travel survey was assessed by comparison to parents' report. For the measure of pedestrian safety behavior, 10 research assistants observed 29 students at a school intersection for completion of 8 selected pedestrian safety behaviors. Reliability was determined in two ways: correlations between the research assistants' ratings to that of the Principal Investigator (PI and intraclass correlations (ICC across research assistant ratings. Results The SRTS travel survey had high test-retest reliability (κ = 0.97, n = 96, p Conclusions These validated instruments can be used to assess SRTS programs. The pedestrian safety behavior checklist may benefit from further formative work.

  10. Pedestrian detection from thermal images: A sparse representation based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Bin; John, Vijay; Liu, Zheng; Mita, Seiichi

    2016-05-01

    Pedestrian detection, a key technology in computer vision, plays a paramount role in the applications of advanced driver assistant systems (ADASs) and autonomous vehicles. The objective of pedestrian detection is to identify and locate people in a dynamic environment so that accidents can be avoided. With significant variations introduced by illumination, occlusion, articulated pose, and complex background, pedestrian detection is a challenging task for visual perception. Different from visible images, thermal images are captured and presented with intensity maps based objects' emissivity, and thus have an enhanced spectral range to make human beings perceptible from the cool background. In this study, a sparse representation based approach is proposed for pedestrian detection from thermal images. We first adopted the histogram of sparse code to represent image features and then detect pedestrian with the extracted features in an unimodal and a multimodal framework respectively. In the unimodal framework, two types of dictionaries, i.e. joint dictionary and individual dictionary, are built by learning from prepared training samples. In the multimodal framework, a weighted fusion scheme is proposed to further highlight the contributions from features with higher separability. To validate the proposed approach, experiments were conducted to compare with three widely used features: Haar wavelets (HWs), histogram of oriented gradients (HOG), and histogram of phase congruency (HPC) as well as two classification methods, i.e. AdaBoost and support vector machine (SVM). Experimental results on a publicly available data set demonstrate the superiority of the proposed approach.

  11. Distracted walking: Examining the extent to pedestrian safety problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Mwakalonge

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrians, much like drivers, have always been engaged in multi-tasking like using hand-held devices, listening to music, snacking, or reading while walking. The effects are similar to those experienced by distracted drivers. However, distracted walking has not received similar policies and effective interventions as distracted driving to improve pedestrian safety. This study reviewed the state-of-practice on policies, campaigns, available data, identified research needs, and opportunities pertaining to distracted walking. A comprehensive review of literature revealed that some of the agencies/organizations disseminate useful information about certain distracting activities that pedestrians should avoid while walking to improve their safety. Various walking safety rules/tips have been given, such as not wearing headphones or talking on a cell phone while crossing a street, keeping the volume down, hanging up the phone while walking, being aware of traffic, and avoiding distractions like walking with texting. The majority of the past observational-based and experimental-based studies reviewed in this study on distracted walking is in agreement that there is a positive correlation between distraction and unsafe walking behavior. However, limitations of the existing crash data suggest that distracted walking may not be a severe threat to the public health. Current pedestrian crash data provide insufficient information for researchers to examine the extent to which distracted walking causes and/or contributes to actual pedestrian safety problems.

  12. Simulation of bidirectional pedestrian flow in transfer station corridor based on multi forces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周雪梅; 纪翔峰; 黄凰; 杨晓光

    2014-01-01

    A good understanding of pedestrian movement in the transfer corridor is vital for the planning and design of the station, especially for efficiency and safety.A multi-force vector grid model was presented to simulate the movement of bidirectional pedestrian flow based on cellular automata and forces between pedestrians. The model improves rule-based characteristics of cellular automata, details forces between pedestrians and solves pedestrian collisions by a several-step updating method to simulate pedestrian movements. Two general scenarios in corridor were simulated. One is bidirectional pedestrian flow simulation with isolation facility, and the other is bidirectional pedestrian flow simulation without isolation facility, where there exists disturbance in the middle. Through simulation, some facts can be seen that pedestrians in the case with isolation facility have the largest speed and pedestrians in the case without isolation facility have the smallest speed; pedestrians in the case of unidirectional flow have the largest volume and pedestrians in the case of without isolation facility have the smallest volume.

  13. Simulations of Pedestrian Impact Collisions with Virtual CRASH 3 and Comparisons with IPTM Staged Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Tony; Scurlock, Bob

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we present results from a series of Virtual CRASH-based pedestrian impact simulations. We compare the results of these Virtual CRASH pedestrian impact simulations to data from pedestrian impact collisions staged at the Institute of Police Technology and Management.

  14. Modeling pedestrian evacuation movement in a swaying ship

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Juan; Lo, SM

    2015-01-01

    With the advance in living standard, cruise travel has been rapidly expanding around the world in recent years. The transportation of passengers in water has also made a rapid development. It is expected that ships will be more and more widely used. Unfortunately, ship disasters occurred in these years caused serious losses. It raised the concern on effectiveness of passenger evacuation on ships. The present study thus focuses on pedestrian evacuation features on ships. On ships, passenger movements are affected by the periodical water motion and thus are quite different from the characteristic when walking on static horizontal floor. Taking into consideration of this special feature, an agent-based pedestrian model is formulized and the effect of ship swaying on pedestrian evacuation efficiency is investigated. Results indicated that the proposed model can be used to quantify the special evacuation process on ships.

  15. Traffic Instabilities in Self-Organized Pedestrian Crowds

    CERN Document Server

    Moussaid, Mehdi; Moreau, Mathieu; Fehrenbach, Jerome; Chabiron, Olivier; Lemercier, Samuel; Pettre, Julien; Appert-Rolland, Cecile; Degond, Pierre; Theraulaz, Guy; 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002442

    2012-01-01

    In human crowds as well as in many animal societies, local interactions among individuals often give rise to self-organized collective organizations that offer functional benefits to the group. For instance, flows of pedestrians moving in opposite directions spontaneously segregate into lanes of uniform walking directions. This phenomenon is often referred to as a smart collective pattern, as it increases the traffic efficiency with no need of external control. However, the functional benefits of this emergent organization have never been experimentally measured, and the underlying behavioral mechanisms are poorly understood. In this work, we have studied this phenomenon under controlled laboratory conditions. We found that the traffic segregation exhibits structural instabilities characterized by the alternation of organized and disorganized states, where the lifetime of well-organized clusters of pedestrians follow a stretched exponential relaxation process. Further analysis show that the inter-pedestrian v...

  16. Pedestrian Navigation Using Foot-Mounted Inertial Sensor and LIDAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Duy Duong; Suh, Young Soo

    2016-01-01

    Foot-mounted inertial sensors can be used for indoor pedestrian navigation. In this paper, to improve the accuracy of pedestrian location, we propose a method using a distance sensor (LIDAR) in addition to an inertial measurement unit (IMU). The distance sensor is a time of flight range finder with 30 m measurement range (at 33.33 Hz). Using a distance sensor, walls on corridors are automatically detected. The detected walls are used to correct the heading of the pedestrian path. Through experiments, it is shown that the accuracy of the heading is significantly improved using the proposed algorithm. Furthermore, the system is shown to work robustly in indoor environments with many doors and passing people. PMID:26797619

  17. Steady State of Pedestrian Flow in Bottleneck Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Weichen; Seyfried, Armin; Chraibi, Mohcine; Drzycimski, Kevin; Zheng, Xiaoping; Zhao, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Experiments with pedestrians could depend strongly on initial conditions. Comparisons of the results of such experiments require to distinguish carefully between transient state and steady state. In this work, a feasible algorithm - Cumulative Sum Control Chart - is proposed and improved to automatically detect steady states from density and speed time series of bottleneck experiments. The threshold of the detection parameter in the algorithm is calibrated using an autoregressive model. Comparing the detected steady states with previous manually selected ones, the modified algorithm gives more reproducible results. For the applications, three groups of bottleneck experiments are analysed and the steady states are detected. The study about pedestrian flow shows that the difference between the flows in all states and in steady state mainly depends on the ratio of pedestrian number to bottleneck width. When the ratio is higher than a critical value (approximately 115 persons/m), the flow in all states is almost ...

  18. Guiding Blind Pedestrians with a Personal Navigation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, A. H.; Moon, G. V.; Moore, T.; Jones, D.

    With the assistance provided by the white cane or guide dog, most blind pedestrians can find their way to known destinations along familiar routes. Finding new or known destinations along unfamiliar routes is more challenging. Before such a journey is attempted, detailed instructions must be acquired. The difficulty of obtaining and then reliably following such instructions deters many blind pedestrians from travelling alone in unknown areas. This paper demonstrates a technological approach, by way of field trials, that supplements the existing aids and eliminates the need for sighted guides. The approach has the potential to offer greater independence to the blind person. The investigation suggests that the methodology used in personal navigation systems for the sighted is sub-optimal for guiding the blind pedestrian. Suitable extensions are introduced, and the results show the proposed methodology is efficient for guiding the blind individual to unknown destinations in the chosen field trial environment.

  19. Simulation of High Density Pedestrian Flow: Microscopic Model

    CERN Document Server

    Dridi, Mohamed H

    2015-01-01

    In recent years modelling crowd and evacuation dynamics has become very important, with increasing huge numbers of people gathering around the world for many reasons and events. The fact that our global population grows dramatically every year and the current public transport systems are able to transport large amounts of people, heightens the risk of crowd panic or crush. Pedestrian models are based on macroscopic or microscopic behaviour. In this paper, we are interested in developing models that can be used for evacuation control strategies. This model will be based on microscopic pedestrian simulation models, and its evolution and design requires a lot of information and data. The people stream will be simulated, based on mathematical models derived from empirical data about pedestrian flows. This model is developed from image data bases, so called empirical data, taken from a video camera or data obtained using human detectors. We consider the individuals as autonomous particles interacting through socia...

  20. Mean field games with nonlinear mobilities in pedestrian dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Martin

    2014-04-01

    In this paper we present an optimal control approach modeling fast exit scenarios in pedestrian crowds. In particular we consider the case of a large human crowd trying to exit a room as fast as possible. The motion of every pedestrian is determined by minimizing a cost functional, which depends on his/her position, velocity, exit time and the overall density of people. This microscopic setup leads in the mean-field limit to a parabolic optimal control problem. We discuss the modeling of the macroscopic optimal control approach and show how the optimal conditions relate to the Hughes model for pedestrian flow. Furthermore we provide results on the existence and uniqueness of minimizers and illustrate the behavior of the model with various numerical results.

  1. On a numerical flux for the pedestrian flow equations*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubera P.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The pedestrian flow equations are formulated as the hyperbolic problem with a source term, completed by the eikonal equation yielding the desired direction of the pedestrian velocity. The operator splitting consisting of successive discretization of the eikonal equation, ordinary differential equation with the right hand side being the source term and the homogeneous hyperbolic system is proposed. The numerical flux of the Vijayasundaram type is proposed for the finite volume solution of the hyperbolic problem. The Vijayasundaram numerical flux, originally proposed for the hyperbolic problems possessing the homogeneity property is extended for pedestrian flow, where the homogeneity property is lost. The application of the proposed numerical flux is demonstrated on the physically relevant problem.

  2. Congestion Dynamics in Pedestrian Single-File Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Ziemer, Verena; Schadschneider, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    This article considers execution and analysis of laboratory experiments of pedestrians moving in a quasi-one-dimensional system with periodic boundary conditions. To analyze characteristics of jams in the system we aim to use the whole experimental setup as the measurement area. Thus the trajectories are transformed to a new coordinate system. We show that the trajectory data from the straight and curved parts are comparable and assume that the distributions of the residuals come from the same continuous distribution. Regarding the trajectories of the entire setup, the creation of stop-and-go waves in pedestrian traffic can be investigated and described.

  3. Modelling and simulations of macroscopic multi-group pedestrian flow

    CERN Document Server

    Mahato, Naveen K; Tiwari, Sudarshan

    2016-01-01

    We consider a multi-group microscopic model for pedestrian flow describing the behaviour of large groups. It is based on an interacting particle system coupled to an eikonal equation. Hydrodynamic multi-group models are derived from the underlying particle system as well as scalar multi-group models. The eikonal equation is used to compute optimal paths for the pedestrians. Particle methods are used to solve the macroscopic equations. Numerical test cases are investigated and the models and, in particular, the resulting evacuation times are compared for a wide range of different parameters.

  4. Walkability of School Surroundings and its Impact on Pedestrian Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Shbeeb

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrian accident is a serious problem in Jordan. It is believedthat walking environment is a contributory factor. This study looks intopedestrian environment in schools’ vicinity. Seventeen schools were selectedand 231 students were followed from school to home. Results showed that 15% ofobserved subjects were involved in conflicts. Average walking time is 17 minutes;almost half of this time is spent either by walking on street or crossing. Femalesare involved in less conflict and they spend less time in traffic. Drivers givepriority to pedestrian in one-thirds of all observed crossing with preferenceto males.

  5. Intensity variation function and template matching-based pedestrian tracking in infrared imagery with occlusion detection and recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberti, Fabrizio; Santomo, Rocco; Sanna, Andrea; Montuschi, Paolo

    2015-03-01

    Robustly and efficiently tracking pedestrians in the infrared spectrum is a crucial requirement for a number of applications. At the same time, it is also particularly critical due to both the peculiarities of infrared images and pedestrian targets. In fact, low resolutions and high signal-to-noise ratios combined with extremely variable target signatures, chaotic trajectories, and frequent occlusions have forced researchers to develop ever more complex strategies characterized by a neat trade-off between tracking accuracy and computational complexity. Thus, most of the existing techniques might not be capable of ensuring real-time performances with a suitable degree of robustness, especially on limited-resource hardware used, e.g., in automotive or security scenarios. We present a technique that extends an extremely efficient tracking method originally tailored to targets that exhibit a clear and stable hot spot to allow it to deal with pedestrian targets by reusing its core components and integrating an occlusion detection and recovery mechanism. Experimental results obtained on public datasets confirmed that the devised method is able to obtain a robustness that is superior to that of other common approaches by maintaining the high tracking speed of the reference method.

  6. PDR/INS/WiFi Integration Based on Handheld Devices for Indoor Pedestrian Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zhuang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Providing an accurate and practical navigation solution anywhere with portable devices, such as smartphones, is still a challenge, especially in environments where global navigation satellite systems (GNSS signals are not available or are degraded. This paper proposes a new algorithm that integrates inertial navigation system (INS and pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR to combine the advantages of both mechanizations for micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS sensors in pedestrian navigation applications. In this PDR/INS integration algorithm, a pseudo-velocity-vector, which is composed of the PDR-derived forward speed and zero lateral and vertical speeds from non-holonomic constraints (NHC, works as an update for the INS to limit the velocity errors. To further limit the drift of MEMS inertial sensors, trilateration-based WiFi positions with small variances are also selected as updates for the PDR/INS integrated system. The experiments illustrate that positioning error is decreased by 60%–75% by using the proposed PDR/INS integrated MEMS solution when compared with PDR. The positioning error is further decreased by 15%–55% if the proposed PDR/INS/WiFi integrated solution is implemented. The average accuracy of the proposed PDR/INS/WiFi integration algorithm achieves 4.5 m in indoor environments.

  7. Reciprocal Estimation of Pedestrian Location and Motion State toward a Smartphone Geo-Context Computing Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingbin Liu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The rapid advance in mobile communications has made information and services ubiquitously accessible. Location and context information have become essential for the effectiveness of services in the era of mobility. This paper proposes the concept of geo-context that is defined as an integral synthesis of geographical location, human motion state and mobility context. A geo-context computing solution consists of a positioning engine, a motion state recognition engine, and a context inference component. In the geo-context concept, the human motion states and mobility context are associated with the geographical location where they occur. A hybrid geo-context computing solution is implemented that runs on a smartphone, and it utilizes measurements of multiple sensors and signals of opportunity that are available within a smartphone. Pedestrian location and motion states are estimated jointly under the framework of hidden Markov models, and they are used in a reciprocal manner to improve their estimation performance of one another. It is demonstrated that pedestrian location estimation has better accuracy when its motion state is known, and in turn, the performance of motion state recognition can be improved with increasing reliability when the location is given. The geo-context inference is implemented simply with the expert system principle, and more sophisticated approaches will be developed.

  8. Characterizing the audibility of sound field with diffusion in architectural spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utami, Sentagi Sesotya

    The significance of diffusion control in room acoustics is that it attempts to avoid echoes by dispersing reflections while removing less valuable sound energy. Some applications place emphasis on the enhancement of late reflections to promote a sense of envelopment, and on methods required to measure the performance of diffusers. What still remains unclear is the impact of diffusion on the audibility quality due to the geometric arrangement of architectural elements. The objective of this research is to characterize the audibility of the sound field with diffusion in architectural space. In order to address this objective, an approach utilizing various methods and new techniques relevant to room acoustics standards was applied. An array of microphones based on beam forming (i.e., an acoustic camera) was utilized for field measurements in a recording studio, classrooms, auditoriums, concert halls and sport arenas. Given the ability to combine a visual image with acoustical data, the impulse responses measured were analyzed to identify the impact of diffusive surfaces on the early, late, and reverberant sound fields. The effects of the room geometry and the proportions of the diffusive and absorptive surfaces were observed by utilizing geometrical room acoustics simulations. The degree of diffuseness in each space was measured by coherences from different measurement positions along with the acoustical conditions predicted by well-known objective parameters such as T30, EDT, C80, and C50. Noticeable differences of the auditory experience were investigated by utilizing computer-based survey techniques, including the use of an immersive virtual environment system, given the current software auralization capabilities. The results based on statistical analysis demonstrate the users' ability to localize the sound and to distinguish the intensity, clarity, and reverberation created within the virtual environment. Impact of architectural elements in diffusion control is

  9. 36 CFR 910.17 - Pedestrian circulation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GENERAL GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT AREA Urban Planning and Design Concerns § 910.17 Pedestrian circulation system... sidewalk areas of Pennsylvania Avenue shall be prohibited in order to reinforce its importance as the...

  10. EVALUATING THREE INTERFACE TECHNOLOGIES IN ASSISTING PEDESTRIANS' SPATIAL KNOWLEDGE ACQUISITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Huang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen raising interests in mobile pedestrian navigation systems. Different interface technologies can be used to communicate/convey route directions to pedestrians, such as mobile maps, voices, and augmented reality (AR. Many field experiments have been conducted to study the effectiveness of different interface technologies in guiding pedestrians to their destinations. In contrast to other field studies, this article aims at investigating the influence of different interface technologies on spatial knowledge acquisition (spatial learning. With sufficient spatial knowledge about an environment, people can still find their way when navigation systems fail (e.g. out of battery. The goal of this article is to empirically evaluate three GPS-based navigation prototypes (implementing mobile map-based, AR-based, and voice-based guidance respectively in supporting spatial knowledge acquisition. The field test showed that in terms of spatial knowledge acquisition, the three interface technologies led to comparable poor results, which were also not significantly different from each other. This article concludes with some implications for designing mobile pedestrian navigation systems.

  11. Examining Pedestrian Injury Severity Using Alternative Disaggregate Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abay, Kibrom Araya

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the injury severity of pedestrians considering detailed road user characteristics and alternative model specification using a high-quality Danish road accident data. Such detailed and alternative modeling approach helps to assess the sensitivity of empirical inferences to ...

  12. Evacuation of pedestrians from a hall by game strategy update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a cellular automaton model considering game strategy update is proposed to study the pedestrian evacuation in a hall. Pedestrians are classified into two categories, i.e., cooperators and defectors, and they walk to an exit according to their own strategy change. The conflicts that two or three pedestrians try to occupy the same site at the same time are investigated in the Game theory model. Based on it, the relationship between the pedestrian flow rate and the evacuation time as well as the variation of cooperative proportion against evacuation time is investigated from the different initial cooperative proportions under the influence of noise. The critical value of the noise is found when there is a small number of defectors in the initial time. Moreover, the influences of the initial cooperative proportion and strength of noise on evacuation are discussed. The results show that the lower the initial cooperative proportion as well as the bigger the strength of noise, the longer the time it takes for evacuation. (general)

  13. Selfishness- and Selflessness-based models of pedestrian room evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiao; Ma, Liang; Ma, Yaofei; Yang, Chen; Ji, Hang

    2016-04-01

    Some pedestrian evacuation studies have employed game strategy to deal with moving conflicts involving two or three pedestrians. However, most of these have simply presented game strategies for pedestrians without analyzing the reasons why they choose to defect or cooperate. We believe that selfish and selfless behaviors are two main factors that should be considered in evacuation. In addition to these behaviors, human emotions such as sympathy and behaviors such as vying were also taken into account to investigate their impacts on pedestrians' strategies. Moreover, an essential objective factor, the building design factor of door width was tested and analyzed. Experimental results showed that the sense of self leads to more defectors and a longer evacuation time. However, sympathy does some good, leading to more cooperators and a shorter evacuation time. Moreover, the exit door width is an essential factor of the evacuation efficiency. When the width was less than 6 cells in a rectangular room with a size greater than 50 × 50, the evacuation time greatly decreased when the width increased. However, this effect was less obvious when the width increased.

  14. Dual use of LED traffic signal system

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, SW; Yang, ES; Tam, YY; Man, CW; D. Yang

    1999-01-01

    The dual use, signaling and communication, of LED traffic signal system is described and analyzed. The primary function of a traffic light system is to give traffic and pedestrian signals. A prototype of LED traffic signal head is developed to perform a secondary function: communication. A wireless communication link is set up using the LED traffic signal head as the transmitter. The LEDs are modulated to transmit information-carrying light. The receiver uses a silicon photodiode to detect th...

  15. An audible demonstration of the speed of sound in bubbly liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Preston S.; Roy, Ronald A.

    2008-10-01

    The speed of sound in a bubbly liquid is strongly dependent upon the volume fraction of the gas phase, the bubble size distribution, and the frequency of the acoustic excitation. At sufficiently low frequencies, the speed of sound depends primarily on the gas volume fraction. This effect can be audibly demonstrated using a one-dimensional acoustic waveguide, in which the flow rate of air bubbles injected into a water-filled tube is varied by the user. The normal modes of the waveguide are excited by the sound of the bubbles being injected into the tube. As the flow rate is varied, the speed of sound varies as well, and hence, the resonance frequencies shift. This can be clearly heard through the use of an amplified hydrophone and the user can create aesthetically pleasing and even musical sounds. In addition, the apparatus can be used to verify a simple mathematical model known as Wood's equation that relates the speed of sound of a bubbly liquid to its void fraction.

  16. Multi-objective optimization of the induction machine with minimization of audible electromagnetic noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Besnerais, J.; Hecquet, M.; Lanfranchi, V.; Brochet, P.

    2007-08-01

    Induction motors optimal design can involve many variables and objectives, and generally requires to make several trade-offs, especially when including the audible electromagnetic noise criterion beyond the usual performance criteria. Multiobjective optimization techniques based on Pareto optimality are useful to help us finding the most interesting solutions and decide which one(s) to adopt. However, it is not always easy to analyse the Pareto-optimal solutions obtained with such methods, especially when treating more than three objectives, and Pareto fronts may contain more data than we might think. This paper briefly describes an analytical model of the variable-speed squirrel-cage induction machine which computes both its performances and sound power level of electromagnetic origin. The model is then coupled to the Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II) in order to perform global optimization with respect to several objectives (e.g. noise level, efficiency and material cost). Finally, an optimization problem is solved and analysed, and some useful visualization tools of the Pareto optimal solutions and their characteristics are presented.

  17. Traffic Instabilities in Self-Organized Pedestrian Crowds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussaïd, Mehdi; Guillot, Elsa G.; Moreau, Mathieu; Fehrenbach, Jérôme; Chabiron, Olivier; Lemercier, Samuel; Pettré, Julien; Appert-Rolland, Cécile; Degond, Pierre; Theraulaz, Guy

    2012-01-01

    In human crowds as well as in many animal societies, local interactions among individuals often give rise to self-organized collective organizations that offer functional benefits to the group. For instance, flows of pedestrians moving in opposite directions spontaneously segregate into lanes of uniform walking directions. This phenomenon is often referred to as a smart collective pattern, as it increases the traffic efficiency with no need of external control. However, the functional benefits of this emergent organization have never been experimentally measured, and the underlying behavioral mechanisms are poorly understood. In this work, we have studied this phenomenon under controlled laboratory conditions. We found that the traffic segregation exhibits structural instabilities characterized by the alternation of organized and disorganized states, where the lifetime of well-organized clusters of pedestrians follow a stretched exponential relaxation process. Further analysis show that the inter-pedestrian variability of comfortable walking speeds is a key variable at the origin of the observed traffic perturbations. We show that the collective benefit of the emerging pattern is maximized when all pedestrians walk at the average speed of the group. In practice, however, local interactions between slow- and fast-walking pedestrians trigger global breakdowns of organization, which reduce the collective and the individual payoff provided by the traffic segregation. This work is a step ahead toward the understanding of traffic self-organization in crowds, which turns out to be modulated by complex behavioral mechanisms that do not always maximize the group's benefits. The quantitative understanding of crowd behaviors opens the way for designing bottom-up management strategies bound to promote the emergence of efficient collective behaviors in crowds. PMID:22457615

  18. Traffic instabilities in self-organized pedestrian crowds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Moussaïd

    Full Text Available In human crowds as well as in many animal societies, local interactions among individuals often give rise to self-organized collective organizations that offer functional benefits to the group. For instance, flows of pedestrians moving in opposite directions spontaneously segregate into lanes of uniform walking directions. This phenomenon is often referred to as a smart collective pattern, as it increases the traffic efficiency with no need of external control. However, the functional benefits of this emergent organization have never been experimentally measured, and the underlying behavioral mechanisms are poorly understood. In this work, we have studied this phenomenon under controlled laboratory conditions. We found that the traffic segregation exhibits structural instabilities characterized by the alternation of organized and disorganized states, where the lifetime of well-organized clusters of pedestrians follow a stretched exponential relaxation process. Further analysis show that the inter-pedestrian variability of comfortable walking speeds is a key variable at the origin of the observed traffic perturbations. We show that the collective benefit of the emerging pattern is maximized when all pedestrians walk at the average speed of the group. In practice, however, local interactions between slow- and fast-walking pedestrians trigger global breakdowns of organization, which reduce the collective and the individual payoff provided by the traffic segregation. This work is a step ahead toward the understanding of traffic self-organization in crowds, which turns out to be modulated by complex behavioral mechanisms that do not always maximize the group's benefits. The quantitative understanding of crowd behaviors opens the way for designing bottom-up management strategies bound to promote the emergence of efficient collective behaviors in crowds.

  19. State of the art of the passive pedestrian safety simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Naddeo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In this paper we want to describe the work of Design Methods’ research group of Dept. of Mechanical Engineering of Salerno University, in the research sector concerning passive pedestrian safety for vehicles, taking into account models FEM used and developed for vehicle design and optimization.Design/methodology/approach: Our carried out models show a very good degree of Numeric/Experimental correlation, and also we’ve numerically certified our virtual impactors, designed following EEVC-WG17 requirements. These impactors have been tested at higher speed and we have had a good correlation, even if some difficulties there was, regarding the critical behaviour of the foam that covers some impactors, solved following different model-design optimization methods.Findings: Best results obtained and described in this paper are relating to impactors modelling and certification, and Experimental/Numerical correlation of crash tests.Research limitations/implications: The reaching of the elevated pedestrian safety performance, compatibly with the others, sometimes conflicting, performances, is one of the main targets to reach for the automotive industry by now and, above all, for the future.Practical implications: Statistic studies carried out during last decades have underlined as pedestrians - with a prevalence of children and elderly - are a category with great risk of die in car accidents, especially during the collision with the front part of motor vehicles, particularly in the urban areas: according to recent investigations of a research committee of the European Community (CEC 2001, the risk of death in case of accident is, for pedestrians and cyclists, equal respectively to 9 and 8 times vehicle occupants’ one.Originality/value: In such a context, this paper is intended to study the pedestrian injury at the impact with vehicles and methods of designing and constructing vehicles in order to reduce the damage itself.

  20. Effect of audible and visual reminders on adherence in glaucoma patients using a commercially available dosing aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Y Ho

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Lawrence Y Ho1, Larissa Camejo1, Malik Y Kahook2, Robert Noecker11UMPC Eye Center, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA; 2Rocky Mountain Lions Institute, University of Colorado, CO, USAAbstract: We studied the effects of audible and visual alarms on adherence with a recommended dosing regimen in the management of glaucoma. Forty-two patients were begun on therapy with the Travatan® Dosing Aid (TDA and randomly divided into two observation groups-one with visual and audible alarm functions turned on and the other with alarms off. Dosing information was analyzed for mean rates of adherence, missed days, and dosing at the wrong time. Twenty patients were randomized to the TDA alarm on group and 22 to the alarm off group. The rates of adherence were 87.9% and 79.7% (p = 0.02, rates of missed dosing were 7.6% and 14.4% (p = 0.03, and rates of dosing at the incorrect times were 7.1% and 9.8% (p = 0.19, respectively for alarm on versus alarm off groups. In the alarm on group, the adherence rate was significantly higher and proportion of missed dosing was significantly lower. It is still yet to be determined whether there is a relationship between adherence and progression of glaucoma.Keywords: adherence, glaucoma, Travatan® Dosing Aid, audible alarms, visual alarms

  1. Studies of vehicle lane-changing to avoid pedestrians with cellular automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Sun, Jian-Qiao

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents studies of interactions between vehicles and crossing pedestrians. A cellular automata system model of the traffic is developed, which includes a number of subsystem models such as the single-lane vehicle model, pedestrian model, interaction model and lane-changing model. The random street crossings of pedestrians are modeled as a Poisson process. The drivers of the passing vehicles are assumed to follow a safety-rule in order not to hit the pedestrians. The results of both single and multiple car simulations are presented. We have found that in general, the traffic can benefit from vehicle lane-changing to avoid road-crossing pedestrians. The traffic flow and average vehicle speed can be increased, which leads to higher traffic efficiency. The interactions between vehicles and pedestrians are reduced, which results in shorter vehicle decelerating time due to pedestrians and less switches of the driving mode, thus leads to the better energy economy. The traffic safety can be improved in the perspective of both vehicles and pedestrians. Finally, pedestrians can cross road faster. The negative effect of lane-changing is that pedestrians have to stay longer between the lanes in the crossing.

  2. Audible and infrasonic noise levels in the cabins of modern agricultural tractors — Does the risk of adverse, exposure-dependent effects still exist?

    OpenAIRE

    Bartosz Bilski

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The agricultural tractor is one of the most commonly used vehicles on farms and one of the most prominent sources of noise. This article presents an exemplary assessment of the audible and infrasonic noise levels in the cabins of selected modern wheeled agricultural tractors. Materials and Methods: Operator-perceived audible and infrasonic noise levels in the cabins were examined for 20 types of modern tractors during typical conditions of work. The tractors had been in use for ...

  3. Development of the Effective Underwater Speaker Sound Modulated by Audible Sound Frequency Range of Large Cetaceans for Avoidance with Ship Collision

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroko Yamada; Nozomi Kobayashi; Tatsunori Nakashima; Hidehiro Kato

    2015-01-01

    The underwater speaker (UWS) has been installed on high speed vessels; hydrofoils (HF) with low-noise during their cruises, to avoid sudden collisions with large cetaceans, while its performance has remained uncertain because of the problem in quality of the produced sound. Thus, we developed a sound source for the UWS by modulating the sound based on the audible range of major large cetaceans so as to increase its utilities. To investigate the audible sound frequency range of cetacean, we tr...

  4. Pedestrian and traffic safety in parking lots at SNL/NM : audit background report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Paul Ernest

    2009-03-01

    This report supplements audit 2008-E-0009, conducted by the ES&H, Quality, Safeguards & Security Audits Department, 12870, during fall and winter of FY 2008. The study evaluates slips, trips and falls, the leading cause of reportable injuries at Sandia. In 2007, almost half of over 100 of such incidents occurred in parking lots. During the course of the audit, over 5000 observations were collected in 10 parking lots across SNL/NM. Based on benchmarks and trends of pedestrian behavior, the report proposes pedestrian-friendly features and attributes to improve pedestrian safety in parking lots. Less safe pedestrian behavior is associated with older parking lots lacking pedestrian-friendly features and attributes, like those for buildings 823, 887 and 811. Conversely, safer pedestrian behavior is associated with newer parking lots that have designated walkways, intra-lot walkways and sidewalks. Observations also revealed that motorists are in widespread noncompliance with parking lot speed limits and stop signs and markers.

  5. Pedestrian Tracking based on Camshift with Kalman Prediction for Autonomous Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lie Guo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrian detection and tracking is the key to autonomous vehicle navigation systems avoiding potentially dangerous situations. Firstly, the probability distribution of colour information is established after a pedestrian is located in an image. Then the detected results are utilized to initialize a Kalman filter to predict the possible position of the pedestrian centroid in the future frame. A Camshift tracking algorithm is used to track the pedestrian in the specific search window of the next frame based on the prediction results. The actual position of the pedestrian centroid is output from the Camshift tracking algorithm to update the gain and error covariance matrix of the Kalman filter. Experimental results in real traffic situations show the proposed pedestrian tracking algorithm can achieve good performance even when they are partly occluded in inconsistent illumination circumstances.

  6. Assessment of models for pedestrian dynamics with functional principal component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chraibi, Mohcine; Ensslen, Tim; Gottschalk, Hanno; Saadi, Mohamed; Seyfried, Armin

    2016-06-01

    Many agent based simulation approaches have been proposed for pedestrian flow. As such models are applied e.g. in evacuation studies, the quality and reliability of such models is of vital interest. Pedestrian trajectories are functional data and thus functional principal component analysis is a natural tool to assess the quality of pedestrian flow models beyond average properties. In this article we conduct functional Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for the trajectories of pedestrians passing through a bottleneck. In this way it is possible to assess the quality of the models not only on basis of average values but also by considering its fluctuations. We benchmark two agent based models of pedestrian flow against the experimental data using PCA average and stochastic features. Functional PCA proves to be an efficient tool to detect deviation between simulation and experiment and to assess quality of pedestrian models.

  7. How to Apply Assignment Methods that were Developed for Vehicular Traffic to Pedestrian Microsimulations

    CERN Document Server

    Roca, Vidal; Kretz, Tobias; Lehmann, Karsten; Hofsäß, Ingmar

    2014-01-01

    Applying assignment methods to compute user-equilibrium route choice is very common in traffic planning. It is common sense that vehicular traffic arranges in a user-equilibrium based on generalized costs in which travel time is a major factor. Surprisingly travel time has not received much attention for the route choice of pedestrians. In microscopic simulations of pedestrians the vastly dominating paradigm for the computation of the preferred walking direction is set into the direction of the (spatially) shortest path. For situations where pedestrians have travel time as primary determinant for their walking behavior it would be desirable to also have an assignment method in pedestrian simulations. To apply existing (road traffic) assignment methods with simulations of pedestrians one has to reduce the nondenumerably many possible pedestrian trajectories to a small subset of routes which represent the main, relevant, and significantly distinguished routing alternatives. All except one of these routes will m...

  8. The influence of traffic signal solutions on self-reported road-crossing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stasi, Leandro L; Megías, Alberto; Cándido, Antonio; Maldonado, Antonio; Catena, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Injury to pedestrians is a major safety hazard in many countries. Since the beginning of the last century, modern cities have been designed around the use of motor vehicles despite the unfavourable interactions between the vehicles and pedestrians. This push towards urbanization resulted in a substantial number of crashes and fatalities involving pedestrians every day, all over the world. Thus, improving the design of urban cities and townships is a pressing issue for modern society. The study presented here provides a characterization of pedestrian safety problems, with the emphasis on signalized crosswalks (i.e. traffic signal) design solutions. We tested the impact of seven different traffic light configurations (steady [green, yellow, and red], flashing [green, yellow, and red], and light off) on pedestrian self-reported road-crossing behavior, using a 11-point scale -ranging from 0 ("I never cross in this situation") to 10 ("I always cross in this situation"). Results showed that mandatory solutions (steady green vs. steady red) are the best solutions to avoid unsafe pedestrian behaviors while crossing controlled intersections (frequency of crossing: Mgreen = 9.4 ± 1 vs. Mred = 2.6 ± 2). These findings offer important guidelines for the design of future traffic signals for encouraging a pedestrian/transit-friendly environment. PMID:26055356

  9. Impact of social and technological distraction on pedestrian crossing behaviour: an observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Leah L; Rivara, Frederick P; Ayyagari, Rajiv C; Ebel, Beth E

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The objective of the present work was to study the impact of technological and social distraction on cautionary behaviours and crossing times in pedestrians. Methods Pedestrians were observed at 20 high-risk intersections during 1 of 3 randomly assigned time windows in 2012. Observers recorded demographic and behavioural information, including use of a mobile device (talking on the phone, text messaging, or listening to music). We examined the association between distraction and crossing behaviours, adjusting for age and gender. All multivariate analyses were conducted with random effect logistic regression (binary outcomes) and random effect linear regression (continuous outcomes), accounting for clustering by site. Results Observers recorded crossing behaviours for 1102 pedestrians. Nearly one-third (29.8%) of all pedestrians performed a distracting activity while crossing. Distractions included listening to music (11.2%), text messaging (7.3%) and using a handheld phone (6.2%). Text messaging, mobile phone use and talking with a companion increased crossing time. Texting pedestrians took 1.87 additional seconds (18.0%) to cross the average intersection (3.4 lanes), compared to undistracted pedestrians. Texting pedestrians were 3.9 times more likely than undistracted pedestrians to display at least 1 unsafe crossing behaviour (disobeying the lights, crossing mid-intersection, or failing to look both ways). Pedestrians listening to music walked more than half a second (0.54) faster across the average intersection than undistracted pedestrians. Conclusions Distracting activity is common among pedestrians, even while crossing intersections. Technological and social distractions increase crossing times, with text messaging associated with the highest risk. Our findings suggest the need for intervention studies to reduce risk of pedestrian injury. PMID:23243104

  10. Street crossing behavior in younger and older pedestrians: an eye- and head-tracking study

    OpenAIRE

    Zito, Giuseppe Angelo; Cazzoli, Dario; Scheffler, Loreen; Jäger, Michael; Müri, René Martin; Mosimann, Urs Peter; Nyffeler, Thomas; Mast, Fred; Nef, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Crossing a street can be a very difficult task for older pedestrians. With increased age and potential cognitive decline, older people take the decision to cross a street primarily based on vehicles' distance, and not on their speed. Furthermore, older pedestrians tend to overestimate their own walking speed, and could not adapt it according to the traffic conditions. Pedestrians' behavior is often tested using virtual reality. Virtual reality presents the advantage of being safe,...

  11. Cognitive, perceptual and motor decline as predictors of risky street-crossing decisions in older pedestrians

    OpenAIRE

    LANGEVIN, S; DOMMES, A; CAVALLO, V; Oxley, J; Vienne, F.

    2011-01-01

    Older pedestrians are well known to be over-involved in road crashes compared to younger pedestrians. This study investigates the extent to which risky street-crossing decisions in older pedestrians can be explained by agerelated declines of cognitive, perceptual and physical abilities. Three age groups of participants (young, young-old, old-old) were evaluated in a street-crossing task and performed a series of functional tests. The results showed that agerelated slowing in walking speed as ...

  12. A vibrotactile device to help older pedestrians to get around safely

    OpenAIRE

    Coeugnet, Stéphanie; Dommes, Aurélie; Vienne, Fabrice; DANG, Nguyen-Thong; PANEELS, Sabrina; ARAB, Farah; CHEVALIER, Aline; Anastassova, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    Old pedestrians are overrepresented in fatal accidents. Many studies have consistently shown slower decision making, wrong time estimation, slower walking speed and navigation difficulties that lead to dangerous pedestrian behaviors and/or travel reduction with aging. In this context, the present study aims at developing and assessing the efficiency of a vibrotactile navigation assistance to support old pedestrians to cross the street and get around safely. To this end, 40 old participants ag...

  13. Driver and Pedestrian Behavior at Uncontrolled Crosswalks in the Tahoe Basin Recreation Area

    OpenAIRE

    Mitman, Meghan Fehlig; Cooper, Douglas; DuBose, Brooke

    2010-01-01

    For more than thirty years, pedestrian safety studies have considered pedestrian-vehicle collision patterns and pedestrian and driver behavior at marked and unmarked crosswalks at uncontrolled crossings. Recent research in this area conducted by the UC Berkeley Traffic Safety Center [aka SafeTREC] on behalf of Caltrans, and summarized in a 2008 Transportation Research Record paper by Mitman et al., “The Marked Crosswalk Dilemma: Uncovering Some Missing Links in a 35-Year Debate,” was designed...

  14. Working Concept of Accessibility: Performance Measures for Usability of Crosswalks by Pedestrians with Vision Impairments

    OpenAIRE

    Schroeder, Bastian J.; Rouphail, Nagui M.; Hughes, Ronald G.

    2010-01-01

    This research presents an analysis framework and associated performance measures for quantifying the accessibility of pedestrian crossings at modern roundabouts for pedestrians who are blind. The measures, developed under two ongoing national research projects, NCHRP Project 3-78A and a bioengineering research grant from the National Institutes of Health–National Eye Institute, attempt to isolate the components of the crossing task for a blind pedestrian into computable and replicable quantit...

  15. A Case Study of Pedestrian Space Networks in Two Traditional Urban Neighbourhoods, Copenhagen, Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Hrushowy, Neil James Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Most pedestrian environment and behavior research has applied concepts of connectivity and access uniformly at the neighbourhood scale. Actual pedestrian networks rely on a limited number of routes to provide intra- and inter-neighbourhood pedestrian connections, suggesting the need to focus research. Also, much of the literature has proposed improvements to the built environment that have little relation to the planning system’s ability to implement them. This research aims to asses...

  16. Road risk-perception and pedestrian injuries among students at Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Maged El-Setouhy; Jon Mark Hirshon; Hannah Day; Jehan M. Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Road traffic injuries (RTIs) constitute 45% of injury mortality in Egypt; 75% of these injuries are pedestrians related. Traditionally, research on road traffic safety has focused on the traffic environment and the vehicles. However, little attention has been given to road risky behaviors and perceptions of road safety by pedestrians as risk factors associated with high pedestrian injury rates. This study aimed to examine the relationship between road risk- perception, s...

  17. OMITTING THE STATIC COMPONENT FROM DESIGN DYNAMIC MODELS OF PEDESTRIAN LOAD

    OpenAIRE

    Štimac Grandić, Ivana

    2014-01-01

    In current codes and guidelines for pedestrian bridge design, the vibration serviceability requirement is determined as a pedestrian comfort criteria, by assessing the maximum acceptable acceleration of any part of the bridge deck, but these criteria can also be defined as the maximum acceptable deflection or velocity at the most unfavorable part of the bridge deck. The design models of dynamic pedestrian load for serviceability limit state (SLS) verification are based on experimental models ...

  18. Laser-Based Pedestrian Tracking in Outdoor Environments by Multiple Mobile Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Masafumi Hashimoto; Kazuhiko Takahashi; Kei Kakimuma; Masataka Ozaki

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an outdoors laser-based pedestrian tracking system using a group of mobile robots located near each other. Each robot detects pedestrians from its own laser scan image using an occupancy-grid-based method, and the robot tracks the detected pedestrians via Kalman filtering and global-nearest-neighbor (GNN)-based data association. The tracking data is broadcast to multiple robots through intercommunication and is combined using the covariance intersection (CI) method. For pe...

  19. Experimental and analytical studies on pedestrian induced footbridge vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Gudmundur Valur; Ingólfsson, Einar Thór; Einarsson, Baldvin;

    2007-01-01

    models describing human-induced vibrations on structures in current literature and standards are explained, both for a single person walking or running and crowd loading. The measured vertical acceleration induced by single pedestrians was compared against the predictions and it was found that all the...... pacing rates large differences were observed between the measured acceleration response and the one predicted by the code. Instead, a slightly improved simplified load model using frequency dependent load factors gives better results....... modes corresponding to the measured values. The models were subsequently used to calculate the predicted acceleration according to the preliminary version of the Eurocode (ENV 1992-2: Concrete bridges) using time-history analysis with a moving load as representative for a single pedestrian. The load...

  20. Distracted pedestrian sustains orbital fracture while on cell phone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edell AR

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aimée R Edell, Jesse J Jung, Joel M Solomon, Richard N Palu Department of Ophthalmology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Use of cell phones in the general population has become increasingly commonplace. The distracting effects of cell phones among automobile drivers are well established, and legislation prohibits the use of handheld cell phones while driving in several states. Recent research has focused on the similar distracting effects of cell phones in the pedestrian population. In this report, an older gentleman suffered extensive facial trauma requiring surgery as a direct effect of cell phone use at the time the trauma occurred. This case highlights the role that portable electronic devices can play as a cause of ocular trauma. Keywords: orbital fracture, ocular trauma, orbital floor fracture, cell phone distraction, pedestrian safety

  1. How simple rules determine pedestrian behavior and crowd disasters

    CERN Document Server

    Moussaid, Mehdi; Theraulaz, Guy

    2011-01-01

    With the increasing size and frequency of mass events, the study of crowd disasters and the simulation of pedestrian flows have become important research areas. Yet, even successful modeling approaches such as those inspired by Newtonian force models are still not fully consistent with empirical observations and are sometimes hard to calibrate. Here, a novel cognitive science approach is proposed, which is based on behavioral heuristics. We suggest that, guided by visual information, namely the distance of obstructions in candidate lines of sight, pedestrians apply two simple cognitive procedures to adapt their walking speeds and directions. While simpler than previous approaches, this model predicts individual trajectories and collective patterns of motion in good quantitative agreement with a large variety of empirical and experimental data. This includes the emergence of self-organization phenomena, such as the spontaneous formation of unidirectional lanes or stop-and-go waves. Moreover, the combination of...

  2. Two-Stage Part-Based Pedestrian Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelmose, Andreas; Prioletti, Antonio; Trivedi, Mohan M.;

    2012-01-01

    gained a special place among the different approaches presented. This work presents a state-of-the-art pedestrian detection system based on a two stages classifier. Candidates are extracted with a Haar cascade classifier trained with the DaimlerDB dataset and then validated through part-based HOG......Detecting pedestrians is still a challenging task for automotive vision system due the extreme variability of targets, lighting conditions, occlusions, and high speed vehicle motion. A lot of research has been focused on this problem in the last 10 years and detectors based on classifiers has...... classifier with the aim of lowering the number of false positives. The surviving candidates are then filtered with a feature-based tracking to enhance the recognition robustness and improve the results' stability. The system has been implemented on a prototype vehicle and offers high performance in terms of...

  3. Game theory in models of pedestrian room evacuation

    CERN Document Server

    Bouzat, S

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the pedestrian evacuation of a rectangular room with a single door considering a Lattice Gas scheme with the addition of behavioral aspects of the pedestrians. The movement of the individuals is based on random and rational choices and is affected by conflicts between two or more agents that want to advance to the same position. Such conflicts are solved according to certain rules closely related to the concept of strategies in Game Theory, cooperation and defection. We consider game rules analogous to those from the Prisoner's Dilemma and Stag Hunt games, with payoffs associated to the probabilities of the individuals to advance to the selected site. We find that, even when defecting is the rational choice for any agent, under certain conditions, cooperators can take advantage from mutual cooperation and leave the room more rapidly than defectors.

  4. Experimental identification of pedestrian-induced lateral forces on footbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingólfsson, Einar Thór; Georgakis, Christos; Ricciardelli, Francesco;

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive experimental analysis of lateral forces generated by single pedestrians during continuous walking on a treadmill. Two different conditions are investigated; initially the treadmill is fixed and then it is laterally driven in a sinusoidal motion at varying...... combinations of frequencies (0.33-1.07 Hz) and amplitudes 4.5-48 mm). The experimental campaign involved seventy-one male and female human adults and covered approximately 55 km of walking distributed between 4954 individual tests. When walking on a laterally moving surface, motion-induced forces develop also...... and inter-subject variability. It is shown that the motion induced portion of the pedestrian load (on average) inputs energy into the structure in the frequency range (normalised by the average walking frequency) between approximately 0.6 and 1.2. Furthermore, it is shown that the load component in phase...

  5. On entropy weak solutions of Hughes' model for pedestrian motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khatib, Nader; Goatin, Paola; Rosini, Massimiliano D.

    2013-04-01

    We consider a generalized version of Hughes' macroscopic model for crowd motion in the one-dimensional case. It consists in a scalar conservation law accounting for the conservation of the number of pedestrians, coupled with an eikonal equation giving the direction of the flux depending on pedestrian density. As a result of this non-trivial coupling, we have to deal with a conservation law with space-time discontinuous flux, whose discontinuity depends non-locally on the density itself. We propose a definition of entropy weak solution, which allows us to recover a maximum principle. Moreover, we study the structure of the solutions to Riemann-type problems, and we construct them explicitly for small times, depending on the choice of the running cost in the eikonal equation. In particular, aiming at the optimization of the evacuation time, we propose a strategy that is optimal in the case of high densities. All results are illustrated by numerical simulations.

  6. Close to real-time robust pedestrian detection and tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipetski, Y.; Loibner, G.; Sidla, O.

    2015-03-01

    Fully automated video based pedestrian detection and tracking is a challenging task with many practical and important applications. We present our work aimed to allow robust and simultaneously close to real-time tracking of pedestrians. The presented approach is stable to occlusions, lighting conditions and is generalized to be applied on arbitrary video data. The core tracking approach is built upon tracking-by-detections principle. We describe our cascaded HOG detector with successive CNN verification in detail. For the tracking and re-identification task, we did an extensive analysis of appearance based features as well as their combinations. The tracker was tested on many hours of video data for different scenarios; the results are presented and discussed.

  7. Capacity Reliability of Signalized Intersections with Mixed Traffic Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiaoming; SHAO Chunfu; LI Da; DONG Chunjiao

    2009-01-01

    The reliability of capacity of signalized intersections in mixed traffic conditions involving vehicles, bicycles, and pedestrians was investigated to complete the conventional, deterministic capacity calculations. Simulations using VISSIM provided estimates of capacity distributions, and demonstrated the effects of the analysis intervals on the distributions. With the random vehicle arrivals taken into account, a capacity reli-ability assessment method was given as a function. Assessments were also performed regarding the effects of the conflicting pedestrian and bicycle volumes on capacity reliability. The simulation indicates that the pe-destrians and bicycles result in greater random fluctuations of exclusive tuming lane capacities, but have less effect on the variability of shared lane capacities. Normal distributions can be used to model the capaci-ties for intervals not less than 10 min. At higher vehicular volumes, the capacity reliability is more sensitive to the mean and standard deviation of the pedestrian and bicycle volumes.

  8. Comparison study of the reactive and predictive dynamic models for pedestrian flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yan-Qun; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Shu-Guang

    2016-01-01

    This paper formulates the reactive and predictive dynamic models for pedestrian flow and presents a comparison of the two models. The path-choice behavior of pedestrians in the reactive dynamic model is described that pedestrians tend to walk along a path with the lowest instantaneous cost. The desired walking direction of pedestrians in the predictive dynamic model is chosen to minimize the actual cost based on predictive traffic conditions. An algorithm used to solve the two models encompasses a cell-centered finite volume method for a hyperbolic system of conservation laws and a time-dependent Hamilton-Jacobi equation, a fast sweeping method for an Eikonal-type equation, and a self-adaptive method of successive averages for an arisen discrete fixed point problem. The two models and their algorithm are applied to investigate the spatio-temporal patterns of flux or density and path-choice behaviors of pedestrian flow marching in a facility scattered with an obstacle. Numerical results show that the two models are able to capture macroscopic features of pedestrian flow, traffic instability and other complex nonlinear phenomena in pedestrian traffic, such as the formation of stop-and-go waves and clogging at bottlenecks. Different path-choice strategies of pedestrians cause different spatial distributions of pedestrian density specially in the high-density regions (near the obstacle and exits).

  9. Effect of prediction on the self-organization of pedestrian counter flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedestrians may predict the behavior of others and then adjust their movement accordingly to avoid potential conflicts in advance. Motivated by this fact, we propose a predictive control theory-based pedestrian counter flow model, which describes the predictive mechanism underlying pedestrian self-organization phenomena. In this model, a pedestrian will make in-advance-avoid behavior based on the estimation of future moving gain within a given predictive length to reduce potential conflicts. The future gain in the present model is affected by three factors, i.e. the predictive length, the smooth degree of entrance and the influential area of coming pedestrians. Simulation results of the model show that increasing predictive length has a remarkable effect on reducing conflicts, improving pedestrian velocity, smoothing pedestrian movement and stabilizing the self-organized lanes. When enlarging the influential area of coming pedestrians, pedestrians tend to aggregate to the formed self-organized lanes, which makes the lanes wider and the lane number reduced. Interestingly, moderate enlargement (of the influential area) will reduce conflicts significantly, while excessive enlargement will lead to an increase in conflicts. We also discuss the predictive effect toward the smooth degree of entrance. When there are some formed self-organized lanes in the system, the effect is significant, and it will make the lanes more regular and stable, while when the existing lanes are unstable, the effect has little impact on the system. (paper)

  10. Community-based pedestrian safety training in virtual reality: A pragmatic trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwebel, David C; Combs, Tabitha; Rodriguez, Daniel; Severson, Joan; Sisiopiku, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    Child pedestrian injuries are a leading cause of mortality and morbidity across the United States and the world. Repeated practice at the cognitive-perceptual task of crossing a street may lead to safer pedestrian behavior. Virtual reality offers a unique opportunity for repeated practice without the risk of actual injury. This study conducted a pre-post within-subjects trial of training children in pedestrian safety using a semi-mobile, semi-immersive virtual pedestrian environment placed at schools and community centers. Pedestrian safety skills among a group of 44 seven- and eight-year-old children were assessed in a laboratory, and then children completed six 15-minute training sessions in the virtual pedestrian environment at their school or community center following pragmatic trial strategies over the course of three weeks. Following training, pedestrian safety skills were re-assessed. Results indicate improvement in delay entering traffic following training. Safe crossings did not demonstrate change. Attention to traffic and time to contact with oncoming vehicles both decreased somewhat, perhaps an indication that training was incomplete and children were in the process of actively learning to be safer pedestrians. The findings suggest virtual reality environments placed in community centers hold promise for teaching children to be safer pedestrians, but future research is needed to determine the optimal training dosage. PMID:26479677

  11. Optimizing aspects of pedestrian traffic in building designs

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez, Samuel

    2013-11-01

    In this work, we investigate aspects of building design that can be optimized. Architectural features that we explore include pillar placement in simple corridors, doorway placement in buildings, and agent placement for information dispersement in an evacuation. The metrics utilized are tuned to the specific scenarios we study, which include continuous flow pedestrian movement and building evacuation. We use Multidimensional Direct Search (MDS) optimization with an extreme barrier criteria to find optimal placements while enforcing building constraints. © 2013 IEEE.

  12. Experimental Study of Phase Transition in Pedestrian Flow

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bukáček, M.; Hrabák, Pavel; Krbálek, M.

    Amsterdam: Elsevier B.V, 2014, s. 105-113. ISSN 2352-1465. [The Conference on Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics 2014 (PED2014). Delft (NL), 22.10.2014-24.10.2014] Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : experiment passing through * boundary induced phase transition * travel time Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/AS/hrabak-0433416.pdf

  13. Deployment aspects of a tensegrity-ring pedestrian bridge

    OpenAIRE

    Rhode-Barbarigos, Landolf; Bel Hadj Ali, Nizar; Motro, René; Smith, Ian F.C.

    2011-01-01

    International audience Tensegrity structures are spatial systems that are composed of tension and compression components in a self-equilibrated prestress stable state. Although tensegrity systems were first introduced in 1950s, few examples have been used for civil engineering purposes. In this paper, tensegrity-ring modules are used for a deployable pedestrian bridge. Ring modules belong to a special family of tensegrity systems composed of a single strut circuit. Assembled in a "hollow-r...

  14. State of the art on pedestrian safety simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Naddeo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this work is to explain the work of Design Methods’ research group of Department of Mechanical Engineering of Salerno University, in the field of research regarding vehicles pedestrian safety problem, taking care to finite element methods and models used and developed for vehicle design and optimization.Design/methodology/approach: Our developed models show a very good Numeric/Experimental correlation, and we’ve numerically certified our virtual impactors, designed following EEVC-WG17 specification. These impactors have been tested also at higher speed and we have obtained a good correlation with some problems because of the critical behavior of the foam solved following different model-design optimization methods.Findings: Best results obtained and explained in this paper are concerning impactors modeling and certification, and Experimental/Numerical correlation of full impact tests.Research limitations/implications: The achievement of the maximum possible pedestrian safety performance, compatibly with the others, sometimes conflicting, performances, is one of the main objectives to reach, for the automotive industry by now and, above all, for the future.Practical implications: According to a surveying by European Community research committee, the risk of die for pedestrians and cyclists because of street incidents is eight/nine times higher than one of the occupants of motor vehicles. From statistics we’ve found that the greatest part of these accidents is due to the collision of the pedestrian on the front part of motor vehicles, and that fact affects the considerations on the passive safety.Originality/value: The most Important Automotive industries had understood the impact of new regulations about homologation and began to study the problem and particularly how to introduce new Homologation parameters in their Product development cycles, today based on Virtual Prototyping of the Whole Vehicle and final Physical

  15. Traffic Instabilities in Self-Organized Pedestrian Crowds

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Moussaïd; Elsa G Guillot; Mathieu Moreau; Jérôme Fehrenbach; Olivier Chabiron; Samuel Lemercier; Julien Pettré; Cécile Appert-Rolland; Pierre Degond; Guy Theraulaz

    2012-01-01

    In human crowds as well as in many animal societies, local interactions among individuals often give rise to self-organized collective organizations that offer functional benefits to the group. For instance, flows of pedestrians moving in opposite directions spontaneously segregate into lanes of uniform walking directions. This phenomenon is often referred to as a smart collective pattern, as it increases the traffic efficiency with no need of external control. However, the functional benefit...

  16. On the use of Convolutional Neural Networks for Pedestrian Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Canyameres Masip, Sergi

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, Deep Learning has emerged showing outstanding results for many different problems related to computer vision, machine learning and speech recognition. In this paper, we study the possibilities to apply convolutional neural networks (CNNs) and explore their power to address the pedestrian detection problem in the context of autonomous driving. We focus on creating a simple and robust framework based on the combination of a CNN architecture and a fast linear classifier. We show...

  17. A local version of the Hughes model for pedestrian flow

    OpenAIRE

    Carrillo, José A.; Martin, Stephan; Wolfram, Marie-Therese

    2015-01-01

    Roger Hughes proposed a macroscopic model for pedestrian dynamics, in which individuals seek to minimize their travel time but try to avoid regions of high density. One of the basic assumptions is that the overall density of the crowd is known to every agent. In this paper we present a modification of the Hughes model to include local effects, namely limited vision, and a conviction towards decision making. The modified velocity field enables smooth turning and temporary waiting behavior. We ...

  18. Boosting-like Deep Learning For Pedestrian Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lei; Zhang, Baochang

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes boosting-like deep learning (BDL) framework for pedestrian detection. Due to overtraining on the limited training samples, overfitting is a major problem of deep learning. We incorporate a boosting-like technique into deep learning to weigh the training samples, and thus prevent overtraining in the iterative process. We theoretically give the details of derivation of our algorithm, and report the experimental results on open data sets showing that BDL achieves a better sta...

  19. Pedestrians and cyclists interaction in urban settings of Pardubice city

    OpenAIRE

    Josef Bulíček; Pavlína Brožová; Ivo Hruban; Matúš Šucha

    2014-01-01

    Presented paper is focused on questions of cyclist transport in urban settings, specifically in the city of Pardubice. Emphasis is put on analysis of potentially conflict places, especially in interaction with pedestrians. Direct terrain observation and consequent evaluation of conflict potential are used as method for data collecting. When cycling routes are designed, the requirements of the cyclists should be taken into account in order to ensure that the routes are accepted. In order to ma...

  20. Classifying pedestrian shopping behaviour according to implied heuristic choice rules

    OpenAIRE

    Shigeyuki Kurose; Aloys W J Borgers; Timmermans, Harry J. P.

    2001-01-01

    Our aim in this paper is to build and test a model which classifies and identifies pedestrian shopping behaviour in a shopping centre by using temporal and spatial choice heuristics. In particular, the temporal local-distance-minimising, total-distance-minimising, and global-distance-minimising heuristic choice rules and spatial nearest-destination-oriented, farthest-destination-oriented, and intermediate-destination-oriented choice rules are combined to classify and identify the stop sequenc...

  1. Scale-aware Fast R-CNN for Pedestrian Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jianan; Liang, Xiaodan; Shen, ShengMei; Xu, Tingfa; Yan, Shuicheng

    2015-01-01

    Intuitively, instances of the same object category with different spatial scales may exhibit dramatically different features. Thus, large variance in instance scales, which results in undesirable large intra-category variance in features, may severely hurt the performance of modern object instance detection methods. We argue that this issue can be substantially alleviated by the divide-and-conquer philosophy. Taking pedestrian detection as an example, we illustrate how we can leverage this ph...

  2. Pedestrian injury risk and the effect of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebuhr, Tobias; Junge, Mirko; Rosén, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Older adults and pedestrians both represent especially vulnerable groups in traffic. In the literature, hazards are usually described by the corresponding injury risks of a collision. This paper investigates the MAIS3+F risk (the risk of sustaining at least one injury of AIS 3 severity or higher, or fatal injury) for pedestrians in full-frontal pedestrian-to-passenger car collisions. Using some assumptions, a model-based approach to injury risk, allowing for the specification of individual injury risk parameters for individuals, is presented. To balance model accuracy and sample size, the GIDAS (German In-depth Accident Study) data set is divided into three age groups; children (0-14); adults (15-60); and older adults (older than 60). For each group, individual risk curves are computed. Afterwards, the curves are re-aggregated to the overall risk function. The derived model addresses the influence of age on the outcome of pedestrian-to-car accidents. The results show that older people compared with younger people have a higher MAIS3+F injury risk at all collision speeds. The injury risk for children behaves surprisingly. Compared to other age groups, their MAIS3+F injury risk is lower at lower collision speeds, but substantially higher once a threshold has been exceeded. The resulting injury risk curve obtained by re-aggregation looks surprisingly similar to the frequently used logistic regression function computed for the overall injury risk. However, for homogenous subgroups - such as the three age groups - logistic regression describes the typical risk behavior less accurately than the introduced model-based approach. Since the effect of demographic change on traffic safety is greater nowadays, there is a need to incorporate age into established models. Thus far, this is one of the first studies incorporating traffic participant age to an explicit risk function. The presented approach can be especially useful for the modeling and prediction of risks, and for the

  3. The fundamental Diagram of Pedestrian Model with Slow Reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Jun; Hu, Hao; Xu, Zhaohui; Li, Huan

    2015-01-01

    The slow-to-start models are a classical cellular automata model in simulating vehicle traffic. However, to our knowledge, the slow-to-start effect has not considered in modeling pedestrian dynamic. We verify the similar behavior between pedestrian and vehicle, and propose an new lattice gas (LG) model called the slow reaction (SR) model to describe the pedestrian's delayed reaction in single-file movement. We simulate and reproduce the Seyfried's field experiments at the research centre Julich, and use its empirical data to validate our SR model. We compare the SR model with the standard LG model. We test different probability of slow reaction ps in SR model and found the simulation data of ps=0.3 fit the empirical data best. The RMS error of mean velocity of SR model is smaller than that of standard LG model. In the range of ps=0.1~0.3, our fundamental diagram between velocity and density by simulation coincides with field experiments. The distribution of individual velocity in fundamental diagram in SR mod...

  4. Simulation of Cognitive Pedestrian Agents Crowds in Crisis Situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Lyell

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In crisis situations in an urban environment, first responder teams often must deal with crowds of people. Consider the case of a building fire in a dense city environment. People may be injured; walkways may be blocked, with fire equipment attempting to reach the scene. Crowd behavior can become an issue when trying to reach the injured, ensure safety and restore conditions to normal. The motivations of pedestrians that form the crowd can vary. Some are there because they are curious about the crisis situation. Others, attending to their individual concerns, may have found themselves in the 'wrong' location. They may be trying to leave the area, but the density of people as well as the spatial layout of the walkways may be impeding their progress. Other individuals, unaware of the fire, may be attempting to reach their intended destinations that happen to be near the crisis area, thus adding to crowd congestion. With a model of crowd behavior, effective strategies for resource usage in managing crowd behavior can be developed. Our approach to this problem is that of agent-based modeling and simulation. We develop a cognitive pedestrian agent model. Utilizing this model, we simulate crowd behavior in a 'city fire' scenario. Characteristics of crowd behavior with different pedestrian personality mixes and a strategy for crowd management are investigated

  5. Forecasting pedestrian evacuation times by using swarm intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, J.; Montalvo, I.; Pérez, R.; Fuertes, V. S.

    2009-04-01

    Many models have been developed to provide designers with methods for forecasting the time required for evacuation from various places under a variety of conditions. Particularly for high traffic buildings or buildings of cultural, governmental, or industrial importance, it is of paramount importance to properly evaluate and plan for the necessary evacuation time. To address this need, a number of models for pedestrian simulation, either considering the system as a whole or studying the behavior and decisions of individual pedestrians and their interactions with other pedestrians, have been developed over the years. In this work, a model for evacuation simulation and for estimating evacuation times is proposed. It is inspired by the so-called Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). The multi-agent-based simulation characteristics of PSO and the way this technique combines individual and collective intelligence make it suitable for this problem. The PSO-based model presented here allows for assessment of the behavioral patterns followed by individuals during a rapid evacuation event. Evaluation of these behaviors can address a variety of public safety concerns, such as architectural design, evacuation protocol definition, and regulation of public space.

  6. Quantification of the level of crowdedness for pedestrian movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duives, Dorine C.; Daamen, Winnie; Hoogendoorn, Serge P.

    2015-06-01

    Within the realm of pedestrian research numerous measures have been proposed to estimate the level of crowdedness experienced by pedestrians. However, within the field of pedestrian traffic flow modelling there does not seem to be consensus on the question which of these measures performs best. This paper shows that the shape and scatter within the resulting fundamental diagrams differs a lot depending on the measure of crowdedness used. The main aim of the paper is to establish the advantages and disadvantages of the currently existing measures to quantify crowdedness in order to evaluate which measures provide both accurate and consistent results. The assessment is not only based on the theoretical differences, but also on the qualitative and quantitative differences between the resulting fundamental diagrams computed using the crowdedness measures on one and the same data set. The qualitative and quantitative functioning of the classical Grid-based measure is compared to with the X-T measure, an Exponentially Weighted Distance measure, and a Voronoi-Diagram measure. The consistency of relating these measures for crowdedness to the two macroscopic flow variables velocity and flow, the computational efficiency and the amount of scatter present within the fundamental diagrams produced by the implementation of the different measures are reviewed. It is found that the Voronoi-Diagram and X-T measure are the most efficient and consistent measures for crowdedness.

  7. Video Pedestrian Detection Based on Orthogonal Scene Motion Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianming Qu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In fixed video scenes, scene motion patterns can be a very useful prior knowledge for pedestrian detection which is still a challenge at present. A new approach of cascade pedestrian detection using an orthogonal scene motion pattern model in a general density video is developed in this paper. To statistically model the pedestrian motion pattern, a probability grid overlaying the whole scene is set up to partition the scene into paths and holding areas. Features extracted from different pattern areas are classified by a group of specific strategies. Instead of using a unitary classifier, the employed classifier is composed of two directional subclassifiers trained, respectively, with different samples which are selected by two orthogonal directions. Considering that the negative images from the detection window scanning are much more than the positive ones, the cascade AdaBoost technique is adopted by the subclassifiers to reduce the negative image computations. The proposed approach is proved effectively by static classification experiments and surveillance video experiments.

  8. Pedestrian deaths in children--potential for prevention.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hamilton, K

    2015-01-01

    The National Paediatric Mortality Database was reviewed for the six year period 1st January 2006 to 31st December 2011 and all pedestrian deaths extracted, after review of available data the deaths were categorized as either traffic or non-traffic related. There were 45 child pedestrian fatalities in the period examined. Traffic related deaths accounted for 26 (58%) vs. 19 (42%) non-traffic related. Analysis of the deaths showed there was a male preponderance 28 (62%), weekend trend 22 (49%) with an evening 16 (35%) and summer peak 20 (44%). The highest proportion of deaths occurred in the 1-4 year age group 24 (53%), with 13 (28%) due to low speed vehicle rollovers, mainly occurring in residential driveways 8 (61%). Child pedestrian fatalities are highly preventable through the modification of risk factors including behavioural, social and environmental. Preventative action needs to be addressed, particularly in relation to non-traffic related deaths i.e, low speed vehicle rollovers.

  9. Enhancing Weak-Signal Carrier Phase Tracking in GNSS Receivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James T. Curran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Examining the performance of the GNSS PLL, this paper presents novel results describing the statistical properties of four popular phase estimators under both strong- and weak-signal conditions when subject to thermal noise, deterministic dynamics, and typical pedestrian motion. Design routines are developed which employ these results to enhance weak-signal performance of the PLL in terms of transient response, steady-state errors, and cycle-slips. By examining both single and data-pilot signals, it is shown that appropriate design and tuning of the PLL can significantly enhance tracking performance, in particular when used for pedestrian applications.

  10. Magnetic, Acceleration Fields and Gyroscope Quaternion (MAGYQ-Based Attitude Estimation with Smartphone Sensors for Indoor Pedestrian Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Renaudin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The dependence of proposed pedestrian navigation solutions on a dedicated infrastructure is a limiting factor to the deployment of location based services. Consequently self-contained Pedestrian Dead-Reckoning (PDR approaches are gaining interest for autonomous navigation. Even if the quality of low cost inertial sensors and magnetometers has strongly improved, processing noisy sensor signals combined with high hand dynamics remains a challenge. Estimating accurate attitude angles for achieving long term positioning accuracy is targeted in this work. A new Magnetic, Acceleration fields and GYroscope Quaternion (MAGYQ-based attitude angles estimation filter is proposed and demonstrated with handheld sensors. It benefits from a gyroscope signal modelling in the quaternion set and two new opportunistic updates: magnetic angular rate update (MARU and acceleration gradient update (AGU. MAGYQ filter performances are assessed indoors, outdoors, with dynamic and static motion conditions. The heading error, using only the inertial solution, is found to be less than 10° after 1.5 km walking. The performance is also evaluated in the positioning domain with trajectories computed following a PDR strategy.

  11. Magnetic, Acceleration Fields and Gyroscope Quaternion (MAGYQ)-based attitude estimation with smartphone sensors for indoor pedestrian navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaudin, Valérie; Combettes, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The dependence of proposed pedestrian navigation solutions on a dedicated infrastructure is a limiting factor to the deployment of location based services. Consequently self-contained Pedestrian Dead-Reckoning (PDR) approaches are gaining interest for autonomous navigation. Even if the quality of low cost inertial sensors and magnetometers has strongly improved, processing noisy sensor signals combined with high hand dynamics remains a challenge. Estimating accurate attitude angles for achieving long term positioning accuracy is targeted in this work. A new Magnetic, Acceleration fields and GYroscope Quaternion (MAGYQ)-based attitude angles estimation filter is proposed and demonstrated with handheld sensors. It benefits from a gyroscope signal modelling in the quaternion set and two new opportunistic updates: magnetic angular rate update (MARU) and acceleration gradient update (AGU). MAGYQ filter performances are assessed indoors, outdoors, with dynamic and static motion conditions. The heading error, using only the inertial solution, is found to be less than 10° after 1.5 km walking. The performance is also evaluated in the positioning domain with trajectories computed following a PDR strategy. PMID:25474379

  12. Cellular automata (CA) simulation of the interaction of vehicle flows and pedestrian crossings on urban low-grade uncontrolled roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qun; Wang, Yan

    2015-08-01

    This paper discusses the interaction of vehicle flows and pedestrian crossings on uncontrolled low-grade roads or branch roads without separating barriers in cities where pedestrians may cross randomly from any location on both sides of the road. The rules governing pedestrian street crossings are analyzed, and a cellular automata (CA) model to simulate the interaction of vehicle flows and pedestrian crossings is proposed. The influence of the interaction of vehicle flows and pedestrian crossings on the volume and travel time of the vehicle flow and the average wait time for pedestrians to cross is investigated through simulations. The main results of the simulation are as follows: (1) The vehicle flow volume decreases because of interruption from pedestrian crossings, but a small number of pedestrian crossings do not cause a significant delay to vehicles. (2) If there are many pedestrian crossings, slow vehicles will have little chance to accelerate, causing travel time to increase and the vehicle flow volume to decrease. (3) The average wait time for pedestrians to cross generally decreases with a decrease in vehicle flow volume and also decreases with an increase in the number of pedestrian crossings. (4) Temporal and spatial characteristics of vehicle flows and pedestrian flows and some interesting phenomena such as "crossing belt" and "vehicle belt" are found through the simulations.

  13. Analysis of the pedestrian arching at bottleneck based on a bypassing behavior model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ming; Jia, Hongfei; Ran, Bin; Li, Jun

    2016-07-01

    A bypassing behavior model was proposed, in which the local optimal decision behavior in the strategy level was modeled in velocity-time domain, to describe how pedestrians bypass the local obstacles considering the relative speed. The model contains (1) pedestrian visual and contact information acquisition; (2) motion state prediction of the local obstacles based on the visual and contact information; (3) pedestrian bypass strategy modeling in the velocity-time domain; (4) moving and overlapping solution. In the numerical solution, velocity domain was divided into n equal angle, the value of n ranges from 2 to infinity, the Manhattan space was refined gradually to Euclid Space accordingly, in which the movement of pedestrians was described. The model was applied to the analysis of pedestrian arching at the bottleneck in the emergent evacuation situation. (1) The results showed that the formation of the pedestrian arching at the bottleneck was deformation pressure, because many pedestrians try to pass through the bottleneck simultaneously, even in the absence of friction, the pedestrian arching still occurs; (2) In the emergent situation, we are more concerned about the bottleneck attribution of resistance to form the arching, the calculation and simulation results showed that the probability of an arching and the bottleneck width is an exponential function relationship, so when the stampede occurs in the middle of the bottleneck, the probability of arching will increase exponentially.

  14. Driver Behavior in Yielding to Sighted and Blind Pedestrians at Roundabouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geruschat, Duane R.; Hassan, Shirin E.

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated drivers' behavior in yielding the right-of-way to sighted and blind pedestrians who stood at different stopping distances from the crosswalk lines at entry and exit lanes at two different roundabouts. The findings demonstrate that drivers' willingness to yield to pedestrians is affected by whether they are attempting to cross…

  15. Pedestrian Footpath Level of Service (FOOT-LOS Model for Johor Bahru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Basil David

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrian level of service (LOS is an overall measure of walking conditions on a route, path, or facility. This is linked directly to factors that affect mobility, comfort and safety, reflecting pedestrian’s perceptions of the degree to which the facility is pedestrian-friendly. A unique model called FOOT-LOS (short for pedestrian footpath level of service was developed to facilitate the LOS measurement. The factors considered fall into three categories; physical, location and user attributes. Pedestrian conditions can be described through a grading system, i.e. from LOS A (ideal pedestrian condition to LOS F (unsuitable pedestrian condition, based on an assessment of the factors affecting LOS. The assessment includes desktop and on-site assessment of LOS factors. The development of the model involved an iterative process that included testing and refinement. The research undertaken and the LOS model developed provide a sound basis for the measurement of LOS for pedestrian footpaths. The model not only provides a methodology for determining LOS, but also determines which factors predominantly contribute to the LOS of pedestrian footpaths.

  16. Cortical Auditory Evoked Potentials Reveal Changes in Audibility with Nonlinear Frequency Compression in Hearing Aids for Children: Clinical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Teresa Y C; Zhang, Vicky W; Hou, Sanna; Van Buynder, Patricia

    2016-02-01

    Hearing loss in children is detected soon after birth via newborn hearing screening. Procedures for early hearing assessment and hearing aid fitting are well established, but methods for evaluating the effectiveness of amplification for young children are limited. One promising approach to validating hearing aid fittings is to measure cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs). This article provides first a brief overview of reports on the use of CAEPs for evaluation of hearing aids. Second, a study that measured CAEPs to evaluate nonlinear frequency compression (NLFC) in hearing aids for 27 children (between 6.1 and 16.8 years old) who have mild to severe hearing loss is reported. There was no significant difference in aided sensation level or the detection of CAEPs for /g/ between NLFC on and off conditions. The activation of NLFC was associated with a significant increase in aided sensation levels for /t/ and /s/. It also was associated with an increase in detection of CAEPs for /t/ and /s/. The findings support the use of CAEPs for checking audibility provided by hearing aids. Based on the current data, a clinical protocol for using CAEPs to validate audibility with amplification is presented. PMID:27587920

  17. Distributed pedestrian detection alerts based on data fusion with accurate localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Fernando; Jiménez, Felipe; Anaya, José Javier; Armingol, José María; Naranjo, José Eugenio; de la Escalera, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    Among Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) pedestrian detection is a common issue due to the vulnerability of pedestrians in the event of accidents. In the present work, a novel approach for pedestrian detection based on data fusion is presented. Data fusion helps to overcome the limitations inherent to each detection system (computer vision and laser scanner) and provides accurate and trustable tracking of any pedestrian movement. The application is complemented by an efficient communication protocol, able to alert vehicles in the surroundings by a fast and reliable communication. The combination of a powerful location, based on a GPS with inertial measurement, and accurate obstacle localization based on data fusion has allowed locating the detected pedestrians with high accuracy. Tests proved the viability of the detection system and the efficiency of the communication, even at long distances. By the use of the alert communication, dangerous situations such as occlusions or misdetections can be avoided. PMID:24008284

  18. Distributed Pedestrian Detection Alerts Based on Data Fusion with Accurate Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo de la Escalera

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Among Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS pedestrian detection is a common issue due to the vulnerability of pedestrians in the event of accidents. In the present work, a novel approach for pedestrian detection based on data fusion is presented. Data fusion helps to overcome the limitations inherent to each detection system (computer vision and laser scanner and provides accurate and trustable tracking of any pedestrian movement. The application is complemented by an efficient communication protocol, able to alert vehicles in the surroundings by a fast and reliable communication. The combination of a powerful location, based on a GPS with inertial measurement, and accurate obstacle localization based on data fusion has allowed locating the detected pedestrians with high accuracy. Tests proved the viability of the detection system and the efficiency of the communication, even at long distances. By the use of the alert communication, dangerous situations such as occlusions or misdetections can be avoided.

  19. Pedestrian Zones As Important Urban Strategies in Redeveloping the Community - Case Study: Alba Iulia Borough Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Elena BLAGA

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The pedestrian zone issue is by far an important matter in the context of urban regeneration. Cities which adopted this strategy – the pedestrian zones – have recorded better urban attitudes regarding the urban environment, a continuous growth of the urban quality, an improved urban ecosystem and continuous attractiveness for investment and tourism. This article explores the evolution of the pedestrian zones as ideas in utopian urban models in the early 1900 and later as efficient environmental friendly strategies adopted by cities. After identifying the path this concept followed, from a simple idea to an important strategy of urban development, the paper focuses on the major characteristics and benefits of the pedestrian precincts. Next, the article focuses on the newest pedestrian zone in one of the Romanian cities, Alba Iulia and it tries to identify the types of impact this area has so far on the community and entire city.

  20. Distributed Pedestrian Detection Alerts Based on Data Fusion with Accurate Localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Fernando; Jiménez, Felipe; Anaya, José Javier; Armingol, José María; Naranjo, José Eugenio; de la Escalera, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    Among Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) pedestrian detection is a common issue due to the vulnerability of pedestrians in the event of accidents. In the present work, a novel approach for pedestrian detection based on data fusion is presented. Data fusion helps to overcome the limitations inherent to each detection system (computer vision and laser scanner) and provides accurate and trustable tracking of any pedestrian movement. The application is complemented by an efficient communication protocol, able to alert vehicles in the surroundings by a fast and reliable communication. The combination of a powerful location, based on a GPS with inertial measurement, and accurate obstacle localization based on data fusion has allowed locating the detected pedestrians with high accuracy. Tests proved the viability of the detection system and the efficiency of the communication, even at long distances. By the use of the alert communication, dangerous situations such as occlusions or misdetections can be avoided. PMID:24008284

  1. Heading Estimation for Indoor Pedestrian Navigation Using a Smartphone in the Pocket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhi-An; Wang, Guofeng; Hu, Ying; Wu, Di

    2015-01-01

    Heading estimation is a central problem for indoor pedestrian navigation using the pervasively available smartphone. For smartphones placed in a pocket, one of the most popular device positions, the essential challenges in heading estimation are the changing device coordinate system and the severe indoor magnetic perturbations. To address these challenges, we propose a novel heading estimation approach based on a rotation matrix and principal component analysis (PCA). Firstly, through a related rotation matrix, we project the acceleration signals into a reference coordinate system (RCS), where a more accurate estimation of the horizontal plane of the acceleration signal is obtained. Then, we utilize PCA over the horizontal plane of acceleration signals for local walking direction extraction. Finally, in order to translate the local walking direction into the global one, we develop a calibration process without requiring noisy compass readings. Besides, a turn detection algorithm is proposed to improve the heading estimation accuracy. Experimental results show that our approach outperforms the traditional uDirect and PCA-based approaches in terms of accuracy and feasibility. PMID:26343679

  2. Heading Estimation for Indoor Pedestrian Navigation Using a Smartphone in the Pocket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-An Deng

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Heading estimation is a central problem for indoor pedestrian navigation using the pervasively available smartphone. For smartphones placed in a pocket, one of the most popular device positions, the essential challenges in heading estimation are the changing device coordinate system and the severe indoor magnetic perturbations. To address these challenges, we propose a novel heading estimation approach based on a rotation matrix and principal component analysis (PCA. Firstly, through a related rotation matrix, we project the acceleration signals into a reference coordinate system (RCS, where a more accurate estimation of the horizontal plane of the acceleration signal is obtained. Then, we utilize PCA over the horizontal plane of acceleration signals for local walking direction extraction. Finally, in order to translate the local walking direction into the global one, we develop a calibration process without requiring noisy compass readings. Besides, a turn detection algorithm is proposed to improve the heading estimation accuracy. Experimental results show that our approach outperforms the traditional uDirect and PCA-based approaches in terms of accuracy and feasibility.

  3. Pedestrian Detection and Tracking from Low-Resolution Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Thermal Imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yalong; Wu, Xinkai; Yu, Guizhen; Xu, Yongzheng; Wang, Yunpeng

    2016-01-01

    Driven by the prominent thermal signature of humans and following the growing availability of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), more and more research efforts have been focusing on the detection and tracking of pedestrians using thermal infrared images recorded from UAVs. However, pedestrian detection and tracking from the thermal images obtained from UAVs pose many challenges due to the low-resolution of imagery, platform motion, image instability and the relatively small size of the objects. This research tackles these challenges by proposing a pedestrian detection and tracking system. A two-stage blob-based approach is first developed for pedestrian detection. This approach first extracts pedestrian blobs using the regional gradient feature and geometric constraints filtering and then classifies the detected blobs by using a linear Support Vector Machine (SVM) with a hybrid descriptor, which sophisticatedly combines Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG) and Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) features in order to achieve accurate detection. This research further proposes an approach for pedestrian tracking. This approach employs the feature tracker with the update of detected pedestrian location to track pedestrian objects from the registered videos and extracts the motion trajectory data. The proposed detection and tracking approaches have been evaluated by multiple different datasets, and the results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods. This research is expected to significantly benefit many transportation applications, such as the multimodal traffic performance measure, pedestrian behavior study and pedestrian-vehicle crash analysis. Future work will focus on using fused thermal and visual images to further improve the detection efficiency and effectiveness. PMID:27023564

  4. Pedestrian Detection and Tracking from Low-Resolution Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Thermal Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalong Ma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Driven by the prominent thermal signature of humans and following the growing availability of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs, more and more research efforts have been focusing on the detection and tracking of pedestrians using thermal infrared images recorded from UAVs. However, pedestrian detection and tracking from the thermal images obtained from UAVs pose many challenges due to the low-resolution of imagery, platform motion, image instability and the relatively small size of the objects. This research tackles these challenges by proposing a pedestrian detection and tracking system. A two-stage blob-based approach is first developed for pedestrian detection. This approach first extracts pedestrian blobs using the regional gradient feature and geometric constraints filtering and then classifies the detected blobs by using a linear Support Vector Machine (SVM with a hybrid descriptor, which sophisticatedly combines Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG and Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT features in order to achieve accurate detection. This research further proposes an approach for pedestrian tracking. This approach employs the feature tracker with the update of detected pedestrian location to track pedestrian objects from the registered videos and extracts the motion trajectory data. The proposed detection and tracking approaches have been evaluated by multiple different datasets, and the results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods. This research is expected to significantly benefit many transportation applications, such as the multimodal traffic performance measure, pedestrian behavior study and pedestrian-vehicle crash analysis. Future work will focus on using fused thermal and visual images to further improve the detection efficiency and effectiveness.

  5. Pedestrian Detection and Tracking from Low-Resolution Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Thermal Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yalong; Wu, Xinkai; Yu, Guizhen; Xu, Yongzheng; Wang, Yunpeng

    2016-01-01

    Driven by the prominent thermal signature of humans and following the growing availability of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), more and more research efforts have been focusing on the detection and tracking of pedestrians using thermal infrared images recorded from UAVs. However, pedestrian detection and tracking from the thermal images obtained from UAVs pose many challenges due to the low-resolution of imagery, platform motion, image instability and the relatively small size of the objects. This research tackles these challenges by proposing a pedestrian detection and tracking system. A two-stage blob-based approach is first developed for pedestrian detection. This approach first extracts pedestrian blobs using the regional gradient feature and geometric constraints filtering and then classifies the detected blobs by using a linear Support Vector Machine (SVM) with a hybrid descriptor, which sophisticatedly combines Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG) and Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) features in order to achieve accurate detection. This research further proposes an approach for pedestrian tracking. This approach employs the feature tracker with the update of detected pedestrian location to track pedestrian objects from the registered videos and extracts the motion trajectory data. The proposed detection and tracking approaches have been evaluated by multiple different datasets, and the results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods. This research is expected to significantly benefit many transportation applications, such as the multimodal traffic performance measure, pedestrian behavior study and pedestrian-vehicle crash analysis. Future work will focus on using fused thermal and visual images to further improve the detection efficiency and effectiveness. PMID:27023564

  6. Predictors of road crossing safety in pedestrians with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chin-Hsien; Ou, Yang-Kun; Wu, Ruey-Meei; Liu, Yung-Ching

    2013-03-01

    Road-crossing safety is an important issue in an aging society. Information regarding the risk of crossing the street to pedestrians with Parkinson's disease (PD) is limited. To assess the risk and predictors of unsafe crossing behaviors in patients with PD, we compared 31 pedestrians with mild-to-moderate PD to 50 age/gender/education-matched controls using a battery of cognitive, visual, and motor tests. With a simulated simple street-crossing situation, we determined the remaining time and safety margin for each participant in different traffic situations, including variable motor vehicle speed, time gap, and time of the day. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated by logistic regression models. We found that pedestrians with PD were more vulnerable to traffic accidents than controls (OR 1.61 [1.28-2.02], P=0.01). The risk of crossing road correlated in a dose-dependent manner with the severity of PD, based on both Hoehn and Yahr (H&Y) stages and unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS) motor scores (OR 1.13 for each increasing point of UPDSR, Pvehicle speed (OR 4.50 [2.92-6.95], P<0.01), short time gap (OR 45.98 [27.04-78.18], P<0.01), and time of day (OR 4.45 [3.11-6.36], P<0.01) also affected road-crossing safety. Future large sample studies are needed to confirm our findings. Training programs or portable stimulator devices that compensate for the visual-spatial disabilities of PD patients are required to improve road safety for PD patients. PMID:23262459

  7. Prévessin site: Pedestrian and cycle entrance

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The entrance to the Prévessin site for pedestrians and cyclists on Chemin du Moulin des Ponts will be re-opened: from 7 April to 30 October 2015, from 7.00 a.m. to 9.00 a.m. and from 5.00 p.m. to 7.00 p.m. on working days (Monday to Friday).   IMPORTANT: all users must show their access cards to the security guard as a matter of course when passing through the gates, both on entering and leaving the site.

  8. Vision-based pedestrian protection systems for intelligent vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Geronimo, David

    2013-01-01

    Pedestrian Protection Systems (PPSs) are on-board systems aimed at detecting and tracking people in the surroundings of a vehicle in order to avoid potentially dangerous situations. These systems, together with other Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) such as lane departure warning or adaptive cruise control, are one of the most promising ways to improve traffic safety. By the use of computer vision, cameras working either in the visible or infra-red spectra have been demonstrated as a reliable sensor to perform this task. Nevertheless, the variability of human's appearance, not only in

  9. Collision-free speed model for pedestrian dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Tordeux, Antoine; Seyfried, Armin

    2015-01-01

    We propose in this paper a minimal speed-based pedestrian model for which particle dynamics are intrinsically collision-free. The speed model is an optimal velocity function depending on the agent length (i.e.\\ particle diameter), maximum speed and time gap parameters. The direction model is a weighted sum of exponential repulsion from the neighbors, calibrated by the repulsion rate and distance. The model's main features like the reproduction of empirical phenomena are analysed by simulation. We point out that phenomena of self-organisation observable in force-based models and field studies can be reproduced by the collision-free model with low computational effort.

  10. Behaviour and Perception-based Pedestrian Evacuation Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Kretz, Tobias; Muehlberger, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    This contribution reports on the research project SKRIBT and some of its results. An evacuation simulation based on VISSIM's pedestrian dynamics simulation was developed, that -- with high time resolution -- integrates results from studies on behavior in stress and crisis situations, results from CFD models for e.g. fire dynamics simulations, and considers visibility of signage and -- adding a psychological model -- its cognition. A crucial issue is the cognition of smoke or fire by the occupant and his / her resulting spontaneous or deliberate reaction to this episode.

  11. Prévessin site – Pedestrian and cycle entrances

    CERN Multimedia

    GS-DI

    2014-01-01

    Entrances for pedestrians and cyclists on Route du Maroc and on Chemin du Moulin des Ponts, in Prévessin, will be re-opened:   from 7 April to 31 October 2014, from 7.00 a.m. to 9.00 a.m. and from 5.00 p.m. to 7.00 p.m. on working days (Monday to Friday).   IMPORTANT: all users must show their access cards to the security guard as a matter of course when passing through the gates, both on entering and leaving the site.

  12. Prévessin site – Pedestrian and cycle entrances

    CERN Multimedia

    GS-IS

    2013-01-01

      A second entrance for pedestrians and cyclists on Route du Maroc will be opened and the existing entrance on Chemin du Moulin des Ponts will be re-opened: - for the period 2 April to 31 October 2013, - from 7.00 a.m. to 9.00 a.m. and from 5.00 p.m. to 7.00 p.m. on working days (Monday to Friday). IMPORTANT: all users must show their access cards to the security guard as a matter of course when passing through the gates, both on entering and leaving the site.

  13. Hyperspectral Imaging and Association Phenomenology of Pedestrians in a Cluttered Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herweg, Jared A.

    Remote hyperspectral imaging (HSI) has shown promise in several applications such as object detection and tracking. Typically research has focused on large objects, such as vehicles, for tracking due to the spatial resolution of current operational HSI systems. This research seeks to extend the utility of applying HSI to human pedestrian detection using the reflective solar spectral range between 400 - 2500 nm. A phenomenological investigation of a novel scheme to differentiate between pedestrians is studied. By applying the basics of detection theory, this research focuses on being able to differentiate between pedestrians, as well as background materials. Specifically, this research explores the likelihood of detecting and differentiating pedestrians based on four defined subregions comprised of the exposed hair, skin, and the fabrics used for shirts and trousers. The scope of this work encompassed detecting a pedestrian of interest outdoors among other pedestrians in an urban environment consisting of a mixture of asphalt, concrete, grass, and trees. Two unique datasets were created during the course of this effort. One dataset was a collection of fully ground-truthed hyperspectral images of pedestrians in an urban environment. A second dataset was a synthetic rendering of the real-world ground truthed pedestrian scene developed using the Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) model. Subregion separability analysis results, using spectral reflectance data, provided strong evidence that combining the observable spectral features of detectable subregions is a viable means of distinguishing between pedestrians. Further analysis using real-world HSI data demonstrated that the detection and classification of the pedestrian subregions when changes in illumination, location, and background occur within the field of view of a hyperspectral sensor is achievable with a greater than 60% accuracy. In addition to the direct detection and association

  14. Pedestrian Detection with Spatially Pooled Features and Structured Ensemble Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paisitkriangkrai, Sakrapee; Shen, Chunhua; Hengel, Anton van den

    2016-06-01

    Many typical applications of object detection operate within a prescribed false-positive range. In this situation the performance of a detector should be assessed on the basis of the area under the ROC curve over that range, rather than over the full curve, as the performance outside the prescribed range is irrelevant. This measure is labelled as the partial area under the ROC curve (pAUC). We propose a novel ensemble learning method which achieves a maximal detection rate at a user-defined range of false positive rates by directly optimizing the partial AUC using structured learning. In addition, in order to achieve high object detection performance, we propose a new approach to extracting low-level visual features based on spatial pooling. Incorporating spatial pooling improves the translational invariance and thus the robustness of the detection process. Experimental results on both synthetic and real-world data sets demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach, and we show that it is possible to train state-of-the-art pedestrian detectors using the proposed structured ensemble learning method with spatially pooled features. The result is the current best reported performance on the Caltech-USA pedestrian detection dataset. PMID:26336118

  15. Pedestrian evacuation at the subway station under fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao-Xia, Yang; Hai-Rong, Dong; Xiu-Ming, Yao; Xu-Bin, Sun

    2016-04-01

    With the development of urban rail transit, ensuring the safe evacuation of pedestrians at subway stations has become an important issue in the case of an emergency such as a fire. This paper chooses the platform of line 4 at the Beijing Xuanwumen subway station to study the emergency evacuation process under fire. Based on the established platform, effects of the fire dynamics, different initial pedestrian densities, and positions of fire on evacuation are investigated. According to simulation results, it is found that the fire increases the air temperature and the smoke density, and decreases pedestrians’ visibility and walking velocity. Also, there is a critical initial density at the platform if achieving a safe evacuation within the required 6 minutes. Furthermore, different positions of fire set in this paper have little difference on crowd evacuation if the fire is not large enough. The suggestions provided in this paper are helpful for the subway operators to prevent major casualties. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61322307 and 61233001).

  16. The Study on In-City Capacity Affected by Pedestrian Crossing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-jiang Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the urban road traffic congestion is serious and the traffic accident is happening at a high frequency; thus it has not satisfied the travel needs of security and affects the quality of urban trips. In order to effectively relieve the confliction of people and motor vehicle, to make sure of the safety of pedestrians crossing the road, and to improve the capacity of urban roads, this passage focuses on studying the influence of pedestrians crossing the roads on the capacity of urban roads in three pedestrian crossing approaches including freely crossing the street, uncontrolled crossing of the pedestrian crosswalk, and controlled crossing of the pedestrian crosswalk. Firstly, it confirms the general formula of the road capacity when pedestrians are crossing the road based on three preassumptions, combined with the survey data, and then constructs the empirical mathematical model of pedestrian crossing on the capacity impact. Lastly, it takes the step of case calculation and simulation evaluation and calculates errors between them, finding that the error between the model calculation and software simulation is small. The efficiency of the model is validated and improved.

  17. Study on the Weaving Behavior of High Density Bidirectional Pedestrian Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lishan Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Weaving area may be the critical risk place in the subway transfer station. When improving service level of the weaving area, the characteristic of pedestrian weaving behavior should be systemically discussed. This paper described the mechanism of weaving behavior on high density pedestrian which was analyzed by the collection data of controlled experiment. Different weaving behaviors were contrasted due to different volumes in the bidirectional passageway. Video analysis was conducted to extract pedestrian moving behavior and calibrate the movement data with SIMI Motion. Influence of the high density weaving pedestrian was studied based on the statistical results (e.g., velocity, walking distance, and journey time. Furthermore, the quantitative method by speed analysis was announced to discriminate the conflict point. The scopes of weaving area and impact area at different pedestrian volumes were revealed to analyze the pedestrian turning angle. The paper concluded that walking pedestrians are significantly influenced by the weaving conflict and trend to turn the moving direction to avoid the conflict in weaving area; the ratio of stable weaving area and impact area is 2 to 3. The conclusions do provide a method to evaluate the transfer station safety and a facility layout guidance to improve the capacity.

  18. Pedestrian movement analysis in transfer station corridor: Velocity-based and acceleration-based

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiangfeng; Zhang, Jian; Hu, Yongkai; Ran, Bin

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, pedestrians are classified into aggressive and conservative ones by their temper. Aggressive pedestrians' walking through crowd in transfer station corridor is analyzed. Treating pedestrians as particles, this paper uses the modified social force model (MSFM) as the building block, where forces involve self-driving force, repulsive force and friction force. The proposed model in this paper is a discrete model combining the MSFM and cellular automata (CA) model, where the updating rules of the CA are redefined with MSFM. Due to the continuity of values generated by the MSFM, we use the fuzzy logic to discretize the continuous values into cells pedestrians can move in one step. With the observation that stimulus around pedestrians influences their acceleration directly, an acceleration-based movement model is presented, compared to the generally reviewed velocity-based movement model. In the acceleration-based model, a discretized version of kinematic equation is presented based on the acceleration discretized with fuzzy logic. In real life, some pedestrians would rather keep their desired speed and this is also mimicked in this paper, which is called inertia. Compared to the simple triangular membership function, a trapezoidal membership function and a piecewise linear membership function are used to capture pedestrians' inertia. With the trapezoidal and the piecewise linear membership function, many overlapping scenarios should be carefully handled and Dubois and Prade's four-index method is used to completely describe the relative relationship of fuzzy quantities. Finally, a simulation is constructed to demonstrate the effect of our model.

  19. Developing a South African pedestrian environment assessment tool: Tshwane case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Olwoch

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrians, comprising approximately 60% of the population, are among the most vulnerable road users in South Africa. The roadside environment may be an important factor influencing the nature and frequency of pedestrian fatalities. While there are audit tools for assessing the pedestrian environment in other countries, no such tool exists for South Africa. This study evaluated existing audit tools in relation to South African issues and conditions and developed a South African Pedestrian Environment Assessment Tool (PEAT. PEAT was tested at five sites in the Tshwane Metropolitan Area in Gauteng to assess its applicability. PEAT was simple to use and provided valuable information, however, appropriate measures need to be taken to address fieldworker security, especially for night-time assessments when several roadside factors, such as lighting, should be evaluated. Although it was not the focus of our study, based on our results, we suggest that the lack of pavements, pedestrian crossings and pedestrian lighting are factors that, potentially, could increase pedestrian vulnerability.

  20. Working Concept of Accessibility: Performance Measures for Usability of Crosswalks by Pedestrians with Vision Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Bastian J; Rouphail, Nagui M; Hughes, Ronald G

    2010-01-22

    This research presents an analysis framework and associated performance measures for quantifying the accessibility of pedestrian crossings at modern roundabouts for pedestrians who are blind. The measures, developed under two ongoing national research projects, NCHRP Project 3-78A and a bioengineering research grant from the National Institutes of Health-National Eye Institute, attempt to isolate the components of the crossing task for a blind pedestrian into computable and replicable quantities that allow the comparison of accessibility across individuals or sites. The framework differentiates between crossing opportunities in the form of yields and crossable gaps and the utilization of these opportunities by the pedestrian. It further accounts for the amount of delay and risk involved in the crossing. The analysis framework and measures are demonstrated for two single-lane roundabouts in North Carolina evaluated under the aforementioned research projects. The application shows that the accessibility of a pedestrian crossing to a blind pedestrian is characterized by a combination of different measures and further depends on crossing geometry, traffic volume, driver behavior, and the travel skills and risk-taking behavior of the individual. With successful demonstration at roundabout crosswalks, the analysis framework is hypothesized to have broader application to unsignalized pedestrian crossings, including midblock locations. PMID:20664802

  1. Measuring accident risk exposure for pedestrians in different micro-environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassarre, Sylvain; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Yannis, George; Golias, John

    2007-11-01

    Pedestrians are mainly exposed to the risk of road accident when crossing a road in urban areas. Traditionally in the road safety field, the risk of accident for pedestrian is estimated as a rate of accident involvement per unit of time spent on the road network. The objective of this research is to develop an approach of accident risk based on the concept of risk exposure used in environmental epidemiology, such as in the case of exposure to pollutants. This type of indicator would be useful for comparing the effects of urban transportation policy scenarios on pedestrian safety. The first step is to create an indicator of pedestrians' exposure, which is based on motorised vehicles' "concentration" by lane and also takes account of traffic speed and time spent to cross. This is applied to two specific micro-environments: junctions and mid-block locations. A model of pedestrians' crossing behaviour along a trip is then developed, based on a hierarchical choice between junctions and mid-block locations and taking account of origin and destination, traffic characteristics and pedestrian facilities. Finally, a complete framework is produced for modelling pedestrians' exposure in the light of their crossing behaviour. The feasibility of this approach is demonstrated on an artificial network and a first set of results is obtained from the validation of the models in observational studies. PMID:17920847

  2. Modelling framework for dynamic interaction between multiple pedestrians and vertical vibrations of footbridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venuti, Fiammetta; Racic, Vitomir; Corbetta, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    After 15 years of active research on the interaction between moving people and civil engineering structures, there is still a lack of reliable models and adequate design guidelines pertinent to vibration serviceability of footbridges due to multiple pedestrians. There are three key issues that a new generation of models should urgently address: pedestrian "intelligent" interaction with the surrounding people and environment, effect of human bodies on dynamic properties of unoccupied structure and inter-subject and intra-subject variability of pedestrian walking loads. This paper presents a modelling framework of human-structure interaction in the vertical direction which addresses all three issues. The framework comprises two main models: (1) a microscopic model of multiple pedestrian traffic that simulates time varying position and velocity of each individual pedestrian on the footbridge deck, and (2) a coupled dynamic model of a footbridge and multiple walking pedestrians. The footbridge is modelled as a SDOF system having the dynamic properties of the unoccupied structure. Each walking pedestrian in a group or crowd is modelled as a SDOF system with an adjacent stochastic vertical force that moves along the footbridge following the trajectory and the gait pattern simulated by the microscopic model of pedestrian traffic. Performance of the suggested modelling framework is illustrated by a series of simulated vibration responses of a virtual footbridge due to light, medium and dense pedestrian traffic. Moreover, the Weibull distribution is shown to fit well the probability density function of the local peaks in the acceleration response. Considering the inherent randomness of the crowd, this makes it possible to determine the probability of exceeding any given acceleration value of the occupied bridge.

  3. Biomechanically inspired modelling of pedestrian-induced forces on laterally oscillating structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocian, M.; Macdonald, J. H. G.; Burn, J. F.

    2012-07-01

    Despite considerable interest among engineers and scientists, bi-directional interaction between walking pedestrians and lively bridges has still not been well understood. In an attempt to bridge this gap a biomechanically inspired model of the human response to lateral bridge motion is presented and explored. The simple inverted pendulum model captures the key features of pedestrian lateral balance and the resulting forces on the structure. The forces include self-excited components that can be effectively modelled as frequency-dependent added damping and mass to the structure. The results of numerical simulations are in reasonable agreement with recent experimental measurements of humans walking on a laterally oscillating treadmill, and in very good agreement with measurements on full-scale bridges. In contrast to many other models of lateral pedestrian loading, synchronisation with the bridge motion is not involved. A parametric study of the model is conducted, revealing that as pedestrians slow down as a crowd becomes more dense, their resulting lower pacing rates generate larger self-excited forces. For typical pedestrian parameters, the potential to generate negative damping arises for any lateral bridge vibration frequency above 0.43 Hz, depending on the walking frequency. Stability boundaries of the combined pedestrian-structure system are presented in terms of the structural damping ratio and pedestrian-to-bridge mass ratio, revealing complex relations between damping demand and bridge and pedestrian frequencies, due to the added mass effect. Finally it is demonstrated that the model can produce simultaneous self-excited forces on multiple structural modes, and a realistic full simulation of a large number of pedestrians, walking randomly and interacting with a bridge, produces structural behaviour in very good agreement with site observations.

  4. The Audible Human Project: Modeling Sound Transmission in the Lungs and Torso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zoujun

    Auscultation has been used qualitatively by physicians for hundreds of years to aid in the monitoring and diagnosis of pulmonary diseases. Alterations in the structure and function of the pulmonary system that occur in disease or injury often give rise to measurable changes in lung sound production and transmission. Numerous acoustic measurements have revealed the differences of breath sounds and transmitted sounds in the lung under normal and pathological conditions. Compared to the extensive cataloging of lung sound measurements, the mechanism of sound transmission in the pulmonary system and how it changes with alterations of lung structural and material properties has received less attention. A better understanding of sound transmission and how it is altered by injury and disease might improve interpretation of lung sound measurements, including new lung imaging modalities that are based on an array measurement of the acoustic field on the torso surface via contact sensors or are based on a 3-dimensional measurement of the acoustic field throughout the lungs and torso using magnetic resonance elastography. A long-term goal of the Audible Human Project (AHP ) is to develop a computational acoustic model that would accurately simulate generation, transmission and noninvasive measurement of sound and vibration within the pulmonary system and torso caused by both internal (e.g. respiratory function) and external (e.g. palpation) sources. The goals of this dissertation research, fitting within the scope of the AHP, are to develop specific improved theoretical understandings, computational algorithms and experimental methods aimed at transmission and measurement. The research objectives undertaken in this dissertation are as follows. (1) Improve theoretical modeling and experimental identification of viscoelasticity in soft biological tissues. (2) Develop a poroviscoelastic model for lung tissue vibroacoustics. (3) Improve lung airway acoustics modeling and its

  5. INFLUENCE OF PLANNING, ORGANIZATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS AND REGULATION ON ROAD TRAFFIC SAFETY OF PEDESTRIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Kuharenok

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of research on planning, organizational characteristics and regulation modes at  the regulated pedestrian crossings, located out of crossroads in the street and road network of Minsk. Some regularities pertaining to the influence of the investigated characteristics on road traffic safety of pedestrians are revealed in the paper. Practical offers on increase of road traffic safety of pedestrians in the Republic of Belarus have been developed on the basis of the executed investigations and cited in the paper. 

  6. Cyber-Physical Modeling and Control of Crowd of Pedestrians: A Review and New Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Ke-cai; Stuart, Dan; Yue, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in modeling and control of crowds of pedestrians are briefly surveyed in this paper. Possibilities of applying fractional calculus in the modeling of crowd of pedestrians have been shortly reviewed and discussed from different aspects such as descriptions of motion, interactions of long range and effects of memory. Control of the crowd of pedestrians have also been formulated using the framework of Cyber-Physical Systems and been realized using networked Segways with onboard emergency response personnels to regulate the velocity and flux of the crowd. Platform for verification of the theoretical results are also provided in this paper.

  7. Evaluation of Pedestrian Risk on 700 N on Utah State University Campus

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Kirk

    2012-01-01

    One of the biggest concerns that highway designers face when designing roadways is how to safely design the interface between highway users and pedestrians. This is never truer than on the Utah State University campus where pedestrian use is much higher than on an average road. Utah State University purchased 700 N, the main collector road which runs through the heart of USU’s campus, from the City of Logan in the summer of 2010. Since then, pedestrian safety on 700 N has become the first pri...

  8. A derives grid-based model for simulation of pedestrian flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min-jie CHEN; Günter B(A)RWOLFF; Hartmut SCHWANDT

    2009-01-01

    We present a derived grid-based model for the simulation of pedestrian flow. Interactions among pedestrians are considered as the result of forces within a certain neighbourhood. Unlike the social force model, the forces here, as in Newtonian physics, are proportional to the inverse of the square of the distance. Despite the notion of neighbourhood and the underlying grid, this model differs from the existing cellular automaton (CA) models in that the pedestrians are treated as individuals. Bresenham's algorithm for line rastering is applied in the step calculation.

  9. Audible and infrasonic noise levels in the cabins of modern agricultural tractors — Does the risk of adverse, exposure-dependent effects still exist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Bilski

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The agricultural tractor is one of the most commonly used vehicles on farms and one of the most prominent sources of noise. This article presents an exemplary assessment of the audible and infrasonic noise levels in the cabins of selected modern wheeled agricultural tractors. Materials and Methods: Operator-perceived audible and infrasonic noise levels in the cabins were examined for 20 types of modern tractors during typical conditions of work. The tractors had been in use for no longer than 3 years, with rated power between 96 kW and 227 kW, designed and produced by world-renowned companies. Noise level measurements were performed in accordance with PN-EN ISO 9612:2011 (ISO 9612:2009. Results: Audible noise levels (A-weighted ranged from 62.1 to 87.4 dB-A (average: 68.2 to 83.8 dB-A for different work tasks. The factors influencing noise levels include performed tasks, soil, weather conditions and the skills of individual drivers. In spectrum analysis, the highest noise levels occurred at frequencies 250 Hz, 1 and 2 kHz. Infrasound noise levels (G-weighted ranged from 87.3 to 111.3 dB-G. The driver-experienced exposure to infrasound was found to increase significantly when the vehicle was in motion. Conclusions: Average audible noise levels have no potential to adversely affect the hearing organ during tasks performed inside the closed cabins of the analysed modern agricultural tractors. Due to the relatively low audible noise levels inside the cabins of modern agricultural tractors, non-auditory effects are the only adverse symptoms that can develop. Modern agricultural tractors emit considerable infrasonic noise levels. All tractors introduced into the market should be subjected to tests with regard to infrasonic noise levels.

  10. Multimodal injury risk analysis of road users at signalized and non-signalized intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Jillian; Miranda-Moreno, Luis F; Morency, Patrick

    2014-10-01

    This paper proposes a multimodal approach to study safety at intersections by simultaneously analysing the safety and flow outcomes for both motorized and non-motorized traffic. This study uses an extensive inventory of signalized and non-signalized intersections on the island of Montreal, Quebec, Canada, containing disaggregate motor-vehicle, cyclist and pedestrian flows, injury data, geometric design, traffic control and built environment characteristics in the vicinity of each intersection. Bayesian multivariate Poisson models are used to analyze the injury and traffic flow outcomes and to develop safety performance functions for each mode at both facilities. After model calibration, contributing injury frequency factors are identified. Injury frequency and injury risk measures are then generated to carry out a comparative study to identify which mode is at greatest risk at intersections in Montreal. Among other results, this study identified the significant effect that motor-vehicle traffic imposes on cyclist and pedestrian injury occurrence. Motor-vehicle traffic is the main risk determinant for all injury and intersection types. This highlights the need for safety improvements for cyclists and pedestrians who are, on average, at 14 and12 times greater risk than motorists, respectively, at signalized intersections. Aside from exposure measures, this work also identifies some geometric design and built environment characteristics affecting injury occurrence for cyclists, pedestrians and motor-vehicle occupants. PMID:24945759

  11. Preferred levels of auditory danger signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zera, J; Nagórski, A

    2000-01-01

    An important issue at the design stage of the auditory danger signal for a safety system is the signal audibility under various conditions of background noise. The auditory danger signal should be clearly audible but it should not be too loud to avoid fright, startling effects, and nuisance complaints. Criteria for designing auditory danger signals are the subject of the ISO 7731 (International Organization for Standardization [ISO], 1986) international standard and the EN 457 European standard (European Committee for Standardization [CEN], 1992). It is required that the A-weighted sound pressure level of the auditory danger signal is higher in level than the background noise by 15 dB. In this paper, the results of an experiment are reported, in which listeners adjusted most preferred levels of 3 danger signals (tone, sweep, complex sound) in the presence of a noise background (pink noise and industrial noise). The measurements were done for 60-, 70-, 80-, and 90-dB A-weighted levels of noise. Results show that for 60-dB level of noise the most preferred level of the danger signal is 10 to 20 dB above the noise level. However, for 90-dB level of noise, listeners selected a level of the danger signal that was equal to the noise level. Results imply that the criterion in the existing standards is conservative as it requires the level of the danger signal to be higher than the level of noise regardless of the noise level. PMID:10828157

  12. An Evaluation of a Parent Implemented In Situ Pedestrian Safety Skills Intervention for Individuals with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harriage, Bethany; Blair, Kwang-Sun Cho; Miltenberger, Raymond

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated an in situ pedestrian safety skills intervention for three individuals with autism , as implemented by their parents. Specifically, this study examined the utility of behavioral skills training (BST) in helping parents implement most-to-least prompting procedures in training their children to use pedestrian safety skills in community settings. A multiple baseline design across participants was used to assess parent implementation of in situ pedestrian safety skills training as well as the correct use of safety skills independently by the participating individuals with autism. Results indicated that parents implemented in situ, most-to-least prompting procedures with high levels of accuracy across street locations during intervention and fading of BST. All child participants significantly improved their pedestrian safety skills during intervention across all natural street settings. For all three participants, the acquired skills were maintained above baseline levels at 1-month follow-up. PMID:26864158

  13. Two-way multi-lane traffic model for pedestrians in corridors

    CERN Document Server

    Appert-Rolland, Cécile; Motsch, Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    We extend the Aw-Rascle macroscopic model of car traffic into a two-way multi-lane model of pedestrian traffic. Within this model, we propose a technique for the handling of the congestion constraint, i.e. the fact that the pedestrian density cannot exceed a maximal density corresponding to contact between pedestrians. In a first step, we propose a singularly perturbed pressure relation which models the fact that the pedestrian velocity is considerably reduced, if not blocked, at congestion. In a second step, we carry over the singular limit into the model and show that abrupt transitions between compressible flow (in the uncongested regions) to incompressible flow (in congested regions) occur. We also investigate the hyperbolicity of the two-way models and show that they can lose their hyperbolicity in some cases. We study a diffusive correction of these models and discuss the characteristic time and length scales of the instability.

  14. A Fractional Micro-Macro Model for Crowds of Pedestrians based on Fractional Mean Field Games

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Ke-cai; Stuart, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Modeling of crowds of pedestrians has been considered in this paper from different aspects. Based on fractional microscopic model that may be much more close to reality, a fractional macroscopic model has been proposed using conservation law of mass. Then in order to characterize the competitive and cooperative interactions among pedestrians, fractional mean field games are utilized in the modeling problem when the number of pedestrians goes to infinity and fractional dynamic model composed of fractional backward and fractional forward equations are constructed in macro scale. Fractional micro-macro model for crowds of pedestrians are obtained in the end. Simulation results are also included to illustrate the proposed fractional microscopic model and fractional macroscopic model respectively.

  15. Eulerian vs. Lagrangian analyses of pedestrian dynamics asymmetries in a staircase landing

    CERN Document Server

    Corbetta, Alessandro; Muntean, Adrian; Toschi, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Real-life, out-of-laboratory, measurements of pedestrian movements allow extensive and fully-resolved statistical analyses. However, data acquisition in real-life is subjected to the wide heterogeneity that characterizes crowd flows over time. Disparate flow conditions, such as co-flows and counter-flows at low and at high pedestrian densities, typically follow randomly one another. When analysing the data in order to study the dynamics and behaviour of pedestrians it is crucial to be able disentangle and to properly select (query) data from statistically homogeneous flow conditions in order to avoid spurious statistics and to enable qualitative comparisons. In this paper we extend our previous analysis on the asymmetric pedestrian dynamics on a staircase landing, where we collected a large statistical database of measurements from ad hoc continuous recordings. This contribution has a two-fold aim: first, method-wise, we discuss two possible approaches to query experimental datasets for homogeneous flow condi...

  16. Pedestrians and cyclists interaction in urban settings of Pardubice city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Bulíček

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Presented paper is focused on questions of cyclist transport in urban settings, specifically in the city of Pardubice. Emphasis is put on analysis of potentially conflict places, especially in interaction with pedestrians. Direct terrain observation and consequent evaluation of conflict potential are used as method for data collecting. When cycling routes are designed, the requirements of the cyclists should be taken into account in order to ensure that the routes are accepted. In order to make planning user oriented one has to know which criteria are important for cyclists` route choice. Until now not many studies were conducted on this topic in Czech Republic. Theoretical background used states 5 basic requirements for cycle routes. These are: 1. Coherence (the cycling infrastructure forms a coherent unit and links with all departure points and destinations of cyclist, 2. Directness (the cycling infrastructure continually offers the cyclists as direct a route as possible, so detours are kept to a minimum, 3. attractiveness (the cycling infrastructure is designed and fitted to the surroundings in such a way that cycling is attractive, 4. safety (the cycling infrastructure guarantees the road safety of cyclists and other road users, 5. comfort (the cycling infrastructure enables a quick and comfortable flow of bicycle traffic.. Planners need a clear understanding of what influences bicycling behavior to develop effective strategies to increase use of those modes. Transportation practitioners have largely focused on infrastructure and the built environment, although researchers have found that attitudes are also very important. Theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1985 - intentions to perform behaviors of different kinds can be predicted with high accuracy from attitudes toward the behavior, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control; and these intentions, together with perceptions of behavioral control, account for considerable variance in

  17. Composite material pedestrian bridge for the Port of Bilbao

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Composite materials in comparison to traditional ones, steel and concrete, present advantages in civil works construction: lower weight, higher corrosion resistance (especially in the marine environment), and ease of installation. On the other hand, fabrication costs are generally higher. This is the reason why this technology is not widely used. This work illustrates the process followed for the design, fabrication and installation of a composite material pedestrian bridge in the Port of Bilbao (Northern Spain). In order to reduce the price of the bridge, the use of low cost materials was considered, therefore polyester resin was selected as the polymeric matrix, and glass fibres as reinforcement. Two material choices were studied. Currently in the market there is high availability of carbon nanoparticles: carbon nanotubes (CNT) and carbon nanofibres (CNF), so it was decided to add this kind of nanoparticles to the reference material with the objective of improving its mechanical properties. The main challenge was to transfer the CNT and CNF excellent properties to the polymeric matrix. This requires dispersing the nanoreinforcements as individual particles in the polymeric matrix to avoid agglomerates. For this reason, an advanced high shear forces dispersion technique (called 'three roll mills') was studied and implemented. Also surface functionalization of the nanoreinforcements by chemical treatment was carried out. Herein, a comparison is performed between both materials studied, the explanation of the employment of the reference material (without nanoreinforcement) as the one used in the fabrication of the pedestrian bridge is justified and, finally, the main characteristics of the final design of the structural element are described.

  18. Impact of social and technological distraction on pedestrian crossing behaviour: an observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Leah L; Rivara, Frederick P; Ayyagari, Rajiv C; Ebel, Beth E.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The objective of the present work was to study the impact of technological and social distraction on cautionary behaviours and crossing times in pedestrians. Methods Pedestrians were observed at 20 high-risk intersections during 1 of 3 randomly assigned time windows in 2012. Observers recorded demographic and behavioural information, including use of a mobile device (talking on the phone, text messaging, or listening to music). We examined the association between distraction and cr...

  19. Child Pedestrian Injury: A Review of Behavioral Risks and Preventive Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Schwebel, David C.; Davis, Aaron L.; O’Neal, Elizabeth E.

    2011-01-01

    Pedestrian injury is among the leading causes of pediatric death in the United States and much of the world. This paper is divided into two sections. First, we review the literature on behavioral risk factors for child injury. Cognitive and perceptual development risks are discussed. The roles of distraction, temperament and personality, and social influences from parents and peers are presented. We conclude the first section with brief reviews of environmental risks, pedestrian safety among ...

  20. Simulation of evacuation processes using a bionics-inspired cellular automaton model for pedestrian dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Kirchner, Ansgar; Schadschneider, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    We present simulations of evacuation processes using a recently introduced cellular automaton model for pedestrian dynamics. This model applies a bionics approach to describe the interaction between the pedestrians using ideas from chemotaxis. Here we study a rather simple situation, namely the evacuation from a large room with one or two doors. It is shown that the variation of the model parameters allows to describe different types of behaviour, from regular to panic. We find a non-monotoni...

  1. Pedestrian injury analysis with consideration of the selectivity bias in linked police-hospital data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarko, Andrew; Azam, Md Shafiul

    2011-09-01

    Evaluation of crash-related injuries by medical specialists in hospitals is believed to be more exact than rather a cursory evaluation made at the crash scene. Safety analysts sometimes reach for hospital data and use them in combination with the police crash data. One issue that needs to be addressed is the, so-called, selectivity (or selection) bias possible when data used in analysis are not coming from random sampling. If not properly addressed, this issue can lead to a considerable bias in both the model coefficient estimates and the model predictions. This paper investigates pedestrian injury severity factors using linked police-hospital data. A bivariate ordered probit model with sample selection is used to check for the presence of the selectivity bias and to account for it in the MAIS estimates on the Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale (MAIS). The presence of the sample selection issue has been confirmed. The selectivity bias is considerable in predictions of low injury levels. The pedestrian injury analysis identified and estimated several severity factors, including pedestrian, road, and vehicle characteristics. Male and older pedestrians were found to be particularly exposed to severe injuries. Rural roads and high-speed urban roads appear to be more dangerous for pedestrians, particularly when crossing such roads. Crossing a road between intersections was found to be particularly dangerous behavior. The size and weight of the vehicle involved in a pedestrian crash were also found to have an effect on the pedestrian injury level. The relevant safety countermeasures that may improve pedestrian safety have been proposed. PMID:21658495

  2. Time-delayed Follow-the-Leader model for pedestrians walking in line

    OpenAIRE

    Fehrenbach, Jérôme; Narski, Jacek; Hua, Jiale; Lemercier, Samuel; Jelic, Asja; Appert-Rolland, Cécile; Donikian, Stéphane; Pettré, Julien; Degond, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    We use the results of a pedestrian tracking experiment to identify a follow-the-leader model for pedestrians walking-in-line. We demonstrate the existence of a time-delay between a subject's response and the predecessor's corresponding behavior. This time-delay induces an instability which can be damped out by a suitable relaxation. By comparisons with the experimental data, we show that the model reproduces well the emergence of large-scale structures such as congestions waves. The resulting...

  3. Evaluation of microwave detection equipment in terms of reliability, durability and pedestrian safety.

    OpenAIRE

    Schagen, I. van & Sherborne, D.

    1991-01-01

    Urban traffic light cycle times are almost exclusively directed at maximizing throughput and minimizing delay of motorized traffic. The needs of pedestrians and pedal cyclists are of minor importance and their delay times are usually disregarded. Both safety and mobility of pedestrians and pedal cyclists are expected to be negatively influenced by this lack of concern. Safety is involved because delay is related to the percentage of red light violations. Mobility is involved because increased...

  4. Real-world car-to-pedestrian-crash data from an urban centre

    OpenAIRE

    Matthes Gerrit; Stengel Dirk; Frank Matthias; Beirau Melissa; Schmucker Uli; Ekkernkamp Axel; Seifert Julia

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Pedestrians are at a high risk for crash and injury. This study aims at comparing data from real world crashes with data gathered from experimental settings. Methods IMPAIR (In-Depth Medical Pedestrian Accident Investigation and Reconstruction) was a prospective, observational study performed in a metropolitan area. Data was collected on-scene, from clinical records, and interviews. Data comprise crash data, details on injury pattern and injury severity. Results Thirty-sev...

  5. How to Decrease Pedestrian Injuries: Conceptual Evolutions Starting From 137 Crash Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Thollon, L.; Jammes, C.; Behr, M.; ARNOUX,PJ; Cavallero, C.; Brunet, C

    2007-01-01

    The improvement of vulnerable users' protection has become an essential objective for our society. Injury assessments observed in clinical traumatology have led researchers and manufacturers to understand the mechanisms involved and to design safe vehicles to reduce the severity of pedestrian injuries. In all, 137 crash tests between 1979 and 2004 with postmortal human subjects (PMHS) were performed at the Laboratory of Applied Biomechanics to access pedestrian protection. A retrospective ana...

  6. Street crossing behavior in younger and older pedestrians: an eye- and head-tracking study

    OpenAIRE

    Zito, G. A.; Cazzoli, D; Scheffler, L.; Jäger, M; Müri, R M; Mosimann, U. P.; Nyffeler, T.; Mast, F. W.; Nef, T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Crossing a street can be a very difficult task for older pedestrians. With increased age and potential cognitive decline, older people take the decision to cross a street primarily based on vehicles’ distance, and not on their speed. Furthermore, older pedestrians tend to overestimate their own walking speed, and could not adapt it according to the traffic conditions. Pedestrians’ behavior is often tested using virtual reality. Virtual reality presents the advantage of being safe, ...

  7. Advanced Emergency Braking Controller Design for Pedestrian Protection Oriented Automotive Collision Avoidance System

    OpenAIRE

    Guo Lie; Ren Zejian; Ge Pingshu; Chang Jing

    2014-01-01

    Automotive collision avoidance system, which aims to enhance the active safety of the vehicle, has become a hot research topic in recent years. However, most of the current systems ignore the active protection of pedestrian and other vulnerable groups in the transportation system. An advanced emergency braking control system is studied by taking into account the pedestrians and the vehicles. Three typical braking scenarios are defined and the safety situations are assessed by comparing the cu...

  8. Event-Based Modeling of Driver Yielding Behavior to Pedestrians at Two-Lane Roundabout Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Salamati, Katayoun; Schroeder, Bastian J.; Geruschat, Duane R.; Rouphail, Nagui M.

    2014-01-01

    Unlike other types of controlled intersections, drivers do not always comply with the “yield to pedestrian” sign at the roundabouts. This paper aims to identify the contributing factors affecting the likelihood of driver yielding to pedestrians at two-lane roundabouts. It further models the likelihood of driver yielding based on these factors using logistic regression. The models have been applied to 1150 controlled pedestrian crossings at entry and exit legs of two-lane approaches of six rou...

  9. Coupling Lateral Bending and Shearing Mechanisms to Define Knee Injury Criteria for Pedestrian Safety

    OpenAIRE

    MO, Fuhao; Masson, Catherine; CESARI, Dominique; Arnoux, Pierre-Jean

    2013-01-01

    In car–pedestrian accidents, lateral bending and shearing kinematics have been identified as principal injury mechanisms causing permanent disabilities and impairments to the knee joint. Regarding the combined lateral bending and shearing contributions of knee joint kinematics, developing a coupled knee injury criterion is necessary for improving vehicle countermeasures to mitigate pedestrian knee injuries. The advantages of both experimental tests and finite element (FE) simulations we...

  10. Revealed preference data from WiFi traces for pedestrian activity scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Danalet, Antonin; Farooq, Bilal; Bierlaire, Michel

    2013-01-01

    We use communication network infrastructure, in particular WiFi traces, to detect activity-episodes sequences in a pedestrian facility. Due to the poor quality of WiFi localization, a probabilistic method is proposed that infers activity-episodes locations and durations based on WiFi traces and calculates the likelihood of observing these traces in the pedestrian network, taking into account prior knowledge. The output of the method consists in generating lists of activity-episodes sequences ...

  11. Development of an Advanced Driver Assistance System for Pedestrian Collision Avoidance in Urban Intersections

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado Guerrero, Juan Antonio

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the introduction of active and passive safety systems into modern cars has contributed to a high standard of safety for the passengers. However, vulnerable road users such as pedestrians and cyclists still face a considerably higher risk of severe injuries, especially in urban traffic situations. In this way, the number of total fatalities in traffic crashes in the USA decreased from 42836 to 32719 between the years 2004 and 2013, but the number of pedestrian f...

  12. Visual cues in pedestrian's crossing decision: in search of a quantitative model

    OpenAIRE

    BREMOND, Roland; Tom, Ariane; Desire, Lara; GIGOUT, Elodie; Granie, Marie-Axelle; Auberlet, Jean-Michel

    2012-01-01

    The simulation tools of people's displacements become more and more popular for applications emerging in the field of mobility planning, traffic management, impact assessment for city design and infrastructure modifications. Moreover, there is a lack of computational tools for the microscopic simulation of urban interactions between drivers and pedestrians. Feeling that road crossing is currently the main problem with pedestrian behavioural models, we conducted a laboratory experiment in orde...

  13. Public Walking Space. A study of Commercial Pedestrian Streets in Copenhagen, Stockholm and Nanjing

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Guan

    2011-01-01

    This diploma work is built up around the topic on public walking spaces, based on the investigation and analysis of commercial pedestrian streets of Copenhagen in Denmark, Stockholm in Sweden and Nanjing in China. It intends to compare the pros and cons of these commercial pedestrian streets and enhance each other by extracting their positive attributes to improve the current situation and public walking space design. This work is constructed as follows: Firstly, the background and problems o...

  14. Application oriented failure modeling and characterization for polymers in automotive pedestrian protection

    OpenAIRE

    Staack, Holger; Seibert, Dominic; Baier, Horst

    2015-01-01

    In the development process of automotive pedestrian protection (PedPro) for upper- and lower leg impact, the failure of polymer components plays an important role. To influence impact kinematics, fractures can either be advantageous or undesirable. Simulation based design is a challenge for material modeling and hence characterization, particularly for failure of polymer components. An application-oriented concept for failure modeling in FEM simulations of polymer components in pedestrian pro...

  15. Safe Routes to Play? Pedestrian and Bicyclist Crashes Near Parks in the Los Angeles Region

    OpenAIRE

    Hanning, Cooper; Jerrett, Michael; Su, Jason G.; Wolch, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Areas near parks may present active travelers with higher risks than in other areas due to the confluence of more pedestrians and bicyclists, younger travelers, and the potential for increased numbers of motor vehicles. These risks may be amplified in low-income and minority neighborhoods due to generally higher rates of walking or lack of safety infrastructure.  Objectives: We pursued three research objectives: (1) to determine if pedestrian and bicycle crashes occur at h...

  16. The influence of vehicle front-end design on pedestrian ground impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocetta, Gianmarco; Piantini, Simone; Pierini, Marco; Simms, Ciaran

    2015-06-01

    Accident data have shown that in pedestrian accidents with high-fronted vehicles (SUVs and vans) the risk of pedestrian head injuries from the contact with the ground is higher than with low-fronted vehicles (passenger cars). However, the reasons for this remain poorly understood. This paper addresses this question using multibody modelling to investigate the influence of vehicle front height and shape in pedestrian accidents on the mechanism of impact with the ground and on head ground impact speed. To this end, a set of 648 pedestrian/vehicle crash simulations was carried out using the MADYMO multibody simulation software. Impacts were simulated with six vehicle types at three impact speeds (20, 30, 40km/h) and three pedestrian types (50th % male, 5th % female, and 6-year-old child) at six different initial stance configurations, stationary and walking at 1.4m/s. Six different ground impact mechanisms, distinguished from each other by the manner in which the pedestrian impacted the ground, were identified. These configurations have statistically distinct and considerably different distributions of head-ground impact speeds. Pedestrian initial stance configuration (gait and walking speed) introduced a high variability to the head-ground impact speed. Nonetheless, the head-ground impact speed varied significantly between the different ground impact mechanisms identified and the distribution of impact mechanisms was strongly associated with vehicle type. In general, impact mechanisms for adults resulting in a head-first contact with the ground were more severe with high fronted vehicles compared to low fronted vehicles, though there is a speed dependency to these findings. With high fronted vehicles (SUVs and vans) the pedestrian was mainly pushed forward and for children this resulted in high head ground contact speeds. PMID:25813760

  17. Low Dimensional Description of Pedestrian-Induced Oscillation of the Millennium Bridge

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulrehem, Mahmoud M.; Ott, Edward

    2008-01-01

    When it opened to pedestrian traffic in the year 2000, London's Millennium Bridge exhibited an unwanted, large, side-to-side oscillation which was apparently due to a resonance between the stepping frequency of walkers and one of the bridge modes. Models for this event, and similar events on other bridges, have been proposed. The model most directly addressing the synchronization mechanism of individual walkers and the resulting global response of the bridge-pedestrian system is one developed...

  18. Pedestrian Injuries and the Relevant Burden in Shanghai, China:Implications for Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yan Hong; ZHANG Hong Wei; WANG Chun Fang; SONG Gui Xiang; PENG Juan Juan; ZHOU De Ding; SU Hui Jia; GAO Ning; YU Yan; ZHONG Wei Jian

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the associations of pedestrian injuries with age, income and educational level in Shanghai and to analyze the relative disease burden. Methods Information on pedestrian-related cases and deaths were collected from 494 hospitals and mortality registry systems from 1992 to 2010, and a multistage cluster sampling survey conducted in 2006. Logistic regression model was used in the analyses. Results The age group of 5-9 had the highest mortality and morbidity among children. Mortality increased obviously among those aged 60 or above. Individuals with an educational level under the primary school and with the lower family average income were more likely to suffer pedestrian-related injuries. Multivariate Logistic analysis demonstrated that lower income and lower educational level increased the risk of pedestrian injuries with the odds ratio of 1.40 (95%CI:1.15-1.71) and 1.70 (95%CI:1.20-2-40), respectively. About 13.54% of the share of GDP for the healthcare, social security and welfare industries in Shanghai was occupied by the burden of pedestrian-related injuries in 2006. Conclusion Pedestrian-related injury has inverse association with victims’ income and educational level. Children of 5-9 years old and adults over 60 with lower educational level and lower monthly income are the target persons to be intervened.

  19. Walk This Way: Improving Pedestrian Agent-Based Models through Scene Activity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Crooks

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrian movement is woven into the fabric of urban regions. With more people living in cities than ever before, there is an increased need to understand and model how pedestrians utilize and move through space for a variety of applications, ranging from urban planning and architecture to security. Pedestrian modeling has been traditionally faced with the challenge of collecting data to calibrate and validate such models of pedestrian movement. With the increased availability of mobility datasets from video surveillance and enhanced geolocation capabilities in consumer mobile devices we are now presented with the opportunity to change the way we build pedestrian models. Within this paper we explore the potential that such information offers for the improvement of agent-based pedestrian models. We introduce a Scene- and Activity-Aware Agent-Based Model (SA2-ABM, a method for harvesting scene activity information in the form of spatiotemporal trajectories, and incorporate this information into our models. In order to assess and evaluate the improvement offered by such information, we carry out a range of experiments using real-world datasets. We demonstrate that the use of real scene information allows us to better inform our model and enhance its predictive capabilities.

  20. Diagnostic analysis of the logistic model for pedestrian injury severity in traffic crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, N N; Wong, S C

    2007-11-01

    This study attempts to evaluate the injury risk of pedestrian casualties in traffic crashes and to explore the factors that contribute to mortality and severe injury, using the comprehensive historical crash record that is maintained by the Hong Kong Transport Department. The injury, demographic, crash, environmental, geometric, and traffic characteristics of 73,746 pedestrian casualties that were involved in traffic crashes from 1991 to 2004 are considered. Binary logistic regression is used to determine the associations between the probability of fatality and severe injury and all contributory factors. A consideration of the influence of implicit attributes on the trend of pedestrian injury risk, temporal confounding, and interaction effects is progressively incorporated into the predictive model. To verify the goodness-of-fit of the proposed model, the Hosmer-Lemeshow test and logistic regression diagnostics are conducted. It is revealed that there is a decreasing trend in pedestrian injury risk, controlling for the influences of demographic, road environment, and other risk factors. In addition, the influences of pedestrian behavior, traffic congestion, and junction type on pedestrian injury risk are subject to temporal variation. PMID:17920851

  1. Effect of Aspiration and Mean Gain on the Emergence of Cooperation in Unidirectional Pedestrian Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When more than one pedestrian want to move to the same site, conflicts appear and thus the involved pedestrians play a motion game. In order to describe the emergence of cooperation during the conflict resolving process, an evolutionary cellular automation model is established considering the effect of aspiration and mean gain. In each game, pedestrian may be gentle cooperator or aggressive defector. We propose a set of win-stay-lose-shrift (WSLS) like rules for updating pedestrian's strategy. These rules prescribe that if the mean gain of current strategy between some given steps is larger than aspiration the strategy keeps, otherwise the strategy changes. The simulation results show that a high level aspiration will lead to more cooperation. With the increment of the statistic length, pedestrians will be more rational in decision making. It is also found that when the aspiration level is small enough and the statistic length is large enough all the pedestrian will turn to defectors. We use the prisoner's dilemma model to explain it. At last we discuss the effect of aspiration on fundamental diagram. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  2. The influence of carrying a backpack on college student pedestrian safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwebel, David C; Pitts, Danielle Dulion; Stavrinos, Despina

    2009-03-01

    University students walk frequently, and individuals ages 18-22 have among the highest rates of pedestrian injury among any age group in the United States. These injuries are caused by a wide range of individual, interpersonal, and environmental factors, but one factor that has not been previously considered carefully is the influence of wearing a heavy backpack on pedestrian safety. Backpacks are known to slow walking speed and disrupt perception of one's environment, so it is reasonable to question whether they might also influence safe pedestrian behavior. Ninety-six college students engaged in 20 street-crossings within a virtual pedestrian environment. Half the crossings were completed while bearing a backpack weighing 12% of their body weight; the other half were completed without any burdens. Results suggest that participants walked more slowly, left less safe time to spare after crossing the virtual street, and experienced more frequent hits or close calls with traffic when crossing while carrying the backpack. They also missed fewer safe opportunities to cross while carrying the backpack. Our tests of several demographic characteristics, pedestrian behaviors, and backpack use, as covariates suggest the finding holds across all subsamples included in our study. Implications for pedestrian safety and future research are discussed. PMID:19245896

  3. Qualitative comparison of north-american procedures for areawide pedestrian travel measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Greene-Roesel

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available

    There is no standard system for estimating area-wide pedestrian volumes in the United States. As a result, pedestrian volumes cannot be routinely used to guide transportation investments and monitoring measures performance. Vehicle volumes, by contrast, are measured systematically in each state and are reported to the Federal Highway Administration annually to be used in the allocation of federal funds. This paper investigates the advantages and disadvantages of three approaches to the creation of a standard system of pedestrian volume measurement: direct sampling, survey methods, and modeling. Examples of each method are given, and the potential of each to become a national standard is discussed. Of the three approaches, the modeling methods were judged to be most suitable for tracking pedestrian volumes at the national, state, and sub-state level. A standardized pedestrian volume modeling method could make use of existing data sources without generating the need for a new national pedestrian data collection effort.

  4. The influence of gait stance on pedestrian lower limb injury risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guibing; Yang, Jikuang; Simms, Ciaran

    2015-12-01

    The effect of pedestrian gait on lower limb kinematics and injuries has not been analyzed. The purpose of this paper was therefore to investigate the effect of pedestrian gait on kinematics and injury risk to the lower limbs using the Total Human Model for Safety adult male pedestrian model together with FE models of vehicle front structures. The modeling results indicate that the tibia and femur cortical bone von-Mises stress and the lateral knee bending angle of an adult pedestrian are strongly dependent on the gait stance when struck by both a sedan car and an SUV at 40km/h. The gait analysis shows that generally the leg of an adult pedestrian has lower injury risk when the knee is flexed and linear regressions show high negative correlation between knee flexion angle during impact and knee lateral bending angle and also high negative correlation between lower leg axial rotation during impact and knee lateral bending angle. Furthermore, in some gait stances a self-contact between the legs occurs, and the peak bones stresses and knee shearing displacement in the leg are then increased. Assessment of pedestrian lower limb injury should take account of these gait stance effects. PMID:26397198

  5. The interaction of vocal characteristics and audibility in the recognition of concurrent syllablesa)

    OpenAIRE

    Vestergaard, Martin D.; Fyson, Nicholas R. C.; Patterson, Roy D.

    2009-01-01

    In concurrent-speech recognition, performance is enhanced when either the glottal pulse rate (GPR) or the vocal tract length (VTL) of the target speaker differs from that of the distracter, but relatively little is known about the trading relationship between the two variables, or how they interact with other cues such as signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). This paper presents a study in which listeners were asked to identify a target syllable in the presence of a distracter syllable, with carefully...

  6. The influences of the built environment and residential self-selection on pedestrian behavior: Evidence from Austin, TX

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Xinyu; S L Handy; Mokhtarian, Patricia L.

    2006-01-01

    Pedestrian travel offers a wide range of benefits to both individuals and society. Planners and public health officials alike have been promoting policies that improve the quality of the built environment for pedestrians: mixed land uses, interconnected street networks, sidewalks and other facilities. Whether such policies will prove effective remains open to debate. Two issues in particular need further attention. First, the impact of the built environment on pedestrian behavior may depend ...

  7. Equation-free detection and continuation of a Hopf bifurcation point in a particle model of pedestrian flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corradi, Olivier; Hjorth, Poul G.; Starke, Jens

    2012-01-01

    the available numerical information requires the use of very robust numerical algorithms for each of the building blocks of the equation-free methodology. As an example, we consider a particle model of a crowd of pedestrians where particles interact through pairwise social forces. The pedestrians move......, we observe an onset of oscillations of the net pedestrian flux through the doorway, described by a Hopf bifurcation. An equation-free continuation of the Hopf point in the two parameters, door width and ratio of the pedestrian velocities of the two crowds, is performed. © 2012 Society for Industrial...

  8. The interaction of vocal characteristics and audibility in the recognition of concurrent syllablesa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestergaard, Martin D.; Fyson, Nicholas R. C.; Patterson, Roy D.

    2010-01-01

    In concurrent-speech recognition, performance is enhanced when either the glottal pulse rate (GPR) or the vocal tract length (VTL) of the target speaker differs from that of the distracter, but relatively little is known about the trading relationship between the two variables, or how they interact with other cues such as signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). This paper presents a study in which listeners were asked to identify a target syllable in the presence of a distracter syllable, with carefully matched temporal envelopes. The syllables varied in GPR and VTL over a large range, and they were presented at different SNRs. The results showed that performance is particularly sensitive to the combination of GPR and VTL when the SNR is 0 dB. Equal-performance contours showed that when there are no other cues, a two-semitone difference in GPR produced the same advantage in performance as a 20% difference in VTL. This corresponds to a trading relationship between GPR and VTL of 1.6. The results illustrate that the auditory system can use any combination of differences in GPR, VTL, and SNR to segregate competing speech signals. PMID:19206886

  9. The interaction of vocal characteristics and audibility in the recognition of concurrent syllables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestergaard, Martin D; Fyson, Nicholas R C; Patterson, Roy D

    2009-02-01

    In concurrent-speech recognition, performance is enhanced when either the glottal pulse rate (GPR) or the vocal tract length (VTL) of the target speaker differs from that of the distracter, but relatively little is known about the trading relationship between the two variables, or how they interact with other cues such as signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). This paper presents a study in which listeners were asked to identify a target syllable in the presence of a distracter syllable, with carefully matched temporal envelopes. The syllables varied in GPR and VTL over a large range, and they were presented at different SNRs. The results showed that performance is particularly sensitive to the combination of GPR and VTL when the SNR is 0 dB. Equal-performance contours showed that when there are no other cues, a two-semitone difference in GPR produced the same advantage in performance as a 20% difference in VTL. This corresponds to a trading relationship between GPR and VTL of 1.6. The results illustrate that the auditory system can use any combination of differences in GPR, VTL, and SNR to segregate competing speech signals. PMID:19206886

  10. Statistical characteristic in time-domain of direct current corona-generated audible noise from conductor in corona cage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuebao; Cui, Xiang; Lu, Tiebing; Ma, Wenzuo; Bian, Xingming; Wang, Donglai; Hiziroglu, Huseyin

    2016-03-01

    The corona-generated audible noise (AN) has become one of decisive factors in the design of high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission lines. The AN from transmission lines can be attributed to sound pressure pulses which are generated by the multiple corona sources formed on the conductor, i.e., transmission lines. In this paper, a detailed time-domain characteristics of the sound pressure pulses, which are generated by the DC corona discharges formed over the surfaces of a stranded conductors, are investigated systematically in a laboratory settings using a corona cage structure. The amplitude of sound pressure pulse and its time intervals are extracted by observing a direct correlation between corona current pulses and corona-generated sound pressure pulses. Based on the statistical characteristics, a stochastic model is presented for simulating the sound pressure pulses due to DC corona discharges occurring on conductors. The proposed stochastic model is validated by comparing the calculated and measured A-weighted sound pressure level (SPL). The proposed model is then used to analyze the influence of the pulse amplitudes and pulse rate on the SPL. Furthermore, a mathematical relationship is found between the SPL and conductor diameter, electric field, and radial distance.

  11. Audibility of dispersion error in room acoustic finite-difference time-domain simulation as a function of simulation distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarelma, Jukka; Botts, Jonathan; Hamilton, Brian; Savioja, Lauri

    2016-04-01

    Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation has been a popular area of research in room acoustics due to its capability to simulate wave phenomena in a wide bandwidth directly in the time-domain. A downside of the method is that it introduces a direction and frequency dependent error to the simulated sound field due to the non-linear dispersion relation of the discrete system. In this study, the perceptual threshold of the dispersion error is measured in three-dimensional FDTD schemes as a function of simulation distance. Dispersion error is evaluated for three different explicit, non-staggered FDTD schemes using the numerical wavenumber in the direction of the worst-case error of each scheme. It is found that the thresholds for the different schemes do not vary significantly when the phase velocity error level is fixed. The thresholds are found to vary significantly between the different sound samples. The measured threshold for the audibility of dispersion error at the probability level of 82% correct discrimination for three-alternative forced choice is found to be 9.1 m of propagation in a free field, that leads to a maximum group delay error of 1.8 ms at 20 kHz with the chosen phase velocity error level of 2%. PMID:27106330

  12. Influence Factors of Audible Noise Caused by Corona Discharge on UHVDC Transmission Lines Under High Altitude Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Feng; YU Zhanqing; ZENG Rong; LIU Lei; LI Min; LI Ruihai

    2012-01-01

    Audible noises (AN) generated by corona discharges on ultra high voltage direct current (UHVDC) transmission lines is one of the key issues of UHVDC power projects. Experimental results were obtained synchronously by 10 Briiel & Kjeer outdoor AN instruments under the full-scale test lines in National Laboratory for UHV Technology in Kunming at an altitude of 2 100 m. Long-term statistical measurements of the AN level were performed almost 24 hours a day and 5 ~ 6 days a week in 2 years. Influences of voltage, line configurations, temperature and humidity on the characteristics of AN levels were analysed. The measurement results show that the AN level rises with increasing line voltage, decreasing minimum conductor height and increasing bundle radius. The pole spacing has no significant influence on the peak value of the AN level. The AN level varies about _+ 1 dB in the temperature range of 15~22℃, and no more than ±2 dB within 6.8~24.4 ℃. The results also indicate that in a relative low range of absolute humidity, about 5 ~ 7. 99 g/ma, the AN level fluctuates slightly at different measurement points. However, in a relative high absolute humidity range, about 8 ~ 11. 5 g/ma, the AN level decreases with the increase of absolute humidity.

  13. A Macroscopic Approach to the Lane Formation Phenomenon in Pedestrian Counterflow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Tao; ZHANG Peng; WONG S. C.; SHU Chi-Wang; ZHANG Meng-Ping

    2011-01-01

    We simulate pedestrian counterflow by adopting an optimal path-choice strategy and a recently observed speed-density relationship. Although the whole system is symmetric, the simulation demonstrates the segregation and formation of many walking lanes for two groups of pedestrians. The symmetry breaking is most likely triggered by a small numerical viscosity or "noise", and the segregation is associated with the minimization of travel time. The underlying physics can be compared with the "optimal self-organization" mechanism in Helbing's social force model, by which driven entities in an open system tend to minimize their interaction to enable them to reach some ordering state.%We simulate pedestrian counterflow by adopting an optimal path-choice strategy and a recently observed speeddensity relationship.Although the whole system is symmetric,the simulation demonstrates the segregation and formation of many walking lanes for two groups of pedestrians.The symmetry breaking is most likely triggered by a small numerical viscosity or “noise”,and the segregation is associated with the minimization of travel time.The underlying physics can be compared with the “optimal self-organization” mechanism in Helbing's social force model,by which driven entities in an open system tend to minimize their interaction to enable them to reach some ordering state.The phenomenon of lane formation in pedestrian flows has been frequently observed through direct observation or controlled experiments.Helbing et al.[4]presented photographs to show that pedestrians could form uniform walking lanes at sufficiently high densities.Theoretically,the phenomenon was explained through an optimal self-organization mechanism,[3,6]namely,a pedestrian crowd constitutes an open system of driven entities that tends to minimize interaction and dissipation,and thus an optimal state is reached.This differs from a closed system,which is governed by the second law of thermodynamics and thus the entropy

  14. Pedestrians, two-wheelers and road safety : a statistical comparison of pedestrian, cyclist and moped-rider road-traffic fatalities in The Netherlands from 1968 to 1972.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraay, J.H.

    1976-01-01

    Data were collected on pedestrian, cyclist and moped-rider traffic fatalities from 1968 to 1972. Use is made only of statistics available. The variables that were considered were related to demographic factors (sex and age), locality characteristics, vicinity factors, other circumstances and the se

  15. Development of the Effective Underwater Speaker Sound Modulated by Audible Sound Frequency Range of Large Cetaceans for Avoidance with Ship Collision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Yamada

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The underwater speaker (UWS has been installed on high speed vessels; hydrofoils (HF with low-noise during their cruises, to avoid sudden collisions with large cetaceans, while its performance has remained uncertain because of the problem in quality of the produced sound. Thus, we developed a sound source for the UWS by modulating the sound based on the audible range of major large cetaceans so as to increase its utilities. To investigate the audible sound frequency range of cetacean, we tried two procedures, (1 indirect-estimation from relationship between cetaceans audibility and vocalization, and (2 indirect-estimation from measurements on the cochlear basal membrane. We also synthesized the two new sound sources which we can potentially expect an avoidance with large cetaceans. Through several field experiments with deploy the new sounds we reached a tentative conclusion that the new sound was effective in terms of inducing the cetaceans' avoidance reaction and would be also expected to be applied to other low-noise vessels.

  16. Empirical Behavioral Models to Support Alternative Tools for the Analysis of Mixed-Priority Pedestrian-Vehicle Interaction in a Highway Capacity Context

    OpenAIRE

    Schroeder, Bastian J.; Rouphail, Nagui M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents behavioral-based models for describing pedestrian gap acceptance at unsignalized crosswalks in a mixed-priority environment, where some drivers yield and some pedestrians cross in gaps. Logistic regression models are developed to predict the probability of pedestrian crossings as a function of vehicle dynamics, pedestrian assertiveness, and other factors. In combination with prior work on probabilistic yielding models, the results can be incorporated in a simulation enviro...

  17. Discrete Element Crowd Model for Pedestrian Evacuation Through an Exit

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Peng; Lo, Siuming

    2016-01-01

    A series of accidents caused by crowd within the last decades evoked a lot of scientific interest in modeling the movement of pedestrian crowds. Based on discrete element method, a granular dynamic model, in which human body is simplified as self-driven sphere, is proposed to simulate the characteristics of crowd flow through an exit. In this model, the repulsive force among people is considered to have an anisotropic feature, and the physical contact force due to body deformation is quantified by the Hertz contact model. The movement of human body is simulated by applying the second Newton's law. The crowd flow through an exit at different desired velocities is studied and simulation results indicated that crowd flow exhibits three distinct states, i.e., smooth state, transition state and phase separation state. In the simulation, clogging phenomenon occurs more easily when the velocity of desired is high and the exit may as a result be totally blocked at a desired velocity of 1.6m/s or above, leading to fas...

  18. Maxillofacial fractures of pedestrians injured in a motor vehicle accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Matsusue, Yumiko; Horita, Satoshi; Murakami, Kazuhiro; Ueyama, Yoshihiro; Sugiura, Tsutomu; Kirita, Tadaaki

    2013-03-01

    Maxillofacial fractures of pedestrians injured in a motor vehicle accident were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were 38 males and 26 females, and their age was distributed almost evenly from 1 to 91 years old (average 45.9 ± 24.8 years old). Motor vehicle collisions were with an automobile in 46 patients (71.9%), a motorcycle in 17 (26.6%), and a train in 1 (1.6%). The midface was involved in 32 patients (50.0%), the mandible in 19 (29.7%), and both the mandible and the midface in 13 (20.3%). Fractures were frequently observed in the zygoma and alveolus in the midface and in the condyle, symphysis, and body in the mandible. The facial injury severity scale (FISS) rating ranged from 1 to 9 (average 2.30 ± 1.79). Injuries to other sites of the body occurred in 29 patients (45.3%). Observation was most frequently chosen in 26 patients (40.6%), followed by open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) in 18 (28.1%), and maxillomandibular fixation (MMF) in 8 (12.5%). The FISS rating was higher in patients treated with ORIF and MMF. Injuries to other sites of the body were observed at a higher rate in patients who collided with an automobile and were also treated by ORIF. PMID:24436734

  19. Extrinsic Calibration of Camera Networks Based on Pedestrians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junzhi Guan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a novel extrinsic calibration method for camera networks by analyzing tracks of pedestrians. First of all, we extract the center lines of walking persons by detecting their heads and feet in the camera images. We propose an easy and accurate method to estimate the 3D positions of the head and feet w.r.t. a local camera coordinate system from these center lines. We also propose a RANSAC-based orthogonal Procrustes approach to compute relative extrinsic parameters connecting the coordinate systems of cameras in a pairwise fashion. Finally, we refine the extrinsic calibration matrices using a method that minimizes the reprojection error. While existing state-of-the-art calibration methods explore epipolar geometry and use image positions directly, the proposed method first computes 3D positions per camera and then fuses the data. This results in simpler computations and a more flexible and accurate calibration method. Another advantage of our method is that it can also handle the case of persons walking along straight lines, which cannot be handled by most of the existing state-of-the-art calibration methods since all head and feet positions are co-planar. This situation often happens in real life.

  20. Extrinsic Calibration of Camera Networks Based on Pedestrians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Junzhi; Deboeverie, Francis; Slembrouck, Maarten; Van Haerenborgh, Dirk; Van Cauwelaert, Dimitri; Veelaert, Peter; Philips, Wilfried

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel extrinsic calibration method for camera networks by analyzing tracks of pedestrians. First of all, we extract the center lines of walking persons by detecting their heads and feet in the camera images. We propose an easy and accurate method to estimate the 3D positions of the head and feet w.r.t. a local camera coordinate system from these center lines. We also propose a RANSAC-based orthogonal Procrustes approach to compute relative extrinsic parameters connecting the coordinate systems of cameras in a pairwise fashion. Finally, we refine the extrinsic calibration matrices using a method that minimizes the reprojection error. While existing state-of-the-art calibration methods explore epipolar geometry and use image positions directly, the proposed method first computes 3D positions per camera and then fuses the data. This results in simpler computations and a more flexible and accurate calibration method. Another advantage of our method is that it can also handle the case of persons walking along straight lines, which cannot be handled by most of the existing state-of-the-art calibration methods since all head and feet positions are co-planar. This situation often happens in real life. PMID:27171080

  1. Discrete element crowd model for pedestrian evacuation through an exit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lin; Jian, Ma; Siuming, Lo

    2016-03-01

    A series of accidents caused by crowds within the last decades evoked a lot of scientific interest in modeling the movement of pedestrian crowds. Based on the discrete element method, a granular dynamic model, in which the human body is simplified as a self-driven sphere, is proposed to simulate the characteristics of crowd flow through an exit. In this model, the repulsive force among people is considered to have an anisotropic feature, and the physical contact force due to body deformation is quantified by the Hertz contact model. The movement of the human body is simulated by applying the second Newton’s law. The crowd flow through an exit at different desired velocities is studied and simulation results indicated that crowd flow exhibits three distinct states, i.e., smooth state, transition state and phase separation state. In the simulation, the clogging phenomenon occurs more easily when the desired velocity is high and the exit may as a result be totally blocked at a desired velocity of 1.6 m/s or above, leading to faster-to-frozen effect. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 71473207, 51178445, and 71103148), the Research Grant Council, Government of Hong Kong, China (Grant No. CityU119011), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant Nos. 2682014CX103 and 2682014RC05).

  2. Visibility aids for pedestrians and cyclists: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Irene; Mapstone, James

    2004-05-01

    This study aims to quantify the effect of visibility aids on the occurrence of pedestrian and cyclist-motor vehicle collisions and injuries, and drivers' responses in detection and recognition. Trial reports were systematically reviewed according to predefined eligibility criteria, including randomised controlled trials or controlled before-and-after trials comparing visibility aids and no visibility aids, and of different visibility aids on pedestrian and cyclist safety, and drivers' responses in detection and recognition. This included trials in which the order of interventions was randomised, or balanced using a Latin square design. Two reviewers independently assessed validity of trials and abstracted data. The main outcome measures were pedestrian and cyclist-motor vehicle collisions and injuries, and drivers'/observers' responses in the detection and recognition time, distance and frequency. No trials which assessed the effect of visibility aids on pedestrian and cyclist-motor vehicle collisions and injuries were identified. Twelve trials examined the effectiveness of daytime visibility aids and 25 trials on night time visibility aids, including 882 participants. Drivers' and observers' detection and recognition improved with visibility aids. For daytime, fluorescent materials in yellow, red and orange colours enhanced detection and recognition. "Biomotion" markings enhanced recognition. Substantial heterogeneity between the trials limits the possibility for meta-analysis. Visibility aids have the potential to improve detection and recognition and would merit further development to gain public acceptance. However, the impact of visibility aids on pedestrian and cyclist safety is unknown and needs to be determined. PMID:15003574

  3. Simulating large-scale pedestrian movement using CA and event driven model: Methodology and case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Fu, Siyao; He, Haibo; Jia, Hongfei; Li, Yanzhong; Guo, Yi

    2015-11-01

    Large-scale regional evacuation is an important part of national security emergency response plan. Large commercial shopping area, as the typical service system, its emergency evacuation is one of the hot research topics. A systematic methodology based on Cellular Automata with the Dynamic Floor Field and event driven model has been proposed, and the methodology has been examined within context of a case study involving the evacuation within a commercial shopping mall. Pedestrians walking is based on Cellular Automata and event driven model. In this paper, the event driven model is adopted to simulate the pedestrian movement patterns, the simulation process is divided into normal situation and emergency evacuation. The model is composed of four layers: environment layer, customer layer, clerk layer and trajectory layer. For the simulation of movement route of pedestrians, the model takes into account purchase intention of customers and density of pedestrians. Based on evacuation model of Cellular Automata with Dynamic Floor Field and event driven model, we can reflect behavior characteristics of customers and clerks at the situations of normal and emergency evacuation. The distribution of individual evacuation time as a function of initial positions and the dynamics of the evacuation process is studied. Our results indicate that the evacuation model using the combination of Cellular Automata with Dynamic Floor Field and event driven scheduling can be used to simulate the evacuation of pedestrian flows in indoor areas with complicated surroundings and to investigate the layout of shopping mall.

  4. Continuum modelling of pedestrian flows - Part 2: Sensitivity analysis featuring crowd movement phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duives, Dorine C.; Daamen, Winnie; Hoogendoorn, Serge P.

    2016-04-01

    In recent years numerous pedestrian simulation tools have been developed that can support crowd managers and government officials in their tasks. New technologies to monitor pedestrian flows are in dire need of models that allow for rapid state-estimation. Many contemporary pedestrian simulation tools model the movements of pedestrians at a microscopic level, which does not provide an exact solution. Macroscopic models capture the fundamental characteristics of the traffic state at a more aggregate level, and generally have a closed form solution which is necessary for rapid state estimation for traffic management purposes. This contribution presents a next step in the calibration and validation of the macroscopic continuum model detailed in Hoogendoorn et al. (2014). The influence of global and local route choice on the development of crowd movement phenomena, such as dissipation, lane-formation and stripe-formation, is studied. This study shows that most self-organization phenomena and behavioural trends only develop under very specific conditions, and as such can only be simulated using specific parameter sets. Moreover, all crowd movement phenomena can be reproduced by means of the continuum model using one parameter set. This study concludes that the incorporation of local route choice behaviour and the balancing of the aptitude of pedestrians with respect to their own class and other classes are both essential in the correct prediction of crowd movement dynamics.

  5. Error Analysis in a Stereo Vision-Based Pedestrian Detection Sensor for Collision Avoidance Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F. Llorca

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical study of the depth estimation error of a stereo vision-based pedestrian detection sensor for automotive applications such as pedestrian collision avoidance and/or mitigation. The sensor comprises two synchronized and calibrated low-cost cameras. Pedestrians are detected by combining a 3D clustering method with Support Vector Machine-based (SVM classification. The influence of the sensor parameters in the stereo quantization errors is analyzed in detail providing a point of reference for choosing the sensor setup according to the application requirements. The sensor is then validated in real experiments. Collision avoidance maneuvers by steering are carried out by manual driving. A real time kinematic differential global positioning system (RTK-DGPS is used to provide ground truth data corresponding to both the pedestrian and the host vehicle locations. The performed field test provided encouraging results and proved the validity of the proposed sensor for being used in the automotive sector towards applications such as autonomous pedestrian collision avoidance.

  6. Impact of holding umbrella on uni- and bi-directional pedestrian flow: Experiments and modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Ning; Jiang, Rui; Hu, Mao-Bin; Jia, Bin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the impact of holding umbrella on the uni- and bi-directional flow has been investigated via experiment and modeling. In the experiments, pedestrians are required to walk clockwise/anti-clockwise in a ring-shaped corridor under normal situation and holding umbrella situation. No matter in uni- or bi-directional flow, the flow rate under holding umbrella situation decreases comparing with that in normal situation. In bidirectional flow, pedestrians segregate into two opposite moving streams very quickly under normal situation, and clockwise/anti-clockwise walking pedestrians are always in the inner/outer lane due to right-walking preference. Under holding umbrella situation, spontaneous lane formation has also occurred. However, when holding umbrella, pedestrians may separate into more than two lanes. Moreover, the merge of lanes have been observed, and clockwise/anti-clockwise pedestrians are not always in the inner/outer lane. To model the flow dynamics, an improved force-based model has been ...

  7. Evaluation of users' satisfaction on pedestrian facilities using pair-wise comparison approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainol, R.; Ahmad, F.; Nordin, N. A.; Aripin, A. W. M.

    2014-02-01

    Global climate change issues demand people of the world to change the way they live today. Thus, current cities need to be redeveloped towards less use of carbon in their day to day operations. Pedestrianized environment is one of the approaches used in reducing carbon foot print in cities. Heritage cities are the first to be looked into since they were built in the era in which motorized vehicles were minimal. Therefore, the research explores users' satisfaction on assessment of physical attributes of pedestrianization in Melaka Historical City, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It aims to examine users' satisfaction on pedestrian facilities provided within the study area using pair wise questionnaire comparison approach. A survey of 200 respondents using random sampling was conducted in six different sites namely Jonker Street, Church Street, Kota Street, Goldsmith Street, Merdeka Street to Taming Sari Tower and Merdeka Street to River Cruise terminal. The survey consists of an assessment tool based on a nine-point scale of users' satisfaction level of pathway properties, zebra pedestrian crossing, street furniture, personal safety, adjacent to traffic flow, aesthetic and amenities. Analytical hierarchical process (AHP) was used to avoid any biasness in analyzing the data collected. Findings show that Merdeka Street to Taming Sari Tower as the street that scores the highest satisfaction level that fulfils all the required needs of a pedestrianized environment. Similar assessment elements can be used to evaluate existing streets in other cities and these criteria should also be used in planning for future cities.

  8. Macroscopic modeling of pedestrian and bicycle crashes: A cross-comparison of estimation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoh-Gyimah, Richard; Saberi, Meead; Sarvi, Majid

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents a cross-comparison of different estimation methods to model pedestrian and bicycle crashes. The study contributes to macro level safety studies by providing further methodological and empirical evidence on the various factors that influence the frequency of pedestrian and bicycle crashes at the planning level. Random parameter negative binomial (RPNB) models are estimated to explore the effects of various planning factors associated with total, serious injury and minor injury crashes while accounting for unobserved heterogeneity. Results of the RPNB models were compared with the results of a non-spatial negative binomial (NB) model and a Poisson-Gamma-CAR model. Key findings are, (1) the RPNB model performed best with the lowest mean absolute deviation, mean squared predicted error and Akaiki information criterion measures and (2) signs of estimated parameters are consistent if these variables are significant in models with the same response variables. We found that vehicle kilometers traveled (VKT), population, percentage of commuters cycling or walking to work, and percentage of households without motor vehicles have a significant and positive correlation with the number of pedestrian and bicycle crashes. Mixed land use is also found to have a positive association with the number of pedestrian and bicycle crashes. Results have planning and policy implications aimed at encouraging the use of sustainable modes of transportation while ensuring the safety of pedestrians and cyclist. PMID:27209153

  9. Stereo vision-based pedestrian detection using multiple features for automotive application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chung-Hee; Kim, Dongyoung

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a stereo vision-based pedestrian detection using multiple features for automotive application. The disparity map from stereo vision system and multiple features are utilized to enhance the pedestrian detection performance. Because the disparity map offers us 3D information, which enable to detect obstacles easily and reduce the overall detection time by removing unnecessary backgrounds. The road feature is extracted from the v-disparity map calculated by the disparity map. The road feature is a decision criterion to determine the presence or absence of obstacles on the road. The obstacle detection is performed by comparing the road feature with all columns in the disparity. The result of obstacle detection is segmented by the bird's-eye-view mapping to separate the obstacle area which has multiple objects into single obstacle area. The histogram-based clustering is performed in the bird's-eye-view map. Each segmented result is verified by the classifier with the training model. To enhance the pedestrian recognition performance, multiple features such as HOG, CSS, symmetry features are utilized. In particular, the symmetry feature is proper to represent the pedestrian standing or walking. The block-based symmetry feature is utilized to minimize the type of image and the best feature among the three symmetry features of H-S-V image is selected as the symmetry feature in each pixel. ETH database is utilized to verify our pedestrian detection algorithm.

  10. 76 FR 75844 - Accessibility Guidelines for Pedestrian Facilities in the Public Right-of-Way; Reopening of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... (76 FR 44664). In that notice, the Access Board proposed guidelines for accessible public rights-of... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Part 1190 RIN 3014-AA26 Accessibility Guidelines for Pedestrian..., the comment period for the notice entitled ``Accessibility Guidelines for Pedestrian Facilities in...

  11. Enhanced Modified Bark Spectral Distortion (EMBSD): An objective speech quality measure based on audible distortion and cognition model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wonho

    The Speech Processing Lab at Temple University developed an objective speech quality measure called the Modified Bark Spectral Distortion (MBSD). The MBSD uses auditory perception models derived from psychoacoustic studies. The MBSD measure extends the Bark Spectral Distortion (BSD) method by incorporating noise making threshold to differentiate audible/inaudible distortions. The performance of the MBSD was comparable to that of the ITU-T Recommendation P.861 for various coding distortions. Based on the experiments with Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) data that contains distortions encountered in real network applications, modifications have been made to the MBSD algorithm. These are: use of the first 15 loudness components, normalization of loudness vectors, deletion of the spreading function in the noise masking threshold calculation, and use of a new cognition model based on postmasking effects. The Enhanced MBSD (EMBSD) shows significant improvement over the MBSD for TDMA data. Also, the performance of the EMBSD is better than that of the ITU-T Recommendation P.861 and Measuring Normalizing Blocks (MNB) measures for TDMA data. The performance of the EMBSD was compared to various other objective speech quality measures with the speech data including a wide range of distortion conditions. The EMBSD showed clear improvement over the MBSD and had the correlation coefficient of 0.89 for the conditions of MNRUs, codecs, tandem cases, bit errors, and frame erasures. Mean Opinion Score (MOS) has been used to evaluate objective speech quality measures. Recognizing the procedural difference between the MOS test and current objective speech quality measures, it is proposed that current objective speech quality measures should be evaluated with Degradation Mean Opinion Score (DMOS). The Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient has been the main performance parameter for evaluation of objective speech quality measures. The Standard Error of the Estimates (SEE

  12. A force-based model to reproduce stop-and-go waves in pedestrian dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Chraibi, Mohcine; Schadschneider, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Stop-and-go waves in single-file movement are a phenomenon that is ob- served empirically in pedestrian dynamics. It manifests itself by the co-existence of two phases: moving and stopping pedestrians. We show analytically based on a simplified one-dimensional scenario that under some conditions the system can have instable homogeneous solutions. Hence, oscillations in the trajectories and in- stabilities emerge during simulations. To our knowledge there exists no force-based model which is collision- and oscillation-free and meanwhile can reproduce phase separation. We develop a new force-based model for pedestrian dynamics able to reproduce qualitatively the phenomenon of phase separation. We investigate analytically the stability condition of the model and define regimes of parameter values where phase separation can be observed. We show by means of simulations that the predefined conditions lead in fact to the expected behavior and validate our model with respect to empirical findings.

  13. A Hybrid Indoor Localization and Navigation System with Map Matching for Pedestrians Using Smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qinglin; Salcic, Zoran; Wang, Kevin I-Kai; Pan, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Pedestrian dead reckoning is a common technique applied in indoor inertial navigation systems that is able to provide accurate tracking performance within short distances. Sensor drift is the main bottleneck in extending the system to long-distance and long-term tracking. In this paper, a hybrid system integrating traditional pedestrian dead reckoning based on the use of inertial measurement units, short-range radio frequency systems and particle filter map matching is proposed. The system is a drift-free pedestrian navigation system where position error and sensor drift is regularly corrected and is able to provide long-term accurate and reliable tracking. Moreover, the whole system is implemented on a commercial off-the-shelf smartphone and achieves real-time positioning and tracking performance with satisfactory accuracy. PMID:26690170

  14. Self-organized phenomena of pedestrian counter flow in a channel under periodic boundary conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xiang; Duan Xiao-Yin; Dong Li-Yun

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we investigate self-organized phenomena such as lane formation generated by pedestrian counter flow in a channel.The lattice gas model is extended to take the effect of walkers in the opposite direction into account simultaneously when they are in the view field of a walker,i.e.,walkers tend to follow the leaders in the same direction and avoid conflicts with those walking towards them.The improved model is then used to mimic pedestrian counter flow in a channel under periodic boundary conditions.Numerical simulations show that lane formation is well reproduced,and this process is rather rapid which coincides with real pedestrian traffic.The average velocity and critical density are found to increase to some degree with the consideration of view field.

  15. Self-organized phenomena of pedestrian counter flow in a channel under periodic boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Duan, Xiao-Yin; Dong, Li-Yun

    2012-10-01

    In this paper we investigate self-organized phenomena such as lane formation generated by pedestrian counter flow in a channel. The lattice gas model is extended to take the effect of walkers in the opposite direction into account simultaneously when they are in the view field of a walker, i.e., walkers tend to follow the leaders in the same direction and avoid conflicts with those walking towards them. The improved model is then used to mimic pedestrian counter flow in a channel under periodic boundary conditions. Numerical simulations show that lane formation is well reproduced, and this process is rather rapid which coincides with real pedestrian traffic. The average velocity and critical density are found to increase to some degree with the consideration of view field.

  16. Improved social force model based on exit selection for microscopic pedestrian simulation in subway station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑勋; 李海鹰; 孟令云; 许心越; 陈旭

    2015-01-01

    An improved social force model based on exit selection is proposed to simulate pedestrians’ microscopic behaviors in subway station. The modification lies in considering three factors of spatial distance, occupant density and exit width. In addition, the problem of pedestrians selecting exit frequently is solved as follows: not changing to other exits in the affected area of one exit, using the probability of remaining preceding exit and invoking function of exit selection after several simulation steps. Pedestrians in subway station have some special characteristics, such as explicit destinations, different familiarities with subway station. Finally, Beijing Zoo Subway Station is taken as an example and the feasibility of the model results is verified through the comparison of the actual data and simulation data. The simulation results show that the improved model can depict the microscopic behaviors of pedestrians in subway station.

  17. Lane formation in pedestrian counterflows driven by a potential field considering following and avoidance behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Wang, Xiaolu; Zheng, Xiaoping

    2015-08-01

    Lane formation in pedestrian counterflows is an interesting self-organization phenomenon. It is believed to be caused by the following or avoidance behaviours of pedestrians. In this paper, a potential field CA model that considers the velocity and density distributions of a crowd and their subjective consciousness is proposed to study the effects of the two behaviours on lane formation in the case of a pedestrian counterflow in a corridor with a periodic boundary. An indexing system is introduced to distinguish the three different patterns observed in the counterflow, and a smoothness index is introduced to measure the smoothness of the counterflow. It is found that avoidance behaviour is more relevant to lane formation than following behaviour. Some differences between the two behaviours are also presented.

  18. A Hybrid Indoor Localization and Navigation System with Map Matching for Pedestrians Using Smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qinglin; Salcic, Zoran; Wang, Kevin I-Kai; Pan, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Pedestrian dead reckoning is a common technique applied in indoor inertial navigation systems that is able to provide accurate tracking performance within short distances. Sensor drift is the main bottleneck in extending the system to long-distance and long-term tracking. In this paper, a hybrid system integrating traditional pedestrian dead reckoning based on the use of inertial measurement units, short-range radio frequency systems and particle filter map matching is proposed. The system is a drift-free pedestrian navigation system where position error and sensor drift is regularly corrected and is able to provide long-term accurate and reliable tracking. Moreover, the whole system is implemented on a commercial off-the-shelf smartphone and achieves real-time positioning and tracking performance with satisfactory accuracy. PMID:26690170

  19. Improving Inertial Pedestrian Dead-Reckoning by Detecting Unmodified Switched-on Lamps in Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio R. Jiménez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how inertial Pedestrian Dead-Reckoning (PDR location systems can be improved with the use of a light sensor to measure the illumination gradients created when a person walks under ceiling-mounted unmodified indoor lights. The process of updating the inertial PDR estimates with the information provided by light detections is a new concept that we have named Light-matching (LM. The displacement and orientation change of a person obtained by inertial PDR is used by the LM method to accurately propagate the location hypothesis, and vice versa; the LM approach benefits the PDR approach by obtaining an absolute localization and reducing the PDR-alone drift. Even from an initially unknown location and orientation, whenever the person passes below a switched-on light spot, the location likelihood is iteratively updated until it potentially converges to a unimodal probability density function. The time to converge to a unimodal position hypothesis depends on the number of lights detected and the asymmetries/irregularities of the spatial distribution of lights. The proposed LM method does not require any intensity illumination calibration, just the pre-storage of the position and size of all lights in a building, irrespective of their current on/off state. This paper presents a detailed description of the light-matching concept, the implementation details of the LM-assisted PDR fusion scheme using a particle filter, and several simulated and experimental tests, using a light sensor-equipped Galaxy S3 smartphone and an external foot-mounted inertial sensor. The evaluation includes the LM-assisted PDR approach as well as the fusion with other signals of opportunity (WiFi, RFID, Magnetometers or Map-matching in order to compare their contribution in obtaining high accuracy indoor localization. The integrated solution achieves a localization error lower than 1 m in most of the cases.

  20. High-Reflectance Technology on Building Façades: Installation Guidelines for Pedestrian Comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Takebayashi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this study is on the impact of solar radiation reflected from the building façade to a pedestrian. The possibility of using high-reflectance technology on building façades was evaluated by using a two-dimensional simple building façade model. The effectiveness of applying retroreflective materials to building façades was also evaluated in regards to avoiding adverse effects on pedestrians. The ratio of diffusely-reflected solar radiation to a pedestrian from a given floor is proportional to the ratio of the angle of the reflective arc reaching a pedestrian from that floor to the angle of the reflective arc from the entire building. Specular reflection of solar radiation from the building façade is calculated by ray-tracing method corresponding to solar angle θ. In Japanese cities that are located at mid-latitudes, applying high-reflectance technology to a building façade at the fourth floor and above produces reflection of solar radiation that does not have adverse effects on pedestrians. High-reflectance technology is applicable on building façades above the fourth floor at any latitude, if we ignore a negative effect, since incident direct solar radiation to the building façade around noon is small at low latitude. Retroreflective material was considered for use on building façades below the third floor in order to avoid impacts on pedestrians from the reflection of solar radiation.

  1. PEDESTRIAN RESPONSE TO ROAD TRAFFIC NOISE FOR MEDIUM SIZE CITY IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pritikana Das

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Level of vehicular noise pollution is one of the major factors to choose pedestrian mode of transportation among other modes of transportation. Transportation systems and their related outcomes are responsible for ensuring safe travel options, including walking people of all ages and different abilities. This study will provide an opportunity to quantify the environmental impact in terms of noise level for future development and planning of pedestrian infrastructure in India. It will also help in modal shifting towards walking, improvements in energy efficiency, and the impact of specific contaminants on health. Exposure of high noise level can cause annoyance and severe stress on auditory and nervous system of pedestrians. Most of the Indian cities have noise level above than acceptable limits because of rapid urbanization with increasing number of vehicular traffic. The objective of this study is to study response of pedestrians towards noise pollution in Roorkee at different locations based on different land use. Roorkee is a medium size city with a population of 2.73 lakhs (Roorkee Metropolitan areas, 2011 census, situated in Uttarakhand, India. It is a city with large number of educational institutions and sizable numbers of student population. Noise level study has been carried out at ten locations on NH-58 near Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee. Noise data was collected at an interval of 30 seconds. Design implications for future improvement of pedestrian infrastructure have been presented in this paper considering traffic noise as an environmental factor. It is expected that the study outcome shall be useful in understanding positive effect of low traffic noise encouraging increased usage of pedestrian facilities within urban transport network.

  2. Pedestrian evacuation in view and hearing limited condition: The impact of communication and memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Shuqi; Jia, Bin; Jiang, Rui; Shan, Jingjing

    2016-09-01

    This paper studies pedestrian evacuation in view and hearing limited condition based on the social force approach. It is assumed that there are two types of pedestrians: Informed individuals know the exit location whereas uninformed individuals do not. The uninformed individuals can communicate with the informed ones within their perceptual fields, thus learning to know and memorize the exit location. We consider cases with and without communication/memory. The simulations show communication and memory are able to enhance the evacuation efficiency. We also investigate the impact of communication on the efficiency of an emergency exit.

  3. High precision analysis of unidirectional pedestrian flow within the Hermes Project

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jun; Seyfried, Armin

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the Hermes project is the development of a computer simulation based on evacuation assistant to support security services in case of emergency in complex buildings and thus to improve safety at mass events. One goal of the project is to build and to calibrate models for pedestrian dynamics specifically designed for forecasting the emergency egress of large crowds faster than real-time. In this contribution, we give an overview of the project and its experimental results of unidirectional flow in a corridor. Trajectories of all pedestrians are analyzed with different measurement methods. The data will be used for model calibration.

  4. The two-dimensional Godunov scheme and what it means for macroscopic pedestrian flow models

    OpenAIRE

    Van Wageningen-Kessels, F.L.M.; Daamen, W.; Hoogendoorn, S. P.

    2015-01-01

    An efficient simulation method for two-dimensional continuum pedestrian flow models is introduced. It is a two-dimensional and multi-class extension of the Go-dunov scheme for one-dimensional road traffic flow models introduced in the mid 1990’s. The method can be applied to continuum pedestrian flow models in a wide range of applications from the design of train stations and other travel hubs to the study of crowd behaviour and safety at religious and cultural events. The combination of the ...

  5. A Zero Velocity Detection Algorithm Using Inertial Sensors for Pedestrian Navigation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Soo Suh

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In pedestrian navigation systems, the position of a pedestrian is computed using an inertial navigation algorithm. In the algorithm, the zero velocity updating plays an important role, where zero velocity intervals are detected and the velocity error is reset. To use the zero velocity updating, it is necessary to detect zero velocity intervals reliably. A new zero detection algorithm is proposed in the paper, where only one gyroscope value is used. A Markov model is constructed using segmentation of gyroscope outputs instead of using gyroscope outputs directly, which makes the zero velocity detection more reliable.

  6. Hidden Markov Model-based Pedestrian Navigation System using MEMS Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yingjun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a foot-mounted pedestrian navigation system using MEMS inertial sensors is implemented, where the zero-velocity detection is abstracted into a hidden Markov model with 4 states and 15 observations. Moreover, an observations extraction algorithm has been developed to extract observations from sensor outputs; sample sets are used to train and optimize the model parameters by the Baum-Welch algorithm. Finally, a navigation system is developed, and the performance of the pedestrian navigation system is evaluated using indoor and outdoor field tests, and the results show that position error is less than 3% of total distance travelled.

  7. Functional declines as predictors of risky street-crossing decisions in older pedestrians

    OpenAIRE

    Dommes, Aurélie; Cavallo, Viola; Oxley, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The experiment investigated the extent to which risky street-crossing decisions by older pedestrians can be explained by declines in functional abilities. Sixteen young (age 20–35), 17 younger-old (age 60–67), and 18 older-old (age 70–84) participants carried out a street-crossing task in a simulated two-way road environment and took a battery of tests assessing perceptual, cognitive, and motor abilities. Older-old pedestrians were more likely than young and younger-old part...

  8. A city for pedestrians. Toward a generic model of the European town

    OpenAIRE

    Fleury, D.

    2002-01-01

    There is no reason to be optimistic about the place given to the pedestrian in towns. It is as if the pressure of motorised transportation and the huge increase in the resulting urban area has left the pedestrian city to try to defend itself where housing density and urban quality make such a safety reaction possible. Apparent urban development thus seems to be the result of an island strategy in which certain zones are better able than others to defend themselves against the invasion of the ...

  9. Pedestrian detection in thermal images: An automated scale based region extraction with curvelet space validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, A.; Faheema, A. G. J.; Deodhare, Dipti

    2016-05-01

    Pedestrian detection is a key problem in night vision processing with a dozen of applications that will positively impact the performance of autonomous systems. Despite significant progress, our study shows that performance of state-of-the-art thermal image pedestrian detectors still has much room for improvement. The purpose of this paper is to overcome the challenge faced by the thermal image pedestrian detectors, which employ intensity based Region Of Interest (ROI) extraction followed by feature based validation. The most striking disadvantage faced by the first module, ROI extraction, is the failed detection of cloth insulted parts. To overcome this setback, this paper employs an algorithm and a principle of region growing pursuit tuned to the scale of the pedestrian. The statistics subtended by the pedestrian drastically vary with the scale and deviation from normality approach facilitates scale detection. Further, the paper offers an adaptive mathematical threshold to resolve the problem of subtracting the background while extracting cloth insulated parts as well. The inherent false positives of the ROI extraction module are limited by the choice of good features in pedestrian validation step. One such feature is curvelet feature, which has found its use extensively in optical images, but has as yet no reported results in thermal images. This has been used to arrive at a pedestrian detector with a reduced false positive rate. This work is the first venture made to scrutinize the utility of curvelet for characterizing pedestrians in thermal images. Attempt has also been made to improve the speed of curvelet transform computation. The classification task is realized through the use of the well known methodology of Support Vector Machines (SVMs). The proposed method is substantiated with qualified evaluation methodologies that permits us to carry out probing and informative comparisons across state-of-the-art features, including deep learning methods, with six

  10. Clustering as an EDA Method: The Case of Pedestrian Directional Flow Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Regina E. Estuar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the data of pedestrian trajectories in NTXY format, three clustering methods of K Means, Expectation Maximization (EM and Affinity Propagation were utilized as Exploratory Data Analysis to find the pattern of pedestrian directional flow behavior. The analysis begins without a prior notion regarding the structure of the pattern and it consequentially infers the structure of directional flow pattern. Significant similarities in patterns for both individual and instantaneous walking angles based on EDA method are reported and explained in case studies

  11. Fine-Grained Classification of Pedestrians in Video: Benchmark and State of the Art

    OpenAIRE

    David C. Hall; Perona, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    A video dataset that is designed to study fine-grained categorisation of pedestrians is introduced. Pedestrians were recorded “in-the-wild” from a moving vehicle. Annotations include bounding boxes, tracks, 14 keypoints with occlusion information and the fine-grained categories of age (5 classes), sex (2 classes), weight (3 classes) and clothing style (4 classes). There are a total of 27,454 bounding box and pose labels across 4222 tracks. This dataset is designed to train and test algorithms...

  12. Empirical Behavioral Models to Support Alternative Tools for the Analysis of Mixed-Priority Pedestrian-Vehicle Interaction in a Highway Capacity Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouphail, Nagui M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents behavioral-based models for describing pedestrian gap acceptance at unsignalized crosswalks in a mixed-priority environment, where some drivers yield and some pedestrians cross in gaps. Logistic regression models are developed to predict the probability of pedestrian crossings as a function of vehicle dynamics, pedestrian assertiveness, and other factors. In combination with prior work on probabilistic yielding models, the results can be incorporated in a simulation environment, where they can more fully describe the interaction of these two modes. The approach is intended to supplement HCM analytical procedure for locations where significant interaction occurs between drivers and pedestrians, including modern roundabouts. PMID:21643488

  13. Audible radiation monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odell, D.M.C.

    1992-12-31

    This invention consists of a method and apparatus for monitoring ionizing radiation comprising radiation detectors in electrical connection with an isotopic analyzer and a device for producing chords to which each isotope is mapped so that the device produces a unique chord for each isotope. Preferably the chords are pleasing to the ear, except for chords representing unexpected isotopes, and are louder or softer depending on the level of radioactivity produced by each isotope, and musical instrument voices may be simulated in producing the chords as an aid to distinguishing similar-sounding chords. Because of the representation by chords, information regarding the level and composition of the radiation in an area can be conveyed to workers in that area more effectively and yet without distracting them.

  14. A pedestrian dead-reckoning system that considers the heel-strike and toe-off phases when using a foot-mounted IMU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Hojin; Lee, Min Su; Park, So Young; Song, Jin Woo; Park, Chan Gook

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an advanced pedestrian dead-reckoning (PDR) algorithm that considers the heel-strike and toe-off phases. Generally, PDR systems that use a foot-mounted inertial measurement unit are based on an inertial navigation system with an extended Kalman filter (EKF). To reduce the influence of the bias and white noises in the gyroscope and accelerometer signals, a zero-velocity update is often adopted at the stance phase. However, transient and large acceleration, which cannot be measured by the accelerometer used in pedestrian navigation, occur momentarily in the heel-strike phase. The velocity information from integration of the acceleration is not reliable because the acceleration is not measured in the heel-strike phase. Therefore, the designed EKF does not correctly reflect the actual environment, because conventional algorithms do not take the non-measurable acceleration into consideration. In order to reflect the actual environment, we propose a PDR system that considers the non-measurable acceleration from the heel-strike impact. To improve the PDR system’s performance, the proposed algorithm uses a new velocity measurement obtained using the constraint between the surface and the foot during the toe-off phase. The experimental results show improved filter performance after comparison of the proposed algorithm and a conventional algorithm.

  15. A pedestrian dead-reckoning system that considers the heel-strike and toe-off phases when using a foot-mounted IMU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we propose an advanced pedestrian dead-reckoning (PDR) algorithm that considers the heel-strike and toe-off phases. Generally, PDR systems that use a foot-mounted inertial measurement unit are based on an inertial navigation system with an extended Kalman filter (EKF). To reduce the influence of the bias and white noises in the gyroscope and accelerometer signals, a zero-velocity update is often adopted at the stance phase. However, transient and large acceleration, which cannot be measured by the accelerometer used in pedestrian navigation, occur momentarily in the heel-strike phase. The velocity information from integration of the acceleration is not reliable because the acceleration is not measured in the heel-strike phase. Therefore, the designed EKF does not correctly reflect the actual environment, because conventional algorithms do not take the non-measurable acceleration into consideration. In order to reflect the actual environment, we propose a PDR system that considers the non-measurable acceleration from the heel-strike impact. To improve the PDR system’s performance, the proposed algorithm uses a new velocity measurement obtained using the constraint between the surface and the foot during the toe-off phase. The experimental results show improved filter performance after comparison of the proposed algorithm and a conventional algorithm. (paper)

  16. Detection of pedestrians for far-infrared automotive night vision systems using learning-based method and head validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To improve active automotive safety and guarantee the protection of pedestrians at night time, a fast pedestrian detection approach based on a monocular far-infrared camera for driver assistance systems is presented. According to the distribution of gray-level intensity of pedestrian samples, an adaptive local dual threshold segmentation algorithm is executed first to extract candidate regions. Then a novel entropy weighted histograms of oriented gradients (EWHOG) descriptor is proposed for effective pedestrian description in a far-infrared spectrum. For reducing the within-class variance of pedestrians located at different distances, a three-branch classifier combining EWHOG features and a support vector machine (SVM) is introduced for robust pedestrian recognition. To speed up the recognition phase, the resulting support vectors (SVs) are optimized to reduce the number of SVs used for decision-making. A further validation phase is then introduced to suppress the false alarms according to the intensity difference between pedestrians’ heads and their adjacent regions. Comparisons between our approach and conventional approaches are presented, and experimental results show that the presented pedestrian detection framework is very promising. (paper)

  17. Hearing aid processing of loud speech and noise signals: Consequences for loudness perception and listening comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Erik

    2007-01-01

    experiment, subjects rated the signals in regard to loudness, speech clarity, noisiness and overall acceptance. Based on the results, a criterion for selecting compression parameters that yield some level-variation in the output signal, while still keeping the overall user-acceptance at a tolerable level, is...... they become audible again for the hearing impaired person. The general goal is to place all sounds within the hearing aid users’ audible range, such that speech intelligibility and listening comfort become as good as possible. Amplification strategies in hearing aids are in many cases based on...... empirical research -for example investigations of loudness perception in hearing impaired listeners. Most research has been focused on speech and sounds at medium input-levels (e.g., 60-65 dB SPL). It is well documented that for speech at conversational levels, hearing aid-users prefer the signal to be...

  18. Time-delayed Follow-the-Leader model for pedestrians walking in line

    CERN Document Server

    Fehrenbach, Jérôme; Hua, Jiale; Lemercier, Samuel; Jelic, Asja; Appert-Rolland, Cécile; Donikian, Stéphane; Pettré, Julien; Degond, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    We use the results of a pedestrian tracking experiment to identify a follow-the-leader model for pedestrians walking-in-line. We demonstrate the existence of a time-delay between a subject's response and the predecessor's corresponding behavior. This time-delay induces an instability which can be damped out by a suitable relaxation. By comparisons with the experimental data, we show that the model reproduces well the emergence of large-scale structures such as congestions waves. The resulting model can be used either for modeling pedestrian queuing behavior or can be incorporated into bi-dimensional models of pedestrian traffic. Acknowledgements: This work has been supported by the french 'Agence Nationale pour la Recherche (ANR)' in the frame of the contract "Pedigree" (ANR-08-SYSC-015-01). JH acknowledges support of the ANR and the Institut de Math{\\'e}matiques de Toulouse, where he conducted this research. AJ acknowledges support of the ANR and of the Laboratoire de physique t A c orique in Orsay where she...

  19. THE ONE-DIMENSIONAL HUGHES MODEL FOR PEDESTRIAN FLOW: RIEMANN-TYPE SOLUTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Debora Amadori; M. Di Francesco

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with a coupled system consisting of a scalar conservation law and an eikonal equation,called the Hughes model.Introduced in [24],this model attempts to describe the motion of pedestrians in a densely crowded region,in which they are seen as a 'thinking' (continuum) fluid.The main mathematical difficulty is the discontinuous gradient of the solution to the eikonal equation appearing in the flux of the conservation law.On a one dimensional interval with zero Dirichlet conditions (the two edges of the interval are interpreted as 'targets'),the model can be decoupled in a way to consider two classical conservation laws on two sub-domains separated by a turning point at which the pedestrians change their direction.We shall consider solutions with a possible jump discontinuity around the turning point.For simplicity,we shall assume they are locally constant on both sides of the discontinuity.We provide a detailed description of the localin-time behavior of the solution in terms of a 'global' qualitative property of the pedestrian density (that we call 'relative evacuation rate'),which can be interpreted as the attitude of the pedestrians to direct towards the left or the right target.We complement our result with explicitly computable examples.

  20. Evaluation of a “Smart” Pedestrian Counting System Based on Echo State Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We have designed an inexpensive intelligent pedestrian counting system. The pedestrian counting system consists of several counters that can be connected together in a distributed fashion and communicate over the wireless channel. The motion pattern is recorded using a set of passive infrared (PIR sensors. Each counter has one wireless sensor node that processes the PIR sensor data and transmits it to a base station. Then echo state network, a special kind of recurrent neural network, is used to predict the pedestrian count from the input pattern. The evaluation of the performance of such networks in a novel kind of application is one focus of this work. The counter gave a performance of 80.4% which is better than the commercially available low-priced pedestrian counters. The article reports the experiments we did for analyzing the counterperformance and lists the strengths and limitations of the current implementation. It will also report the preliminary test results obtained by substituting the PIR sensors with low-cost active IR distance sensors which can improve the counter performance further.

  1. Evaluation of a "Smart" Pedestrian Counting System Based on Echo State Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poigné Axel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have designed an inexpensive intelligent pedestrian counting system. The pedestrian counting system consists of several counters that can be connected together in a distributed fashion and communicate over the wireless channel. The motion pattern is recorded using a set of passive infrared (PIR sensors. Each counter has one wireless sensor node that processes the PIR sensor data and transmits it to a base station. Then echo state network, a special kind of recurrent neural network, is used to predict the pedestrian count from the input pattern. The evaluation of the performance of such networks in a novel kind of application is one focus of this work. The counter gave a performance of 80.4% which is better than the commercially available low-priced pedestrian counters. The article reports the experiments we did for analyzing the counterperformance and lists the strengths and limitations of the current implementation. It will also report the preliminary test results obtained by substituting the PIR sensors with low-cost active IR distance sensors which can improve the counter performance further.

  2. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS) Increases Pedestrian Injury Risk in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avis, Kristin T.; Gamble, Karen L.; Schwebel, David C

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate pedestrian behavior, including reaction time, impulsivity, risk-taking, attention, and decision-making, in children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) compared with healthy controls. Study design Using a case control design, sixty 8- to 16-year-olds with newly diagnosed and untreated OSAS engaged in a virtual reality pedestrian environment. Sixty-one healthy children matched using a yoke-control procedure by age, race, gender and household income served as controls. Results Children with OSAS were riskier pedestrians than healthy children of the same age, race, and sex. Children with OSAS waited less time to cross (p<.01). The groups did not differ in looking at oncoming traffic or taking longer to decide to cross. Conclusions Results suggest OSAS may have significant consequences on children’s daytime functioning in a critical domain of personal safety, pedestrian skills. Children with OSAS appeared to have greater impulsivity when crossing streets. Results highlight the need for heightened awareness of the consequences of untreated sleep disorders and identify a possible target for pediatric injury prevention. PMID:25444002

  3. Whole-body Response for Pedestrian Impact with a Generic Sedan Buck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Jason L; Joodaki, Hamad; Forghani, Ali; Riley, Patrick O; Bollapragada, Varun; Lessley, David J; Overby, Brian; Heltzel, Sara; Kerrigan, Jason R; Crandall, Jeff R; Yarboro, Seth; Weiss, David B

    2015-11-01

    To serve as tools for assessing injury risk, the biofidelity of whole-body pedestrian impact dummies should be validated against reference data from full-scale pedestrian impact tests. To facilitate such evaluations, a simplified generic vehicle-buck has been recently developed that is designed to have characteristics representative of a generic small sedan. Three 40 km/h pedestrian-impact tests have been performed, wherein Post Mortem Human Surrogates (PMHS) were struck laterally in a mid-gait stance by the buck. Corridors for select trajectory measures derived from these tests have been published previously. The goal of this study is to act as a companion dataset to that study, describing the head velocities, body region accelerations (head, spine, pelvis, lower extremities), angular velocities, and buck interaction forces, and injuries observed during those tests. Scaled, transformed head accelerations exceeded 80 g prior to head contact with the windshield for two of the three tests. Head xaxis angular velocity exceeded 40 rad/s prior to head contact for all three tests. In all cases the peak resultant head velocity relative to the vehicle was greater than the initial impact speed of the vehicle. Corridors of resultant head velocity relative to the vehicle were also developed, bounded by the velocities observed in these tests combined with those predicted to occur if the PMHS necks were perfectly rigid. These results, along with the other kinematic and kinetic data presented, provide a resource for future pedestrian dummy development and evaluation. PMID:26660753

  4. Dynamic route guidance strategy in a two-route pedestrian-vehicle mixed traffic flow system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mianfang; Xiong, Shengwu; Li, Bixiang

    2016-05-01

    With the rapid development of transportation, traffic questions have become the major issue for social, economic and environmental aspects. Especially, during serious emergencies, it is very important to alleviate road traffic congestion and improve the efficiency of evacuation to reduce casualties, and addressing these problems has been a major task for the agencies responsible in recent decades. Advanced road guidance strategies have been developed for homogeneous traffic flows, or to reduce traffic congestion and enhance the road capacity in a symmetric two-route scenario. However, feedback strategies have rarely been considered for pedestrian-vehicle mixed traffic flows with variable velocities and sizes in an asymmetric multi-route traffic system, which is a common phenomenon in many developing countries. In this study, we propose a weighted road occupancy feedback strategy (WROFS) for pedestrian-vehicle mixed traffic flows, which considers the system equilibrium to ease traffic congestion. In order to more realistic simulating the behavior of mixed traffic objects, the paper adopted a refined and dynamic cellular automaton model (RDPV_CA model) as the update mechanism for pedestrian-vehicle mixed traffic flow. Moreover, a bounded rational threshold control was introduced into the feedback strategy to avoid some negative effect of delayed information and reduce. Based on comparisons with the two previously proposed strategies, the simulation results obtained in a pedestrian-vehicle traffic flow scenario demonstrated that the proposed strategy with a bounded rational threshold was more effective and system equilibrium, system stability were reached.

  5. Indoor Pedestrian Navigation Using Foot-Mounted IMU and Portable Ultrasound Range Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girard, G.; Cote, S.; Zlatanova, S.; Barette, Y.; St-Pierre, J.; Van Oosterom, P.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Many solutions have been proposed for indoor pedestrian navigation. Some rely on pre-installed sensor networks, which offer good accuracy but are limited to areas that have been prepared for that purpose, thus requiring an expensive and possibly time-consuming process. Such methods are therefore ina

  6. An Anchor-Based Pedestrian Navigation Approach Using Only Inertial Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yang; Song, Qian; Li, Yanghuan; Ma, Ming; Zhou, Zhimin

    2016-01-01

    In inertial-based pedestrian navigation, anchors can effectively compensate the positioning errors originating from deviations of Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs), by putting constraints on pedestrians' motions. However, these anchors often need to be deployed beforehand, which can greatly increase system complexity, rendering it unsuitable for emergency response missions. In this paper, we propose an anchor-based pedestrian navigation approach without any additional sensors. The anchors are defined as the intersection points of perpendicular corridors and are considered characteristics of building structures. In contrast to these real anchors, virtual anchors are extracted from the pedestrian's trajectory and are considered as observations of real anchors, which can accordingly be regarded as inferred building structure characteristics. Then a Rao-Blackwellized particle filter (RBPF) is used to solve the joint estimation of positions (trajectory) and maps (anchors) problem. Compared with other building structure-based methods, our method has two advantages. The assumption on building structure is minimum and valid in most cases. Even if the assumption does not stand, the method will not lead to positioning failure. Several real-scenario experiments are conducted to validate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method. PMID:26959031

  7. Techniques for Updating Pedestrian Network Data Including Facilities and Obstructions Information for Transportation of Vulnerable People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seula Park

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Demand for a Pedestrian Navigation Service (PNS is on the rise. To provide a PNS for the transportation of vulnerable people, more detailed information of pedestrian facilities and obstructions should be included in Pedestrian Network Data (PND used for PNS. Such data can be constructed efficiently by collecting GPS trajectories and integrating them with the existing PND. However, these two kinds of data have geometric differences and topological inconsistencies that need to be addressed. In this paper, we provide a methodology for integrating pedestrian facilities and obstructions information with an existing PND. At first we extracted the significant points from user-collected GPS trajectory by identifying the geometric difference index and attributes of each point. Then the extracted points were used to make an initial solution of the matching between the trajectory and the PND. Two geometrical algorithms were proposed and applied to reduce two kinds of errors in the matching: on dual lines and on intersections. Using the final solution for the matching, we reconstructed the node/link structure of PND including the facilities and obstructions information. Finally, performance was assessed with a test site and 79.2% of the collected data were correctly integrated with the PND.

  8. Identifying and Tracking Pedestrians Based on Sensor Fusion and Motion Stability Predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo de la Escalera

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The lack of trustworthy sensors makes development of Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS applications a tough task. It is necessary to develop intelligent systems by combining reliable sensors and real-time algorithms to send the proper, accurate messages to the drivers. In this article, an application to detect and predict the movement of pedestrians in order to prevent an imminent collision has been developed and tested under real conditions. The proposed application, first, accurately measures the position of obstacles using a two-sensor hybrid fusion approach: a stereo camera vision system and a laser scanner. Second, it correctly identifies pedestrians using intelligent algorithms based on polylines and pattern recognition related to leg positions (laser subsystem and dense disparity maps and u-v disparity (vision subsystem. Third, it uses statistical validation gates and confidence regions to track the pedestrian within the detection zones of the sensors and predict their position in the upcoming frames. The intelligent sensor application has been experimentally tested with success while tracking pedestrians that cross and move in zigzag fashion in front of a vehicle.

  9. Identifying and tracking pedestrians based on sensor fusion and motion stability predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musleh, Basam; García, Fernando; Otamendi, Javier; Armingol, José Maria; de la Escalera, Arturo

    2010-01-01

    The lack of trustworthy sensors makes development of Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) applications a tough task. It is necessary to develop intelligent systems by combining reliable sensors and real-time algorithms to send the proper, accurate messages to the drivers. In this article, an application to detect and predict the movement of pedestrians in order to prevent an imminent collision has been developed and tested under real conditions. The proposed application, first, accurately measures the position of obstacles using a two-sensor hybrid fusion approach: a stereo camera vision system and a laser scanner. Second, it correctly identifies pedestrians using intelligent algorithms based on polylines and pattern recognition related to leg positions (laser subsystem) and dense disparity maps and u-v disparity (vision subsystem). Third, it uses statistical validation gates and confidence regions to track the pedestrian within the detection zones of the sensors and predict their position in the upcoming frames. The intelligent sensor application has been experimentally tested with success while tracking pedestrians that cross and move in zigzag fashion in front of a vehicle. PMID:22163639

  10. Continuous measurements of real-life bidirectional pedestrian flows on a wide walkway

    CERN Document Server

    Corbetta, Alessandro; Lee, Chung-min; Toschi, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Employing partially overlapping overhead \\kinectTMS sensors and automatic pedestrian tracking algorithms we recorded the crowd traffic in a rectilinear section of the main walkway of Eindhoven train station on a 24/7 basis. Beside giving access to the train platforms (it passes underneath the railways), the walkway plays an important connection role in the city. Several crowding scenarios occur during the day, including high- and low-density dynamics in uni- and bi-directional regimes. In this paper we discuss our recording technique and we illustrate preliminary data analyses. Via fundamental diagrams-like representations we report pedestrian velocities and fluxes vs. pedestrian density. Considering the density range $0$ - $1.1\\,$ped/m$^2$, we find that at densities lower than $0.8\\,$ped/m$^2$ pedestrians in unidirectional flows walk faster than in bidirectional regimes. On the opposite, velocities and fluxes for even bidirectional flows are higher above $0.8\\,$ped/m$^2$.

  11. Pedestrian dynamics in single-file movement of crowd with different age compositions

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Shuchao; Salden, Daniel; Ma, Jian; Shi, Chang'an; Zhang, Ruifang

    2016-01-01

    An aging population is bringing new challenges to the management of escape routes and facility design in many countries. This paper investigates pedestrian movement properties of crowd with different age compositions. Three pedestrian groups are considered: young student group, old people group and mixed group. It is found that traffic jams occur more frequently in mixed group due to the great differences of mobilities and self-adaptive abilities among pedestrians. The jams propagate backward with a velocity 0.4 m/s for global density around 1.75 m-1 and 0.3 m/s for higher than 2.3 m-1. The fundamental diagrams of the three groups are obviously different from each other and cannot be unified into one diagram by direct non-dimensionalization. Unlike previous studies, three linear regimes in mixed group but only two regimes in young student group are observed in the headway-velocity relation, which is also verified in the fundamental diagram. Different ages and mobilities of pedestrians in a crowd cause the het...

  12. 76 FR 52046 - Final Policy Statement on the Eligibility of Pedestrian and Bicycle Improvements Under Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... of Joint Development Projects under Federal Transit Law at 72 FR 5788. B. Transit Enhancement... Investment Projects, 75 FR 31383 (June 3, 2010). ] F. Access to Public Transportation for Individuals With... Statement on the Eligibility of Pedestrian and Bicycle Improvements under Federal Transit Law, 74 FR...

  13. Indoor Pedestrian Navigation Based on Hybrid Route Planning and Location Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schougaard, Kari Rye; Grønbæk, Kaj; Scharling, Tejs

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces methods and services called PerPosNav for development of custom indoor pedestrian navigation applications to be deployed on a variety of platforms. PerPosNav combines symbolic and geometry based modeling of buildings, and in turn combines graph-based and geometric route...

  14. 76 FR 45481 - Accessibility Guidelines for Pedestrian Facilities in the Public Right-of-Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... Independence of Blind and Partially Sighted People'' (2010) available at: http:// gdbass.netefficiency.co.uk... pedestrians who are blind or have low vision commissioned by the Guide Dogs for the Blind Association in the... site at: http://www.access-board.gov/prowac/nprm.htm . Correction In the proposed rule FR Doc....

  15. Influence of the Built Environment on Pedestrian Route Choices of Adolescent Girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, Daniel A.; Merlin, Louis; Prato, Carlo Giacomo;

    2015-01-01

    We examined the influence of the built environment on pedestrian route selection among adolescent girls. Portable global positioning system units, accelerometers, and travel diaries were used to identify the origin, destination, and walking routes of girls in San Diego, California, and Minneapolis...

  16. Pedestrian induced vertical vibrations: Response to running using the Response Spectrum Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matteoni, Giulia; Georgakis, Christos

    Footbridges are increasingly prone to vibrations and designers are generally unable to predict pedestrian-induced vertical vibrations. Many aspects of human loading are infact not properly taken into account for in the load models employed by the international codes of practice, such as the rando...

  17. Recognizing pedestrian's unsafe behaviors in far-infrared imagery at night

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Ju; Ko, Byoung Chul; Nam, Jae-Yeal

    2016-05-01

    Pedestrian behavior recognition is important work for early accident prevention in advanced driver assistance system (ADAS). In particular, because most pedestrian-vehicle crashes are occurred from late of night to early of dawn, our study focus on recognizing unsafe behavior of pedestrians using thermal image captured from moving vehicle at night. For recognizing unsafe behavior, this study uses convolutional neural network (CNN) which shows high quality of recognition performance. However, because traditional CNN requires the very expensive training time and memory, we design the light CNN consisted of two convolutional layers and two subsampling layers for real-time processing of vehicle applications. In addition, we combine light CNN with boosted random forest (Boosted RF) classifier so that the output of CNN is not fully connected with the classifier but randomly connected with Boosted random forest. We named this CNN as randomly connected CNN (RC-CNN). The proposed method was successfully applied to the pedestrian unsafe behavior (PUB) dataset captured from far-infrared camera at night and its behavior recognition accuracy is confirmed to be higher than that of some algorithms related to CNNs, with a shorter processing time.

  18. Posture estimation for improved photogrammetric localization of pedestrians in monocular infrared imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundegorski, Mikolaj E.; Breckon, Toby P.

    2015-10-01

    Target tracking complexity within conventional video imagery can be fundamentally attributed to the ambiguity associated with actual 3D scene position of a given tracked object in relation to its observed position in 2D image space. Recent work, within thermal-band infrared imagery, has tackled this challenge head on by returning to classical photogrammetry as a means of recovering the true 3D position of pedestrian targets. A key limitation in such approaches is the assumption of posture - that the observed pedestrian is at full height stance within the scene. Whilst prior work has shown the effects of statistical height variation to be negligible, variations in the posture of the target may still pose a significant source of potential error. Here we present a method that addresses this issue via the use of Support Vector Machine (SVM) regression based pedestrian posture estimation operating on Histogram of Orientated Gradient (HOG) feature descriptors. Within an existing tracking framework, we demonstrate improved target localization that is independent of variations in target posture (i.e. behaviour) and within the statistical error bounds of prior work for pedestrian height posture varying from 0.4-2.4m over a distance to target range of 7-30m.

  19. Traffic signatures in suspended dust at pedestrian levels in semiarid zones: Implications for human exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza-Figueroa, Diana; González-Grijalva, Belem; Del Río-Salas, Rafael; Coimbra, Rute; Ochoa-Landin, Lucas; Moreno-Rodríguez, Verónica

    2016-08-01

    Deeper knowledge on dust suspension processes along semiarid zones is critical for understanding potential impacts on human health. Hermosillo city, located in the heart of the Sonoran Desert was chosen to evaluate such impacts. A one-year survey of Total Suspended Particulate Matter (TSPM) was conducted at two different heights (pedestrian and rooftop level). The minimum values of TSPM were reported during monsoon season and winter. Maximum values showed a bimodal distribution, with major peaks associated with increase and decrease of temperature, as well as decreasing humidity. Concentrations of TSPM were significantly exceeded at pedestrian level (∼44% of analyzed days) when compared to roof level (∼18% of analyzed days). Metal concentrations of As, Pb, Cu, Sb, Be, Mg, Ni, and Co were higher at pedestrian level than at roof level. Pixel counting and interpretations based on scanning electron microscopy of dust filters showed a higher percentage of fine particulate fractions at pedestrian level. These fractions occur mainly as metal-enriched agglomerates resembling coarser particles. According to worldwide guidelines, particulate matter sampling should be conducted by monitoring particle sizes equal and inferior to PM10. However, this work suggests that such procedures may compromise risk assessment in semiarid environments, where coarse particles act as main carriers for emergent contaminants related to traffic. This effect is especially concerning at pedestrian level, leading to an underestimation of potential impacts of human exposure. This study brings forward novel aspects that are of relevance for those concerned with dust suspension processes across semiarid regions and related impact on human health.

  20. Evaluation of users' satisfaction on pedestrian facilities using pair-wise comparison approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global climate change issues demand people of the world to change the way they live today. Thus, current cities need to be redeveloped towards less use of carbon in their day to day operations. Pedestrianized environment is one of the approaches used in reducing carbon foot print in cities. Heritage cities are the first to be looked into since they were built in the era in which motorized vehicles were minimal. Therefore, the research explores users' satisfaction on assessment of physical attributes of pedestrianization in Melaka Historical City, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It aims to examine users' satisfaction on pedestrian facilities provided within the study area using pair wise questionnaire comparison approach. A survey of 200 respondents using random sampling was conducted in six different sites namely Jonker Street, Church Street, Kota Street, Goldsmith Street, Merdeka Street to Taming Sari Tower and Merdeka Street to River Cruise terminal. The survey consists of an assessment tool based on a nine-point scale of users' satisfaction level of pathway properties, zebra pedestrian crossing, street furniture, personal safety, adjacent to traffic flow, aesthetic and amenities. Analytical hierarchical process (AHP) was used to avoid any biasness in analyzing the data collected. Findings show that Merdeka Street to Taming Sari Tower as the street that scores the highest satisfaction level that fulfils all the required needs of a pedestrianized environment. Similar assessment elements can be used to evaluate existing streets in other cities and these criteria should also be used in planning for future cities

  1. Analysis of Spatio-Temporal Traffic Patterns Based on Pedestrian Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, S.; Schindler, T.; Klinger, T.; Brenner, C.

    2016-06-01

    For driver assistance and autonomous driving systems, it is essential to predict the behaviour of other traffic participants. Usually, standard filter approaches are used to this end, however, in many cases, these are not sufficient. For example, pedestrians are able to change their speed or direction instantly. Also, there may be not enough observation data to determine the state of an object reliably, e.g. in case of occlusions. In those cases, it is very useful if a prior model exists, which suggests certain outcomes. For example, it is useful to know that pedestrians are usually crossing the road at a certain location and at certain times. This information can then be stored in a map which then can be used as a prior in scene analysis, or in practical terms to reduce the speed of a vehicle in advance in order to minimize critical situations. In this paper, we present an approach to derive such a spatio-temporal map automatically from the observed behaviour of traffic participants in everyday traffic situations. In our experiments, we use one stationary camera to observe a complex junction, where cars, public transportation and pedestrians interact. We concentrate on the pedestrians trajectories to map traffic patterns. In the first step, we extract trajectory segments from the video data. These segments are then clustered in order to derive a spatial model of the scene, in terms of a spatially embedded graph. In the second step, we analyse the temporal patterns of pedestrian movement on this graph. We are able to derive traffic light sequences as well as the timetables of nearby public transportation. To evaluate our approach, we used a 4 hour video sequence. We show that we are able to derive traffic light sequences as well as time tables of nearby public transportation.

  2. Predicting pedestrian flow: a methodology and a proof of concept based on real-life data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidich, Maria; Köster, Gerta

    2013-01-01

    Building a reliable predictive model of pedestrian motion is very challenging: Ideally, such models should be based on observations made in both controlled experiments and in real-world environments. De facto, models are rarely based on real-world observations due to the lack of available data; instead, they are largely based on intuition and, at best, literature values and laboratory experiments. Such an approach is insufficient for reliable simulations of complex real-life scenarios: For instance, our analysis of pedestrian motion under natural conditions at a major German railway station reveals that the values for free-flow velocities and the flow-density relationship differ significantly from widely used literature values. It is thus necessary to calibrate and validate the model against relevant real-life data to make it capable of reproducing and predicting real-life scenarios. In this work we aim at constructing such realistic pedestrian stream simulation. Based on the analysis of real-life data, we present a methodology that identifies key parameters and interdependencies that enable us to properly calibrate the model. The success of the approach is demonstrated for a benchmark model, a cellular automaton. We show that the proposed approach significantly improves the reliability of the simulation and hence the potential prediction accuracy. The simulation is validated by comparing the local density evolution of the measured data to that of the simulated data. We find that for our model the most sensitive parameters are: the source-target distribution of the pedestrian trajectories, the schedule of pedestrian appearances in the scenario and the mean free-flow velocity. Our results emphasize the need for real-life data extraction and analysis to enable predictive simulations. PMID:24386186

  3. Predicting pedestrian flow: a methodology and a proof of concept based on real-life data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Davidich

    Full Text Available Building a reliable predictive model of pedestrian motion is very challenging: Ideally, such models should be based on observations made in both controlled experiments and in real-world environments. De facto, models are rarely based on real-world observations due to the lack of available data; instead, they are largely based on intuition and, at best, literature values and laboratory experiments. Such an approach is insufficient for reliable simulations of complex real-life scenarios: For instance, our analysis of pedestrian motion under natural conditions at a major German railway station reveals that the values for free-flow velocities and the flow-density relationship differ significantly from widely used literature values. It is thus necessary to calibrate and validate the model against relevant real-life data to make it capable of reproducing and predicting real-life scenarios. In this work we aim at constructing such realistic pedestrian stream simulation. Based on the analysis of real-life data, we present a methodology that identifies key parameters and interdependencies that enable us to properly calibrate the model. The success of the approach is demonstrated for a benchmark model, a cellular automaton. We show that the proposed approach significantly improves the reliability of the simulation and hence the potential prediction accuracy. The simulation is validated by comparing the local density evolution of the measured data to that of the simulated data. We find that for our model the most sensitive parameters are: the source-target distribution of the pedestrian trajectories, the schedule of pedestrian appearances in the scenario and the mean free-flow velocity. Our results emphasize the need for real-life data extraction and analysis to enable predictive simulations.

  4. LES case study on pedestrian level ventilation in two neighbourhoods in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Oliver Letzel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Hong Kong is one of the most densely built-up and populated cities in the world. An adequate air ventilation at pedestrian level would ease the thermal stress in its humid subtropical climate, but the high-density city severely reduces the natural ventilation. This case study investigates pedestrian level ventilation in two neighbourhoods in Kowloon, downtown Hong Kong using the parallelized large-eddy-simulation (LES model PALM. The LES technique is chosen here for a city quarter scale pedestrian comfort study despite of its high computational cost. The aims of the paper are a to get a comprehensive overview of pedestrian level ventilation and a better understanding of the ventilation processes in downtown Hong Kong, b to test the LES technique on this urban scale compared to the wind tunnel and c to investigate how numerical/physical parameters influence ventilation. This case study is restricted to neutral stratification in order to allow a direct comparison with the wind tunnel. A sensitivity study quantifies the dependence of site-averaged ventilation on numerical and physical parameters and determines an appropriate urban LES set-up for two 1 km2 neighbourhoods in Kowloon (Tsim Sha Tsui, Mong Kok that are investigated for prevailing E and SW wind. The results reveal the critical dependence of ventilation on the urban morphology. Air paths, street orientations, ground coverage, sites fronting the water, inter connectivity of spaces, building podium size and building heights can all affect the pedestrian wind environment. Isolated tall buildings may have a pronounced impact on ventilation both locally and downstream.

  5. The Characteristics of the Factors That Govern the Preferred Force in the Social Force Model of Pedestrian Movement

    CERN Document Server

    Shuaib, Mohammed Mahmod; Abu-Sulyman, Ibtesam M

    2010-01-01

    The social force model which belongs to the microscopic pedestrian studies has been considered as the supremacy by many researchers and due to the main feature of reproducing the self-organized phenomena resulted from pedestrian dynamic. The Preferred Force which is a measurement of pedestrian's motivation to adapt his actual velocity to his desired velocity is an essential term on which the model was set up. This Force has gone through stages of development: first of all, Helbing and Molnar (1995) have modeled the original force for the normal situation. Second, Helbing and his co-workers (2000) have incorporated the panic situation into this force by incorporating the panic parameter to account for the panic situations. Third, Lakoba and Kaup (2005) have provided the pedestrians some kind of intelligence by incorporating aspects of the decision-making capability. In this paper, the authors analyze the most important incorporations into the model regarding the preferred force. They make comparisons between t...

  6. Distraction and Pedestrian Safety: How Talking on the Phone, Texting, and Listening to Music Impact Crossing the Street

    OpenAIRE

    Schwebel, David C.; Stavrinos, Despina; Byington, Katherine W.; Davis, Tiffany; O’Neal, Elizabeth E.; de Jong, Desiree

    2011-01-01

    As use of handheld multimedia devices has exploded globally, safety experts have begun to consider the impact of distraction while talking, text-messaging, or listening to music on traffic safety. This study was designed to test how talking on the phone, texting, and listening to music may influence pedestrian safety. 138 college students crossed an interactive, semi-immersive virtual pedestrian street. They were randomly assigned to one of four groups: crossing while talking on the phone, cr...

  7. Effects of gender, sex-stereotype conformity, age and internalization on risk-taking among adolescent pedestrians

    OpenAIRE

    Granie, Marie-Axelle

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the effects of sex-stereotype conformity and the internalization of traffic rules on risk-taking among adolescent pedestrians. Sex-stereotype conformity, danger perception, internalization of traffic rules and risky behaviors self-reported by 278 adolescent pedestrians (130 boys and 148 girls) aged 12 to 16 were measured. The results show an effect of sex-stereotype conformity on the internalization of traffic rules and risky behavior. Furthermore, th...

  8. Micrometeorological simulations to predict the impacts of heat mitigation strategies on pedestrian thermal comfort in a Los Angeles neighborhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taleghani, Mohammad; Sailor, David; Ban-Weiss, George A.

    2016-02-01

    The urban heat island impacts the thermal comfort of pedestrians in cities. In this paper, the effects of four heat mitigation strategies on micrometeorology and the thermal comfort of pedestrians were simulated for a neighborhood in eastern Los Angeles County. The strategies investigated include solar reflective ‘cool roofs’, vegetative ‘green roofs’, solar reflective ‘cool pavements’, and increased street-level trees. A series of micrometeorological simulations for an extreme heat day were carried out assuming widespread adoption of each mitigation strategy. Comparing each simulation to the control simulation assuming current land cover for the neighborhood showed that additional street-trees and cool pavements reduced 1.5 m air temperature, while cool and green roofs mostly provided cooling at heights above pedestrian level. However, cool pavements increased reflected sunlight from the ground to pedestrians at a set of unshaded receptor locations. This reflected radiation intensified the mean radiant temperature and consequently increased physiological equivalent temperature (PET) by 2.2 °C during the day, reducing the thermal comfort of pedestrians. At another set of receptor locations that were on average 5 m from roadways and underneath preexisting tree cover, cool pavements caused significant reductions in surface air temperatures and small changes in mean radiant temperature during the day, leading to decreases in PET of 1.1 °C, and consequent improvements in thermal comfort. For improving thermal comfort of pedestrians during the afternoon in unshaded locations, adding street trees was found to be the most effective strategy. However, afternoon thermal comfort improvements in already shaded locations adjacent to streets were most significant for cool pavements. Green and cool roofs showed the lowest impact on the thermal comfort of pedestrians since they modify the energy balance at roof level, above the height of pedestrians.

  9. A discrete choice modeling framework for pedestrian walking behavior with application to human tracking in video sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Antonini, Gianluca

    2005-01-01

    Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) have triggered important research activities in the context of behavioral dynamics. Several new models and simulators for driving and travel behaviors, along with new integrated systems to manage various elements of ITS, have been proposed in the past decades. In this context, less attention has been given to pedestrian modeling and simulation. In 2001, the first international conference on Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics took place in Duisburg, Ger...

  10. Information Selection and Delivery Algorithm for Delivering Advertisements Suitable for the Pedestrians Present at a Particular Site

    OpenAIRE

    Koichi MATSUOKA; Nobuo KATOU; Shigeo DEJIMA; Takami, Kazumasa

    2011-01-01

    We consider a service that shows an advertisement suitable for the preferences of the pedestrians present at the site where the display is installed. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of this service by a simulation that reflects the reality well, we propose evaluation functions that take account of the line of sight of moving pedestrians. The evaluation functions incorporate two independent variables: Category and Producer. Based on this evaluation functions, we also propose an algorith...

  11. Micrometeorological simulations to predict the impacts of heat mitigation strategies on pedestrian thermal comfort in a Los Angeles neighborhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The urban heat island impacts the thermal comfort of pedestrians in cities. In this paper, the effects of four heat mitigation strategies on micrometeorology and the thermal comfort of pedestrians were simulated for a neighborhood in eastern Los Angeles County. The strategies investigated include solar reflective ‘cool roofs’, vegetative ‘green roofs’, solar reflective ‘cool pavements’, and increased street-level trees. A series of micrometeorological simulations for an extreme heat day were carried out assuming widespread adoption of each mitigation strategy. Comparing each simulation to the control simulation assuming current land cover for the neighborhood showed that additional street-trees and cool pavements reduced 1.5 m air temperature, while cool and green roofs mostly provided cooling at heights above pedestrian level. However, cool pavements increased reflected sunlight from the ground to pedestrians at a set of unshaded receptor locations. This reflected radiation intensified the mean radiant temperature and consequently increased physiological equivalent temperature (PET) by 2.2 °C during the day, reducing the thermal comfort of pedestrians. At another set of receptor locations that were on average 5 m from roadways and underneath preexisting tree cover, cool pavements caused significant reductions in surface air temperatures and small changes in mean radiant temperature during the day, leading to decreases in PET of 1.1 °C, and consequent improvements in thermal comfort. For improving thermal comfort of pedestrians during the afternoon in unshaded locations, adding street trees was found to be the most effective strategy. However, afternoon thermal comfort improvements in already shaded locations adjacent to streets were most significant for cool pavements. Green and cool roofs showed the lowest impact on the thermal comfort of pedestrians since they modify the energy balance at roof level, above the height of pedestrians. (letter)

  12. Development of a Pedestrian Indoor Navigation System Based on Multi-Sensor Fusion and Fuzzy Logic Estimation Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Y. C.; Chang, C. C.; Tsai, C. M.; Lin, S. Y.; Huang, S. C.

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a pedestrian indoor navigation system based on the multi-sensor fusion and fuzzy logic estimation algorithms. The proposed navigation system is a self-contained dead reckoning navigation that means no other outside signal is demanded. In order to achieve the self-contained capability, a portable and wearable inertial measure unit (IMU) has been developed. Its adopted sensors are the low-cost inertial sensors, accelerometer and gyroscope, based on the micro electro-mechanical system (MEMS). There are two types of the IMU modules, handheld and waist-mounted. The low-cost MEMS sensors suffer from various errors due to the results of manufacturing imperfections and other effects. Therefore, a sensor calibration procedure based on the scalar calibration and the least squares methods has been induced in this study to improve the accuracy of the inertial sensors. With the calibrated data acquired from the inertial sensors, the step length and strength of the pedestrian are estimated by multi-sensor fusion and fuzzy logic estimation algorithms. The developed multi-sensor fusion algorithm provides the amount of the walking steps and the strength of each steps in real-time. Consequently, the estimated walking amount and strength per step are taken into the proposed fuzzy logic estimation algorithm to estimates the step lengths of the user. Since the walking length and direction are both the required information of the dead reckoning navigation, the walking direction is calculated by integrating the angular rate acquired by the gyroscope of the developed IMU module. Both the walking length and direction are calculated on the IMU module and transmit to a smartphone with Bluetooth to perform the dead reckoning navigation which is run on a self-developed APP. Due to the error accumulating of dead reckoning navigation, a particle filter and a pre-loaded map of indoor environment have been applied to the APP of the proposed navigation system to extend its

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF A PEDESTRIAN INDOOR NAVIGATION SYSTEM BASED ON MULTI-SENSOR FUSION AND FUZZY LOGIC ESTIMATION ALGORITHMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. C. Lai

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a pedestrian indoor navigation system based on the multi-sensor fusion and fuzzy logic estimation algorithms. The proposed navigation system is a self-contained dead reckoning navigation that means no other outside signal is demanded. In order to achieve the self-contained capability, a portable and wearable inertial measure unit (IMU has been developed. Its adopted sensors are the low-cost inertial sensors, accelerometer and gyroscope, based on the micro electro-mechanical system (MEMS. There are two types of the IMU modules, handheld and waist-mounted. The low-cost MEMS sensors suffer from various errors due to the results of manufacturing imperfections and other effects. Therefore, a sensor calibration procedure based on the scalar calibration and the least squares methods has been induced in this study to improve the accuracy of the inertial sensors. With the calibrated data acquired from the inertial sensors, the step length and strength of the pedestrian are estimated by multi-sensor fusion and fuzzy logic estimation algorithms. The developed multi-sensor fusion algorithm provides the amount of the walking steps and the strength of each steps in real-time. Consequently, the estimated walking amount and strength per step are taken into the proposed fuzzy logic estimation algorithm to estimates the step lengths of the user. Since the walking length and direction are both the required information of the dead reckoning navigation, the walking direction is calculated by integrating the angular rate acquired by the gyroscope of the developed IMU module. Both the walking length and direction are calculated on the IMU module and transmit to a smartphone with Bluetooth to perform the dead reckoning navigation which is run on a self-developed APP. Due to the error accumulating of dead reckoning navigation, a particle filter and a pre-loaded map of indoor environment have been applied to the APP of the proposed navigation system

  14. IVF: exploiting intensity variation function for high-performance pedestrian tracking in forward-looking infrared imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberti, Fabrizio; Sanna, Andrea; Paravati, Gianluca; Belluccini, Luca

    2014-02-01

    Tracking pedestrian targets in forward-looking infrared video sequences is a crucial component of a growing number of applications. At the same time, it is particularly challenging, since image resolution and signal-to-noise ratio are generally very low, while the nonrigidity of the human body produces highly variable target shapes. Moreover, motion can be quite chaotic with frequent target-to-target and target-to-scene occlusions. Hence, the trend is to design ever more sophisticated techniques, able to ensure rather accurate tracking results at the cost of a generally higher complexity. However, many of such techniques might not be suitable for real-time tracking in limited-resource environments. This work presents a technique that extends an extremely computationally efficient tracking method based on target intensity variation and template matching originally designed for targets with a marked and stable hot spot by adapting it to deal with much more complex thermal signatures and by removing the native dependency on configuration choices. Experimental tests demonstrated that, by working on multiple hot spots, the designed technique is able to achieve the robustness of other common approaches by limiting drifts and preserving the low-computational footprint of the reference method.

  15. Distraction and pedestrian safety: how talking on the phone, texting, and listening to music impact crossing the street.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwebel, David C; Stavrinos, Despina; Byington, Katherine W; Davis, Tiffany; O'Neal, Elizabeth E; de Jong, Desiree

    2012-03-01

    As use of handheld multimedia devices has exploded globally, safety experts have begun to consider the impact of distraction while talking, text-messaging, or listening to music on traffic safety. This study was designed to test how talking on the phone, texting, and listening to music may influence pedestrian safety. 138 college students crossed an interactive, semi-immersive virtual pedestrian street. They were randomly assigned to one of four groups: crossing while talking on the phone, crossing while texting, crossing while listening to a personal music device, or crossing while undistracted. Participants distracted by music or texting were more likely to be hit by a vehicle in the virtual pedestrian environment than were undistracted participants. Participants in all three distracted groups were more likely to look away from the street environment (and look toward other places, such as their telephone or music device) than were undistracted participants. Findings were maintained after controlling for demographics, walking frequency, and media use frequency. Distraction from multimedia devices has a small but meaningful impact on college students' pedestrian safety. Future research should consider the cognitive demands of pedestrian safety, and how those processes may be impacted by distraction. Policymakers might consider ways to protect distracted pedestrians from harm and to reduce the number of individuals crossing streets while distracted. PMID:22269509

  16. Impact of Train Schedule on Pedestrian Movement on Stairway at Suburban Rail Transit Station in Mumbai, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Jiten

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrian flow takes place in confined environment on stairways under the influence of composition, direction of movement, and schedule of trains. During peak-period, alighting and boarding rate is quite high resulting in very high pedestrian movement from one platform to the other to catch the next train at interchange stations. The transfer of passengers from railway platforms through common undivided stairways becomes difficult, uncomfortable, and unsafe at times when pedestrian flow reaches the capacity level. Understanding of criteria defining quality of flow that affect the effectiveness of facilities like stairways in handling the pedestrian traffic is vital for planning and designing of such facilities to ensure the desired level of service as well as safety in case of emergency. The present paper is based on the study of pedestrian movement on stairways at busy suburban rail transit interchange station at Dadar in Mumbai, India. Pedestrian movements are captured through videography at two stairways and the effect of bidirectional movement on average walking speed is analyzed. The ascending flow in small proportion is found to be more influential in causing speed reduction on undivided stairways. The outcome of the study is useful for capacity and level of service analysis while planning and designing the transit station stairways.

  17. An extension of the theory of planned behavior to predict pedestrians' violating crossing behavior using structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongmei; Romero, Stephanie Ballon; Qin, Xiao

    2016-10-01

    This paper aimed to examine pedestrians' self-reported violating crossing behavior intentions by applying the theory of planned behavior (TPB). We studied the behavior intentions regarding instrumental attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, the three basic components of TPB, and extended the theory by adding new factors including descriptive norm, perceived risk and conformity tendency to evaluate their respective impacts on pedestrians' behavior intentions. A questionnaire presented with a scenario that pedestrians crossed the road violating the pedestrian lights at an intersection was designed, and the survey was conducted in Dalian, China. Based on the 260 complete and valid responses, reliability and validity of the data for each question was evaluated. The data were then analyzed by using the structural equation modeling (SEM). The results showed that people had a negative attitude toward the behavior of violating road-crossing rules; they perceived social influences from their family and friends; and they believed that this kind of risky behavior would potentially harm them in a traffic accident. The results also showed that instrumental attitude and subjective norm were significant in the basic TPB model. After adding descriptive norm, subjective norm was no more significant. Other models showed that conformity tendency was a strong predictor, indicating that the presence of other pedestrians would influence behavioral intention. The findings could help to design more effective interventions and safety campaigns, such as changing people's attitude toward this violation behavior, correcting the social norms, increasing their safety awareness, etc. in order to reduce pedestrians' road crossing violations. PMID:26433568

  18. Self-Propelled Pedestrian Dynamics Model: Application to Passenger Movement and Infection Propagation in Airplanes

    CERN Document Server

    Namilae, S; Mubayi, A; Scotch, M; Pahle, R

    2016-01-01

    Reducing the number of contacts between passengers on an airplane can potentially curb the spread of infectious diseases. In this paper, a social force based pedestrian movement model is formulated and applied to evaluate the movement and contacts among passengers during boarding and deplaning of an airplane. Within the social force modeling framework, we introduce location dependence on the self-propelling momentum of pedestrian particles. The model parameters are varied over a large design space and the results are compared with experimental observations to validate the model. This model is then used to assess the different approaches to minimize passenger contacts during boarding and deplaning of airplanes. We find that smaller aircrafts are effective in reducing the contacts between passengers. Column wise deplaning and random boarding are found to be two strategies that reduced the number of contacts during passenger movement, and can potentially lower the likelihood of infection spread.

  19. Part-based Pedestrian Detection and Feature-based Tracking for Driver Assistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prioletti, Antonio; Møgelmose, Andreas; Grislieri, Paolo;

    2013-01-01

    gained a special place among the different approaches presented. This paper presents a state-of-the-art pedestrian detection system based on a two-stage classifier. Candidates are extracted with a Haar cascade classifier trained with the Daimler Detection Benchmark data set and then validated through a......Detecting pedestrians is still a challenging task for automotive vision systems due to the extreme variability of targets, lighting conditions, occlusion, and high-speed vehicle motion. Much research has been focused on this problem in the last ten years and detectors based on classifiers have...... part-based histogram-of-oriented-gradient (HOG) classifier with the aim of lowering the number of false positives. The surviving candidates are then filtered with feature-based tracking to enhance the recognition robustness and improve the results' stability. The system has been implemented on a...

  20. The walking behaviour of pedestrian social groups and its impact on crowd dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Moussaid, Mehdi; Garnier, Simon; Helbing, Dirk; Theraulaz, Guy

    2010-01-01

    Human crowd motion is mainly driven by self-organized processes based on local interactions among pedestrians. While most studies of crowd behavior consider only interactions among isolated individuals, it turns out that up to 70% of people in a crowd are actually moving in groups, such as friends, couples, or families walking together. These groups constitute medium-scale aggregated structures and their impact on crowd dynamics is still largely unknown. In this work, we analyze the motion of approximately 1500 pedestrian groups under natural condition, and show that social interactions among group members generate typical group walking patterns that influence crowd dynamics. At low density, group members tend to walk side by side, forming a line perpendicular to the walking direction. As the density increases, however, the linear walking formation is bent forward, turning it into a V-like pattern. These spatial patterns can be well described by a model based on social communication between group members. We ...

  1. On the Hughes' model for pedestrian flow: The one-dimensional case

    KAUST Repository

    Di Francesco, Marco

    2011-02-01

    In this paper we investigate the mathematical theory of Hughes\\' model for the flow of pedestrians (cf. Hughes (2002) [17]), consisting of a non-linear conservation law for the density of pedestrians coupled with an eikonal equation for a potential modelling the common sense of the task. For such an approximated system we prove existence and uniqueness of entropy solutions (in one space dimension) in the sense of Kružkov (1970) [22], in which the boundary conditions are posed following the approach of Bardos et al. (1979) [7]. We use BV estimates on the density ρ and stability estimates on the potential Π in order to prove uniqueness. Furthermore, we analyze the evolution of characteristics for the original Hughes\\' model in one space dimension and study the behavior of simple solutions, in order to reproduce interesting phenomena related to the formation of shocks and rarefaction waves. The characteristic calculus is supported by numerical simulations. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

  2. Risk factors in road crossing among elderly pedestrians and readiness to adopt safe behavior in socio-economic comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, Tova; Sapir-Lavid, Yael; Perlman, Amotz

    2016-08-01

    This research examines the Health Promotion Behavior (HPB) models regarding elderly pedestrians' behaviors and attitudes. We studied cognitive-psychological variables, such as risk estimation, self-efficacy and demographic variables and compared elderly pedestrians' attitudes and behaviors in a city with higher socio-economic level (Tel Aviv) versus a city with low socio-economic level (Beer Sheva). We expected to find more problematic behaviors among elderly pedestrians in the low socio-economic city compared to the high socio-economic city, and also less feeling of self-efficacy, and lessened awareness of the risks, that leads to lessened willingness to adopt preventive behaviors. The research was conducted in two studies. The first study was based on observations on 2591 pedestrians in six similar crosswalks in both cities. It revealed that pedestrians in the high socio-economic city demonstrated safer road crossing patterns than in the low socio-economic city and that elderly pedestrians reveal safer crossing patterns than younger pedestrians. We found an interaction of location and age due to greater gap of safe behaviors of elderly and young pedestrians in the high socio-economic city than in the low socio-economic city. In Tel Aviv elderly adhere to the crossing rules much more than the young while in Beer Sheva elderly and young people are almost similar in their crossing patterns. The second study used questionnaires that have been completed by 143 elderly in both cities. The questionnaires referred to (a) demographic variables such as gender, age, marital status, education, socio-economic level, (b) variables related to the affiliation to the main culture such as migration, date of migration, knowledge in Hebrew (local language) and connectivity to media and (c) cognitive as well as psychological variables related to the decline to adopt healthy behaviors based on Schwarzer and Fuchs (1995). This part also indicated that elderly in Tel Aviv have higher

  3. Pedestrian Planning in City Centers: a Study of Guimarães and Braga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Rubayet Rahaman

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available People are walking in cities for different reasons. Some walkers walk for going to work, some are walking for shopping and some are for leisure during day and night hours. Medium sized cities like Braga and Guimarães in Portugal are depending on car for even shorter trips up to 2 kilometers. However, the walkways are allowing people to walk in convenient and safe way including late night environment. The pedestrians feel troublesome to walk on the footpaths because of illegal parking and discontinuation of walkways. Municipality transport plans and master plans do not incorporate pedestrians as a major component. But this egress mode of transportation is very important in medium sized city centers like Guimarães and Braga for the people to enjoy city centers’ activities. This paper focuses on the types of walkers who use the walkways on a regular basis. Usually, people are feeling comfortable to walk when they go to clubs and bars in a group in these small cities especially after work. This paper again tries to focus the varieties of problems on walkways and to present policies that can improve the situation. Municipal master plan and transportation plan have been studied carefully to see the provisions of pedestrian planning options. Field surveys have been conducted both in form of questionnaire and observation during the end of 2009 and results show different patterns of pedestrian behavior as well as evidence that people get different experiences with problems while walking on the walkways in both surveyed towns. Considering the issues of sustainable mobility, this paper also tries to suggest policies to motivate more people to walk especially in the medium-sized cities of Portugal.

  4. A flexible model for haptic-assisted pedestrian navigation mobile applications

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob, Ricky; MOONEY Peter; Corcoran, Padraig; Winstanley, Adam

    2011-01-01

    Pedestrian navigation applications, specifically for mobile devices, have received much research and development attention over the past decade or so with many different types of solutions developed (Kenteris et al.; 2011). The most common interface is a map-based interface with written and/or verbal turn-by-turn directions (possibly including landmark information). Haptic technology, or haptics, is a tactile feedback technology that takes advantage of our sense of touch by app...

  5. Real-world car-to-pedestrian-crash data from an urban centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthes Gerrit

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pedestrians are at a high risk for crash and injury. This study aims at comparing data from real world crashes with data gathered from experimental settings. Methods IMPAIR (In-Depth Medical Pedestrian Accident Investigation and Reconstruction was a prospective, observational study performed in a metropolitan area. Data was collected on-scene, from clinical records, and interviews. Data comprise crash data, details on injury pattern and injury severity. Results Thirty-seven pedestrians (of which 19 males with a mean 37.1 years of age were included in the study. The mean collision speed was 49.5 km/h (SD 13.7, range, 28 - 93. The mean ISS (31.0, SD 25.4 and the 24% fatality rate indicate a substantial trauma load. The most common AIS 4+ injuries were to the head (23 subjects, followed by chest (8, pelvis (4, and abdomen (2. An association of impact side and injury side (right/left was found for abdominal, chest, pelvic, and upper limb injuries. Primary head impacts were documented on the windscreen (19 subjects, hood (10, A-pillar (2, and edge of the car roof (2. With bivariate analysis, a significant increase of MAIS 4+ head injury risk was found for collision speeds of >40 km/h (OR 9.00, 95% CI 1.96-41.36. Conclusion The real-world data from this study is in agreement with previous findings from biomechanical models and other simulations. This data suggest that there may be reason to include further pedestrian regulations in EuroNCAP.

  6. A School-Hospital Partnership Increases Knowledge of Pedestrian and Motor Vehicle Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Shelby L; Arbogast, Helen; Ruiz, Pearl; Farag, Mina; Demeter, Natalie E; Upperman, Jeffrey S; Burke, Rita V

    2015-12-01

    Pedestrian and motor vehicle-related injuries are leading causes of morbidity and mortality in children. Trauma centers have specialized resources to conduct interventions that improve the safety of whole communities. In the present study, we evaluated the effectiveness of a school-hospital partnership in increasing knowledge of pedestrian and motor vehicle safety among students and parents in a large, urban community. Staff from a Level I pediatric trauma center conducted educational interventions in an urban public school district. Elementary school students participated in a pedestrian safety program, middle school students completed a community safety program, and high school students learned about the dangers of drunk and distracted driving. Students completed pre- and post-tests. Parents in the neighboring community received child passenger safety education at two child restraint (CR) inspection events. A total of 2203 students participated at a total of nine schools. Post-test scores were significantly higher than pre-test scores for students in all three age groups and within each grade level. At CR inspection events, 67 CRs were inspected, 49 (73 %) of which were replaced with new age- and weight- appropriate CRs. The most common instance of improper CR use was loose CR fit in vehicle seat (33 %). All 120 observed instances of misuse were corrected by a certified Child Passenger Safety Technician. Educational interventions effectively increased knowledge of pedestrian and motor vehicle safety among students and parents. We have demonstrated the utility of a school-hospital partnership for furthering knowledge of safety in an urban community. PMID:25925719

  7. Identifying and Tracking Pedestrians Based on Sensor Fusion and Motion Stability Predictions

    OpenAIRE

    Arturo de la Escalera; José Mª Armingol; Javier Otamendi; Fernando García; Basam Musleh

    2010-01-01

    The lack of trustworthy sensors makes development of Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) applications a tough task. It is necessary to develop intelligent systems by combining reliable sensors and real-time algorithms to send the proper, accurate messages to the drivers. In this article, an application to detect and predict the movement of pedestrians in order to prevent an imminent collision has been developed and tested under real conditions. The proposed application, first, accurately...

  8. Influence of the built environment on pedestrian route choices of adolescent girls

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Daniel A; Merlin, Louis; Prato, Carlo G.; Conway, Terry L.; Cohen, Deborah; Elder, John P.; Evenson, Kelly R.; McKenzie, Thomas L.; Pickrel, Julie L.; Veblen-Mortenson, Sara

    2014-01-01

    We examined the influence of the built environment on pedestrian route selection among adolescent girls. Portable global positioning system units, accelerometers, and travel diaries were used to identify the origin, destination, and walking routes of girls in San Diego, CA and Minneapolis, MN. We completed an inventory of the built environment on every street segment to measure the characteristics of routes taken and not taken. Route-level variables covering four key conceptual built environm...

  9. Predicting Pedestrian Flow: A Methodology and a Proof of Concept Based on Real-Life Data

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Davidich; Gerta Köster

    2013-01-01

    Building a reliable predictive model of pedestrian motion is very challenging: Ideally, such models should be based on observations made in both controlled experiments and in real-world environments. De facto, models are rarely based on real-world observations due to the lack of available data; instead, they are largely based on intuition and, at best, literature values and laboratory experiments. Such an approach is insufficient for reliable simulations of complex real-life scenarios: For in...

  10. Can simulator-based training improve street-crossing safety for elderly pedestrians ?

    OpenAIRE

    DOMMES, Aurélie; Cavallo, Viola

    2012-01-01

    Older adults are known to be over-involved in pedestrian fatalities. Past research has shown that many of them make unsafe decisions when vehicles are approaching at a high speed and also miss many crossing opportunities when vehicle speed is low. They seem to have trouble taking the speed of approaching cars into account and predominantly base their crossing decisions on vehicle distance. A randomized controlled design was employed here to evaluate the effectiveness of combined behavioural a...

  11. Steel fibre reinforced self-compacting concrete for lightweight and durable pedestrian bridges : creep behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, Pedro J. D.; Barros, Joaquim A. O.; Gonçalves, Delfina; Sena-Cruz, José

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, pedestrian bridges built from composites materials have notably increased. This growth is related to the durability problems of traditional materials, as well as the need for fastest construction times. In this context, fiber reinforced concrete (FRC) becomes an important material in this type of structures, since the ductility, high post-cracking tensile strength, high compressive stiffness and strength of FRC can be combined with the benefits derived from the use of FRP pro...

  12. Development of a pedestrian bridge with GFRP profiles and fibre reinforced self-compacting concrete deck

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Joaquim A. O.; Mendes, Pedro J. D.; Sena-Cruz, José; Taheri, Mahsa

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the number of pedestrian bridges built from composites materials has notably increased. The combination of fiber reinforced polymers (FRP) profiles with fiber reinforced concrete (FRC) elements is being adopted in this type of structures, since the ductility, high post-cracking tensile strength, compressive stiffness and strength of FRC can be combined with the benefits derived from the use of FRP’s profiles to obtain high performance structural systems. In the...

  13. Colour Constancy Techniques for Re-Recognition of Pedestrians from Multiple Surveillance Cameras

    OpenAIRE

    Colombo, Alberto; Orwell, James; Velastin, Sergio

    2008-01-01

    International audience This paper presents work towards a system for tracking the movements of a pedestrian as they move between the multiple sensors comprising a surveillance system. The colour appearance of the observations is an important cue: it is useful to achieve good color constancy between the color values associated with each camera. A novel method for estimating the appropriate transform between each camera's colour space is proposed, using covariance of the foreground data coll...

  14. Comparison between audio and tactile systems for delivering simple navigational information to visually impaired pedestrians

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafson-Pearce, O; Billett, EH; Cecelja, F

    2007-01-01

    Many of the current GPS (Global Positioning Systems) navigation aids use an audio method to deliver navigation information to the user. For the visually impaired person this method can be problematic. The visually impaired pedestrian relies heavily on information contained within the ambient sound environment; for location and orientation information, navigation information, and importantly, safety information. In this paper we present the design of an innovative tactile interface and verific...

  15. A sketch planning methodology for determining interventions for bicycle and pedestrian crashes: an ecological approach

    OpenAIRE

    Thakuriah, P.; Cottrill, C.; Thomas, N; Vaughn, S.

    2010-01-01

    Bicycle and pedestrian safety planning have recently been gaining increased attention. With this focus, however, comes increased responsibilities for planning agencies and organizations tasked with evaluating and selecting safety interventions, a potentially arduous task given limited staff and resources. This study presents a sketch planning framework based on ecological factors that attempts to provide an efficient and effective method of selecting appropriate intervention measures. A Chica...

  16. WLAN-Based Pedestrian Tracking Using Particle Filters and Low-Cost MEMS Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hui; Lenz, Henning; Szabo, Andrei; Bamberger, Joachim; Hanebeck, Uwe D.

    2007-01-01

    Indoor positioning systems based on Wireless LAN (WLAN) are being widely investigated in academia and industry. Meanwhile, the emerging low-cost MEMS sensors can also be used as another independent positioning source. In this paper, we propose a pedestrian tracking framework based on particle filters, which extends the typical WLAN-based indoor positioning systems by integrating low-cost MEMS accelerometer and map information. Our simulation and real world experiments indicate a remarkable pe...

  17. An Evaluation of the Pedestrian Classification in a Multi-Domain Multi-Modality Setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Miron

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to study the problem of pedestrian classification across different light spectrum domains (visible and far-infrared (FIR and modalities (intensity, depth and motion. In recent years, there has been a number of approaches for classifying and detecting pedestrians in both FIR and visible images, but the methods are difficult to compare, because either the datasets are not publicly available or they do not offer a comparison between the two domains. Our two primary contributions are the following: (1 we propose a public dataset, named RIFIR , containing both FIR and visible images collected in an urban environment from a moving vehicle during daytime; and (2 we compare the state-of-the-art features in a multi-modality setup: intensity, depth and flow, in far-infrared over visible domains. The experiments show that features families, intensity self-similarity (ISS, local binary patterns (LBP, local gradient patterns (LGP and histogram of oriented gradients (HOG, computed from FIR and visible domains are highly complementary, but their relative performance varies across different modalities. In our experiments, the FIR domain has proven superior to the visible one for the task of pedestrian classification, but the overall best results are obtained by a multi-domain multi-modality multi-feature fusion.

  18. The Walking Behaviour of Pedestrian Social Groups and Its Impact on Crowd Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussaïd, Mehdi; Perozo, Niriaska; Garnier, Simon; Helbing, Dirk; Theraulaz, Guy

    2010-01-01

    Human crowd motion is mainly driven by self-organized processes based on local interactions among pedestrians. While most studies of crowd behaviour consider only interactions among isolated individuals, it turns out that up to 70% of people in a crowd are actually moving in groups, such as friends, couples, or families walking together. These groups constitute medium-scale aggregated structures and their impact on crowd dynamics is still largely unknown. In this work, we analyze the motion of approximately 1500 pedestrian groups under natural condition, and show that social interactions among group members generate typical group walking patterns that influence crowd dynamics. At low density, group members tend to walk side by side, forming a line perpendicular to the walking direction. As the density increases, however, the linear walking formation is bent forward, turning it into a V-like pattern. These spatial patterns can be well described by a model based on social communication between group members. We show that the V-like walking pattern facilitates social interactions within the group, but reduces the flow because of its “non-aerodynamic” shape. Therefore, when crowd density increases, the group organization results from a trade-off between walking faster and facilitating social exchange. These insights demonstrate that crowd dynamics is not only determined by physical constraints induced by other pedestrians and the environment, but also significantly by communicative, social interactions among individuals. PMID:20383280

  19. Analyzing and modeling risk exposure of pedestrian children to involvement in car crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Wafa; Shiftan, Yoram

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the various variables affecting pedestrian children road crashes, placing emphasis on the effect of daily activity patterns and the built environment, including the children's residential neighborhoods and the land use of the places where they conduct their activities. Two complementary data sources from the case study of an Arab town in northern Israel were used to provide a holistic picture of child-pedestrian road crashes: police files providing detailed analyzes of the reason for each crash, its location, and the characteristics of the driver involved; and a survey of 199 households with both involved and not involved children in road crashes, including a one-day travel diary. The study found that a combination of three groups of variables affects child-pedestrian road crashes: socio-economic status, travel patterns, and land use. Most vulnerable are boys from a low socio-economic group who live in areas of high density and mixed land use near a major road and who tend to walk to and from school and additional activities after school. PMID:23915471

  20. Dynamic programming-based hot spot identification approach for pedestrian crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medury, Aditya; Grembek, Offer

    2016-08-01

    Network screening techniques are widely used by state agencies to identify locations with high collision concentration, also referred to as hot spots. However, most of the research in this regard has focused on identifying highway segments that are of concern to automobile collisions. In comparison, pedestrian hot spot detection has typically focused on analyzing pedestrian crashes in specific locations, such as at/near intersections, mid-blocks, and/or other crossings, as opposed to long stretches of roadway. In this context, the efficiency of the some of the widely used network screening methods has not been tested. Hence, in order to address this issue, a dynamic programming-based hot spot identification approach is proposed which provides efficient hot spot definitions for pedestrian crashes. The proposed approach is compared with the sliding window method and an intersection buffer-based approach. The results reveal that the dynamic programming method generates more hot spots with a higher number of crashes, while providing small hot spot segment lengths. In comparison, the sliding window method is shown to suffer from shortcomings due to a first-come-first-serve approach vis-à-vis hot spot identification and a fixed hot spot window length assumption. PMID:27209154

  1. An unusual pedestrian road trauma: from forensic pathology to forensic veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquila, Isabella; Di Nunzio, Ciro; Paciello, Orlando; Britti, Domenico; Pepe, Francesca; De Luca, Ester; Ricci, Pietrantonio

    2014-01-01

    Traffic accidents have increased in the last decade, pedestrians being the most affected group. At autopsy, it is evident that the most common cause of pedestrian death is central nervous system injury, followed by skull base fractures, internal bleeding, lower limb haemorrhage, skull vault fractures, cervical spinal cord injury and airway compromise. The attribution of accident responsibility can be realised through reconstruction of road accident dynamics, investigation of the scene, survey of the vehicle involved and examination of the victim(s). A case study concerning a car accident where both humans and pets were involved is reported here. Investigation and reconstruction of the crime scene were conducted by a team consisting of forensic pathologists and forensic veterinarians. At the scene investigation, the pedestrian and his dog were recovered on the side of the road. An autopsy and a necropsy were conducted on the man and the dog, respectively. In addition, a complete inspection of the sports utility vehicle (SUV) implicated in the road accident was conducted. The results of the autopsy and necropsy were compared and the information was used to reconstruct the collision. This unusual case was solved through the collaboration between forensic pathology and veterinary forensic medicine, emphasising the importance of this kind of co-operation to solve a crime scene concerning both humans and animals. PMID:24091032

  2. An Indoor Space Partition Method and its Fingerprint Positioning Optimization Considering Pedestrian Accessibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yue; Shi, Yong; Zheng, Xingyu; Long, Yi

    2016-06-01

    Fingerprint positioning method is generally the first choice in indoor navigation system due to its high accuracy and low cost. The accuracy depends on partition density to the indoor space. The accuracy will be higher with higher grid resolution. But the high grid resolution leads to significantly increasing work of the fingerprint data collection, processing and maintenance. This also might decrease the performance, portability and robustness of the navigation system. Meanwhile, traditional fingerprint positioning method use equational grid to partition the indoor space. While used for pedestrian navigation, sometimes a person can be located at the area where he or she cannot access. This paper studied these two issues, proposed a new indoor space partition method considering pedestrian accessibility, which can increase the accuracy of pedestrian position, and decrease the volume of the fingerprint data. Based on this proposed partition method, an optimized algorithm for fingerprint position was also designed. A across linker structure was used for fingerprint point index and matching. Experiment based on the proposed method and algorithm showed that the workload of fingerprint collection and maintenance were effectively decreased, and poisoning efficiency and accuracy was effectively increased

  3. Modeling pedestrian evacuation with guiders based on a multi-grid model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shuchao; Song, Weiguo; Lv, Wei

    2016-02-01

    Pedestrian evacuation with guidance is investigated by a multi-grid model in this paper. The effects of guider type, guider number, guider distribution and guidance strategy on evacuation are discussed. From the analysis of simulation results, it is found that the identified guiders are more beneficial to evacuation because they can be distinguished easily by pedestrians during evacuation; The optimal guider number exists in view of the human cost and can be obtained in our model; The uniform distribution of guiders covers more area in the room and makes evacuation efficient; Evacuation guidance is more effective when the speed of guider is about 75% of herding pedestrian's speed in our simulation scenario; The performance of evacuation guidance strategy considering both distance and occupant number is the best when compared to other strategies; The coordination and cooperation between guiders are very important and necessary to facilitate the evacuation. The study may be useful for understanding the importance of guidance in evacuation and developing efficient evacuation strategy for management under emergency.

  4. Drift Reduction in Pedestrian Navigation System by Exploiting Motion Constraints and Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ilyas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrian navigation systems (PNS using foot-mounted MEMS inertial sensors use zero-velocity updates (ZUPTs to reduce drift in navigation solutions and estimate inertial sensor errors. However, it is well known that ZUPTs cannot reduce all errors, especially as heading error is not observable. Hence, the position estimates tend to drift and even cyclic ZUPTs are applied in updated steps of the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF. This urges the use of other motion constraints for pedestrian gait and any other valuable heading reduction information that is available. In this paper, we exploit two more motion constraints scenarios of pedestrian gait: (1 walking along straight paths; (2 standing still for a long time. It is observed that these motion constraints (called “virtual sensor”, though considerably reducing drift in PNS, still need an absolute heading reference. One common absolute heading estimation sensor is the magnetometer, which senses the Earth’s magnetic field and, hence, the true heading angle can be calculated. However, magnetometers are susceptible to magnetic distortions, especially in indoor environments. In this work, an algorithm, called magnetic anomaly detection (MAD and compensation is designed by incorporating only healthy magnetometer data in the EKF updating step, to reduce drift in zero-velocity updated INS. Experiments are conducted in GPS-denied and magnetically distorted environments to validate the proposed algorithms.

  5. Effective Pedestrian Detection Using Center-symmetric Local Binary/Trinary Patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Yongbin; Hartley, Richard; Huang, Xinsheng

    2010-01-01

    Accurately detecting pedestrians in images plays a critically important role in many computer vision applications. Extraction of effective features is the key to this task. Promising features should be discriminative, robust to various variations and easy to compute. In this work, we present novel features, termed dense center-symmetric local binary patterns (CS-LBP) and pyramid center-symmetric local binary$/$ternary patterns (CS-LBP/LTP), for pedestrian detection. The standard LBP proposed by Ojala et al.~\\cite{c4} mainly captures the texture information. The proposed CS-LBP feature, in contrast, captures the gradient information and some texture information. Moreover, the proposed dense CS-LBP and the pyramid CS-LBP/LTP are easy to implement and computationally efficient, which is desirable for real-time applications. Experiments on the INRIA pedestrian dataset show that the dense CS-LBP feature with linear supporct vector machines (SVMs) is comparable with the histograms of oriented gradients (HOG) featur...

  6. The walking behaviour of pedestrian social groups and its impact on crowd dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Moussaïd

    Full Text Available Human crowd motion is mainly driven by self-organized processes based on local interactions among pedestrians. While most studies of crowd behaviour consider only interactions among isolated individuals, it turns out that up to 70% of people in a crowd are actually moving in groups, such as friends, couples, or families walking together. These groups constitute medium-scale aggregated structures and their impact on crowd dynamics is still largely unknown. In this work, we analyze the motion of approximately 1500 pedestrian groups under natural condition, and show that social interactions among group members generate typical group walking patterns that influence crowd dynamics. At low density, group members tend to walk side by side, forming a line perpendicular to the walking direction. As the density increases, however, the linear walking formation is bent forward, turning it into a V-like pattern. These spatial patterns can be well described by a model based on social communication between group members. We show that the V-like walking pattern facilitates social interactions within the group, but reduces the flow because of its "non-aerodynamic" shape. Therefore, when crowd density increases, the group organization results from a trade-off between walking faster and facilitating social exchange. These insights demonstrate that crowd dynamics is not only determined by physical constraints induced by other pedestrians and the environment, but also significantly by communicative, social interactions among individuals.

  7. Road traffic fatalities among pedestrians, bicyclists and mo-tor vehicle occupants in Sirjan, Kerman, Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ghorbanali Mohammadi

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the crash and injury data in forensic medicine for years of 2004-2007. Methods: A sample of over 567 accident cases (9 pedestrians, 116 bicyclists, and 442 motor vehicle occupants) was considered from the Department of Foren-sic Medicine, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, in-volving drivers of all ages and covering a four-year period.Results: The male fatality rates were significantly higher than female ones. The groups at 15-30 years old and at 30-55 years old had the first and second highest numbers of deaths (40% and 34%, respectively). There were sub-stantial differences in distribution of injuries in motor ve-hicle occupants and pedestrians and bicyclists. Among motor vehicle occupants, there were more head injuries, such as skull fracture, brain contusion, subdural haemorrhage, and epidural haemorrhage. Nearly 77% of fatalities occurred during 08:00-22:00 in Sirjan. Internal bleeding was also higher in motor vehicle occupants. Pedestrians and bicyclists also had head injuries frequently.Conclusions: In spite of reduction of road traffic fatali-ties in Sirjan in 2007, it is still one of the cities with high road traffic fatality in the world. These results underline the im-portance of preventive strategies in transportation, sug-gesting that different methods are necessary to reduce fa-talities of various traffic participants.

  8. Integrated assessment of pedestrian head impact protection in testing secondary safety and autonomous emergency braking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searson, D J; Anderson, R W G; Hutchinson, T P

    2014-02-01

    Pedestrian impact testing is used to provide information to the public about the relative level of protection provided by different vehicles to a struck pedestrian. Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB) is a relatively new technology that aims to reduce the impact speed of such crashes. It is expected that vehicles with AEB will pose less harm to pedestrians, and that the benefit will come about through reductions in the number of collisions and a change in the severity of impacts that will still occur. In this paper, an integration of the assessment of AEB performance and impact performance is proposed based on average injury risk. Average injury risk is calculated using the result of an impact test and a previously published distribution of real world crash speeds. A second published speed distribution is used that accounts for the effects of AEB, and reduced average risks are implied. This principle allows the effects of AEB systems and secondary safety performance to be integrated into a single measure of safety. The results are used to examine the effect of AEB on Euro NCAP and ANCAP assessments using previously published results on the likely effect of AEB. The results show that, given certain assumptions about AEB performance, the addition of AEB is approximately the equivalent of increasing Euro NCAP test performance by one band, which corresponds to an increase in the score of 25% of the maximum. PMID:24246294

  9. The role of Body Mass Index in child pedestrian injury risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Elizabeth E; Plumert, Jodie M; McClure, Leslie A; Schwebel, David C

    2016-05-01

    The goal of the current investigation was to examine obesity as a potential risk factor for childhood pedestrian injury. A racially diverse sample of 7- and 8-year-old children completed a road-crossing task in a semi-immersive virtual environment and two pedestrian route selection tasks. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that children with a higher Body Mass Index (BMI) waited less before crossing, had a smaller temporal buffer between themselves and oncoming traffic while crossing, and had more collisions with traffic. Girls were more cautious than boys when crossing the virtual roadway. Unlike the results from the virtual road-crossing task, BMI was not associated with risky route selection. Instead, race emerged as the strongest predictor, with African-American children selecting riskier routes for crossing. Together, these findings suggest overweight and obese children may be at increased risk for pedestrian injury. The discussion considers explanations for why obese children may exhibit riskier road-crossing behavior. PMID:26890078

  10. 32 CFR 636.26 - Pedestrian's rights and duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... into the path of a vehicle which is so close to the crosswalk that it is impractical for the driver to... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort... signals are not in place or not in operation, the driver of a vehicle will yield the right of way,...

  11. Pedestrian road traffic injuries in urban Peruvian children and adolescents: case control analyses of personal and environmental risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Donroe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Child pedestrian road traffic injuries (RTIs are an important cause of death and disability in poorer nations, however RTI prevention strategies in those countries largely draw upon studies conducted in wealthier countries. This research investigated personal and environmental risk factors for child pedestrian RTIs relevant to an urban, developing world setting. METHODS: This is a case control study of personal and environmental risk factors for child pedestrian RTIs in San Juan de Miraflores, Lima, Perú. The analysis of personal risk factors included 100 cases of serious pedestrian RTIs and 200 age and gender matched controls. Demographic, socioeconomic, and injury data were collected. The environmental risk factor study evaluated vehicle and pedestrian movement and infrastructure at the sites in which 40 of the above case RTIs occurred and 80 control sites. FINDINGS: After adjustment, factors associated with increased risk of child pedestrian RTIs included high vehicle volume (OR 7.88, 95%CI 1.97-31.52, absent lane demarcations (OR 6.59, 95% CI 1.65-26.26, high vehicle speed (OR 5.35, 95%CI 1.55-18.54, high street vendor density (OR 1.25, 95%CI 1.01-1.55, and more children living in the home (OR 1.25, 95%CI 1.00-1.56. Protective factors included more hours/day spent in school (OR 0.52, 95%CI 0.33-0.82 and years of family residence in the same home (OR 0.97, 95%CI 0.95-0.99. CONCLUSION: Reducing traffic volumes and speeds, limiting the number of street vendors on a given stretch of road, and improving lane demarcation should be evaluated as components of child pedestrian RTI interventions in poorer countries.

  12. A framework for experimental determination of localised vertical pedestrian forces on full-scale structures using wireless attitude and heading reference systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocian, M.; Brownjohn, J. M. W.; Racic, V.; Hester, D.; Quattrone, A.; Monnickendam, R.

    2016-08-01

    A major weakness among loading models for pedestrians walking on flexible structures proposed in recent years is the various uncorroborated assumptions made in their development. This applies to spatio-temporal characteristics of pedestrian loading and the nature of multi-object interactions. To alleviate this problem, a framework for the determination of localised pedestrian forces on full-scale structures is presented using a wireless attitude and heading reference systems (AHRS). An AHRS comprises a triad of tri-axial accelerometers, gyroscopes and magnetometers managed by a dedicated data processing unit, allowing motion in three-dimensional space to be reconstructed. A pedestrian loading model based on a single point inertial measurement from an AHRS is derived and shown to perform well against benchmark data collected on an instrumented treadmill. Unlike other models, the current model does not take any predefined form nor does it require any extrapolations as to the timing and amplitude of pedestrian loading. In order to assess correctly the influence of the moving pedestrian on behaviour of a structure, an algorithm for tracking the point of application of pedestrian force is developed based on data from a single AHRS attached to a foot. A set of controlled walking tests with a single pedestrian is conducted on a real footbridge for validation purposes. A remarkably good match between the measured and simulated bridge response is found, indeed confirming applicability of the proposed framework.

  13. AN ANALYTICAL APPROACH TO GENERATE UNIQUE SONG SIGNAL (AUSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uttam Kr. Mondal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Embedding uniqueness in characteristics of song signal and accustoming changes of environment is one of the challenging issues for researchers with maintaining its audible quality. Researchers are modifying or manipulating audio signal properties for generating uniqueness in content such a manner that will not vary so much in changed environment or changes can be easily defined due to unique structure of song signal. In this paper, an approach has been made based on defining a symmetric structure of song signal, followed by some secret code embedding in a specified manner will not alter the trade off ratio of embedding/modifying data but provide uniqueness in properties, even retain the properties in changing environment/ format. Therefore, authentication of song signal is easily achieved with these self manipulated properties. A comparative study has been made with similar existing techniques and experimental results are also supported with mathematical formula based on Microsoft WAVE (".wav" stereo sound file.

  14. Calculation features of traffic light regulation regimesat the signal group control

    OpenAIRE

    Єресов, Володимир Іванович; Трушевський, Вячеслав Едуардович

    2014-01-01

    The differences between the existing technologies of traffic light control by phases and signal groups were determined in the paper. It was proved that the signal group control technology is more perfect and to a greater extent corresponds to the changing traffic conditions at intersections. Approach for compiling the traffic light regulation cycle structure based on the analysis of conflict of traffic and pedestrian flows, taking into account traffic volume, the number of road accidents in t...

  15. Correlation dimension of collective versus individual pedestrian movement patterns in crowd-quakes: A case-study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Liping; Song, Weiguo; Ma, Jian; Telesca, Luciano

    2016-06-01

    Video recording right before the Love Parade, Duisburg (Germany) crowd-quake, occurred on 24 July 2010, has been analysed in order to investigate the spatial properties of the crowd (collective case) and those of the single pedestrians in the crowd (individual case). The Grassberger-Procaccia correlation dimension, well known to be able to distinguish patterns in spatial point processes, was used. Our results for this case-study reveal that crowd and single pedestrians are characterized by different spatial behaviour: the whole crowd behaves as a quasi-homogeneous spatial point process through time, with an averaged correlation dimension of about 1.92; while the single pedestrians show a quite large variation of correlation dimensions indicating different spatial patterns, ranging from clustered to quasi-homogeneous.

  16. Influence of selfish and polite behaviours on a pedestrian evacuation through a narrow exit: A quantitative characterisation

    CERN Document Server

    Nicolas, Alexandre; Kuperman, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    We study the influence of selfish vs. polite behaviours on the dynamics of a pedestrian evacuation through a narrow exit. To this end, experiments involving about 80 participants with distinct prescribed behaviours are performed; reinjection of participants into the setup allowed us to improve the statistics. Notwithstanding the fluctuations in the instantaneous flow rate, we find that a stationary regime is almost immediately reached. The average flow rate increases monotonically with the fraction c\\_s of vying (selfish) pedestrians, which corresponds to a "faster-is-faster" effect in our experimental conditions; it is also positively correlated with the average density of pedestrians in front of the door, up to nearly close-packing. At large c\\_s , the flow displays marked intermittency, with bursts of quasi-simultaneous escapes. In addition to these findings, we wonder whether the effect of cooperation is specific to systems of intelligent beings, or whether it can be reproduced by a purely mechanical surr...

  17. The application of computational fluid dynamics to pedestrian level wind safety problem induced by high-rise buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Lei; Hu Fei; Cheng Xue-Ling; Han Hao-Yu

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the pedestrian level wind safety problem induced by high-rise buildings has been studied using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes Fluent. The verification by use of wind tunnel data shows that Fluent can fairly reproduce the flow field in the areas adjacent to the structure when a realizable k-ε turbulence model is adopted in calculations. The results of the numerical simulations including seven cases show that the existence of high-rise buildings does increase the wind hazard probability at the pedestrian level; furthermore, the wind direction, the geometric size of structures and the layout of structures can obviously affect the pedestrian level wind environment. However, trees on the pavement do not contribute much in reducing the wind hazard probability.

  18. Totally asymmetric simple exclusion process with a time-dependent boundary: interaction between vehicles and pedestrians at intersections

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Hidetaka

    2014-01-01

    Interaction between vehicles and pedestrians is seen in many areas such as crosswalks and intersections. In this paper, we study a totally asymmetric simple exclusion process with a bottleneck at a boundary caused by an interaction. Due to the time-dependent effect originating from the speed of pedestrians, the flow of the model varies even if the average hopping probability at the last site is the same. We analyze the phenomenon by using two types of approximations: (2+1)-cluster approximation and isolated rarefaction wave approximation. The approximate results capture intriguing features of the model. Moreover, we discuss the situation where vehicles turn right at the intersection by adding a traffic light at the boundary condition. The result suggests that pedestrian scrambles are valid to eliminate traffic congestion in the right turn lane.

  19. Totally asymmetric simple exclusion process with a time-dependent boundary: Interaction between vehicles and pedestrians at intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hidetaka; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2014-04-01

    Interaction between vehicles and pedestrians is seen in many areas such as crosswalks and intersections. In this paper, we study a totally asymmetric simple exclusion process with a bottleneck at a boundary caused by an interaction. Due to the time-dependent effect originating from the speed of pedestrians, the flow of the model varies even if the average hopping probability at the last site is the same. We analyze the phenomenon by using two types of approximations: extended two-cluster approximation and isolated rarefaction wave approximation. The approximate results capture intriguing features of the model. Moreover, we discuss the situation where vehicles turn right at the intersection by adding a traffic light at the boundary condition. The result suggests that pedestrian scrambles are valid to eliminate traffic congestion in the right-turn lane.

  20. Proposing a Multi-Criteria Path Optimization Method in Order to Provide a Ubiquitous Pedestrian Wayfinding Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahelgozin, M.; Sadeghi-Niaraki, A.; Dareshiri, S.

    2015-12-01

    A myriad of novel applications have emerged nowadays for different types of navigation systems. One of their most frequent applications is Wayfinding. Since there are significant differences between the nature of the pedestrian wayfinding problems and of those of the vehicles, navigation services which are designed for vehicles are not appropriate for pedestrian wayfinding purposes. In addition, diversity in environmental conditions of the users and in their preferences affects the process of pedestrian wayfinding with mobile devices. Therefore, a method is necessary that performs an intelligent pedestrian routing with regard to this diversity. This intelligence can be achieved by the help of a Ubiquitous service that is adapted to the Contexts. Such a service possesses both the Context-Awareness and the User-Awareness capabilities. These capabilities are the main features of the ubiquitous services that make them flexible in response to any user in any situation. In this paper, it is attempted to propose a multi-criteria path optimization method that provides a Ubiquitous Pedestrian Way Finding Service (UPWFS). The proposed method considers four criteria that are summarized in Length, Safety, Difficulty and Attraction of the path. A conceptual framework is proposed to show the influencing factors that have effects on the criteria. Then, a mathematical model is developed on which the proposed path optimization method is based. Finally, data of a local district in Tehran is chosen as the case study in order to evaluate performance of the proposed method in real situations. Results of the study shows that the proposed method was successful to understand effects of the contexts in the wayfinding procedure. This demonstrates efficiency of the proposed method in providing a ubiquitous pedestrian wayfinding service.

  1. Safety impacts of platform tram stops on pedestrians in mixed traffic operation: A comparison group before-after crash study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naznin, Farhana; Currie, Graham; Logan, David; Sarvi, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Tram stops in mixed traffic environments present a variety of safety, accessibility and transport efficiency challenges. In Melbourne, Australia the hundred year-old electric tram system is progressively being modernized to improve passenger accessibility. Platform stops, incorporating raised platforms for level entry into low floor trams, are being retro-fitted system-wide to replace older design stops. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety impacts of platform stops over older design stops (i.e. Melbourne safety zone tram stops) on pedestrians in the context of mixed traffic tram operation in Melbourne, using an advanced before-after crash analysis approach, the comparison group (CG) method. The CG method evaluates safety impacts by taking into account the general trends in safety and the unobserved factors at treatment and comparison sites that can alter the outcomes of a simple before-after analysis. The results showed that pedestrian-involved all injury crashes reduced by 43% after platform stop installation. This paper also explores a concern that the conventional CG method might underestimate safety impacts as a result of large differences in passenger stop use between treatment and comparison sites, suggesting differences in crash risk exposure. To adjust for this, a modified analysis explored crash rates (crash counts per 10,000 stop passengers) for each site. The adjusted results suggested greater reductions in pedestrian-involved crashes after platform stop installation: an 81% reduction in pedestrian-involved all injury crashes and 86% reduction in pedestrian-involved FSI crashes, both are significant at the 95% level. Overall, the results suggest that platform stops have considerable safety benefits for pedestrians. Implications for policy and areas for future research are explored. PMID:26476596

  2. Experimentally fitted biodynamic models for pedestrian-structure interaction in walking situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toso, Marcelo André; Gomes, Herbert Martins; da Silva, Felipe Tavares; Pimentel, Roberto Leal

    2016-05-01

    The interaction between moving humans and structures usually occurs in slender structures in which the level of vibration is potentially high. Furthermore, there is the addition of mass to the structural system due to the presence of people and an increase in damping due to the human body´s ability to absorb vibrational energy. In this paper, a test campaign is presented to obtain parameters for a single degree of freedom (SDOF) biodynamic model that represents the action of a walking pedestrian in the vertical direction. The parameters of this model are the mass (m), damping (c) and stiffness (k). The measurements were performed on a force platform, and the inputs were the spectral acceleration amplitudes of the first three harmonics at the waist level of the test subjects and the corresponding amplitudes of the first three harmonics of the vertical ground reaction force. This leads to a system of nonlinear equations that is solved using a gradient-based optimization algorithm. A set of individuals took part in the tests to ensure inter-subject variability, and, regression expressions and an artificial neural network (ANN) were used to relate the biodynamic parameters to the pacing rate and the body mass of the pedestrians. The results showed some scatter in damping and stiffness that could not be precisely correlated with the masses and pacing rates of the subjects. The use of the ANN resulted in significant improvements in the parameter expressions with a low uncertainty. Finally, the measured vertical accelerations on a prototype footbridge show the adequacy of the numerical model for the representation of the effects of walking pedestrians on a structure. The results are consistent for many crowd densities.

  3. Long-time stability of shape memory actuators for pedestrian safety system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Strittmatter

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Pedestrian safety systems play an increasing significant role to reduce injuries and fatal casualties caused by accidents. One automotive safety system for pedestrian protection is the bonnet lifting system. Using shape memory alloys (SMA the existing systems could be simplified, performing the same function through new mechanisms with reduced size, weight and costs. A drawback for the use of SMA in such safety systems is the lack of material knowledge concerning the durability of the switching function. This paper gives an introduction to existing bonnet lifting systems for pedestrian protection, describes the use of quick changing SM actuators and presents the testing facilities and some results of the study concerning the long-time stability of the tested NiTi-wires.Design/methodology/approach: A large number of NiTi-wires was trained, exposed up to four years at elevated temperatures and tested regarding their phase change temperatures, times and strokes.Findings: It was found out that Ap-temperature is shifted towards higher temperatures with longer exposing periods and higher temperatures. However, in the functional testing plant a delay in the switching time could not be detected.Research limitations/implications: For future works it is suggested that more NiTi-specimens at longer ageing periods should be tested, stress should also be applied by a constant load and the functional testing plant should be further optimized.Practical implications: It can be concluded, that the use of quick changing SM actuators in safety systems could simplify the mechanism, reduce maintenance and manufacture cost and should be insertable also for other automotive applications.Originality/value: This paper gives some answers concerning the long-time stability of NiTi-wires that were missing till now. With this knowledge the number of future automotive applications using SMA can be increased.

  4. Simulation of Human-induced Vibrations Based on the Characterized In-field Pedestrian Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nimmen, Katrien; Lombaert, Geert; De Roeck, Guido; Van den Broeck, Peter

    2016-01-01

    For slender and lightweight structures, vibration serviceability is a matter of growing concern, often constituting the critical design requirement. With designs governed by the dynamic performance under human-induced loads, a strong demand exists for the verification and refinement of currently available load models. The present contribution uses a 3D inertial motion tracking technique for the characterization of the in-field pedestrian behavior. The technique is first tested in laboratory experiments with simultaneous registration of the corresponding ground reaction forces. The experiments include walking persons as well as rhythmical human activities such as jumping and bobbing. It is shown that the registered motion allows for the identification of the time variant pacing rate of the activity. Together with the weight of the person and the application of generalized force models available in literature, the identified time-variant pacing rate allows to characterize the human-induced loads. In addition, time synchronization among the wireless motion trackers allows identifying the synchronization rate among the participants. Subsequently, the technique is used on a real footbridge where both the motion of the persons and the induced structural vibrations are registered. It is shown how the characterized in-field pedestrian behavior can be applied to simulate the induced structural response. It is demonstrated that the in situ identified pacing rate and synchronization rate constitute an essential input for the simulation and verification of the human-induced loads. The main potential applications of the proposed methodology are the estimation of human-structure interaction phenomena and the development of suitable models for the correlation among pedestrians in real traffic conditions. PMID:27167309

  5. Managing sidewalk pavement maintenance: A case study to increase pedestrian safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vittoria Corazza

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Comfort is a major requirement in planning pedestrian facilities. Pedestrians walk where they feel comfortable and when they do not feel at ease, they walk elsewhere. A typical example is that filthy, distressed, or too narrow sidewalks induce pedestrians to walk on carriageways. This behaviour jeopardizes road safety and highly dangerous to most users, leave them vulnerable. Unsuitable pavements can be the result of irregular maintenance operations to restore evenness after shock damage, weather phenomena, installation of equipment (e.g., posts, fences, urban furniture with a reduction of walkable surface, or substandard repair work on pavements and patches due to emergency operations. These problems can be solved with an appropriate maintenance management system, which optimizes financial resources to make smart decisions about how to intervene with an adequate and lasting maintenance operation. This paper defines an evaluation index for sidewalk conditions as a part of an efficient set-up of a Sidewalk Management System, which is similar to the better known Road Management System. The study relies on surveys, as well as the classification and analysis of sidewalk distresses. The authors adapted an index already standardized by ASTM for roads and airports: the Pavement Condition Index (PCI. PCI has been modified to consider the specific types on the sidewalks studied within this paper. To validate the method, a case study of a residential district in Rome, Italy, was carried out. The chosen area lacks regular maintenance and has therefore resulted in a network of unsafe sidewalks. Frequent detour routes were surveyed and related to the level of distresses within a general assessment of safety. This study concentrates on sidewalks with flexible pavements because this type of pavement is the only one adopted in the survey areas and, in general, throughout Italy.

  6. The Comparison Of Characteristics Among Injured Pedestrians And Car Occupants (Tehran, 1996-97

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohaghegh M H

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is to verify mortality rate, cause of death, severity of injury (ISS,GCS, patient fate in hospital, pattern of specific organ injuries and some other characteristics among injured pedestrians and car occupants referred to three trauma centers in Tehran (Sina hospital, Shohada Tajrich hospital, Fayazbakhsh hospital from May 1996 until May 1997."nMaterials and Methods: 57367 patients were admitted to emergency department of these centers among which, 6027 victims of motor-vehicle accidents were included in this study."nResults: 71% of cases were pedestrians and rest was car occupants. M/F ratio was 1.8/5. Mean age was 29y. Motor vehicle accidents occurred most commonly during nights. The patients' GCS at arrival in emergency department had similar distribution in both groups. The most commonly injured organs in both groups were: integument, head and neck, extremities and bony pelvis. Thoracic and spinal injuries were more common among car occupants. Extremities and boney pelvis injuries were more common among pedestrians. The mortality rate was the same between both groups. Mortality rate was affected by GCS at arrival and severity of injury. Mortality rate among the old was 4 times the rate among the children. The accidents most commonly occurred on metropolitan roads and streets. The most common cause of death between both groups was head injury. Surprisingly head injury was a more common cause of death among the car occupants."nConclusion: Pattern of specific organ injuries was different form the pattern in previous studies as the pattern was virtually the same between both groups except for spinal and thoracic injuries were more common among the car occupants.

  7. Ici, la priorité est aux piétons / Pedestrians have the right of way at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Au CERN, nous sommes tous piétons, très souvent automobilistes et parfois cyclistes. Mais peu importe notre moyen de locomotion si l'on reste vigilant et si l'on se rappelle que le piéton est un usager de la route à part entière, mais plus vulnérable. / At CERN, we are all pedestrians, often drivers, and occasionally cyclists. But our means of locomotion do no matter so long as we exercise caution and remember that a pedestrian has equal rights as a roa user, except than that he runs greater risks.

  8. Equation-Free Analysis of Macroscopic Behavior in Traffic and Pedestrian Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marschler, Christian; Sieber, Jan; Hjorth, Poul G.;

    2014-01-01

    Equation-free methods make possible an analysis of the evolution of a few coarse-grained or macroscopic quantities for a detailed and realistic model with a large number of fine-grained or microscopic variables, even though no equations are explicitly given on the macroscopic level. This will...... facilitate a study of how the model behavior depends on parameter values including an understanding of transitions between different types of qualitative behavior. These methods are introduced and explained for traffic jam formation and emergence of oscillatory pedestrian counter flow in a corridor with a...

  9. Height Compensation Using Ground Inclination Estimation in Inertial Sensor-Based Pedestrian Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Kyeong Park

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In an inertial sensor-based pedestrian navigation system, the position is estimated by double integrating external acceleration. A new algorithm is proposed to reduce z axis position (height error. When a foot is on the ground, a foot angle is estimated using accelerometer output. Using a foot angle, the inclination angle of a road is estimated. Using this road inclination angle, height difference of one walking step is estimated and this estimation is used to reduce height error. Through walking experiments on roads with different inclination angles, the usefulness of the proposed algorithm is verified.

  10. Pedestrian navigation algorithm based on MIMU with building heading/magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiang-bin; Pan, Xian-fei; Chen, Chang-hao; Hu, Xiao-ping

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the accuracy of the low-cost MIMU Inertial navigation system in the application of pedestrian navigation.And to reduce the effect of the heading error because of the low accuracy of the component of MIMU. A novel algorithm was put forward, which fusing the building heading constraint information and the magnetic heading information to achieve more advantages. We analysed the application condition and the modified effect of building heading and magnetic heading. Then experiments were conducted in indoor environment. The results show that the algorithm proposed has a better effect to restrict the heading drift problem and to achieve a higher navigation precision.

  11. Does Pedestrian Danger Mediate the Relationship between Local Walkability and Active Travel to Work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandy J Slater

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Environmental and policy factors play an important role in influencing people’s lifestyles, physical activity (PA, and risks for developing obesity. Research suggests that more walkable communities are needed to sustain lifelong PA behavior, but there is a need to determine what local built environment features facilitate making being active the easy choice.Purpose: This county-level study examined the association between local walkability (walkability and traffic calming scales, pedestrian danger, and the percent of adults who used active transport to work. Methods: Built environment and PA outcome measures were constructed for the 496 most populous counties representing 74 percent of the U.S. population. GIS-based walkability scales were constructed and include a census of roads located within the counties using 2011 Navteq data. The pedestrian danger index (PDI includes data collected from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System 2009-2011, and measures the likelihood of a pedestrian being hit and killed by a vehicle. Four continuous outcome measures were constructed using 2009-2013 American Community Survey county-level 5-year estimates. The measures represent the percentage of workers living in a county who worked away from home and: 1 walked to work; 2 biked to work; 3 took public transit; and 4 used any form of active transport. Linear regression and mediation analyses were conducted to examine the association between walkability, PDI and active transport. Models accounted for clustering within state with robust standard errors, and controlled for median household income, families with children in poverty, race, ethnicity, urbanicity and region.Results: The walkability scale was significantly negatively associated with the PDI (β=-0.06, 95% CI=-0.111, -0.002. In all models, the PDI was significantly negatively associated with all active travel-related outcomes at the p<0.01 level. The walkability scale was positively

  12. Simulation of Intersection Rivet at Non-signalized Intersection in Housing Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazmi, Mohd; Takaba, Sadao; Ohno, Sumio; Yusoff, Mohd Nazaruddin

    Accident in the residential area are become serious case in Malaysia. Most of the incidents occur among pedestrians, bicycles, motorcycles and vehicles. Our research purpose is to avoid collision at the non-signalized intersection in the housing scheme. We committed to reduce injuries and increase pedestrians' safety. Our research provides important information that can help driver predict common problems and take steps to prevent collisions. Intersection rivet is proposed for this matter. This type of signal system can prevent any accident in a dangerous non-signalized intersection. Simulation tools and systems are developed to find and solve the problem in order to decrease any fatal incident. Investigation data were used to simulate the situation more precisely. The result will be effective as reference to set the parameter of control system of the intersection rivet.

  13. Towards direct realisation of the SI unit of sound pressure in the audible hearing range based on optical free-field acoustic particle measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the introduction of the International System of Units (the SI system) in 1960, weights, measures, standardised approaches, procedures, and protocols have been introduced, adapted, and extensively used. A major international effort and activity concentrate on the definition and traceability of the seven base SI units in terms of fundamental constants, and consequently those units that are derived from the base units. In airborne acoustical metrology and for the audible range of frequencies up to 20 kHz, the SI unit of sound pressure, the pascal, is realised indirectly and without any knowledge or measurement of the sound field. Though the principle of reciprocity was originally formulated by Lord Rayleigh nearly two centuries ago, it was devised in the 1940s and eventually became a calibration standard in the 1960s; however, it can only accommodate a limited number of acoustic sensors of specific types and dimensions. International standards determine the device sensitivity either through coupler or through free-field reciprocity but rely on the continuous availability of specific acoustical artefacts. Here, we show an optical method based on gated photon correlation spectroscopy that can measure sound pressures directly and absolutely in fully anechoic conditions, remotely, and without disturbing the propagating sound field. It neither relies on the availability or performance of any measurement artefact nor makes any assumptions of the device geometry and sound field characteristics. Most importantly, the required units of sound pressure and microphone sensitivity may now be experimentally realised, thus providing direct traceability to SI base units

  14. Towards direct realisation of the SI unit of sound pressure in the audible hearing range based on optical free-field acoustic particle measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koukoulas, Triantafillos, E-mail: triantafillos.koukoulas@npl.co.uk; Piper, Ben [Acoustics Group, National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington, Middlesex TW11 0LW (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-20

    Since the introduction of the International System of Units (the SI system) in 1960, weights, measures, standardised approaches, procedures, and protocols have been introduced, adapted, and extensively used. A major international effort and activity concentrate on the definition and traceability of the seven base SI units in terms of fundamental constants, and consequently those units that are derived from the base units. In airborne acoustical metrology and for the audible range of frequencies up to 20 kHz, the SI unit of sound pressure, the pascal, is realised indirectly and without any knowledge or measurement of the sound field. Though the principle of reciprocity was originally formulated by Lord Rayleigh nearly two centuries ago, it was devised in the 1940s and eventually became a calibration standard in the 1960s; however, it can only accommodate a limited number of acoustic sensors of specific types and dimensions. International standards determine the device sensitivity either through coupler or through free-field reciprocity but rely on the continuous availability of specific acoustical artefacts. Here, we show an optical method based on gated photon correlation spectroscopy that can measure sound pressures directly and absolutely in fully anechoic conditions, remotely, and without disturbing the propagating sound field. It neither relies on the availability or performance of any measurement artefact nor makes any assumptions of the device geometry and sound field characteristics. Most importantly, the required units of sound pressure and microphone sensitivity may now be experimentally realised, thus providing direct traceability to SI base units.

  15. Thermal human biometeorological conditions and subjective thermal sensation in pedestrian streets in Chengdu, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, YuLang; Dong, Liang

    2015-01-01

    The outdoor thermal environment of a public space is highly relevant to the thermal perception of individuals, thereby affecting the use of space. This study aims to connect thermal human biometeorological conditions and subjective thermal sensation in hot and humid regions and to find its influence on street use. We performed a thermal comfort survey at three locations in a pedestrian precinct of Chengdu, China. Meteorological measurements and questionnaire surveys were used to assess the thermal sensation of respondents. The number of people visiting the streets was counted. Meanwhile, mean radiant temperature ( T mrt) and the physiological equivalent temperature (PET) index were used to evaluate the thermal environment. Analytical results reveal that weather and street design drive the trend of diurnal micrometeorological conditions of the street. With the same geometry and orientation, a street with no trees had wider ranges of meteorological parameters and a longer period of discomfort. The neutral temperature in Chengdu (24.4 °C PET) is similar to that in Taiwan, demonstrating substantial human tolerance to hot conditions in hot and humid regions. Visitors' thermal sensation votes showed the strongest positive relationships with air temperature. Overall comfort level was strongly related to every corresponding meteorological parameter, indicating the complexity of people's comfort in outdoor environments. In major alleys with multiple functions, the number of people in the street decreased as thermal indices increased; T mrt and PET had significant negative correlations with the number of people. This study aids in understanding pedestrian street use in hot and humid regions.

  16. Standard guide for in-plant performance evaluation of automatic pedestrian SNM monitors

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1997-01-01

    1.1 This guide is affiliated with Guide C1112 on special nuclear material (SNM) monitors, Guide C1169 on laboratory performance evaluation, and Guide C1189 on calibrating pedestrian SNM monitors. This guide to in-plant performance evaluation is a comparatively rapid way to verify whether a pedestrian SNM monitor performs as expected for detecting SNM or SNM-like test sources. 1.1.1 In-plant performance evaluation should not be confused with the simple daily functional test recommended in Guide C1112. In-plant performance evaluation takes place less often than daily tests, usually at intervals ranging from weekly to once every three months. In-plant evaluations are also more extensive than daily tests and may examine both a monitor's nuisance alarm record and its detection sensitivity for a particular SNM or alternative test source. 1.1.2 In-plant performance evaluation also should not be confused with laboratory performance evaluation. In-plant evaluation is comparatively rapid, takes place in the monitor...

  17. The influence of crowd density on the sound environment of commercial pedestrian streets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qi; Kang, Jian

    2015-04-01

    Commercial pedestrian streets are very common in China and Europe, with many situated in historic or cultural centres. The environments of these streets are important, including their sound environments. The objective of this study is to explore the relationships between the crowd density and the sound environments of commercial pedestrian streets. On-site measurements were performed at the case study site in Harbin, China, and a questionnaire was administered. The sound pressure measurements showed that the crowd density has an insignificant effect on sound pressure below 0.05 persons/m2, whereas when the crowd density is greater than 0.05 persons/m2, the sound pressure increases with crowd density. The sound sources were analysed, showing that several typical sound sources, such as traffic noise, can be masked by the sounds resulting from dense crowds. The acoustic analysis showed that crowd densities outside the range of 0.10 to 0.25 persons/m2 exhibited lower acoustic comfort evaluation scores. In terms of audiovisual characteristics, the subjective loudness increases with greater crowd density, while the acoustic comfort decreases. The results for an indoor underground shopping street are also presented for comparison. PMID:25546463

  18. Influence of Pedestrian Trajectories on School Children Exposure to PM10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Garcia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three pedestrian trajectories are considered to study the influence of PM10 concentrations on children exposure, in a high-traffic street canyon. Two types of exposure were calculated: daily exposure for each wind condition and cumulative annual exposure considering all wind conditions. FLUENT was used to simulate the flow, turbulence, and PM10 dispersion in the street canyon. Our results indicate that exposure is influenced by the chosen walking trajectory and wind direction. When considering daily exposure, the highest value is achieved for the trajectory on the south side of the street, under westerly wind conditions, 13% higher than the baseline that assumes no traffic. The results indicate that a particular trajectory can be better for one specific wind direction but can represent the worst for a different wind direction. A difference of 3% to 13% higher exposure was achieved by choosing the best and worst trajectories. When computing cumulative annual exposure, trajectory on the north side of the street shows better results, 8.4% higher than the baseline value. Northerly and westerly winds result in the lowest and the highest exposure value for every studied trajectory. Careful selection of the best pedestrian paths can help reduce the exposure in busy street canyons.

  19. Carrying Position Independent User Heading Estimation for Indoor Pedestrian Navigation with Smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhi-An; Wang, Guofeng; Hu, Ying; Cui, Yang

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel heading estimation approach for indoor pedestrian navigation using the built-in inertial sensors on a smartphone. Unlike previous approaches constraining the carrying position of a smartphone on the user’s body, our approach gives the user a larger freedom by implementing automatic recognition of the device carrying position and subsequent selection of an optimal strategy for heading estimation. We firstly predetermine the motion state by a decision tree using an accelerometer and a barometer. Then, to enable accurate and computational lightweight carrying position recognition, we combine a position classifier with a novel position transition detection algorithm, which may also be used to avoid the confusion between position transition and user turn during pedestrian walking. For a device placed in the trouser pockets or held in a swinging hand, the heading estimation is achieved by deploying a principal component analysis (PCA)-based approach. For a device held in the hand or against the ear during a phone call, user heading is directly estimated by adding the yaw angle of the device to the related heading offset. Experimental results show that our approach can automatically detect carrying positions with high accuracy, and outperforms previous heading estimation approaches in terms of accuracy and applicability. PMID:27187391

  20. Pedestrian Detection at Day/Night Time with Visible and FIR Cameras: A Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Alejandro; Fang, Zhijie; Socarras, Yainuvis; Serrat, Joan; Vázquez, David; Xu, Jiaolong; López, Antonio M

    2016-01-01

    Despite all the significant advances in pedestrian detection brought by computer vision for driving assistance, it is still a challenging problem. One reason is the extremely varying lighting conditions under which such a detector should operate, namely day and nighttime. Recent research has shown that the combination of visible and non-visible imaging modalities may increase detection accuracy, where the infrared spectrum plays a critical role. The goal of this paper is to assess the accuracy gain of different pedestrian models (holistic, part-based, patch-based) when training with images in the far infrared spectrum. Specifically, we want to compare detection accuracy on test images recorded at day and nighttime if trained (and tested) using (a) plain color images; (b) just infrared images; and (c) both of them. In order to obtain results for the last item, we propose an early fusion approach to combine features from both modalities. We base the evaluation on a new dataset that we have built for this purpose as well as on the publicly available KAIST multispectral dataset. PMID:27271635

  1. Epidemiological characteristics of fatal pedestrian accidents in Fars Province of Iran: a community-based survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Payam Peymani; Ali Foroutan; Seyed Mehdi Ahmadi; Fariborz Ghaffarpasand; Hassan Joulaei; Kamran B Lankarani; Seyed Taghi Heydari; Amin Hoseinzadeh; Yaser Sarikhani; Arya Hedjazi; Mohammad Zarenezhad; Ghasem Moafian; Mohammad Reza Aghabeigi; Najmeh Maharlouei

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the epidemiological characteristics of fatal pedestrian accidents in Fars Province of Iran.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Fars Province of Iran during a 29-month period from March 2009 to July 2011.The data were from the Fars Forensic Medicine Registry.In 4 923 recorded road traffic accident fatalities,971 deaths were due to pedestrian accidents.The demographic and accident-related information were analyzed by SPSS version 11.5.P value less than 0.05 was considered significant.Results: The mean age of decedents was (47.2±26.2)years,ranging from 6 months to 103 years old.Males accounted for 69.8% of all deaths.Fatal accidents were most common in September; 56.1% of the fatal injuries occurred on intracity roads and 33.1% on extracity roads.Fatal head injuries were present in 60.54% of cases.Evaluation of the injury site and the cause of death found that they were significantly associated with age,interval between injury and death.Besides,the type of roads played an important role in mortality.Conclusion: Although the clinical management of trauma patients has been improved in our country in the recent decade,decreasing the burden of injuries needs coordination among trauma system organizations.

  2. Geographies of inequality: child pedestrian injury and walking school buses in Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Damian C A; Kearns, Robin A

    2005-01-01

    In the face of mounting concern at traffic congestion in the vicinity of schools and the associated risks of child pedestrian injury, the 'walking school bus' (WSB) idea has been rapidly adopted within metropolitan Auckland. WSBs involve volunteers guiding children to and from school in an orderly manner following established walking routes. This paper reports on a survey of the 34 Auckland primary schools which had adopted the scheme by November 2002. Despite rates of child pedestrian injury being highest in areas of socio-economic deprivation, our survey found WSB developments highly concentrated in low deprivation neighbourhoods. The inequitable socio-spatial distribution of WSBs in Auckland suggests that the ability to respond to road safety issues is closely correlated with socio-economic privilege. While our respondents identified a number of individual and community health benefits accruing from WSBs, we conclude that the initiative has a limited ability to address public health challenges originating within an inequitable and car-dominated urban political system. PMID:15482867

  3. Carrying Position Independent User Heading Estimation for Indoor Pedestrian Navigation with Smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhi-An; Wang, Guofeng; Hu, Ying; Cui, Yang

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel heading estimation approach for indoor pedestrian navigation using the built-in inertial sensors on a smartphone. Unlike previous approaches constraining the carrying position of a smartphone on the user's body, our approach gives the user a larger freedom by implementing automatic recognition of the device carrying position and subsequent selection of an optimal strategy for heading estimation. We firstly predetermine the motion state by a decision tree using an accelerometer and a barometer. Then, to enable accurate and computational lightweight carrying position recognition, we combine a position classifier with a novel position transition detection algorithm, which may also be used to avoid the confusion between position transition and user turn during pedestrian walking. For a device placed in the trouser pockets or held in a swinging hand, the heading estimation is achieved by deploying a principal component analysis (PCA)-based approach. For a device held in the hand or against the ear during a phone call, user heading is directly estimated by adding the yaw angle of the device to the related heading offset. Experimental results show that our approach can automatically detect carrying positions with high accuracy, and outperforms previous heading estimation approaches in terms of accuracy and applicability. PMID:27187391

  4. Analysis and simulation of an automated LED lighting system for pedestrian crosswalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ileana, Ioan; Risteiu, Mircea; Marc, Gheorghe; Sofalca, Ionut

    2015-02-01

    This paper approaches the design of a smart lighting system for efficient lighting of pedestrian crosswalks on streets, using power LEDs. Starting with existing solid-state lighting - SSL (power LEDs with individual directivity diagram, lighting efficiency and color rendering index - CRI) in the paper we propose a design technique and methodology in order to find the distribution geometry of light sources (sources number, spatial coordinates, fixing angles) that simultaneously satisfy the lighting regulation requests and energetic efficiency. The major achievements are the simulations of using of a great number of LED lighting sources and of spatial lighting configurations in order to obtain of a uniform lighting of the area of interest (fig.1) and in conformity with actual standards in a specified scenario. The direct consequence of these simulations is the using of an intelligent management system of LED lighting sources that will allow the optimization of light flux in real traffic conditions of cars and pedestrians. This means the monitoring of traffic level and surrounding conditions (temperature, humidity, natural lighting etc.) in order to efficient use the existing resources.

  5. Pedestrian dead reckoning using a novel sensor module that interfaces with modern smart devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimac, Philip J.; Demar, Richard W.; Hewitt, Gregory F. S.; McKenna, Mark J.; Jordan, Eric M.; Fordham, Matthew; Haas, John W.

    2015-05-01

    Tracking individuals in areas such as dense urban environments and building interiors is desirable for numerous critical applications, but has been problematic mainly because of the unreliability or unavailability of GPS in many locations of interest. To date, tracking applications that utilize inertial sensors within smart devices have had varied degrees of success: accuracy typically dips below that of standard GPS within minutes and depends strongly on the quality of the sensors in the device, as well as the location that the device is carried on the body. In this paper we present a sensor module that interfaces with modern smart devices and which utilizes a low-cost, commercial-off-the-shelf, 9-axis IMU and pressure sensor to provide an advanced pedestrian dead reckoning solution. The sensor module is designed to communicate with the smart device (e.g., iOS, Android or Windows) via the audio jack and is intended for use as a beltmounted pedestrian tracker. In addition to describing the device hardware and functionality, we present our approach to processing the sensor module data streams to determine a user's position. Results using the prototype sensor module in operationally relevant scenarios is presented and discussed.

  6. Numerical Reconstruction and Injury Biomechanism in a Car-Pedestrian Crash Accident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Dong-hua; LI Zheng-dong; SHAO Yu; FENG Hao; CHEN Jian-guo; LIU Ning-guo; HUANG Ping; CHEN Yi-jiu

    2012-01-01

    Objective To reconstruct a car-pedestrian crash accident using numerical simulation technology and explore the injury biomechanism as forensic evidence for injury identification.Methods An integration of multi-body dynamic,finite elcment (FE),and classical method was applied to a car-pedestrian crash accident.The location of the collision and the details of the traffic accident were determined by vehicle trace verification and autopsy.The accident reconstruction was performed by coupling the three-dimensional car behavior from PC-CRASH with a MADYMO dummy model.The collision FE models of head and leg,developed from CT scans of human remains,were loaded with calculated dummy collision parameters.The data of the impact biomechanical responses were extracted in terms of von Mises stress,relative displacement,strain and stress fringes.Results The accident reconstruction results were identical with the examined ones and the biomechanism of head and leg injuries,illustrated through the FE methods,were consistent with the classical injury theories.Conclusion The numerical simulation technology is proved to be effective in identifying traffic accidents and exploring of injury biomechanism.

  7. Financial price dynamics and pedestrian counterflows: A comparison of statistical stylized facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, Daniel R.; Sornette, Didier; Helbing, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    We propose and document the evidence for an analogy between the dynamics of granular counterflows in the presence of bottlenecks or restrictions and financial price formation processes. Using extensive simulations, we find that the counterflows of simulated pedestrians through a door display eight stylized facts observed in financial markets when the density around the door is compared with the logarithm of the price. Finding so many stylized facts is very rare indeed among all agent-based models of financial markets. The stylized properties are present when the agents in the pedestrian model are assumed to display a zero-intelligent behavior. If agents are given decision-making capacity and adapt to partially follow the majority, periods of herding behavior may additionally occur. This generates the very slow decay of the autocorrelation of absolute return due to an intermittent dynamics. Our findings suggest that the stylized facts in the fluctuations of the financial prices result from a competition of two groups with opposite interests in the presence of a constraint funneling the flow of transactions to a narrow band of prices with limited liquidity.

  8. Typical pedestrian accident scenarios for the development of autonomous emergency braking test protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenard, James; Badea-Romero, Alexandro; Danton, Russell

    2014-12-01

    An increasing proportion of new vehicles are being fitted with autonomous emergency braking systems. It is difficult for consumers to judge the effectiveness of these safety systems for individual models unless their performance is evaluated through track testing under controlled conditions. This paper aimed to contribute to the development of relevant test conditions by describing typical circumstances of pedestrian accidents. Cluster analysis was applied to two large British databases and both highlighted an urban scenario in daylight and fine weather where a small pedestrian walks across the road, especially from the near kerb, in clear view of a driver who is travelling straight ahead. For each dataset a main test configuration was defined to represent the conditions of the most common accident scenario along with test variations to reflect the characteristics of less common accident scenarios. Some of the variations pertaining to less common accident circumstances or to a minority of casualties in these scenarios were proposed as optional or supplementary test elements for an outstanding performance rating. Many considerations are incorporated into the final design and implementation of an actual testing regime, such as cost and the state of development of technology; only the representation of accident data lay within the scope of this paper. It would be desirable to ascertain the wider representativeness of the results by analysing accident data from other countries in a similar manner. PMID:25180785

  9. Advanced surveillance systems: combining video and thermal imagery for pedestrian detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torresan, Helene; Turgeon, Benoit; Ibarra-Castanedo, Clemente; Hebert, Patrick; Maldague, Xavier P.

    2004-04-01

    In the current context of increased surveillance and security, more sophisticated surveillance systems are needed. One idea relies on the use of pairs of video (visible spectrum) and thermal infrared (IR) cameras located around premises of interest. To automate the system, a dedicated image processing approach is required, which is described in the paper. The first step in the proposed study is to collect a database of known scenarios both indoor and outdoor with a few pedestrians. These image sequences (video and TIR) are synchronized, geometrically corrected and temperature calibrated. The next step is to develop a segmentation strategy to extract the regions of interest (ROI) corresponding to pedestrians in the images. The retained strategy exploits the motion in the sequences. Next, the ROIs are grouped from image to image separately for both video and TIR sequences before a fusion algorithm proceeds to track and detect humans. This insures a more robust performance. Finally, specific criteria of size and temperature relevant to humans are introduced as well. Results are presented for a few typical situations.

  10. Infrasonic Signals from the 29 June 2012 Derecho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslow, N.; Howard, W. B.; Pulli, J. J.; Kofford, A. S.

    2012-12-01

    Common weather events such as pressure fronts, tornados, and hurricanes generate infrasonic signals (sub-audible acoustic signals with an oscillatory frequency below 20 Hz). These signals can provide a distal (>10km) analysis of weather events because: (1) the attenuation of an infrasonic signal with distance is less than that of a similar audible signal, and (2) the propagation velocities of typical weather events are much slower than the speed of sound. The 29 June, 2012 Derecho (a widespread, long-lived, rapidly moving linear band of storms extending more than 240 miles and including wind gusts in excess of 58 mph) that stretched from Chicago, IL to Washington, DC generated infrasonic signals in addition to causing over $100 million in damage to the power systems of Virginia, West Virginia, and Maryland alone. The infrasonic (and seismic) signals from this event were recorded on the NCPA micro barometers along the northeastern edge of the current configuration of the USArray. These instruments, which sample at 40 Hz, exhibit a flat frequency response from around 0.1 Hz to above 20 Hz and show a sensitivity of 1.57 x 104 Volts/Pascal at 0.8 Hz. An analysis of the recordings observed at multiple stations identified several infrasonic signatures from the Derecho. The signal's duration was approximately 40 minutes and exhibited a large peak pressure fluctuation. A characteristic ramp up occurred before the peak pressure fluctuation, and the majority of the infrasonic energy occurred below 1 Hz. These signatures are analyzed within the context of the Derecho as an infrasonic source, and the propagation of infrasound in the atmosphere.

  11. A fuzzy-theory-based behavioral model for studying pedestrian evacuation from a single-exit room

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Libi; Song, Weiguo; Lo, Siuming

    2016-08-01

    Many mass events in recent years have highlighted the importance of research on pedestrian evacuation dynamics. A number of models have been developed to analyze crowd behavior under evacuation situations. However, few focus on pedestrians' decision-making with respect to uncertainty, vagueness and imprecision. In this paper, a discrete evacuation model defined on the cellular space is proposed according to the fuzzy theory which is able to describe imprecise and subjective information. Pedestrians' percept information and various characteristics are regarded as fuzzy input. Then fuzzy inference systems with rule bases, which resemble human reasoning, are established to obtain fuzzy output that decides pedestrians' movement direction. This model is tested in two scenarios, namely in a single-exit room with and without obstacles. Simulation results reproduce some classic dynamics phenomena discovered in real building evacuation situations, and are consistent with those in other models and experiments. It is hoped that this study will enrich movement rules and approaches in traditional cellular automaton models for evacuation dynamics.

  12. 78 FR 10110 - Accessibility Guidelines for Pedestrian Facilities in the Public Right-of-Way; Shared Use Paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... site at: http://www.access-board.gov/prowac/ . There is no database available on the number of shared... recreational, or as a temporary generally planar within pedestrian measure to open a path before access routes... Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (Access Board), issued an advance notice of proposed rulemaking...

  13. Driver behavior in car-to-pedestrian incidents: An application of the Driving Reliability and Error Analysis Method (DREAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibovic, Azra; Tivesten, Emma; Uchida, Nobuyuki; Bärgman, Jonas; Ljung Aust, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    To develop relevant road safety countermeasures, it is necessary to first obtain an in-depth understanding of how and why safety-critical situations such as incidents, near-crashes, and crashes occur. Video-recordings from naturalistic driving studies provide detailed information on events and circumstances prior to such situations that is difficult to obtain from traditional crash investigations, at least when it comes to the observable driver behavior. This study analyzed causation in 90 video-recordings of car-to-pedestrian incidents captured by onboard cameras in a naturalistic driving study in Japan. The Driving Reliability and Error Analysis Method (DREAM) was modified and used to identify contributing factors and causation patterns in these incidents. Two main causation patterns were found. In intersections, drivers failed to recognize the presence of the conflict pedestrian due to visual obstructions and/or because their attention was allocated towards something other than the conflict pedestrian. In incidents away from intersections, this pattern reoccurred along with another pattern showing that pedestrians often behaved in unexpected ways. These patterns indicate that an interactive advanced driver assistance system (ADAS) able to redirect the driver's attention could have averted many of the intersection incidents, while autonomous systems may be needed away from intersections. Cooperative ADAS may be needed to address issues raised by visual obstructions. PMID:22749319

  14. A geographic analysis of motor vehicle collisions with child pedestrians in Long Beach, California: comparing intersection and midblock incident locations

    OpenAIRE

    Lightstone, A; Dhillon, P; Peek-Asa, C; Kraus, J.

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—The purpose of this study was to use geographic information system (GIS) software to locate areas of high risk for child pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions in the city of Long Beach and to compare risk factors between midblock and intersection collisions.

  15. Local stakeholders' perspectives on improving the urban environment to reduce child pedestrian injury: implementing effective public health interventions at the local level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frattaroli, Shannon; Defrancesco, Susan; Gielen, Andrea C; Bishai, David M; Guyer, Bernard

    2006-01-01

    Local-level public health interventions require action from multiple agencies, organizations and individuals, yet little is known about how best to work with stakeholders to facilitate change. We sought local stakeholders' perspectives on how best to address impediments to implementing interventions designed to reduce child pedestrian injury by improving the pedestrian environment. We conducted 20 in-person, key informant interviews with people who would be the likely advocates for environmental change to improve the pedestrian environment in one US city, Baltimore, Maryland. We discuss the importance of reframing child pedestrian injury risk as a livability issue, increasing awareness about the potential impact of environmental changes to improve public safety, and the need for a formal efficient process to facilitate communication between local government and other stakeholders. These findings provide public health professionals and advocates with useful insight into how local stakeholders view the issue and their perspectives on how best to achieve change. PMID:17164804

  16. Study on Brain Injury Biomechanics Based on the Real Pedestrian Traffic Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chengjian; Yin, Zhiyong

    This paper aimed to research the dynamic response and injury mechanisms of head based on real pedestrian traffic accidents with video. The kinematics of head contact with the vehicle was reconstructed by using multi-body dynamics models. These calculated parameters such as head impact velocity and impact location and head orientation were applied to the THUMS-4 FE head model as initial conditions. The intracranial pressure and stress of brain were calculated from simulations of head contact with the vehicle. These results were consistent with that of others. It was proved that real traffic accidents combined with simulation analysis can be used to study head injury biomechanics. Increasing in the number of cases, a tolerance limit of brain injury will be put forward.

  17. Enhancing indoor inertial pedestrian navigation using a shoe-worn marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placer, Mitja; Kovačič, Stanislav

    2013-01-01

    We propose a novel hybrid inertial sensors-based indoor pedestrian dead reckoning system, aided by computer vision-derived position measurements. In contrast to prior vision-based or vision-aided solutions, where environmental markers were used-either deployed in known positions or extracted directly from it-we use a shoe-fixed marker, which serves as positional reference to an opposite shoe-mounted camera during foot swing, making our system self-contained. Position measurements can be therefore more reliably fed to a complementary unscented Kalman filter, enhancing the accuracy of the estimated travelled path for 78%, compared to using solely zero velocities as pseudo-measurements. PMID:23917258

  18. Universal flow-density relation of single-file bicycle, pedestrian and car motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J., E-mail: ju.zhang@fz-juelich.de [Jülich Supercomputing Centre, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Mehner, W., E-mail: w.mehner@fz-juelich.de [Jülich Supercomputing Centre, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Holl, S., E-mail: st.holl@fz-juelich.de [Jülich Supercomputing Centre, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Boltes, M., E-mail: m.boltes@fz-juelich.de [Jülich Supercomputing Centre, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Andresen, E., E-mail: e.andresen@uni-wuppertal.de [Department of Computer Simulation for Fire Safety and Pedestrian Traffic, Bergische Universität Wuppertal, 42285 Wuppertal (Germany); Schadschneider, A., E-mail: as@thp.uni-koeln.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität zu Köln, 50937 Köln (Germany); Seyfried, A., E-mail: a.seyfried@fz-juelich.de [Jülich Supercomputing Centre, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Department of Computer Simulation for Fire Safety and Pedestrian Traffic, Bergische Universität Wuppertal, 42285 Wuppertal (Germany)

    2014-09-12

    The relation between flow and density is an essential quantitative characteristic to describe the efficiency of traffic systems. We have performed experiments with single-file motion of bicycles and compared the results with previous studies for car and pedestrian motion in similar setups. In the space–time diagrams we observe three different states of motion (free flow state, jammed state and stop-and-go waves) in all these systems. Despite their obvious differences they are described by a universal fundamental diagram after proper rescaling of space and time which takes into account the size and free velocity of the three kinds of agents. This indicates that the similarities between the systems go deeper than expected.

  19. Universal flow-density relation of single-file bicycle, pedestrian and car motion

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jun; Holl, Stefan; Boltes, Maik; Andresen, Erik; Schadschneider, Andreas; Seyfried, Armin

    2013-01-01

    The relation between flow and density, also known as the fundamental diagram, is an essential quantitative characteristic to describe the efficiency of traffic systems. We have performed experiments with single-file motion of bicycles and compare the results with previous studies for car and pedestrian motion in similar setups. In the space-time diagrams we observe three different states of motion (free flow state, jammed state and stop-and-go waves) in all these systems. Despite of their obvious differences they are described by a universal fundamental diagram after proper rescaling of space and time which takes into account the size and free velocity of the three kinds of agents. This indicates that the similarities between the systems go deeper than expected.

  20. Universal flow-density relation of single-file bicycle, pedestrian and car motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relation between flow and density is an essential quantitative characteristic to describe the efficiency of traffic systems. We have performed experiments with single-file motion of bicycles and compared the results with previous studies for car and pedestrian motion in similar setups. In the space–time diagrams we observe three different states of motion (free flow state, jammed state and stop-and-go waves) in all these systems. Despite their obvious differences they are described by a universal fundamental diagram after proper rescaling of space and time which takes into account the size and free velocity of the three kinds of agents. This indicates that the similarities between the systems go deeper than expected