Gallagher, Brian R.; de Oca, Patricia Montes
Presents guidelines for orientation and mobility instructors and traffic engineers to assess the need for adaptive devices to make crosswalks at signalized intersections accessible to pedestrians with visual impairments. The discussions of audible and tactile pedestrian devices, along with case examples, distinguish when each device should be…
Jorgensen, Charles C. (Inventor); Lee, Diana D. (Inventor); Agabon, Shane T. (Inventor)
Method and system for processing and identifying a sub-audible signal formed by a source of sub-audible sounds. Sequences of samples of sub-audible sound patterns ("SASPs") for known words/phrases in a selected database are received for overlapping time intervals, and Signal Processing Transforms ("SPTs") are formed for each sample, as part of a matrix of entry values. The matrix is decomposed into contiguous, non-overlapping two-dimensional cells of entries, and neural net analysis is applied to estimate reference sets of weight coefficients that provide sums with optimal matches to reference sets of values. The reference sets of weight coefficients are used to determine a correspondence between a new (unknown) word/phrase and a word/phrase in the database.
Full Text Available A clear understanding of pedestrian crossing behavior under mixed traffic conditions is needed for providing necessary infrastructure and also for enhancing pedestrian safety at signalized intersections. This paper attempts to analyze the crossing behavior of pedestrians like crossing speed, compliance with signal, and pedestrian-vehicular interaction under mixed traffic conditions and to identify the influencing factors based on statistical tests. 775 pedestrian samples were observed from three signalized intersections in Mumbai, India for analyzing crossing behaviors and the significant factors affecting traffic signal compliance by pedestrians were identified by conducting Pearson’s correlation coefficient test, ANOVA test, and Student t test. Factors influencing pedestrian crossing speed had been studied and a design crossing speed had been determined for old and adult pedestrians at 0.95 m/s and 1.12 m/s respectively. Logistic regression models had been developed in which the odds of pedestrian violation and interactions were modeled and verified. This study can help researchers and practitioners to understand pedestrian crossing behavior at signalized intersections and develop pedestrian delay models under mixed traffic conditions.
Jorgensen, C. Charles (Inventor); Betts, Bradley J. (Inventor)
Method and system for generating electromyographic or sub-audible signals (''SAWPs'') and for transmitting and recognizing the SAWPs that represent the original words and/or phrases. The SAWPs may be generated in an environment that interferes excessively with normal speech or that requires stealth communications, and may be transmitted using encoded, enciphered or otherwise transformed signals that are less subject to signal distortion or degradation in the ambient environment.
Pedestrians are vulnerable in traffic. Children and people over 75 in particular, have a high casualty rate. A relatively large number of crashes involving older people occur close to pedestrian crossings. Cars are the most frequent crash opponents in crashes with pedestrians. Infrastructural
Full Text Available Pedestrian crashes, making up a large proportion of road casualties, are more likely to occur at signalized intersections in China. This paper aims to study the different pedestrian behaviors of regular users, late starters, sneakers, and partial sneakers. Behavior information was observed manually in the field study. After that, the survey team distributed a questionnaire to the same participant who has been observed, to acquire detailed demographic and socioeconomic characteristics as well as attitude and preference indicators. Totally, 1878 pedestrians were surveyed at 16 signalized intersections in Nanjing. First, correlation analysis is performed to analyze each factor’s effect. Then, five latent variables including safety, conformity, comfort, flexibility, and fastness are obtained by structure equation modeling (SEM. Moreover, based on the results of SEM, a multinomial logit model with latent variables is developed to describe how the factors influence pedestrians’ behavior. Finally, some conclusions are drawn from the model: (1 for the choice of being late starters, arrival time, the presence of oncoming cars, and crosswalk length are the most important factors; (2 gender has the most significant effect on the pedestrians to be sneakers; and (3 age is the most important factor when pedestrians choose to be partial sneakers.
Guo, Hongwei; Gao, Ziyou; Yang, Xiaobao; Jiang, Xiaobei
Pedestrian violation is a major cause of traffic accidents involving pedestrians. The research objectives were to investigate the relationship between waiting duration and pedestrian violation and to provide a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the effects of human factors and external environmental factors on street-crossing behavior. Pedestrians' street-crossing behavior was examined by modeling the waiting duration at signalized crosswalk. Pedestrian waiting duration was collected by video cameras and it was assigned as censored and uncensored data to distinguish between normal crossing and violating crossing. A nonparametric baseline duration model was introduced, and variables revealing personal characteristics, traffic conditions, and trip features were defined as covariates to describe the effects of internal and external factors. Pedestrians' crossing behaviors represented positive duration dependence that the longer the waiting time elapsed the more likely pedestrians would end the wait soon. The violation inclination of most pedestrians increased with the increasing waiting duration, but about 10 percent of pedestrians were at high risk of violation to cross the street. About half of pedestrians would still obey the traffic rules even after waiting for 50 s by the street. Human factors and the external environment played an important role in street-crossing behavior, especially for factors that involved pedestrians' subjective willingness. The street-crossing behavior of pedestrians was time dependent. Pedestrians behave differently under the effects of various factors. Pedestrian safety interventions that aim at reducing pedestrian injuries may need to consider these effects. The pedestrians' behavioral modifications, such as enhancing the safety awareness, might be the most efficient means to reducing the likelihood of pedestrian violation, though environmental modifications also worked well in improving pedestrian safety.
Full Text Available The operational efficiency and safety of pedestrian flows at intersections is an important aspect of urban traffic. Particularly, conflicts between pedestrians and vehicles in crosswalk are one of the most influential factors for intersection safety. This paper presents a cellular automata model that simulates pedestrian and vehicle crossing behaviors at signalized intersections. Through the simulation, we investigate the effects of different pedestrian signal timing and crosswalk widths on the crosswalk capacity, the number of traffic conflicts between pedestrians and vehicles, and pedestrian delay due to the conflicts. The simulation results indicate that the cellular automata is an effective simulation platform for investigating complex pedestrian-related traffic phenomenon at signalized intersections.
Yang, Xiaobao; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Huan, Mei; Peng, Yichuan; Gao, Ziyou
The waiting process is crucial to pedestrians in the street-crossing behavior. Once pedestrians terminate their waiting behavior during the red light period, they would cross against the red light and put themselves in danger. A joint hazard-based duration model is developed to investigate the effect of various covariates on pedestrian crossing behavior and to estimate pedestrian waiting times at signalized intersections. A total of 1181 pedestrians approaching the intersections during red light periods were observed in Beijing, China. Pedestrian crossing behaviors are classified into immediate crossing behavior and waiting behavior. The probability and effect of various covariates for pedestrians' immediate crossing behavior are identified by a logit model. Four accelerated failure time duration models based on the exponential, Weibull, lognormal and log-logistic distributions are proposed to examine the significant risk factors affecting duration times for pedestrians' waiting behavior. A joint duration model is developed to estimate pedestrian waiting times. Moreover, unobserved heterogeneity is considered in the proposed model. The results indicate that the Weibull AFT model with shared frailty is appropriate for modelling pedestrian waiting durations. Failure to account for heterogeneity would significantly underestimate the effects of covariates on waiting duration times. The proposed model provides a better understanding of pedestrian crossing behavior and more accurate estimation of pedestrian waiting times. It may be applicable in traffic system analysis in developing countries with high flow of mixed traffic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Audible indicator. 236.513 Section 236.513..., Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Standards § 236.513 Audible indicator. (a) The automatic cab signal... audible indicator will sound continuously until silenced by manual operation of an acknowledging device...
Audible thunder characteristic and the relation between peak frequency and lightning parameters ... In recent summers, some natural lightning optical spectra and audible thunder signals were observed. ... School of Mathematics, Physics and Software Engineering, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou 730 070, China.
Behbahani, Hamid; Najafi Moghaddam Gilani, Vahid; Jahangir Samet, Mehdi; Salehfard, Reza
Pedestrians affect the traffic in the signalized and un-signalized intersections. Therefore, identifying the behavioural features of the pedestrians is of great importance and may result in better designing facilities for them. In this study, by shooting the four intersections in Rasht for 15 hours and inventory from 4568 pedestrians, crossing speed of the pedestrians in the marked crosswalks and unmarked crosswalks was evaluated and analysed. Results showed that pedestrians‧ crossing speed in the marked crosswalks is higher than their crossing speed in the unmarked crosswalks in both signalized and un-signalized intersections. Moreover, in the unmarked crosswalks in the signalized intersections, 15th percentile speed of male pedestrians, female pedestrians and group of pedestrians’ decrease 6.4%, 5.4% and 12.2%, respectively, compared with the 15th percentile speed in the marked crosswalks. Above-mentioned values in the unmarked crosswalks in the un-signalized intersections for male pedestrians, female pedestrians, and group of pedestrians decrease 1.2%, 3.8%, and 1.4%, respectively.
Kitali, Angela E; Sando, P E Thobias
Although they are meant for pedestrians, pedestrian countdown signals (PCSs) give cues to drivers about the length of the remaining green phase, hence affecting drivers' behavior at intersections. This study focuses on the evaluation of the safety effectiveness of PCSs to drivers, in the cities of Jacksonville and Gainesville, Florida, using crash modification factors (CMFs) and crash modification functions (CMFunctions). A full Bayes (FB) before-and-after with comparison group method was used to quantify the safety impacts of PCSs to drivers. The CMFs were established for distinctive categories of crashes based on crash type (rear-end and angle collisions) and severity level (total, fatal and injury (FI), and property damage only (PDO) collisions). The CMFs findings indicated that installing PCSs result in a significant improvement of drivers' safety, at a 95% Bayesian credible interval (BCI), for total, PDO, and rear-end collisions. The results of FI and angle crashes were not significant. The CMFunctions indicate that the treatment effectiveness varies considerably with post-treatment time and traffic volume. Nevertheless, the CMFs on rear-end crashes are observed to decline with post-treatment time. In summary, the results suggest the usefulness of PCSs for drivers. The findings of this study may prompt a need for a broader research to investigate the need to design PCSs that will serve the purpose not only of pedestrians, but drivers as well. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chen, Ping-Ling; Pai, Chih-Wei; Jou, Rong-Chang; Saleh, Wafaa; Kuo, Ming-Shin
Literature has suggested that angle/rear-end collisions would arise from the reality that motorists and motorcyclists tended to accelerate aggressively in response to the remaining seconds of green signal countdown device (GSCD). One safety concern, while GSCD has gradually been removed for safety in Taiwan, is pedestrian green signal countdown device (PGSCD) that is used by approaching motorists and motorcyclists that may adopt the information to travel aggressively - an unintended consequence that is detrimental to safety. Research has reported that there appeared no negative effect of PGSCD on motorist behaviours but the effect on motorcyclists' behaviours has been rarely investigated. Using video/speed cameras, the current research investigates motorcyclists' RLV (red-light violation) behaviours. The descriptive analyses indicate that the percentage of RLV at PGSCD intersection is higher than that at typical intersection, and the violating motorcycles appear to have higher travelling speeds at PGSCD intersection. Several interaction terms were examined with the binary logit framework, and the results reveal that several factors are associated with RLV, notably male/young riders, moped/large motorcycle users, higher approaching speeds of motorcycles, those with tropical helmets, and lower traffic volume. Similar determinants of early-start behaviours (for those waiting at reds and could view the PGSCDs for the crossing pedestrians at the same time) were identified. Implications of the research findings, the concluding remarks, and recommendations for future research are finally provided. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hatfield, Julie; Murphy, Susanne
Research amongst drivers suggests that pedestrians using mobile telephones may behave riskily while crossing the road, and casual observation suggests concerning levels of pedestrian mobile-use. An observational field survey of 270 females and 276 males was conducted to compare the safety of crossing behaviours for pedestrians using, versus not using, a mobile phone. Amongst females, pedestrians who crossed while talking on a mobile phone crossed more slowly, and were less likely to look at traffic before starting to cross, to wait for traffic to stop, or to look at traffic while crossing, compared to matched controls. For males, pedestrians who crossed while talking on a mobile phone crossed more slowly at unsignalized crossings. These effects suggest that talking on a mobile phone is associated with cognitive distraction that may undermine pedestrian safety. Messages explicitly suggesting techniques for avoiding mobile-use while road crossing may benefit pedestrian safety.
Full Text Available Safety effects of Green-Man Countdown Device (GMCD at signalized pedestrian crosswalks are evaluated. Pedestrian behavior at GMCD and non-GMCD crosswalks is observed and analyzed. A microsimulation model is developed based on field observations to estimate safety performance. Simulation outputs allow analysts to assess the impacts of GMCD at various conditions with different geometric layout, traffic and pedestrian volumes, and the green time. According to simulation results, it is found that the safety impact of GMCD is affected by traffic condition as well as different time duration within green-man signal phase. In general, GMCD increases average walking velocity, especially during the last few seconds. The installation of GMCD improves safety performance generally, especially at more crowded crossings. Conflict severity is increased during last 10 s after GMCD installation. Findings from this study suggest that the current practice, which is to install GMCD at more crowded crosswalks or near the school zone, is effective. Moreover, at crosswalks with GMCD, longer all red signal phase is suggested to improve pedestrian safety during intergreen period.
Ranjit Prasad Godavarthy; Eugene R. Russell
Pedestrian signals, particularly at signalized, midblock crossings, delay drivers, which is termed "unnecessary delay" in this study. A pedestrian hybrid beacon was proven to be effective in decreasing this unnecessary delay to the drivers at midblock pedestrian crossings when compared to standard signalized midblock crossings. Two pedestrian hybrid beacons were installed at midblock pedestrian crossings in Lawrence, Kansas. A study was conducted at these two locations to determine the effectiveness of the pedes-trian hybrid beacon in decreasing the unnecessary delay to drivers by comparing them with a signalized midblock on Massachusetts Street, Lawrence, Kansas. In addition to the delay measurements for drivers at pedestrian hybrid beacon and signalized treatment at midblock pedestrian crossings, other parameters such as driver compliance rate, pedes-trian compliance rate, and other driver and pedestrian characteristics were also studied. Video cameras were used at these test locations and the effectiveness of the pedestrian hybrid beacon was analyzed from the video. A more than 90% reduction in delays was observed for the drivers at the pedestrian hybrid beacon at midblock crossings compared to the signalized crossing. Further, a better driver compliance rate was also recorded at the pedestrian hybrid beacon. Information about reductions in unnecessary delay to drivers and improvements to driver and pedestrian compliance rates from the use of pedestrian hybrid beacons would be useful to engineers, decision makers, and researchers to deter-mine an optimum treatment at desired pedestrian crossings.
A pedestrian hybrid beacon (PHB) is a traffic control : device similar to a European pedestrian signal : (PELICAN) that was imported to the US and adapted by : engineers in Arizona to increase motorists awareness of : pedestrian crossings at uncon...
Camden, Andi; Buliung, Ron; Rothman, Linda; Macarthur, Colin
Objective To determine whether pedestrian countdown signals (PCS) reduce pedestrian–motor vehicle collisions in the city of Toronto, Canada. Methods A quasi-experimental study design was used to evaluate the effect of PCS on the number of pedestrian–motor vehicle collisions in the city of Toronto, from January 2000 to December 2009. Each intersection acted as its own control. We compared the number of pedestrian–motor vehicle collisions per intersection-month before and after the intervention. Stratified models were used to evaluate effect modification by pedestrian age, injury severity and location (urban vs inner suburbs). Poisson regression analysis with repeated measures (generalised estimating equations) was used to estimate the RR and 95% CI. Results The analysis included 9262 pedestrian–motor vehicle collisions at 1965 intersections. The RR of collisions after PCS installation was 1.014 (95% CI 0.958 to 1.073), indicating no statistically significant effect of PCS on collisions. There was no evidence to suggest effect modification between PCS and collisions by age, injury severity or location. Conclusion The installation of PCS at 1965 signalised intersections in Toronto did not reduce the number of pedestrian–motor vehicle collisions at these intersections. PMID:22157206
Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This data set maps the locations of crashes involving pedestrians in the Chapel Hill Region of North Carolina.The data comes from police-reported bicycle-motor...
Zhou, Zhuping; Hu, Qizhou; Wang, Wei
Pedestrian injuries and fatalities present a problem all over the world. Pedestrian conformity violation behaviors, which lead to many pedestrian crashes, are common phenomena at the signalized intersections in China. The concepts and metrics of complex networks are applied to analyze the structural characteristics and evolution rules of pedestrian network about the conformity violation crossings. First, a network of pedestrians crossing the street is established, and the network's degree distributions are analyzed. Then, by using the basic idea of SI model, a spreading model of pedestrian illegal crossing behavior is proposed. Finally, through simulation analysis, pedestrian's illegal crossing behavior trends are obtained in different network structures and different spreading rates. Some conclusions are drawn: as the waiting time increases, more pedestrians will join in the violation crossing once a pedestrian crosses on red firstly. And pedestrian's conformity violation behavior will increase as the spreading rate increases.
Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Wirz, Martin; Roggen, Daniel
a cohesive whole - specifically flocks - with clustering approaches operating on three different feature sets derived from WiFi signals which are comparatively analysed. Automatic detection of flocks has several important applications, including social and psychological sensing and emergency research studies...
Full Text Available This paper deals with aliasing distortion in digital audio signal synthesis of classic periodic waveforms with infinite Fourier series, for electronic musical instruments. When these waveforms are generated in the digital domain then the aliasing appears due to its unlimited bandwidth. There are several techniques for the synthesis of these signals that have been designed to avoid or reduce the aliasing distortion. However, these techniques have high computing demands. One can say that today's computers have enough computing power to use these methods. However, we have to realize that today’s computer-aided music production requires tens of multi-timbre voices generated simultaneously by software synthesizers and the most of the computing power must be reserved for hard-disc recording subsystem and real-time audio processing of many audio channels with a lot of audio effects. Trivially generated classic analog synthesizer waveforms are therefore still effective for sound synthesis. We cannot avoid the aliasing distortion but spectral components produced by the aliasing can be masked with harmonic components and thus made inaudible if sufficient oversampling ratio is used. This paper deals with the assessment of audible aliasing distortion with the help of a psychoacoustic model of simultaneous masking and compares the computing demands of trivial generation using oversampling with those of other methods.
Basiri, Anahid; Winstanley, Adam; Amirian, Pouria
Car navigation has become one of the most widely used examples of Location-Based Services (LBSs). However current car navigation systems are not fully suitable for the navigational needs of pedestrians mainly because walkers are not as restricted as car drivers. Pedestrians can easily go into a building or underground to get to their destination where GPS signals are unavailable. Seamless indoor and outdoor navigation is one of the most important features which should be handle...
Full Text Available The population of elderly people is rapidly growing and in terms of safety, senior pedestrians represent one of the most vulnerable group. The pedestrian crossing speed is a significant input parameter in traffic engineering, which can have effect on pedestrians’ safety, especially of older population. The objective of this study was to determine the value of the crossing speed of elderly pedestrians (65+ for different types of urban crossings. The research was conducted at ten intersections in the city of Belgrade, Serbia, using the method of direct observation and a questionnaire for collecting data. The data were analysed in the statistical software package IBM SPSS Statistics. The results showed that elderly pedestrians walk slower and the crossing type significantly influenced the speed of older population. The order of crossing types in relation to the measured speed is ranked as follows, from the lowest to the highest speed value: unsignalized, signalized, signalized with pedestrian countdown display, signalized with pedestrian island and pedestrian countdown display and finally signalized crossing with pedestrian island. According to the questionnaire results, the elderly recognize the importance of implementing pedestrian counters. This indicates the necessity to provide safe street crossing for the elderly using the corresponding engineering measures.
Hoffmann, Pablo Faundez; Møller, Henrik
In binaural synthesis, signals are convolved with head-related transfer functions HRTFs. In dynamic systems, the update is often done by cross-fading between signals that have been filtered in parallel with two HRTFs. An alternative to cross-fading that is attractive in terms of computing power...... is direct switching between HRTFs that are close enough in space to provide an adequate auralization of moving sound. However, direct switching between HRTFs does not only move the sound but may also generate artifacts such as audible clicks. HRTF switching involves switching of spectral characteristics...
Hoffmann, Pablo F.F.; Møller, Henrik
In binaural synthesis, signals are convolved with head-related transfer functions (HRTFs). In dynamic systems, the update is often done by cross- fading between signals that have been filtered in parallel with two HRTFs. An alternative to cross-fading that is attractive in terms of computing power...... is direct switching between HRTFs that are close enough in space to provide an adequate auralization of moving sound. However, direct switching between HRTFs does not only move the sound but may also generate artifacts such as audible clicks. HRTF switching involves switching of spectral characteristics...
Full Text Available Models of tinnitus suggest roles for auditory, attention and emotional networks in tinnitus perception. A model of tinnitus audibility based on Helson’s (1964 Adaptation Level Theory (ALT is hypothesized to explain the relationship between tinnitus audibility, personality, memory and attention. This theory attempts to describe how tinnitus audibility or detectability might change with experience and context. The basis of ALT and potential role of Auditory Scene Analysis in tinnitus perception are discussed. The proposed psychoacoustic model lends itself to incorporation into existing neurophysiological models of tinnitus perception. It is hoped that the ALT hypothesis will allow for greater empirical investigation of factors influencing tinnitus perception, such as attention and tinnitus sound therapies.
The Remote Infrared Audible Sign Model Accessibility Program (RIAS MAP) is a program funded by the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) to evaluate the effectiveness of remote infrared audible sign systems in enabling persons with visual and cognitiv...
Bennett, Christopher L; McNeer, Richard R
Recent reports by The Joint Commission as well as the Anesthesia Patient Safety Foundation have indicated that medical audible alarm effectiveness needs to be improved. Several recent studies have explored various approaches to improving the audible alarms, motivating the authors to develop real-time software capable of comparing such alarms. We sought to devise software that would allow for the development of a variety of audible alarm designs that could also integrate into existing operating room equipment configurations. The software is meant to be used as a tool for alarm researchers to quickly evaluate novel alarm designs. A software tool was developed for the purpose of creating and annunciating audible alarms. The alarms consisted of annunciators that were mapped to vital sign data received from a patient monitor. An object-oriented approach to software design was used to create a tool that is flexible and modular at run-time, can annunciate wave-files from disk, and can be programmed with MATLAB by the user to create custom alarm algorithms. The software was tested in a simulated operating room to measure technical performance and to validate the time-to-annunciation against existing equipment alarms. The software tool showed efficacy in a simulated operating room environment by providing alarm annunciation in response to physiologic and ventilator signals generated by a human patient simulator, on average 6.2 seconds faster than existing equipment alarms. Performance analysis showed that the software was capable of supporting up to 15 audible alarms on a mid-grade laptop computer before audio dropouts occurred. These results suggest that this software tool provides a foundation for rapidly staging multiple audible alarm sets from the laboratory to a simulation environment for the purpose of evaluating novel alarm designs, thus producing valuable findings for medical audible alarm standardization.
This study was conducted to verify the compliance of vehicular and pedestrian LED traffic signal modules with the Institute : of Transportation Engineers specifications; and to assess drivers preferences of the LED modules. Four vehicular modules ...
Liu, Likun; Wang, Ziyang
The city signal intersection always has complex traffic flow and many traffic accidents. As vulnerable participants, the proportion of traffic accidents involving pedestrians remain high. And a lot of insecure crossing behavior seriously reduce the safety of the intersection. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out in-depth study on the traversing characteristics of pedestrians, reveal the inherent laws of pedestrian crossing, and then put forward targeted measures to improve pedestrian traffic environment, protect pedestrian crossing safety and improve traffic efficiency.
Souza, P E; Kitch, V J
This study compared preferred volume setting for linear peak clipping, compression limiting, and wide dynamic range compression (WDRC) amplification and quantified speech audibility at the preferred volume setting for each amplification type. Ten listeners with mild-to-moderate hearing loss were fitted monaurally with a behind-the-ear hearing aid programmed sequentially with WDRC, compression limiting, and linear peak clipping amplification. Speech was presented in quiet and in noise at a range of input levels. In each condition, the listener adjusted the volume for maximum clarity. Signal levels were measured using a probe microphone system. There was no significant difference in speech audibility between amplification strategies for any speech level regardless of the presence or absence of background noise. These results imply that the improved audibility advantage of WDRC over linear amplification demonstrated in controlled environments may not be maintained in situations where the hearing aid wearer controls the volume.
Miller, N. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Koltai, R. N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McGowan, T. K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
The GATEWAY program followed two pedestrian-scale lighting projects that required multiple mockups – one at Stanford University in California and the other at Chautauqua Institution in upstate New York. The report provides insight into pedestrian lighting criteria, how they differ from street and area lighting criteria, and how solid-state lighting can be better applied in pedestrian applications.
Krueger, Donata; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Brunskog, Jonas
For reasonably accurate but practical auralizations, some simplifications and approximations are needed. The main issue in the present investigation is that the reflection density of a room impulse response, in theory, increases so fast as a quadratic function of the elapsed time, even assuming...... only specular reflections. Therefore in this study, the upper threshold for audible reflection density is investigated for four different transition times of 25, 50, 75, and 100 ms through a headphone listening test. Binaural impulse responses and speech signals simulated in three rooms with different...... characteristics (an empty office, a lecture room, and an auditorium) are used as stimuli. Subjects are asked to increase/decrease the reflection density of a stimulus until they cannot distinguish it from the stimulus that follows the theoretical reflection density for the different transition times in the three...
Full Text Available Every year, more than 1500 accidents with pedestrian occur in the intersections in Romania. The number of accidents involving pedestrians in roundabouts intersections type increased approximately three times in 2013 compared to 2009 in Romania. This alarming increase led to the need of assessing the safety of pedestrians in intersections with or without safety systems. The safety systems for pedestrians and drivers include: the road marking, the pedestrian crossings marking, signal intersections with road signs, traffic lights or pedestrian safety barriers. We propose to assess the types of intersections with TOPSIS method.
Jacobs, George M.; Wang, Aili; Li, Xishuang; Xie, Yongye
This chapter begins with a section that describes cooperative learning and explains eight cooperative learning principles. The second section looks briefly at why making thinking audible and visible enriches students' thinking. Making thinking audible means that teachers and students speak out what is going through their minds as they do a task,…
Child pedestrian accidents are the most common road traffic accident resulting in injury. Much of the existing work on road traffic accidents is based on analysing clusters of accidents despite evidence that child pedestrian accidents tend to be more dispersed than this. This paper analyses pedestrian accidents in 573 children aged 0-11 years by a locally derived deprivation score for the years 1988-90. The analysis shows a significantly higher accident rate in deprived areas and a dose respo...
This report presents evaluation findings on the Remote Infrared Audible Signage (RIAS) Pilot Program in the Puget Sound Region of Washington. The installation, demonstration and evaluation of RIAS were required by a provision in the Safe, Accountable...
Miller, Naomi J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Koltai, Rita [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McGowan, Terry [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
This GATEWAY report discusses the problems of pedestrian lighting that occur with all technologies with a focus on the unique optical options and opportunities offered by LEDs through the findings from two pedestrian-focused projects, one at Stanford University in California, and one at the Chautauqua Institution in upstate New York. Incorporating user feedback this report reviews the tradeoffs that must be weighed among visual comfort, color, visibility, efficacy and other factors to stimulate discussion among specifiers, users, energy specialists, and in industry in hopes that new approaches, metrics, and standards can be developed to support pedestrian-focused communities, while reducing energy use.
Gaining insights into pedestrian flow operations and assessment tools for pedestrian walking speeds and comfort is important in for instance planning and geometric design of infrastructural facilities. Additionally, management of pedestrian flows requires knowledge of pedestrian flow behavior.
Choi, Y.; Yoon, H.
Every year, about 1.25 million people die of vehicle-related accidents, among which half are pedestrians with higher vulnerability: pedestrian, cyclists and motorcyclist (World Health Organization, 2016). This urges city governments in the world to strive for pedestrian safety and to apply diverse theories to transportation planning and design. The common belief is that the number of pedestrian accidents is directly and positively associated with the volume of pedestrian, however, another hypothesis, called "safety-in-numbers" effect, tells an opposite story in that accident rates declines with increase of the volume of pedestrian. In this study, we examine first, whether the safety-in-numbers theory applies to the pattern of pedestrian accidents in Seoul, and second, further investigate environmental factors that are associated with the pedestrian safety. On the first count, we use geospatial statistical analyses of the multi-year pedestrian accident data collected by Korea Road Traffic Authority (KoRoad) and the pedestrian volume data collected by SK Telecom (SKT). With Kernel Density Estimation and Bivariate Local Moran's I, we identify spatial clustering of pedestrian accidents in the city, and examine whether those locations match with concentrations of pedestrian volume. On the second count, we use statistical analysis, tobit, poisson and negative binomial regression to investigate relationships between pedestrian volume and number of pedestrian accident for the two types of geographic areas by the results of the aforementioned analysis; Area 1- locations of high volume of pedestrian with high number of accident, Area 2- locations of high volume of pedestrian with low number of accident. For environmental factors potentially explaining pedestrian accidents, we include land use composition, number of traffic lanes, crosswalk presence, pedestrian signal, traffic island and sidewalk width in our analysis. This research will be valuable in city governments
The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 has had a great impact on the implementation of Accessible Pedestrian Systems that target accessible and safety : impediments faced by pedestrians with mobility and visual impairments. Intersection geometri...
Methorst, R.; Horst, A.R.A. van der
In the framework of the PQN project, assessments have been carried out to arrive at real figures on the pedestrians’ performance and satisfaction. The results regarding key figures are: • About 50% of the pedestrians have limited abilities and about 10% of the population has severe difficulties
Tønning, Charlotte; Agerholm, Niels; Andersen, Camilla Sloth
, the attitude and experiences with this traffic signals will be measured. It is the hypotheses that red light walking will be reduced and that the overall transportation time for pedestrians will be reduced due to a more applicable and dynamic traffic signal system. Likewise, it is expected that the pedestrian......Due to increased traffic, traffic management has to work more efficient than required earlier. One of the tools is Intelligent management of green light for pedestrians. It means that green light for pedestrians is dynamically suited to the actual flow and that pedestrian signal shifts to red prior...... in the crossing of the nearest lane and later in the most remote lane. To measure the effect of this new signal system will the following tings studied and documented. The study will be carried out as a before/after study in one intersection in the Danish city Aarhus. Data consists of 2*224 hours of video...
The occurrences of vehicle-pedestrian crashes at signalized intersections were investigated using a 3 year (2004-2006) crash records of 82 signalized intersections in Accra, Kumasi, Tema, Sekondi-Takoradi and Tamale. The data were analyzed using Micro-computer Accident Analysis Package. Traffic flow characteristics ...
Davidson, Lisa S; Skinner, Margaret W
This study examined the relation of audibility for frequency-specific sounds and the Speech Intelligibility Index (SII) to speech perception abilities of children with sensorineural hearing loss using digital signal-processing hearing aids with wide dynamic range compression. Twenty-six children age 5-15 years with pure-tone averages (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 kHz) from 60-98 dB HL participated. Three subgroups were created based on the compression characteristics of each hearing aid. Minimum audibility was determined using aided thresholds for frequency-modulated tones and the SII calculated at 55 and 70 dB SPL using the simulated real-ear output of the hearing aid. The Lexical Neighborhood Test (LNT; K. I. Kirk, D. B. Pisoni, & M. J. Osberger, 1995) was presented at 50 and 70 dB SPL. LNT scores at 70 dB SPL were significantly higher than at 50 dB SPL. Average aided thresholds at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 kHz were negatively correlated with LNT scores at 50 dB SPL, and SIIs at 55 and 70 dB SPL were positively correlated with LNT scores at 50 and 70 dB SPL. Results support using aided thresholds and speech test scores at soft to loud levels as part of the amplification fitting process.
Full Text Available Walking freedom can define the quality of an urban area, but this freedom is conditioned by various factors. The research objective is to study pedestrian behavior on sidewalks. Data are collected during on site surveys by means of concealed camcorders. For each pedestrian many factors are observed, such as gender, age, direction, distractions, transport of objects, etc., which could influence pedestrian behavior. Data processing allows the identification of mathematical models describing the average pedestrian’s behavior, subdivided for user type (isolated, single, group. In general, the mean walking pedestrian speed decreases depending on user type (in a linear manner if age class grows for isolated pedestrians, while with the square of age for other user types, of gender, and of facing type. Models obtained for the different pedestrian types were compared to understand the differences in speeds, underlining that pedestrian interferences play a significant role in defining behavior and, therefore, speed. The results support the idea that, to define a smooth pedestrian speed as an indicator of the “walkability” of a path, in addition to considering the path and user’s characteristics, it is also necessary to define the type of user for which the infrastructure is designed.
Keller, C.G.; Gavrila, D.M.
Future vehicle systems for active pedestrian safety will not only require a high recognition performance but also an accurate analysis of the developing traffic situation. In this paper, we present a study on pedestrian path prediction and action classification at short subsecond time intervals. We
Kim, Andrew C.; Chang, Fu-Kuo
Pedestrian fatalities from automobile accidents often occur as a result of head injuries suffered from impacts with an automobile front end. Active pedestrian protection systems with proper pedestrian recognition algorithms can protect pedestrians from such head trauma. An investigation was conducted to assess the feasibility of using a network of piezoelectric sensors mounted on the front bumper beam of an automobile to discriminate between impacts with "pedestrian" and "non-pedestrian" objects. This information would be used to activate a safety device (e.g., external airbag or pop-up hood) to provide protection for the vulnerable pedestrian. An analytical foundation for the object-bumper impact problem will be presented, as well as the classical beam impact theory. The mechanical waves that propagate in the structure from an external impact contain a wealth of information about the specifics of a particular impact -- object mass, size, impact speed, etc. -- but most notably the object stiffness, which identifies the impacted object. Using the frequency content of the sensor signals, it can be shown that impacts with a "pedestrian" object of varying size, weight, and speed can be easily differentiated from impacts with other "non-pedestrian" objects. Simulation results will illustrate this phenomenon, and experimental tests will verify the results. A comprehensive series of impact tests were performed for validation, using both a stationary front bumper with a drop-pendulum impactor and a moving car with stationary impact objects. Results from both tests will be presented.
Budzynski, Marcin; Jamroz, Kazimierz; Mackun, Tomasz
Every third road accident in Poland involves a pedestrian as a participant or, most of the time, a casualty. Pedestrian accidents are usually the result of complex situations and the outcome of a number of factors related to driver and pedestrian behaviour and road infrastructure. Safety depends largely on how well the traffic condition is perceived and on visibility in traffic. The paper presents the results of analyses of methodologies for systematic studies of pedestrian behaviour and pedestrian-driver relations. The effects of the location of the site, type of cross-section and other selected parameters on pedestrian and driver behaviour are demonstrated. The analyses showed that pedestrians are most often put at risk by too long pedestrian crossings, vehicles going too fast around pedestrian crossings, lack of proper sight distance and poorly lit or unlit pedestrian crossings. The reason for such defective infrastructure is that planners, designers, contractors and maintenance services are not receiving any support from design, marking and maintenance regulations for pedestrian traffic. In addition, the Road Traffic Law is not restrictive enough when it comes to drivers’ obligations towards pedestrian safety. Polish design regulations allow long pedestrian crossings up to four lanes in one direction or three lanes in two directions irrespective of traffic control and speed limits. Pedestrian crossings should be kept at a maximum of three lanes. There is nothing in the design regulations about the required driver-pedestrian sight distance. Neither does the Road Traffic Law help engineers with that. It is legal to park vehicles within 10 m of a pedestrian crossing which does not guarantee the necessary sight distance. Drivers must be able to see a pedestrian waiting or stepping onto the crossing from a distance that will help them come to a stop safely. It is safer to follow the principle of providing adequate pedestrian sight distance. Recommendations for
Fakhry, Morkos; Hanna, George B; Anderson, Oliver; Holmes, Alison; Nathwani, Dinesh
Multimodal interventions aim to improve health care workers' adherence to hand hygiene guidelines. Visitors are not primarily targeted, but may spread epidemic infections. Effective interventions that improve the adherence of visitors to hand hygiene guidelines are needed to prevent the transmission of epidemic infections to or from health care environments. An electronic motion sensor-triggered audible hand hygiene reminder was installed at hospital ward entrances. An 8-month preinterventional and postinterventional study was carried out to measure the adherence of hospital visitors and staff to hand hygiene guidelines. Overall hand hygiene adherence increased from 7.6% to 49.9% (P staff increased immediately from 10.6% to 63.7% and from 5.3% to 34.8%, respectively (P staff (P staff (P = .341). The electronic motion sensor-triggered audible reminder immediately and significantly improved and sustained greater adherence of hospital visitors and clinical staff to hand hygiene guidelines. This is an effective addition to multimodal hand hygiene interventions and may help control epidemic infections. Copyright © 2012 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Kirsch, Uwe; Schreckenberg, Michael
The 6th International Conference on Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics conference (PED2012) showcased research on human locomotion. This book presents the proceedings of PED2012. Humans have walked for eons; our drive to settle the globe began with a walk out of Africa. However, much remains to discover. As the world moves toward sustainability while racing to assess and accommodate climate change, research must provide insight on the physical requirements of walking, the dynamics of pedestrians on the move and more. We must understand, predict and simulate pedestrian behaviour, to avoid dangerous situations, to plan for emergencies, and not least, to make walking more attractive and enjoyable. PED2012 offered 70 presentations and keynotes and 70 poster presentations covering new and improved mathematical models, describing new insights on pedestrian behaviour in normal and emergency cases and presenting research based on sensors and advanced observation methods. These papers offer a starting point for innova...
Kudryavtsev, Alexander V; Nilssen, Odd; Lund, Johan; Grjibovski, Andrej M; Ytterstad, Børge
To explain a reduction in pedestrian-motor vehicle crashes in Arkhangelsk, Russia, in 2005-2010. Retrospective ecological study. For 2005-2010, police data on pedestrian-motor vehicle crashes, traffic violations, and total motor vehicles (MVs) were combined with data on changes in national road traffic legislation and municipal road infrastructure. Negative binomial regression was used to investigate trends in monthly rates of pedestrian-motor vehicle crashes per total MVs and estimate changes in these rates per unit changes in the safety measures. During the 6 years, the police registered 2,565 pedestrian-motor vehicle crashes: 1,597 (62%) outside crosswalks, 766 (30%) on non-signalized crosswalks, and 202 (8%) on signalized crosswalks. Crash rates outside crosswalks and on signalized crosswalks decreased on average by 1.1% per month, whereas the crash rate on non-signalized crosswalks remained unchanged. Numbers of signalized and non-signalized crosswalks increased by 14 and 19%, respectively. Also, 10% of non-signalized crosswalks were combined with speed humps, and 4% with light-reflecting vertical signs. Pedestrian penalties for traffic violations increased 4-fold. Driver penalties for ignoring prohibiting signal and failure to give way to pedestrian on non-signalized crosswalk increased 7- and 8-fold, respectively. The rate of total registered drivers' traffic violations per total MVs decreased on average by 0.3% per month. All studied infrastructure and legislative measures had inverse associations with the rate of crashes outside crosswalks. The rate of crashes on signalized crosswalks showed inverse associations with related monetary penalties. The introduction of infrastructure and legislative measures is the most probable explanation of the reduction of pedestrian-motor vehicle crashes in Arkhangelsk. The overall reduction is due to decreases in rates of crashes outside crosswalks and on signalized crosswalks. No change was observed in the rate of
Khider, Mohammed; Robertson, Patrick; Zampella, Francisco; Jiménez Ruiz, Antonio R.
[EN] Method for estimating the position and orientation using an inertial measurement unit fixed to a moving pedestrian The method is for estimating the position and orientation using an inertial measurement unit fixed to a moving pedestrian, in particular to a leg, a knee, a foot, or an arm of a pedestrian, for detecting movement of the pedestrian within an observation area in particular not being covered by GNSS-signals as e.g. in buildings. The method comprises the following steps assuming...
Basch, Corey H; Ethan, Danna; Zybert, Patricia; Basch, Charles E
Technology-related distracted behavior is an emergent national concern. Listening to, looking at or talking into an electronic device while walking divides attention, increasing the risk of injury. The purpose of this study was to quantify technology-related distracted pedestrian behavior at five dangerous and busy Manhattan intersections. Data were collected over ten cycles of signal changes at each of the four corners of five intersections at four times of day. Data for 'Walk' and 'Don't Walk' signals were tallied separately. A total of 21,760 pedestrians were observed. Nearly one-third crossing on a 'Walk' signal (n = 5414, 27.8%), and nearly half crossing on a 'Don't Walk' signal (n = 974; 42.0%) were wearing headphones, talking on a mobile phone, and/or looking down at an electronic device. Headphone use was the most common distraction.
Morton, Nickolas A
When two pedestrians travelling in opposite directions approach one another, each must decide on which side (the left or the right) they will attempt to pass. If both make the same choice then passing can be completed with ease, while if they make opposite choices an embarrassing stand-off or collision can occur. Pedestrians who encounter each other frequently can establish "social norms" that bias this decision. In this study we investigate the effect of binary decision-making by pedestrians when passing on the dynamics of pedestrian flows in order to study the emergence of a social norm in crowds with a mixture of individual biases. Such a situation may arise, for instance, when individuals from different communities mix at a large sporting event or at transport hubs. We construct a phase diagram that shows that a social norm can still emerge provided pedestrians are sufficiently attentive to the choices of others in the crowd. We show that this collective behaviour has the potential to greatly influence th...
Stoker, Philip; Garfinkel-Castro, Andrea; Khayesi, Meleckidzedeck; Odero, Wilson; Mwangi, M.N.; Peden, Margie; Ewing, Reid
Urban and regional planning has a contribution to make toward improving pedestrian safety, particularly in view of the fact that about 273,000 pedestrians were killed in road traffic crashes in 2010. The road is a built environments that should enhance safety and security for pedestrians, but
Livingston, David H; Suber, Iesha; Snyder, Dawn; Clancy, Sharon F; Passannante, Marian R; Lavery, Robert F
Pediatric pedestrian injuries are a major health care concern, specifically in urban centers. An educational program (WalkSafe), given one time during the school year, has been shown to improve childhood pedestrian safety. We examined whether this program could create similar long-term cognitive and behavioral changes in our school-aged children. An established pediatric pedestrian curriculum was modified slightly for use in our area. Students K-fourth grade were exposed to the program once annually for 2 years. The program was carried out weekly for 3 consecutive weeks. The first and third sessions consisted of an educational module given by the classroom teacher. The second week consisted of an interactive assembly that allowed the children to demonstrate good pedestrian safety using a simulated street. Short- and intermediate-term cognitive knowledge was evaluated using standardized pre-, post- and 3-month follow-up tests. Long-term knowledge was assessed by comparing scores as students advanced in grade from year 1 to 2 of the program (K to first, first to second, etc.). At six schools during year 2, pedestrian behavior was measured through direct observation of children on city streets before and after administering the program. The project was approved by university and school board institutional review boards. During the 2 years, 1,564 students from nine schools were educated. In both years of the program, students in all grades had a significant gain in test scores immediately after and at 3 months compared with baseline knowledge. In contrast, only students moving from grade 3 to 4 demonstrated long-term retention (K→1: 7.7 vs. 6.7; grade 1→2: 7.8 vs. 6.7; grade 2→3: 7.3 vs. 6.8; grade 3→4: 7.1 vs. 8.0; all p educational program resulted in long-term knowledge retention between grades 3 and 4 only. In contrast, scores in younger grades reverted to baseline pretest values seen in year 1. Short- and intermediate-term knowledge gains were seen in all
Liu, Yingyi; Zhou, Lijuan; Liu, Yuanqing; Yuan, Haiwen; Ji, Liang
Audible noise is closely related to corona current on a high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission line. In this paper, we measured a large amount of audible noise and corona current waveforms simultaneously based on the largest outdoor HVDC corona cage all over the world. By analyzing the experimental data, the related statistical regularities between a corona current spectrum and an audible noise spectrum were obtained. Furthermore, the generation mechanism of audible noise was analyzed theoretically, and the related mathematical expression between the audible noise spectrum and the corona current spectrum, which is suitable for all of these measuring points in the space, has been established based on the electro-acoustic conversion theory. Finally, combined with the obtained mathematical relation, the internal reasons for these statistical regularities appearing in measured corona current and audible noise data were explained. The results of this paper not only present the statistical association regularities between the corona current spectrum and the audible noise spectrum on a HVDC transmission line, but also reveal the inherent reasons of these associated rules.
Godha, S.; Lachapelle, G.
This paper discusses algorithmic concepts, design and testing of a system based on a low-cost MEMS-based inertial measurement unit (IMU) and high-sensitivity global positioning system (HSGPS) receivers for seamless personal navigation in a GPS signal degraded environment. The system developed here is mounted on a pedestrian shoe/foot and uses measurements based on the dynamics experienced by the inertial sensors on the user's foot. The IMU measurements are processed through a conventional inertial navigation system (INS) algorithm and are then integrated with HSGPS receiver measurements and dynamics derived constraint measurements using a tightly coupled integration strategy. The ability of INS to bridge the navigation solution is evaluated through field tests conducted indoors and in severely signal degraded forest environments. The specific focus is on evaluating system performance under challenging GPS conditions.
Kim, Andrew C.
This research is motivated by recent activity to improve automotive safety, especially for pedestrians. In many parts of the world today, injuries and fatalities from road accidents are a significant problem. Safety features such as seat restraints and air bags provide considerable levels of protection for car occupants; however, no such protective measures currently exist for pedestrians. Drawing upon the success and effectiveness of occupant air bag systems, current research aims to develop similar devices for pedestrians. These active pedestrian protection systems deploy a safety feature such as an external air bag when a pedestrian is hit by a vehicle. Contact with the front bumper induces a body rotation that may result in a violent head collision. The deployable safety device provides a cushioning surface for the vulnerable pedestrian during impact. The challenge of such a system is an effective sensory unit that can rapidly and correctly discriminate pedestrian impacts from non-pedestrian ones. The fast kinematics of the automobile-pedestrian impact leaves a minimal amount of time for signal processing and computation. This research study focuses on a discrimination scheme that satisfies both the time and accuracy requirements for a proposed sensory system for pedestrian protection. A unique methodology was developed to identify structural impacts using dominant frequency features extracted from sensory data. Contact sensors mounted on the front bumper of an automobile measure the strain response from an impact event. The dominant frequencies obtained from these sensor signals are greatly influenced by the impact object's properties and can be used to discriminate between different objects. Extensive tests were conducted to gather sensor data and validate the proposed methodology and impact discrimination algorithm. Results of the impact tests indicate that the approach is sound, and the sensory system effectively identifies "pedestrian" impacts within a
Teng, T. L.; Liang, C. C.; Hsu, C. Y.; Tai, S. F.
How to protect pedestrians and reduce the collision injury has gradually become the new field of automotive safety research and focus in the world. Many engineering studies have appeared and their purpose is trying to reduce the pedestrian injuries caused by traffic accident. The physical model involving impactor model and full scale pedestrian model are costly when taking the impact test. This study constructs a vehicle-pedestrian collision model by using the MADYMO. To verify the accuracy of the proposed vehicle-pedestrian collision model, the experimental data are used in the pedestrian model test. The proposed model also will be applied to analyze the kinematic responses and injuries of pedestrian in collisions in this study. The modeled results can help assess the pedestrian friendliness of vehicles and assist in the future development of pedestrian friendliness vehicle technologies.
Full Text Available Pedestrians are the most vulnerable road users as they are more exposed than other road users. Pedestrian safety at road intersections still remains the most vital and yet unsolved issue. One of the critical points in pedestrian safety is the occurrence of accidents between left-turning vehicle and pedestrians on crosswalks at signalized intersections. A crosswalk is a place designated for pedestrians and cyclists to cross vehicular roads safely. Drivers are expected to give priority to pedestrians or cyclists during interactions between them on the crosswalk. If a driver exhibits non-yielding behavior, the interaction will turn into a collision. This study examined the safety effect of three crosswalks designed with different materials such as red-colored material or brick pavement based on a safety performance study. The safety performance study considered left-turning driver's gap acceptance behavior and the severity of traffic conflict events between left-turning vehicles and pedestrians. The results of the study indicates that using brick pavement on a crosswalk increases the safety level of the crosswalk. Drivers at such crosswalks are more acquiescent to the priority rule.
Kim, Joon-Ki; Ulfarsson, Gudmundur F; Shankar, Venkataraman N; Kim, Sungyop
This research explores the injury severity of pedestrians in motor-vehicle crashes. It is hypothesized that the variance of unobserved pedestrian characteristics increases with age. In response, a heteroskedastic generalized extreme value model is used. The analysis links explanatory factors with four injury outcomes: fatal, incapacitating, non-incapacitating, and possible or no injury. Police-reported crash data between 1997 and 2000 from North Carolina, USA, are used. The results show that pedestrian age induces heteroskedasticity which affects the probability of fatal injury. The effect grows more pronounced with increasing age past 65. The heteroskedastic model provides a better fit than the multinomial logit model. Notable factors increasing the probability of fatal pedestrian injury: increasing pedestrian age, male driver, intoxicated driver (2.7 times greater probability of fatality), traffic sign, commercial area, darkness with or without streetlights (2-4 times greater probability of fatality), sport-utility vehicle, truck, freeway, two-way divided roadway, speeding-involved, off roadway, motorist turning or backing, both driver and pedestrian at fault, and pedestrian only at fault. Conversely, the probability of a fatal injury decreased: with increasing driver age, during the PM traffic peak, with traffic signal control, in inclement weather, on a curved roadway, at a crosswalk, and when walking along roadway.
Full Text Available The need of tools for design and evaluation of pedestrian areas, subways stations, entrance hall, shopping mall, escape routes, stadium etc lead to the necessity of a pedestrian model. One approach pedestrian model is Microscopic Pedestrian Simulation Model. To be able to develop and calibrate a microscopic pedestrian simulation model, a number of variables need to be considered. As the first step of model development, some data was collected using video and the coordinate of the head path through image processing were also taken. Several numbers of variables can be gathered to describe the behavior of pedestrian from a different point of view. This paper describes how to obtain variables from video taking and simple image processing that can represent the movement of pedestrians and its variables
Destefanis, Stefano; Paron, Alberto; Bandini, Flavio
Orbital developed the Cygnus advanced manoeuvring spacecraft to demonstrate cargo delivery services under a NASA Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) Space Act Agreement.In addition to the COTS development and demonstration program, Orbital will utilize Cygnus to perform ISS resupply flights under the Commercial Resupply Service (CRS) contract.Starting in January 2014 Orbital launched its first of eight missions to deliver approximately 20,000 kilograms of cargo to the ISS (International Space Station). Cygnus will carry crew supplies, spares and scientific experiments to the ISS.Cygnus consists of a common service module and a pressurized cargo module. The pressurized cargo module is based on the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM), developed by Thales Alenia Space for NASA. Since Cygnus pressurized cargo module will host astronauts performing daily tasks, it is required to be compliant with NASA guidelines related to acoustic comfort (working areas noise not to exceed NC-50 requirement) and safety (caution and warning alarms audibility).The main source of noise inside Cygnus is the ventilation fan, which happens to be the same model already installed on the ATV (Automated Transfer Vehicle) cargo module: however, the strategy adopted to limit its acoustic disturbance had to be differently tailored.This paper presents the activities (assumptions, design, characterization, testing) that led to define the type of noise control devices used on Cygnus, up to its first successful flight (module labelled "PCM0") to the ISS, where it reached 2nd place in the "quietest visiting modules" ranking.
Goede, M. de; Groenewoud, C.; Horst, A.R.A. van der
More than half of all severe traffic accidents in which pedestrians or cyclists are involved, occur during road crossing. In this chapter insights, based on previous studies and literature, concerning requirements for safe and comfortable crossing facilities are discussed. In order to develop
Sommer, Iris E; Selten, Jean-Paul; Diederen, Kelly M; Blom, Jan Dirk
This study proposes a theoretical framework which dissects auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) into 2 essential components: audibility and alienation. Audibility, the perceptual aspect of AVH, may result from a disinhibition of the auditory cortex in response to self-generated speech. In isolation, this aspect leads to audible thoughts: Gedankenlautwerden. The second component is alienation, which is the failure to recognize the content of AVH as self-generated. This failure may be related to the fact that cerebral activity associated with AVH is predominantly present in the speech production area of the right hemisphere. Since normal inner speech is derived from the left speech area, an aberrant source may lead to confusion about the origin of the language fragments. When alienation is not accompanied by audibility, it will result in the experience of thought insertion. The 2 hypothesized components are illustrated using case vignettes. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Full Text Available Objectives: Motor vehicle-pedestrian crash is a significant public health concern. The urban campus of Georgia State University poses unique challenges due to a large number of students and university employees. The objectives of this study are twofold: (1 to examine the correlation between specific features of the built environment on and around the University campus and pedestrian crashes; and (2 to identify crash clusters in the study area using network-based geospatial techniques.Methods: We obtained pedestrian crash data (n=119 from 2003 to 2007 from Georgia Department of Transportation and evaluated environmental features pertaining to the road infrastructure, pedestrian infrastructure and streetscape for each road segment and intersection. Prevalence rate of each feature with pedestrian crashes present was calculated. We used network-based Kernel Density Estimation to identify the high density road segments and intersections, then used network-based K-function to examine the clustering of pedestrian crashes.Results: Over 50% of the crosswalk signs, pedestrian signals, public transit, and location branding signs (more than three at intersections involved pedestrian crashes. More than half of wider streets (greater than 29 feet, two-way streets, and streets in good condition had pedestrian crashes present. Crashes occurred more frequently in road segments with strong street compactness and mixed land use present and were significantly (p<0.05 clustered in these high-density zones.Conclusions: Findings can be used to understand the correlation between built environment and pedestrian safety, to prioritize the high-density zones for intervention efforts, and to formulate research hypotheses for investigating pedestrian crashes. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(3: 295-302.
Crooks Valorie A
minority of high-incident locations. More importantly, bars were highly associated with risk of pedestrian injury. This study is the basis for potential public health intervention by clearly indicating optimal locations for signalized pedestrian crosswalks.
Nasar, Jack; Hecht, Peter; Wener, Richard
Driver distraction is a major cause of traffic accidents, with mobile telephones as a key source of distraction. In two studies, we examined distraction of pedestrians associated with mobile phone use. The first had 60 participants walk along a prescribed route, with half of them conversing on a mobile phone, and the other half holding the phone awaiting a potential call, which never came. Comparison of the performance of the groups in recalling objects planted along the route revealed that pedestrians conversing recalled fewer objects than did those not conversing. The second study had three observers record pedestrian behavior of mobile phone users, i-pod users, and pedestrians with neither one at three crosswalks. Mobile phone users crossed unsafely into oncoming traffic significantly more than did either of the other groups. For pedestrians as with drivers, cognitive distraction from mobile phone use reduces situation awareness, increases unsafe behavior, putting pedestrians at greater risk for accidents, and crime victimization.
Kwak, Jaeyoung; Luttinen, Tapio; Kosonen, Iisakki
We numerically study the impact of impulse stops on pedestrian flow for a straight corridor with multiple attractions. The impulse stop is simulated by the switching behavior model, a function of the social influence strength and the number of attendees near the attraction. When the pedestrian influx is low, one can observe a stable flow where attendees make a complete stop at an attraction and then leave the attraction after a certain amount of time. When the pedestrian influx is high, an unstable flow is observed for strong social influence. In the unstable flow, attendees near the attraction are crowded out from the clusters by others due to the interpersonal repulsion. The expelled pedestrians impede the pedestrian traffic between the left and right boundaries of the corridor. These collective patterns of pedestrian flow are summarized in a schematic phase diagram.
Van der Spek, S.
In Toronto and Melbourne I presented the development of a method to track pedestrians using GPS. Finally, in June and October 2007 pedestrians visiting the historic city centres of Norwich, Rouen and Koblenz were monitored. In total over 1300 pedestrians were observed using GPS technology. With a
Kwak, Jaeyoung; Jo, Hang-Hyun; Luttinen, Tapio; Kosonen, Iisakki
We numerically study the impact of impulse stops on pedestrian flow for a straight corridor with multiple attractions. The impulse stop is simulated by the switching behavior model, a function of the social influence strength and the number of attendees near the attraction. When the pedestrian influx is low, one can observe a stable flow where attendees make a complete stop at an attraction and then leave the attraction after a certain amount of time. When the pedestrian influx is high, an un...
Cristiani, Emiliano; Tosin, Andrea
This book presents mathematical models and numerical simulations of crowd dynamics. The core topic is the development of a new multiscale paradigm, which bridges the microscopic and macroscopic scales taking the most from each of them for capturing the relevant clues of complexity of crowds. The background idea is indeed that most of the complex trends exhibited by crowds are due to an intrinsic interplay between individual and collective behaviors. The modeling approach promoted in this book pursues actively this intuition and profits from it for designing general mathematical structures susceptible of application also in fields different from the inspiring original one. The book considers also the two most traditional points of view: the microscopic one, in which pedestrians are tracked individually, and the macroscopic one, in which pedestrians are assimilated to a continuum. Selected existing models are critically analyzed. The work is addressed to researchers and graduate students.
Hutchinson, T P; Kloeden, C N; Lindsay, V L
A substantial part of the pedestrian accident problem arises from intoxicated pedestrians. Possible countermeasures are reviewed, organised into: (a) prevention of high levels of intoxication in pedestrians, (b) minimising pedestrian activity in the intoxicated, and (c) minimising risk of injury among intoxicated pedestrians. It is concluded that improved safety of intoxicated pedestrians is most likely to come about by making the environment safer for all pedestrians, drunk or sober. The measure that would be expected to have the greatest effect quickest is a reduced speed limit, especially in locations where traffic is busy and there are many pedestrians.
Deb, Shuchisnigdha; Carruth, Daniel W; Sween, Richard; Strawderman, Lesley; Garrison, Teena M
Advances in virtual reality technology present new opportunities for human factors research in areas that are dangerous, difficult, or expensive to study in the real world. The authors developed a new pedestrian simulator using the HTC Vive head mounted display and Unity software. Pedestrian head position and orientation were tracked as participants attempted to safely cross a virtual signalized intersection (5.5 m). In 10% of 60 trials, a vehicle violated the traffic signal and in 10.84% of these trials, a collision between the vehicle and the pedestrian was observed. Approximately 11% of the participants experienced simulator sickness and withdrew from the study. Objective measures, including the average walking speed, indicate that participant behavior in VR matches published real world norms. Subjective responses indicate that the virtual environment was realistic and engaging. Overall, the study results confirm the effectiveness of the new virtual reality technology for research on full motion tasks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nagata, Takashi; Abe, Takeru; Takamori, Ayako; Kimura, Yoshinari; Hagihara, Akihito
Pedestrian injuries among older people tend to occur near their residence. However, knowledge regarding whether distance travelled from home to the injury site or road environmental/socioeconomic factors affect injury severity remains limited. A cross-sectional study was performed using injury registry data from the Kurume City Fire Department, Japan. Distance travelled from home was determined with geographic information system (GIS) software. Data were analyzed for potential association with injury occurrence and severity, with stratification by age. Signal detection analysis using 10 variables was applied to identify factors associated with the occurrence of severe pedestrian injuries. Among the 545 adult pedestrian injuries reviewed, the factors associated with the occurrence of severe pedestrian injuries for older people and working-age people were evaluated, focusing on the effect of the network distance travelled from home to injury site. Network distance travelled from home to injury site was not associated with the occurrence of severe pedestrian injuries among older people. By applying signal detection analysis, for older people, higher socioeconomic status, wider road width per lane, and higher aging rate in the residential area were significant factors, and for working-age pedestrians, longer network distance travelled between injury place and their residential area and a higher aging rate in the residential area were significantly associated. To reduce severe pedestrian injuries among older people, improvement of road infrastructure in areas with wider roads, higher socioeconomic status and higher aging rates is required.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Pedestrian injuries among older people tend to occur near their residence. However, knowledge regarding whether distance travelled from home to the injury site or road environmental/socioeconomic factors affect injury severity remains limited. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed using injury registry data from the Kurume City Fire Department, Japan. Distance travelled from home was determined with geographic information system (GIS software. Data were analyzed for potential association with injury occurrence and severity, with stratification by age. Signal detection analysis using 10 variables was applied to identify factors associated with the occurrence of severe pedestrian injuries. Results Among the 545 adult pedestrian injuries reviewed, the factors associated with the occurrence of severe pedestrian injuries for older people and working-age people were evaluated, focusing on the effect of the network distance travelled from home to injury site. Network distance travelled from home to injury site was not associated with the occurrence of severe pedestrian injuries among older people. By applying signal detection analysis, for older people, higher socioeconomic status, wider road width per lane, and higher aging rate in the residential area were significant factors, and for working-age pedestrians, longer network distance travelled between injury place and their residential area and a higher aging rate in the residential area were significantly associated. Conclusions To reduce severe pedestrian injuries among older people, improvement of road infrastructure in areas with wider roads, higher socioeconomic status and higher aging rates is required.
W. Owen eBrimijoin
Full Text Available We are rarely perfectly still: our heads rotate in three axes and move in three dimensions, constantly varying the spectral and binaural cues at the ear drums. In spite of this motion, static sound sources in the world are typically perceived as stable objects. This argues that the auditory system – in a manner not unlike the vestibulo-ocular reflex – works to compensate for self motion and stabilize our sensory representation of the world. We tested a prediction arising from this postulate: that self motion should be processed more accurately than source motion.We used an infrared motion tracking system to measure head angle, and real-time interpolation of head related impulse responses to create head-stabilized signals that appeared to remain fixed in space as the head turned. After being presented with pairs of simultaneous signals consisting of a man and a woman speaking a snippet of speech, normal and hearing impaired listeners were asked to report whether the female voice was to the left or the right of the male voice. In this way we measured the moving minimum audible angle (MMAA. This measurement was made while listeners were asked to turn their heads back and forth between ± 15° and the signals were stabilized in space. After this self-motion condition we measured MMAA in a second source-motion condition when listeners remained still and the virtual locations of the signals were moved using the trajectories from the first condition.For both normal and hearing impaired listeners, we found that the MMAA for signals moving relative to the head was ~1-2° smaller when the movement was the result of self motion than when it was the result of source motion, even though the motion with respect to the head was identical. These results as well as the results of past experiments suggest that spatial processing involves an ongoing and highly accurate comparison of spatial acoustic cues with self-motion cues.
Full Text Available ABSTRAK. Jalur pedestrian pada sebuah kota adalah bagian yang sangat penting, baik sebagai kelengkapan (amenity kota maupun sebagai tempat orang berjalan kaki dengan aman dan nyaman. Namun untuk kota Jakarta, dan mungkin juga kota-kota lainnya di Indonesia, pedestrian seringkali mengalami perubahan fungsi tidak hanya sekedar sebagai jalur pejalan kaki namun juga bisa menjadi jalur kendaraan bermotor, area berjualan para pedagang kaki lima yang bersifat mobile, tetapi bisa juga menjadi “ruko” alias rumah toko. Permasalahannya adalah bagaimana nasib para pejalan kaki, dimana mereka dapat berjalan kaki dengan aman, tanpa takut tertabrak pengendara sepeda motor, tersenggol bajay, mikrolet atau mobil pribadi? Pembahasan tentang pedestrian ini dilakukan dengan cara mengamati dan membandingkan antara pedestrian yang ada di Jakarta dan di Singapura, dilihat dari segi fungsi dan penataannya. Kata kunci : pedestrian, fungsi, pejalan kaki ABSTRACT. Pedestrian path within the city has been regarded as an important element, either as a city amenity which contribute an aesthetic of city space or as a space for people or pedestrian to walk safely and comfort. Jakarta as one of a big city in Indonesia, has many pedestrian paths within it, but there are many pedestrian paths which have been changed in function. The pedestrian paths are not as a space for people to walk but have been accommodated as motorcycle lines as well as mobile shop or shop-house which has been known as RUKO or rumah toko. The main problem is how people could walk safely and comfort. This discussion of pedestrian paths will be explored in this paper by comparing the function and the design as well as the plan of pedestrian paths in Jakarta and Singapore. Keywords : pedestrian path, function, pedestrian.
Hoffmann, Pablo F.F.; Møller, Henrik
Changes in the temporal and spectral characteristics of the sound reaching the two ears are known to be of great importance for the perception of spatial sound. The smallest change that can be reliably perceived provides a measure of how accurate directional hearing is. The present study investig......Changes in the temporal and spectral characteristics of the sound reaching the two ears are known to be of great importance for the perception of spatial sound. The smallest change that can be reliably perceived provides a measure of how accurate directional hearing is. The present study...... investigates audibility of changes in the temporal characteristics of HRTFs. A listening test is conducted to measure the smallest change in the interaural time difference (ITD) that produces an audible difference of any nature. Results show a large inter-individual variation with a range of audibility...
This book is an introduction to Fourier Transformation with a focus on signal analysis, based on the first edition. It is well suited for undergraduate students in physics, mathematics, electronic engineering as well as for scientists in research and development. It gives illustrations and recommendations when using existing Fourier programs and thus helps to avoid frustrations. Moreover, it is entertaining and you will learn a lot unconsciously. Fourier series as well as continuous and discrete Fourier transformation are discussed with particular emphasis on window functions. Filter effects of digital data processing are illustrated. Two new chapters are devoted to modern applications. The first deals with data streams and fractional delays and the second with the back-projection of filtered projections in tomography. There are many figures and mostly easy to solve exercises with solutions.
Cai, Weiming; Dunford, Nurhan Turgut; Wang, Ning; Zhu, Songming; He, Huinong
It has been reported in the literature that exposure of microalgae cells to audible sound could promote growth. This study examined the effect of sound waves with the frequency of 1100 Hz, 2200 Hz, and 3300 Hz to stimulate the biomass productivity of an Oklahoma native strain, Picochlorum oklahomensis (PO). The effect of the frequency of sound on biomass mass was measured. This study demonstrated that audible sound treatment of the algae cultures at 2200 Hz was the most effective in terms of biomass production and volumetric oil yield. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lacouture Parodi, Yesenia; Rubak, Per
To evaluate the performance of crosstalk cancellation systems the channel separation is usually used as parameter. However, no systematic evaluation of the minimum audible channel separation has been found in the literature known by the authors. This paper describes a set of subjective experime......To evaluate the performance of crosstalk cancellation systems the channel separation is usually used as parameter. However, no systematic evaluation of the minimum audible channel separation has been found in the literature known by the authors. This paper describes a set of subjective...
Full Text Available A novel pedestrian detection system based on vision in urban traffic situations is presented to help the driver perceive the pedestrian ahead of the vehicle. To enhance the accuracy and to decrease the time spent on pedestrian detection in such complicated situations, the pedestrian is detected by dividing their body into several parts according to their corresponding features in the image. The candidate pedestrian leg is segmented based on the gentle AdaBoost algorithm by training the optimized histogram of gradient features. The candidate pedestrian head is located by matching the pedestrian head and shoulder model above the region of the candidate leg. Then the candidate leg, head and shoulder are combined by parts constraint and threshold adjustment to verify the existence of the pedestrian. Finally, the experiments in real urban traffic circumstances were conducted. The results show that the proposed pedestrian detection method can achieve pedestrian detection rate of 92.1% with the average detection time of 0.2257 s.
Petrescu, L.; Petrescu, Al
Vehicle-pedestrian collisions result in a substantial number of pedestrian fatalities and injuries worldwide. Concern continues to limit and reduce the tragic consequences suffered by pedestrians involved in road accidents, caused the vehicle-pedestrian accident reconstruction become an important area and distinctly outlined in the reconstruction of road incidents involving vehicle. This paper analyzes the dynamics of vehicle-pedestrian impact influence over pedestrian biomechanics, which is directly connected with the severity of injury after contact with the vehicle profile and with the place where the pedestrian is projected. The main goal of this paper is to highlight some features of reconstruction of road accidents involving pedestrian, looking at the kinematics and dynamics of pedestrian impact for a better understanding of the phenomena that occur. The study on the dynamics and biomechanics of the pedestrian hit by the vehicle is useful in order to understand how the injuries, including the lethal ones, are generated in the collision, what is essential in road accidents reconstruction.
Mohd Syazwan S.
Full Text Available Pedestrian’s crashes account for approximately 7% of road death in Malaysia. Even though the percentage is smaller compared to motorcycle-related crashes, amount of road crashes involving pedestrians in Malaysia is a serious concern. The objective of this study is to establish the common type of distraction for Malaysian. Crashes among pedestrians usually highly recorded at straight road followed by inter-section road type. For that, study focusing on the type of distraction among pedestrians while crossing the road by using video recording method. Two type of road were selected observational field survey – signalized and non-signalized intersection. A video recording method was used to analyse the behaviour of pedestrians crossing with or without distraction. Approximately 375 samples were observed while crossing with various type of distraction such as eating, texting, mobile phone talking and others. The study found the highest distraction type observed among pedestrians is usage of electronic equipment-mobile phone with 84.8% followed by other type of distraction – smoking and talking with more that 5%. Mobile phone distraction cause a significant effect in term of time to cross which average time to cross was 14.77 second. The overall results provide a prevalence information that is useful in the development of countermeasures aimed at improving pedestrians’ safety.
Full Text Available The body-mounted inertial systems for pedestrian navigation do not require any preinstalled facilities and can run autonomously. The advantages over other technologies make it especially attractive for the applications such as first responders, military and consumer markets. The hardware platform integrating the low-cost, low-power and small-size MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical systems inertial sensors and GPS (global positioning system receiver is proposed. When the satellite signals are available, the location of the pedestrian is directly obtained from the GPS receiver. The inertial sensors are the complement of the GPS receiver in places where the GPS signals are not available, such as indoors, urban canyons and places under dense foliages. The height tracking is achieved by the barometer. The proposed PDR (pedestrian dead reckoning algorithm is real-timely implemented in the platform. The simple but effective step detection and step length estimation method are realized to reduce the computation and memory requirements on the microprocessor. A complementary filter is proposed to fuse the data from the accelerometer, gyroscope and digital compass for decreasing the heading error, which is the main error source in positioning. The reliability and accuracy of the proposed system is verified by field pedestrian walking tests in outdoors and indoors. The positioning error is less than 4% of the total traveled distance. The results indicate that the pedestrian dead reckoning system is able to provide satisfactory tracking performance.
Chen, Juan; Lo, S. M.; Ma, Jian
Due to the interaction among individuals, pedestrian walking speeds in relatively dense crowds when descending and ascending stairs may present different features from a single pedestrian moving freely. Thus, to obtain a large range of densities, a series of single-file pedestrian movement experiments under laboratory conditions were performed. The trends of the fundamental diagram in a wide pedestrian density range for staircase movement are captured. Detailed features of pedestrian speed with the increase of pedestrian density, headway, and the influence of pedestrians’ lateral sway are further discussed. It is found that with the increase of pedestrian density, the speed decrease rate varies. Meanwhile, the decrease of headway, leads to two speed regimes, i.e. free movement and linear constrained movement. We show that pedestrian speed can be described by counting the number of steps separating pedestrians in longitudinal direction. These enrichments can benefit pedestrian modelling and improve the evaluation of the evacuation performance of a staircase.
Huang, Lin; Ji, Liping; Hu, Ping; Yang, Tiejun
Intelligent video surveillance is to analysis video or image sequences captured by a fixed or mobile surveillance camera, including moving object detection, segmentation and recognition. By using it, we can be notified immediately in an abnormal situation. Pedestrian detection plays an important role in an intelligent video surveillance system, and it is also a key technology in the field of intelligent vehicle. So pedestrian detection has very vital significance in traffic management optimization, security early warn and abnormal behavior detection. Generally, pedestrian detection can be summarized as: first to estimate moving areas; then to extract features of region of interest; finally to classify using a classifier. Redundant wavelet transform (RWT) overcomes the deficiency of shift variant of discrete wavelet transform, and it has better performance in motion estimation when compared to discrete wavelet transform. Addressing the problem of the detection of multi-pedestrian with different speed, we present an algorithm of pedestrian detection based on motion estimation using RWT, combining histogram of oriented gradients (HOG) and support vector machine (SVM). Firstly, three intensities of movement (IoM) are estimated using RWT and the corresponding areas are segmented. According to the different IoM, a region proposal (RP) is generated. Then, the features of a RP is extracted using HOG. Finally, the features are fed into a SVM trained by pedestrian databases and the final detection results are gained. Experiments show that the proposed algorithm can detect pedestrians accurately and efficiently.
Toledo, Daniela; Møller, Henrik
Head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) can be decomposed into minimum phase, linear phase and all-pass components. It is known that low Q-factor all-pass sections in HRTFs are audible as lateral shifts when the interaural group delay at low frequencies exceeds 30usec. The goal of our investiga...
Ferrell, Kay Alicyn; Correa-Torres, Silvia M.; Howell, Jennifer Johnson; Pearson, Robert; Carver, Wendy Morrow; Groll, Amy Spencer; Anthony, Tanni L.; Matthews, Deborah; Gould, Bryan; O'Connell, Trisha; Botsford, Kathryn D,; Dewald, Hong Phangia; Smyth, Catherine A.; Dewald, Aaron John
Introduction:Although image description has been identified as an accommodation for presentations conducted in the classroom, only a few U.S. states have approved it for use in high-stakes assessments. This study examined the use of audible image description as an assessment accommodation for students with visual and print disabilities by…
Rosén, Erik; Källhammer, Jan-Erik; Eriksson, Dick; Nentwich, Matthias; Fredriksson, Rikard; Smith, Kip
The objective of this study was to calculate the potential effectiveness of a pedestrian injury mitigation system that autonomously brakes the car prior to impact. The effectiveness was measured by the reduction of fatally and severely injured pedestrians. The database from the German In-Depth Accident Study (GIDAS) was queried for pedestrians hit by the front of cars from 1999 to 2007. Case by case information on vehicle and pedestrian velocities and trajectories were analysed to estimate the field of view needed for a vehicle-based sensor to detect the pedestrians one second prior to the crash. The pre-impact braking system was assumed to activate the brakes one second prior to crash and to provide a braking deceleration up to the limit of the road surface conditions, but never to exceed 0.6 g. New impact speeds were then calculated for pedestrians that would have been detected by the sensor. These calculations assumed that all pedestrians who were within a given field of view but not obstructed by surrounding objects would be detected. The changes in fatality and severe injury risks were quantified using risk curves derived by logistic regression of the accident data. Summing the risks for all pedestrians, relationships between mitigation effectiveness, sensor field of view, braking initiation time, and deceleration were established. The study documents that the effectiveness at reducing fatally (severely) injured pedestrians in frontal collisions with cars reached 40% (27%) at a field of view of 40 degrees. Increasing the field of view further led to only marginal improvements in effectiveness. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The purpose of this literature review was to describe (1) the factors leading to typical preschool pedestrian accidents, (2) the developmental characteristics of the preschool child that affect his/her behavior in traffic, (3) social factors that may...
The five papers in this volume describe analyses of : fatally-injured pedestrians and occupants by age, based on : traffic accident data. All five were written between June 1983 : and May 1988. The topics addressed include fatality odds when : driver...
Luis Delgado Méndez
After realizing this investigation it can be confirmed that the functionality of a pedestrian crossing depends on almost a hundred parameters which must be checked or measured, in turn proving that this design and construction process is indeed complex.
Dridi, Mohamed H
For the verification and validation of microscopic simulation models of pedestrian flow, we have performed experiments for different kind of facilities and sites where most conflicts and congestion happens e.g. corridors, narrow passages, and crosswalks. The validity of the model should compare the experimental conditions and simulation results with video recording carried out in the same condition like in real life e.g. pedestrian flux and density distributions. The strategy in this technique is to achieve a certain amount of accuracy required in the simulation model. This method is good at detecting the critical points in the pedestrians walking areas. For the calibration of suitable models we use the results obtained from analyzing the video recordings in Hajj 2009 and these results can be used to check the design sections of pedestrian facilities and exits. As practical examples, we present the simulation of pilgrim streams on the Jamarat bridge. The objectives of this study are twofold: first, to show th...
This handbook is designed to help State departments of transportation (DOTs) develop or update State pedestrian and bicycle plans. Based on research including interviews with nine State DOTs and critical evaluations of documents from 15 States, this ...
Zivanovic, Stana; Pavic, Aleksandar; Ingólfsson, Einar Thór
restricted movement of pedestrians, has kept attracting attention of researchers. However, it is the normal spatially unrestricted pedestrian traffic, and its vertical dynamic loading component, that are most relevant for vibration serviceability checks for most footbridges. Despite the existence of numerous...... design procedures concerned with this loading, the current confidence in its modelling is low due to lack of verification of the models on as-built structures. This is the motivation behind reviewing the existing design procedures for modelling normal pedestrian traffic in this paper and evaluating...... their performance against the experimental data acquired on two as-built footbridges. Additionally, the use of Monte Carlo simulations is also investigated. Possible factors that cause discrepancies between measured and calculated vibration responses, including possibility of existence of pedestrian...
The purpose of this literature review was to describe (1) the factors leading to typical preschool pedestrian accidents, (2) the developmental characteristics of the preschool child that affect his/her behavior in traffic, (3) social factors that may...
Gattermann, Peter; Knoflacher, Hermann; Schreckenberg, Michael
Due to an increasing number of reported catastrophes all over the world, the safety especially of pedestrians today, is a dramatically growing field of interest, both for practitioners as well as scientists from various disciplines. The questions arising mainly address the dynamics of evacuating people and possible optimisations of the process by changing the architecture and /or the procedure. This concerns not only the case of ships, stadiums or buildings, all with restricted geometries, but also the evacuation of complete geographical regions due to natural disasters. Furthermore, also ‘simple’ crowd motion in ‘relaxed’ situations poses new questions with respect to higher comfort and efficiency since the number of involved persons at large events is as high as never before. In addition, as a new research topic in this field, collective animal behaviour is attracting increasing attention. All this was in the scope of the conference held in Vienna, September 28–30, 2005, the third one in a series ...
Toran Pour, Alireza; Moridpour, Sara; Tay, Richard; Rajabifard, Abbas
Every year, about 1.24 million people are killed in traffic crashes worldwide and more than 22% of these deaths are pedestrians. Therefore, pedestrian safety has become a significant traffic safety issue worldwide. In order to develop effective and targeted safety programs, the location- and time-specific influences on vehicle-pedestrian crashes must be assessed. The main purpose of this research is to explore the influence of pedestrian age and gender on the temporal and spatial distribution of vehicle-pedestrian crashes to identify the hotspots and hot times. Data for all vehicle-pedestrian crashes on public roadways in the Melbourne metropolitan area from 2004 to 2013 are used in this research. Spatial autocorrelation is applied in examining the vehicle-pedestrian crashes in geographic information systems (GIS) to identify any dependency between time and location of these crashes. Spider plots and kernel density estimation (KDE) are then used to determine the temporal and spatial patterns of vehicle-pedestrian crashes for different age groups and genders. Temporal analysis shows that pedestrian age has a significant influence on the temporal distribution of vehicle-pedestrian crashes. Furthermore, men and women have different crash patterns. In addition, results of the spatial analysis shows that areas with high risk of vehicle-pedestrian crashes can vary during different times of the day for different age groups and genders. For example, for those between ages 18 and 65, most vehicle-pedestrian crashes occur in the central business district (CBD) during the day, but between 7:00 p.m. and 6:00 a.m., crashes among this age group occur mostly around hotels, clubs, and bars. This research reveals that temporal and spatial distributions of vehicle-pedestrian crashes vary for different pedestrian age groups and genders. Therefore, specific safety measures should be in place during high crash times at different locations for different age groups and genders to
Song, Weiguo; Ma, Jian; Fu, Libi
The 8th International Conference on Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics (PED 2016) has been held on October 17–21, 2016 in Hefei, China. PED 2016 Conference offered an opportunity for professionals and scientists with different backgrounds to present and discuss new findings and applications in the field of pedestrian and evacuation dynamics and associated human behavior. The conference aims to provide suggestions for policy makers, planners, designers and emergency management to solve real wo...
Dridi, Mohamed H.
For the verification and validation of microscopic simulation models of pedestrian flow, we have performed experiments for different kind of facilities and sites where most conflicts and congestion happens e.g. corridors, narrow passages, and crosswalks. The validity of the model should compare the experimental conditions and simulation results with video recording carried out in the same condition like in real life e.g. pedestrian flux and density distributions. The strategy in this techniqu...
Full Text Available This paper presents a collaboratively adaptive vibration monitoring system that captures high-fidelity structural vibration signals induced by pedestrians. These signals can be used for various human activities’ monitoring by inferring information about the impact sources, such as pedestrian footsteps, door opening and closing, and dragging objects. Such applications often require high-fidelity (high resolution and low distortion signals. Traditionally, expensive high resolution and high dynamic range sensors are adopted to ensure sufficient resolution. However, for sensing systems that use low-cost sensing devices, the resolution and dynamic range are often limited; hence this type of sensing methods is not well explored ubiquitously. We propose a low-cost sensing system that utilizes (1 a heuristic model of the investigating excitations and (2 shared information through networked devices to adapt hardware configurations and obtain high-fidelity structural vibration signals. To further explain the system, we use indoor pedestrian footstep sensing through ambient structural vibration as an example to demonstrate the system performance. We evaluate the application with three metrics that measure the signal quality from different aspects: the sufficient resolution rate to present signal resolution improvement without clipping, the clipping rate to measure the distortion of the footstep signal, and the signal magnitude to quantify the detailed resolution of the detected footstep signal. In experiments conducted in a school building, our system demonstrated up to 2× increase on the sufficient resolution rate and 2× less error rate when used to locate the pedestrians as they walk along the hallway, compared to a fixed sensing setting.
Full Text Available The article deals with the explanatory relevance of the concept of stereotype in one of its original meanings - as a "mental image". This meaning of the term is the starting point for further differentiations, such as: between linguistic and behavioral stereotypes (in the sense of nonverbal, expected responses; universal and particular stereotypes; self representative and introspective stereotypes; permanent and contemporary stereotypes; and finally, what is most important for our purposes, the difference between silent and audible stereotypes. These distinctions, along with the functions of stereotype, are discussed in the first part of the paper. In the second part, the relations of silent and audible stereotypes are tested against the introduction of "innovative vocabularies" in popular lore. In other words, the explanatory power of this differentiation is checked through an analysis of unconventional motives in Serbian epic poems. The goal of the argument is to clarify the procedure of self creation of masculinity as a relevant feature of the "national character" through "tactic games" of silent and audible stereotypes. The examination of these "poetic strategies" serves a twofold purpose: to illustrate the process of constructing particular features of the "ethno type", on one hand, and to check hypotheses and models which are taken as frameworks in analyzing stereotypes, on the other.
"Introduction : FHWAs Office of Highway Safety (HSA) initiated a program evaluation by Booz Allen Hamilton to assess the overall effectiveness of the Agencys Pedestrian and Bicycle Safety Program. The evaluation covers pedestrian and bicycle sa...
Prior to any promulgation by NHTSA of four model traffic regulations for rural pedestrian safety it was the objective of this study to assess, where feasible, the potential effectiveness of these regulations to prevent pedestrian accidents. The model...
The relationship between vehicle travel speeds and resulting pedestrian injury was reviewed in the literature and in existing data sets. Results indicated that higher vehicle speeds are strongly associated with both a greater likelihood of pedestrian...
Zhang, Mengshi; Georgakis, Christos T.; Chen, Jun
Through their biomechanical properties, pedestrians interact with the structures they occupy. Although this interaction has been recognized by researchers, pedestrians' biomechanical properties have not been fully addressed. In this paper, a spring-mass-damper (SMD) system, with a pair of biomech......Through their biomechanical properties, pedestrians interact with the structures they occupy. Although this interaction has been recognized by researchers, pedestrians' biomechanical properties have not been fully addressed. In this paper, a spring-mass-damper (SMD) system, with a pair...
Shihong Yao; Tao Wang; Weiming Shen; Shaoming Pan; Yanwen Chong; Fei Ding
Pedestrian detection have been currently devoted to the extraction of effective pedestrian features, which has become one of the obstacles in pedestrian detection application according to the variety of pedestrian features and their large dimension. Based on the theoretical analysis of six frequently-used features, SIFT, SURF, Haar, HOG, LBP and LSS, and their comparison with experimental results, this paper screens out the sparse feature subsets via sparse representation to investigate wheth...
The wheeled agricultural tractor is one of the most prominent sources of noise in agriculture. This paper presents the assessment of the operator's exposure to audible and infrasonic noise in 32 selected modern wheeled agricultural tractors designed and produced by world-renowned companies in normal working conditions. The tractors have been in use for no longer than 4 years, with rated power of 51 kW to up to 228 kW (as per 97/68 EC). Audible and infrasonic noise level measurements and occupational exposure analysis to noise were performed according to ISO 9612:2009 (strategy 1 - task-based measurements). The measurements were made in different typical work conditions inside and outside of tractors cabs. The results indicated that exposure levels to noise perceived by the operators (L(ex,Te) between 62,3 and 84,7 dB-A) and can make a small risk of potential adversely effects on hearing during tasks performed inside the closed cab. It should be remarked that uncertainty interval is wider and in in some conditions can occur transgression of audible noise occupational exposure limits. The measured audible noise levels can potentially develop the non-auditory effects. Analysed tractors emit considerable infrasonic noise levels that tend to exceed the occupational exposure limits (both inside and outside the driver's cab). The levels of infrasound: 83,8-111,4 dB-G. All tractors introduced for sale should be subjected to tests in terms of infrasonic noise levels. The applicable standards for low frequency noise and its measurement methods for vehicles, including agricultural tractors, should be scientifically revised. In the last years there has been a noticeable technical progress in reduction of audible noise exposure at the tractors operators workplaces with simultaneously lack of important works for limitation of exposure to infrasound. Author discuss possible health and ergonomic consequencies of such exposure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics
Wells, Hayley L; McClure, Leslie A; Porter, Bryan E; Schwebel, David C
Pedestrian injuries injure about 180,000 individuals and kill 6000 each year in the United States, and pedestrian injury rates have increased each of the last several years. Distracted pedestrian behavior may play a role in the trend of increasing risk for pedestrian injury. Using in vivo behavioral coding over the course of two weeks on two urban college campuses, this study aimed to (1) understand the type and rate of distractions engaged in by pedestrians on urban college campuses, and (2) investigate the impact of distraction on street-crossing safety and behavior. A total of 10,543 pedestrians were observed, 90% of them young adults. Over one-third of those pedestrians were distracted while actively crossing roadways. Headphones were the most common distraction (19% of all pedestrians), followed by text-messaging (8%) and talking on the phone (5%). Women were more likely to text and talk on the phone than men, and men were more likely to be wearing headphones. Distracted pedestrians were somewhat less likely to look for traffic when they entered roadways. As handheld device usage continues to increase, behavioral interventions should be developed and implemented. Changes to policy concerning distracted pedestrian behavior, including improvement of the built environment to reduce pedestrian risk, should be considered in busy pedestrian areas like urban college campuses.
Full Text Available This study compares Japanese pedestrian decks and European plazas as public pedestrian spaces. The characteristics of both types of spaces will be clarified through a schematic analysis. The connections of these spaces with their surroundings will also be analyzed. Further, the spatial image of these spaces are discussed. Pedestrian spaces in Romania will be discussed as well.
Background: Traffic injuries are an important problem in low income countries. In Uganda road traffic is the largest single cause of injury in Kampala; pedestrians, and children are most affected. Pedestrian injury affects school children in Uganda. Objective: To determine the overall risk of pedestrian traffic injury among ...
Objective. To establish a profile of injured adult pedestrians and attempt to define the role which alcohol plays in this regard. Design. Prospective survey of injured pedestrians who presented consecutively over 9 weeks to Groote Schuur Hospital. Data on fatally injured pedestrians were retrospectively collected from the ...
Frank, G. A.; Dorso, C. O.
Understanding the timing requirements for evacuation of people has focused primarily on independent pedestrians rather than pedestrians emotionally connected. However, the main statistical effects observed in crowds, the so-called “faster is slower”, “clever is not always better” and the “low visibility enhancement”, cannot explain the overall behavior of a crowd during an evacuation process when correlated pedestrians due to, for example feelings, are present. Our research addresses this issue and examines the statistical behavior of a mixture of individuals and couples during a (panic) escaping process. We found that the attractive feeling among couples plays an important role in the time delays during the evacuation of a single exit room.
Krbálek, Milan; Hrabák, Pavel; Bukáček, Marek
The aim of the article is to give a more detailed insight into territorial social forces acting between pedestrians by means of headway distribution and spectral rigidity. Probabilistic distribution of time headways between consecutive pedestrians is studied theoretically and experimentally. Several original experiments/empirical observations are presented and compared to data obtained from previously published experiments. The study is restricted to an unidirectional one-lane motion where overtaking is forbidden. The main stress is put on natural choices of mutual interaction represented by logarithmic and hyperbolic potentials leading to gamma and generalized inverse Gaussian distribution respectively. We show that the time headway distribution does not sufficiently reflect the differences between such distributions. The tools related to spectral rigidity and compressibility are chosen instead so as to predict the territorial social forces more accurately. Surprisingly, pedestrian flow seems to show a higher level of synchronization (lower compressibility) than vehicular flow.
Full Text Available A fast pedestrian recognition algorithm based on multisensor fusion is presented in this paper. Firstly, potential pedestrian locations are estimated by laser radar scanning in the world coordinates, and then their corresponding candidate regions in the image are located by camera calibration and the perspective mapping model. For avoiding time consuming in the training and recognition process caused by large numbers of feature vector dimensions, region of interest-based integral histograms of oriented gradients (ROI-IHOG feature extraction method is proposed later. A support vector machine (SVM classifier is trained by a novel pedestrian sample dataset which adapt to the urban road environment for online recognition. Finally, we test the validity of the proposed approach with several video sequences from realistic urban road scenarios. Reliable and timewise performances are shown based on our multisensor fusing method.
Hyun, Eugin; Jin, Young-Seok; Lee, Jong-Hun
For an automotive pedestrian detection radar system, fast-ramp based 2D range-Doppler Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) radar is effective for distinguishing between moving targets and unwanted clutter. However, when a weak moving target such as a pedestrian exists together with strong clutter, the pedestrian may be masked by the side-lobe of the clutter even though they are notably separated in the Doppler dimension. To prevent this problem, one popular solution is the use of a windowing scheme with a weighting function. However, this method leads to a spread spectrum, so the pedestrian with weak signal power and slow Doppler may also be masked by the main-lobe of clutter. With a fast-ramp based FMCW radar, if the target is moving, the complex spectrum of the range- Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is changed with a constant phase difference over ramps. In contrast, the clutter exhibits constant phase irrespective of the ramps. Based on this fact, in this paper we propose a pedestrian detection for highly cluttered environments using a coherent phase difference method. By detecting the coherent phase difference from the complex spectrum of the range-FFT, we first extract the range profile of the moving pedestrians. Then, through the Doppler FFT, we obtain the 2D range-Doppler map for only the pedestrian. To test the proposed detection scheme, we have developed a real-time data logging system with a 24 GHz FMCW transceiver. In laboratory tests, we verified that the signal processing results from the proposed method were much better than those expected from the conventional 2D FFT-based detection method.
Full Text Available For an automotive pedestrian detection radar system, fast-ramp based 2D range-Doppler Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW radar is effective for distinguishing between moving targets and unwanted clutter. However, when a weak moving target such as a pedestrian exists together with strong clutter, the pedestrian may be masked by the side-lobe of the clutter even though they are notably separated in the Doppler dimension. To prevent this problem, one popular solution is the use of a windowing scheme with a weighting function. However, this method leads to a spread spectrum, so the pedestrian with weak signal power and slow Doppler may also be masked by the main-lobe of clutter. With a fast-ramp based FMCW radar, if the target is moving, the complex spectrum of the range- Fast Fourier Transform (FFT is changed with a constant phase difference over ramps. In contrast, the clutter exhibits constant phase irrespective of the ramps. Based on this fact, in this paper we propose a pedestrian detection for highly cluttered environments using a coherent phase difference method. By detecting the coherent phase difference from the complex spectrum of the range-FFT, we first extract the range profile of the moving pedestrians. Then, through the Doppler FFT, we obtain the 2D range-Doppler map for only the pedestrian. To test the proposed detection scheme, we have developed a real-time data logging system with a 24 GHz FMCW transceiver. In laboratory tests, we verified that the signal processing results from the proposed method were much better than those expected from the conventional 2D FFT-based detection method.
Full Text Available This paper presents a model for the simulation of pedestrian dynamics inspired by the behaviour of ants in ant trails. Ants communicate by producing a pheromone that can be smelled by other ants. In this model, pedestrians produce a virtual pheromone that influences the motion of others. In this way all interactions are strictly local, and so even large crowds can be simulated very efficiently. Nevertheless, the model is able to reproduce the collective effects observed empirically, eg the formation of lanes in counterflow. As an application, we reproduce a surprising result found in experiments of evacuation from an aircraft.
The proposed stochastic model for pedestrian dynamics is based on existing approaches using cellular automata, combined with substantial extensions, to compensate the deficiencies resulting of the discrete grid structure. This agent motion model is extended by both a grid-based path planning and mid-range agent interaction component. The stochastic model proves its capabilities for a quantitative reproduction of the characteristic shape of the common fundamental diagram of pedestrian dynamics. Moreover, effects of self-organizing behavior are successfully reproduced. The stochastic cellular automata approach is found to be adequate with respect to uncertainties in human motion patterns, a feature previously held by artificial noise terms alone.
Correa, Alejandro; Munoz Diaz, Estefania; Bousdar Ahmed, Dina; Morell, Antoni; Lopez Vicario, Jose
In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the development of pedestrian navigation systems for satellite-denied scenarios. The popularization of smartphones and smartwatches is an interesting opportunity for reducing the infrastructure cost of the positioning systems. Nowadays, smartphones include inertial sensors that can be used in pedestrian dead-reckoning (PDR) algorithms for the estimation of the user's position. Both smartphones and smartwatches include WiFi capabilities allowing the computation of the received signal strength (RSS). We develop a new method for the combination of RSS measurements from two different receivers using a Gaussian mixture model. We also analyze the implication of using a WiFi network designed for communication purposes in an indoor positioning system when the designer cannot control the network configuration. In this work, we design a hybrid positioning system that combines inertial measurements, from low-cost inertial sensors embedded in a smartphone, with RSS measurements through an extended Kalman filter. The system has been validated in a real scenario, and results show that our system improves the positioning accuracy of the PDR system thanks to the use of two WiFi receivers. The designed system obtains an accuracy up to 1.4 m in a scenario of 6000 m 2 .
Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the development of pedestrian navigation systems for satellite-denied scenarios. The popularization of smartphones and smartwatches is an interesting opportunity for reducing the infrastructure cost of the positioning systems. Nowadays, smartphones include inertial sensors that can be used in pedestrian dead-reckoning (PDR algorithms for the estimation of the user’s position. Both smartphones and smartwatches include WiFi capabilities allowing the computation of the received signal strength (RSS. We develop a new method for the combination of RSS measurements from two different receivers using a Gaussian mixture model. We also analyze the implication of using a WiFi network designed for communication purposes in an indoor positioning system when the designer cannot control the network configuration. In this work, we design a hybrid positioning system that combines inertial measurements, from low-cost inertial sensors embedded in a smartphone, with RSS measurements through an extended Kalman filter. The system has been validated in a real scenario, and results show that our system improves the positioning accuracy of the PDR system thanks to the use of two WiFi receivers. The designed system obtains an accuracy up to 1.4 m in a scenario of 6000 m 2 .
Full Text Available Wearable and smartphone technology innovations have propelled the growth of Pedestrian Navigation Services (PNS. PNS need a map-matching process to project a user’s locations onto maps. Many map-matching techniques have been developed for vehicle navigation services. These techniques are inappropriate for PNS because pedestrians move, stop, and turn in different ways compared to vehicles. In addition, the base map data for pedestrians are more complicated than for vehicles. This article proposes a new map-matching method for locating Global Positioning System (GPS trajectories of pedestrians onto road network datasets. The theory underlying this approach is based on the Fréchet distance, one of the measures of geometric similarity between two curves. The Fréchet distance approach can provide reasonable matching results because two linear trajectories are parameterized with the time variable. Then we improved the method to be adaptive to the positional error of the GPS signal. We used an adaptation coefficient to adjust the search range for every input signal, based on the assumption of auto-correlation between consecutive GPS points. To reduce errors in matching, the reliability index was evaluated in real time for each match. To test the proposed map-matching method, we applied it to GPS trajectories of pedestrians and the road network data. We then assessed the performance by comparing the results with reference datasets. Our proposed method performed better with test data when compared to a conventional map-matching technique for vehicles.
Bang, Yoonsik; Kim, Jiyoung; Yu, Kiyun
Wearable and smartphone technology innovations have propelled the growth of Pedestrian Navigation Services (PNS). PNS need a map-matching process to project a user's locations onto maps. Many map-matching techniques have been developed for vehicle navigation services. These techniques are inappropriate for PNS because pedestrians move, stop, and turn in different ways compared to vehicles. In addition, the base map data for pedestrians are more complicated than for vehicles. This article proposes a new map-matching method for locating Global Positioning System (GPS) trajectories of pedestrians onto road network datasets. The theory underlying this approach is based on the Fréchet distance, one of the measures of geometric similarity between two curves. The Fréchet distance approach can provide reasonable matching results because two linear trajectories are parameterized with the time variable. Then we improved the method to be adaptive to the positional error of the GPS signal. We used an adaptation coefficient to adjust the search range for every input signal, based on the assumption of auto-correlation between consecutive GPS points. To reduce errors in matching, the reliability index was evaluated in real time for each match. To test the proposed map-matching method, we applied it to GPS trajectories of pedestrians and the road network data. We then assessed the performance by comparing the results with reference datasets. Our proposed method performed better with test data when compared to a conventional map-matching technique for vehicles.
Full Text Available Robots are expected to be operated in environments where they coexist with humans, such as shopping malls and offices. Both the safety and efficiency of a robot are necessary in such environments. To achieve this, pedestrian behaviour should be accurately predicted. However, the behaviour is uncertain and cannot be easily predicted. This paper proposes a probabilistic method of determining pedestrian trajectory based on an estimation of pedestrian behaviour patterns. The proposed method focuses on the specific behaviour of pedestrians around the robot. The proposed model classifies the behaviours of pedestrians into definite patterns. The behaviour patterns, distribution of the positions of the pedestrians, and the direction of each behaviour pattern are determined by learning through observation. The behaviour pattern of a pedestrian can be estimated correctly by a likelihood calculation. A robot decides to move with an emphasis on either safety or efficiency depending on the result of the pattern estimation. If the pedestrian trajectory follows a known behaviour pattern, the robot would move with an emphasis on efficiency because the pedestrian trajectory can be predicted. Otherwise, the robot would move with an emphasis on safety because the behaviour of the pedestrian cannot be predicted. Experimental results show that robots can move efficiently and safely when passing by a pedestrian by applying the proposed method.
Berger, Robert G; Ashtiani, Payam; Ollson, Christopher A; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa; McCallum, Lindsay C; Leventhall, Geoff; Knopper, Loren D
Setbacks for wind turbines have been established in many jurisdictions to address potential health concerns associated with audible noise. However, in recent years, it has been suggested that infrasound (IS) and low-frequency noise (LFN) could be responsible for the onset of adverse health effects self-reported by some individuals living in proximity to wind turbines, even when audible noise limits are met. The purpose of this paper was to investigate whether current audible noise-based guidelines for wind turbines account for the protection of human health, given the levels of IS and LFN typically produced by wind turbines. New field measurements of indoor IS and outdoor LFN at locations between 400 and 900 m from the nearest turbine, which were previously underrepresented in the scientific literature, are reported and put into context with existing published works. Our analysis showed that indoor IS levels were below auditory threshold levels while LFN levels at distances >500 m were similar to background LFN levels. A clear contribution to LFN due to wind turbine operation (i.e., measured with turbines on in comparison to with turbines off) was noted at a distance of 480 m. However, this corresponded to an increase in overall audible sound measures as reported in dB(A), supporting the hypothesis that controlling audible sound produced by normally operating wind turbines will also control for LFN. Overall, the available data from this and other studies suggest that health-based audible noise wind turbine siting guidelines provide an effective means to evaluate, monitor, and protect potential receptors from audible noise as well as IS and LFN.
Robert G Berger
Full Text Available Setbacks for wind turbines have been established in many jurisdictions to address potential health concerns associated with audible noise. However, in recent years it has been suggested that infrasound (IS and low frequency noise (LFN could be responsible for the onset of adverse health effects self-reported by some individuals living in proximity to wind turbines, even when audible noise limits are met. The purpose of this paper was to investigate whether current audible noise-based guidelines for wind turbines account for the protection of human health, given the levels of IS and LFN typically produced by wind turbines. New field measurements of indoor IS and outdoor LFN at locations between 400 m and 900 m from the nearest turbine, which were previously underrepresented in the scientific literature, are reported and put into context with existing published works. Our analysis showed that indoor IS levels were below auditory threshold levels while LFN levels at distances >500 m were similar to background LFN levels. A clear contribution to LFN due to wind turbine operation (i.e., measured with turbines on in comparison to with turbines off was noted at a distance of 480 m. However, this corresponded to an increase in overall audible sound measures as reported in dB(A, supporting the hypothesis that controlling audible sound produced by normally operating wind turbines will also control for LFN. Overall, the available data from this and other studies suggest that health-based audible noise wind turbine siting guidelines provide an effective means to evaluate, monitor, and protect potential receptors from audible noise as well as IS and LFN.
McCreery, Ryan W; Alexander, Joshua; Brennan, Marc A; Hoover, Brenda; Kopun, Judy; Stelmachowicz, Patricia G
The primary goal of nonlinear frequency compression (NFC) and other frequency-lowering strategies is to increase the audibility of high-frequency sounds that are not otherwise audible with conventional hearing aid (HA) processing due to the degree of hearing loss, limited HA bandwidth, or a combination of both factors. The aim of the present study was to compare estimates of speech audibility processed by NFC with improvements in speech recognition for a group of children and adults with high-frequency hearing loss. Monosyllabic word recognition was measured in noise for 24 adults and 12 children with mild to severe sensorineural hearing loss. Stimuli were amplified based on each listener's audiogram with conventional processing (CP) with amplitude compression or with NFC and presented under headphones using a software-based HA simulator. A modification of the speech intelligibility index (SII) was used to estimate audibility of information in frequency-lowered bands. The mean improvement in SII was compared with the mean improvement in speech recognition. All but 2 listeners experienced improvements in speech recognition with NFC compared with CP, consistent with the small increase in audibility that was estimated using the modification of the SII. Children and adults had similar improvements in speech recognition with NFC. Word recognition with NFC was higher than CP for children and adults with mild to severe hearing loss. The average improvement in speech recognition with NFC (7%) was consistent with the modified SII, which indicated that listeners experienced an increase in audibility with NFC compared with CP. Further studies are necessary to determine whether changes in audibility with NFC are related to speech recognition with NFC for listeners with greater degrees of hearing loss, with a greater variety of compression settings, and using auditory training.
Berger, Robert G.; Ashtiani, Payam; Ollson, Christopher A.; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa; McCallum, Lindsay C.; Leventhall, Geoff; Knopper, Loren D.
Setbacks for wind turbines have been established in many jurisdictions to address potential health concerns associated with audible noise. However, in recent years, it has been suggested that infrasound (IS) and low-frequency noise (LFN) could be responsible for the onset of adverse health effects self-reported by some individuals living in proximity to wind turbines, even when audible noise limits are met. The purpose of this paper was to investigate whether current audible noise-based guidelines for wind turbines account for the protection of human health, given the levels of IS and LFN typically produced by wind turbines. New field measurements of indoor IS and outdoor LFN at locations between 400 and 900 m from the nearest turbine, which were previously underrepresented in the scientific literature, are reported and put into context with existing published works. Our analysis showed that indoor IS levels were below auditory threshold levels while LFN levels at distances >500 m were similar to background LFN levels. A clear contribution to LFN due to wind turbine operation (i.e., measured with turbines on in comparison to with turbines off) was noted at a distance of 480 m. However, this corresponded to an increase in overall audible sound measures as reported in dB(A), supporting the hypothesis that controlling audible sound produced by normally operating wind turbines will also control for LFN. Overall, the available data from this and other studies suggest that health-based audible noise wind turbine siting guidelines provide an effective means to evaluate, monitor, and protect potential receptors from audible noise as well as IS and LFN. PMID:25759808
Sun, Zuolei; Mao, Xuchu; Tian, Weifeng; Zhang, Xiangfen
This paper addresses an approach which integrates activity classification and dead reckoning techniques in step-based pedestrian navigation. In the proposed method, the pedestrian is equipped with a prototype wearable sensor module to record accelerations and determine the headings while walking. To improve the step detection accuracy, different types of activities are classified according to extracted features by means of a probabilistic neural network (PNN). The vertical acceleration data, which indicate the periodic vibration during gait cycle are filtered through a wavelet transform before being used to count the steps and assess the step length from which the distance traveled is estimated. By coupling the distance with the azimuth, navigation through pedestrian dead reckoning is implemented. This research provides a possible seamless pedestrian navigation solution which can be applied to a wide range of areas where the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) signal remains vulnerable. Results of two experiments in this paper reveal that the proposed approach is effective in reducing navigation errors and improving accuracy.
Li, Sheng-Zhen; Xie, Quan-Long; Zang, Xiao-Dong; Tang, Guo-Jun
Since that the pedestrian crossing facilities at present is not perfect, pedestrian crossing is in chaos and pedestrians from opposite direction conflict and congest with each other, which severely affects the pedestrian traffic efficiency, obstructs the vehicle and bringing about some potential security problems. To solve these problems, based on video identification, a pedestrian crossing guidance system was researched and designed. It uses the camera to monitor the pedestrians in real time and sums up the number of pedestrians through video detection program, and a group of pedestrian's induction lamp array is installed at the interval of crosswalk, which adjusts color display according to the proportion of pedestrians from both sides to guide pedestrians from both opposite directions processing separately. The emulation analysis result from cellular automaton shows that the system reduces the pedestrian crossing conflict, shortens the time of pedestrian crossing and improves the safety of pedestrians crossing.
Cubick, Jens; Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten
When listening in natural environments, normal-hearing (NH) listeners usually perceive sounds out- side their head, i.e., externalized. Sounds perceived inside the head are called internalized. Hearing- impaired (HI) listeners have been reported to externalize sounds less accurately than NH....... The present study aimed at clarifying whether the perceived distance of sounds in HI listeners differs from NH data as well and, if so, whether distance-rating performance improves when reduced audibility is compensated for by amplification. Individual binaural room impulse responses (BRIRs) were mea- sured...
Bosma, F.; Gaalman, H.; Souren, W.H.M.
To provide protection to pedestrians in collision with passenger vehicles, the design and construction of a vehicle’s bumper, hood and fender panels must be addressed. TNO has undertaken a research project in conjunction with DSM to investigate how this may be done. Vehicle styling, packaging and an
Enzweiler, M.; Gavrila, D.M.
Pedestrian detection is a rapidly evolving area in computer vision with key applications in intelligent vehicles, surveillance, and advanced robotics. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the current state of the art from both methodological and experimental perspectives. The
Ingolfsson, Einar Thor; Georgakis, Christos T.; Jönsson, Jeppe
of the underlying pavement. An extensive experimental analysis has been carried out to determine the lateral forces generated by pedestrians when walking on a laterally moving treadmill. Two different conditions are investigated; initially the treadmill is fixed and then it is laterally driven in a sinusoidal...
Ingólfsson, Einar Thór; Georgakis, Christos T.; Jönsson, Jeppe
of the underlying pavement. An extensive experimental analysis has been carried out to determine the lateral forces generated by pedestrians when walking on a laterally moving treadmill. Two different conditions are investigated; initially the treadmill is fixed and then it is laterally driven in a sinusoidal...
Lee, Min Hee; Lee, Hae Kyung; Choi, Seo-Youn; Yi, Boem Ha
The effectiveness of real-time feedback using an audible pulse in renal Doppler ultrasonography was evaluated. This study was approved by the institutional review board of our hospital. Written informed consent was provided by all volunteers at enrollment. The 26 healthy volunteers enrolled in this study underwent Doppler ultrasound of both kidneys using audible and inaudible pulses in randomized order and at 1-week intervals. Doppler waveforms were obtained at the interlobar or arcuate arteries using a 2-mm Doppler gate. Each session was considered complete when reproducible waveforms were obtained for 5 s in three predefined regions of the kidney. The scan times needed to obtain waveforms of the right and left kidneys were recorded separately. Measurements were compared using a paired t-test and a two-sample Wilcoxon rank-sum test. The total recorded Doppler sonography scan time for each kidney ranged from 33 to 146 s. The mean scan time was 56.83 s (right, 58.19 s; left, 55.46 s) in the audible session and 72.58 s (right, 72.08 s; left, 73.08 s) in the inaudible session. The scan times were significantly shorter in the audible than inaudible session (peffect on the total scan time. Real-time feedback using an audible pulse may encourage patient cooperation during breath-holding and can shorten the time needed to perform Doppler ultrasonography.
Kwak, Jaeyoung; Jo, Hang-Hyun; Luttinen, Tapio; Kosonen, Iisakki
We numerically study jamming transitions in pedestrian flow interacting with an attraction, mostly based on the social force model for pedestrians who can join the attraction. We formulate the joining probability as a function of social influence from others, reflecting that individual choice behavior is likely influenced by others. By controlling pedestrian influx and the social influence parameter, we identify various pedestrian flow patterns. For the bidirectional flow scenario, we observe a transition from the free flow phase to the freezing phase, in which oppositely walking pedestrians reach a complete stop and block each other. On the other hand, a different transition behavior appears in the unidirectional flow scenario, i.e., from the free flow phase to the localized jam phase and then to the extended jam phase. It is also observed that the extended jam phase can end up in freezing phenomena with a certain probability when pedestrian flux is high with strong social influence. This study highlights that attractive interactions between pedestrians and an attraction can trigger jamming transitions by increasing the number of conflicts among pedestrians near the attraction. In order to avoid excessive pedestrian jams, we suggest suppressing the number of conflicts under a certain level by moderating pedestrian influx especially when the social influence is strong.
Ma, Yi, E-mail: email@example.com [School of Transportation and Logistics, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu (China); Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Lee, Eric Wai Ming; Yuen, Richard Kwok Kit [Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon (Hong Kong)
This paper investigates the effect of the pedestrian density in building on the evacuation dynamic with simulation method. In the simulations, both the visibility in building and the exit limit of building are taken into account. The simulation results show that the effect of the pedestrian density in building on the evacuation dynamics is dual. On the one hand, when the visibility in building is very large, the increased pedestrian density plays a negative effect. On the other hand, when the visibility in building is very small, the increased pedestrian density can play a positive effect. The simulation results also show that when both the exit width and visibility are very small, the varying of evacuation time with regard to the pedestrian density is non-monotonous and presents a U-shaped tendency. That is, in this case, too large or too small pedestrian density in building is disadvantageous to the evacuation process. Our findings provide a new insight about the effect of the pedestrian density in building on the evacuation dynamic. - Highlights: • Pedestrian density inside buildings has dual effects on evacuation. • Increased pedestrian density has a negative effect in cases of increased visibility. • Increased pedestrian density has a positive effect in cases of decreased visibility.
Hassan, Shirin E.
Purpose. The purpose of this study is to measure the accuracy and reliability of normally sighted, visually impaired, and blind pedestrians at making street crossing decisions using visual and/or auditory information. Methods. Using a 5-point rating scale, safety ratings for vehicular gaps of different durations were measured along a two-lane street of one-way traffic without a traffic signal. Safety ratings were collected from 12 normally sighted, 10 visually impaired, and 10 blind subjects for eight different gap times under three sensory conditions: (1) visual plus auditory information, (2) visual information only, and (3) auditory information only. Accuracy and reliability in street crossing decision-making were calculated for each subject under each sensory condition. Results. We found that normally sighted and visually impaired pedestrians were accurate and reliable in their street crossing decision-making ability when using either vision plus hearing or vision only (P > 0.05). Under the hearing only condition, all subjects were reliable (P > 0.05) but inaccurate with their street crossing decisions (P visually impaired subjects (P = 0.019), blind subjects were the least accurate with their street crossing decisions under the hearing only condition. Conclusions. Our data suggested that visually impaired pedestrians can make accurate and reliable street crossing decisions like those of normally sighted pedestrians. When using auditory information only, all subjects significantly overestimated the vehicular gap time. Our finding that blind pedestrians performed significantly worse than either the normally sighted or visually impaired subjects under the hearing only condition suggested that they may benefit from training to improve their detection ability and/or interpretation of vehicular gap times. PMID:22427593
Schwebel, David C; Wu, Yue; Li, Peng; Severson, Joan; He, Yefei; Xiang, Henry; Hu, Guoqing
This nonrandomized trial evaluated whether classroom-based training in a smartphone-based virtual reality (VR) pedestrian environment (a) teaches schoolchildren to cross streets safely, and (b) increases their self-efficacy for street-crossing. Fifty-six children, aged 8-10 years, attending primary school in Changsha, China participated. Baseline pedestrian safety assessment occurred in the VR environment and through unobtrusive observation of a subsample crossing a street for 11 days outside school. Self-efficacy was assessed through both self-report and observation. Following baseline, children engaged in the VR for 12 days in their classrooms, honing complex cognitive-perceptual skills required to engage safely in traffic. Follow-up assessment replicated baseline. Probability of crash in the VR decreased posttraining (0.40 vs. 0.09), and observational data found the odds of looking at oncoming traffic while crossing the first lane of traffic increased (odds ratio [OR] = 2.4). Self-efficacy increases occurred in self-report (proportional OR = 4.7 crossing busy streets) and observation of following crossing-guard signals (OR = 0.2, first lane). Pedestrian safety training via smartphone-based VR provides children the repeated practice needed to learn the complex skills required to cross streets safely, and also helps them improve self-efficacy to cross streets. Given rapid motorization and global smartphone penetration, plus epidemiological findings that about 75,000 children die annually worldwide in pedestrian crashes, smartphone-based VR could supplement existing policy and prevention efforts to improve global child pedestrian safety.
Full Text Available Background. The study aimed to compare effects of occupational exposure to low frequency noise (LFN in comparison with those of audible noise (AN. Material and methods. Three groups of 307 workers (I – exposed to LFN, II – exposed to audible noise – AN, and III- controls were examined. Results. Blood pressure and other biochemical parameters were worse in the group exposed. All parameters of hearing were worse in the AN group in comparison with LFN one in whole range of frequency. The same trends were found in posturography. Conclusions. The results of the study showed that audible noise is more hazardous than LFN. The results did not support thesis on vibroacoustic disease.
Strandroth, Johan; Sternlund, Simon; Lie, Anders; Tingvall, Claes; Rizzi, Matteo; Kullgren, Anders; Ohlin, Maria; Fredriksson, Rikard
Pedestrians and bicyclists account for a significant share of deaths and serious injuries in the road transport system. The protection of pedestrians in car-to-pedestrian crashes has therefore been addressed by friendlier car fronts and since 1997, the European New Car Assessment Program (Euro NCAP) has assessed the level of protection for most car models available in Europe. In the current study, Euro NCAP pedestrian scoring was compared with real-life injury outcomes in car-to-pedestrian and car-tobicyclist crashes occurring in Sweden. Approximately 1200 injured pedestrians and 2000 injured bicyclists were included in the study. Groups of cars with low, medium and high pedestrian scores were compared with respect to pedestrian injury severity on the Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale (MAIS)-level and risk of permanent medical impairment (RPMI). Significant injury reductions to both pedestrians and bicyclists were found between low and high performing cars. For pedestrians, the reduction of MAIS2+, MAIS3+, RPMI1+ and RPMI10+ ranged from 20-56% and was significant on all levels except for MAIS3+ injuries. Pedestrian head injuries had the highest reduction, 80-90% depending on level of medical impairment. For bicyclist, an injury reduction was only observed between medium and high performing cars. Significant injury reductions were found for all body regions. It was also found that cars fitted with autonomous emergency braking including pedestrian detection might have a 60-70% lower crash involvement than expected. Based on these results, it was recommended that pedestrian protection are implemented on a global scale to provide protection for vulnerable road users worldwide.
Full Text Available Two types of methods are used to evaluate pedestrian comfort: pedestrian wind comfort and outdoor thermal comfort. To accurately ascertain the outdoor wind environment, wind speed is the only parameter considered. However, pedestrians may still feel discomfort when the perceived temperature is low, even though the wind comfort criterion has been satisfactorily fulfilled. The purpose of this study is, therefore, to investigate pedestrian comfort when the perceived temperature is low, especially in winter conditions. To achieve this, a pedestrian survey was conducted, and 588 respondents completed a questionnaire. The results show that pedestrians feel discomfort when the WCET (Wind Chill Equivalent Temperature is low, with almost 40 percent of respondents answering that they feel discomfort in these conditions. In conclusion, the threshold wind speed of the winter season could be determined to be lower than that of the existing comfort criteria by applying the WCET.
Ezaki, Takahiro; Chraibi, Mohcine; Boltes, Maik; Yanagisawa, Daichi; Seyfried, Armin; Schadschneider, Andreas; Nishinari, Katsuhiro
To better design safe and comfortable urban spaces, understanding the nature of human crowd movement is important. However, precise interactions among pedestrians are difficult to measure in the presence of their complex decision-making processes and many related factors. While extensive studies on pedestrian flow through bottlenecks and corridors have been conducted, the dominant mode of interaction in these scenarios may not be relevant in different scenarios. Here, we attempt to decipher the factors that affect human reactions to other individuals from a different perspective. We conducted experiments employing the inflow process in which pedestrians successively enter a confined area (like an elevator) and look for a temporary position. In this process, pedestrians have a wider range of options regarding their motion than in the classical scenarios; therefore, other factors might become relevant. The preference of location is visualized by pedestrian density profiles obtained from recorded pedestrian traj...
Arbogast, Helen; Burke, Rita V; Muller, Valerie; Ruiz, Pearl; Knudson, M Margaret; Knudson, Margaret M; Upperman, Jeffrey S
Injury is the number one cause of death and disability in children in the United States and an increasingly important public health problem globally. While prevention of injuries is an important goal, prevention efforts are currently fragmented, poorly funded, and rarely studied. Among school-aged children, pedestrian crashes are a major mechanism of injury. We hypothesized that we could develop a game-based educational tool that would be effective in teaching elementary school children the principles of pedestrian safety. Between November 2011 and June 2013, second- and third-grade children in Los Angeles Unified School District were randomly assigned to play a unique interactive video game (Ace's Adventure) about pedestrian safety or to a traditional didactic session about pedestrian safety. A pretest and posttest were administered to the study participants. Afterward, study participants were observed for appropriate pedestrian behavior on a simulated street set called Street Smarts. All statistical analyses were performed using SAS version 9.2. A total of 348 study participants took the pretest and posttest. There were 180 who were randomized to the didactic and 168 who were randomized to the video game. The didactic group demonstrated a higher mean score increase (1.01, p video game group (0.44, p video game, as compared with the didactic group, more frequently exhibited appropriate behavior during the following: exiting a parked car (p = 0.01), signaling to a car that was backing up (p = 0.01), signaling to a stopped car (p = 0.0002), and crossing the street (p = 0.01). Students who played the educational video game about pedestrian safety performed similarly to those who attended a more traditional and labor-intensive didactic learning. Innovative educational methods, such as game playing, could significantly change our approach to injury prevention and have the potential to decrease the burden of injury among children worldwide.
Bush Idoko John; Dimililer Kamil
This paper presents a new pedestrian detection algorithm used in Advanced Driver-Assistance System with only one camera aiming to improving traffic safety. The new pedestrian detection algorithm differs from traditional pedestrian detection algorithm, which only focuses on pedestrian detection rate or pedestrian detection accuracy. Conversely, the proposed algorithm focuses on both the accuracy and the rate. Some new features are proposed to improve pedestrian detection rate of the system. Al...
Butenuth, Matthias; Burkert, Florian; Kneidl, Angelika; Borrmann, Andre; Schmidt, Florian; Hinz, Stefan; Sirmacek, Beril; Hartmann, Dirk
In this paper, an overall framework for crowd analysis is presented. Detection and tracking of pedestrians as well as detection of dense crowds is performed on image sequences to improve simulation models of pedestrian flows. Additionally, graph-based event detection is performed by using Hidden Markov Models on pedestrian trajectories utilizing knowledge from simulations. Experimental results show the benefit of our integrated framework using simulation and real-world data for crowd anal...
Li, Kui; Fan, Xiaoxiang; Yin, Zhiyong
The minibus, with a nearly flat front, is widely used in China, especially in the underdeveloped regions, and results in large numbers of pedestrian injuries and deaths. The purpose of this study was to determine the injury patterns and risk for pedestrians involved in these crashes. We conducted an in-depth investigation of minibus/pedestrian accidents in Chongqing, China, occurring between September 2000 and April 2014. The enrolled pedestrians was classified into 3 groups: young (aged 14-44 years), middle-aged (aged 45-59 years), and elderly (aged over 60 years). Pedestrian injuries were coded according to the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS). A total of 109 pedestrians, with an average age of 55.7±16.2 years, were injured or killed--30.3% were young, 23.9% were middle-aged, and 45.9% were elderly. Pedestrians hit by a minibus had a high proportion of head, chest, and extremity injuries--84.4%, 50.5%, and 52.3%, respectively. In addition, impact speeds in excess of 75 km/h all ultimately resulted in fatalities. At an impact speed of 30 km/h, the risk of pedestrian fatality and AIS3+ injury are approximately 12.0% and 37.2%, respectively. At 50 km/h the risks are 65.2% and 96.9%, respectively, and at 70 km/h the risks are 96.3% and 99.9%, respectively. A higher likelihood of chest injury was associated with being older and impact speed of over 40 km/h in minibus/pedestrian collision. Our data suggest that the injury patterns of pedestrians in minibus collisions differ from that in other vehicle/pedestrian collisions. These findings could contribute to better understanding of the injury patterns and risk of pedestrian in minibus collisions in China, which may play an important role in developing measures to improve traffic safety.
Al Bargi Walid A.
Full Text Available Road crossings are considered as an unavoidable part of walking in which the desirable route of pedestrians interacts with vehicles. These interactions may expose the pedestrians to risks or delays. In Malaysia, road accident statistics show that pedestrian casualties are fairly high. Inappropriate gap acceptance when pedestrians cross roads is a main contributing element to this situation. In this context, the purpose of this study was to develop realistic models for pedestrian road crossing behaviour using the regression technique for mid-block street crossing. A choice model was produced to capture the decision making process of pedestrians whereas rejected or accepted vehicular gaps was based on the discrete choice theory. Gap acceptance data under real mix traffic conditions was collected using video camera on a typical unsignalised two lane one way urban street section in the city center of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The lognormal regression model developed for the crossing behaviour model shows that traffic speed, pedestrian waiting time, gender, crossing distance, age group, frequency of attempts and pedestrian number are the significant factors which are able to predict 77.0% of variance or changes in accepted gap size at 0.05 significance level. Higher traffic speed, lower waiting time, being a male, wider crossing distance, older age group, lower frequency of attempts and higher number of pedestrian were found to influence pedestrians to accept a bigger gap size. The binary logistic regression developed for the crossing choice model was found to be influenced by traffic speed, driver yield, pedestrian number and age group. Furthermore, lower traffic speed, willingness of drivers to slow down, more pedestrian crossings at the same time and a younger age group lead to a higher chance or probability of crossing roads. The model was validated again using 100 isolated samples and an accuracy of 98% was obtained compared to the calibrated
Pedestrian behaviour simulation models are being developed with the intention to simulate human behaviour in various environments in both non-emergency and emergency situations. These models are applied with the objective to understand the underlying causes and dynamics of pedestrian behaviour and how the environment or the environment’s intrinsic procedures can be adjusted in order to provide an improvement of human comfort and safety.\\ud \\ud In order to realistically model pedestrian behavi...
average, 35.6 years old. They were most frequently injured at night and over weekends. The BAC was positive in. 62.1 % of pedestrians, and the mean BAC was 0.19 g/dl. Most pedestrians had at least one lower limb injury and nearly half had a head injury; however, BAC-positive pedestrians were 2.6 times more likely to ...
Yusuke Tamura; Yoshitaka Terada; Atsushi Yamashita; Hajime Asama
Robots are expected to be operated in environments where they coexist with humans, such as shopping malls and offices. Both the safety and efficiency of a robot are necessary in such environments. To achieve this, pedestrian behaviour should be accurately predicted. However, the behaviour is uncertain and cannot be easily predicted. This paper proposes a probabilistic method of determining pedestrian trajectory based on an estimation of pedestrian behaviour patterns. The proposed method focus...
The vehicular traffic is very visible in the planning process. One of the reasons is that there is always plenty of data on the problems of car traffic - but what about data on the pedestrians and their needs? Three major studies on people in public spaces in the Inner City of Copenhagen have...... supplied data that show the quantity, character and changes through 30 years of public life. People in Copenhagen have become visible in the planning process. cd-rom....
Constantin, B. A.; Iozsa, D. M.; Stan, C.
The present paper is centred on the research of deceleration measured at the level of the lower leg during a pedestrian impact in multiple load cases. Basically, the used methodology for physical test setup is similar to EuroNCAP and European Union regulatory requirements. Due cost reduction reasons, it was not used a pneumatic system in order to launch the lower leg impactor in the direction of the vehicle front-end. During the test it was used an opposite solution, namely the vehicle being in motion, aiming the standstill lower leg impactor. The impactor has similar specifications to those at EU level, i.e. dimensions, materials, and principle of measurement of the deceleration magnitude. Therefore, all the results obtained during the study comply with the requirements of both EU regulation and EuroNCAP. As a limitation, due to unavailability of proper sensors in the equipment of the lower leg impactor, that could provide precise results, the bending angle, the shearing and the detailed data at the level of knee ligaments were not evaluated. The knee joint should be improved for future studies as some bending angles observed during the post processing of several impact video files were too high comparing to other studies. The paper highlights the first pedestrian impact physical test conducted by the author, following an extensive research in the field. Deceleration at the level of pedestrian knee can be substantially improved by providing enough volume between the bumper fascia and the front-end structure and by using pedestrian friendly materials for shock absorbers, such as foams.
Haji Ali, Abdul Lateef
We study the mean-field limit of a particle-based system modeling the behavior of many indistinguishable pedestrians as their number increases. The base model is a modified version of Helbing\\'s social force model. In the mean-field limit, the time-dependent density of two-dimensional pedestrians satisfies a four-dimensional integro-differential Fokker-Planck equation. To approximate the solution of the Fokker-Planck equation we use a time-splitting approach and solve the diffusion part using a Crank-Nicholson method. The advection part is solved using a Lax-Wendroff-Leveque method or an upwind Backward Euler method depending on the advection speed. Moreover, we use multilevel Monte Carlo to estimate observables from the particle-based system. We discuss these numerical methods, and present numerical results showing the convergence of observables that were calculated using the particle-based model as the number of pedestrians increases to those calculated using the probability density function satisfying the Fokker-Planck equation.
Karamouzas, Ioannis; Skinner, Brian; Guy, Stephen J.
Human crowds often bear a striking resemblance to interacting particle systems, and this has prompted many researchers to describe pedestrian dynamics in terms of interaction forces and potential energies. The correct quantitative form of this interaction, however, has remained an open question. Here, we introduce a novel statistical-mechanical approach to directly measure the interaction energy between pedestrians. This analysis, when applied to a large collection of human motion data, reveals a simple power law interaction that is based not on the physical separation between pedestrians but on their projected time to a potential future collision, and is therefore fundamentally anticipatory in nature. Remarkably, this simple law is able to describe human interactions across a wide variety of situations, speeds and densities. We further show, through simulations, that the interaction law we identify is sufficient to reproduce many known crowd phenomena. Work at Argonne National Laboratory is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357. Work at the University of Minnesota is supported by MnDRIVE Initiative on Robotics, Sensors, and Advanced Manufacturing.
Alghamdi, Saleh; van Schyndel, Ron; Khalil, Ibrahim
The aim of this paper is to present a service for blind and people with low vision to assist them to cross the street independently. The presented approach provides the user with significant information such as detection of pedestrian crossing signal from any point of view, when the pedestrian crossing signal light is green, the detection of dynamic and fixed obstacles, predictions of the movement of fellow pedestrians and information on objects which may intersect his path. Our approach is based on capturing multiple frames using a depth camera which is attached to a user's headgear. Currently a testbed system is built on a helmet and is connected to a laptop in the user's backpack. In this paper, we discussed efficiency of using Speeded-Up Robust Features (SURF) algorithm for object recognition for purposes of blind people assistance. The system predicts the movement of objects of interest to provide the user with information on the safest path to navigate and information on the surrounding area. Evaluation of this approach on real sequence video frames provides 90% of human detection and more than 80% for recognition of other related objects.
Zhou Nian Guang
Full Text Available Investigation of audible noise characteristics of the main power apparatus in UHV GIS substations provides essential statistics for the noise prediction and control. Noise pressure level, spectrum and attenuation characteristics of the main transformers and high voltage (HV reactors are measured and analyzed in this paper. The result shows that the main transformer and HV reactor have identical A-weighted equivalent sound pressure level. The medium- and low-frequency noises are the primary components in the spectral. More attention should be paid to the low-frequency bands in the noise control process. The noise of cooling fan has a large influence on that of the main transformer. Without the consideration of corona noise, the average A-weighted sound pressure level shows an overall decreasing trend with the increase of the propagation distance. Obvious interference phenomenon of the noises at 100 and 200Hz exists in the noise propagation process.
Full Text Available A user’s position-specific field has been developed using the Global Positioning System (GPS technology. To determine the position using cellular phones, a device was developed, in which a pedestrian navigation unit carries the GPS. However, GPS cannot specify a position in a subterranean environment or indoors, which is beyond the reach of transmitted signals. In addition, the position-specification precision of GPS, that is, its resolution, is on the order of several meters, which is deemed insufficient for pedestrians. In this study, we proposed and evaluated a technique for locating a user’s 3D position by setting up a marker in the navigation space detected in the image of a cellular phone. By experiment, we verified the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed method. Additionally, we improved the positional precision because we measured the position distance using numerous markers.
Zhou, Ronggang; Horrey, William J; Yu, Ruifeng
This paper presents a survey investigating the effects of age, gender and conformity tendency on Chinese pedestrians' intention to cross the road in potentially dangerous situations. A sample of 426 respondents completed a demographic questionnaire, a scale measuring their tendency towards social conformity, and a questionnaire based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB). This questionnaire measured people's intentions to cross the road in two different road crossing situations, their attitude towards the behavior, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, anticipated affect, moral norms, and perceived risk. The two scenarios depicted (i) a situation where the crossing was consistent with other pedestrians' behavior (Conformity scenario) and (ii) a situation where the road crossing was inconsistent with other pedestrians (Non-Conformity scenario). Pedestrians reported greater likelihood in crossing the road when other pedestrians were crossing the road. People who showed greater tendencies towards social conformity also had stronger road crossing intentions than low conformity people for both scenarios. The predictive model explained 36% and 48% of the variance in the Non-Conformity and Conformity scenarios, respectively. Attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and perceived risk emerged as the common predictors for both situations. The results have a number of theoretical and practical implications. In particular, interventions should focus on perceptions of risk that inform road users that crossing with other pedestrians against the signal is also unsafe and prohibited, and may lead to negative outcomes.
Molino, J.A.; Zerdy, G.A.; Lerner, N.D.; Harwood, D.L.; Tremaine, S.G.
A project is underway to investigate human response to transmission line audible noise. This project is developing a psychoacoustic data-base to determine the extent to which present measurement scales and human response criteria are appropriate for evaluating the environmental impact of transmission line audible noise, and to suggest different scales and criteria if necessary. A realistic listening room was used for psychoacoustic experiments in which a listener was given choices between various acoustic environments, including corona sounds, while reading a book. In another experiment groups of participants rated various sounds for their annoyance level while watching television programs. Results indicate that despite its relatively low sound level, corona noise is equally aversive to certain other environmental sounds that are 8 dB higher in sound pressure level. All of the common frequency weighting scales underestimate the aversiveness of corona noise relative to other environmental sounds. From a limited sample of comparison sounds, corona noise was found to be roughly equal in aversiveness to the noise from a room air conditioner. Knowledge of the source of the noise did not affect the relative aversiveness of corona noise as presented in the laboratory. The high-frequency hissing and crackling components of corona noise are more aversive than the low-frequency humming and buzzing components. There are distinctly different kinds of corona noise which differ both in frequency spectrum and relative aversiveness. Thus, in order to assess environmental impact, long-term sampling of corona noise from different lines may be needed. Similar results were obtained from experiments involving reading and television viewing as participant activities, indicating consistent and generalizable findings. (JGB)
Sucha, Matus; Dostal, Daniel; Risser, Ralf
The aim of this work is to describe pedestrian-driver encounters, communication, and decision strategies at marked but unsignalised crossings in urban areas in the Czech Republic and the ways in which the parties involved experience and handle these encounters. A mixed-methods design was used, consisting of focus groups with pedestrians and drivers regarding their subjective views of the situations, on-site observations, camera recordings, speed measurements, the measurement of car and pedestrian densities, and brief on-site interviews with pedestrians. In close correspondence with the literature, our study revealed that the most relevant predictors of pedestrians' and drivers' behaviour at crossings were the densities of car traffic and pedestrian flows and car speed. The factors which influenced pedestrians' wait/go behaviour were: car speed, the distance of the car from the crossing, traffic density, whether there were cars approaching from both directions, various signs given by the driver (eye contact, waving a hand, flashing their lights), and the presence of other pedestrians. The factors influencing drivers' yield/go behaviour were: speed, traffic density, the number of pedestrians waiting to cross, and pedestrians being distracted. A great proportion of drivers (36%) failed to yield to pedestrians at marked crossings. The probability of conflict situations increased with cars travelling at a higher speed, higher traffic density, and pedestrians being distracted by a different activity while crossing. The findings of this study can add to the existing literature by helping to provide an understanding of the perception of encounter situations by the parties involved and the motives lying behind certain aspects of behaviour associated with these encounters. This seems necessary in order to develop suggestions for improvements. For instance, the infrastructure near pedestrian crossings should be designed in such a way as to take proper account of pedestrians
Slaughter, Dekeya R; Williams, Nick; Wall, Stephen P; Glass, Nina E; Simon, Ronald; Todd, S Rob; Bholat, Omar S; Jacko, Sally; Roe, Matthew; Wilson, Chad T; Levine, Deborah A; Marshall, Gary; Ayoung-Chee, Patricia; Pachter, H Leon; Frangos, Spiros G
This study was designed to examine the characteristics of pedestrian and bicyclist collisions with motor vehicles within New York City's high-density hub. The primary objectives were to map crash locations and to identify hot spots within these injury clusters. The secondary objective was to quantify differences in injury severity based on road type and user behaviors. Between December 2008 and June 2011, data were prospectively collected from pedestrians and bicyclists struck by motor vehicles and brought to Bellevue Hospital, a Level 1 trauma center in New York City. Behaviors by cohort (i.e., crossing patterns for pedestrians, riding patterns for bicyclists), Injury Severity Score (ISS), and collision locations were extracted from the database. Analyses of mean ISS were performed using a Student's t test with a p ISSs than those crossing streets (n = 522) (p = 0.01) and were more likely to die (p = 0.002). Pedestrians crossing midblock (n = 185) had higher mean ISSs than those crossing with the signal in the crosswalk (n = 320) (8.12 vs. 5.01, p < 0.001). Based on density mapping, hot spots of pedestrian collisions were detected in midtown Manhattan, while hot spots for bicyclists were detected at bridge and tunnel portals. Spatial analysis indicates that these are not random events (p < 0.05). Pedestrians injured on avenues sustained more serious injuries than those injured on narrower streets. A better understanding of collision locations and features may allow for tailored injury prevention strategies. Trauma centers serve an important role in public health surveillance within their local communities. Epidemiologic study, level III.
Min Hee Lee
Full Text Available The effectiveness of real-time feedback using an audible pulse in renal Doppler ultrasonography was evaluated.This study was approved by the institutional review board of our hospital. Written informed consent was provided by all volunteers at enrollment. The 26 healthy volunteers enrolled in this study underwent Doppler ultrasound of both kidneys using audible and inaudible pulses in randomized order and at 1-week intervals. Doppler waveforms were obtained at the interlobar or arcuate arteries using a 2-mm Doppler gate. Each session was considered complete when reproducible waveforms were obtained for 5 s in three predefined regions of the kidney. The scan times needed to obtain waveforms of the right and left kidneys were recorded separately. Measurements were compared using a paired t-test and a two-sample Wilcoxon rank-sum test.The total recorded Doppler sonography scan time for each kidney ranged from 33 to 146 s. The mean scan time was 56.83 s (right, 58.19 s; left, 55.46 s in the audible session and 72.58 s (right, 72.08 s; left, 73.08 s in the inaudible session. The scan times were significantly shorter in the audible than inaudible session (p<0.001, whereas the difference in the scan times between the right and left kidneys was not significant. The order of the sessions had no effect on the total scan time.Real-time feedback using an audible pulse may encourage patient cooperation during breath-holding and can shorten the time needed to perform Doppler ultrasonography.
Kotte, Jens; Schmeichel, Carsten; Zlocki, Adrian; Gathmann, Hauke; Eckstein, Lutz
State-of-the-art collision avoidance and collision mitigation systems predict the behavior of pedestrians based on trivial models that assume a constant acceleration or velocity. New sources of sensor information-for example, smart devices such as smartphones, tablets, smartwatches, etc.-can support enhanced pedestrian behavior models. The objective of this article is the development and implementation of a V2Xpedestrian collision avoidance system that uses new information sources. A literature review of existing state-of-the-art pedestrian collision avoidance systems, pedestrian behavior models in advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS), and traffic simulations is conducted together with an analysis of existing studies on typical pedestrian patterns in traffic. Based on this analysis, possible parameters for predicting pedestrian behavior were investigated. The results led to new requirements from which a concept was developed and implemented. The analysis of typical pedestrian behavior patterns in traffic situations showed the complexity of predicting pedestrian behavior. Requirements for an improved behavior prediction were derived. A concept for a V2X collision avoidance system, based on a cost function that predicts pedestrian near future presence, and its implementation is presented. The concept presented considers several challenges such as information privacy, inaccuracies of the localization, and inaccuracies of the prediction. A concept for an enhanced V2X pedestrian collision avoidance system was developed and introduced. The concept uses new information sources such as smart devices to improve the prediction of the pedestrian's presence in the near future and considers challenges that come along with the usage of these information sources.
Liu, Xiaodong; Song, Weiguo; Fu, Libi; Lv, Wei; Fang, Zhiming
Pedestrian inflow is frequently observed in various pedestrian facilities. In this work, we first proposed four hypotheses concerning the inflow process. Then, we performed a series of experiments to test the hypotheses. With several analytical methods, e.g., the proxemics theory and Voronoi diagram method, the features of pedestrian inflow are analyzed in detail. Results demonstrate that the distribution of pedestrians in the room is not uniform. Boundaries are attractive for these pedestrians. The impact of two factors of the inflow are analyzed, i.e., movement rule, and first-out reward. It is found pedestrians can enter the room more effectively under the random rule or two queues. Under some hurry circumstances, pedestrians may prefer to gather around the door, and the spatial distribution is not uniform, leading to the imbalance use of the room. Practical suggestions are given for pedestrians to improve the travel efficiency in the inflow process. This experimental study is meaningful to reveal some fundamental phenomena of inflow process, which can provide the realistic basis for building the theory and mathematical-physical models.
Kniaz, V. V.; Fedorenko, V. V.
The growing interest for self-driving cars provides a demand for scene understanding and obstacle detection algorithms. One of the most challenging problems in this field is the problem of pedestrian detection. Main difficulties arise from a diverse appearances of pedestrians. Poor visibility conditions such as fog and low light conditions also significantly decrease the quality of pedestrian detection. This paper presents a new optical flow based algorithm BipedDetet that provides robust pedestrian detection on a single-borad computer. The algorithm is based on the idea of simplified Kalman filtering suitable for realization on modern single-board computers. To detect a pedestrian a synthetic optical flow of the scene without pedestrians is generated using slanted-plane model. The estimate of a real optical flow is generated using a multispectral image sequence. The difference of the synthetic optical flow and the real optical flow provides the optical flow induced by pedestrians. The final detection of pedestrians is done by the segmentation of the difference of optical flows. To evaluate the BipedDetect algorithm a multispectral dataset was collected using a mobile robot.
Nielsen, Søren Zebitz; Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B.
Cities require data on pedestrian movement to evaluate the use of public spaces. We propose a system using thermal cameras and Computer Vision (CV) combined with Geographical Information Systems (GIS) to track and assess pedestrian dynamics and behaviors in urban plazas. Thermal cameras operate...
Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Gitelman, Victoria; Bekhor, Shlomo
This study intends to provide insight into pedestrian accidents by uncovering their patterns in order to design preventive measures and to allocate resources for identifiable problems. Kohonen neural networks are applied to a database of pedestrian fatal accidents occurred during the four...
Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Gitelman, Victoria; Bekhor, Shlomo
This study intends to provide insight into pedestrian accidents by uncovering their patterns in order to design preventive measures and to allocate resources for identified problems. Kohonen neural networks are applied to a database of pedestrian fatal accidents occurred during the four-year period...
alcohol. Margaret M. Peden, John D. Knotlenbelt,. Johan van der Spuy, Ravi Oodit, Hendrik J. Scholtz,. J. Morris Stokol. Objective. To establish a profile of injured adult pedestrians and attempt to define the role which alcohol plays in this regard. Design. Prospective survey of injured pedestrians who presented consecutively ...
Kant, R.; Konosu, A.; Ishikawa, H.
The European Enhanced Vehicle-safety Committee (EEVC/WG10 and WG17) proposed three component subsystem tests for cars to assess pedestrian protection. The objective of this study is to develop computer simulation models of the EEVC pedestrian subsystem tests. These models are available to develop a
Full Text Available The paper presents a concept of a multi-level pedestrian safety management system. Three management levels are distinguished: strategic, tactical and operational. The basis for the proposed approach to pedestrian safety management is a risk-based method. In the approach the elements of behavioural and systemic theories were used, allowing for the development of a formalised and repeatable procedure integrating the phases of risk assessment and response to the hazards of road crashes involving pedestrians. Key to the method are tools supporting pedestrian safety management. According to the risk management approach, the tools can be divided into two groups: tools supporting risk assessment and tools supporting risk response. In the paper attention is paid to selected tools supporting risk assessment, with particular emphasis on the methods for estimating forecasted pedestrian safety measures (at strategic, national and regional level and identification of particularly dangerous locations in terms of pedestrian safety at tactical (regional and local and operational level. The proposed pedestrian safety management methods and tools can support road administration in making rational decisions in terms of road safety, safety of road infrastructure, crash elimination measures or reducing the consequences suffered by road users (particularly pedestrians as a result of road crashes.
Møgelmose, Andreas; Trivedi, Mohan M.; Moeslund, Thomas B.
. The tracking system is combined with a module which, based on the car's GPS position acquires a map and uses the road information in the map to know where the car can drive. Then the system warns the driver about pedestrians at risk, by combining the information about hazardous areas for pedestrians...
Martin, A J
BACKGROUND: It has been established internationally that road traffic accidents (RTAs) involving older drivers follow clearly different patterns of timing, location and outcomes from those of younger age groups. Older pedestrians are also a vulnerable group and fewer analyses have been undertaken of the phenomenology of their injuries and fatalities. We studied the pattern of pedestrian RTAs in Ireland over a five-year period with the aim of identifying differences between older pedestrians (aged 65 or older) and younger adults. METHODS: We examined the datasets of the Irish National Road Authority (now the Road Safety Authority) from 1998-2002. We analysed patterns of crashes involving older pedestrians (aged 65) and compared them with younger adults (aged 18-64). RESULTS: Older people represented 36% (n = 134) of pedestrian fatalities and 23% of serious injuries while they only account for 19% of total RTAs. Mortality in RTA is more than doubled for older pedestrians compared to younger adults (RR 2.30). Most accidents involving older pedestrians happen in daylight with good visibility (56%) and in good weather conditions (77%). CONCLUSIONS: Older pedestrians are particularly vulnerable in RTAs. These occur more frequently during daylight hours and in good weather conditions. This may point to a need for prevention strategies that are targeted at the traffic environment and other road users rather than at older people.
Ingólfsson, Einar Thór; Georgakis, Christos; Knudsen, Anders
were made with small groups of people to investigate their tendency to synchronise their walking to the motion of the platform. By analysing the recorded acceleration response and video data from the tests, the pedestrian pacing rate distribution and correlated pedestrian force have been identified...
Keller, C.G.; Enzweiler, M.; Gavrila, D.M.
Pedestrian detection is a rapidly evolving area in the intelligent vehicles domain. Stereo vision is an attractive sensor for this purpose. But unlike for monocular vision, there are no realistic, large scale benchmarks available for stereo-based pedestrian detection, to provide a common point of
Schijndel-de Nooij, M. van; Hair-Buijssen, S.H.H.M. de; Verweij, R.; Mathevon, V.
In the Netherlands, annually 185 cyclists and 70 pedestrians are killed in traffic accidents, half of which due to an accident with a passenger car. The project SaveCAP runs a Sensor Field Test on vehicle safety systems designed to protect cyclists and pedestrians, either by avoiding an accident or
Ricciardelli, Fransesco; Briatico, C; Ingólfsson, Einar Thór
Different patterns of pedestrian loading of footbridges exist, whose occurrence depends on a number of parameters, such as the bridge span, frequency, damping and mass, and the pedestrian density and activity. In this paper analytical models for the transient action of one walker and for the stat...
Verzosa, Nina; Miles, Rebecca
Pedestrians are considered as one of the most vulnerable road users in less developed countries (LDCs). Yet, pedestrian safety remains poorly addressed in both urban and rural transportation plans in most LDCs. Since most pedestrian injury severity studies are conducted in developed countries, this study fills the gap with an inquiry focused on a highly urbanized region of an LDC that faces a rapid increase in car ownership and increasing pedestrian-related traffic injuries, documenting specific pedestrian safety issues and providing guidance for injury prevention measures in such places. Using the Metro Manila Accident Reporting and Analysis System (MMARAS) data from 2008 to 2011, this study combines binomial logistic regression and street level analysis that further explores the statistical results and examines other factors that contribute to collisions and increase the potential for serious injury or death in three cities in Metro Manila: Makati, Manila, and Quezon. The results of the binomial regression analysis show that traffic crashes that involve heavy and multiple vehicles, and an elderly pedestrian (60 years old and above), as well as those that occurred during the evening (7 pm to midnight) and late at night (1 am to 5 am) have significantly higher odds of resulting in a fatal outcome; when the crash involves a female pedestrian and when the road surface is wet the odds of a fatal outcome are lower. Moreover, by closely examining the environment of these roadways, the study finds that most pedestrian fatalities occur on high-speed, high-traffic-volume, multilane roadways, that are surrounded by land uses that generate a particularly problematic mix of heavy vehicular and pedestrian traffic. The street level analysis also finds that fatal pedestrian crashes occur close to different types of transit stations. The results of this study of three cities in Metro Manila, reflect the twofold challenge to pedestrian safety in rapidly urbanizing areas in
Ng, Choon-Boon; Tay, Yong-Haur; Goi, Bok-Min
In this work, we studied a strategy for training a convolutional neural network in pedestrian gender classification with limited amount of labeled training data. Unsupervised learning by k-means clustering on pedestrian images was used to learn the filters to initialize the first layer of the network. As a form of pre-training, supervised learning for the related task of pedestrian classification was performed. Finally, the network was fine-tuned for gender classification. We found that this strategy improved the network's generalization ability in gender classification, achieving better test results when compared to random weights initialization and slightly more beneficial than merely initializing the first layer filters by unsupervised learning. This shows that unsupervised learning followed by pre-training with pedestrian images is an effective strategy to learn useful features for pedestrian gender classification.
During 1995, pedestrian deaths accounted for approximately 15% of all motor-vehicle-related deaths sustained by children aged 0-19 years in the United States. Because of the levels of participation in Halloween-related activities by elementary and middle school-aged children, these children might be more likely to sustain pedestrian injuries on that evening than on other evenings. To characterize the occurrence of fatal pedestrian injury among children on Halloween, CDC analyzed mortality data from the Fatal Analysis Reporting System (FARS) of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) during 1975-1996. This report summarizes the results of the analysis and suggests measures to prevent Halloween-related pedestrian injuries and deaths among children. The findings indicate that the number of childhood pedestrian deaths increased fourfold among children on Halloween evenings when compared with all other evenings.
Full Text Available Pedestrian’s street-crossing behaviour has a significant effect on traffic performance and safety. The crossing behaviour is determined by human factors and environmental factors. Aiming at examining the pedestrian perceptions toward crossing facilities and preferences for crossing locations, an observational study of pedestrian crossing behaviour at urban street is conducted. The perceptions and preferences of pedestrians are collected using stated preference technique. A specific questionnaire is designed to conduct the stated preference survey. A multinomial logit model is proposed to describe the perceptions and preferences of pedestrians on crossing facilities and locations. The sensitivity analysis is performed to discuss the influence of various factors on crossing behaviour. Then the relationship between crossing locations and crossing distances is analyzed by a new proposed method. With the theoretical analysis, the engineering solutions considering pedestrian behaviour are suggested. The results are helpful to design human-centered crossing facilities in urban traffic.
Corbetta, Alessandro; Muntean, Adrian; Toschi, Federico
We investigate via extensive experimental data the dynamics of pedestrians walking in a corridor-shaped landing in a building at Eindhoven University of Technology. With year-long automatic measurements employing a Microsoft KinectTM 3D-range sensor and ad hoc tracking techniques, we acquired few hundreds of thousands pedestrian trajectories in real-life conditions. Here we discuss the asymmetric features of the dynamics in the two walking directions with respect to the flights of stairs (i.e. ascending or descending). We provide a detailed analysis of position and speed fields for the cases of pedestrians walking alone undisturbed and for couple of pedestrians in counter-flow. Then, we show average walking velocities exploring all the observed combinations in terms of numbers of pedestrians and walking directions.
Miklas S. Kristoffersen
Full Text Available The number of pedestrians walking the streets or gathered in public spaces is a valuable piece of information for shop owners, city governments, event organizers and many others. However, automatic counting that takes place day and night is challenging due to changing lighting conditions and the complexity of scenes with many people occluding one another. To address these challenges, this paper introduces the use of a stereo thermal camera setup for pedestrian counting. We investigate the reconstruction of 3D points in a pedestrian street with two thermal cameras and propose an algorithm for pedestrian counting based on clustering and tracking of the 3D point clouds. The method is tested on two five-minute video sequences captured at a public event with a moderate density of pedestrians and heavy occlusions. The counting performance is compared to the manually annotated ground truth and shows success rates of 95.4% and 99.1% for the two sequences.
Objectives: To describe the pedestrian population, their use of an overpass, and to assess pedestrian perceptions and responses to the risk of traffic crashes, determine pedestrian injuries in relation to traffic flow, and compare traffic crash and pedestrian injury rates before and after the overpass construction. Setting: The ...
Duives, D.C.; Daamen, W.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.
One of the fundamental properties of pedestrian simulation models is their capability to predict the future movement dynamics of pedestrians depending on the current state of the pedestrian traffic flow, more specically the walking behaviour of neighbouring pedestrians. This paper investigates the
Full Text Available Based on our site investigation conducted in 2013, we found that the pedestrian red light crossing at the midblock connecting the campus of Southwest University and living area was low, where most of pedestrians are university students and staff. This paper reports a supplementary work applying the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB to identify any psychological differences toward pedestrian red light crossing between university students and their peers. Three social groups participated in the investigation. The first group is the university students in Grade one (Group 1, the other two groups are their previous senior middle school classmates who are now working full time (Group 2 or who are now out of work and school (Group 3. The statistical results indicated The TPB components accounted for 42.9%, 55.3% and 55.4% of the variance of red signal crossing intention for Group 1, Group 2 and Group 3 in the depicted road crossing scenario. The data also showed that there are obvious differences among the participants' responses to "refrain from crossing" between university students and others, and the subsequent regression analysis revealed the ability to "refrain from crossing" played the most important role in the intention of red light crossing in the depicted scenario.
Full Text Available Vehicle navigation systems usually simply function by calculating the shortest fastest route over a road network. In contrast, pedestrian navigation can have more diverse concerns. Pedestrians are not constrained to road/path networks; their route may involve going into buildings (where accurate satellite locational signals are not available and they have different priorities, for example, preferring routes that are quieter or more sheltered from the weather. In addition, there are differences in how people are best directed: pedestrians noticing landmarks such as buildings, doors, and steps rather than junctions and sign posts. Landmarks exist both indoors and outdoors. A system has been developed that uses quick response (QR codes affixed to registered landmarks allowing users to localise themselves with respect to their route and with navigational instructions given in terms of these landmarks. In addition, the system includes images of each landmark helping users to navigate visually in addition to through textual instructions and route maps. The system runs on a mobile device; the users use the device’s camera to register each landmark’s QR code and so update their position (particularly indoors and progress through the route itinerary.
Bush Idoko John
Full Text Available This paper presents a new pedestrian detection algorithm used in Advanced Driver-Assistance System with only one camera aiming to improving traffic safety. The new pedestrian detection algorithm differs from traditional pedestrian detection algorithm, which only focuses on pedestrian detection rate or pedestrian detection accuracy. Conversely, the proposed algorithm focuses on both the accuracy and the rate. Some new features are proposed to improve pedestrian detection rate of the system. Also color difference was used to decrease the false detecting rate. The experimental results show that the pedestrian detection rate can be around 90% and the false detecting rate is 3%.
Davies-Venn, Evelyn; Souza, Pamela; Brennan, Marc; Stecker, G Christopher
This study examined the effects of multichannel wide-dynamic range compression (WDRC) amplification and stimulus audibility on consonant recognition and error patterns. Listeners had either severe or mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss. Each listener was monaurally fit with a wearable hearing aid using typical clinical procedures, frequency-gain parameters, and a hybrid of clinically prescribed compression ratios for desired sensation level () and NAL-NL (). Consonant-vowel nonsense syllables were presented in soundfield at multiple input levels (50, 65, 80 dB SPL). Test conditions were four-channel fast-acting WDRC amplification and a control compression limiting (CL) amplification condition. Listeners identified the stimulus heard from choices presented on an on-screen display. A between-subject repeated measures design was used to evaluate consonant recognition and consonant confusion patterns. Fast-acting WDRC provided a considerable audibility advantage at 50 dB SPL, especially for listeners with severe hearing loss. Listeners with mild to moderate hearing loss received less audibility improvement from the fast-acting WDRC amplification, for conversational and high level speech, when compared with listeners with severe hearing loss. Analysis of WDRC benefit scores revealed that listeners had slightly lower scores with fast-acting WDRC amplification (relative to CL) when WDRC provided minimal improvement in audibility. The negative effect was greater for listeners with mild to moderate hearing loss compared with their counterparts with severe hearing loss. All listeners, but particularly the severe loss group, benefited from fast-acting WDRC amplification for low-level speech. For conversational and higher speech levels (i.e., when WDRC does not confer a significant audibility advantage), fast-acting WDRC amplification seems to slightly degrade performance. Listeners' consonant confusion patterns suggest that this negative effect may be partly due to
Utami, Sentagi Sesotya
The significance of diffusion control in room acoustics is that it attempts to avoid echoes by dispersing reflections while removing less valuable sound energy. Some applications place emphasis on the enhancement of late reflections to promote a sense of envelopment, and on methods required to measure the performance of diffusers. What still remains unclear is the impact of diffusion on the audibility quality due to the geometric arrangement of architectural elements. The objective of this research is to characterize the audibility of the sound field with diffusion in architectural space. In order to address this objective, an approach utilizing various methods and new techniques relevant to room acoustics standards was applied. An array of microphones based on beam forming (i.e., an acoustic camera) was utilized for field measurements in a recording studio, classrooms, auditoriums, concert halls and sport arenas. Given the ability to combine a visual image with acoustical data, the impulse responses measured were analyzed to identify the impact of diffusive surfaces on the early, late, and reverberant sound fields. The effects of the room geometry and the proportions of the diffusive and absorptive surfaces were observed by utilizing geometrical room acoustics simulations. The degree of diffuseness in each space was measured by coherences from different measurement positions along with the acoustical conditions predicted by well-known objective parameters such as T30, EDT, C80, and C50. Noticeable differences of the auditory experience were investigated by utilizing computer-based survey techniques, including the use of an immersive virtual environment system, given the current software auralization capabilities. The results based on statistical analysis demonstrate the users' ability to localize the sound and to distinguish the intensity, clarity, and reverberation created within the virtual environment. Impact of architectural elements in diffusion control is
Mohamad Nor Siti Naquiyah
Full Text Available Pedestrians are most vulnerable of all road users. This research aims to investigate and model pedestrian road crossing behaviour at crossing facilities. In particular, they have two aspects of pedestrians crossing behaviour are examined, namely the size of traffic gaps acceptance by pedestrians and the decision of pedestrians either to cross the road or not. A fields survey was carried out at six crossing facilities which from a zebra crossing at midblock. In this survey, the data were recorded in real traffic condition using video recorder. Determine the associations between characteristics of pedestrians, crossing facilities and vehicular traffic through on-site observations of pedestrian behaviour. This data will analysis using statistical analysis which is multiple regression and binary logit regression method. It is hope that through this research, the model of pedestrian gap acceptance and pedestrian crossing decision can be reached and what are the indicators that pedestrians look for when accepting gaps to cross the road.
Li, Guibing; Yang, Jikuang; Simms, Ciaran
Vehicle front shape has a significant influence on pedestrian injuries and the optimal design for overall pedestrian protection remains an elusive goal, especially considering the variability of vehicle-to-pedestrian accident scenarios. Therefore this study aims to develop and evaluate an efficient framework for vehicle front shape optimization for pedestrian protection accounting for the broad range of real world impact scenarios and their distributions in recent accident data. Firstly, a framework for vehicle front shape optimization for pedestrian protection was developed based on coupling of multi-body simulations and a genetic algorithm. This framework was then applied for optimizing passenger car front shape for pedestrian protection, and its predictions were evaluated using accident data and kinematic analyses. The results indicate that the optimization shows a good convergence and predictions of the optimization framework are corroborated when compared to the available accident data, and the optimization framework can distinguish 'good' and 'poor' vehicle front shapes for pedestrian safety. Thus, it is feasible and reliable to use the optimization framework for vehicle front shape optimization for reducing overall pedestrian injury risk. The results also show the importance of considering the broad range of impact scenarios in vehicle front shape optimization. A safe passenger car for overall pedestrian protection should have a wide and flat bumper (covering pedestrians' legs from the lower leg up to the shaft of the upper leg with generally even contacts), a bonnet leading edge height around 750mm, a short bonnet (17° or car front shape for head and leg protection are generally consistent, but partially conflict with pelvis protection. In particular, both head and leg injury risk increase with increasing bumper lower height and depth, and decrease with increasing bonnet leading edge height, while pelvis injury risk increases with increasing bonnet leading
Ari Widyati Purwantiasning
Full Text Available ABSTRAK. Jalur pedestrian sudah seharusnya dapat menjadi fasilitas yang baik yang disediakan baik oleh pemerintah maupun lembaga swasta sebagai fasilitas untuk pejalan kaki. Kebutuhan fasilitas pejalan kaki sebagai ruang terbuka publik juga meningkat karena adanya penyesuaian gaya hidup dan standar hidup bagi masyarakat Indonesia pada umumnya dan masyarakat Jakarta khususnya. Daerah jalur pejalan kaki memiliki banyak fungsi, salah satu fungsi mereka baik sebagai fasilitas untuk pejalan kaki, juga sebagai ruang terbuka untuk berbagai aktifitas diantaranya aktifitas social dan juga aktifitas lainnya. Sebuah jarak dari tempat tinggal ke tempat kerja harus direncanakan dan dirancang sebagai akses yang mudah dan dapat dicapai dengan berjalan kaki. Hal ini menjadi latar belakang mengapa konsep pedestrian penting untuk diterapkan dalam wilayah publik seperti area kampus. Namun pada kenyataannya jalur pedestrian yang ada masih jauh dari optimal dalam hal perencanaan, desain atau penggunaannya. Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis penerapan konsep pedestrianisasi dalam area kampus sebagai ruang terbuka bagi komunitas kampus baik untuk memfasilitasi kebutuhan sosial juga untuk beraktifitas di dalamnya. Sebagai fakta terlihat bahwa jumlah arus pejalan kaki dalam waktu area kampus cukup tinggi. Perlunya kegiatan bersosialisasi antara mahasiswa dan lain-lain sangat penting. Metode deskriptif serta metode studi banding telah dipilih sebagai metodologi penelitian. Kata kunci: jalur pedestrian, ruang terbuka, area kampus ABSTRACT. A pedestrian line should be a good facility provided either by government or private institutions as a tool for pedestrians. The need for pedestrian facilities as public open spaces have also increased due to an adjustment of lifestyle and standard of living for Indonesian community generally and Jakarta’s community particularly. Pedestrian areas have many functions, one of their functions either as a tool for pedestrians, also
Wallqvist, V; Kjell, G; Cupina, E; Kraft, L; Deck, C; Willinger, R
When many fields of pedestrian and cyclist safety have been extensively studied, the surfacing has long been left unquestioned, despite being developed for another mode of transport and being one of the main causes for falls and fall injuries. In this project new surfacing materials for pedestrian and cyclist safety have been produced. Focusing on augmenting previously largely disregarded parameters as impact absorption, comfort and visibility at the same time as avoiding deteriorating of crucial parameters as friction and wear resistance. Rubber content, binder type, and pigment addition have been varied and evaluated. The results demonstrate that by increasing rubber content of the mixtures the head injury criterion (HIC) value and injury risk can be decreased while maintaining frictional properties according to existing criteria. Assembly of test-lanes demonstrate that some developed materials experience lower flow and component separation than standard materials due to rubber addition, calling for further optimisation of construction procedure linked to content development. Initial trials on the test-lanes indicate that a polyurethane (PU) based material has high cycling comfort, visibility and can be modified with phosphorescence properties. For standard asphalt, impact absorption might be inflicted by modification of bitumen alone but is mostly augmented by rubber addition. The results also indicate that rubber content can decrease ice formation on the materials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
We propose and analyze extended floor field cellular automaton models for evacuation dynamics of inhomogeneous pedestrian pairs which are coupled by asymmetric group interactions. Such pairs consist of a leader, who mainly determines the couple's motion and a follower, who has a defined tendency to follow the leader. Examples for such pairs are mother and child or two siblings of different age. We examine the system properties and compare them to the case of a homogeneous crowd. We find a strong impact on evacuation times for the regime of strong pair coupling due to the occurrence of a clogging phenomenon. In addition we obtain a non-trivial dependence of evacuation times on the followers' coupling to the static floor field, which carries the information of the shortest way to the exit location. In particular we find that systems with fully passive followers, who are solely coupled to their leaders, show lower evacuation times than homogeneous systems where all pedestrians have an equal tendency to move towa...
Full Text Available The study of collective movement of pedestrians is crucial in various situations, such as evacuation of buildings, stadiums, or external events like concerts or public events. In such situations and under panic conditions, several incidents and disasters may arise, resulting in loss of human lives. Hence, the study and modeling of the pedestrians behavior are imperative in both normal and panic situations. In a previous work, we developed a microscopic model for pedestrian movement based on the algorithm of Ant Colonies and the principles of cellular automata. We took advantage of a fuzzy model to better reflect the uncertainty and vagueness of the perception of space to pedestrians, especially to represent the desirability or blurred visibility of virtual pedestrians. This paper uses the mechanism of artificial potential fields. Said fields provide virtual pedestrians with better visibility of their surroundings and its various components (goals and obstacles. The predictions provided by the first-order traffic flow theory are confirmed by the results of the simulation. The advantage of this model lies in the combination of benefits provided by the model of ants and artificial potential fields in a fuzzy modeling, to better understand the perceptions of pedestrians.
Kwak, Jaeyoung; Jo, Hang-Hyun; Luttinen, Tapio; Kosonen, Iisakki
Walking is a fundamental activity of our daily life not only for moving to other places but also for interacting with surrounding environment. While walking on the streets, pedestrians can be aware of attractions like shopping windows. They can be influenced by the attractions and some of them might shift their attention towards the attractions, namely switching behavior. As a first step to incorporate the switching behavior, this study investigates collective effects of switching behavior for an attraction by developing a behavioral model. Numerical simulations exhibit different patterns of pedestrian behavior depending on the strength of the social influence and the average length of stay. When the social influence is strong along with a long length of stay, a saturated phase can be defined at which all the pedestrians have visited the attraction. If the social influence is not strong enough, an unsaturated phase appears where one can observe that some pedestrians head for the attraction while others walk in their desired direction. These collective patterns of pedestrian behavior are summarized in a phase diagram by comparing the number of pedestrians who visited the attraction to the number of passersby near the attraction. Measuring the marginal benefits with respect to the strength of the social influence and the average length of stay enables us to identify under what conditions enhancing these variables would be more effective. The findings from this study can be understood in the context of the pedestrian facility management, for instance, for retail stores.
Full Text Available Walking is a fundamental activity of our daily life not only for moving to other places but also for interacting with surrounding environment. While walking on the streets, pedestrians can be aware of attractions like shopping windows. They can be influenced by the attractions and some of them might shift their attention towards the attractions, namely switching behavior. As a first step to incorporate the switching behavior, this study investigates collective effects of switching behavior for an attraction by developing a behavioral model. Numerical simulations exhibit different patterns of pedestrian behavior depending on the strength of the social influence and the average length of stay. When the social influence is strong along with a long length of stay, a saturated phase can be defined at which all the pedestrians have visited the attraction. If the social influence is not strong enough, an unsaturated phase appears where one can observe that some pedestrians head for the attraction while others walk in their desired direction. These collective patterns of pedestrian behavior are summarized in a phase diagram by comparing the number of pedestrians who visited the attraction to the number of passersby near the attraction. Measuring the marginal benefits with respect to the strength of the social influence and the average length of stay enables us to identify under what conditions enhancing these variables would be more effective. The findings from this study can be understood in the context of the pedestrian facility management, for instance, for retail stores.
Jung, Jae Woong; Kim, Jae Eun; Lee, Jin Woo
We present the design, including an experimental demonstration, of an acoustic metamaterial panel aimed at reducing incoming broadband noise in the audible frequency range while allowing an incoming fluid to pass through the holes formed in the panel. The noise reduction performance of the proposed acoustic metamaterial panel is attributed to an array of annular cavities enclosing the fluid passage holes. The acoustic behavior of the acoustic metamaterial panel is theoretically analyzed by the transfer matrix method, and an equivalent acoustic impedance of each annular cavity is included with its effective length in the derived transfer matrix. The effective bulk modulus for the acoustic metamaterial panel is then extracted from the transmission and reflection coefficients by using the retrieval method. It is shown that the frequency range of the negative effective bulk modulus coincides with the stop band of the acoustic metamaterial panel. The underlying physical mechanism for the negative effective bulk modulus is attributed to the out-of-phase motion of vibrating particles in adjacent annular cavities. A calculated transmission coefficient curve of the acoustic metamaterial panel is shown to be in good agreement with the measured one. The findings presented in this work should be useful in the design of a holey soundproof panel.
Le Besnerais, J.; Hecquet, M.; Lanfranchi, V.; Brochet, P.
Induction motors optimal design can involve many variables and objectives, and generally requires to make several trade-offs, especially when including the audible electromagnetic noise criterion beyond the usual performance criteria. Multiobjective optimization techniques based on Pareto optimality are useful to help us finding the most interesting solutions and decide which one(s) to adopt. However, it is not always easy to analyse the Pareto-optimal solutions obtained with such methods, especially when treating more than three objectives, and Pareto fronts may contain more data than we might think. This paper briefly describes an analytical model of the variable-speed squirrel-cage induction machine which computes both its performances and sound power level of electromagnetic origin. The model is then coupled to the Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II) in order to perform global optimization with respect to several objectives (e.g. noise level, efficiency and material cost). Finally, an optimization problem is solved and analysed, and some useful visualization tools of the Pareto optimal solutions and their characteristics are presented.
Li, Xuebao; Cui, Xiang; Lu, Tiebing; Wang, Donglai
The directivity and lateral profile of corona-generated audible noise (AN) from a single corona source are measured through experiments carried out in the semi-anechoic laboratory. The experimental results show that the waveform of corona-generated AN consists of a series of random sound pressure pulses whose pulse amplitudes decrease with the increase of measurement distance. A single corona source can be regarded as a non-directional AN source, and the A-weighted SPL (sound pressure level) decreases 6 dB(A) as doubling the measurement distance. Then, qualitative explanations for the rationality of treating the single corona source as a point source are given on the basis of the Ingard's theory for sound generation in corona discharge. Furthermore, we take into consideration of the ground reflection and the air attenuation to reconstruct the propagation features of AN from the single corona source. The calculated results agree with the measurement well, which validates the propagation model. Finally, the influence of the ground reflection on the SPL is presented in the paper.
Full Text Available The directivity and lateral profile of corona-generated audible noise (AN from a single corona source are measured through experiments carried out in the semi-anechoic laboratory. The experimental results show that the waveform of corona-generated AN consists of a series of random sound pressure pulses whose pulse amplitudes decrease with the increase of measurement distance. A single corona source can be regarded as a non-directional AN source, and the A-weighted SPL (sound pressure level decreases 6 dB(A as doubling the measurement distance. Then, qualitative explanations for the rationality of treating the single corona source as a point source are given on the basis of the Ingard’s theory for sound generation in corona discharge. Furthermore, we take into consideration of the ground reflection and the air attenuation to reconstruct the propagation features of AN from the single corona source. The calculated results agree with the measurement well, which validates the propagation model. Finally, the influence of the ground reflection on the SPL is presented in the paper.
Naser, Mohamed M; Zulkiple, Adnan; Al Bargi, Walid A; Khalifa, Nasradeen A; Daniel, Basil David
There are a variety of challenges faced by pedestrians when they walk along and attempt to cross a road, as the most recorded accidents occur during this time. Pedestrians of all types, including both sexes with numerous aging groups, are always subjected to risk and are characterized as the most exposed road users. The increased demand for better traffic management strategies to reduce the risks at intersections, improve quality traffic management, traffic volume, and longer cycle time has further increased concerns over the past decade. This paper aims to develop a sustainable pedestrian gap crossing index model based on traffic flow density. It focusses on the gaps accepted by pedestrians and their decision for street crossing, where (Log-Gap) logarithm of accepted gaps was used to optimize the result of a model for gap crossing behavior. Through a review of extant literature, 15 influential variables were extracted for further empirical analysis. Subsequently, data from the observation at an uncontrolled mid-block in Jalan Ampang in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia was gathered and Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) and Binary Logit Model (BLM) techniques were employed to analyze the results. From the results, different pedestrian behavioral characteristics were considered for a minimum gap size model, out of which only a few (four) variables could explain the pedestrian road crossing behavior while the remaining variables have an insignificant effect. Among the different variables, age, rolling gap, vehicle type, and crossing were the most influential variables. The study concludes that pedestrians' decision to cross the street depends on the pedestrian age, rolling gap, vehicle type, and size of traffic gap before crossing. The inferences from these models will be useful to increase pedestrian safety and performance evaluation of uncontrolled midblock road crossings in developing countries. Copyright © 2017 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Seyede Farzaneh Tabatabaei; Morteza Mirgholami; Parisa Hashempour
According to the formation of initial steps in urban pedestrian design of Iran, this study tries to prepare visual-spatial quality measurement framework for urban pedestrians to evaluate the quality...
Davidson, Lisa S; Geers, Ann E; Nicholas, Johanna G
A novel word learning (NWL) paradigm was used to explore underlying phonological and cognitive mechanisms responsible for delayed vocabulary level in children with cochlear implants (CIs). One hundred and one children using CIs, 6-12 years old, were tested along with 47 children with normal hearing (NH). Tests of NWL, receptive vocabulary, and speech perception at 2 loudness levels were administered to children with CIs. Those with NH completed the NWL task and a receptive vocabulary test. CI participants with good audibility (GA) versus poor audibility (PA) were compared on all measures. Analysis of variance was used to compare performance across the children with NH and the two groups of children with CIs. Multiple regression analysis was employed to identify independent predictors of vocabulary outcomes. Children with CIs in the GA group scored higher in receptive vocabulary and NWL than children in the PA group, although they did not reach NH levels. CI-aided pure tone threshold and performance on the NWL task predicted independent variance in vocabulary after accounting for other known predictors. Acquiring spoken vocabulary is facilitated by GA with a CI and phonological learning and memory skills. Children with CIs did not learn novel words at the same rate or achieve the same receptive vocabulary levels as their NH peers. Maximizing audibility for the perception of speech and direct instruction of new vocabulary may be necessary for children with CIs to reach levels seen in peers with NH.
Lawrence Y Ho
Full Text Available Lawrence Y Ho1, Larissa Camejo1, Malik Y Kahook2, Robert Noecker11UMPC Eye Center, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA; 2Rocky Mountain Lions Institute, University of Colorado, CO, USAAbstract: We studied the effects of audible and visual alarms on adherence with a recommended dosing regimen in the management of glaucoma. Forty-two patients were begun on therapy with the Travatan® Dosing Aid (TDA and randomly divided into two observation groups-one with visual and audible alarm functions turned on and the other with alarms off. Dosing information was analyzed for mean rates of adherence, missed days, and dosing at the wrong time. Twenty patients were randomized to the TDA alarm on group and 22 to the alarm off group. The rates of adherence were 87.9% and 79.7% (p = 0.02, rates of missed dosing were 7.6% and 14.4% (p = 0.03, and rates of dosing at the incorrect times were 7.1% and 9.8% (p = 0.19, respectively for alarm on versus alarm off groups. In the alarm on group, the adherence rate was significantly higher and proportion of missed dosing was significantly lower. It is still yet to be determined whether there is a relationship between adherence and progression of glaucoma.Keywords: adherence, glaucoma, Travatan® Dosing Aid, audible alarms, visual alarms
Solovev, D. B.; Merkusheva, A. E.
Most international airports in the world use radiation portal monitors (RPM) for primary radiation control organization. During the exploitation pedestrian radiation portal monitors operators (in the Russian Federation it is a special subdivision of customs officials) have certain problems related to the search of an ionizing radiation source causing the alarm signal of a radiation monitor. Radiation portal monitors at standard (factory) settings have to find out the illegal moving of the radioisotopes moved by physical persons passing through a controlled zone and having a steady radiation by the gamma or neutron channel. The problem is that recently the number of the ownerships who underwent treatment or medical diagnostics with the use of radio pharmaceuticals considerably increased, i.e,. ownerships represent such an ionizing radiation source. The operator of the radiation portal monitor has to define very quickly whether the ownership is a violator (takes unsolved radioisotopes illegally) or is just a patient of the clinic who underwent treatment/diagnostics with the use of radio pharmaceuticals. The research showing the radioisotopes which are most often used in the medical purposes are given in article, it is offered to use the new software developed by the authors allowing the operator of the radiation portal monitor to define the location of the ownership which has such ionizing radiation source by the activity of radiation similar to the radiation from radio pharmaceuticals.
Lukianto, C.; Sternberg, H.
Many current smartphones are fitted with GPS receivers, which, in combination with a map application form a pedestrian navigation system for outdoor purposes. However, once an area with insufficient satellite signal coverage is entered, these navigation systems cease to function. For indoor positioning, there are already several solutions available which are usually based on measured distances to reference points. These solutions can achieve resolutions as low as the sub-millimetre range depending on the complexity of the set-up. STEPPING project, developed at HCU Hamburg Germany aims at designing an indoor navigation system consisting of a small inertial navigation system and a new, robust sensor fusion algorithm running on a current smartphone. As this system is theoretically able to integrate any available positioning method, it is independent of a particular method and can thus be realized on a smartphone without affecting user mobility. Potential applications include --but are not limited to: Large trade fairs, airports, parking decks and shopping malls, as well as ambient assisted living scenarios.
C A Mulvaney; D Kendrick; M C Watson; C A C Coupland
Study objective: Visibility aids have the potential to reduce child pedestrian and cyclist injury but scarce data exist relating to their use or to interventions for increasing visibility aid use among children...
During recent years, community leaders and transportation professionals in the Austin area have increased their interest in pedestrian and bicycle travel. Advocacy groups, task forces, bicycling clubs, and volunteer organizations encourage government...
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration recognizes that quieter cars such as hybrid-electric vehicles in low-speed operation using their : electric motors, may introduce a safety issue for pedestrians who are blind. This study documents th...
Kwak, Jaeyoung; Luttinen, Tapio; Kosonen, Iisakki
Walking is a fundamental activity of our daily life not only for moving to other places but also for interacting with surrounding environment. While walking on the streets, pedestrians can be aware of attractions like shopping windows. They can be influenced by the attractions and some of them might shift their attention towards the attractions, namely switching behavior. As a first step to incorporate the switching behavior, this study investigates collective effects of switching behavior for an attraction by developing a behavioral model. Numerical simulations exhibit different patterns of pedestrian behavior depending on the strength of the social influence and the average length of stay. When the social influence is strong along with a long length of stay, a saturated phase can be defined at which all the pedestrians have visited the attraction. If the social influence is not strong enough, an unsaturated phase appears where one can observe that some pedestrians head for the attraction while others walk i...
Planners and designers at every level of government look for ways to make Michigan roads safer for pedestrians and bicyclists. A wide range of improvement options at intersections and along corridors offers the potential for safer streets. MDOT under...
Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Hovgesen, Henrik Harder
with an electronic questionnaire, for example in the shape of a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) or cell phone, a whole new array of survey possibilities comes into being. Respondents can be asked to register their activities, evaluate or in other ways describe the attractiveness of places based on their actual....... It will then be possible to analyse how the use of urban spaces are embedded in the wider context of activity patterns (work, school etc.). The general pattern of everyday itineraries, including route choice and time spent at different locations ?on the way? can also be analysed. If the personal GPS device is combined...... position in the urban area. Thus a new form of integration between research into activity patterns and urban places will be possible. The paper presents the possibilities in spatial behaviour and pedestrian surveys with GPS and electronic questionnaires. Demonstrative mapping of test data from passive...
2006-2007 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 29, 30, 31 January 2007, from 11:00 to 12:00 Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 on 29 and 30 January, TH Auditorium, Bldg 4, 3-006, on 31 January String Theory for Pedestrians B. ZWIEBACH, MIT, Cambridge, USA In this 3-lecture series I will discuss the basics of string theory, some physical applications, and the outlook for the future. I will begin with the main concepts of the classical theory and the application to the study of cosmic superstrings. Then I will turn to the quantum theory and discuss applications to the investigation of hadronic spectra and the recently discovered quark-gluon plasma. I will conclude with a sketch of string models of particle physics and showing some avenues that may lead to a complete formulation of string theory.
He, Zhe; Renaudin, Valérie; Petovello, Mark G; Lachapelle, Gérard
Dead-reckoning (DR) algorithms, which use self-contained inertial sensors combined with gait analysis, have proven to be effective for pedestrian navigation purposes. In such DR systems, the primary error is often due to accumulated heading drifts. By tightly integrating global navigation satellite system (GNSS) Doppler measurements with DR, such accumulated heading errors can usually be accurately compensated. Under weak signal conditions, high sensitivity GNSS (HSGNSS) receivers with block processing techniques are often used, however, the Doppler quality of such receivers is relatively poor due to multipath, fading and signal attenuation. This often limits the benefits of integrating HSGNSS Doppler with DR. This paper investigates the benefits of using Doppler measurements from a novel direct vector HSGNSS receiver with pedestrian dead-reckoning (PDR) for indoor navigation. An indoor signal and multipath model is introduced which explains how conventional HSGNSS Doppler measurements are affected by indoor multipath. Velocity and Doppler estimated by using direct vector receivers are introduced and discussed. Real experimental data is processed and analyzed to assess the veracity of proposed method. It is shown when integrating HSGNSS Doppler with PDR algorithm, the proposed direct vector method are more helpful than conventional block processing method for the indoor environments considered herein.
Schwebel, David C; Severson, Joan; He, Yefei; McClure, Leslie A
Pedestrian injuries are a leading cause of paediatric injury. Effective, practical and cost-efficient behavioural interventions to teach young children street crossing skills are needed. They must be empirically supported and theoretically based. Virtual reality (VR) offers promise to fill this need and teach child pedestrian safety skills for several reasons, including: (A) repeated unsupervised practice without risk of injury, (B) automated feedback on crossing success or failure, (C) tailoring to child skill levels: (D) appealing and fun training environment, and (E) most recently given technological advances, potential for broad dissemination using mobile smartphone technology. Extending previous work, we will evaluate delivery of an immersive pedestrian VR using mobile smartphones and the Google Cardboard platform, technology enabling standard smartphones to function as immersive VR delivery systems. We will overcome limitations of previous research suggesting children learnt some pedestrian skills after six VR training sessions but did not master adult-level pedestrian skills by implementing a randomised non-inferiority trial with two equal-sized groups of children ages 7-8 years (total N=498). All children will complete baseline, postintervention and 6-month follow-up assessments of pedestrian safety and up to 25 30-min pedestrian safety training trials until they reach adult levels of functioning. Half the children will be randomly assigned to train in Google Cardboard and the other half in a semi-immersive kiosk VR. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) models will assess primary outcomes. If results are as hypothesised, mobile smartphones offer substantial potential to overcome barriers of dissemination and implementation and deliver pedestrian safety training to children worldwide. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Stavrinos, Despina; Byington, Katherine W; Schwebel, David C
Distraction on cell phones jeopardizes motor-vehicle driver safety, but few studies examine distracted walking. At particular risk are college students, who walk frequently in and near traffic, have increased pedestrian injury rates compared to other age groups, and frequently use cell phones. Using an interactive and immersive virtual environment, two experiments studied the effect of cell phone conversation on distraction of college student pedestrians. In the first, we examined whether pedestrians would display riskier behavior when distracted by a naturalistic cell phone conversation than when undistracted. We also considered whether individual difference factors would moderate the effect of the distraction. In a second experiment, we examined the impact of three forms of distraction on pedestrian safety: (a) engaging in a cell phone conversation, (b) engaging in a cognitively challenging spatial task by phone, and (c) engaging in a cognitively challenging mental arithmetic task by phone. Results revealed that cell phone conversations distracted college pedestrians considerably across all pedestrian safety variables measured, with just one exception. Attention to traffic was not affected by the naturalistic phone conversation in Experiment 1, but was altered by the cognitively-demanding content of some types of conversation in Experiment 2. The content of the conversation did not play a major role in distraction across other variables; both mundane and cognitively complex conversations distracted participants. Moreover, no significant associations between individual difference factors and susceptibility to distraction emerged. Results may inform researchers, policy makers, and pedestrians themselves. Educational campaigns might discourage telephone conversations in pedestrian environments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ristic, Branko; Sherrah, Jamie; García-Fernández, Ángel F.
The paper evaluates the error performance of three random finite set based multi-object trackers in the context of pedestrian video tracking. The evaluation is carried out using a publicly available video dataset of 4500 frames (town centre street) for which the ground truth is available. The input to all pedestrian tracking algorithms is an identical set of head and body detections, obtained using the Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG) detector. The tracking error is measured using the re...
Park, Andrew Jaehyung
Research studies in criminology and environmental psychology show that fear of crime can be generated in pedestrians by features of the urban environment such as narrow routes, hidden spaces, dumpsters and litter, and by threatening individuals; this fear may cause pedestrians to choose an alternate route to avoid these features. Criminologists and urban planners have devised a strategy called Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED)" which reduces fear of crime and crime itself ...
Peli, Eli; Apfelbaum, Henry; Berson, Eliot L; Goldstein, Robert B
Patients with peripheral field loss complain of colliding with other pedestrians in open-space environments such as shopping malls. Field expansion devices (e.g., prisms) can create artificial peripheral islands of vision. We investigated the visual angle at which these islands can be most effective for avoiding pedestrian collisions, by modeling the collision risk density as a function of bearing angle of pedestrians relative to the patient. Pedestrians at all possible locations were assumed to be moving in all directions with equal probability within a reasonable range of walking speeds. The risk density was found to be highly anisotropic. It peaked at ≈45° eccentricity. Increasing pedestrian speed range shifted the risk to higher eccentricities. The risk density is independent of time to collision. The model results were compared to the binocular residual peripheral island locations of 42 patients with forms of retinitis pigmentosa. The natural residual island prevalence also peaked nasally at about 45° but temporally at about 75°. This asymmetry resulted in a complementary coverage of the binocular field of view. Natural residual binocular island eccentricities seem well matched to the collision-risk density function, optimizing detection of other walking pedestrians (nasally) and of faster hazards (temporally). Field expansion prism devices will be most effective if they can create artificial peripheral islands at about 45° eccentricities. The collision risk and residual island findings raise interesting questions about normal visual development.
Shen, Jiabin; McClure, Leslie A; Schwebel, David C
Child pedestrian injury poses a significant global public health challenge. This study examines relations between temperamental fear and children's risky pedestrian behavior, utilizing mediation analytic strategies to study underlying mechanisms of the hypothesized relation. As part of a larger study, 240 seven- and eight-year-old children completed 30 crossings in a virtual reality (VR) pedestrian environment. Three pedestrian behaviors were considered: start gap (lag after a traffic gap appears before child initiates crossing into the gap), time to contact (TTC; gap between avatar and the lead oncoming vehicle), and hits (collisions with vehicles in simulated crossings). Temperamental fear was measured by parent report. Fearful children were more likely to be struck by virtual vehicles, and the relation between fear and risky pedestrian behaviors was mediated by start gap and TTC. Specifically, children who were temperamentally more fearful were more likely to hesitate before initiating crossing, which led to shorter gaps between themselves and the oncoming vehicle, hence causing them to be more likely to be hit by virtual vehicles. Gender interacted with fear, such that fearful girls were most likely to be hit. Both temperamental fear and gender influenced the risk of child pedestrian injuries. Delayed entry into traffic and shorter gaps between children and oncoming vehicles may underlie this relation. Future research should explore how these factors might influence the effectiveness of prevention programs. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Full Text Available In China, unsignalized crosswalks lead to the increasing ofconflicts between vehicles and crossing pedestrians. In this paper, the relationships of risks perceived by drivers, crossing pedestrians, and vehicle speed were revealed through a decision-making risk experiment. The model of collision risk probability was established by using probability theory. Then the strategy spaces, the payoff function, and payoff matrix were given. The model of dynamic noncooperative game between the drivers and crossing pedestrians was established. In addition, the equilibrium solutions of the model were analyzed as well. The results of analysis shows that the crossing state is the best decision for pedestrians and drivers should keep uniform speed or accelerate when vehicle speed is low. At medium speed, there is no clear difference between waiting and crossing state for pedestrians. Actually, the crossing state is better than waiting state. For drivers, there is no evident difference among acceleration, deceleration, and keeping uniform speed of vehicles, but the better choice is keeping uniform speed of vehicles. At high speed, pedestrians should not cross because of there are high risks. Therefore, the best solution is that the drivers keep uniform speed of vehicles.
Ma, Yi, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Lee, Eric Wai Ming; Shi, Meng
This study investigates the effects of guide-based guidance on the pedestrian evacuation under limited visibility via the simulations based on an extended social force model. The results show that the effects of guides on the pedestrian evacuation under limited visibility are dual, and related to the neighbor density within the visual field. On the one hand, in many cases, the effects of guides are positive, particularly when the neighbor density within the visual field is moderate; in this case, a few guides can already assist the evacuation effectively and efficiently. However, when the neighbor density within the visual field is particularly small or large, the effects of guides may be adverse and make the evacuation time longer. Our results not only provide a new insight into the effects of guides on the pedestrian evacuation under limited visibility, but also give some practical suggestions as to how to assign guides to assist the evacuation under different evacuation conditions. - Highlights: • Extended social force model is used to simulate guided pedestrian evacuation. • Effects of guides on pedestrian evacuation under limited visibility are dual. • Effects of guides on pedestrian evacuation under limited visibility are related to neighbor density within visual field.
Full Text Available Pedestrian flow is much less regulated and controlled compared to vehicle traffic. Estimating flow parameters would support many safety, security or commercial applications. Current paper discusses a method that enables acquiring information on pedestrian movements without disturbing and changing their motion. Profile laser scanner and depth camera have been applied to capture the geometry of the moving people as time series. Procedures have been developed to derive complex flow parameters, such as count, volume, walking direction and velocity from laser scanned point clouds. Since no images are captured from the faces of pedestrians, no privacy issues raised. The paper includes accuracy analysis of the estimated parameters based on video footage as reference. Due to the dense point clouds, detailed geometry analysis has been conducted to obtain the height and shoulder width of pedestrians and to detect whether luggage has been carried or not. The derived parameters support safety (e.g. detecting critical pedestrian density in mass events, security (e.g. detecting prohibited baggage in endangered areas and commercial applications (e.g. counting pedestrians at all entrances/exits of a shopping mall.
Shi, Dongmei; Zhang, Wenyao; Wang, Binghong
Pedestrian evacuation is studied based on a modified lattice model. The payoff matrix in this model represents the complicated interactions between selfish individuals, and the mean force imposed on an individual is given by considering the impacts of neighbors, walls, and defector herding. Each passer-by moves to his selected location according to the Fermi function, and the average velocity of pedestrian flow is defined as a function of the motion rule. Two pedestrian types are included: cooperators, who adhere to the evacuation instructions; and defectors, who ignore the rules and act individually. It is observed that the escape time increases as fear degree increases, and the system remains smooth for a low fear degree, but exhibits three stages for a high fear degree. We prove that the fear degree determines the dynamics of this system, and the initial density of cooperators has a negligible impact. The system experiences three phases, a single phase of cooperator, a mixed two-phase pedestrian, and a single phase of defector sequentially as the fear degree upgrades. The phase transition has been proven basically robust to the changes of empty site contribution, wall’s pressure, and noise amplitude in the motion rule. It is further shown that pedestrians derive the greatest benefit from overall cooperation, but are trapped in the worst situation if they are all defectors. Dynamics of pedestrian evacuation.
At CERN, we are all pedestrians, often drivers, and occasionally cyclists. But our means of locomotion do not matter so long as we exercise caution and remember that a pedestrian has equal rights as a road user, except that he runs greater risks. Whether we also travel by bike or car, irrrespective of our means of locomotion at CERN we are all pedestrians! Whether going on foot to our office, the cafeteria or a building where colleagues work, we are much more in harm's way than as a driver sitting in the shell of steel that is a car. There are some 8000 people working on the different sites of CERN. That means 8000 potential pedestrians and 8000 reasons for trying to keep the roads safe. Whether behind the steering wheel or on a bike, we sometimes forget that the roadway is not just for vehicles. Pedestrians are also fully fledged road users with equal rights. That is why drivers must remain alert and take care not to block pedestrian crossings, pavements or access ways, and why special caution...
Yao, Shihong; Wang, Tao; Shen, Weiming; Pan, Shaoming; Chong, Yanwen; Ding, Fei
Pedestrian detection have been currently devoted to the extraction of effective pedestrian features, which has become one of the obstacles in pedestrian detection application according to the variety of pedestrian features and their large dimension. Based on the theoretical analysis of six frequently-used features, SIFT, SURF, Haar, HOG, LBP and LSS, and their comparison with experimental results, this paper screens out the sparse feature subsets via sparse representation to investigate whether the sparse subsets have the same description abilities and the most stable features. When any two of the six features are fused, the fusion feature is sparsely represented to obtain its important components. Sparse subsets of the fusion features can be rapidly generated by avoiding calculation of the corresponding index of dimension numbers of these feature descriptors; thus, the calculation speed of the feature dimension reduction is improved and the pedestrian detection time is reduced. Experimental results show that sparse feature subsets are capable of keeping the important components of these six feature descriptors. The sparse features of HOG and LSS possess the same description ability and consume less time compared with their full features. The ratios of the sparse feature subsets of HOG and LSS to their full sets are the highest among the six, and thus these two features can be used to best describe the characteristics of the pedestrian and the sparse feature subsets of the combination of HOG-LSS show better distinguishing ability and parsimony.
Full Text Available Pedestrian detection have been currently devoted to the extraction of effective pedestrian features, which has become one of the obstacles in pedestrian detection application according to the variety of pedestrian features and their large dimension. Based on the theoretical analysis of six frequently-used features, SIFT, SURF, Haar, HOG, LBP and LSS, and their comparison with experimental results, this paper screens out the sparse feature subsets via sparse representation to investigate whether the sparse subsets have the same description abilities and the most stable features. When any two of the six features are fused, the fusion feature is sparsely represented to obtain its important components. Sparse subsets of the fusion features can be rapidly generated by avoiding calculation of the corresponding index of dimension numbers of these feature descriptors; thus, the calculation speed of the feature dimension reduction is improved and the pedestrian detection time is reduced. Experimental results show that sparse feature subsets are capable of keeping the important components of these six feature descriptors. The sparse features of HOG and LSS possess the same description ability and consume less time compared with their full features. The ratios of the sparse feature subsets of HOG and LSS to their full sets are the highest among the six, and thus these two features can be used to best describe the characteristics of the pedestrian and the sparse feature subsets of the combination of HOG-LSS show better distinguishing ability and parsimony.
Zhang, Nan; Huang, Hong; Su, Boni; Zhao, Jinlong
Knowing the dynamic road risk for pedestrian evacuation and having an efficient evacuation plan play a very important role in the serious disasters such as earthquake, tsunami and hurricane. In this paper, the dynamic road risk for pedestrian evacuation in a densely populated area of Beijing was studied with consideration of different influencing factors. Firstly, the eight influencing factors including road width, node degree, safety betweenness, road resistor coefficient, building threat, pedestrian counterflow, illegal vehicle parking and traffic flow were considered to assess the road risk for pedestrian evacuation. Secondly, based on complex network theory, electric circuit theory and real situation of the roads, the comprehensive assessment function for road risk was developed quantitatively based on the eight influencing factors. Thirdly, we analyzed road risk for pedestrian evacuation considering different situations: current condition, regular condition, and optimal condition; the risk distribution maps were drawn to directly show the risk level. Through assessments, the roads with high risk for pedestrian evacuation were found, and an optimized evacuation plan was obtained and analyzed. This mathematical model can guide the emergency evacuation in real time. The process and the results are essential for improving the efficiency of evacuations which should considerably reduce the possibility of injuries, deaths and other losses in the disaster.
Bona Frazila Russ
Full Text Available Access has become a crucial issue for the persons with disabilities (PWDs, in which the inconvenient transportation facilities is contributed to the dependent living issue of PWD, specifically the visual impaired person. As a primary aspect of transportation, the walking facilities further needs to be carefully considered for facilitating their moving activities. Recently, the effect of built environment on walking behavior has obtained significant attention, which is generally constructed within the framework of walkability concept. The walkability has been extensively used for evaluating the physical attributes of pedestrian facilities by comparing it to the walker perception. Hence, the evaluation result can directly answer the needs of pedestrian. Despite of their recent research achievements, the walkability concept is mostly unsuccessful to take into account the blind walker characteristics. This paper then explore physical attributes of walkability environment in order to provide the friendly pedestrian facilities for the blind pedestrian, which is rarely explored. The research is established based on the blind walker perspectives within the micro-level analysis that incorporates a smaller unit of measurement (i.e., the street-level physical attributes. The physical attributes result are thus potentially to be utilized for analyzing the required pedestrian facilities for the blind pedestrians.
Cao, Jiale; Pang, Yanwei; Li, Xuelong
Most state-of-the-art methods in pedestrian detection are unable to achieve a good trade-off between accuracy and efficiency. For example, ACF has a fast speed but a relatively low detection rate, while checkerboards have a high detection rate but a slow speed. Inspired by some simple inherent attributes of pedestrians (i.e., appearance constancy and shape symmetry), we propose two new types of non-neighboring features: side-inner difference features (SIDF) and symmetrical similarity features (SSFs). SIDF can characterize the difference between the background and pedestrian and the difference between the pedestrian contour and its inner part. SSF can capture the symmetrical similarity of pedestrian shape. However, it is difficult for neighboring features to have such above characterization abilities. Finally, we propose to combine both non-neighboring features and neighboring features for pedestrian detection. It is found that non-neighboring features can further decrease the log-average miss rate by 4.44%. The relationship between our proposed method and some state-of-the-art methods is also given. Experimental results on INRIA, Caltech, and KITTI data sets demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method. Compared with the state-of-the-art methods without using CNN, our method achieves the best detection performance on Caltech, outperforming the second best method (i.e., checkerboards) by 2.27%. Using the new annotations of Caltech, it can achieve 11.87% miss rate, which outperforms other methods.
Ibrahim, Najihah; Hassan, Fadratul Hafinaz
Pedestrian movement is the one of the subset for the crowd management under simulation objective. During panic situation, pedestrian usually will create a microscopic movement that lead towards the self-organization. During self-organizing, the behavioral and physical factors had caused the mass effect on the pedestrian movement. The basic CA model will create a movement path for each pedestrian over a time step. However, due to the factors immerge, the CA model needs some enhancement that will establish a real simulation state. Hence, this concept paper will discuss on the enhanced features of CA model for microscopic pedestrian movement during panic situation for a better pedestrian simulation.
Martínez Sáez, Luis; Compigne, Sabine; Guerra Casanova, Luis Jesús
This study aims at evaluating the current pedestrian lower leg test procedure with respect to the human response in a pedestrian accident. The test procedure is examined for a variety of representative cars of the European fleet. The investigation is purely based on numerical simulations carried out using the regulatory lower leg impactor, as described in the Directive 2004/90/EC, and compared to simulations where the impactor is replaced by the human FE model THUMS (Total HUman Model for Saf...
Full Text Available With the rapid development of smartphones and wireless networks, indoor location-based services have become more and more prevalent. Due to the sophisticated propagation of radio signals, the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI shows a significant variation during pedestrian walking, which introduces critical errors in deterministic indoor positioning. To solve this problem, we present a novel method to improve the indoor pedestrian positioning accuracy by embedding a fuzzy pattern recognition algorithm into a Hidden Markov Model. The fuzzy pattern recognition algorithm follows the rule that the RSSI fading has a positive correlation to the distance between the measuring point and the AP location even during a dynamic positioning measurement. Through this algorithm, we use the RSSI variation trend to replace the specific RSSI value to achieve a fuzzy positioning. The transition probability of the Hidden Markov Model is trained by the fuzzy pattern recognition algorithm with pedestrian trajectories. Using the Viterbi algorithm with the trained model, we can obtain a set of hidden location states. In our experiments, we demonstrate that, compared with the deterministic pattern matching algorithm, our method can greatly improve the positioning accuracy and shows robust environmental adaptability.
Ni, Yepeng; Liu, Jianbo; Liu, Shan; Bai, Yaxin
With the rapid development of smartphones and wireless networks, indoor location-based services have become more and more prevalent. Due to the sophisticated propagation of radio signals, the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) shows a significant variation during pedestrian walking, which introduces critical errors in deterministic indoor positioning. To solve this problem, we present a novel method to improve the indoor pedestrian positioning accuracy by embedding a fuzzy pattern recognition algorithm into a Hidden Markov Model. The fuzzy pattern recognition algorithm follows the rule that the RSSI fading has a positive correlation to the distance between the measuring point and the AP location even during a dynamic positioning measurement. Through this algorithm, we use the RSSI variation trend to replace the specific RSSI value to achieve a fuzzy positioning. The transition probability of the Hidden Markov Model is trained by the fuzzy pattern recognition algorithm with pedestrian trajectories. Using the Viterbi algorithm with the trained model, we can obtain a set of hidden location states. In our experiments, we demonstrate that, compared with the deterministic pattern matching algorithm, our method can greatly improve the positioning accuracy and shows robust environmental adaptability.
Cottrell, Nicholas D; Barton, Benjamin K
Electrically based vehicles have produced some concern over their lack of sound, but the impact of artificial sounds now being implemented have not been examined in respect to their effects upon the driver. The impact of two different implementations of vehicle sound on driver stress in electric vehicles was examined. A Nissan HEV running in electric vehicle mode was driven by participants in an area of congestion using three sound implementations: (1) no artificial sounds, (2) manually engaged sounds and (3) automatically engaged sounds. Physiological and self-report questionnaire measures were collected to determine stress and acceptance of the automated sound protocol. Driver stress was significantly higher in the manually activated warning condition, compared to both no artificial sounds and automatically engaged sounds. Implications for automation usage and measurement methods are discussed and future research directions suggested. The advent of hybrid- and all-electric vehicles has created a need for artificial warning signals for pedestrian safety that place task demands on drivers. We investigated drivers' stress differences in response to varying conditions of warning signals for pedestrians. Driver stress was lower when noises were automated.
Reducing crashes involving pedestrians and bicyclists continues to be a major concern in the design of Michigan roads. In seeking to improve the safety of pedestrians, bicyclists, and motorists on Michigan roads, it is important to balance the needs ...
Child pedestrian injuries are a leading cause of mortality and morbidity across the United States : and the world. Repeated practice at the cognitive-perceptual task of crossing a street may lead to : safer pedestrian behavior. Virtual reality offers...
Full Text Available With the rise of urban population, many initiatives are focused upon the smart city concept, in which mobility of citizens arises as one of the main components. Updated and detailed spatial information of outdoor environments is needed to accurate path planning for pedestrians, especially for people with reduced mobility, in which physical barriers should be considered. This work presents a methodology to use point clouds to direct path planning. The starting point is a classified point cloud in which ground elements have been previously classified as roads, sidewalks, crosswalks, curbs and stairs. The remaining points compose the obstacle class. The methodology starts by individualizing ground elements and simplifying them into representative points, which are used as nodes in the graph creation. The region of influence of obstacles is used to refine the graph. Edges of the graph are weighted according to distance between nodes and according to their accessibility for wheelchairs. As a result, we obtain a very accurate graph representing the as-built environment. The methodology has been tested in a couple of real case studies and Dijkstra algorithm was used to pathfinding. The resulting paths represent the optimal according to motor skills and safety.
López-Pazos, G.; Balado, J.; Díaz-Vilariño, L.; Arias, P.; Scaioni, M.
With the rise of urban population, many initiatives are focused upon the smart city concept, in which mobility of citizens arises as one of the main components. Updated and detailed spatial information of outdoor environments is needed to accurate path planning for pedestrians, especially for people with reduced mobility, in which physical barriers should be considered. This work presents a methodology to use point clouds to direct path planning. The starting point is a classified point cloud in which ground elements have been previously classified as roads, sidewalks, crosswalks, curbs and stairs. The remaining points compose the obstacle class. The methodology starts by individualizing ground elements and simplifying them into representative points, which are used as nodes in the graph creation. The region of influence of obstacles is used to refine the graph. Edges of the graph are weighted according to distance between nodes and according to their accessibility for wheelchairs. As a result, we obtain a very accurate graph representing the as-built environment. The methodology has been tested in a couple of real case studies and Dijkstra algorithm was used to pathfinding. The resulting paths represent the optimal according to motor skills and safety.
LECTURE SERIES 29, 30, 31 January 2007 from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 on 29 and 30 January TH Auditorium, Bldg 4, 3-006, on 31 January String Theory for Pedestrians B. ZWIEBACH/MIT, Cambridge, USA In this 3-lecture series I will discuss the basics of string theory, some physical applications, and the outlook for the future. Â I will begin with the main concepts of the classical theory and theÂ application to the study of cosmic superstrings.Â Then I will turnÂ to the quantum theory and discussÂ applications toÂ the investigation ofÂ hadronic spectra and theÂ recentlyÂ discovered quark-gluon plasma.Â Â I will concludeÂ with a sketch of string models of particle physicsÂ and showing some avenues that may lead to aÂ completeÂ formulation ofÂ string theory. Â
Full Text Available Pedestrians, much like drivers, have always been engaged in multi-tasking like using hand-held devices, listening to music, snacking, or reading while walking. The effects are similar to those experienced by distracted drivers. However, distracted walking has not received similar policies and effective interventions as distracted driving to improve pedestrian safety. This study reviewed the state-of-practice on policies, campaigns, available data, identified research needs, and opportunities pertaining to distracted walking. A comprehensive review of literature revealed that some of the agencies/organizations disseminate useful information about certain distracting activities that pedestrians should avoid while walking to improve their safety. Various walking safety rules/tips have been given, such as not wearing headphones or talking on a cell phone while crossing a street, keeping the volume down, hanging up the phone while walking, being aware of traffic, and avoiding distractions like walking with texting. The majority of the past observational-based and experimental-based studies reviewed in this study on distracted walking is in agreement that there is a positive correlation between distraction and unsafe walking behavior. However, limitations of the existing crash data suggest that distracted walking may not be a severe threat to the public health. Current pedestrian crash data provide insufficient information for researchers to examine the extent to which distracted walking causes and/or contributes to actual pedestrian safety problems.
Qu, Yunchao; Xiao, Yao; Wu, Jianjun; Tang, Tao; Gao, Ziyou
Pedestrian simulation approach has been widely used to reveal the human behavior and evaluate the performance of crowd evacuation. In the existing pedestrian simulation models, the social force model is capable of predicting many collective phenomena. Detour behavior occurs in many cases, and the important behavior is a dominate factor of the crowd evacuation efficiency. However, limited attention has been attracted for analyzing and modeling the characteristics of detour behavior. In this paper, a modified social force model integrated by Voronoi diagram is proposed to calculate the detour direction and preferred velocity. Besides, with the consideration of locations and velocities of neighbor pedestrians, a Logit-based choice model is built to describe the detour direction choice. The proposed model is applied to analyze pedestrian dynamics in a corridor scenario with either unidirectional or bidirectional flow, and a building scenario in real-world. Simulation results show that the modified social force model including detour behavior could reduce the frequency of collision and deadlock, increase the average speed of the crowd, and predict more practical crowd dynamics with detour behavior. This model can also be potentially applied to understand the pedestrian dynamics and design emergent management strategies for crowd evacuations.
Zou, You; Xie, Jiarong; Wang, Binghong
In this paper, we have captured an underlying mechanism of emergence of collective panic in pedestrian evacuations by using a modification of the lattice-gas model. We classify the motion of pedestrians into two modes according to their moods. One is gentle (mode I), the other is flustered (mode II). First, to research the cause for crowd, we fix the motion modes of pedestrians and increase the proportion of pedestrians with motion mode II (ρII). The simulation results show that the pedestrians with motion mode II are lack of evacuation efficiency and cause more casualties. Further, we use the SIS (susceptible-infective-susceptible) model to describe the spreading of the panic mood. The system can be in the high-mix state when the infection probability λ is greater than a fuzzy threshold. In addition, the distances S from wounded people to the exit are researched, the number of wounded people gets maximum at the internal S = 5∼10, which is independent of ρII and λ. This research can help us to understand and prevent the emergence of collective panic and reduce wounds in the real evacuation.
Full Text Available In this paper, we have captured an underlying mechanism of emergence of collective panic in pedestrian evacuations by using a modification of the lattice-gas model. We classify the motion of pedestrians into two modes according to their moods. One is gentle (mode I, the other is flustered (mode II. First, to research the cause for crowd, we fix the motion modes of pedestrians and increase the proportion of pedestrians with motion mode II (ρII. The simulation results show that the pedestrians with motion mode II are lack of evacuation efficiency and cause more casualties. Further, we use the SIS (susceptible-infective-susceptible model to describe the spreading of the panic mood. The system can be in the high-mix state when the infection probability λ is greater than a fuzzy threshold. In addition, the distances S from wounded people to the exit are researched, the number of wounded people gets maximum at the internal S = 5∼10, which is independent of ρII and λ. This research can help us to understand and prevent the emergence of collective panic and reduce wounds in the real evacuation.
Qi, Bin; John, Vijay; Liu, Zheng; Mita, Seiichi
Pedestrian detection, a key technology in computer vision, plays a paramount role in the applications of advanced driver assistant systems (ADASs) and autonomous vehicles. The objective of pedestrian detection is to identify and locate people in a dynamic environment so that accidents can be avoided. With significant variations introduced by illumination, occlusion, articulated pose, and complex background, pedestrian detection is a challenging task for visual perception. Different from visible images, thermal images are captured and presented with intensity maps based objects' emissivity, and thus have an enhanced spectral range to make human beings perceptible from the cool background. In this study, a sparse representation based approach is proposed for pedestrian detection from thermal images. We first adopted the histogram of sparse code to represent image features and then detect pedestrian with the extracted features in an unimodal and a multimodal framework respectively. In the unimodal framework, two types of dictionaries, i.e. joint dictionary and individual dictionary, are built by learning from prepared training samples. In the multimodal framework, a weighted fusion scheme is proposed to further highlight the contributions from features with higher separability. To validate the proposed approach, experiments were conducted to compare with three widely used features: Haar wavelets (HWs), histogram of oriented gradients (HOG), and histogram of phase congruency (HPC) as well as two classification methods, i.e. AdaBoost and support vector machine (SVM). Experimental results on a publicly available data set demonstrate the superiority of the proposed approach.
Toran Pour, Alireza; Moridpour, Sara; Tay, Richard; Rajabifard, Abbas
Socioeconomic factors are known to be contributing factors for vehicle-pedestrian crashes. Although several studies have examined the socioeconomic factors related to the location of the crashes, limited studies have considered the socioeconomic factors of the neighborhood where the road users live in vehicle-pedestrian crash modelling. This research aims to identify the socioeconomic factors related to both the neighborhoods where the road users live and where crashes occur that have an influence on vehicle-pedestrian crash severity. Data on vehicle-pedestrian crashes that occurred at mid-blocks in Melbourne, Australia, was analyzed. Neighborhood factors associated with road users' residents and location of crash were investigated using boosted regression tree (BRT). Furthermore, partial dependence plots were applied to illustrate the interactions between these factors. We found that socioeconomic factors accounted for 60% of the 20 top contributing factors to vehicle-pedestrian crashes. This research reveals that socioeconomic factors of the neighborhoods where the road users live and where the crashes occur are important in determining the severity of the crashes, with the former having a greater influence. Hence, road safety countermeasures, especially those focussing on the road users, should be targeted at these high-risk neighborhoods.
Conclusions: Pedestrians are vulnerable to injury in road traffic crashes and are bearing the brunt of these injuries. There is need to educate pedestrians on essentials of safety on the roads. Motorists and cyclists should also be sensitised on respect for other road users. There is a need for pedestrian walkways to reduce ...
Bitgood, Stephen; Davey, Gareth; Huang, Xiaoyi; Fung, Holly
Pedestrian navigation through public spaces reflects the nature of interaction between behavior and environment. This study compared pedestrian choice behavior at shopping mall intersections in China and the United States. The study found that in both countries (a) pedestrians chose movement patterns that involved the fewest steps and (b) there…
It is estimated that over 230,000 pedestrians die in low income countries each year (3). Road Traffic Crashes have been on the rise in East Africa as shown in a study in Kenya. In urban areas the most vulnerable group are pedestrians (4). We conducted a prospective study to document the injuries sustained by pedestrians.
Mordaka, J.; Kleiven, S.; Schijndel-de Nooij, M. van; Lange, R. de; Casanova, L.J.G.; Carter, E.L.; Holst, H. von
The objective of the present study was to analyze the effect of angular kinematics on head injury in pedestrian head-to-windshield impacts. Three cases of pedestrian head impacts were simulated with FE head and windshield models. The initial impact conditions were obtained from pedestrian accident
Ching, Teresa Y C; Zhang, Vicky W; Hou, Sanna; Van Buynder, Patricia
Hearing loss in children is detected soon after birth via newborn hearing screening. Procedures for early hearing assessment and hearing aid fitting are well established, but methods for evaluating the effectiveness of amplification for young children are limited. One promising approach to validating hearing aid fittings is to measure cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs). This article provides first a brief overview of reports on the use of CAEPs for evaluation of hearing aids. Second, a study that measured CAEPs to evaluate nonlinear frequency compression (NLFC) in hearing aids for 27 children (between 6.1 and 16.8 years old) who have mild to severe hearing loss is reported. There was no significant difference in aided sensation level or the detection of CAEPs for /g/ between NLFC on and off conditions. The activation of NLFC was associated with a significant increase in aided sensation levels for /t/ and /s/. It also was associated with an increase in detection of CAEPs for /t/ and /s/. The findings support the use of CAEPs for checking audibility provided by hearing aids. Based on the current data, a clinical protocol for using CAEPs to validate audibility with amplification is presented.
The constitutive equations of chemically and physically ageing rubber in the audible frequency range are modelled as a function of ageing temperature, ageing time, actual temperature, time and frequency. The constitutive equations are derived by assuming nearly incompressible material with elastic spherical response and viscoelastic deviatoric response, using Mittag-Leffler relaxation function of fractional derivative type, the main advantage being the minimum material parameters needed to successfully fit experimental data over a broad frequency range. The material is furthermore assumed essentially entropic and thermo-mechanically simple while using a modified William-Landel-Ferry shift function to take into account temperature dependence and physical ageing, with fractional free volume evolution modelled by a nonlinear, fractional differential equation with relaxation time identical to that of the stress response and related to the fractional free volume by Doolittle equation. Physical ageing is a reversible ageing process, including trapping and freeing of polymer chain ends, polymer chain reorganizations and free volume changes. In contrast, chemical ageing is an irreversible process, mainly attributed to oxygen reaction with polymer network either damaging the network by scission or reformation of new polymer links. The chemical ageing is modelled by inner variables that are determined by inner fractional evolution equations. Finally, the model parameters are fitted to measurements results of natural rubber over a broad audible frequency range, and various parameter studies are performed including comparison with results obtained by ordinary, non-fractional ageing evolution differential equations.
In this paper we present an optimal control approach modeling fast exit scenarios in pedestrian crowds. In particular we consider the case of a large human crowd trying to exit a room as fast as possible. The motion of every pedestrian is determined by minimizing a cost functional, which depends on his/her position, velocity, exit time and the overall density of people. This microscopic setup leads in the mean-field limit to a parabolic optimal control problem. We discuss the modeling of the macroscopic optimal control approach and show how the optimal conditions relate to the Hughes model for pedestrian flow. Furthermore we provide results on the existence and uniqueness of minimizers and illustrate the behavior of the model with various numerical results.
Full Text Available The pedestrian flow equations are formulated as the hyperbolic problem with a source term, completed by the eikonal equation yielding the desired direction of the pedestrian velocity. The operator splitting consisting of successive discretization of the eikonal equation, ordinary differential equation with the right hand side being the source term and the homogeneous hyperbolic system is proposed. The numerical flux of the Vijayasundaram type is proposed for the finite volume solution of the hyperbolic problem. The Vijayasundaram numerical flux, originally proposed for the hyperbolic problems possessing the homogeneity property is extended for pedestrian flow, where the homogeneity property is lost. The application of the proposed numerical flux is demonstrated on the physically relevant problem.
Full Text Available The Department of Forensic Experts in Transportation at the Faculty of Transportation Sciences performed a second set of dynamic passive safety tests of a passenger car (M1 category - Škoda Octavia II in a child pedestrian collision. The initial and test conditions were similar to those of the first set of tests in September 2009 (Škoda Roomster. The deformations of the contact zones on the frontal vehicle surface were analyzed by a 3D scanning technology (3D handy scanner. Head, thorax and pelvic resultant acceleration, acceleration of knee joint in sagittal direction and contact force on the femoral structure of the dummy (P6 dummy, 1.17m; 22kg were measured. The aim of these tests is to provide a detailed description of pedestrian kinematics and comparison of primary and secondary impact seriousness.KEY WORDSpassenger car, child pedestrian, primary and secondary impact, dummy instrumentation, injury criteria, 3D scanning
Corbetta, Alessandro; Benzi, Roberto; Muntean, Adrian; Toschi, Federico
Understanding and modeling the dynamics of pedestrian crowds can help with designing and increasing the safety of civil facilities. A key feature of crowds is its intrinsic stochasticity, appearing even under very diluted conditions, due to the variability in individual behaviours. Individual stochasticity becomes even more important under densely crowded conditions, since it can be nonlinearly magnified and may lead to potentially dangerous collective behaviours. To understand quantitatively crowd stochasticity, we study the real-life dynamics of a large ensemble of pedestrians walking undisturbed, and we perform a statistical analysis of the fully-resolved pedestrian trajectories obtained by a year-long high-resolution measurement campaign. Our measurements have been carried out in a corridor of the Eindhoven University of Technology via a combination of Microsoft Kinect 3D-range sensor and automatic head-tracking algorithms. The temporal homogeneity of our large database of trajectories allows us to robust...
Jelić, Asja; Lemercier, Samuel; Pettré, Julien
We present experimental results obtained for a one-dimensional pedestrian flow using high precision motion capture. The full pedestrians' trajectories are obtained. In this paper, we focus on the fundamental diagram, and on the relation between instantaneous velocity and spatial headway (distance to the predecessor). While the latter was found to be linear in previous experiments, we show that it is rather a piecewise linear behavior which is found if larger density ranges are covered. Indeed, our data clearly exhibits three distinct regimes in the behavior of pedestrians that follow each other. The transitions between these regimes occur at spatial headways of about 1.1 and 3 meters respectively. This finding could be useful for future modeling.
Baek, Jeonghyun; Hong, Sungjun; Kim, Jisu; Kim, Euntai
Most of the commercial nighttime pedestrian detection (PD) methods reported previously utilized the histogram of oriented gradient (HOG) or the local binary pattern (LBP) as the feature and the support vector machine (SVM) as the classifier using thermal camera images. In this paper, we propose a new feature called the thermal-position-intensity-histogram of oriented gradient (TPIHOG or T π HOG) and developed a new combination of the T π HOG and the additive kernel SVM (AKSVM) for efficient nighttime pedestrian detection. The proposed T π HOG includes detailed information on gradient location; therefore, it has more distinctive power than the HOG. The AKSVM performs better than the linear SVM in terms of detection performance, while it is much faster than other kernel SVMs. The combined T π HOG-AKSVM showed effective nighttime PD performance with fast computational time. The proposed method was experimentally tested with the KAIST pedestrian dataset and showed better performance compared with other conventional methods.
Kim, Myeonghyeon; Kho, Seung-Young; Kim, Dong-Kyu
The high percentage of fatalities in pedestrian-involved crashes is a critical social problem. The purpose of this study is to investigate factors influencing injury severity in pedestrian crashes by examining the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the regions where crashes occurred. To understand the correlation between the unobserved characteristics of pedestrian crashes in a defined region, we apply a hierarchical ordered model, in which we set crash characteristics as lower-level variables and municipality characteristics as upper-level. Pedestrian crash data were collected and analyzed for a three-year period from 2011 to 2013. The estimation results show the statistically significant factors that increase injury severity of pedestrian crashes. At the crash level, the factors associated with increased severity of pedestrian injury include intoxicated drivers, road-crossing pedestrians, elderly pedestrians, heavy vehicles, wide roads, darkness, and fog. At the municipality level, municipalities with low population density, lower level of financial independence, fewer doctors, and a higher percentage of elderly residents experience more severe pedestrian crashes. Municipalities ranked as having the top 10% pedestrian fatality rate (fatalities per 100,000 residents) have rates 7.4 times higher than municipalities with the lowest 10% rate of fatalities. Their demographic and socioeconomic characteristics also have significant differences. The proposed model accounts for a 7% unexplained variation in injury severity outcomes between the municipalities where crashes occurred. To enhance the safety of vulnerable pedestrians, considerable investments of time and effort in pedestrian safety facilities and zones should be made. More certain and severe punishments should be also given for the traffic violations that increase injury severity of pedestrian crashes. Furthermore, central and local governments should play a cooperative role to reduce pedestrian
Gurram, Prudhvi; Hu, Shuowen; Reale, Chris; Chan, Alex
In this paper, an unsupervised pedestrian detection algorithm is proposed. An input image is first divided into overlapping detection windows in a sliding fashion and Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG) features are collected over each window using non-overlapping cells. A distance metric is used to determine the distance between histograms of corresponding cells in each detection window and the average pedestrian HOG template (determined a priori). These distances over a group of cells are concatenated to obtain the feature vector pertaining to a block of cells. The feature vectors over overlapping blocks of cells are concatenated to form the distance feature vector of a detection window. Each window provides a data sample and the data samples extracted from the whole image are then modeled as a normalcy class using Support Vector Data Description (SVDD). The benefit of using the state-of-the-art SVDD technique to model the normalcy class is that it can be controlled by setting an upper limit on the permissible outliers during the modeling process. Assuming that most of the image is covered by background, the outliers that are detected during the modeling of the normalcy class can be hypothesized as detection windows that contain pedestrians in them. The detections are obtained at different scales in order to account for the different sizes of pedestrians. The final pedestrian detections are generated by applying non-maximal suppression on all the detections at all scales. The system is tested on the INRIA pedestrian dataset and its performance analyzed with respect to accuracy and detection rate.
Xu, Yan; Huang, Hai-Jun; Yong, Gui
An improved floor field model is proposed to simulate the pedestrian evacuation behavior in a room with multiple exits by modifying the static floor field. The modified static floor field is determined additionally by two cognitive coefficients of exit width and congestion degree around the exits. The logit-based discrete choice principle is used to govern the initial exit selection strategy based on the modified static floor field in such a scenario that pedestrians are distributed in the room's specified zone. Simulation results show that the proposed model can better perform the evacuation process. Sensitivity analyses of the model parameters are also presented.
Ziemer, Verena; Schadschneider, Andreas
This article considers execution and analysis of laboratory experiments of pedestrians moving in a quasi-one-dimensional system with periodic boundary conditions. To analyze characteristics of jams in the system we aim to use the whole experimental setup as the measurement area. Thus the trajectories are transformed to a new coordinate system. We show that the trajectory data from the straight and curved parts are comparable and assume that the distributions of the residuals come from the same continuous distribution. Regarding the trajectories of the entire setup, the creation of stop-and-go waves in pedestrian traffic can be investigated and described.
Full Text Available Pedestrian accident is a serious problem in Jordan. It is believedthat walking environment is a contributory factor. This study looks intopedestrian environment in schools’ vicinity. Seventeen schools were selectedand 231 students were followed from school to home. Results showed that 15% ofobserved subjects were involved in conflicts. Average walking time is 17 minutes;almost half of this time is spent either by walking on street or crossing. Femalesare involved in less conflict and they spend less time in traffic. Drivers givepriority to pedestrian in one-thirds of all observed crossing with preferenceto males.
Jones, J. M.; Ng, P.; Wood, N. J.
Recent catastrophic tsunamis in the last decade, as well as the 50th anniversary of the 1964 Alaskan event, have heightened awareness of the threats these natural hazards present to large and increasing coastal populations. For communities located close to the earthquake epicenter that generated the tsunami, strong shaking may also cause significant infrastructure damage, impacting the road network and hampering evacuation. There may also be insufficient time between the earthquake and first wave arrival to rely on a coordinated evacuation, leaving at-risk populations to self-evacuate on foot and across the landscape. Emergency managers evaluating these coastal risks need tools to assess the evacuation potential of low-lying areas in order to discuss mitigation options, which may include vertical evacuation structures to provide local safe havens in vulnerable communities. The U.S. Geological Survey has developed the Pedestrian Evacuation Analyst software tool for use by researchers and emergency managers to assist in the assessment of a community's evacuation potential by modeling travel times across the landscape and producing both maps of travel times and charts of population counts with corresponding times. The tool uses an anisotropic (directionally dependent) least cost distance model to estimate evacuation potential and allows for the variation of travel speed to measure its effect on travel time. The effectiveness of vertical evacuation structures on evacuation time can also be evaluated and compared with metrics such as travel time maps showing each structure in place and graphs displaying the percentage change in population exposure for each structure against the baseline. Using the tool, travel time maps and at-risk population counts have been generated for some coastal communities of the U.S. Pacific Northwest and Alaska. The tool can also be used to provide valuable decision support for tsunami vertical evacuation siting.
Gupta, Vishal; Yang, King H
Most studies of pedestrian injuries focus on reducing traumatic injuries due to the primary impact between the vehicle and the pedestrian. However, based on the Pedestrian Crash Data Study (PCDS), some researchers concluded that one of the leading causes of head injury for pedestrian crashes can be attributed to the secondary impact, defined as the impact of the pedestrian with the ground after the primary impact of the pedestrian with the vehicle. The purpose of this study is to understand if different vehicle front-end profiles can affect the risk of pedestrian secondary head impact with the ground and thus help in reducing the risk of head injury during secondary head impact with ground. Pedestrian responses were studied using several front-end profiles based off a mid-size vehicle and a SUV that have been validated previously along with several MADYMO pedestrian models. Mesh morphing is used to explore changes to the bumper height, bonnet leading-edge height, and bonnet rear reference-line height. Simulations leading up to pedestrian secondary impact with ground are conducted at impact speeds of 40 and 30 km/h. In addition, three pedestrian sizes (50th, 5th and 6yr old child) are used to enable us to search for a front-end profile that performs well for multiple sizes of pedestrians, not just one particular size. In most of the simulations, secondary ground impact with pedestrian head/neck/shoulder region occurred. However, there were some front-end profiles that promoted secondary ground impact with pedestrian lower extremities, thus avoiding pedestrian secondary head impact with ground. Previous pedestrian safety research work has suggested the use of active safety methods, such as 'pop up hood', to reduce pedestrian head injury during primary impact. Accordingly, we also conducted simulations using a model with the hood raised to capture the effect of a pop-up hood. These simulations indicated that even though pop-up hood helped reducing the head injury
Jiang, Yan-Qun; Chen, Bo-Kui; Wang, Bing-Hong; Wong, Weng-Fai; Cao, Bing-Yang
An extended social force model with a dynamic navigation field is proposed to study bidirectional pedestrian movement. The dynamic navigation field is introduced to describe the desired direction of pedestrian motion resulting from the decision-making processes of pedestrians. The macroscopic fundamental diagrams obtained using the extended model are validated against camera-based observations. Numerical results show that this extended model can reproduce collective phenomena in pedestrian traffic, such as dynamic multilane flow and stable separate-lane flow. Pedestrians' path choice behavior significantly affects the probability of congestion and the number of self-organized lanes.
Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyse characteristics of Pedestrian Interactive Behaviours (PIBs in order to propose a revised pedestrian walkway Level of Service (LOS in China. Field data on overtaking and evasive behaviours were collected at a metro station walkway in Shanghai, China to calculate macro and micro indicators. Occurrence intensities of these two PIBs initially increased with moderate density and later decreased with high density that reduced available space. PIBs were also analysed in terms of sideways behaviours to account for the varying difficulties of PIBs at different densities. It was found that available space for PIBs was the main factor contributing to the intensity features. Moreover, the different space demands of the two PIBs resulted in different features between them. Finally, a revised pedestrian walkway LOS was proposed based on the macro and micro characteristics of PIBs in China.
Full Text Available The rapid advance in mobile communications has made information and services ubiquitously accessible. Location and context information have become essential for the effectiveness of services in the era of mobility. This paper proposes the concept of geo-context that is defined as an integral synthesis of geographical location, human motion state and mobility context. A geo-context computing solution consists of a positioning engine, a motion state recognition engine, and a context inference component. In the geo-context concept, the human motion states and mobility context are associated with the geographical location where they occur. A hybrid geo-context computing solution is implemented that runs on a smartphone, and it utilizes measurements of multiple sensors and signals of opportunity that are available within a smartphone. Pedestrian location and motion states are estimated jointly under the framework of hidden Markov models, and they are used in a reciprocal manner to improve their estimation performance of one another. It is demonstrated that pedestrian location estimation has better accuracy when its motion state is known, and in turn, the performance of motion state recognition can be improved with increasing reliability when the location is given. The geo-context inference is implemented simply with the expert system principle, and more sophisticated approaches will be developed.
Full Text Available Providing an accurate and practical navigation solution anywhere with portable devices, such as smartphones, is still a challenge, especially in environments where global navigation satellite systems (GNSS signals are not available or are degraded. This paper proposes a new algorithm that integrates inertial navigation system (INS and pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR to combine the advantages of both mechanizations for micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS sensors in pedestrian navigation applications. In this PDR/INS integration algorithm, a pseudo-velocity-vector, which is composed of the PDR-derived forward speed and zero lateral and vertical speeds from non-holonomic constraints (NHC, works as an update for the INS to limit the velocity errors. To further limit the drift of MEMS inertial sensors, trilateration-based WiFi positions with small variances are also selected as updates for the PDR/INS integrated system. The experiments illustrate that positioning error is decreased by 60%–75% by using the proposed PDR/INS integrated MEMS solution when compared with PDR. The positioning error is further decreased by 15%–55% if the proposed PDR/INS/WiFi integrated solution is implemented. The average accuracy of the proposed PDR/INS/WiFi integration algorithm achieves 4.5 m in indoor environments.
Chen, Pengzhan; Kuang, Ye; Chen, Xiaoyue
Inertial sensors are widely used in various applications, such as human motion monitoring and pedestrian positioning. However, inertial sensors cannot accurately define the process of human movement, a limitation that causes data drift in the process of human body positioning, thus seriously affecting positioning accuracy and stability. The traditional pedestrian dead-reckoning algorithm, which is based on a single inertial measurement unit, can suppress the data drift, but fails to accurately calculate the number of walking steps and heading value, thus it cannot meet the application requirements. This study proposes an indoor dynamic positioning method with an error self-correcting function based on the symmetrical characteristics of human motion to obtain the definition basis of human motion process quickly and to solve the abovementioned problems. On the basis of this proposed method, an ultra-wide band (UWB) method is introduced. An unscented Kalman filter is applied to fuse inertial sensors and UWB data, inertial positioning is applied to compensation for the defects of susceptibility to UWB signal obstacles, and UWB positioning is used to overcome the error accumulation of inertial positioning. The above method can improve both the positioning accuracy and the response of the positioning results. Finally, this study designs an indoor positioning test system to test the static and dynamic performances of the proposed indoor positioning method. Results show that the positioning system both has high accuracy and good real-time performance.
Full Text Available Pedestrian Dead Reckoning (PDR by combining the Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU and magnetometer is an independent navigation approach based on multiple sensors. Since the inertial component error is significantly determined by the parameters of navigation equations, the navigation precision may deteriorate with time, which is inappropriate for long-time navigation. Although the BeiDou (BD navigation system can provide high navigation precision in most scenarios, the signal from satellites is easily degraded because of buildings or thick foliage. To solve this problem, a tightly-coupled BD/MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems integration algorithm is proposed in this paper, and a prototype was built for implementing the integrated system. The extensive experiments prove that the BD/MEMS system performs well in different environments, such as an open sky environment and a playground surrounded by trees and thick foliage. The proposed algorithm is able to provide continuous and reliable positioning service for pedestrian outdoors and thereby has wide practical application.
The relationship between the availability of the supporting elements of pedestrian with pedestrian crossing facility usage based on user preferences (Case Study corridor of Sumbersari Street, Gajayana Street, MT. Haryono Street, Malang City)
Soetrisno, D. P.
Pedestrian crossing facilities are effective enough to avoid pedestrians with vehicles, but its utilization is still quite low. It indicated that safety is not the only factor that influences a person to utilize the pedestrian crossing facilities. In addition, the availability of supporting elements of the pedestrian is still not quite attention, which is also became a factor that causes the pedestrians doesn’t utilize the pedestrian crossing facilities. Therefore, this research was structured to examine the relationship between the availability of the supporting elements of the pedestrian with pedestrian crossing facility usage based on user preferences. Data collection method used is primary survey consist of observation and the questionnaire. Sampling techniques used is purposive sampling with the number of respondents as many as 211 respondents by using questionnaire with ordinal scales to identify respondents’ consideration level of supporting elements pedestrian and crossing facility utilization factors. The survey is done on 15 crossing facilities area in 3 different locations with the same characteristics of land use in the form of higher education area (university area) and trades and services activities area. The analysis technique used is frequency distribution analysis in order to identify preference pedestrian on the availability of supporting elements of pedestrian and pedestrian crossing facility utilization factors, and chi square analysis is used to analyze the relationship between the availability of the supporting elements of the pedestrian with pedestrian crossing facility utilization. Based on the chi square analysis results with significance 5 % obtained the result that there are six supporting elements of pedestrian having correlation to the factors of pedestrian crossing facility utilization consist of the availability of sidewalk, pedestrian lights, Street Lighting Lamps, Pedestrian Crossing Markings Facilities, Sign Crossings
Di Stasi, Leandro L; Megías, Alberto; Cándido, Antonio; Maldonado, Antonio; Catena, Andrés
Injury to pedestrians is a major safety hazard in many countries. Since the beginning of the last century, modern cities have been designed around the use of motor vehicles despite the unfavourable interactions between the vehicles and pedestrians. This push towards urbanization resulted in a substantial number of crashes and fatalities involving pedestrians every day, all over the world. Thus, improving the design of urban cities and townships is a pressing issue for modern society. The study presented here provides a characterization of pedestrian safety problems, with the emphasis on signalized crosswalks (i.e. traffic signal) design solutions. We tested the impact of seven different traffic light configurations (steady [green, yellow, and red], flashing [green, yellow, and red], and light off) on pedestrian self-reported road-crossing behavior, using a 11-point scale -ranging from 0 ("I never cross in this situation") to 10 ("I always cross in this situation"). Results showed that mandatory solutions (steady green vs. steady red) are the best solutions to avoid unsafe pedestrian behaviors while crossing controlled intersections (frequency of crossing: Mgreen = 9.4 ± 1 vs. Mred = 2.6 ± 2). These findings offer important guidelines for the design of future traffic signals for encouraging a pedestrian/transit-friendly environment.
Full Text Available Pedestrian movements are the consequence of several complex and stochastic facts. The modelling of pedestrian movements and the ability to predict the travel time are useful for evaluating the performance of a pedestrian facility. However, only a few studies can be found that incorporate the design of the facility, local pedestrian body dimensions, the delay experienced by the pedestrians, and level of service to the pedestrian movements. In this paper, a queuing based analytical model is developed as a function of relevant determinants and functional factors to predict the travel time on pedestrian facilities. The model can be used to assess the overall serving rate or performance of a facility layout and correlate it to the level of service that is possible to provide the pedestrians. It has also the ability to provide a clear suggestion on the designing and sizing of pedestrian facilities. The model is empirically validated and is found to be a robust tool to understand how well a particular walking facility makes possible comfort and convenient pedestrian movements. The sensitivity analysis is also performed to see the impact of some crucial parameters of the developed model on the performance of pedestrian facilities.
Full Text Available Abstract Nonlinear dynamic analysis of an axially moving telescopic mechanism for truss structure bridge inspection vehicle under pedestrian excitation is carried out. A biomechanically inspired inverted-pendulum model is utilized to simplify the pedestrian. The nonlinear equations of motion for the beam-pedestrian system are derived using the Hamilton's principle. The equations are transformed into two ordinary differential equations by applying the Galerkin's method at the first two orders. The solutions to the equations are acquired by using the Newmark-β method associated with the Newton-Raphson method. The time-dependent feature of the eigenfunctions for the two beams are taken into consideration in the solutions. Accordingly, the equations of motion for a simplified system, in which the pedestrian is regarded as moving cart, are given. In the numerical examples, dynamic responses of the telescopic mechanism in eight conditions of different beam-telescoping and pedestrian-moving directions are simulated. Comparisons between the vibrations of the beams under pedestrian excitation and corresponding moving cart are carried out to investigate the influence of the pedestrian excitation on the telescopic mechanism. The results show that the displacement of the telescopic mechanism under pedestrian excitation is smaller than that under moving cart especially when the pedestrian approaches the beams end. Additionally, compared with moving cart, the pedestrian excitation can effectively strengthen the vibration when the beam extension is small or when the pedestrian is close to the beams end.
Murphy, Brendan; Levinson, David M; Owen, Andrew
Assessment of collision risk between pedestrians and automobiles offers a powerful and informative tool in urban planning applications, and can be leveraged to inform proper placement of improvements and treatment projects to improve pedestrian safety. Such assessment can be performed using existing datasets of crashes, pedestrian counts, and automobile traffic flows to identify intersections or corridors characterized by elevated collision risks to pedestrians. The Safety In Numbers phenomenon, which refers to the observable effect that pedestrian safety is positively correlated with increased pedestrian traffic in a given area (i.e. that the individual per-pedestrian risk of a collision decreases with additional pedestrians), is a readily observed phenomenon that has been studied previously, though its directional causality is not yet known. A sample of 488 intersections in Minneapolis were analyzed, and statistically-significant log-linear relationships between pedestrian traffic flows and the per-pedestrian crash risk were found, indicating the Safety In Numbers effect. Potential planning applications of this analysis framework towards improving pedestrian safety in urban environments are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Limited pedestrian microcosmic simulation models focus on the interactions between pedestrians and vehicles at unmarked roadways. Pedestrians tend to head to the destinations directly through the shortest path. So, pedestrians have inclined trajectories pointing destinations. Few simulation models have been established to describe the mechanisms underlying the inclined trajectories when pedestrians cross unmarked roadways. To overcome these shortcomings, achieve solutions for optimal design features before implementation, and help to make the design more rational, the paper establishes a modified social force model for interactions between pedestrians and vehicles at unmarked roadways. To achieve this goal, stop/go decision-making model based on gap acceptance theory and conflict avoidance models were developed to make social force model more appropriate in simulating pedestrian crossing behaviors at unmarked roadways. The extended model enables the understanding and judgment ability of pedestrians about the traffic environment and guides pedestrians to take the best behavior to avoid conflict and keep themselves safe. The comparison results of observed pedestrians’ trajectories and simulated pedestrians’ trajectories at one unmarked roadway indicate that the proposed model can be used to simulate pedestrian crossing behaviors at unmarked roadways effectively. The proposed model can be used to explore pedestrians’ trajectories variation at unmarked roadways and improve pedestrian safety facilities.
Full Text Available Considering the actual situation of separating pedestrian flow in T-shaped passage, the guide sign is set to guide the pedestrians and subconscious strength is introduced to show the effect of guide sign. Pedestrian subconscious strength model is established, and the subconscious strength calculation result is added to the pedestrian simulation model which is based on cellular automata. On the platform of MATLAB software, separating pedestrian flow simulation with the effect of guide sign is realized. Simulations indicate that, compared with the separating pedestrian flow without guide sign, the efficiency of pedestrians passing with guide sign is higher. Analyzing the effect of guide sign in different positions, the suitable position of guide sign is obtained.
Arshad Ahmad Kamil
Full Text Available The quality of built environment usually influences the walkability of a city. This is because each pedestrian walk differently on different type of facilities or built environment provided to them. This paper aims to investigate whether gender differences influences the pedestrian perception and satisfaction level at three sidewalks located within the Kuala Lumpur City Center by means of questionnaire survey. A total of 317 pedestrians were involved in the questionnaire survey at the three different sidewalk locations. The result shows significant differences in mean satisfaction value between male and female pedestrians. Female pedestrian give lower satisfaction value for overall travel experience at Jalan Tuanku Abdul Rahman but higher satisfaction value at Petaling Street and Bukit Bintang compared to male pedestrian. Overall, the satisfaction level was rated between acceptable to satisfactory regardless of gender differences. Improvements should be made for the safety parameter because both male and female pedestrian gives lowest satisfaction level in that area.
Zhang, Cunbao; Zhou, Bin; Chen, Guojun; Chen, Feng
A lot of pedestrian-vehicle crashes at mid-block crosswalks severely threaten pedestrian's safety around the world. The situations are even worse in China due to low yielding rate of vehicles at crosswalks. In order to quantitatively analyze pedestrian's safety at multi-lane mid-block crosswalks, the number of pedestrian-vehicle conflicts was utilized to evaluate pedestrian's accident risk. Five mid-block crosswalks (Wuhan, China) were videoed to collect data of traffic situation and pedestrian-vehicle conflicts, and the quantity and spatial distribution of pedestrian-vehicle conflicts at multi-lane mid-block crosswalk were analyzed according to lane-based post-encroachment time(LPET). Statistical results indicate that conflicts are mainly concentrated in lane3 and lane6. Percentage of conflict of each lane numbered from 1 to 6 respectively are 4.1%, 13.1%, 19.8%, 8.4%, 19.0%, 28.1%. Conflict rate under different crossing strategies are also counted. Moreover, an order probit (OP) model of pedestrian-vehicle conflict analysis (PVCA) was built to find out the contributions corresponding to those factors (such as traffic volume, vehicle speed, pedestrian crossing behavior, pedestrian refuge, etc.) to pedestrian-vehicle conflicts. The results show that: pedestrian refuge have positive effects on pedestrian safety; on the other hand, high vehicle speed, high traffic volume, rolling gap crossing pattern, and larger pedestrian platoon have negative effects on pedestrian safety. Based on our field observation and PVCA model, the number of conflicts will rise by 2% while the traffic volume increases 200 pcu/h; similarly, if the vehicle speed increases 5km/h, the number of conflicts will rise by 12% accordingly. The research results could be used to evaluate pedestrian safety at multi-lane mid-block crosswalks, and useful to improve pedestrian safety by means of pedestrian safety education, pedestrian refuge setting, vehicle speed limiting, and so on. Copyright © 2017
Auscultation has been used qualitatively by physicians for hundreds of years to aid in the monitoring and diagnosis of pulmonary diseases. Alterations in the structure and function of the pulmonary system that occur in disease or injury often give rise to measurable changes in lung sound production and transmission. Numerous acoustic measurements have revealed the differences of breath sounds and transmitted sounds in the lung under normal and pathological conditions. Compared to the extensive cataloging of lung sound measurements, the mechanism of sound transmission in the pulmonary system and how it changes with alterations of lung structural and material properties has received less attention. A better understanding of sound transmission and how it is altered by injury and disease might improve interpretation of lung sound measurements, including new lung imaging modalities that are based on an array measurement of the acoustic field on the torso surface via contact sensors or are based on a 3-dimensional measurement of the acoustic field throughout the lungs and torso using magnetic resonance elastography. A long-term goal of the Audible Human Project (AHP ) is to develop a computational acoustic model that would accurately simulate generation, transmission and noninvasive measurement of sound and vibration within the pulmonary system and torso caused by both internal (e.g. respiratory function) and external (e.g. palpation) sources. The goals of this dissertation research, fitting within the scope of the AHP, are to develop specific improved theoretical understandings, computational algorithms and experimental methods aimed at transmission and measurement. The research objectives undertaken in this dissertation are as follows. (1) Improve theoretical modeling and experimental identification of viscoelasticity in soft biological tissues. (2) Develop a poroviscoelastic model for lung tissue vibroacoustics. (3) Improve lung airway acoustics modeling and its
audible distress signal devices. Commercial vessels or those subject to the Safety of Life at Sea ( SOLAS ) Conventions (i.e., vessels on international...Commercial vessels and those subject to the Safety of Life at Sea ( SOLAS ) Conventions (i.e., vessels on international voyages) are additionally...Subject matter expert SOLAS Safety of Life at Sea S-O-S Distress signal in Morse code TC Test Coordinator TD Test Director UNSAT Unsatisfactory
Kristoffersen, Miklas Strøm; Dueholm, Jacob Velling; Gade, Rikke
The number of pedestrians walking the streets or gathered in public spaces is a valuable piece of information for shop owners, city governments, event organizers and many others. However, automatic counting that takes place day and night is challenging due to changing lighting conditions and the ...
In 2009, Florida reported the highest rate of pedestrian fatalities in the nation. At 2.51 deaths per 100,000 residents, Floridas rate was nearly twice the national average. These deaths occurred in all age groups, but compared to other age groups...
In 2009, Florida reported the highest rate of : pedestrian fatalities in the nation. At 2.51 : deaths per 100,000 residents, Floridas rate was : nearly twice the national average. These deaths : occurred in all age groups, but compared to : other ...
On the assumption that negative binomial errors control over dispersion characteristic of the crash data, a Generalized Linear Model was applied to estimate parameters of the predicting equations. Accra accounted for more than 57.6 % of the pedestrian crashes with highest casualty rate of 34 injuries per annum (including ...
Kuang, Hua; Li, Xing-Li; Wei, Yan-Fang; Song, Tao; Dai, Shi-Qiang
This paper proposes a modified lattice gas model to simulate pedestrian counter flow by considering the effect of following strength which can lead to appropriate responses to some complicated situations. Periodic and open boundary conditions are adopted respectively. The simulation results show that the presented model can reproduce some essential features of pedestrian counter flows, e.g., the lane formation and segregation effect. The fundamental diagrams show that the complete jamming density is independent of the system size only when the width W and the length L are larger than some critical values respectively, and the larger asymmetrical conditions can better avoid the occurrence of deadlock phenomena. For the mixed pedestrian flow, it can be found that the jamming cluster is mainly caused by those walkers breaking the traffic rules, and the underlying mechanism is analysed. Furthermore, the comparison of simulation results and the experimental data is performed, it is shown that this modified model is reasonable and more realistic to simulate and analyse pedestrian counter flow.
Enzweiler, M.; Eigenstetter, A.; Schiele, B.; Gavrila, D.M.
This paper presents a novel mixture-of-experts framework for pedestrian classification with partial occlusion handling. The framework involves a set of component-based expert classifiers trained on features derived from intensity, depth and motion. To handle partial occlusion, we compute expert
Full Text Available Recent years have seen raising interests in mobile pedestrian navigation systems. Different interface technologies can be used to communicate/convey route directions to pedestrians, such as mobile maps, voices, and augmented reality (AR. Many field experiments have been conducted to study the effectiveness of different interface technologies in guiding pedestrians to their destinations. In contrast to other field studies, this article aims at investigating the influence of different interface technologies on spatial knowledge acquisition (spatial learning. With sufficient spatial knowledge about an environment, people can still find their way when navigation systems fail (e.g. out of battery. The goal of this article is to empirically evaluate three GPS-based navigation prototypes (implementing mobile map-based, AR-based, and voice-based guidance respectively in supporting spatial knowledge acquisition. The field test showed that in terms of spatial knowledge acquisition, the three interface technologies led to comparable poor results, which were also not significantly different from each other. This article concludes with some implications for designing mobile pedestrian navigation systems.
Richard H. Grant; Gordon M. Heisler; Wei Gao
Trees influence the amount of solar UV radiation that reaches pedestrians. A three-dimensional model was developed to predict the ultraviolet-B (UV-B) irradiance fields in open-tree canopies where the spacing between trees is equal to or greater than the width of individual tree crowns. The model predicted the relative irradiance (fraction of above-canopy irradiance)...
age presented to Red Cross War Memorial Children's _. Hospital in Cape Town having been injured as ... Trauma Unit and Department of Paediatric Surgery, Red Cross War. Memorial Children's Hospital, Cape Town .... residential streets in providing space for social interaction where the pedestrian should enjoy priority ...
Kampen, L.T.B. van & Huijbers, J.J.W.
A cost study has been carried out, based on Dutch insurance data of payments to victims (pedestrians and cyclists) of collisions against car front ends. The results of this study will be used for a cost-benefit analysis of a proposed amendment (a series of car front end crash tests) to the existing
Lee, Minha; Demirtas, Derya; Buick, Jason E.; Ng, Amy; Feldman, Michael J.; Cheskes, Sheldon; Morrison, Laurie J.; Chan, Timothy C.Y.
Background: Cities around the world have underground or above-ground enclosed networks for pedestrian travel, representing unique environments for studying out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and resuscitation. The characteristics of OHCAs that occur in such networks are unknown. Objective: To
Keller, C.; Dang, T.; Fritz, H.; Joos, A.; Rabe, C.; Gavrila, D.M.
Active safety systems hold great potential for reducing accident frequency and severity by warning the driver and/or exerting automatic vehicle control ahead of crashes. This paper presents a novel active pedestrian safety system that combines sensing, situation analysis, decision making, and
by the harmonic components. Measurements indicate that the footfall frequency of a group of pedestrians has a coefficient of variation of the order 0.05–0.1. This is considerably larger than the response bandwidth of a typical lightly damped structure, and at resonance this has a significant influence...
Morar, T.; Bertolini, L.; Radoslav, R.
Public spaces are sources of quality of life in neighborhoods. Seeking to help professionals and municipalities assess how well a public space can be used by the community it serves, this paper presents a GIS-based methodology for evaluating its pedestrian accessibility. The Romanian city of
Liu, Chang; Jin, Su-Hyun
The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether there were significant differences in audibility of American English vowels in noise produced by non-native and native speakers. Detection thresholds for 12 English vowels with equalized durations of 170 ms produced by 10 English-, Chinese- and Korean-native speakers were measured for young normal-hearing English-native listeners in the presence of speech-shaped noise presented at 70 dB SPL. Similar patterns of vowel detection thresholds as a function of the vowel category were found for native and non-native speakers, with the highest thresholds for /u/ and /ʊ/ and lowest thresholds for /i/ and /e/. In addition, vowel detection thresholds for non-native speakers were significantly lower and showed greater speaker variability than those for native speakers. Thresholds for vowel detection predicted from an excitation-pattern model corresponded well to behavioral thresholds, implying that vowel detection was primarily determined by the vowel spectrum regardless of speaker language background. Both behavioral and predicted thresholds showed that vowel audibility was similar or even better for non-native speakers than for native speakers, indicating that vowel audibility did not account for non-native speakers' lower-than-native intelligibility in noise. Effects of non-native speakers' English proficiency level on vowel audibility are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In human crowds as well as in many animal societies, local interactions among individuals often give rise to self-organized collective organizations that offer functional benefits to the group. For instance, flows of pedestrians moving in opposite directions spontaneously segregate into lanes of uniform walking directions. This phenomenon is often referred to as a smart collective pattern, as it increases the traffic efficiency with no need of external control. However, the functional benefits of this emergent organization have never been experimentally measured, and the underlying behavioral mechanisms are poorly understood. In this work, we have studied this phenomenon under controlled laboratory conditions. We found that the traffic segregation exhibits structural instabilities characterized by the alternation of organized and disorganized states, where the lifetime of well-organized clusters of pedestrians follow a stretched exponential relaxation process. Further analysis show that the inter-pedestrian variability of comfortable walking speeds is a key variable at the origin of the observed traffic perturbations. We show that the collective benefit of the emerging pattern is maximized when all pedestrians walk at the average speed of the group. In practice, however, local interactions between slow- and fast-walking pedestrians trigger global breakdowns of organization, which reduce the collective and the individual payoff provided by the traffic segregation. This work is a step ahead toward the understanding of traffic self-organization in crowds, which turns out to be modulated by complex behavioral mechanisms that do not always maximize the group's benefits. The quantitative understanding of crowd behaviors opens the way for designing bottom-up management strategies bound to promote the emergence of efficient collective behaviors in crowds.
P. S. Marinushkin
Full Text Available The paper describes design issues for MEMS-based pedestrian inertial navigation systems. By now the algorithms to estimate navigation parameters for strap-down inertial navigation systems on the basis of plural observations have been already well developed. At the same time mathematical and software processing of information in the case of pedestrian inertial navigation systems has its specificity, due to the peculiarities of their functioning and exploitation. Therefore, there is an urgent task to enhance existing fusion algorithms for use in pedestrian navigation systems. For this purpose the article analyzes the characteristics of the hardware composition and configuration of existing systems of this class. The paper shows advantages of various technical solutions. Relying on their main features it justifies a choice of the navigation system architecture and hardware composition enabling improvement of the estimation accuracy of user position as compared to the systems using only inertial sensors. The next point concerns the development of algorithms for complex processing of heterogeneous information. To increase an accuracy of the free running pedestrian inertial navigation system we propose an adaptive algorithm for joint processing of heterogeneous information based on the fusion of inertial info rmation with magnetometer measurements using EKF approach. Modeling of the algorithm was carried out using a specially developed functional prototype of pedestrian inertial navigation system, implemented as a hardware/software complex in Matlab environment. The functional prototype tests of the developed system demonstrated an improvement of the navigation parameters estimation compared to the systems based on inertial sensors only. It enables to draw a conclusion that the synthesized algorithm provides satisfactory accuracy for calculating the trajectory of motion even when using low-grade inertial MEMS sensors. The developed algorithm can be
Ma, Zhuanglin; Lu, Xi; Chien, Steven I-Jy; Hu, Dawei
Vehicle crashes that involve pedestrians at intersections have been reported occasionally. Pedestrian injury severity in these crashes is significantly related to driver and pedestrian attributes, vehicle characteristics, and the geometry of intersections. Identifying factors associated with pedestrian injury severity (PIS) is critical for reducing crashes and improving safety. For developing the proposed probit models, drivers involved in crashes are classified into 3 groups: young drivers (16 ≤ age ≤ 24), middle-aged drivers (25 ≤ age ≤ 64), and older drivers (age ≥ 65). This study determines that PIS is significantly but differently affected by these grouped drivers with different sets of explanatory variables. A total of 2,614 crash records (2011-2012) at intersections in Cook County, Illinois, were collected. An ordered probit modeling approach was employed to develop the proposed model and examine factors influencing PIS. The likelihood ratio test was used to assess model performance. Elasticity analysis was conducted to interpret the marginal effect of contributing factors on PIS associated with different driver groups by age. The results show that 4 independent variables, including pedestrian age, vehicle type, point of first contact, and weather condition, significantly affect PIS at intersections for all drivers. Two additional independent variables (i.e., number of vehicles and traffic type) affect PIS for young and middle-aged drivers, and 2 other variables (i.e., divided type and hit-and-run related) are significant to PIS for both young and older drivers. The independent variables significant to PIS at intersections for young, middle-aged, and older driver groups were identified and the marginal effect of each variable to the likelihood of PIS were assessed.
Rahayuningsih, Titi; Pranoto, Nindyawati, Umniati, B. Sri; Mardhika, Moch Aqfa Syabahid
Universitas Negeri Malang (UM) is a university with the second largest academic community in Malang. The activities of the academic community should be supported by adequate facilities, such as pedestrian facilities—crucial yet much neglected matters, so pedestrians to walk along the roadway. As a result, conflicts between pedestrians with motor vehicle users and accidents might occur at any time. This research aimed at: 1) investigating the geometric conditions of pedestrian facilities at UM; 2) identifying the characteristics of pedestrians and the pedestrian facilities at UM; and 3) determining the level of service for pedestrian facilities at UM using Geographic Information System (GIS). The research was conducted through survey of location, survey of geometric conditions, estimation of the number of pedestrians using sidewalk (data were recorded every 15 minutes), measurement of pedestrian speed, and questionnaire about pedestrians' identity, destination, as well as travel time and distance. Data analysis was carried out to identify the pedestrian characteristics, pedestrian flow characteristics, and pedestrian level of service. The research result showed that the percentage of road segments in campus without sidewalks was 52%. The average width of sidewalk was 1.33 m, which was less than the minimum standard of i.e. 2 m. In terms of pedestrian characteristics, the pedestrians consisted of more female (51%) who were mostly students of the Faculty of Letters whose destination was classroom building. The maximum pedestrian flow was at 10.00-13.30 i.e. 4.2018 p/m/min. The average speed of pedestrian was 63.49 m/min. The highest pedestrian density of 0.0609 p/m2 occurred at 10.00-13.30. The largest walking space was 28.0348 m2/p and occurred in the afternoon at 13.30-17.00. The level of service for pedestrian facilities belonged to category A in the morning and afternoon. The level of service at 10.00-13.30 decreased to category B.
Phone use by cyclists and pedestrians like making calls, texting, surfing the internet, or listening to music,1 carries an increased risk. Operating a touchscreen while cycling is the most dangerous of these activities. At present there is no ban on handheld use of the phone while cycling and the
Rangel-Huerta, A.; Ballinas-Hernández, A. L.; Muñoz-Meléndez, A.
An entropy model to characterize the heterogeneity of a pedestrian crowd in a counter-flow corridor is presented. Pedestrians are modeled as self-propelled autonomous agents that are able to perform maneuvers to avoid collisions based on a set of simple rules of perception and action. An observer can determine a probability distribution function of the displayed behavior of pedestrians based only on external information. Three types of pedestrian are modeled, relaxed, standard and hurried pedestrians depending on their preferences of turn and non-turn when walking. Thus, using these types of pedestrians two crowds can be simulated: homogeneous and heterogeneous crowds. Heterogeneity is measured in this research based on the entropy in function of time. For that, the entropy of a homogeneous crowd comprising standard pedestrians is used as reference. A number of simulations to measure entropy of pedestrian crowds were conducted by varying different combinations of types of pedestrians, initial simulation conditions of macroscopic flow, as well as density of the crowd. Results from these simulations show that our entropy model is sensitive enough to capture the effect of both the initial simulation conditions about the spatial distribution of pedestrians in a corridor, and the composition of a crowd. Also, a relevant finding is that entropy in function of density presents a phase transition in the critical region.
Full Text Available A large number of pedestrian fatalities are caused by the vehicle-pedestrian accidents. The application of new theory and technological approaches may hold great potential to reduce the accident frequency and severity for pedestrians. Considered the different driving cultures between China and Germany, the adaptation of such application in new market triggers an “intercultural comparison” related to the road user behavior and traffic safety. Field traffic data have been collected by video recording and image processing at unsignalized mid-block crosswalks both in Beijing, China and Munich, Germany. Centered Vehicle-Pedestrian conflict situation, pedestrian speed performance in different pedestrian categories and walking phases, pedestrian waiting behavior related to waiting decision choice and waiting time, pedestrian gap acceptance were statistically analyzed for understanding the pedestrian behavior in the conflict process. Intercultural comparisons were made between China and Germany. The research results addressed how the conflict participants (pedestrians only behave differently and would hopefully be the impetus for further intercultural analyses from urban traffic side.
Wang, Yan; Peng, Zhongyi; Chen, Qun
To evaluate whether motorized vehicles can travel through a residential area, this paper develops a cellular automata (CA) model to simulate the interactions between pedestrian crossings and motorized vehicles in a residential area. In this paper, pedestrians determine their crossing speed according to their judgments of the position and velocity of the upcoming vehicles. The pedestrians may walk slowly or quickly or even run, and the pedestrian crossing time influences the vehicle movement. In addition, the proposed model considers the safety margin time needed for pedestrians to cross, and pedestrian-vehicle conflict is considered using the vehicle collision avoidance rule. Through simulations of interactions of pedestrian crossings with motorized vehicles' movement on a typical road in a residential area, the average wait time for pedestrians to cross and the average vehicle velocity under different pedestrian crossing volumes, different vehicle flows and different maximum vehicle velocities are obtained. To avoid an excessive waiting time for pedestrians to cross, the vehicle flow should be less than 180 veh/h, which allows an average of less than 10 s of waiting time; if the vehicle flow rate is less than 36 veh/h, then the waiting time is approximately 1 s. Field observations are conducted to validate the simulation results.
Kwak, Joon-Young; Ko, Byoung Chul; Nam, Jae-Yeal
In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm that can predict a pedestrian's intention using images captured by a far-infrared thermal camera mounted on a moving car at nighttime. To predict a pedestrian's intention in consecutive sequences, we use the dynamic fuzzy automata (DFA) method, which not only provides a systemic approach for handling uncertainty but also is able to handle continuous spaces. As the spatio-temporal features, the distance between the curbs and the pedestrian and the pedestrian's velocity and head orientation are used. In this study, we define four intention states of the pedestrian: Standing-Sidewalk (S-SW), Walking-Sidewalk (W-SW), Walking-Crossing (W-Cro), and Running-Crossing (R-Cro). In every frame, the proposed system determines the final intention of the pedestrian as 'Stop' if the pedestrian's intention state is S-SW or W-SW. In contrast, the proposed system determines the final intention of a pedestrian as 'Cross' if the pedestrian's intention state is W-Cro or R-Cro. A performance comparison with other related methods shows that the performance of the proposed algorithm is better than that of other related methods. The proposed algorithm was successfully applied to our dataset, which includes complex environments with many pedestrians.
Strandroth, Johan; Rizzi, Matteo; Sternlund, Simon; Lie, Anders; Tingvall, Claes
The aim of the present study was to estimate the correlation between Euro NCAP pedestrian rating scores and injury outcome in real-life car-to-pedestrian crashes, with special focus on long-term disability. Another aim was to determine whether brake assist (BA) systems affect the injury outcome in real-life car-to-pedestrian crashes and to estimate the combined effects in injury reduction of a high Euro NCAP ranking score and BA. In the current study, the Euro NCAP pedestrian scoring was compared with the real-life outcome in pedestrian crashes that occurred in Sweden during 2003 to 2010. The real-life crash data were obtained from the data acquisition system Swedish Traffic Accident Data Acquisition (STRADA), which combines police records and hospital admission data. The medical data consisted of International Classification of Diseases (ICD) diagnoses and Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) scoring. In all, approximately 500 pedestrians submitted to hospital were included in the study. Each car model was coded according to Euro NCAP pedestrian scores. In addition, the presence or absence of BA was coded for each car involved. Cars were grouped according to their scoring. Injury outcomes were analyzed with AIS and, at the victim level, with permanent medical impairment. This was done by translating the injury scores for each individual to the risk of serious consequences (RSC) at 1, 5, and 10 percent risk of disability level. This indicates the total risk of a medical disability for each victim, given the severity and location of injuries. The mean RSC (mRSC) was then calculated for each car group and t-tests were conducted to falsify the null hypothesis at p ≤ .05 that the mRSC within the groups was equal. The results showed a significant reduction of injury severity for cars with better pedestrian scoring, although cars with a high score could not be studied due to lack of cases. The reduction in RSC for medium-performing cars in comparison with low-performing cars
Kong, Chunyu; Yang, Jikuang
A large number of pedestrian fatalities were reported in China since the 1990s, however the exposure of pedestrians in public traffic has never been measured quantitatively using in-depth accident data. This study aimed to investigate the association between the impact speed and risk of pedestrian casualties in passenger vehicle collisions based on real-world accident cases in China. The cases were selected from a database of in-depth investigation of vehicle accidents in Changsha-IVAC. The sampling criteria were defined as (1) the accident was a frontal impact that occurred between 2003 and 2009; (2) the pedestrian age was above 14; (3) the injury according to the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) was 1+; (4) the accident involved passenger cars, SUVs, or MPVs; and (5) the vehicle impact speed can be determined. The selected IVAC data set, which included 104 pedestrian accident cases, was weighted based on the national traffic accident data. The logistical regression models of the risks for pedestrian fatalities and AIS 3+ injuries were developed in terms of vehicle impact speed using the unweighted and weighted data sets. A multiple logistic regression model on the risk of pedestrian AIS 3+ injury was developed considering the age and impact speed as two variables. It was found that the risk of pedestrian fatality is 26% at 50 km/h, 50% at 58 km/h, and 82% at 70 km/h. At an impact speed of 80 km/h, the pedestrian rarely survives. The weighted risk curves indicated that the risks of pedestrian fatality and injury in China were higher than that in other high-income countries, whereas the risks of pedestrian casualty was lower than in these countries 30 years ago. The findings could have a contribution to better understanding of the exposures of pedestrians in urban traffic in China, and provide background knowledge for the development of strategies for pedestrian protection. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schwebel, David C; Shen, Jiabin; McClure, Leslie A
Pedestrian injuries are a leading cause of child death and may be reduced by training children to cross streets more safely. Such training is most effective when children receive repeated practice at the complex cognitive-perceptual task of judging moving traffic and selecting safe crossing gaps, but there is limited data on how much practice is required for children to reach adult levels of functioning. Using existing data, we examined how children's pedestrian skills changed over the course of 6 pedestrian safety training sessions, each composed of 45 crossings within a virtual pedestrian environment. As part of a randomized controlled trial on pedestrian safety training, 59 children ages 7-8 crossed the street within a semi-immersive virtual pedestrian environment 270 times over a 3-week period (6 sessions of 45 crossings each). Feedback was provided after each crossing, and traffic speed and density were advanced as children's skill improved. Postintervention pedestrian behavior was assessed a week later in the virtual environment and compared to adult behavior with identical traffic patterns. Over the course of training, children entered traffic gaps more quickly and chose tighter gaps to cross within; their crossing efficiency appeared to increase. By the end of training, some aspects of children's pedestrian behavior was comparable to adult behavior but other aspects were not, indicating that the training was worthwhile but insufficient for most children to achieve adult levels of functioning. Repeated practice in a simulated pedestrian environment helps children learn aspects of safe and efficient pedestrian behavior. Six twice-weekly training sessions of 45 crossings each were insufficient for children to reach adult pedestrian functioning, however, and future research should continue to study the trajectory and quantity of child pedestrian safety training needed for children to become competent pedestrians.
Luo, Lin; Fu, Zhijian; Zhou, Xiaodong; Zhu, Kongjin; Yang, Hongtai; Yang, Lizhong
How to model pedestrian movement is an intriguing problem in the area of statistical physics. As a common phenomenon of pedestrian movement, fatigue has a significant negative effect on pedestrian movement, especially when pedestrians move or run with heavy luggage, rescue the wounded in disaster, climb stairs and etc. According to the field observations and previous researches, fatigue coefficient is defined as the decrease of desired velocity in this study. However, previous researches lacked quantitative analysis of the effect of fatigue on pedestrian speed. It has been a great challenge to study the effect of fatigue on pedestrian flow, since pedestrians of heterogeneous walking abilities and the change of pedestrians’ moving properties need to be taken into consideration. Thus, at first, a series of pedestrian experiments, under three different conditions, were conducted to formulate the empirical relationship among fatigue, average free velocity, and walking distance. Then the empirical formulation of pedestrian fatigue was imported into the multi-velocity field floor cellular automata (FFCA) model for following pedestrian dynamics analysis. The velocity ratio was adjusted dynamically to adapt the change of pedestrians’ velocity due to fatigue. The fatigue, entrance flow rate and pedestrian’s initial desired velocity are found to have significant effects on the pedestrian flow. The space-time distributions of pedestrian density and velocity were explored in detail, with phase transition analyses from a free flow phase to a congestion phase. Additionally, the ‘density wave’ in the system can be observed if a certain ratio of burdened pedestrians lay in the high density region. The envelope of the ‘density wave’ reaches its maximum amplitude around the entrance position, and gradually diminishes away from the entrance.
Full Text Available Introduction: The agricultural tractor is one of the most commonly used vehicles on farms and one of the most prominent sources of noise. This article presents an exemplary assessment of the audible and infrasonic noise levels in the cabins of selected modern wheeled agricultural tractors. Materials and Methods: Operator-perceived audible and infrasonic noise levels in the cabins were examined for 20 types of modern tractors during typical conditions of work. The tractors had been in use for no longer than 3 years, with rated power between 96 kW and 227 kW, designed and produced by world-renowned companies. Noise level measurements were performed in accordance with PN-EN ISO 9612:2011 (ISO 9612:2009. Results: Audible noise levels (A-weighted ranged from 62.1 to 87.4 dB-A (average: 68.2 to 83.8 dB-A for different work tasks. The factors influencing noise levels include performed tasks, soil, weather conditions and the skills of individual drivers. In spectrum analysis, the highest noise levels occurred at frequencies 250 Hz, 1 and 2 kHz. Infrasound noise levels (G-weighted ranged from 87.3 to 111.3 dB-G. The driver-experienced exposure to infrasound was found to increase significantly when the vehicle was in motion. Conclusions: Average audible noise levels have no potential to adversely affect the hearing organ during tasks performed inside the closed cabins of the analysed modern agricultural tractors. Due to the relatively low audible noise levels inside the cabins of modern agricultural tractors, non-auditory effects are the only adverse symptoms that can develop. Modern agricultural tractors emit considerable infrasonic noise levels. All tractors introduced into the market should be subjected to tests with regard to infrasonic noise levels.
Driver response to signal indications was monitored at a selected number of signalised intersections and signal-controlled pedestrian crossings within the Kumasi and Accra metropolitan areas. The objective of the study was to establish the scale of red-light running among drivers in the two cities. Out of 189,628 vehicle ...
McGhie, Alexandra; Lewis, Ioni; Hyde, Melissa K
Despite the dangers associated with drink walking, limited research is currently available regarding the factors which influence individuals to engage in this risky behaviour. This study examined the influence of psychosocial factors upon individuals' intentions to drink walk across four experimental scenarios (and a control condition). Specifically, a 2×2 repeated measures design was utilised in which all of the scenarios incorporated a risky pedestrian crossing situation (i.e., a pedestrian crossing against a red man signal) but differed according to the level of group identity (i.e., low/strangers and high/friends) and conformity (low and high). Individuals were assessed for their intentions to drink walk within each of these different scenarios. Undergraduate students (N=151), aged 17-30 years, completed a questionnaire. Overall, most of the study's hypotheses were supported with individuals reporting the highest intentions to drink walk when in the presence of friends (i.e., high group identity) and their friends were said to be also crossing against the red man signal (i.e., high conformity). The findings may have significant implications for the design of countermeasures to reduce drink walking. For instance, the current findings would suggest that potentially effective strategies may be to promote resilience to peer influence as well as highlight the negative consequences associated with following the behaviour of other intoxicated pedestrians who are crossing against a red signal. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available We propose a potential field cellular automata model with a pushing force field to simulate the pedestrian evacuation in a domain with a ramp. We construct a cost potential depending on the ramp angle and introduce a function to evaluate the pushing force, which is related to the cost and the desired direction of pedestrian. With increase of crowd density, there is no empty space for pedestrian moving forward; pedestrian will purposefully push another pedestrian on her or his desired location to arrive the destination quickly. We analyse the relationship between the slope of ramp and the pushing force and investigate the changing of injured situations with the changing of the slope of ramp. When the number of pedestrians and the ramp angle arrive at certain critical points, the Domino effect will be simulated by this proposed model.
Full Text Available Aiming at those generally existing problems in urban commercial pedestrian districts, through the design methods of extracting separation of man from vehicle in traditional Qilou pedestrian street space, continuous pedestrian space with shelter, and the behavior paths with combination of commercial activities, this thesis sets about from the behaviors of pedestrians in walking state, and finds that the traditional Qilou pedestrian street space can satisfy pedestrians’ physiological and psychological demands in shopping better. At the same time, combining current urban commercial districts developing demands, and the successful experience from traditional Qilou, this thesis also proposes relevant improvement measures. The improvements in design means are expected to improve pedestrian environment for, and achieve the commercial values of these districts, as well as the win-win of environment improvement and commercial activity development.
Sanchez, Paul Ernest
This report supplements audit 2008-E-0009, conducted by the ES&H, Quality, Safeguards & Security Audits Department, 12870, during fall and winter of FY 2008. The study evaluates slips, trips and falls, the leading cause of reportable injuries at Sandia. In 2007, almost half of over 100 of such incidents occurred in parking lots. During the course of the audit, over 5000 observations were collected in 10 parking lots across SNL/NM. Based on benchmarks and trends of pedestrian behavior, the report proposes pedestrian-friendly features and attributes to improve pedestrian safety in parking lots. Less safe pedestrian behavior is associated with older parking lots lacking pedestrian-friendly features and attributes, like those for buildings 823, 887 and 811. Conversely, safer pedestrian behavior is associated with newer parking lots that have designated walkways, intra-lot walkways and sidewalks. Observations also revealed that motorists are in widespread noncompliance with parking lot speed limits and stop signs and markers.
Hu, Jun; You, Lei; Zhang, Hong; Wei, Juan; Guo, Yangyong
This paper proposes a pedestrian evacuation model for effective simulation of evacuation efficiency based on extended cellular automata. In the model, pedestrians' momentary transition probability to a target position is defined in terms of the floor field and queueing time, and the critical time is defined as the waiting time threshold in a queue. Queueing time and critical time are derived using Fractal Brownian Motion through analysis of pedestrian arrival characteristics. Simulations using the platform and actual evacuations were conducted to study the relationships among system evacuation time, average system velocity, pedestrian density, flow rate, and critical time. The results demonstrate that at low pedestrian density, evacuation efficiency can be improved through adoption of the shortest route strategy, and critical time has an inverse relationship with average system velocity. Conversely, at higher pedestrian densities, it is better to adopt the shortest queueing time strategy, and critical time is inversely related to flow rate.
Thompson, Leah L; Rivara, Frederick P; Ayyagari, Rajiv C; Ebel, Beth E
The objective of the present work was to study the impact of technological and social distraction on cautionary behaviours and crossing times in pedestrians. Pedestrians were observed at 20 high-risk intersections during 1 of 3 randomly assigned time windows in 2012. Observers recorded demographic and behavioural information, including use of a mobile device (talking on the phone, text messaging, or listening to music). We examined the association between distraction and crossing behaviours, adjusting for age and gender. All multivariate analyses were conducted with random effect logistic regression (binary outcomes) and random effect linear regression (continuous outcomes), accounting for clustering by site. Observers recorded crossing behaviours for 1102 pedestrians. Nearly one-third (29.8%) of all pedestrians performed a distracting activity while crossing. Distractions included listening to music (11.2%), text messaging (7.3%) and using a handheld phone (6.2%). Text messaging, mobile phone use and talking with a companion increased crossing time. Texting pedestrians took 1.87 additional seconds (18.0%) to cross the average intersection (3.4 lanes), compared to undistracted pedestrians. Texting pedestrians were 3.9 times more likely than undistracted pedestrians to display at least 1 unsafe crossing behaviour (disobeying the lights, crossing mid-intersection, or failing to look both ways). Pedestrians listening to music walked more than half a second (0.54) faster across the average intersection than undistracted pedestrians. Distracting activity is common among pedestrians, even while crossing intersections. Technological and social distractions increase crossing times, with text messaging associated with the highest risk. Our findings suggest the need for intervention studies to reduce risk of pedestrian injury.
Liu, Gang; He, Jing; Luo, Zhiyong; Yang, Wunian; Zhang, Xiping
It is important to study the effects of pedestrian crossing behaviors on traffic flow for solving the urban traffic jam problem. Based on the Nagel-Schreckenberg (NaSch) traffic cellular automata (TCA) model, a new one-dimensional TCA model is proposed considering the uncertainty conflict behaviors between pedestrians and vehicles at unsignalized mid-block crosswalks and defining the parallel updating rules of motion states of pedestrians and vehicles. The traffic flow is simulated for different vehicle densities and behavior trigger probabilities. The fundamental diagrams show that no matter what the values of vehicle braking probability, pedestrian acceleration crossing probability, pedestrian backing probability and pedestrian generation probability, the system flow shows the "increasing-saturating-decreasing" trend with the increase of vehicle density; when the vehicle braking probability is lower, it is easy to cause an emergency brake of vehicle and result in great fluctuation of saturated flow; the saturated flow decreases slightly with the increase of the pedestrian acceleration crossing probability; when the pedestrian backing probability lies between 0.4 and 0.6, the saturated flow is unstable, which shows the hesitant behavior of pedestrians when making the decision of backing; the maximum flow is sensitive to the pedestrian generation probability and rapidly decreases with increasing the pedestrian generation probability, the maximum flow is approximately equal to zero when the probability is more than 0.5. The simulations prove that the influence of frequent crossing behavior upon vehicle flow is immense; the vehicle flow decreases and gets into serious congestion state rapidly with the increase of the pedestrian generation probability.
Pan, Zheng; Yan, Lei; Winstanley, Adam C.; Fotheringham, Stewart; Zheng, Jianghua
A 2-D Euclidean shortest path with obstacles (ESPO) algorithm for pedestrian navigation is developed. ESPO is a classical algorithm in the field of computational geometry. We describe some common ESPO algorithms and discuss their application in pedestrian shortest path determination based on the generation of a network of paths within a polygon with interior obstacles. This algorithm can be applied to pedestrian navigation in open spaces, such as squares, parks and big halls. Path generation ...
Thompson, Leah L; Rivara, Frederick P; Ayyagari, Rajiv C; Ebel, Beth E
Objectives The objective of the present work was to study the impact of technological and social distraction on cautionary behaviours and crossing times in pedestrians. Methods Pedestrians were observed at 20 high-risk intersections during 1 of 3 randomly assigned time windows in 2012. Observers recorded demographic and behavioural information, including use of a mobile device (talking on the phone, text messaging, or listening to music). We examined the association between distraction and crossing behaviours, adjusting for age and gender. All multivariate analyses were conducted with random effect logistic regression (binary outcomes) and random effect linear regression (continuous outcomes), accounting for clustering by site. Results Observers recorded crossing behaviours for 1102 pedestrians. Nearly one-third (29.8%) of all pedestrians performed a distracting activity while crossing. Distractions included listening to music (11.2%), text messaging (7.3%) and using a handheld phone (6.2%). Text messaging, mobile phone use and talking with a companion increased crossing time. Texting pedestrians took 1.87 additional seconds (18.0%) to cross the average intersection (3.4 lanes), compared to undistracted pedestrians. Texting pedestrians were 3.9 times more likely than undistracted pedestrians to display at least 1 unsafe crossing behaviour (disobeying the lights, crossing mid-intersection, or failing to look both ways). Pedestrians listening to music walked more than half a second (0.54) faster across the average intersection than undistracted pedestrians. Conclusions Distracting activity is common among pedestrians, even while crossing intersections. Technological and social distractions increase crossing times, with text messaging associated with the highest risk. Our findings suggest the need for intervention studies to reduce risk of pedestrian injury. PMID:23243104
Wood, Joanne M; Tyrrell, Richard A; Lacherez, Philippe; Black, Alex A
Drivers' responses and eye movements were assessed as they approached pedestrians at night in order to explore the relative conspicuity benefits of different configurations of retroreflective markings. Eye movements were recorded using an ASL Mobile Eye (Applied Science Technologies, www.asleyetracking.com) from 14 young licensed drivers (M = 24.1 ± 6.4 years) as they drove along a closed-road circuit at night. At two locations, pedestrians walked in place facing either towards or away from the road. Pedestrians wore black clothing with a standard retroreflective vest either alone or with additional retroreflective markers positioned in a configuration conveying biological motion (biomotion). Drivers responded when they recognised that a pedestrian was present and again when they identified the direction the pedestrian was facing. Drivers recognised pedestrians from a significantly greater distance (p Eye movement data suggested that the biomotion configuration attracted drivers' attention significantly sooner than the vest (time to first fixation: 1.1 vs 3.5 s), that drivers fixated on pedestrians wearing biomotion for significantly less time prior to responding (3.4 s vs 6.1 s), and the time to first recognise a pedestrian was approximately half that for biomotion compared to vest (6.4 vs 13.9 s). Adding biomotion reflectors to the vest facilitated earlier recognition of pedestrians and faster identification of the direction that the pedestrian faced. These findings confirm that the conspicuity advantages of biomotion configurations on pedestrians at night result in part from drivers fixating pedestrians earlier and more efficiently. © 2017 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2017 The College of Optometrists.
Pfeffer, Karen; Hunter, E
Objective: Adolescence is a high-risk period for pedestrian injury. It is also a time of heightened susceptibility to peer influence. The aim of this research was to examine the effects of peer influence on the pedestrian road-crossing decisions of adolescents. Methods: Using 10 videos of road-crossing sites, 80 16- to 18-year-olds were asked to make pedestrian road-crossing decisions. Participants were assigned to one of 4 experimental conditions: negative peer (influencing unsafe decisi...
Full Text Available Aimée R Edell, Jesse J Jung, Joel M Solomon, Richard N Palu Department of Ophthalmology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Use of cell phones in the general population has become increasingly commonplace. The distracting effects of cell phones among automobile drivers are well established, and legislation prohibits the use of handheld cell phones while driving in several states. Recent research has focused on the similar distracting effects of cell phones in the pedestrian population. In this report, an older gentleman suffered extensive facial trauma requiring surgery as a direct effect of cell phone use at the time the trauma occurred. This case highlights the role that portable electronic devices can play as a cause of ocular trauma. Keywords: orbital fracture, ocular trauma, orbital floor fracture, cell phone distraction, pedestrian safety
Bouzat, S; Kuperman, M N
We analyze the pedestrian evacuation of a rectangular room with a single door considering a lattice gas scheme with the addition of behavioral aspects of the pedestrians. The movement of the individuals is based on random and rational choices and is affected by conflicts between two or more agents that want to advance to the same position. Such conflicts are solved according to certain rules closely related to the concept of strategies in game theory, cooperation and defection. We consider game rules analogous to those from the Prisoner's Dilemma and Stag Hunt games, with payoffs associated to the probabilities of the individuals to advance to the selected site. We find that, even when defecting is the rational choice for any agent, under certain conditions, cooperators can take advantage from mutual cooperation and leave the room more rapidly than defectors.
Li, Xianghong; Wei, Dongyan; Lai, Qifeng; Xu, Ying; Yuan, Hong
Typical indoor location method is fingerprint and traditional outdoor location system is GPS. Both of them are of poor accuracy and limited only for indoor or outdoor environments. As the smartphones are equipped with MEMS sensors, it means PDR can be widely used. In this paper, an algorithm of smartphone-based integrated PDR/GPS/Bluetooth for pedestrian location in the indoor/outdoor is proposed, which can be highly expected to realize seamless indoor/outdoor localization of the pedestrian. In addition, we also provide technologies to estimate orientation with Magnetometer and Gyroscope and detect context with output of sensors. The extensive experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can realize seamless indoor/outdoor localization.
Schwebel, David C; Combs, Tabitha; Rodriguez, Daniel; Severson, Joan; Sisiopiku, Virginia
Child pedestrian injuries are a leading cause of mortality and morbidity across the United States and the world. Repeated practice at the cognitive-perceptual task of crossing a street may lead to safer pedestrian behavior. Virtual reality offers a unique opportunity for repeated practice without the risk of actual injury. This study conducted a pre-post within-subjects trial of training children in pedestrian safety using a semi-mobile, semi-immersive virtual pedestrian environment placed at schools and community centers. Pedestrian safety skills among a group of 44 seven- and eight-year-old children were assessed in a laboratory, and then children completed six 15-minute training sessions in the virtual pedestrian environment at their school or community center following pragmatic trial strategies over the course of three weeks. Following training, pedestrian safety skills were re-assessed. Results indicate improvement in delay entering traffic following training. Safe crossings did not demonstrate change. Attention to traffic and time to contact with oncoming vehicles both decreased somewhat, perhaps an indication that training was incomplete and children were in the process of actively learning to be safer pedestrians. The findings suggest virtual reality environments placed in community centers hold promise for teaching children to be safer pedestrians, but future research is needed to determine the optimal training dosage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Subramanyam, B.; Prasanna Kumar, R.
Traffic congestion and lack of public pedestrian space are some problems faced by most urban metropolises. Conventionally walking has been a mode of transportation in Indian cities. The percentage of pedestrians may vary from 16 to 57 depending upon the city. Encounters between vehicular traffic and pedestrian traffic are at its rise currently. Rapid industrialization and urbanization in India has resulted in neglecting of pedestrian facilities. Consequently pedestrian are at greater risk for their safety more especially in the commercial zones of large cities. A change in perspective spotlight will create a sense of awareness that the pedestrian traffic is also vital as the vehicular traffic. Soothing the traffic would moderately cut the driving expediency but the pedestrians will get a much safer and peaceful route to their terminuses. Safety and comfort are the two pans of a balance while considering the pedestrian traffic. Considering these aspects, this study deals a study in improving pedestrian facilities by analysing the existing skeleton of the selected locations. The adequacy of facility is checked based on IRC latest guidelines and counteractive measures are postulated.
Ariffin Aqbal Hafeez; Hamzah Azhar; Solah Mohd Syazwan; Paiman Noor Faradila; Mat Hussin Siti Fairos; Osman Mohd Rasid
From the statistics, there are serious concerns over the relatively high number of fatal motor vehicle crashes involving pedestrianmotorcycle in Malaysia. The high number of motorcycle registration on road, compounded by its popularity as the major mode of transportation in the nation, imposes safety risk to pedestrians, as well as to other road users. Data from 1,626 related road crashes of Royal Malaysia Police (RMP) for the 2009-2013 period were retrospectively collected via MIROS Road Acc...
Josef Bulíček; Pavlína Brožová; Ivo Hruban; Matúš Šucha
Presented paper is focused on questions of cyclist transport in urban settings, specifically in the city of Pardubice. Emphasis is put on analysis of potentially conflict places, especially in interaction with pedestrians. Direct terrain observation and consequent evaluation of conflict potential are used as method for data collecting. When cycling routes are designed, the requirements of the cyclists should be taken into account in order to ensure that the routes are accepted. In order to ma...
In this work, we investigate aspects of building design that can be optimized. Architectural features that we explore include pillar placement in simple corridors, doorway placement in buildings, and agent placement for information dispersement in an evacuation. The metrics utilized are tuned to the specific scenarios we study, which include continuous flow pedestrian movement and building evacuation. We use Multidimensional Direct Search (MDS) optimization with an extreme barrier criteria to find optimal placements while enforcing building constraints. © 2013 IEEE.
Feng, Xun Yi Jasmine; Nah, Shireen Anne; Lee, York Tien; Lin, Yea-Chyi; Chiang, Li Wei
This study evaluates the demographics of paediatric pedestrian injuries with the aim of identifying the group of children who is most vulnerable and the risk factors for major trauma (MT). Data was extracted from the integrated trauma system of a regional paediatric referral hospital. All paediatric cases involving road traffic accidents from January 2011 to December 2013 were studied. Demographics, injury mechanism, treatment and outcome were evaluated. Patients were categorised as MT or non-MT (NMT) based on their Injury Severity Score, admission to the intensive care unit, type of surgery (e.g. life/limb-saving) and death. Data analysis was done using nonparametric tests and Fisher's exact test. A total of 261 children were admitted for pedestrian injuries during the study period. The median age was ten years (range 14 months-16 years) and the median weight was 42.4 (range 8.6-93.7) kg. Half (i.e. 50.2%) of the children were primary-schoolers. The majority of the accidents occurred on roads (i.e. 83.1%), between 12 pm and 6 pm (i.e. 52.8%). Among the 261 children, 177 (67.8%) were unaccompanied by an adult at the time of the accident; 17 (6.5%) children sustained MT, while 244 (93.5%) suffered NMT. MT patients were more likely to have lost consciousness (p < 0.001) and been flung (p = 0.001). Most paediatric pedestrian injuries involved primary-schoolers walking home from school unaccompanied by adults. This information should inform future road safety campaigns. Being flung and loss of consciousness predicted MT in children who sustained pedestrian injuries.
Full Text Available In crisis situations in an urban environment, first responder teams often must deal with crowds of people. Consider the case of a building fire in a dense city environment. People may be injured; walkways may be blocked, with fire equipment attempting to reach the scene. Crowd behavior can become an issue when trying to reach the injured, ensure safety and restore conditions to normal. The motivations of pedestrians that form the crowd can vary. Some are there because they are curious about the crisis situation. Others, attending to their individual concerns, may have found themselves in the 'wrong' location. They may be trying to leave the area, but the density of people as well as the spatial layout of the walkways may be impeding their progress. Other individuals, unaware of the fire, may be attempting to reach their intended destinations that happen to be near the crisis area, thus adding to crowd congestion. With a model of crowd behavior, effective strategies for resource usage in managing crowd behavior can be developed. Our approach to this problem is that of agent-based modeling and simulation. We develop a cognitive pedestrian agent model. Utilizing this model, we simulate crowd behavior in a 'city fire' scenario. Characteristics of crowd behavior with different pedestrian personality mixes and a strategy for crowd management are investigated
Wang, Jinhuan; Zhang, Lei; Shi, Qiongyu; Yang, Peng; Hu, Xiaoming
A new multi-agent based congestion evacuation model incorporating panic behavior is proposed in this paper for simulating pedestrian evacuation in public places such as a stadium. Different from the existing results, pedestrians in this model are divided into four classes and each pedestrian's status can be either normal, being overtaken, or casualty. The direction of action for each individual is affected by competitive ability, distance to the exits as well as number and density of occupants within the view field of the agent. Our simulations exhibit that during the evacuation process: (1) The agents gather in front of the exits spontaneously and present arched shapes close to the exits. (2) Under the panic state the agents cohere closely and almost do not change the target exit. So other alternative exits are ignored. (3) For the case without obstacle, the casualties under panic increase greatly. But if there are obstacles (chairs), the congestion can be alleviated. Thus the casualties are reduced. (4) If certain exit is partly clogged, the evacuation becomes more efficient when adding a virtual leader. The overall simulation results show that the proposed model can reproduce the real evacuation process in a stadium quite well.
Full Text Available In fixed video scenes, scene motion patterns can be a very useful prior knowledge for pedestrian detection which is still a challenge at present. A new approach of cascade pedestrian detection using an orthogonal scene motion pattern model in a general density video is developed in this paper. To statistically model the pedestrian motion pattern, a probability grid overlaying the whole scene is set up to partition the scene into paths and holding areas. Features extracted from different pattern areas are classified by a group of specific strategies. Instead of using a unitary classifier, the employed classifier is composed of two directional subclassifiers trained, respectively, with different samples which are selected by two orthogonal directions. Considering that the negative images from the detection window scanning are much more than the positive ones, the cascade AdaBoost technique is adopted by the subclassifiers to reduce the negative image computations. The proposed approach is proved effectively by static classification experiments and surveillance video experiments.
Ariffin Aqbal Hafeez
Full Text Available From the statistics, there are serious concerns over the relatively high number of fatal motor vehicle crashes involving pedestrianmotorcycle in Malaysia. The high number of motorcycle registration on road, compounded by its popularity as the major mode of transportation in the nation, imposes safety risk to pedestrians, as well as to other road users. Data from 1,626 related road crashes of Royal Malaysia Police (RMP for the 2009-2013 period were retrospectively collected via MIROS Road Accident Analysis and Database System (M-ROADS. The data were then analyzed via logistic regression method to determine associations between risks and injury severity in pedestrian-motorcycle collisions. The results indicate that five factors were significantly related to injury severity, which include age, location of body injury, as well as speed limit, road geometry and lighting condition of collision site. Subsequently, focus group discussions with stakeholders were also conducted to gather relevant data to identify related issues and suggestions on motorcycle safety technology with regards to collision with pedestrian.
Felcman, J.; Kubera, P.
We consider the Pedestrian Flow Equations (PFEs) as the coupled system formed by the Eikonal equation and the first order hyperbolic system with the source term. The hyperbolic system consists of the continuity equation and momentum equation of fluid dynamics. Specifying the social and pressure forces in the momentum equation we come to the assumption that each pedestrian is trying to move in a desired direction (e.g. to the exit in the panic situation) with a desired velocity, where his velocity and the direction of movement depend on the density of pedestrians in his neighborhood. In  we used the model, where the desired direction of movement is given by the solution of the Eikonal equation (more precisely by the gradient of the solution). Here we avoid the solution of the Eikonal equation, which is the novelty of the paper. Based on the fact that the solution of the Eikonal equation has the meaning of the shortest time to reach the exit, we define explicitly such a function in the framework of the Dijkstra's algorithm for the shortest path in the graph. This is done at the discrete level of the solution. As the graph we use the underlying triangulation, where the norm of each edge is density depending and has the dimension of the time. The numerical examples of the solution of the PFEs with and without the solution of the Eikonal equation are presented.
The National Paediatric Mortality Database was reviewed for the six year period 1st January 2006 to 31st December 2011 and all pedestrian deaths extracted, after review of available data the deaths were categorized as either traffic or non-traffic related. There were 45 child pedestrian fatalities in the period examined. Traffic related deaths accounted for 26 (58%) vs. 19 (42%) non-traffic related. Analysis of the deaths showed there was a male preponderance 28 (62%), weekend trend 22 (49%) with an evening 16 (35%) and summer peak 20 (44%). The highest proportion of deaths occurred in the 1-4 year age group 24 (53%), with 13 (28%) due to low speed vehicle rollovers, mainly occurring in residential driveways 8 (61%). Child pedestrian fatalities are highly preventable through the modification of risk factors including behavioural, social and environmental. Preventative action needs to be addressed, particularly in relation to non-traffic related deaths i.e, low speed vehicle rollovers.
Renaudin, Valérie; Combettes, Christophe
The dependence of proposed pedestrian navigation solutions on a dedicated infrastructure is a limiting factor to the deployment of location based services. Consequently self-contained Pedestrian Dead-Reckoning (PDR) approaches are gaining interest for autonomous navigation. Even if the quality of low cost inertial sensors and magnetometers has strongly improved, processing noisy sensor signals combined with high hand dynamics remains a challenge. Estimating accurate attitude angles for achieving long term positioning accuracy is targeted in this work. A new Magnetic, Acceleration fields and GYroscope Quaternion (MAGYQ)-based attitude angles estimation filter is proposed and demonstrated with handheld sensors. It benefits from a gyroscope signal modelling in the quaternion set and two new opportunistic updates: magnetic angular rate update (MARU) and acceleration gradient update (AGU). MAGYQ filter performances are assessed indoors, outdoors, with dynamic and static motion conditions. The heading error, using only the inertial solution, is found to be less than 10° after 1.5 km walking. The performance is also evaluated in the positioning domain with trajectories computed following a PDR strategy.
Full Text Available The dependence of proposed pedestrian navigation solutions on a dedicated infrastructure is a limiting factor to the deployment of location based services. Consequently self-contained Pedestrian Dead-Reckoning (PDR approaches are gaining interest for autonomous navigation. Even if the quality of low cost inertial sensors and magnetometers has strongly improved, processing noisy sensor signals combined with high hand dynamics remains a challenge. Estimating accurate attitude angles for achieving long term positioning accuracy is targeted in this work. A new Magnetic, Acceleration fields and GYroscope Quaternion (MAGYQ-based attitude angles estimation filter is proposed and demonstrated with handheld sensors. It benefits from a gyroscope signal modelling in the quaternion set and two new opportunistic updates: magnetic angular rate update (MARU and acceleration gradient update (AGU. MAGYQ filter performances are assessed indoors, outdoors, with dynamic and static motion conditions. The heading error, using only the inertial solution, is found to be less than 10° after 1.5 km walking. The performance is also evaluated in the positioning domain with trajectories computed following a PDR strategy.
Li, Xuebao; Cui, Xiang; Lu, Tiebing; Ma, Wenzuo; Bian, Xingming; Wang, Donglai; Hiziroglu, Huseyin
The corona-generated audible noise (AN) has become one of decisive factors in the design of high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission lines. The AN from transmission lines can be attributed to sound pressure pulses which are generated by the multiple corona sources formed on the conductor, i.e., transmission lines. In this paper, a detailed time-domain characteristics of the sound pressure pulses, which are generated by the DC corona discharges formed over the surfaces of a stranded conductors, are investigated systematically in a laboratory settings using a corona cage structure. The amplitude of sound pressure pulse and its time intervals are extracted by observing a direct correlation between corona current pulses and corona-generated sound pressure pulses. Based on the statistical characteristics, a stochastic model is presented for simulating the sound pressure pulses due to DC corona discharges occurring on conductors. The proposed stochastic model is validated by comparing the calculated and measured A-weighted sound pressure level (SPL). The proposed model is then used to analyze the influence of the pulse amplitudes and pulse rate on the SPL. Furthermore, a mathematical relationship is found between the SPL and conductor diameter, electric field, and radial distance.
Fullard, James H.; Ratcliffe, John M.; Jacobs, David S.
Noctuid moths listen for the echolocation calls of hunting bats and respond to these predator cues with evasive flight. The African bollworm moth, Helicoverpa armigera, feeds at flowers near intensely singing cicadas, Platypleura capensis, yet does not avoid them. We determined that the moth can hear the cicada by observing that both of its auditory receptors (A1 and A2 cells) respond to the cicada’s song. The firing response of the A1 cell rapidly adapts to the song and develops spike periods in less than a second that are in excess of those reported to elicit avoidance flight to bats in earlier studies. The possibility also exists that for at least part of the day, sensory input in the form of olfaction or vision overrides the moth’s auditory responses. While auditory tolerance appears to allow H. armigera to exploit a food resource in close proximity to acoustic interference, it may render their hearing defence ineffective and make them vulnerable to predation by bats during the evening when cicadas continue to sing. Our study describes the first field observation of an eared insect ignoring audible but innocuous sounds.
McClure, Leslie A.
Pedestrian injuries contribute greatly to child morbidity and mortality. Recent evidence suggests that training within virtual pedestrian environments may improve children’s street crossing skills, but may not convey knowledge about safety in street environments. We hypothesized that (a) children will gain pedestrian safety knowledge via videos/software/internet websites, but not when trained by virtual pedestrian environment or other strategies; (b) pedestrian safety knowledge will be associated with safe pedestrian behavior both before and after training; and (c) increases in knowledge will be associated with increases in safe behavior among children trained individually at streetside locations, but not those trained by means of other strategies. We analyzed data from a randomized controlled trial evaluating pedestrian safety training. We randomly assigned 240 children ages 7–8 to one of four training conditions: videos/software/internet, virtual reality (VR), individualized streetside instruction, or a no-contact control. Both virtual and field simulations of street crossing at 2-lane bi-directional mid-block locations assessed pedestrian behavior at baseline, post-training, and 6-month follow-up. Pedestrian knowledge was assessed orally on all three occasions. Children trained by videos/software/internet, and those trained individually, showed increased knowledge following training relative to children in the other groups (ps trained using videos/software/internet gained knowledge but did not change their behavior. Children trained individually gained in both knowledge and safer behavior. Children trained virtually gained in safer behavior but not knowledge. If VR is used for training, tools like videos/internet might effectively supplement training. We discovered few associations between knowledge and behavior, and none between changes in knowledge and behavior. Pedestrian safety knowledge and safe pedestrian behavior may be orthogonal constructs that
Baylis, Adriane; Chapman, Kathy; Whitehill, Tara L; Group, The Americleft Speech
To investigate the validity and reliability of multiple listener judgments of hypernasality and audible nasal emission, in children with repaired cleft palate, using visual analog scaling (VAS) and equal-appearing interval (EAI) scaling. Prospective comparative study of multiple listener ratings of hypernasality and audible nasal emission. Multisite institutional. Five trained and experienced speech-language pathologist listeners from the Americleft Speech Project. Average VAS and EAI ratings of hypernasality and audible nasal emission/turbulence for 12 video-recorded speech samples from the Americleft Speech Project. Intrarater and interrater reliability was computed, as well as linear and polynomial models of best fit. Intrarater and interrater reliability was acceptable for both rating methods; however, reliability was higher for VAS as compared to EAI ratings. When VAS ratings were plotted against EAI ratings, results revealed a stronger curvilinear relationship. The results of this study provide additional evidence that alternate rating methods such as VAS may offer improved validity and reliability over EAI ratings of speech. VAS should be considered a viable method for rating hypernasality and nasal emission in speech in children with repaired cleft palate.
Fredriksson, Rikard; Shin, Jaeho; Untaroiu, Costin D
To study the potential of active, passive, and integrated (combined active and passive) safety systems in reducing pedestrian upper body loading in typical impact configurations. Finite element simulations using models of generic sedan car fronts and the Polar II pedestrian dummy were performed for 3 impact configurations at 2 impact speeds. Chest contact force, head injury criterion (HIC(15)), head angular acceleration, and the cumulative strain damage measure (CSDM(0.25)) were employed as injury parameters. Further, 3 countermeasures were modeled: an active autonomous braking system, a passive deployable countermeasure, and an integrated system combining the active and passive systems. The auto-brake system was modeled by reducing impact speed by 10 km/h (equivalent to ideal full braking over 0.3 s) and introducing a pitch of 1 degree and in-crash deceleration of 1 g. The deployable system consisted of a deployable hood, lifting 100 mm in the rear, and a lower windshield air bag. All 3 countermeasures showed benefit in a majority of impact configurations in terms of injury prevention. The auto-brake system reduced chest force in a majority of the configurations and decreased HIC(15), head angular acceleration, and CSDM in all configurations. Averaging all impact configurations, the auto-brake system showed reductions of injury predictors from 20 percent (chest force) to 82 percent (HIC). The passive deployable countermeasure reduced chest force and HIC(15) in a majority of configurations and head angular acceleration and CSDM in all configurations, although the CSDM decrease in 2 configurations was minimal. On average a reduction from 20 percent (CSDM) to 58 percent (HIC) was recorded in the passive deployable countermeasures. Finally, the integrated system evaluated in this study reduced all injury assessment parameters in all configurations compared to the reference situations. The average reductions achieved by the integrated system ranged from 56 percent
Objectives: Injuries and mortality resulting from pedestrian road traffic crashes are a major public health problem in Ghana. This study investigated risk factors for road transport-related injury among pedestrians in rural Ghana. Design: Case study design using qualitative data. Method: In-depth interviews were conducted with pedestrians.…
Keller, C.; Hermes, C.; Gavrila, D.M.
Future vehicle systems for active pedestrian safety will not only require a high recognition performance, but also an accurate analysis of the developing traffic situation. In this paper, we present a system for pedestrian action classification (walking vs. stopping) and path prediction at short,
Full Text Available From a mobility perspective, walking is considered to be the most sustainable transport mode. One of the consequences of motor-oriented urban configuration on pedestrian mobility is urban fragmentation, which affects sustainability in cities. In this paper, we use a natural-based approach to landscape fragmentation and connectivity (inherited from landscape ecology for pedestrian mobility planning. Our aim is to design a useful methodology to identify priority pedestrian corridors, and to assess the effects of implementing barrier-free pedestrian corridors in the city. For this purpose, we developed a method that integrates Geographical Information Systems (GIS network analysis with kernel density methods, which are commonly used for designating habitat corridors. It was applied to Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spain. Pedestrian mobility was assessed by comparison of travel times between different scenarios. Results show that the implementation of pedestrian corridors reduces travel time by approximately 6%. Thus, an intervention in a small percentage of the city’s street network could considerably reduce pedestrian travel times. The proposed methodology is a useful tool for urban and transport planners to improve pedestrian mobility and manage motorised traffic.
To what extent can we model the movements of pedestrians who walk across a large-scale event terrain? This dissertation answers this question by analysing the operational movement dynamics of pedestrians in crowds at several large music and sport events in the Netherlands and extracting the key
Porzycki, Jakub; WÄ s, Jarosław; Hedayatifar, Leila; Hassanibesheli, Forough; Kułakowski, Krzysztof
The aim of the paper is an analysis of self-organization patterns observed in the unidirectional flow of pedestrians. On the basis of experimental data from Zhang et al. [J. Zhang et al., J. Stat. Mech. (2011) P06004, 10.1088/1742-5468/2011/06/P06004], we analyze the mutual positions and velocity correlations between pedestrians when walking along a corridor. The angular and spatial dependencies of the mutual positions reveal a spatial structure that remains stable during the crowd motion. This structure differs depending on the value of n , for the consecutive n th -nearest-neighbor position set. The preferred position for the first-nearest neighbor is on the side of the pedestrian, while for further neighbors, this preference shifts to the axis of movement. The velocity correlations vary with the angle formed by the pair of neighboring pedestrians and the direction of motion and with the time delay between pedestrians' movements. The delay dependence of the correlations shows characteristic oscillations, produced by the velocity oscillations when striding; however, a filtering of the main frequency of individual striding out reduces the oscillations only partially. We conclude that pedestrians select their path directions so as to evade the necessity of continuously adjusting their speed to their neighbors'. They try to keep a given distance, but follow the person in front of them, as well as accepting and observing pedestrians on their sides. Additionally, we show an empirical example that illustrates the shape of a pedestrian's personal space during movement.
Bernhoft, Inger Marie; Carstensen, Gitte
significantly more than the younger respondents do. To a larger extent they feel that it is dangerous to cross the road where these facilities are missing. The older pedestrians also find the presence of a pavement very important on their route whereas the younger pedestrians more often focus on a fast passage...
Liu, X.; Zhang, Y.; Li, Q.
Pedestrian crossing, as an important part of transportation infrastructures, serves to secure pedestrians' lives and possessions and keep traffic flow in order. As a prominent feature in the street scene, detection of pedestrian crossing contributes to 3D road marking reconstruction and diminishing the adverse impact of outliers in 3D street scene reconstruction. Since pedestrian crossing is subject to wearing and tearing from heavy traffic flow, it is of great imperative to monitor its status quo. On this account, an approach of automatic pedestrian crossing detection using images from vehicle-based Mobile Mapping System is put forward and its defilement and impairment are analyzed in this paper. Firstly, pedestrian crossing classifier is trained with low recall rate. Then initial detections are refined by utilizing projection filtering, contour information analysis, and monocular vision. Finally, a pedestrian crossing detection and analysis system with high recall rate, precision and robustness will be achieved. This system works for pedestrian crossing detection under different situations and light conditions. It can recognize defiled and impaired crossings automatically in the meanwhile, which facilitates monitoring and maintenance of traffic facilities, so as to reduce potential traffic safety problems and secure lives and property.
... accessibility standards included in the Department's regulations implementing the public transportation parts of... Transportation conduct rulemaking to include accessibility standards for pedestrian facilities in the public... Accessibility Guidelines for Pedestrian Facilities in the Public Right- of-Way; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal...
... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Part 1190 RIN 3014-AA26 Accessibility Guidelines for Pedestrian Facilities in the Public Right-of-Way AGENCY: Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board... accessibility guidelines for pedestrian facilities in the public right-of-way published in the Federal Register...
Quistberg, D Alex; Koepsell, Thomas D; Miranda, J Jaime; Ng Boyle, Linda; Johnston, Brian D; Ebel, Beth E
Pedestrians comprise 78% of the road fatalities in Peru. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between the walking environment and pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions. A matched case-control study was used to detect the odds of a pedestrian-motor vehicle collision at a pedestrian crossing location. Data were collected from 11 sampled police commissaries in Lima, Peru. In a multivariable model adjusting for vehicle and pedestrian flow, pedestrian collisions were less likely in the presence of a curb and sidewalk on both roadway sides (odds ratio [OR] = 0.19, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.11-0.33) or a pedestrian barricade (OR = 0.11, 95% CI, 0.01-0.81). There was a greater risk of collisions for each street vendor present (OR = 2.82, 95% CI, 1.59-5.00) or whether any parked vehicles (OR = 3.67, 95% CI, 1.18-11.4) were present. Improving or addressing these potentially modifiable features of the walking environment could improve pedestrian safety in Lima and in similar urban settings in low- and middle-income countries.
Quieter cars such as electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) may reduce auditory cues used by pedestrians to assess the state of nearby traffic and, as a result, their use may have an adverse impact on pedestrian safety. In order ...
Quieter cars such as electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) may reduce auditory cues used by pedestrians to assess the state of nearby traffic and, as a result, their use may have an adverse impact on pedestrian safety. In order ...
A. Goedegebure (Andre)
textabstractHearing-aid users often continue to have problems with poor speech understanding in difficult acoustical conditions. Another generally accounted problem is that certain sounds become too loud whereas other sounds are still not audible. Dynamic range compression is a signal processing
Nicholas N. Ferenchak
Full Text Available Pedestrians have unique needs to ensure their safety as they interact with others within a transportation system. Since this is especially true in third world context, it is imperative to gain a better understanding of pedestrian behaviors in developing countries. The goal is to have planners and engineers create appropriate design guidelines and inform policy decisions. Data on pedestrian characteristics and behavior metrics were gathered from midblock crossings in Bangalore, Karnataka, India. Quadratic and logistic regressions suggest that pedestrian delay and utilization of crossings increase with age, while conflicts decrease with it. Male waiting time is approximately half of female waiting time, and males are twice as likely to cause conflicts with motor vehicles. These strong patterns will hopefully aid in the understanding of pedestrian behavior in relation to motor vehicle traffic in urban areas of developing countries, encouraging safer crossings to be designed.
Li, Xiang; Sun, Jian-Qiao
The intersection model consisting of vehicle model, pedestrian model, pedestrian-vehicle interaction model and intersection rules has been presented in this paper. The well-established vehicle and pedestrian movement models in the literature are combined and applied to the intersection system with additional rules. Extensive numerical simulations with different scenarios are carried out. The effects of road speed limit, vehicle arrival rate, pedestrian regularity rate and vehicle rational rate on the intersection performance are quantitatively investigated. Three measures of the traffic performance are studied including transportation efficiency, energy economy and traffic safety. We have found that the energy economy can be achieved with the high transportation efficiency, and that the traffic safety is in conflict with the efficiency. Furthermore, we have found that the pedestrian interference makes the intersection performance worse, resulting in lower transportation efficiency, more energy consumptions and higher safety risk.
Prato, Carlo G.; Kaplan, Sigal; Patrier, Alexandre
traffic calming measures, illumination solutions, road maintenance programs and speed limit reductions. Moreover, this study emphasises the role of the built environment, as shopping areas, residential areas, and walking traffic density are positively related to a reduction in pedestrian injury severity......This study looks at mitigating and aggravating factors that are associated with the injury severity of pedestrians when they have crashes with another road user and overcomes existing limitations in the literature by posing attention on the built environment and considering spatial correlation...... of pedestrians to sustain a severe or fatal injury conditional on the occurrence of a crash with another road user. This study confirms previous findings about older pedestrians and intoxicated pedestrians being the most vulnerable road users, and crashes with heavy vehicles and in roads with higher speed limits...
Prato, Carlo G.; Kaplan, Sigal; Patrier, Alexandre
traffic calming measures, illumination solutions, road maintenance programs and speed limit reductions. Moreover, this study emphasises the role of the built environment, as shopping areas, residential areas, and walking traffic density are positively related to a reduction in pedestrian injury severity......This study looks at mitigating and aggravating factors that are associated with the injury severity of pedestrians when they have crashes with another road user and overcomes existing limitations in the literature by posing attention on the built environment and considering spatial correlation...... of pedestrians to sustain a severe or fatal injury conditional on the occurrence of a crash with another road user. This study confirms previous findings about older pedestrians and intoxicated pedestrians being the most vulnerable road users, and crashes with heavy vehicles and in roads with higher speed limits...
Oana Elena BLAGA
Full Text Available The pedestrian zone issue is by far an important matter in the context of urban regeneration. Cities which adopted this strategy – the pedestrian zones – have recorded better urban attitudes regarding the urban environment, a continuous growth of the urban quality, an improved urban ecosystem and continuous attractiveness for investment and tourism. This article explores the evolution of the pedestrian zones as ideas in utopian urban models in the early 1900 and later as efficient environmental friendly strategies adopted by cities. After identifying the path this concept followed, from a simple idea to an important strategy of urban development, the paper focuses on the major characteristics and benefits of the pedestrian precincts. Next, the article focuses on the newest pedestrian zone in one of the Romanian cities, Alba Iulia and it tries to identify the types of impact this area has so far on the community and entire city.
Zheng, Tingting; Qu, Weina; Ge, Yan; Sun, Xianghong; Zhang, Kan
While improper pedestrian behavior has become an important factor related to road traffic fatalities, especially in developing countries, the effects of personality traits and/or stress on pedestrian behavior have been rarely reported. The current study explored the joint effects of five personality traits (i.e., extraversion, openness, neuroticism, normlessness and altruism) and global perceived stress (measured with the Perceived Stress Scale-10) on pedestrian behavior (measured with the Pedestrian Behavior Scale) in 311 Chinese individuals. Results showed that altruism, neuroticism and openness significantly affected different pedestrian behavior dimensions, while global perceived stress also significantly and positively predicted positive behavior. Moreover, the effect of neuroticism on positive behavior was fully mediated by stress. Some explanations and implications are provided in the discussion section.
The Speech Processing Lab at Temple University developed an objective speech quality measure called the Modified Bark Spectral Distortion (MBSD). The MBSD uses auditory perception models derived from psychoacoustic studies. The MBSD measure extends the Bark Spectral Distortion (BSD) method by incorporating noise making threshold to differentiate audible/inaudible distortions. The performance of the MBSD was comparable to that of the ITU-T Recommendation P.861 for various coding distortions. Based on the experiments with Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) data that contains distortions encountered in real network applications, modifications have been made to the MBSD algorithm. These are: use of the first 15 loudness components, normalization of loudness vectors, deletion of the spreading function in the noise masking threshold calculation, and use of a new cognition model based on postmasking effects. The Enhanced MBSD (EMBSD) shows significant improvement over the MBSD for TDMA data. Also, the performance of the EMBSD is better than that of the ITU-T Recommendation P.861 and Measuring Normalizing Blocks (MNB) measures for TDMA data. The performance of the EMBSD was compared to various other objective speech quality measures with the speech data including a wide range of distortion conditions. The EMBSD showed clear improvement over the MBSD and had the correlation coefficient of 0.89 for the conditions of MNRUs, codecs, tandem cases, bit errors, and frame erasures. Mean Opinion Score (MOS) has been used to evaluate objective speech quality measures. Recognizing the procedural difference between the MOS test and current objective speech quality measures, it is proposed that current objective speech quality measures should be evaluated with Degradation Mean Opinion Score (DMOS). The Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient has been the main performance parameter for evaluation of objective speech quality measures. The Standard Error of the Estimates (SEE
Nicholas, Johanna G; Geers, Ann E
To determine whether relative delays among domains exist in the conversational use of vocabulary, syntax, and morphology by children with cochlear implants (CIs) and whether these were differentially affected by age of implantation (AOI) and the audibility of speech. Participants in this short-term longitudinal study were 126 children with AOI of 6-38 months and a matched group of 30 children without hearing loss. Language samples of the same children at ages 3.5 and 4.5 were analyzed for the breadth of vocabulary and bound morphemes used, and sentence length. At both test ages, expressive language domains were delayed equally. Higher performance across domains was independently associated with younger AOI and better pre-implant-aided thresholds. No domain was affected differently by very early implantation, but bound morpheme breadth was associated with better CI-aided thresholds. Between 63 and 78% of children with AOI of 6-11 months scored close to hearing age-mates by 4.5, a level achieved by fewer than 25% of those with AOI of 19-24 months or later ages. Previous studies indicated greater language delays in the areas of morphology and syntax than those of vocabulary, with the earliest ages of implantation conferring the greatest benefit to those domains. The current design addressed inconsistency across studies in modes of communication used, presence/absence of other disabilities, and differences in language domains chosen as outcome measures. Linguistic domains benefitted equally from early implantation, regardless of the duration of auditory stimulation. Better pre-CI-aided hearing often compensated for later AOI. Bound morpheme use was greater with better CI-aided thresholds.
Full Text Available Driven by the prominent thermal signature of humans and following the growing availability of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs, more and more research efforts have been focusing on the detection and tracking of pedestrians using thermal infrared images recorded from UAVs. However, pedestrian detection and tracking from the thermal images obtained from UAVs pose many challenges due to the low-resolution of imagery, platform motion, image instability and the relatively small size of the objects. This research tackles these challenges by proposing a pedestrian detection and tracking system. A two-stage blob-based approach is first developed for pedestrian detection. This approach first extracts pedestrian blobs using the regional gradient feature and geometric constraints filtering and then classifies the detected blobs by using a linear Support Vector Machine (SVM with a hybrid descriptor, which sophisticatedly combines Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG and Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT features in order to achieve accurate detection. This research further proposes an approach for pedestrian tracking. This approach employs the feature tracker with the update of detected pedestrian location to track pedestrian objects from the registered videos and extracts the motion trajectory data. The proposed detection and tracking approaches have been evaluated by multiple different datasets, and the results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods. This research is expected to significantly benefit many transportation applications, such as the multimodal traffic performance measure, pedestrian behavior study and pedestrian-vehicle crash analysis. Future work will focus on using fused thermal and visual images to further improve the detection efficiency and effectiveness.
Ma, Yalong; Wu, Xinkai; Yu, Guizhen; Xu, Yongzheng; Wang, Yunpeng
Driven by the prominent thermal signature of humans and following the growing availability of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), more and more research efforts have been focusing on the detection and tracking of pedestrians using thermal infrared images recorded from UAVs. However, pedestrian detection and tracking from the thermal images obtained from UAVs pose many challenges due to the low-resolution of imagery, platform motion, image instability and the relatively small size of the objects. This research tackles these challenges by proposing a pedestrian detection and tracking system. A two-stage blob-based approach is first developed for pedestrian detection. This approach first extracts pedestrian blobs using the regional gradient feature and geometric constraints filtering and then classifies the detected blobs by using a linear Support Vector Machine (SVM) with a hybrid descriptor, which sophisticatedly combines Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG) and Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) features in order to achieve accurate detection. This research further proposes an approach for pedestrian tracking. This approach employs the feature tracker with the update of detected pedestrian location to track pedestrian objects from the registered videos and extracts the motion trajectory data. The proposed detection and tracking approaches have been evaluated by multiple different datasets, and the results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods. This research is expected to significantly benefit many transportation applications, such as the multimodal traffic performance measure, pedestrian behavior study and pedestrian-vehicle crash analysis. Future work will focus on using fused thermal and visual images to further improve the detection efficiency and effectiveness. PMID:27023564
Koekemoer, Karin; Van Gesselleen, Megan; Van Niekerk, Ashley; Govender, Rajen; Van As, Arjan Bastiaan
Pedestrian injuries are a leading cause of death among South African children, and young children residing in low-income communities are more at risk, due to various factors such as inadequate road infrastructure, exposure to traffic due to reliance on walking as a means of transport, and lack of supervision. This study used a cross-sectional, non-randomized self-report survey to assess pedestrian safety knowledge, road-crossing behaviour and pedestrian injuries of primary school children in selected low-income settings in Cape Town. The survey focused on three primary schools that had joined the Safe Kids Worldwide Model School Zone Project and was administered to 536 children aged 6-15 years, in their home language of isiXhosa. Descriptive and bivariate analyses as well as multivariate regression analyses were conducted to investigate potential predictor variables for pedestrian collision severity and unsafe road-crossing behaviour. Walking was the sole form of travel for 81% of the children, with a large proportion regularly walking unsupervised. Children who walk to or from school alone were younger and reported riskier road-crossing behaviour, although children who walk accompanied tended to have higher pedestrian collision severity. "Negligent Behaviour" related to road-crossing was significantly associated with higher pedestrian collision severity, with predictors of "Negligent Behaviour" including the lack of pedestrian safety knowledge and greater exposure to traffic in terms of time spent walking. More than half of the reported pedestrian collisions involved a bicycle, and older boys (10-15 years) were most at risk of experiencing a severe pedestrian injury. The findings substantiate emerging evidence that children in low-income settings are at greater risk for child pedestrian injury, and emphasise the need for evidence-based safety promotion and injury prevention interventions in these settings. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Pawar, Digvijay S; Patil, Gopal R
Most of the midblock pedestrian crossings on urban roads in India are uncontrolled; wherein the high degree of discretion in pedestrians' behavior while crossing the traffic stream, has made the situation complex to analyze. Vehicles do not yield to pedestrians, even though the traffic laws give priority to pedestrians over motorized vehicles at unsignalized pedestrian crossings. Therefore, a pedestrian has to decide if an available gap is safe or not for crossing. This paper aims to investigate pedestrian temporal and spatial gap acceptance for midblock street crossings. Field data were collected using video camera at two midblock pedestrian crossings. The data extraction in laboratory resulted in 1107 pedestrian gaps. Available gaps, pedestrians' decision, traffic volume, etc. were extracted from the videos. While crossing a road with multiple lanes, rolling gap acceptance behavior was observed. Using binary logit analysis, six utility models were developed, three each for temporal and spatial gaps. The 50th percentile temporal and spatial gaps ranged from 4.1 to 4.8s and 67 to 79 m respectively, whereas the 85th percentile temporal and spatial gaps ranged from 5 to 5.8s and 82 to 95 m respectively. These gap values were smaller than that reported in the studies in developed countries. The speed of conflicting vehicle was found to be significant in spatial gap but not in temporal gap acceptance. The gap acceptance decision was also found to be affected by the type of conflicting vehicles. The insights from this study can be used for the safety and performance evaluation of uncontrolled midblock street crossings in developing countries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.
Kretz, Tobias; Muehlberger, Andreas
This contribution reports on the research project SKRIBT and some of its results. An evacuation simulation based on VISSIM's pedestrian dynamics simulation was developed, that -- with high time resolution -- integrates results from studies on behavior in stress and crisis situations, results from CFD models for e.g. fire dynamics simulations, and considers visibility of signage and -- adding a psychological model -- its cognition. A crucial issue is the cognition of smoke or fire by the occupant and his / her resulting spontaneous or deliberate reaction to this episode.
Møgelmose, Andreas; Prioletti, Antonio; Trivedi, Mohan M.
Detecting pedestrians is still a challenging task for automotive vision system due the extreme variability of targets, lighting conditions, occlusions, and high speed vehicle motion. A lot of research has been focused on this problem in the last 10 years and detectors based on classifiers has...... of several metrics, such as detection rate, false positives per hour, and frame rate. The novelty of this system rely in the combination of HOG part-based approach, tracking based on specific optimized feature and porting on a real prototype....
Ingólfsson, Einar Thór; Georgakis, Christos; Ricciardelli, Francesco
combinations of frequencies (0.33-1.07 Hz) and amplitudes 4.5-48 mm). The experimental campaign involved seventy-one male and female human adults and covered approximately 55 km of walking distributed between 4954 individual tests. When walking on a laterally moving surface, motion-induced forces develop also...... with the acceleration of the treadmill depends on the frequency of the movement, such that pedestrians (on average) add to the overall modal mass for low frequency motion and subtract from the overall modal mass at higher frequencies....
Merrild, Ulrik; Bak, Soeren
). The frequency of fractures, in comparison to the remainder of the winter period was found to be almost doubled. Fractures comprised 67% of the injuries against a normal 38%. The most pronounced increase was in fractures of the wrist, shoulder and hip with an OR of 3, 6 and 6 respectively. The high-risk group...... comprised women 50 and over, in contrast to the rest of the winter period where younger men prevailed. The investigation indicates that pedestrians have a need for prophylactic measures including (1) broadcast warnings of icy conditions both on the radio and T.V. on days of high risk, (2) more extensive...
The entrance to the Prévessin site for pedestrians and cyclists on Chemin du Moulin des Ponts will be re-opened: from 7 April to 30 October 2015, from 7.00 a.m. to 9.00 a.m. and from 5.00 p.m. to 7.00 p.m. on working days (Monday to Friday). IMPORTANT: all users must show their access cards to the security guard as a matter of course when passing through the gates, both on entering and leaving the site.
Entrances for pedestrians and cyclists on Route du Maroc and on Chemin du Moulin des Ponts, in Prévessin, will be re-opened: from 7 April to 31 October 2014, from 7.00 a.m. to 9.00 a.m. and from 5.00 p.m. to 7.00 p.m. on working days (Monday to Friday). IMPORTANT: all users must show their access cards to the security guard as a matter of course when passing through the gates, both on entering and leaving the site.
Pedestrian Protection Systems (PPSs) are on-board systems aimed at detecting and tracking people in the surroundings of a vehicle in order to avoid potentially dangerous situations. These systems, together with other Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) such as lane departure warning or adaptive cruise control, are one of the most promising ways to improve traffic safety. By the use of computer vision, cameras working either in the visible or infra-red spectra have been demonstrated as a reliable sensor to perform this task. Nevertheless, the variability of human's appearance, not only in
Jeffery M. Guinn
Full Text Available The majority of short distance travel in North America is completed by single occupancy vehicles. Substituting walking and bicycling for these trips would reduce energy use and environmental pollution, while improving quality of life. Therefore, understanding influences on non-automotive travel behavior is crucial. Researchers and planners have touted specific factors for encouraging walking and biking, but the body of work remains fragmented. Previous studies have focused on a smaller number of factors and most of them relate to physical design. This study tests the relative importance of a range of factors, both physical and perceptual that could influence one’s choice to walk or bike. The Mt. Pleasant neighborhood in Vancouver, B.C., Canada was chosen as the location for this study as all of the pedestrian-motivating factors identified in a literature review were present. A questionnaire-based survey addressing distance, sidewalks/bike lanes, pedestrian/bicycle traffic signals, buffering from auto traffic, sense of security, cleanliness, opportunities to talk with others, enforcement of traffic laws, concern for the environment, weather, terrain, saving money, opportunities for exercise, and a visually appealing environment as influential factors was administered in person and online yielding 774 responses. All factors were shown to influence the decision to walk or bike, but some proved more significant than others, especially opportunities for exercise.
Zhang, Guangnan; Yau, Kelvin K W; Zhang, Xun
The number of pedestrian-motor vehicle accidents and pedestrian deaths in China surged in recent years. However, a large scale empirical research on pedestrian traffic crashes in China is lacking. In this study, we identify significant risk factors associated with fault and severity in pedestrian-motor vehicle accidents. Risk factors in several different dimensions, including pedestrian, driver, vehicle, road and environmental factors, are considered. We analyze 6967 pedestrian traffic accident reports for the period 2006-2010 in Guangdong Province, China. These data, obtained from the Guangdong Provincial Security Department, are extracted from the Traffic Management Sector-Specific Incident Case Data Report. Pedestrian traffic crashes have a unique inevitability and particular high risk, due to pedestrians' fragility, slow movement and lack of lighting equipment. The empirical analysis of the present study has the following policy implications. First, traffic crashes in which pedestrians are at fault are more likely to cause serious injuries or death, suggesting that relevant agencies should pay attention to measures that prevent pedestrians from violating traffic rules. Second, both the attention to elderly pedestrians, male and experienced drivers, the penalty to drunk driving, speeding, driving without a driver's license and other violation behaviors should be strengthened. Third, vehicle safety inspections and safety training sessions for truck drivers should be reinforced. Fourth, improving the road conditions and road lighting at night are important measures in reducing the probability of accident casualties. Fifth, specific road safety campaigns in rural areas, and education programs especially for young children and teens should be developed and promoted. Moreover, we reveal a country-specific factor, hukou, which has significant effect on the severity in pedestrian accidents due to the discrepancy in the level of social insurance/security, suggesting
Kim, Joon-Ki; Ulfarsson, Gudmundur F; Shankar, Venkataraman N; Mannering, Fred L
Pedestrian-injury severity has been traditionally modeled with approaches that have assumed that the effect of each variable is fixed across injury observations. This assumption ignores possible unobserved heterogeneity which is likely to be particularly important in pedestrian injuries because unobserved physical health, strength, and behavior may significantly affect the pedestrians' ability to absorb collision forces. To address such unobserved heterogeneity, this research applies a mixed logit model to analyze pedestrian-injury severity in pedestrian-vehicle crashes. Using police-reported collision data from 1997 through 2000 from North Carolina, several factors were found to more than double the average probability of fatal injury for pedestrians in motor-vehicle crashes including: darkness without streetlights (400% increase in fatality probability), vehicle is a truck (370% increase), freeway (330% increase), speeding involved (360% increase), and collisions involving a motorist who had been drinking (250% increase). It was also found that the effect of pedestrian age was normally distributed across observations, and that as pedestrians became older the probability of fatal injury increased substantially. Heterogeneity in the mean of the random parameters for the freeway and pedestrian-solely-at-fault collision indicators was related to pedestrian gender, and heterogeneity in the mean of the random parameters for the traffic-sign and motorist-back-up indicators was related to pedestrian age. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tuong, Nguyen Xuan; Müller, Thomas; Knoll, Alois
In this paper, we address the problem of multi-person detection, tracking and distance estimation in a complex scenario using multi-cameras. Specifically, we are interested in a vision system for supporting the driver in avoiding any unwanted collision with the pedestrian. We propose an approach using Histograms of Oriented Gradients (HOG) to detect pedestrians on static images and a particle filter as a robust tracking technique to follow targets from frame to frame. Because the depth map requires expensive computation, we extract depth information of targets using Direct Linear Transformation (DLT) to reconstruct 3D-coordinates of correspondent points found by running Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF) on two input images. Using the particle filter the proposed tracker can efficiently handle target occlusions in a simple background environment. However, to achieve reliable performance in complex scenarios with frequent target occlusions and complex cluttered background, results from the detection module are integrated to create feedback and recover the tracker from tracking failures due to the complexity of the environment and target appearance model variability. The proposed approach is evaluated on different data sets both in a simple background scenario and a cluttered background environment. The result shows that, by integrating detector and tracker, a reliable and stable performance is possible even if occlusion occurs frequently in highly complex environment. A vision-based collision avoidance system for an intelligent car, as a result, can be achieved.
Sidla, O.; Rosner, M.
This paper describes the implementation of a pedestrian detection system which is based on the Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG) principle and which tries to improve the overall detection performance by combining several part based detectors in a simple voting scheme. The HOG feature based part detectors are specifically trained for head, head-left, head-right, and left/right sides of people, assuming that these parts should be recognized even in very crowded environments like busy public transportation platforms. The part detectors are trained on the INRIA people image database using a polynomial Support Vector Machine. Experiments are undertaken with completely different test samples which have been extracted from two imaging campaigns in an outdoor setup and in an underground station. Our results demonstrate that the performance of pedestrian detection degrades drastically in very crowded scenes, but that through the combination of part detectors a gain in robustness and detection rate can be achieved at least for classifier settings which yield very low false positive rates.
Paisitkriangkrai, Sakrapee; Shen, Chunhua; Hengel, Anton van den
Many typical applications of object detection operate within a prescribed false-positive range. In this situation the performance of a detector should be assessed on the basis of the area under the ROC curve over that range, rather than over the full curve, as the performance outside the prescribed range is irrelevant. This measure is labelled as the partial area under the ROC curve (pAUC). We propose a novel ensemble learning method which achieves a maximal detection rate at a user-defined range of false positive rates by directly optimizing the partial AUC using structured learning. In addition, in order to achieve high object detection performance, we propose a new approach to extracting low-level visual features based on spatial pooling. Incorporating spatial pooling improves the translational invariance and thus the robustness of the detection process. Experimental results on both synthetic and real-world data sets demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach, and we show that it is possible to train state-of-the-art pedestrian detectors using the proposed structured ensemble learning method with spatially pooled features. The result is the current best reported performance on the Caltech-USA pedestrian detection dataset.
Full Text Available In order to improve the efficiency of overpass and the safety level of pedestrian, this paper aims to investigate the contributing factors for selective preference of overpass. Eight overpasses were investigated in Xi’an, and a questionnaire was conducted by the pedestrians near the overpass. Totally, 1131 valid samples (873 used of overpasses and 258 non-used of overpasses were collected. Based on the data, a binary logit (BL model was developed to identify what and how the factors affect the selective preference of overpass. The BL model was calibrated by the maximum likelihood method. Likelihood ratio test and McFadden-R2 were used to analyze the goodness-of-fit of the model. The results show that the BL model has a reasonable goodness-of-fit, and the prediction accuracy of the BL model can reach 81.9%. The BL model showed that the selective preference of overpass was significantly influenced by eight factors, including gender, age, career, education level, license, detour wishes, detour distance, and crossing time. Besides, the odds ratios of significant factors were also analyzed to explain the impacts of the factors on selective preference of overpass.
Full Text Available Traditional visual pedestrian tracking methods perform poorly when faced with problems such as occlusion, illumination changes, and complex backgrounds. In principle, collecting more sensing information should resolve these issues. However, it is extremely challenging to properly fuse different sensing information to achieve accurate tracking results. In this study, we develop a pedestrian tracking method for fusing multisource heterogeneous sensing information, including video, RGB-D sequences, and inertial sensor data. In our method, a RGB-D sequence is used to position the target locally by fusing the texture and depth features. The local position is then used to eliminate the cumulative error resulting from the inertial sensor positioning. A camera calibration process is used to map the inertial sensor position onto the video image plane, where the visual tracking position and the mapped position are fused using a similarity feature to obtain accurate tracking results. Experiments using real scenarios show that the developed method outperforms the existing tracking method, which uses only a single sensing dataset, and is robust to target occlusion, illumination changes, and interference from similar textures or complex backgrounds.
Wogalter, Michael S; Lim, Raymond W; Nyeste, Patrick G
The need to produce more efficient and less polluting vehicles has encouraged mass production of alternative energy vehicles, such as hybrid and electric cars. Many of these vehicles are capable of very quiet operation. While reducing noise pollution is desirable, quieter vehicles could negatively affect pedestrian safety because of reduced sound cues compared to louder internal combustion engines. Three studies were performed to investigate people's concern about this issue. In Study 1, a questionnaire completed by 378 people showed substantial positive interest in quiet hybrid and electric cars. However, they also indicated concern about the reduced auditory cues of quiet vehicles. In Study 2, 316 participants rated 14 sounds that could be potentially added to quiet alternative-energy vehicles. The data showed that participants did not want annoying sounds, but preferred adding "engine" and "hum" sounds relative to other types of sounds. In Study 3, 24 persons heard and rated 18 actual sounds within 6 categories that were added to a video of a hybrid vehicle driving by. The sounds most preferred were "engine" followed by "white noise" and "hum". Implications for adding sounds to facilitate pedestrians' detection of moving vehicles and for aiding drivers' awareness of speed are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.
Cao, Shuchao; Zhang, Jun; Salden, Daniel; Ma, Jian; Shi, Chang'an; Zhang, Ruifang
An aging population is bringing new challenges to the management of escape routes and facility design in many countries. This paper investigates pedestrian movement properties of crowd with different age compositions. Three pedestrian groups are considered: young student group, old people group, and mixed group. It is found that traffic jams occur more frequently in mixed group due to the great differences of mobilities and self-adaptive abilities among pedestrians. The jams propagate backward with a velocity 0.4 m /s for global density ρg≈1.75 m-1 and 0.3 m /s for ρg>2.3 m-1 . The fundamental diagrams of the three groups are obviously different from each other and cannot be unified into one diagram by direct nondimensionalization. Unlike previous studies, three linear regimes in mixed group but only two regimes in young student group are observed in the headway-velocity relation, which is also verified in the fundamental diagram. Different ages and mobilities of pedestrians in a crowd cause the heterogeneity of system and influence the properties of pedestrian dynamics significantly. It indicates that the density is not the only factor leading to jams in pedestrian traffic. The composition of crowd has to be considered in understanding pedestrian dynamics and facility design.
Lichenstein, Richard; Smith, Daniel Clarence; Ambrose, Jordan Lynne; Moody, Laurel Anne
The association between distraction caused by cell phone use while driving and driver/passenger fatalities has been documented, but the safety risks associated with headphone use by pedestrians remains unknown. To identify and describe pedestrian-vehicle crashes in which the pedestrian was using headphones. A retrospective case series was conducted by searching the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System, US Consumer Product Safety Commission, Google News Archives and Westlaw Campus Research databases for reports published between 2004 and 2011 of pedestrian injuries or fatalities from crashes involving trains or motor vehicles. Cases involving headphones were extracted and summarised. The likelihood of headphone involvement was graded on a three-tier scale based on the information found in the article or report. There were 116 reports of death or injury of pedestrians wearing headphones. The majority of victims were male (68%) and under the age of 30 (67%). The majority of vehicles involved in the crashes were trains (55%), and 89% of cases occurred in urban counties. 74% of case reports stated that the victim was wearing headphones at the time of the crash. Many cases (29%) mentioned that a warning was sounded before the crash. The use of headphones with handheld devices may pose a safety risk to pedestrians, especially in environments with moving vehicles. Further research is needed to determine if and how headphone use compromises pedestrian safety.
Full Text Available Pedestrians, comprising approximately 60% of the population, are among the most vulnerable road users in South Africa. The roadside environment may be an important factor influencing the nature and frequency of pedestrian fatalities. While there are audit tools for assessing the pedestrian environment in other countries, no such tool exists for South Africa. This study evaluated existing audit tools in relation to South African issues and conditions and developed a South African Pedestrian Environment Assessment Tool (PEAT. PEAT was tested at five sites in the Tshwane Metropolitan Area in Gauteng to assess its applicability. PEAT was simple to use and provided valuable information, however, appropriate measures need to be taken to address fieldworker security, especially for night-time assessments when several roadside factors, such as lighting, should be evaluated. Although it was not the focus of our study, based on our results, we suggest that the lack of pavements, pedestrian crossings and pedestrian lighting are factors that, potentially, could increase pedestrian vulnerability.
Full Text Available Pedestrian crossing, as an important part of transportation infrastructures, serves to secure pedestrians’ lives and possessions and keep traffic flow in order. As a prominent feature in the street scene, detection of pedestrian crossing contributes to 3D road marking reconstruction and diminishing the adverse impact of outliers in 3D street scene reconstruction. Since pedestrian crossing is subject to wearing and tearing from heavy traffic flow, it is of great imperative to monitor its status quo. On this account, an approach of automatic pedestrian crossing detection using images from vehicle-based Mobile Mapping System is put forward and its defilement and impairment are analyzed in this paper. Firstly, pedestrian crossing classifier is trained with low recall rate. Then initial detections are refined by utilizing projection filtering, contour information analysis, and monocular vision. Finally, a pedestrian crossing detection and analysis system with high recall rate, precision and robustness will be achieved. This system works for pedestrian crossing detection under different situations and light conditions. It can recognize defiled and impaired crossings automatically in the meanwhile, which facilitates monitoring and maintenance of traffic facilities, so as to reduce potential traffic safety problems and secure lives and property.
Aidoo, Eric Nimako; Amoh-Gyimah, Richard; Ackaah, Williams
The number of pedestrians who have died as a result of being hit by vehicles has increased in recent years, in addition to vehicle passenger deaths. Many pedestrians who were involved in road traffic accident died as a result of the driver leaving the pedestrian who was struck unattended at the scene of the accident. This paper seeks to determine the effect of road and environmental characteristics on pedestrian hit-and-run accidents in Ghana. Using pedestrian accident data extracted from the National Road Traffic Accident Database at the Building and Road Research Institute (BRRI) of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Ghana, a binary logit model was employed in the analysis. The results from the estimated model indicate that fatal accidents, unclear weather, nighttime conditions, and straight and flat road sections without medians and junctions significantly increase the likelihood that the vehicle driver will leave the scene after hitting a pedestrian. Thus, integrating median separation and speed humps into road design and construction and installing street lights will help to curb the problem of pedestrian hit-and-run accidents in Ghana. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Olszewski, Piotr; Szagała, Piotr; Wolański, Maciej; Zielińska, Anna
Poland has the second worst pedestrian fatality rate in the European Union. In the years 2007-2012, 9101 pedestrians were killed and 71328 injured on Polish roads. Almost 30% of pedestrian injury accidents took place at unsignalized zebra crosswalks. Based on police accident database, the worst problem in terms of numbers of fatalities occurs in built-up areas, on two-way undivided roads and at mid-block locations. Especially at risk are older people - almost 73% of pedestrians killed were 55 years or older. In order to show the effect of various factors on pedestrian fatality risk, a binary logit model with interaction terms was developed. The model shows that the following factors increase the probability of pedestrian's death at unsignalized zebra crosswalks: darkness, especially with no street lighting, divided road, two-way road, non built-up area, mid-block crosswalk location and summer time period. Speed limit is a crucial factor: probability of death increases by 37% with every 10km/h rise in the speed limit. Fatality risk increases also with victim's age and is higher for male pedestrians. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This work is focused on the modelling of car to pedestrian crash scenario. Virtual hybrid human body model VIRTHUMAN as well as a simplified model of car chassis is modelled under Virtual Performance Solution software. The main idea of the work is the investigation and sensitivity analysis of various initial conditions of the pedestrian during frontal car crash scenario, such as position of the extremities due to different step phases or turning of the pedestrian around his own axis. The experimental data of human gait measurement are used so that one human step is divided into 9 phases to capture the effect of walk when the pedestrian crosses a road. Consequently, the influence of different initial conditions on the kinematics, dynamics of the collision together with injury prediction of pedestrian is discussed. Moreover, the effect of walk is taken into account within translational velocities of the full human body and rotational velocities of the extremities. The trend of the injury prediction for varying initial conditions is monitored. The configurations with zero and non-zero initial velocities are compared with each other, in order to study the effect of walking speed of the pedestrian. Note that only the average walking speed is considered. On the basis of the achieved results, the importance or redundancy of modelling the walking motion and the consideration of different step phases in the car-pedestrian accident can be examined.
Full Text Available Currently, the urban road traffic congestion is serious and the traffic accident is happening at a high frequency; thus it has not satisfied the travel needs of security and affects the quality of urban trips. In order to effectively relieve the confliction of people and motor vehicle, to make sure of the safety of pedestrians crossing the road, and to improve the capacity of urban roads, this passage focuses on studying the influence of pedestrians crossing the roads on the capacity of urban roads in three pedestrian crossing approaches including freely crossing the street, uncontrolled crossing of the pedestrian crosswalk, and controlled crossing of the pedestrian crosswalk. Firstly, it confirms the general formula of the road capacity when pedestrians are crossing the road based on three preassumptions, combined with the survey data, and then constructs the empirical mathematical model of pedestrian crossing on the capacity impact. Lastly, it takes the step of case calculation and simulation evaluation and calculates errors between them, finding that the error between the model calculation and software simulation is small. The efficiency of the model is validated and improved.
Full Text Available Weaving area may be the critical risk place in the subway transfer station. When improving service level of the weaving area, the characteristic of pedestrian weaving behavior should be systemically discussed. This paper described the mechanism of weaving behavior on high density pedestrian which was analyzed by the collection data of controlled experiment. Different weaving behaviors were contrasted due to different volumes in the bidirectional passageway. Video analysis was conducted to extract pedestrian moving behavior and calibrate the movement data with SIMI Motion. Influence of the high density weaving pedestrian was studied based on the statistical results (e.g., velocity, walking distance, and journey time. Furthermore, the quantitative method by speed analysis was announced to discriminate the conflict point. The scopes of weaving area and impact area at different pedestrian volumes were revealed to analyze the pedestrian turning angle. The paper concluded that walking pedestrians are significantly influenced by the weaving conflict and trend to turn the moving direction to avoid the conflict in weaving area; the ratio of stable weaving area and impact area is 2 to 3. The conclusions do provide a method to evaluate the transfer station safety and a facility layout guidance to improve the capacity.
Baleja, Richard; Bos, Petr; Novak, Tomas; Sokansky, Karel; Hanusek, Tomas
Pedestrian crossings are critical places for road accidents between pedestrians and motor vehicles. For this reason, it is very important to increase attention when the pedestrian crossings are designed and it is necessary to take into account all factors that may contribute to higher safety. Additional lighting systems for pedestrian crossings are one of them and the lighting systems must fulfil the requirements for higher visibility from the point of view of car drivers from both directions. This paper describes the criteria for the suitable additional lighting system on pedestrian crossings. Generally, it means vertical illuminance on the pedestrian crossing from the driver’s view, horizontal illuminance on the crossing and horizontal illuminance both in front of and behind the crossing placed on the road and their acceptable ratios. The article also describes the choice of the colours of the light (correlated colour temperature) and its influence on visibility. As a part of the article, there are case designs of additional lighting systems for pedestrian crossings and measurements from realized additional lighting systems by luxmeters and luminance cameras and their evaluation.
Fekety, Drea K; Edewaard, Darlene E; Stafford Sewall, Ashley A; Tyrrell, Richard A
We investigated the nighttime conspicuity benefits of adding electroluminescent (EL) panels to pedestrian clothing that contains retroreflective elements. Researchers have repeatedly documented that pedestrians are too often not sufficiently conspicuous to drivers at night and that retroreflective materials can enhance the conspicuity of pedestrians. However, because retroreflective elements in clothing are effective only when they are illuminated by the headlamps of an approaching driver, they are not useful for pedestrians who are positioned outside the beam pattern of an approaching vehicle's headlamps. Electroluminescent materials-flexible luminous panels that can be attached to clothing-have the potential to be well suited for these conditions. Using an open-road course at night, we compared the distances at which observers responded to pedestrians who were positioned at one of three lateral positions (relative to the vehicle's path) wearing one of two high-visibility garments. The garment that included both EL and retroreflective materials yielded longer response distances than the retroreflective-only garment. This effect was particularly strong when the test pedestrian was positioned farthest outside of the area illuminated by headlamps. These findings suggest that EL materials can further enhance the conspicuity of pedestrians who are wearing retroreflective materials. EL materials can be applied to garments. They may be especially valuable to enhance the conspicuity of roadway workers, emergency responders, and traffic control officers. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.
Full Text Available Share of night time pedestrian fatalities has been associated with human factors for many years. The focus of the present paper aims to examine the option of introducing 40km/h night zone speed limit. Particularly targeting the 60km/h limit roads to further protect pedestrians. Questionnaires of the study were distributed to a random sample of four groups. Australians (born in Australia and three others, Australians born in different countries and belongs to Africa, Asia and Europe. The Questionnaires were related to preference of introducing 40km/h during the night (Night Zone and also related to the delay concerns of introducing 40km/h during the day (Day Zone. The total number of participants in the study is 300 of the four groups. Each group has 75 participants. The study utilized age, gender and marital status as independent variables. Literature search has found different pedestrian fatality trends of the four cultural groups some are ascending and the others are descending. Therefore the study hypotheses that cultural groups living in Perth are different in terms of their attitudes towards the preference Night Zone and the delay concerns of the Day Zone. Acceptance of the Night Zone preference reached 64 % whereas; the mean rate responses reached 74 % for the Day Zone delay concerns. It was learned from results that attitudes differences existed between the cultural groups on both Night Zone and Day Zone options as hypothesised. Result showed that Asian group recorded the lowest rate for the Night Zone preference and cluster analysis depicted that clearly. There was statistically significant difference on drivers obeying the sign limit, between Asian and two groups namely African and Australian. Similarly cluster analysis performed for the Day Zone, indicated that European group was away from the rest of the clustered groups showing less concerns of implementing the Day Zone option on particular issue and that is, “European group do not
Salamati, Katayoun; Schroeder, Bastian J; Geruschat, Duane R; Rouphail, Nagui M
Unlike other types of controlled intersections, drivers do not always comply with the "yield to pedestrian" sign at the roundabouts. This paper aims to identify the contributing factors affecting the likelihood of driver yielding to pedestrians at two-lane roundabouts. It further models the likelihood of driver yielding based on these factors using logistic regression. The models have been applied to 1150 controlled pedestrian crossings at entry and exit legs of two-lane approaches of six roundabouts across the country. The logistic regression models developed support prior research that the likelihood of driver yielding at the entry leg of roundabouts is higher than at the exit. Drivers tend to yield to pedestrians carrying a white cane more often than to sighted pedestrians. Drivers traveling in the far lane, relative to pedestrian location, have a lower probability of yielding to a pedestrian. As the speed increases the probability of driver yielding decreases. At the exit leg of the roundabout, drivers turning right from the adjacent lane have a lower propensity of yielding than drivers coming from other directions. The findings of this paper further suggest that although there has been much debate on pedestrian right-of-way laws and distinction between pedestrian waiting positions (in the street versus at the curb), this factor does not have a significant impact on driver yielding rate. The logistic regression models also quantify the effect of each of these factors on propensity of driver yielding. The models include variables which are specific to each study location and explain the impact size of each study location on probability of yielding. The models generated in this research will be useful to transportation professionals and researchers interested in understanding the factors that impact driver yielding at modern roundabouts. The results of the research can be used to isolate factors that may increase yielding (such as lower roundabout approach speeds
Byington, Katherine W.; Schwebel, David C.
Background College-age individuals have the highest incidence of pedestrian injuries of any age cohort. One factor that might contribute to elevated pedestrian injuries among this age group is injuries incurred while crossing streets distracted by mobile devices. Objectives Examine whether young adult pedestrian safety is compromised while crossing a virtual pedestrian street while distracted using the internet on a mobile “smartphone.” Method A within-subjects design was implemented with 92 young adults. Participants crossed a virtual pedestrian street 20 times, half the time while undistracted and half while completing an email-driven “scavenger hunt” to answer mundane questions using mobile internet on their cell phones. Six measures of pedestrian behavior were assessed during crossings. Participants also reported typical patterns of street crossing and mobile internet use. Results Participants reported using mobile internet with great frequency in daily life, including while walking across streets. In the virtual street environment, pedestrian behavior was greatly altered and generally more risky when participants were distracted by internet use. While distracted, participants waited longer to cross the street (F = 42.37), missed more safe opportunities to cross (F = 42.63), took longer to initiate crossing when a safe gap was available (F = 53.03), looked left and right less often (F = 124.68), spent more time looking away from the road (F = 1959.78), and were more likely to be hit or almost hit by an oncoming vehicle (F = 29.54; all psmobile internet experience. Conclusion Pedestrian behavior was influenced, and generally considerably riskier, when participants were simultaneously using mobile internet and crossing the street than when crossing the street with no distraction. This finding reinforces the need for increased awareness concerning the risks of distracted pedestrian behavior. PMID:23201755
Byington, Katherine W; Schwebel, David C
College-age individuals have the highest incidence of pedestrian injuries of any age cohort. One factor that might contribute to elevated pedestrian injuries among this age group is injuries incurred while crossing streets distracted by mobile devices. Examine whether young adult pedestrian safety is compromised while crossing a virtual pedestrian street while distracted using the Internet on a mobile "smartphone." A within-subjects design was implemented with 92 young adults. Participants crossed a virtual pedestrian street 20 times, half the time while undistracted and half while completing an email-driven "scavenger hunt" to answer mundane questions using mobile Internet on their cell phones. Six measures of pedestrian behavior were assessed during crossings. Participants also reported typical patterns of street crossing and mobile Internet use. Participants reported using mobile Internet with great frequency in daily life, including while walking across streets. In the virtual street environment, pedestrian behavior was greatly altered and generally more risky when participants were distracted by Internet use. While distracted, participants waited longer to cross the street (F=42.37), missed more safe opportunities to cross (F=42.63), took longer to initiate crossing when a safe gap was available (F=53.03), looked left and right less often (F=124.68), spent more time looking away from the road (F=1959.78), and were more likely to be hit or almost hit by an oncoming vehicle (F=29.54; all psInternet experience. Pedestrian behavior was influenced, and generally considerably riskier, when participants were simultaneously using mobile Internet and crossing the street than when crossing the street with no distraction. This finding reinforces the need for increased awareness concerning the risks of distracted pedestrian behavior. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Accessibility improvement for pedestrians has received increasing attention in planning. However, pedestrian space is more likely to be designed only for individual streets to secure minimum easiness of walking, and little attention has been paid to developing a street network for pedestrians to walk around multiple destinations on a neighbourhood scale. There is also a lack of empirical analysis of how much pedestrian accessibility would vary depending on the characteristics of streets on routes to specific destinations. This paper is aimed at examining the spatial relationship between pedestrian flows by street type and various street characteristics around multiple destinations in a city centre. First, a literature review summarises what street characteristics should be considered in accessibility analysis for pedestrians. Then, a pedestrian flow model is developed in a way that measures accessibility with street characteristics of origins, destinations, and routes on multi-scales from on-street ones to neighbourhood-scale ones. A multiple regression model is made using data from the West End area in London, in which street characteristics are taken for routes from each street segment to nearby stations and attractions. As a result, this analysis found that the route characteristics to a single nearest station and attraction can account for pedestrian flows well, but route characteristics to multiple nearby stations and attractions do not improve the model fit. These results are more prominent for pedestrianised streets. Their implication may be that these destinations are currently not linked well for pedestrians, and pedestrianisation is required to contribute more to the linkage.
Full Text Available The system of pedestrian urban space is the primary source of information on the state of the space. Walking around a city, we are perceptually building in our mind its physiognomic silhouette, which becomes the basis for evaluating the attractiveness of a city. Unfortunately, pedestrian traffic is rarely the subject of careful planning and design. Usually it regulates itself or is a side-effect of building an extensive system of road communication. On the other hand, concepts of shaping this system as a primary one appear more and more often, and pedestrian space is seen as high priority public space.
Rahman, Noorhazlinda Abd; Alias, Nur Aina; Adenan, Saidatul Husna Mohamed; Kasehyani, Nur Hanis; Halim, Herni; Katman, Herda Yati
Trajectories and walking velocity are two crucial metrics that become a basis in pedestrian flow analysis. Both metrics are governed by many factors, and some of the factors considered in this study are the angle of a corridor, track distance, number density of pedestrians, uni- or bi-directional flow and width of corridor. This paper is aimed at reporting empirical investigation of the effect of angled-corridor on pedestrian flow by postulating microscopically the trajectories and desired walking velocity of pedestrians. We have conducted one controlled experiment consists of 30 numbers of unidirectional walking tasks on a built corridor for different degrees of corner (60°, 90°, and 135°) by maintaining the width of the corridor as 2.25 m. A total of 990 samples of pedestrians walking behaviour were collected during the experiments. The finding summarised the pedestrians' desired walking velocity and the trajectories of walking pedestrians for each type of the angled-corridor. The averaged-desired walking velocity of female and male (female; male) pedestrians for 60°-, 90°-, and 135°-corridor are (1.37 m/s; 1.42 m/s), (1.08 m/s; 1.03 m/s), and (1.10 m/s; 1.08m/s), respectively. The normal L-shaped corridor (90° corridor) gives the lowest averaged-desired walking velocity compared to 60° and 135°. Besides, the trajectory of pedestrians shows the preference of pedestrians to use the inner track of the corridor due to the shorter distance. About 15.21% of pedestrians changed their trajectory from outer to inner track during the experiment for all angled-corridors. With regards to that scenario, the flow was affected and the pedestrians started to queue was witnessed during the experiment. These finding could be notable interest for all evacuation studies that aim a good strategies and design solution in order to prevent crowd disaster.
G. M. Kuharenok
Full Text Available The paper presents results of research on planning, organizational characteristics and regulation modes at the regulated pedestrian crossings, located out of crossroads in the street and road network of Minsk. Some regularities pertaining to the influence of the investigated characteristics on road traffic safety of pedestrians are revealed in the paper. Practical offers on increase of road traffic safety of pedestrians in the Republic of Belarus have been developed on the basis of the executed investigations and cited in the paper.
Buzzard, Neil A; Clark, Nigel N; Guffey, Steven E
Inhalation of diesel particulate matter (DPM) is known to have a negative impact on human health. Consequently, there are regulations and standards that limit the maximum concentrations to which persons may be exposed and the maximum concentrations allowed in the ambient air. However, these standards consider steady exposure over large spatial and time scales. Due to the nature of many vehicle exhaust systems, pedestrians in close proximity to a vehicle's tailpipe may experience events where diesel particulate matter concentrations are high enough to cause acute health effects for brief periods of time. In order to quantify these exposure events, instruments which measure specific exhaust constituent concentrations were placed near a roadway and connected to the mouth of a mannequin used as a pedestrian surrogate. By measuring concentrations at the mannequin's mouth during drive-by events with a late model diesel truck, a representative estimate of the exhaust constituent concentrations to which a pedestrian may be exposed was obtained. Typical breathing rates were then multiplied by the measured concentrations to determine the mass of pollutant inhaled. The average concentration of diesel particulate matter measured over the duration of a single drive-by test often exceeded the low concentrations used in human clinical studies which are known to cause acute health effects. It was also observed that higher concentrations of diesel particulate matter were measured at the height of a stroller than were measured at the mouth of a mannequin. Diesel particulate matter concentrations during drive-by incidents easily reach or exceed the low concentrations that can cause acute health effects for brief periods of time. For the case of a particularly well-tuned late-model year vehicle, the mass of particulate matter inhaled during a drive-by incident is small compared to the mass inhaled daily at ambient conditions. On a per breath basis, however, the mass of particulate
Guffey Steven E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Inhalation of diesel particulate matter (DPM is known to have a negative impact on human health. Consequently, there are regulations and standards that limit the maximum concentrations to which persons may be exposed and the maximum concentrations allowed in the ambient air. However, these standards consider steady exposure over large spatial and time scales. Due to the nature of many vehicle exhaust systems, pedestrians in close proximity to a vehicle's tailpipe may experience events where diesel particulate matter concentrations are high enough to cause acute health effects for brief periods of time. Methods In order to quantify these exposure events, instruments which measure specific exhaust constituent concentrations were placed near a roadway and connected to the mouth of a mannequin used as a pedestrian surrogate. By measuring concentrations at the mannequin's mouth during drive-by events with a late model diesel truck, a representative estimate of the exhaust constituent concentrations to which a pedestrian may be exposed was obtained. Typical breathing rates were then multiplied by the measured concentrations to determine the mass of pollutant inhaled. Results The average concentration of diesel particulate matter measured over the duration of a single drive-by test often exceeded the low concentrations used in human clinical studies which are known to cause acute health effects. It was also observed that higher concentrations of diesel particulate matter were measured at the height of a stroller than were measured at the mouth of a mannequin. Conclusion Diesel particulate matter concentrations during drive-by incidents easily reach or exceed the low concentrations that can cause acute health effects for brief periods of time. For the case of a particularly well-tuned late-model year vehicle, the mass of particulate matter inhaled during a drive-by incident is small compared to the mass inhaled daily at ambient
Full Text Available The GPS system is widely used in navigation and the GPS receiver can offer long-term stable absolute positioning information. The overall system performance depends largely on the signal environments. The position obtained from GPS is often degraded due to obstruction and multipath effect caused by buildings, city infrastructure and vegetation, whereas, the current performance achieved by inertial navigation systems (INS is still relatively poor due to the large inertial sensor errors. The complementary features of GPS and INS are the main reasons why integrated GPS/INS systems are becoming increasingly popular. GPS/INS systems offer a high data rate, high accuracy position and orientation that can work in all environments, particularly those where satellite availability is restricted. In the paper integration algorithm of GPS and INS systems data for pedestrians in urban area is presented. For data integration an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF algorithm is proposed. Complementary characteristics of GPS and INS with EKF can overcome the problem of huge INS drifts, GPS outages, dense multipath effect and other individual problems associated with these sensors.
Geng, Lei; Liu, Yang; Xiao, Zhitao; Li, Yuelong; Zhang, Fang
The majority of pedestrian detection approaches use multiscale detection and the sliding window search scheme with high computing complexity. We present a fast pedestrian detection method using the deformable part model and pyramid layer location (PLL). First, the object proposal method is used rather than the traditional sliding window to obtain pedestrian proposal regions. Then, a PLL method is proposed to select the optimal root level in the feature pyramid for each candidate window. On this basis, a single-point calculation scheme is designed to calculate the scores of candidate windows efficiently. Finally, pedestrians can be located from the images. The Institut national de recherche en informatique et en automatique dataset for human detection is used to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can reduce the number of feature maps and windows requiring calculation in the detection process. Consequently, the computing cost is significantly reduced, with fewer false positives.
This report assesses the potential costs and benefits of proposed accessibility guidelines issued by the Access Board for pedestrian facilities in the public right-of-way. The report also analyzes the potential impacts of the proposed guidelines on s...
Ingólfsson, Einar Thór; Georgakis, Christos
to support their applicability. Recently, an extensive experimental campaign was carried out, in which the lateral forces generated by pedestrians during walking on a laterally moving treadmill were determined for various combinations of lateral frequencies (0.33–1.07 Hz) and amplitudes (4.5–48 mm......). It was shown that large amplitude vibrations are the result of correlated pedestrian forces in the form of “negative damping”, with magnitudes that depend on the relationship between the pacing frequency and the frequency of the lateral movement.Herewith, a novel stochastic load model for the frequency...... and amplitude dependent pedestrian-induced lateral forces is presented. The lateral forces are modelled as a sum of an “equivalent static force” and “motion-induced” (or self-excited) forces which are quantified through equivalent pedestrian damping and mass coefficients. The parameters in the model are based...
This report documents the work completed by the Crash Avoidance Metrics Partnership (CAMP) Crash Imminent Braking : (CIB) Consortium during the project titled Objective Tests for Forward Looking Pedestrian Crash Avoidance/Mitigation : Systems. ...
Full Text Available Pedestrian crowds often have been modeled as many-particle system including microscopic multi-agent simulators. One of the key challenges is to unearth governing principles that can model pedestrian movement, and use them to reproduce paths and behaviors that are frequently observed in human crowds. To that effect, we present a novel crowd simulation algorithm that generates pedestrian trajectories that exhibit the speed-density relationships expressed by the Fundamental Diagram. Our approach is based on biomechanical principles and psychological factors. The overall formulation results in better utilization of free space by the pedestrians and can be easily combined with well-known multi-agent simulation techniques with little computational overhead. We are able to generate human-like dense crowd behaviors in large indoor and outdoor environments and validate the results with captured real-world crowd trajectories.
This literature review on the effect of electronic device use on pedestrian safety is part of a research project sponsored by the Office of Behavioral Safety Research in the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). An extensive literat...
This report reviews the pedestrian and bicyclist safety research literature in print as of 2007. It summarizes and synthesizes the key studies, evaluates existing knowledge and identifies research gaps and provides recommendations for future directio...
Full Text Available Due to the poor transfer organization in urban public transport terminal, pedestrian crowd are often forced to weaving in their transfer flow lines. Frequent weaving behaviors not only decrease passengers’ transfer comfort, but may also trigger serious crowd disaster such as trampling. In order to get accurate understanding of the weaving features of pedestrian crowd and analyze the relevant evolution law, researches have been conducted on the basis of field investigation. First, the typical weaving phenomenon were defined and classified, and a microscopic parameters system of pedestrian crowd weaving flow was constructed. The detection and quantification methods of multiple indicator parameters were also given. Then, correlation between different behavioral parameters was analyzed based on the survey data of weaving pedestrian crowd on the stairs of DongZhiMen (DZM hub. The basic characteristics and evolution law of the weaving behaviors were then discussed, and conclusions were drawn.
We show that keeping a constant lower limit on the net-time headway is the key mechanism behind the dynamics of pedestrian streams. There is a large variety in flow and speed as functions of density for empirical data of pedestrian streams obtained from studies in different countries. The net-time headway, however, stays approximately constant over all these different data sets. By using this fact, we demonstrate how the underlying dynamics of pedestrian crowds, naturally follows from local interactions. This means that there is no need to come up with an arbitrary fit function (with arbitrary fit parameters) as has traditionally been done. Further, by using not only the average density values but the variance as well, we show how the recently reported stop-and-go waves [Helbing, Phys. Rev. E 75, 046109 (2007)] emerge when local density variations take values exceeding a certain maximum global (average) density, which makes pedestrians stop.
Over the last decade, there has been a surge in bicycle and pedestrian use in communities that have invested in active transportation infrastructure and programming. While these increases show potentially promising trends, many of the cities that hav...
Full Text Available Presented paper is focused on questions of cyclist transport in urban settings, specifically in the city of Pardubice. Emphasis is put on analysis of potentially conflict places, especially in interaction with pedestrians. Direct terrain observation and consequent evaluation of conflict potential are used as method for data collecting. When cycling routes are designed, the requirements of the cyclists should be taken into account in order to ensure that the routes are accepted. In order to make planning user oriented one has to know which criteria are important for cyclists` route choice. Until now not many studies were conducted on this topic in Czech Republic. Theoretical background used states 5 basic requirements for cycle routes. These are: 1. Coherence (the cycling infrastructure forms a coherent unit and links with all departure points and destinations of cyclist, 2. Directness (the cycling infrastructure continually offers the cyclists as direct a route as possible, so detours are kept to a minimum, 3. attractiveness (the cycling infrastructure is designed and fitted to the surroundings in such a way that cycling is attractive, 4. safety (the cycling infrastructure guarantees the road safety of cyclists and other road users, 5. comfort (the cycling infrastructure enables a quick and comfortable flow of bicycle traffic.. Planners need a clear understanding of what influences bicycling behavior to develop effective strategies to increase use of those modes. Transportation practitioners have largely focused on infrastructure and the built environment, although researchers have found that attitudes are also very important. Theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1985 - intentions to perform behaviors of different kinds can be predicted with high accuracy from attitudes toward the behavior, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control; and these intentions, together with perceptions of behavioral control, account for considerable variance in
Pieraccini, Massimiliano; Betti, Michele; Forcellini, Davide; Dei, Devis; Papi, Federico; Bartoli, Gianni; Facchini, Luca; Corazzi, Riccardo; Kovacevic, Vladimir Cerisano
This paper summarizes the results of a two-day dynamic monitoring of Michelangelo's David subject to environmental loads (city traffic and pedestrian loading induced by tourists visiting the Accademia Gallery). The monitoring was carried out by a no-contact technique using an interferometric radar, whose effectiveness in measuring the resonant frequencies of structures and historic monuments has proved over the last years through numerous monitoring activities. Owing to the dynamic behavior of the measurement system (radar and tripod), an accelerometer has been installed on the radar head to filter out the movement component of the measuring instrument from the measurement of the David's displacement. Measurements were carried out in the presence and absence of visitors, to assess their influence on the dynamic behavior of the statue. A numerical model of the statue was employed to evaluate the experimental results.
Abay, Kibrom Araya
specification of the models reveals that some of the conventionally employed fixed parameters injury severity models could underestimate the effect of some important behavioral attributes of the accidents. For instance, the standard ordered logit model underestimated the marginal effects of some......This paper investigates the injury severity of pedestrians considering detailed road user characteristics and alternative model specification using a high-quality Danish road accident data. Such detailed and alternative modeling approach helps to assess the sensitivity of empirical inferences...... to the choice of these models. The empirical analysis reveals that detailed road user characteristics such as crime history of drivers and momentary activities of road users at the time of the accident provides an interesting insight in the injury severity analysis. Likewise, the alternative analytical...
Song, Xiao; Zhang, Zenghui; Peng, Gongzhuang; Shi, Guoqiang
Most pedestrian evacuation literatures are about routing algorithm, human intelligence and behavior etc. Few works studied how to fully explore the function of authority/security figures, who know more of the environment by simply being there every day. To evaluate the effect of authority figure (AF) in complex buildings, this paper fully investigates the AF related factors that may influence the evacuation effect of crowd, such as the number and locations of AFs, their spread of direction, calming effect and distribution strategies etc. Social force based modeling and simulation results show that these factors of AFs play important roles in evacuation efficiency, which means fewer AFs with right guiding strategy can have good evacuation performance. For our case study, Zhichun Avenue station, the conclusion is that deployment of four AFs is a good choice to achieve relatively high evacuation performance yet save cost.
Glista, Danielle; Easwar, Vijayalakshmi; Purcell, David W; Scollie, Susan
Background. This study investigated whether cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs) could reliably be recorded and interpreted using clinical testing equipment, to assess the effects of hearing aid technology on the CAEP. Methods. Fifteen normal hearing (NH) and five hearing impaired (HI) children were included in the study. NH children were tested unaided; HI children were tested while wearing hearing aids. CAEPs were evoked with tone bursts presented at a suprathreshold level. Presence/absence of CAEPs was established based on agreement between two independent raters. Results. Present waveforms were interpreted for most NH listeners and all HI listeners, when stimuli were measured to be at an audible level. The younger NH children were found to have significantly different waveform morphology, compared to the older children, with grand averaged waveforms differing in the later part of the time window (the N2 response). Results suggest that in some children, frequency compression hearing aid processing improved audibility of specific frequencies, leading to increased rates of detectable cortical responses in HI children. Conclusions. These findings provide support for the use of CAEPs in measuring hearing aid benefit. Further research is needed to validate aided results across a larger group of HI participants and with speech-based stimuli.
AuBuchon, Angela M; Pisoni, David B; Kronenberger, William G
To determine whether early-implanted, long-term cochlear implant (CI) users display delays in verbal short-term and working memory capacity when processes related to audibility and speech production are eliminated. Twenty-three long-term CI users and 23 normal-hearing controls each completed forward and backward digit span tasks under testing conditions that differed in presentation modality (auditory or visual) and response output (spoken recall or manual pointing). Normal-hearing controls reproduced more lists of digits than the CI users, even when the test items were presented visually and the responses were made manually via touchscreen response. Short-term and working memory delays observed in CI users are not due to greater demands from peripheral sensory processes such as audibility or from overt speech-motor planning and response output organization. Instead, CI users are less efficient at encoding and maintaining phonological representations in verbal short-term memory using phonological and linguistic strategies during memory tasks.
Staack, Holger; Seibert, Dominic; Baier, Horst
In the development process of automotive pedestrian protection (PedPro) for upper- and lower leg impact, the failure of polymer components plays an important role. To influence impact kinematics, fractures can either be advantageous or undesirable. Simulation based design is a challenge for material modeling and hence characterization, particularly for failure of polymer components. An application-oriented concept for failure modeling in FEM simulations of polymer components in pedestrian pro...
Chai, Jing; Zhao, Guozhen
Aggressive driving, influenced by the proneness of driving aggression, angry state and provoking situation, is adversely affecting traffic safety especially in developing countries where pedestrians frequently cross an unmarked crosswalk. Exposure to aggressive stimuli causes driving anger and aggressive driving behaviors, but the exposure effect on higher and lower aggression drivers and their cumulative changes under successive exposures need more investigation. An experiment was conducted to examine (1) driving behaviors of individuals with higher and lower aggressive driving traits when approaching pedestrian crossings at unmarked roadways with and without aggressive provocation; and (2) cumulative changes of driving performance under repeated provocations. We conducted a driving simulator study with 50 participants. Trait of aggressive driving served as a between-subjects variable: participants with an Aggressive Driving Scale (ADS) total score of 30 or more (for men) or 23 or more (for women) were regarded as higher aggressive drivers; lower aggressive drivers were those individuals whose ADS total scores were 21 or less (for men) or 13 or less (for women). Exposure to aggressive stimuli (provoked vs. non-provoked condition) served as a within-subjects variable. Several aspects of the participants' minimum driving speed, lateral distance from a simulated pedestrian, lateral deviation, and subjective measures were collected. We found that drivers with higher aggressive driving traits were more likely to feel irritated and fail to give way for pedestrians and drove closer to pedestrians when exposed to sustained honking and improper passing compared to the non-provoked condition. This trait×state interaction only occurred when pedestrians crossed the street from the right roadway edge line. In addition, we observed an accumulation effect of exposure to aggressive stimuli on driver's aggressive behaviors at pedestrian crossings. Environmental design, law
Crocetta, Gianmarco; Piantini, Simone; Pierini, Marco; Simms, Ciaran
Accident data have shown that in pedestrian accidents with high-fronted vehicles (SUVs and vans) the risk of pedestrian head injuries from the contact with the ground is higher than with low-fronted vehicles (passenger cars). However, the reasons for this remain poorly understood. This paper addresses this question using multibody modelling to investigate the influence of vehicle front height and shape in pedestrian accidents on the mechanism of impact with the ground and on head ground impact speed. To this end, a set of 648 pedestrian/vehicle crash simulations was carried out using the MADYMO multibody simulation software. Impacts were simulated with six vehicle types at three impact speeds (20, 30, 40km/h) and three pedestrian types (50th % male, 5th % female, and 6-year-old child) at six different initial stance configurations, stationary and walking at 1.4m/s. Six different ground impact mechanisms, distinguished from each other by the manner in which the pedestrian impacted the ground, were identified. These configurations have statistically distinct and considerably different distributions of head-ground impact speeds. Pedestrian initial stance configuration (gait and walking speed) introduced a high variability to the head-ground impact speed. Nonetheless, the head-ground impact speed varied significantly between the different ground impact mechanisms identified and the distribution of impact mechanisms was strongly associated with vehicle type. In general, impact mechanisms for adults resulting in a head-first contact with the ground were more severe with high fronted vehicles compared to low fronted vehicles, though there is a speed dependency to these findings. With high fronted vehicles (SUVs and vans) the pedestrian was mainly pushed forward and for children this resulted in high head ground contact speeds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sarfraz, M. Saquib; Schumann, Arne; Wang, Yan; Stiefelhagen, Rainer
Pedestrian attribute inference is a demanding problem in visual surveillance that can facilitate person retrieval, search and indexing. To exploit semantic relations between attributes, recent research treats it as a multi-label image classification task. The visual cues hinting at attributes can be strongly localized and inference of person attributes such as hair, backpack, shorts, etc., are highly dependent on the acquired view of the pedestrian. In this paper we assert this dependence in ...
Nurul Retno Nurwulan; Bernard C. Jiang
The number of mobile phone users keeps increasing every year and mobile phones have become a primary need for most people. Ordinarily, people are not aware of the risk from a common dual-task study, such as using a mobile phone while walking or simply standing. This study reviewed the methodology in evaluating the distracting effect of mobile phones on pedestrians. A comprehensive review of literature revealed that the most common method in quantifying pedestrian performance is to evaluate po...
Zheng, Yongbin; Shen, Chunhua; Hartley, Richard; Huang, Xinsheng
Accurately detecting pedestrians in images plays a critically important role in many computer vision applications. Extraction of effective features is the key to this task. Promising features should be discriminative, robust to various variations and easy to compute. In this work, we present novel features, termed dense center-symmetric local binary patterns (CS-LBP) and pyramid center-symmetric local binary/ternary patterns (CS-LBP/LTP), for pedestrian detection. The standard LBP proposed by...
Full Text Available A modified floor field model is proposed to simulate the pedestrian evacuation behavior in a room with multiple exits. The modification relies upon introduction of a so-called semidynamical floor field which additionally embodies two cognition coefficients related to exit width and pedestrian distribution around exits. The energy consumption and time requirement of evacuees are numerically investigated and the Pareto optimum of evacuation efficiency is obtained by selecting the combinations of the two cognition coefficients.
Meng, Yunzhu; Pak, Wansoo; Guleyupoglu, Berkan; Koya, Bharath; Gayzik, F Scott; Untaroiu, Costin D
Child pedestrian protection deserves more attention in vehicle safety design since they are the most vulnerable road users who face the highest mortality rate. Pediatric Finite Element (FE) models could be used to simulate and understand the pedestrian injury mechanisms during crashes in order to mitigate them. Thus, the objective of the study was to develop a computationally efficient (simplified) six-year-old (6YO-PS) pedestrian FE model and validate it based on the latest published pediatric data. The 6YO-PS FE model was developed by morphing the existing GHBMC adult pedestrian model. Retrospective scan data were used to locally adjust the geometry as needed for accuracy. Component test simulations focused only the lower extremities and pelvis, which are the first body regions impacted during pedestrian accidents. Three-point bending test simulations were performed on the femur and tibia with adult material properties and then updated using child material properties. Pelvis impact and knee bending tests were also simulated. Finally, a series of pediatric Car-to-Pedestrian Collision (CPC) were simulated with pre-impact velocities ranging from 20km/h up to 60km/h. The bone models assigned pediatric material properties showed lower stiffness and a good match in terms of fracture force to the test data (less than 6% error). The pelvis impact force predicted by the child model showed a similar trend with test data. The whole pedestrian model was stable during CPC simulations and predicted common pedestrian injuries. Overall, the 6YO-PS FE model developed in this study showed good biofidelity at component level (lower extremity and pelvis) and stability in CPC simulations. While more validations would improve it, the current model could be used to investigate the lower limb injury mechanisms and in the prediction of the impact parameters as specified in regulatory testing protocols. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Matti, Damien; Ekenel, Hazim Kemal; Thiran, Jean-Philippe
Pedestrian detection is an important component for safety of autonomous vehicles, as well as for traffic and street surveillance. There are extensive benchmarks on this topic and it has been shown to be a challenging problem when applied on real use-case scenarios. In purely image-based pedestrian detection approaches, the state-of-the-art results have been achieved with convolutional neural networks (CNN) and surprisingly few detection frameworks have been built upon multi-cue approaches. In...
Moran, Dane; Bose, Dipan; Bhalla, Kavi
European car design regulations and New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) ratings have led to reductions in pedestrian injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of improving vehicle front design on mortality and morbidity due to pedestrian injuries in a European country (Germany) and 2 countries (the United States and India) that do not have pedestrian-focused NCAP testing or design regulations. We used data from the International Road Traffic and Accident Database and the Global Burden of Disease project to estimate baseline pedestrian deaths and nonfatal injuries in each country in 2013. The effect of improved passenger car star ratings on probability of pedestrian injury was based on recent evaluations of pedestrian crash data from Germany. The effect of improved heavy motor vehicle (HMV) front end design on pedestrian injuries was based on estimates reported by simulation studies. We used burden of disease methods to estimate population health loss by combining the burden of morbidity and mortality in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost. Extrapolating from evaluations in Germany suggests that improving front end design of cars can potentially reduce the burden of pedestrian injuries due to cars by up to 24% in the United States and 41% in India. In Germany, where cars comply with the United Nations regulation on pedestrian safety, additional improvements would have led to a 1% reduction. Similarly, improved HMV design would reduce DALYs lost by pedestrian victims hit by HMVs by 20% in each country. Overall, improved vehicle design would reduce DALYs lost to road traffic injuries (RTIs) by 0.8% in Germany, 4.1% in the United States, and 6.7% in India. Recent evaluations show a strong correlation between Euro NCAP pedestrian scores and real-life pedestrian injuries, suggesting that improved car front end design in Europe has led to substantial reductions in pedestrian injuries. Although the United States has fewer pedestrian crashes, it would
This project performed research to support the development of potential specifications for vehicle : sounds, (i.e., audible countermeasures) to be used in vehicles while operating in electric mode in specific low speed : conditions. The purpose of th...
James Mark William Brownjohn
Full Text Available As part of a continuing study on effects of humans on loading and dynamic response of footbridges, a steel frame walkway has been the subject of studies on the effects of multiple pedestrians with respect to loading and response mitigation. Following finite element modeling and experimental modal analysis to identify the low frequency vibration modes likely to be excited by normal walking, the variation of response with pedestrian density and of system damping and natural frequency with occupancy by stationary pedestrians were both studied. The potentially mitigating effect of stationary occupants is still not well understood and the study included direct measurement of damping forces and absorbed energy using a force plate. The various tests showed that energy dissipation measured directly was consistent with the observed change in damping, that vertical and lateral response both varied approximately with square root of number of pedestrians, and that the simple model of a human as a single mass-spring-damper system may need to be refined to fit observed changes in modal parameters with a crowd of humans present. Modal parameter changes with moving pedestrians were small compared to those with stationary pedestrians indicating that within limits, modal parameters for the empty structure could be used in analysis.
Moradi, Ali; Soori, Hamid; Kavousi, Amir; Eshghabadi, Farshid; Nematollahi, Shahrzad; Zeini, Salahdien
Introduction: In most countries, occurrence of traffic causalities is high in pedestrians. The aim of this study is to geographically analyze the traffic casualties in pedestrians in downtown Tehran city. Methods: The study population consisted of traffic injury accidents in pedestrians occurred during 2015 in Tehran city. Data were extracted from offices of traffic police and municipality. For analysis of environmental factors and site of accidents, ordinary least square regression models and geographically weighted regression were used. Fitness and performance of models were checked using the Akaike information criteria, Bayesian information criteria, deviance, and adjusted R2. Results: Totally, 514 accidents were included in this study. Of them, site of accidents was arterial streets in 370 (71.9%) cases, collector streets in 133 cases (25.2%), and highways in 11 cases (2.1%). Geographical units of traffic accidents in pedestrians had statistically significant relationship with a number of bus stations, number of crossroads, and recreational areas. Conclusion: Distribution of injury traffic accidents in pedestrians is different in downtown Tehran city. Neighborhoods close to markets are considered as most dangerous neighborhoods for injury traffic accidents. Different environmental factors are involved in determining the distribution of these accidents. The health of pedestrians in Tehran city can be improved by proper traffic management, control of environmental factors, and educational programs. PMID:28660163
Martínez Ruiz, Virginia; Jiménez Mejías, Eladio; Amezcua Prieto, Carmen; Olmedo Requena, Rocío; Pulido Manzanero, José; Lardelli Claret, Pablo
To identify and quantify the factors depending on pedestrians, cyclists and the environment associated with the risk of causing a collision between a cyclist and a pedestrian in Spain from 1993 to 2011. retrospective case series. 1228 pedestrian-cyclist pairs involved in the same number of collisions in an urban area, only one of whom committed an infraction. Register of Traffic Accidents with Victims, supported by the Spanish Traffic General Directorate. committing an infraction (yes/no), age, sex, helmet use (cyclist), hour, type of day, year, existence of sidewalks, place of the accident, and priority regulated. logistic regression model to estimate the strength of the association between the pedestrian's responsibility and independent variables. The association with the cyclist's responsibility was assessed by reversing the value of the odds ratios obtained. In both groups of users, the risk of causing a collision was higher in extreme ages. Female cyclists had a slightly higher risk than male cyclists, while the use of a helmet had a protective effect. The risk of the pedestrian causing an accident was higher in the absence of sidewalks. Cyclists more frequently provoked accidents in crosswalks. We recommend the implementation of safety campaigns aimed at pedestrians and cyclists, with special attention paid to the youngest and older people. Interventions for correct road use would also be advisable. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Pedestrian movement is woven into the fabric of urban regions. With more people living in cities than ever before, there is an increased need to understand and model how pedestrians utilize and move through space for a variety of applications, ranging from urban planning and architecture to security. Pedestrian modeling has been traditionally faced with the challenge of collecting data to calibrate and validate such models of pedestrian movement. With the increased availability of mobility datasets from video surveillance and enhanced geolocation capabilities in consumer mobile devices we are now presented with the opportunity to change the way we build pedestrian models. Within this paper we explore the potential that such information offers for the improvement of agent-based pedestrian models. We introduce a Scene- and Activity-Aware Agent-Based Model (SA2-ABM, a method for harvesting scene activity information in the form of spatiotemporal trajectories, and incorporate this information into our models. In order to assess and evaluate the improvement offered by such information, we carry out a range of experiments using real-world datasets. We demonstrate that the use of real scene information allows us to better inform our model and enhance its predictive capabilities.
Hamann, Cara; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Rus, Diana
Pedestrian-motor vehicle (PMV) crash rates in Romania are among the highest in all of Europe. The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics of pedestrian-MVCs in Cluj County, Romania, on the two major types of roadways: national or local. Cluj County police crash report data from 2010 were used to identify pedestrian, driver and crash characteristics of pedestrian-MVCs. Crashes with available location data were geocoded and road type (national or local) for each crash was determined. Distributions of crash characteristics were examined by road type and multivariable logistic regression models were built to determine predictors of crash road type. Crashes occurring on national roads involved more teenagers and adults, while those on local roads involved more young children (0-12) and older adults (65+) (pRomania. Results from this study suggest that factors leading to PMV crashes on national roads are more likely to involve driver-related causes compared with local roads. Intervention priorities to reduce pedestrian crashes on national roads should be directed towards driver behaviour on national roads. Further examination of driver and pedestrian behaviours related to crash risk on both national and local roads, such as distraction and speeding, is warranted. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Zhu, Kongjin; Yang, Yue; Niu, Yi; Fu, Zhijian; Shi, Qin
Pedestrian flow both in normal and emergency situations (i.e. evacuation) has been widely studied by means of experiments as well as modeling methods. In this paper, an extended lattice-gas model is proposed to reproduce the pedestrian flow on multi-storey stairs during evacuations. Two-stage turning strategy is incorporated into the proposed model to simulate the 180∘ turning behaviors of pedestrians on staircase mid-landings, and some movement characteristics such as walking preference and the probabilistic feature of turning are also considered in the extended model. The effectiveness of the model is demonstrated on different evacuation scenarios with different basic parameters. The results show that turning behavior indeed influences the pedestrian flow under the emergency situation (i.e. the drift force in the lattice-gas model is large) while walking preference has a clear negative effect on the pedestrian flow at the normal situations (i.e. the drift force in the lattice-gas model is small). In addition, the results indicate that the entrance period has more effect on the flow performance when compared with the entrance rate. The study may be useful for understanding the flow phase of pedestrians on stairs and developing efficient strategy for crowd management during evacuations.
Besbes, Bassem; Rogozan, Alexandrina; Rus, Adela-Maria; Bensrhair, Abdelaziz; Broggi, Alberto
One of the main challenges in intelligent vehicles concerns pedestrian detection for driving assistance. Recent experiments have showed that state-of-the-art descriptors provide better performances on the far-infrared (FIR) spectrum than on the visible one, even in daytime conditions, for pedestrian classification. In this paper, we propose a pedestrian detector with on-board FIR camera. Our main contribution is the exploitation of the specific characteristics of FIR images to design a fast, scale-invariant and robust pedestrian detector. Our system consists of three modules, each based on speeded-up robust feature (SURF) matching. The first module allows generating regions-of-interest (ROI), since in FIR images of the pedestrian shapes may vary in large scales, but heads appear usually as light regions. ROI are detected with a high recall rate with the hierarchical codebook of SURF features located in head regions. The second module consists of pedestrian full-body classification by using SVM. This module allows one to enhance the precision with low computational cost. In the third module, we combine the mean shift algorithm with inter-frame scale-invariant SURF feature tracking to enhance the robustness of our system. The experimental evaluation shows that our system outperforms, in the FIR domain, the state-of-the-art Haar-like Adaboost-cascade, histogram of oriented gradients (HOG)/linear SVM (linSVM) and MultiFtrpedestrian detectors, trained on the FIR images.
Bodt, Barry A.; Camden, Richard
This work represents the fifth in a series of studies on safe operations of unmanned ground vehicles in the proximity of pedestrians. The U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Robotics Collaborative Technology Alliance (RCTA) conducted the study on the campus of NIST in Gaithersburg, MD in 2009, the final year of the RCTA. The experiment was to assess the performance of six RCTA algorithms to detect and track moving pedestrians from sensors mounted on a moving platform. Sensors include 2-D and 3-D LADAR, 2-D SICK, and stereovision. Algorithms reported only detected human tracks. NIST ground truth methodology was used to assess the algorithm-reported detections as to true positive, misclassification, or false positive as well as distance to first detection and elapsed tracking time. A NIST-developed viewer facilitated real-time data checking and subsequent analysis. Factors of the study include platform speed, pedestrian speed, and clutter density in the environment. Pedestrian motion was choreographed to ensure similar perspective from the platform regardless of experimental conditions. Pedestrians were upright in the principal study, but excursions examined group movement, nonlinear paths, occluded paths, and alternative postures. We will present the findings of this study and benchmark detection and tracking for subsequent robotic research in this program. We also address the impact of this work on pedestrian avoidance.
Pelé, Marie; Bellut, Caroline; Debergue, Elise; Gauvin, Charlotte; Jeanneret, Anne; Leclere, Thibault; Nicolas, Lucie; Pontier, Florence; Zausa, Diorne; Sueur, Cédric
Social information use is common in a wide range of group-living animals, notably in humans. The role it plays in decision-making could be a key to understanding how social groups make collective decisions. The observation of road-crossing behaviours in the presence of other individuals is an ideal means to study the influence of social information on decision-making. This study investigated the influence of culture on social information used by pedestrians in a potentially dangerous scenario, namely road crossing. We scored the collective crossing of pedestrians at four locations in Nagoya (Japan) and three locations in Strasbourg (France). French pedestrians cross against the lights much more often (41.9%) than Japanese ones (2.1%). Individuals deciding to cross the road were strongly influenced by the behaviour and the presence of other pedestrians, especially in Japan, where a stronger conformism was noted. However, Japanese pedestrians were half as likely to be influenced by social information as their French counterparts when crossing at the red light, as they were more respectful of rules. Men show riskier behaviour than women (40.6% versus 25.7% of rule-breaking, respectively), deciding quickly and setting off earlier than women. Further related studies could help target specific preventive, culture-specific solutions for pedestrian safety.
Full Text Available There is no standard system for estimating area-wide pedestrian volumes in the United States. As a result, pedestrian volumes cannot be routinely used to guide transportation investments and monitoring measures performance. Vehicle volumes, by contrast, are measured systematically in each state and are reported to the Federal Highway Administration annually to be used in the allocation of federal funds. This paper investigates the advantages and disadvantages of three approaches to the creation of a standard system of pedestrian volume measurement: direct sampling, survey methods, and modeling. Examples of each method are given, and the potential of each to become a national standard is discussed. Of the three approaches, the modeling methods were judged to be most suitable for tracking pedestrian volumes at the national, state, and sub-state level. A standardized pedestrian volume modeling method could make use of existing data sources without generating the need for a new national pedestrian data collection effort.
There is no standard system for estimating area-wide pedestrian volumes in the United States. As a result, pedestrian volumes cannot be routinely used to guide transportation investments and monitoring measures performance. Vehicle volumes, by contrast, are measured systematically in each state and are reported to the Federal Highway Administration annually to be used in the allocation of federal funds. This paper investigates the advantages and disadvantages of three approaches to the creation of a standard system of pedestrian volume measurement: direct sampling, survey methods, and modeling. Examples of each method are given, and the potential of each to become a national standard is discussed. Of the three approaches, the modeling methods were judged to be most suitable for tracking pedestrian volumes at the national, state, and sub-state level. A standardized pedestrian volume modeling method could make use of existing data sources without generating the need for a new national pedestrian data collection effort.
Watanabe, Ryosuke; Katsuhara, Tadasuke; Miyazaki, Hiroshi; Kitagawa, Yuichi; Yasuki, Tsuyoshi
Injuries in car to pedestrian collisions are affected by various factors such as the vehicle body type, pedestrian body size and impact location as well as the collision speed. This study aimed to investigate the influence of such factors taking a Finite Element (FE) approach. A total of 72 collision cases were simulated using three different vehicle FE models (Sedan, SUV, Mini-Van), three different pedestrian FE models (AM50, AF05, AM95), assuming two different impact locations (center and the corner of the bumper) and at four different collision speeds (20, 30, 40 and 50 km/h). The impact kinematics and the responses of the pedestrian model were validated against those in the literature prior to the simulations. The relationship between the collision speed and the predicted occurrence of head and chest injuries was examined for each case, analyzing the impact kinematics of the pedestrian against the vehicle body and resultant loading to the head and the chest. Strain based indicators were used in the simulation model to estimate skeletal injury (bony fracture) and soft tissue (brain and internal organs) injury. The study results primarily showed that the injury risk became higher with the collision speed, but was also affected by the combination of the factors such as the pedestrian size and the impact location. The study also discussed the injury patterns and trends with respect to the factors examined. In all of the simulated conditions, the model did not predict any severe injury at a collision speed of 20 km/h.
Bilema M. A. M.
Full Text Available Pedestrian are among those who were contributed to the increase of road accidents and identified as vulnerable rod user in the country. Various aspects and factors that lead to the accident among the pedestrian and other road users are needed to be studied, so that the safety all road user should be improved. This study was conducted to identify the characteristics of user demographic in terms of age, gender, employment and others. In addition, the characteristics and the perception of pedestrians were also evaluated in order to achieve the objectives of this study. The observational study was carried out to the users on the usage of pedestrian facilities. The study was focused in the city area of Batu Pahat. The type of pedestrian facilities included pedestrian walkaways, pedestrian bridges and zebra crossings. A total of 200 sets of survey questions were distributed among respondents and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS based on the behavioral model called the multiple regression analysis. The correlation analysis shows that attitudes have a significant effect on the safety of pedestrians and other factors do not show significant results. However, the two-step regression analysis demonstrates that the intention has a strong relationship with behavior on pedestrian safety. In order to enhance the government efforts to mitigate road accidents, it is efficient to use an education as a medium which helps to change the attitude of road users in the country.
Gu, Jiangyang; Chao, Xiaoli; Hu, Xianguo
In the pedestrian-vehicle accident, vehicle may make the second crushing for people after collision. Among the fatal accidents caused by this, there is necessary connection between the movement trail of vehicle and the position of pedestrian, therefore, this text compares with their position relationship through simulating the site of accident by PC-CRASH and the simulation between vehicle parameters and the position of pedestrian, analyzing the injury of each part in pedestrian and the condition of AIS. Analyze the whole process of second crushing and analyze accident cause to put forward scientific, effective solutions.
Aladelusi, T O; Akinmoladun, I V; Olusanya, O O; Akadiri, O A; Fasola, A O
Background: Walking is the most basic form of mobility and forms an important part of daily activities; however, walking could often be associated with risks. This is more so when pedestrians share a common space with motorized vehicles especially in developing countries. Despite the frequency of road traffic crashes (RTC) related pedestrian injuries in many developing countries, there is a dearth of documentation of maxillofacial injuries in victims of pedestrian road traffic crashes. The aim of this study was to determine the causes, frequency, pattern, severity, concomitant injuries and outcome of pedestrian maxillofacial injuries observed at a tertiary trauma centre in Nigeria. Pedestrian victims of RTC were prospectively recruited from among all maxillofacial trauma patients seen at the Accident and Emergency department and the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of the University College Hospital, Ibadan between April 2011 and November 2011. Ethical approval was obtained from the UI/UCH Joint Ethics Review Board before the commencement of the study and informed consent was obtained from participants. Patients' demography, the crash events, types of maxillofacial injuries, and concomitant injuries were recorded. Severity of maxillofacial injury was estimated based on the Maxillofacial Injury Severity Scale (MFISS). Forty-six participants (22.9% of all victims of road traffic crashes seen within the study period) were victims of pedestrian RTC. Pedestrian RTC occurred in all age groups with almost 40% of the victims in their 1st and 2nd decades of life. The most severe MFISS was observed in the 21 - 30 year age group while the least severe injury observed was in the 71 - 80 years age group. Thirty participants (65.2%) were hit by a car or minibus while fourteen (30.4%) were knocked down by a motorcycle. Two (4.4%) were hit by a truck. Soft tissue injury was the most common maxillofacial injury and head injury was the commonest concomitant injury
Poó, Fernando Martín; Ledesma, Ruben Daniel; Trujillo, Roberto
Pedestrian crashes are a critical problem in Latin American countries. However, little research has been published about pedestrians and even less about their behaviors in a naturalistic context. The objective of the present research was to explore risky pedestrian crossing behaviors in traffic intersections in an argentine city (Ushuaia). It is focused in different stages of the crossing process, traffic code violations, and other potentially risky behaviors such as distractions. A high frequency of risky behaviors among pedestrians was expected. Moreover, according to previous findings, it was hypothesized that men and younger pedestrians would show riskier behaviors. Participants were 802 pedestrians (53.9% females) observed at several intersections (with and without traffic lights) in the city of Ushuaia. Behaviors were codified following a standardized observation protocol. Observers documented information on behavior previous to, during, and after crossing. Gender and age were also registered. Data were gathered through video recording. Frequency analyses of observed behaviors were conducted for the total sample, as well as by gender and by age group. A general crossing risk index was calculated to facilitate comparisons between the genders and age groups. We conducted an analysis of variance to evaluate gender and age differences for this index. A high proportion of risky behaviors were observed among pedestrians. The majority of pedestrian waited in the street (as opposed to on the sidewalk) before crossing, did not comply with traffic lights, or crossed outside the crosswalk. A large number of pedestrians were distracted while crossing. Men presented higher scores on risky behaviors than women. No differences were observed by age group. The high level of risk behaviors during the different stages of street crossing is worrisome and reinforces the idea that pedestrians are responsible for many of the conflicts with motorists. Many of the risky behaviors
Zito, G A; Cazzoli, D; Scheffler, L; Jäger, M; Müri, R M; Mosimann, U P; Nyffeler, T; Mast, F W; Nef, T
Crossing a street can be a very difficult task for older pedestrians. With increased age and potential cognitive decline, older people take the decision to cross a street primarily based on vehicles' distance, and not on their speed. Furthermore, older pedestrians tend to overestimate their own walking speed, and could not adapt it according to the traffic conditions. Pedestrians' behavior is often tested using virtual reality. Virtual reality presents the advantage of being safe, cost-effective, and allows using standardized test conditions. This paper describes an observational study with older and younger adults. Street crossing behavior was investigated in 18 healthy, younger and 18 older subjects by using a virtual reality setting. The aim of the study was to measure behavioral data (such as eye and head movements) and to assess how the two age groups differ in terms of number of safe street crossings, virtual crashes, and missed street crossing opportunities. Street crossing behavior, eye and head movements, in older and younger subjects, were compared with non-parametric tests. The results showed that younger pedestrians behaved in a more secure manner while crossing a street, as compared to older people. The eye and head movements analysis revealed that older people looked more at the ground and less at the other side of the street to cross. The less secure behavior in street crossing found in older pedestrians could be explained by their reduced cognitive and visual abilities, which, in turn, resulted in difficulties in the decision-making process, especially under time pressure. Decisions to cross a street are based on the distance of the oncoming cars, rather than their speed, for both groups. Older pedestrians look more at their feet, probably because of their need of more time to plan precise stepping movement and, in turn, pay less attention to the traffic. This might help to set up guidelines for improving senior pedestrians' safety, in terms of
Li, Jing; Zhang, Fangbing; Wei, Lisong; Yang, Tao; Lu, Zhaoyang
Pedestrian detection is among the most frequently-used preprocessing tasks in many surveillance application fields, from low-level people counting to high-level scene understanding. Even though many approaches perform well in the daytime with sufficient illumination, pedestrian detection at night is still a critical and challenging problem for video surveillance systems. To respond to this need, in this paper, we provide an affordable solution with a near-infrared stereo network camera, as well as a novel three-dimensional foreground pedestrian detection model. Specifically, instead of using an expensive thermal camera, we build a near-infrared stereo vision system with two calibrated network cameras and near-infrared lamps. The core of the system is a novel voxel surface model, which is able to estimate the dynamic changes of three-dimensional geometric information of the surveillance scene and to segment and locate foreground pedestrians in real time. A free update policy for unknown points is designed for model updating, and the extracted shadow of the pedestrian is adopted to remove foreground false alarms. To evaluate the performance of the proposed model, the system is deployed in several nighttime surveillance scenes. Experimental results demonstrate that our method is capable of nighttime pedestrian segmentation and detection in real time under heavy occlusion. In addition, the qualitative and quantitative comparison results show that our work outperforms classical background subtraction approaches and a recent RGB-D method, as well as achieving comparable performance with the state-of-the-art deep learning pedestrian detection method even with a much lower hardware cost.
Full Text Available Pedestrian detection is among the most frequently-used preprocessing tasks in many surveillance application fields, from low-level people counting to high-level scene understanding. Even though many approaches perform well in the daytime with sufficient illumination, pedestrian detection at night is still a critical and challenging problem for video surveillance systems. To respond to this need, in this paper, we provide an affordable solution with a near-infrared stereo network camera, as well as a novel three-dimensional foreground pedestrian detection model. Specifically, instead of using an expensive thermal camera, we build a near-infrared stereo vision system with two calibrated network cameras and near-infrared lamps. The core of the system is a novel voxel surface model, which is able to estimate the dynamic changes of three-dimensional geometric information of the surveillance scene and to segment and locate foreground pedestrians in real time. A free update policy for unknown points is designed for model updating, and the extracted shadow of the pedestrian is adopted to remove foreground false alarms. To evaluate the performance of the proposed model, the system is deployed in several nighttime surveillance scenes. Experimental results demonstrate that our method is capable of nighttime pedestrian segmentation and detection in real time under heavy occlusion. In addition, the qualitative and quantitative comparison results show that our work outperforms classical background subtraction approaches and a recent RGB-D method, as well as achieving comparable performance with the state-of-the-art deep learning pedestrian detection method even with a much lower hardware cost.
The increasing occurrence of panic stampedes during mass events has motivated studying the impact of panic on crowd dynamics and the simulation of pedestrian flows in panic situations. The lack of understanding of panic stampedes still causes hundreds of fatalities each year, not to mention the scarce methodical studies of panic behavior capable of envisaging such crowd dynamics. Under those circumstances, there are thousands of fatalities and twice that many of injuries every year caused be crowd stampede worldwide, despite the tremendous efforts of crowd control and massive numbers of safekeeping forces. Pedestrian crowd dynamics are generally predictable in high-density crowds where pedestrians cannot move freely and thus gives rise to self-propelling interactions between pedestrians. Although every pedestrian has personal preferences, the motion dynamics can be modeled as a social force in such crowds. These forces are representations of internal preferences and objectives to perform certain actions or movements. The corresponding forces can be controlled for each individual to represent a different variety of behaviors that can be associated with panic situations such as escaping danger, clustering, and pushing. In this thesis, we use an agent-based model of pedestrian behavior in panic situations to predict the collective human behavior in such crowd dynamics. The proposed simulations suggests a practical way to alleviate fatalities and minimize the evacuation time in panic situations. Moreover, we introduce contagious panic and pushing behavior, resulting in a more realistic crowd dynamics model. The proposed methodology describes the intensity and spread of panic for each individual as a function of distances between pedestrians.
Cloutier, Marie-Soleil; Lachapelle, Ugo; d'Amours-Ouellet, Andrée-Anne; Bergeron, Jacques; Lord, Sébastien; Torres, Juan
Because pedestrian crash rates remain lower than other collision types, surrogate measures such as traffic interactions are now used in road safety research to complement crash history. Using naturalistic data collection, we sought to assess 1) the likelihood of occurrence of interactions between pedestrians and vehicles based on individual and crossing characteristics; and 2) differences in interaction characteristics between children, adult and senior pedestrians. Observations of pedestrian crossing behaviours (n=4687) were recorded at 278 crossings. For recorded interactions (n=843), information was collected to characterize the behaviours of involved parties. A mixed-effect logit regression model was performed to assess the factors associated with interactions. Chi-square tests evaluated differences between age groups and characteristics of observed interactions. Older adults were those more likely to be involved in an interaction event. Bicycle paths, different crossing surface material and one-way streets were significantly associated with fewer interactions with vehicles, while parked vehicles nearby and crossings on arterial roads were significantly associated with more interactions. Children and the elderly (80 years of age or more) did have distinct patterns of interaction, with more careful drivers/cyclists behaviours being observed towards children and lesser regulation compliance towards the elderly. Given the growing emphasis and adoption of active transportation in many cities, the number of interactions between pedestrians and vehicles during street crossings is likely to increase. Educating drivers and pedestrians to respect each other's space requires an understanding of where, between whom, and under what circumstances interactions occur. Such an approach can also help identify which engineering and enforcement programs are needed to ensure safe pedestrian crossings since interactions can be good markers of uncomfortable crossing situations that
Tuckel, Peter; Milczarski, William; Maisel, Richard
Scant attention has been given to pedestrians injured in accidents resulting from collisions with cyclists. This scholarly neglect is surprising given the growing popularity of cycling. This study examines the incidence of pedestrians injured by cyclists in New York between 2004 to 2011 and in California from 2005 to 2011. The study also profiles the pedestrians injured in these two states during these two time frames. The data for this study are based upon patient-level hospital records from New York and California. The data for New York comes from the Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS) under the auspices of New York State's Department of Health. The data for California come from two sources: the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) and the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development. The rate of pedestrians injured in collisions with cyclists has decreased over time. This decline has occurred despite the increase in the number of cyclists in these states during this same time period. Two possible explanations for this decline are: (a) less exposure of children to cyclists, and (b) improvements in the cycling infrastructure. Although the rate of injuries to pedestrians from collisions with cyclists has been decreasing, improvements to the cycling infrastructure will need to continue. Bike lanes, particularly protected bike lanes, have been shown to be an effective way of reducing cycling-pedestrian accidents. The results of the current study are consistent with this research. Educational campaigns aimed at cyclists that emphasize the safety of all road users--including pedestrians--will also need to continue to assure that this downward trend in the number of accidents is not reversed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Data were collected on pedestrian, cyclist and moped-rider traffic fatalities from 1968 to 1972. Use is made only of statistics available. The variables that were considered were related to demographic factors (sex and age), locality characteristics, vicinity factors, other circumstances and the
The Commonwealth of Massachusetts has made walkable communities a priority. Pedestrian safety is key to the success of : this objective. Pedestrians are at high risk when traversing unsignalized, marked crosswalks located either midblock or at Tinter...
Han, Yong; Yang, Jikuang; Mizuno, Koji; Matsui, Yasuhiro
This study aimed at investigating the effects of vehicle impact velocity, vehicle front-end shape, and pedestrian size on injury risk to pedestrians in collisions with passenger vehicles with various frontal shapes. A series of parametric studies was carried out using 2 total human model for safety (THUMS) pedestrian models (177 and 165 cm) and 4 vehicle finite element (FE) models with different front-end shapes (medium-size sedan, minicar, one-box vehicle, and sport utility vehicle [SUV]). The effects of the impact velocity on pedestrian injury risk were analyzed at velocities of 20, 30, 40, and 50 km/h. The dynamic response of the pedestrian was investigated, and the injury risk to the head, chest, pelvis, and lower extremities was compared in terms of the injury parameters head injury criteria (HIC), chest deflection, and von Mises stress distribution of the rib cage, pelvis force, and bending moment diagram of the lower extremities. Vehicle impact velocity has the most significant influence on injury severity for adult pedestrians. All injury parameters can be reduced in severity by decreasing vehicle impact velocities. The head and lower extremities are at greater risk of injury in medium-size sedan and SUV collisions. The chest injury risk was particularly high in one-box vehicle impacts. The fracture risk of the pelvis was also high in one-box vehicle and SUV collisions. In minicar collisions, the injury risk was the smallest if the head did not make contact with the A-pillar. The vehicle impact velocity and vehicle front-end shape are 2 dominant factors that influence the pedestrian kinematics and injury severity. A significant reduction of all injuries can be achieved for all vehicle types when the vehicle impact velocity is less than 30 km/h. Vehicle designs consisting of a short front-end and a wide windshield area can protect pedestrians from fatalities. The results also could be valuable in the design of a pedestrian-friendly vehicle front-end shape
Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence is growing that the built environment has the potential to influence walking--both positively and negatively. However, uncertainty remains on the best approaches to representing the pedestrian environment in order to discern associations between walking and the environment. Research into the relationship between environment and walking is complex; challenges include choice of measures (objective and subjective, quality and availability of data, and methods for managing quantitative data through aggregation and weighting. In particular, little research has examined how to aggregate built environment data to best represent the neighborhood environments expected to influence residents' behavior. This study examined associations between walking and local pedestrian supports (as measured with an environmental audit, comparing the results of models using three different methods to aggregate and weight pedestrian features. Methods Using data collected in 2005-2006 for a sample of 251 adult residents of Montgomery County, MD, we examined associations between pedestrian facilities and walking behaviors (pedestrian trips and average daily steps. Adjusted negative binomial and ordinary least-squares regression models were used to compare three different data aggregation techniques (raw averages, length weighting, distance weighting for measures of pedestrian facilities that included presence, condition, width and connectivity of sidewalks, and presence of crossing aids and crosswalks. Results Participants averaged 8.9 walk trips during the week; daily step counts averaged 7042. The three aggregation techniques revealed different associations between walk trips and the various pedestrian facilities. Crossing aids and good sidewalk conditions were associated with walk trips more than were other pedestrian facilities, while sidewalk facilities and features showed associations with steps not observed for crossing aids and
Violano, Pina; Roney, Linda; Bechtel, Kirsten
Pedestrians distracted by digital devices or other activities are at a higher risk of injury as they cross streets. We sought to describe the incidence of pedestrians distracted by digital devices or other activities at two highly traveled urban intersections after the implementation of a pedestrian safety intervention at one of the intersections. This was an observational field study of two urban intersections. Two investigators were stationed at each of the four corners of the intersection. Each pair of observers included one "person counter" and one "behavior counter". The "person counter" tallied every individual who approached that corner from any of the three opposing corners. The "behavior counter" tallied every individual approaching from the three opposing corners who were exhibiting any of the following behaviors: 1) eating, 2) drinking, 3) wearing ear buds/headphones, 4) texting, 5) looking at mobile phone or reading something on mobile phone, or 6) talking on mobile phone. Every 15 min, each pair of observers rotated to the next corner of the same intersection, allowing each pair of observers to complete one 15-min observation at each of the four corners of the intersection. Intersection A had stencils at the curb cuts of each corner alerting pedestrians to put down a digital device while crossing the intersection while intersection B did not. 1362 pedestrians were observed; of those, 19 % were distracted by another activity at both intersections. Of the total, 9 % were using ear buds/headphones; 8 % were using a digital device (talking, texting, or looking down at it); and 2 % were eating or drinking. Inter-observer validity among observers (kappa) was 98 %. Of those that were distracted, 5 % were either using an assistive device (cane, walker, motorized scooter) or walking with a child (either on foot or in stroller). There were no differences in the proportion of pedestrians who were distracted at either intersection, except that more
Cosalia, V. B.
Streetscape could be the first impression to see an urban area. One of the streerscape that should be attended to it is corridor of Jl. Kertanegara - Semeru since at that corridor is the road corridor having the strong caracter also as the one of the main axes in Malang city. This research is aim knowing the visual quality also the exact structuring rcommendation for Jl. Kertanegara - Semeru based on pedestrian’s visual. The methode used to this research is Scenic Beauty Estimation (SBE) and used historic study. There is several variables used, they are scale space, visual flexibility, beauty, emphasis, balance and dominant. Based on those variable the pedestrians as a respondent doing the assessment. Based on the result of SBE have been done, it is showed that the visual quality in Corridor Kertanegara Semeru is well enough since the result showed that there are 10 photos in low visual quality in Jl. Semeru and 14 photos in high visual quality in Jl. Kertanegara, Jl. Tugu dan Jl. Kahuripan. By the historic study and based on high visual quality reference doing the structuring recommendation in part of landscape having the low visual quality.
Peng, Lin; Jian, Ma; Siuming, Lo
A series of accidents caused by crowds within the last decades evoked a lot of scientific interest in modeling the movement of pedestrian crowds. Based on the discrete element method, a granular dynamic model, in which the human body is simplified as a self-driven sphere, is proposed to simulate the characteristics of crowd flow through an exit. In this model, the repulsive force among people is considered to have an anisotropic feature, and the physical contact force due to body deformation is quantified by the Hertz contact model. The movement of the human body is simulated by applying the second Newton’s law. The crowd flow through an exit at different desired velocities is studied and simulation results indicated that crowd flow exhibits three distinct states, i.e., smooth state, transition state and phase separation state. In the simulation, the clogging phenomenon occurs more easily when the desired velocity is high and the exit may as a result be totally blocked at a desired velocity of 1.6 m/s or above, leading to faster-to-frozen effect. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 71473207, 51178445, and 71103148), the Research Grant Council, Government of Hong Kong, China (Grant No. CityU119011), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant Nos. 2682014CX103 and 2682014RC05).
Namilae, Sirish; Derjany, Pierrot; Mubayi, Anuj; Scotch, Mathew; Srinivasan, Ashok
In this paper we develop a multiscale model combining social-force-based pedestrian movement with a population level stochastic infection transmission dynamics framework. The model is then applied to study the infection transmission within airplanes and the transmission of the Ebola virus through casual contacts. Drastic limitations on air-travel during epidemics, such as during the 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa, carry considerable economic and human costs. We use the computational model to evaluate the effects of passenger movement within airplanes and air-travel policies on the geospatial spread of infectious diseases. We find that boarding policy by an airline is more critical for infection propagation compared to deplaning policy. Enplaning in two sections resulted in fewer infections than the currently followed strategy with multiple zones. In addition, we found that small commercial airplanes are better than larger ones at reducing the number of new infections in a flight. Aggregated results indicate that passenger movement strategies and airplane size predicted through these network models can have significant impact on an event like the 2014 Ebola epidemic. The methodology developed here is generic and can be readily modified to incorporate the impact from the outbreak of other directly transmitted infectious diseases.
Buonanno, G.; Fuoco, F. C.; Stabile, L.
Exposure to particle concentrations in urban areas was evaluated in several studies since airborne particles are considered to bring about adverse health effects. Transportation modes and urban microenvironments account for the highest contributions to the overall daily particle exposure concentration. In the present study an evaluation of the influential parameters affecting particle exposure of pedestrian in urban areas is reported. Street geometry, traffic mode, wind speed and direction effects were analyzed through an experimental campaign performed in different streets of an Italian town. To this purpose a high-resolution time measurement apparatus was used in order to capture the dynamic of the freshly emitted particles. Number, surface area and mass concentrations and distributions were measured continuously along both the sides of street canyons and avenue canyons during 10-minutes walking routes. The combined effect of street geometry and wind direction may contribute strongly to dilute the fresh particles emitted by vehicles. In particular, street canyons are characterized by lower ventilation phenomena which lead to similar concentration values on both the side of the street. Higher wind speed was found to decrease concentrations in the canyon. Traffic mode also seems to influence exposure concentrations. In particular, submicrometer particle mass concentration was higher as the traffic is more congested; otherwise, coarse fraction dominates mass exposure concentration along street characterized by a more fluent traffic, showing a typical resuspension modality.
When a group of particles pass through a narrow orifice, the flow might become intermittent due to the development of clogs that obstruct the constriction. This effect has been observed in many different fields such as mining transport, microbial growing, crowd dynamics, colloids, granular and active matter. In this work we introduce a general framework in which research in some of such scenarios can be encompassed. In particular, we analyze the statistical properties of the bottleneck flow in different experiments and simulations: granular media within vibrated silos, colloids, a flock of sheep and pedestrian evacuations. We reveal a common phenomenology that allows us to rigorously define a transition to a clogged state. Using this definition we explore the main variables involved, which are then grouped into three generic parameters. In addition, we will present results of the geometrical characteristics that the clogging arches have which are related with their stability against perturbations. We experimentally analyse the temporal evolution of the arches evidencing important differences among the structures that are easily destroyed and those that seem to resist forever (longer than the temporal window employed in our measurements). Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (Spanish Government). Project No. FIS2014-57325.
Gudmundsson, Gudmundur Valur; Ingólfsson, Einar Thór; Einarsson, Baldvin
This paper presents results from experimental study on human-induced vibrations of three lively footbridges in Reykjavik. The project was funded by the Icelandic Public Roads Administration with two main focus areas; validating the FE-models used at the design stage in terms of dynamic characteri......This paper presents results from experimental study on human-induced vibrations of three lively footbridges in Reykjavik. The project was funded by the Icelandic Public Roads Administration with two main focus areas; validating the FE-models used at the design stage in terms of dynamic...... with two equal spans crossing the same highway and was built in 2000. A commercially available finite element program (SAP2000) was used in the design phase to model the bridges. The FE-models were updated after the initial tests in order to have the frequencies and damping of the fundamental vibration...... modes corresponding to the measured values. The models were subsequently used to calculate the predicted acceleration according to the preliminary version of the Eurocode (ENV 1992-2: Concrete bridges) using time-history analysis with a moving load as representative for a single pedestrian. The load...
Full Text Available This paper aims at comparing the parameter of green space per capita currently requested by the Romanian legislation to accessible green space per capita. The comparison is undertaken through a Geographic Information System methodology that uses publicly available data to evaluate actual population numbers with pedestrian access to parks and green squares. Using the city of Timișoara as a case study, population is divided into three main groups according to neigh borhood type in order to investigate the urban planning implications of residential typologies in relation to green space. Two scenarios are compared, namely the existing situation which describes access to municipally-administered parks and squares and the possible situation where both existing and informal green spaces are considered. The main findings show that, at present, only a quarter of the city’s population benefits from proper access, yet by developing all residual green areas this proportion could be raised to over 40%. However, the current parameter of square meters per person requested by the Romanian legislation proves to be insufficient in indicating green space accessibility because of the uneven distribution of population and green areas across the city.
Li, Jun; Fu, Siyao; He, Haibo; Jia, Hongfei; Li, Yanzhong; Guo, Yi
Large-scale regional evacuation is an important part of national security emergency response plan. Large commercial shopping area, as the typical service system, its emergency evacuation is one of the hot research topics. A systematic methodology based on Cellular Automata with the Dynamic Floor Field and event driven model has been proposed, and the methodology has been examined within context of a case study involving the evacuation within a commercial shopping mall. Pedestrians walking is based on Cellular Automata and event driven model. In this paper, the event driven model is adopted to simulate the pedestrian movement patterns, the simulation process is divided into normal situation and emergency evacuation. The model is composed of four layers: environment layer, customer layer, clerk layer and trajectory layer. For the simulation of movement route of pedestrians, the model takes into account purchase intention of customers and density of pedestrians. Based on evacuation model of Cellular Automata with Dynamic Floor Field and event driven model, we can reflect behavior characteristics of customers and clerks at the situations of normal and emergency evacuation. The distribution of individual evacuation time as a function of initial positions and the dynamics of the evacuation process is studied. Our results indicate that the evacuation model using the combination of Cellular Automata with Dynamic Floor Field and event driven scheduling can be used to simulate the evacuation of pedestrian flows in indoor areas with complicated surroundings and to investigate the layout of shopping mall.
Zainol, R.; Ahmad, F.; Nordin, N. A.; Aripin, A. W. M.
Global climate change issues demand people of the world to change the way they live today. Thus, current cities need to be redeveloped towards less use of carbon in their day to day operations. Pedestrianized environment is one of the approaches used in reducing carbon foot print in cities. Heritage cities are the first to be looked into since they were built in the era in which motorized vehicles were minimal. Therefore, the research explores users' satisfaction on assessment of physical attributes of pedestrianization in Melaka Historical City, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It aims to examine users' satisfaction on pedestrian facilities provided within the study area using pair wise questionnaire comparison approach. A survey of 200 respondents using random sampling was conducted in six different sites namely Jonker Street, Church Street, Kota Street, Goldsmith Street, Merdeka Street to Taming Sari Tower and Merdeka Street to River Cruise terminal. The survey consists of an assessment tool based on a nine-point scale of users' satisfaction level of pathway properties, zebra pedestrian crossing, street furniture, personal safety, adjacent to traffic flow, aesthetic and amenities. Analytical hierarchical process (AHP) was used to avoid any biasness in analyzing the data collected. Findings show that Merdeka Street to Taming Sari Tower as the street that scores the highest satisfaction level that fulfils all the required needs of a pedestrianized environment. Similar assessment elements can be used to evaluate existing streets in other cities and these criteria should also be used in planning for future cities.
Full Text Available Most models designed to simulate pedestrian dynamical behavior are based on the assumption that human decision-making can be described using precise values. This study proposes a new pedestrian model that incorporates fuzzy logic theory into a multi-agent system to address cognitive behavior that introduces uncertainty and imprecision during decision-making. We present a concept of decision preferences to represent the intrinsic control factors of decision-making. To realize the different decision preferences of heterogeneous pedestrians, the Five-Factor (OCEAN personality model is introduced to model the psychological characteristics of individuals. Then, a fuzzy logic-based approach is adopted for mapping the relationships between the personality traits and the decision preferences. Finally, we have developed an application using our model to simulate pedestrian dynamical behavior in several normal or non-panic scenarios, including a single-exit room, a hallway with obstacles, and a narrowing passage. The effectiveness of the proposed model is validated with a user study. The results show that the proposed model can generate more reasonable and heterogeneous behavior in the simulation and indicate that individual personality has a noticeable effect on pedestrian dynamical behavior.
Duives, Dorine C.; Daamen, Winnie; Hoogendoorn, Serge P.
In recent years numerous pedestrian simulation tools have been developed that can support crowd managers and government officials in their tasks. New technologies to monitor pedestrian flows are in dire need of models that allow for rapid state-estimation. Many contemporary pedestrian simulation tools model the movements of pedestrians at a microscopic level, which does not provide an exact solution. Macroscopic models capture the fundamental characteristics of the traffic state at a more aggregate level, and generally have a closed form solution which is necessary for rapid state estimation for traffic management purposes. This contribution presents a next step in the calibration and validation of the macroscopic continuum model detailed in Hoogendoorn et al. (2014). The influence of global and local route choice on the development of crowd movement phenomena, such as dissipation, lane-formation and stripe-formation, is studied. This study shows that most self-organization phenomena and behavioural trends only develop under very specific conditions, and as such can only be simulated using specific parameter sets. Moreover, all crowd movement phenomena can be reproduced by means of the continuum model using one parameter set. This study concludes that the incorporation of local route choice behaviour and the balancing of the aptitude of pedestrians with respect to their own class and other classes are both essential in the correct prediction of crowd movement dynamics.
Guo, Ning; Jiang, Rui; Hu, Mao-Bin; Jia, Bin
In this paper, the impact of holding umbrella on the uni- and bi-directional flow has been investigated via experiment and modeling. In the experiments, pedestrians are required to walk clockwise/anti-clockwise in a ring-shaped corridor under normal situation and holding umbrella situation. No matter in uni- or bi-directional flow, the flow rate under holding umbrella situation decreases comparing with that in normal situation. In bidirectional flow, pedestrians segregate into two opposite moving streams very quickly under normal situation, and clockwise/anti-clockwise walking pedestrians are always in the inner/outer lane due to right-walking preference. Under holding umbrella situation, spontaneous lane formation has also occurred. However, when holding umbrella, pedestrians may separate into more than two lanes. Moreover, the merge of lanes have been observed, and clockwise/anti-clockwise pedestrians are not always in the inner/outer lane. To model the flow dynamics, an improved force-based model has been ...
Full Text Available One of the possible preventive measures that could improve safety at crossings is to assess the state of illumination of the lighting installation located in the transition area for pedestrians. The City of Warsaw has undertaken to comprehensively assess the pedestrian crossings to determine the level of road safety and the condition of lighting. The lighting conditions related to pedestrian crossings without traffic lights in three central districts of the city were investigated. The conducted field research and the work of the team of experts lead to the development of tools to assess the level of risk due to the lighting conditions measured at night. The newly developed and used method of assessment and the experience gained should provide a valuable contribution to the development of uniform risk assessment rules for pedestrian crossings in Poland. The authors of this paper have attempted to systematize the description of the method of evaluation of the lighting installed in the area of pedestrian crossings.
Lee, Chung-Hee; Kim, Dongyoung
In this paper, we propose a stereo vision-based pedestrian detection using multiple features for automotive application. The disparity map from stereo vision system and multiple features are utilized to enhance the pedestrian detection performance. Because the disparity map offers us 3D information, which enable to detect obstacles easily and reduce the overall detection time by removing unnecessary backgrounds. The road feature is extracted from the v-disparity map calculated by the disparity map. The road feature is a decision criterion to determine the presence or absence of obstacles on the road. The obstacle detection is performed by comparing the road feature with all columns in the disparity. The result of obstacle detection is segmented by the bird's-eye-view mapping to separate the obstacle area which has multiple objects into single obstacle area. The histogram-based clustering is performed in the bird's-eye-view map. Each segmented result is verified by the classifier with the training model. To enhance the pedestrian recognition performance, multiple features such as HOG, CSS, symmetry features are utilized. In particular, the symmetry feature is proper to represent the pedestrian standing or walking. The block-based symmetry feature is utilized to minimize the type of image and the best feature among the three symmetry features of H-S-V image is selected as the symmetry feature in each pixel. ETH database is utilized to verify our pedestrian detection algorithm.
David F. Llorca
Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical study of the depth estimation error of a stereo vision-based pedestrian detection sensor for automotive applications such as pedestrian collision avoidance and/or mitigation. The sensor comprises two synchronized and calibrated low-cost cameras. Pedestrians are detected by combining a 3D clustering method with Support Vector Machine-based (SVM classification. The influence of the sensor parameters in the stereo quantization errors is analyzed in detail providing a point of reference for choosing the sensor setup according to the application requirements. The sensor is then validated in real experiments. Collision avoidance maneuvers by steering are carried out by manual driving. A real time kinematic differential global positioning system (RTK-DGPS is used to provide ground truth data corresponding to both the pedestrian and the host vehicle locations. The performed field test provided encouraging results and proved the validity of the proposed sensor for being used in the automotive sector towards applications such as autonomous pedestrian collision avoidance.
Llorca, David F.; Sotelo, Miguel A.; Parra, Ignacio; Ocaña, Manuel; Bergasa, Luis M.
This paper presents an analytical study of the depth estimation error of a stereo vision-based pedestrian detection sensor for automotive applications such as pedestrian collision avoidance and/or mitigation. The sensor comprises two synchronized and calibrated low-cost cameras. Pedestrians are detected by combining a 3D clustering method with Support Vector Machine-based (SVM) classification. The influence of the sensor parameters in the stereo quantization errors is analyzed in detail providing a point of reference for choosing the sensor setup according to the application requirements. The sensor is then validated in real experiments. Collision avoidance maneuvers by steering are carried out by manual driving. A real time kinematic differential global positioning system (RTK-DGPS) is used to provide ground truth data corresponding to both the pedestrian and the host vehicle locations. The performed field test provided encouraging results and proved the validity of the proposed sensor for being used in the automotive sector towards applications such as autonomous pedestrian collision avoidance. PMID:22319323
Llorca, David F; Sotelo, Miguel A; Parra, Ignacio; Ocaña, Manuel; Bergasa, Luis M
This paper presents an analytical study of the depth estimation error of a stereo vision-based pedestrian detection sensor for automotive applications such as pedestrian collision avoidance and/or mitigation. The sensor comprises two synchronized and calibrated low-cost cameras. Pedestrians are detected by combining a 3D clustering method with Support Vector Machine-based (SVM) classification. The influence of the sensor parameters in the stereo quantization errors is analyzed in detail providing a point of reference for choosing the sensor setup according to the application requirements. The sensor is then validated in real experiments. Collision avoidance maneuvers by steering are carried out by manual driving. A real time kinematic differential global positioning system (RTK-DGPS) is used to provide ground truth data corresponding to both the pedestrian and the host vehicle locations. The performed field test provided encouraging results and proved the validity of the proposed sensor for being used in the automotive sector towards applications such as autonomous pedestrian collision avoidance.
Jin, Cheng-Jie; Jiang, Rui; Yin, Jun-Lin; Dong, Li-Yun; Li, Dawei
In the experiments of bi-directional pedestrian flow, it is often observed that pedestrians turn their bodies and change from walking straight to walking sideways, in order to mitigate or avoid the conflicts with opposite walking ones. When these conflicts disappear, pedestrians restore and walk straight again. In the turning states, the forward velocities of pedestrians are not affected. In order to simulate this body-turning behavior, we use a cellular automaton (CA) model named ITP model, which has been proposed before. But the occupied area of one pedestrian is set as 0.4 m∗0.2 m. After the introduction of new rules of turnings and restorations, the pedestrians become more intelligent and flexible during the lane formation process, and some improvements of the fundamental diagram of pedestrian flow can be found. The simulation results of two different scenarios under open boundary conditions are also presented, and compared with the experimental data. It is shown that the new model performs much better than the original model in various tests, which further confirms the validity of the new rules. We think this approach is one useful contribution to the pedestrian flow modeling.
Fahlstedt, Madelen; Halldin, Peter; Kleiven, Svein
The objective of this study was to compare and evaluate the difference in head kinematics between the TNO and THUMS models in pedestrian accident situations. The TNO pedestrian model (version 7.4.2) and the THUMS pedestrian model (version 1.4) were compared in one experiment setup and 14 different accident scenarios where the vehicle velocity, leg posture, pedestrian velocity, and pedestrian's initial orientation were altered. In all simulations, the pedestrian model was impacted by a sedan. The head trajectory, head rotation, and head impact velocity were compared, as was the trend when various different parameters were altered. The multibody model had a larger head wrap-around distance for all accident scenarios. The maximum differences of the head's center of gravity between the models in the global x-, y-, and z-directions at impact were 13.9, 5.8, and 5.6 cm, respectively. The maximum difference between the models in head rotation around the head's inferior-superior axis at head impact was 36°. The head impact velocity differed up to 2.4 m/s between the models. The 2 models showed similar trends for the head trajectory when the various parameters were altered. There are differences in kinematics between the THUMS and TNO pedestrian models. However, these model differences are of the same magnitude as those induced by other uncertainties in the accident reconstructions, such as initial leg posture and pedestrian velocity.
Zhang, Yufeng; Du, Xiaohan; Shi, Yurong
The design characteristics of street canyons were investigated in Guangzhou in the hot-humid area of China, and the effects of the design factors and their interactions on pedestrian thermal comfort were studied by numerical simulations. The ENVI-met V4.0 (BASIC) model was validated by field observations and used to simulate the micrometeorological conditions and the standard effective temperature (SET) at pedestrian level of the street canyons for a typical summer day of Guangzhou. The results show that the micrometeorological parameters of mean radiant temperature (MRT) and wind speed play key roles in pedestrian thermal comfort. Street orientation has the largest contribution on SET at pedestrian level, followed by aspect ratio and greenery, while surface albedo and interactions between factors have small contributions. The street canyons oriented southeast-northwest or with a higher aspect ratio provide more shade, higher wind speed, and better thermal comfort conditions for pedestrians. Compared with the east-west-oriented street canyons, the north-south-oriented street canyons have higher MRTs and worse pedestrian thermal comfort due to their wider building spacing along the street. The effects of greenery change with the road width and the time of the day. Street canyon design is recommended to improve pedestrian thermal comfort. This study provides a better understanding of the effects of street canyon design on pedestrian thermal comfort and is a useful guide on urban design for the hot-humid area of China.
O'Malley, Ronan; Jones, Edward; Glavin, Martin
We present a night-time pedestrian detection system based on automotive infrared video processing. Far-infrared or thermal night vision is a technology well suited for automatic detection of pedestrians at night as they generally appear warmer than the background. However, the appearance of a pedestrian in IR video can vary dramatically depending on the physical properties of the clothing they wear, the time spent adjusting to the outside environment, and the ambient temperature. We highlight the difficulties of detection in low temperatures (below 8 °C) when pedestrians typically wear highly insulating clothing, which can lead to distortion of the IR signature of the pedestrian. A pre-processing step is presented, which compensates for this clothing-based distortion using vertically-biased morphological closing. Potential pedestrians (Regions of Interest) are then segmented using feature-based region-growing with high intensity seeds. Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG) features are extracted from candidates and utilised for Support Vector Machine classification. Positively classified targets are tracked between frames using a Kalman filter, adding robustness and increasing performance. The proposed system adapts not just to variations between images or video frames, but to variations in appearance between different pedestrians in the same image or frame. Results indicate improved performance compared to previous HOG-SVM automotive IR pedestrian detection systems, which utilised stereo IR cameras.
... accommodate R302.6.1 Pedestrian Street people with disabilities and to Crossings Without Yield or Stop provide... within situations. pedestrian street crossings without yield or stop control, the cross slope of the...: 202-272-0081. Mail or Hand Delivery/Courier: Scott Windley, Access Board, 1331 F Street NW., Suite...
Antonio R. Jiménez
Full Text Available This paper explores how inertial Pedestrian Dead-Reckoning (PDR location systems can be improved with the use of a light sensor to measure the illumination gradients created when a person walks under ceiling-mounted unmodified indoor lights. The process of updating the inertial PDR estimates with the information provided by light detections is a new concept that we have named Light-matching (LM. The displacement and orientation change of a person obtained by inertial PDR is used by the LM method to accurately propagate the location hypothesis, and vice versa; the LM approach benefits the PDR approach by obtaining an absolute localization and reducing the PDR-alone drift. Even from an initially unknown location and orientation, whenever the person passes below a switched-on light spot, the location likelihood is iteratively updated until it potentially converges to a unimodal probability density function. The time to converge to a unimodal position hypothesis depends on the number of lights detected and the asymmetries/irregularities of the spatial distribution of lights. The proposed LM method does not require any intensity illumination calibration, just the pre-storage of the position and size of all lights in a building, irrespective of their current on/off state. This paper presents a detailed description of the light-matching concept, the implementation details of the LM-assisted PDR fusion scheme using a particle filter, and several simulated and experimental tests, using a light sensor-equipped Galaxy S3 smartphone and an external foot-mounted inertial sensor. The evaluation includes the LM-assisted PDR approach as well as the fusion with other signals of opportunity (WiFi, RFID, Magnetometers or Map-matching in order to compare their contribution in obtaining high accuracy indoor localization. The integrated solution achieves a localization error lower than 1 m in most of the cases.
Schwebel, David C; McClure, Leslie A; Porter, Bryan E
Distracted pedestrian behavior is a significant public health concern, as research suggests distracted pedestrians have significantly higher risk of injury compared to fully attentive pedestrians. Despite this, efforts to reduce distracted pedestrian behavior are scant. Using a repeated measures experimental research design, we implemented a behavioral intervention to reduce distracted pedestrian behavior in the high-risk environment of an urban college campus and simultaneously monitored behavior on a control urban college campus not exposed to the intervention. We had two primary aims: reduce perceived vulnerability to injury among individual pedestrians and reduce distracted pedestrian behavior in the environment through a change in community-based norms. The hallmark of the behavioral intervention was a week-long opportunity for community members to experience personally the risks of distracted pedestrian behavior by attempting to cross a virtual pedestrian environment street while text-messaging. This was supplemented by traditional and social marketing and publicity through various campus partners. A sample of 219 individuals completed self-report surveys about perceived vulnerability to distracted pedestrian injury before experiencing the distracted virtual street-crossing and again after 2 weeks and 5 months. Observational assessment of distracted pedestrian behavior was conducted at a busy intersection on the campus as well as at a control campus not exposed to the intervention at baseline, post-intervention, 10 weeks, and 6 months. The intervention achieved mixed results. Individuals exposed to texting within a simulated pedestrian environment reported changes in their intentions to cross streets while distracted and in perceived vulnerability to risk while crossing streets, but we did not witness evidence of changed community norms based on observed rates of distracted pedestrian behavior before and after the intervention compared to a control campus not
Full Text Available Vision plays a paramount role in our everyday life and assists human in almost every walk of life. The people lacking vision sense require assistance to move freely. The inability of unassisted navigation and orientation in outdoor environments is one of the most important constraints for people with visual impairment. Motivated by this problem, we developed a simplified and user friendly navigation system that allows visually impaired pedestrians to reach their desired outdoor location. We designed a Braille keyboard to allow the blind user to input their destination. The proposed system makes use of Google Directions API (Application Program Interface to generate the right path to a destination. The visually impaired pedestrians have to wear a vibration belt to keep them on the track. The evaluation exposes shortcomings of Google Directions API when used for navigating the visually impaired pedestrians in an outdoor environment.
Cornes, F. E.; Frank, G. A.; Dorso, C. O.
Clogging raises as the principal phenomenon during many evacuation processes of pedestrians in an emergency situation. As people push to escape from danger, compression forces may increase to harming levels. Many individuals might fall down, while others will try to dodge the fallen people, or, simply pass through them. We studied the dynamics of the crowd for these situations, in the context of the ;social force model;. We modeled the unconscious (fallen) pedestrians as inanimate bodies that can be dodged (or not) by the surrounding individuals. We found that new morphological structures appear along the evacuating crowd. Under specific conditions, these structures may enhance the evacuation performance. The pedestrian's willings for either dodging or passing through the unconscious individuals play a relevant role in the overall evacuation performance.
Živković, Vladimir; Lukić, Vera; Nikolić, Slobodan
The aim of this study was to explore the effects of the new traffic safety law on pedestrian mortality by exploring hazardous behaviors of pedestrians in terms of alcohol use and blood alcohol concentration (BAC). A retrospective autopsy study was performed, covering a 7-year period (from 2006 to 2012), including cases of fatally injured pedestrians who died at the scene of the incident. Blood samples obtained from the femoral vein during autopsy were analyzed for BAC. The entire sample was divided into 2 groups. The first included cases from 2006 to 2009, at which time the old traffic safety law was in force, and the second included cases from 2010 to 2012, under the new traffic safety law. A total of 247 cases were examined, covering a 7-year period. The average age was 57.5 ± 19.7 years (median 61.0 years) with a significant male predominance of 147 men to 100 women. This predominance also applied to alcohol use (54 vs. 13). The results show a significant decrease in the total annual number of fatally injured pedestrians, starting from 2009, compared to previous years, reaching a low in 2010, one year after implementation of the new traffic safety law. In contrast, the proportion of alcohol-intoxicated pedestrians showed no significant difference in the years preceding and following the new traffic safety law, nor did the annual distribution of BAC or mean BAC before and after application of the new law. The present study indicates that the new traffic safety law has been quite effective in reducing pedestrian mortality. However, alcohol consumption and intoxication in pedestrians remains a fairly important factor in motor vehicle accidents involving pedestrians, because the proportion of pedestrians positive for alcohol, the proportion of severely intoxicated pedestrians with BAC > 1 g/L, and annual mean BAC have remained unchanged.
Mallory, Ann; Fredriksson, Rikard; Rosén, Erik; Donnelly, Bruce
US and European pedestrian crash cases were analyzed to determine frequency of injury by body region and by the vehicle component identified as the injury source. US pedestrian data was drawn from the Pedestrian Crash Data Study (PCDS). European pedestrian data was drawn from the German In-Depth Accident Study (GIDAS). Results were analyzed in terms of both serious injury (AIS 3+) and disabling injury estimated with the Functional Capacity Index (FCI). The results are presented in parallel for a more complete international perspective on injuries and injury sources. Lower extremity injury from bumper impact and head&face injury from windshield impact were the most frequent combinations for both serious and disabling injuries. Serious lower extremity injuries from bumper contact occurred in 43% of seriously injured pedestrian cases in US PCDS data and 35% of European GIDAS cases. Lower-extremity bumper injuries also account for more than 20% of disability in both datasets. Serious head &face injuries from windshield contact occur in 27% of PCDS and 15% of GIDAS serious injury cases. While bumper impacts primarily result in lower extremity injury and windshield impacts are most often associated with head & face injuries, the hood and hood leading edge are responsible for serious and disabling injuries to a number of different body regions. Therefore, while it is appropriate to focus on lower extremity injury when studying bumper performance and on head injury risk when studying windshield impact, pedestrian performance of other components may require better understanding of injury risk for multiple body regions. PMID:23169112
Quistberg, D Alex; Howard, Eric J; Hurvitz, Philip M; Moudon, Anne V; Ebel, Beth E; Rivara, Frederick P; Saelens, Brian E
Safe urban walking environments may improve health by encouraging physical activity, but the relationship between an individual's location and walking pattern and the risk of pedestrian-motor vehicle collision is unknown. We examined associations between individuals' walking bouts and walking risk, measured as mean exposure to the risk of pedestrian-vehicle collision. Walking bouts were ascertained through integrated accelerometry and global positioning system data and from individual travel-diary data obtained from adults in the Travel Assessment and Community Study (King County, Washington) in 2008-2009. Walking patterns were superimposed onto maps of the historical probabilities of pedestrian-vehicle collisions for intersections and midblock segments within Seattle, Washington. Mean risk of pedestrian-vehicle collision in specific walking locations was assessed according to walking exposure (duration, distance, and intensity) and participant demographic characteristics in linear mixed models. Participants typically walked in areas with low pedestrian collision risk when walking for recreation, walking at a faster pace, or taking longer-duration walks. Mean daily walking duration and distance were not associated with collision risk. Males walked in areas with higher collision risk compared with females, while vehicle owners, residents of single-family homes, and parents of young children walked in areas with lower collision risk. These findings may suggest that pedestrians moderate collision risk by using lower-risk routes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.