WorldWideScience

Sample records for audible pedestrian signals

  1. The Use of Audible Traffic Signals in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, A. F.; Uslan, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses audible traffic signals (ATS) and their use by visually impaired pedestrians in the United States and other countries. Areas of concern are noted, including the types of intersections at which ATS should be installed, the locations of poles and buttons for activating the system, and the specific type of device used.…

  2. Pedestrian Friendly Traffic Signal Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This project continues research aimed at real-time detection and use of pedestrian : traffic flow information to enhance adaptive traffic signal control in urban areas : where pedestrian traffic is substantial and must be given appropriate attention ...

  3. Sub-Audible Speech Recognition Based upon Electromyographic Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Charles C. (Inventor); Lee, Diana D. (Inventor); Agabon, Shane T. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Method and system for processing and identifying a sub-audible signal formed by a source of sub-audible sounds. Sequences of samples of sub-audible sound patterns ("SASPs") for known words/phrases in a selected database are received for overlapping time intervals, and Signal Processing Transforms ("SPTs") are formed for each sample, as part of a matrix of entry values. The matrix is decomposed into contiguous, non-overlapping two-dimensional cells of entries, and neural net analysis is applied to estimate reference sets of weight coefficients that provide sums with optimal matches to reference sets of values. The reference sets of weight coefficients are used to determine a correspondence between a new (unknown) word/phrase and a word/phrase in the database.

  4. Audibility of modulation noise in stationary signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neelen, J.J.M.

    1970-01-01

    Recordings of an acoustic signal on magnetic tape often show noise, which may be divided into two main classes: additive noise and multiplicative noise. A characteristic of the latter is that it is weak with weak signals and strong with strong signals. This modulation noise has been subjected to a

  5. Pedestrian signalization and the risk of pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quistberg, D Alex; Koepsell, Thomas D; Boyle, Linda Ng; Miranda, J Jaime; Johnston, Brian D; Ebel, Beth E

    2014-09-01

    Safe walking environments are essential for protecting pedestrians and promoting physical activity. In Peru, pedestrians comprise over three-quarters of road fatality victims. Pedestrian signalization plays an important role managing pedestrian and vehicle traffic and may help improve pedestrian safety. We examined the relationship between pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions and the presence of visible traffic signals, pedestrian signals, and signal timing to determine whether these countermeasures improved pedestrian safety. A matched case-control design was used where the units of study were crossing locations. We randomly sampled 97 control-matched collisions (weighted N=1134) at intersections occurring from October, 2010 to January, 2011 in Lima. Each case-control pair was matched on proximity, street classification, and number of lanes. Sites were visited between February, 2011 and September, 2011. Each analysis accounted for sampling weight and matching and was adjusted for vehicle and pedestrian traffic flow, crossing width, and mean vehicle speed. Collisions were more common where a phased pedestrian signal (green or red-light signal) was present compared to no signalization (odds ratio [OR] 8.88, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.32-59.6). A longer pedestrian-specific signal duration was associated with collision risk (OR 5.31, 95% CI 1.02-9.60 per 15-s interval). Collisions occurred more commonly in the presence of any signalization visible to pedestrians or pedestrian-specific signalization, though these associations were not statistically significant. Signalization efforts were not associated with lower risk for pedestrians; rather, they were associated with an increased risk of pedestrian-vehicle collisions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A study of pedestrian compliance with traffic signals for exclusive and concurrent phasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan, John N; McKernan, Kevin; Zhang, Yaohua; Ravishanker, Nalini; Mamun, Sha A

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a comparison of pedestrian compliance at traffic signals with two types of pedestrian phasing: concurrent, where both pedestrians and vehicular traffic are directed to move in the same directions at the same time, and exclusive, where pedestrians are directed to move during their own dedicated phase while all vehicular traffic is stopped. Exclusive phasing is usually perceived to be safer, especially by senior and disabled advocacy groups, although these safety benefits depend upon pedestrians waiting for the walk signal. This paper investigates whether or not there are differences between pedestrian compliance at signals with exclusive pedestrian phasing and those with concurrent phasing and whether these differences continue to exist when compliance at exclusive phasing signals is evaluated as if they had concurrent phasing. Pedestrian behavior was observed at 42 signalized intersections in central Connecticut with both concurrent and exclusive pedestrian phasing. Binary regression models were estimated to predict pedestrian compliance as a function of the pedestrian phasing type and other intersection characteristics, such as vehicular and pedestrian volume, crossing distance and speed limit. We found that pedestrian compliance is significantly higher at intersections with concurrent pedestrian phasing than at those with exclusive pedestrian phasing, but this difference is not significant when compliance at exclusive phase intersections is evaluated as if it had concurrent phasing. This suggests that pedestrians treat exclusive phase intersections as though they have concurrent phasing, rendering the safety benefits of exclusive pedestrian phasing elusive. No differences were observed for senior or non-senior pedestrians. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Using Cellular Automata to Investigate Pedestrian Conflicts with Vehicles in Crosswalk at Signalized Intersection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomeng Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The operational efficiency and safety of pedestrian flows at intersections is an important aspect of urban traffic. Particularly, conflicts between pedestrians and vehicles in crosswalk are one of the most influential factors for intersection safety. This paper presents a cellular automata model that simulates pedestrian and vehicle crossing behaviors at signalized intersections. Through the simulation, we investigate the effects of different pedestrian signal timing and crosswalk widths on the crosswalk capacity, the number of traffic conflicts between pedestrians and vehicles, and pedestrian delay due to the conflicts. The simulation results indicate that the cellular automata is an effective simulation platform for investigating complex pedestrian-related traffic phenomenon at signalized intersections.

  8. Pedestrian Urban Safety System and Comfort at Traffic Signals PUSSYCATS : new pedestrian facilities : technique, observations and opinions, a drive-project in France, the UK and The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levelt, P.B.M.

    1994-01-01

    PUSSYCATS (Pedestrian Urban Safety System and Comfort at Traffic Signals) is a new system incorporating technical improvements better adapted to pedestrians needs and behaviour. A Kerb-side detector mat replaces the push buttons, with infrared sensors detecting the presence of pedestrians on the

  9. Safety effects of exclusive and concurrent signal phasing for pedestrian crossing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaohua; Mamun, Sha A; Ivan, John N; Ravishanker, Nalini; Haque, Khademul

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes the estimation of pedestrian crash count and vehicle interaction severity prediction models for a sample of signalized intersections in Connecticut with either concurrent or exclusive pedestrian phasing. With concurrent phasing, pedestrians cross at the same time as motor vehicle traffic in the same direction receives a green phase, while with exclusive phasing, pedestrians cross during their own phase when all motor vehicle traffic on all approaches is stopped. Pedestrians crossing at each intersection were observed and classified according to the severity of interactions with motor vehicles. Observation intersections were selected to represent both types of signal phasing while controlling for other physical characteristics. In the nonlinear mixed models for interaction severity, pedestrians crossing on the walk signal at an exclusive signal experienced lower interaction severity compared to those crossing on the green light with concurrent phasing; however, pedestrians crossing on a green light where an exclusive phase was available experienced higher interaction severity. Intersections with concurrent phasing have fewer total pedestrian crashes than those with exclusive phasing but more crashes at higher severity levels. It is recommended that exclusive pedestrian phasing only be used at locations where pedestrians are more likely to comply. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Pedestrian Safety Treatments for Signalized Intersections : Training Course Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    When drivers make left turns during a permissive turn phase, they must yield to pedestrians as well as oncoming through vehicles. Left-turning drivers sometimes overlook pedestrians in the crosswalk while watching the opposing intersection approach. ...

  11. Modeling pedestrian crossing speed profiles considering speed change behavior for the safety assessment of signalized intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iryo-Asano, Miho; Alhajyaseen, Wael K M

    2017-11-01

    Pedestrian safety is one of the most challenging issues in road networks. Understanding how pedestrians maneuver across an intersection is the key to applying countermeasures against traffic crashes. It is known that the behaviors of pedestrians at signalized crosswalks are significantly different from those in ordinary walking spaces, and they are highly influenced by signal indication, potential conflicts with vehicles, and intersection geometries. One of the most important characteristics of pedestrian behavior at crosswalks is the possible sudden speed change while crossing. Such sudden behavioral change may not be expected by conflicting vehicles, which may lead to hazardous situations. This study aims to quantitatively model the sudden speed changes of pedestrians as they cross signalized crosswalks under uncongested conditions. Pedestrian speed profiles are collected from empirical data and speed change events are extracted assuming that the speed profiles are stepwise functions. The occurrence of speed change events is described by a discrete choice model as a function of the necessary walking speed to complete crossing before the red interval ends, current speed, and the presence of turning vehicles in the conflict area. The amount of speed change before and after the event is modeled using regression analysis. A Monte Carlo simulation is applied for the entire speed profile of the pedestrians. The results show that the model can represent the pedestrian travel time distribution more accurately than the constant speed model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Situational Factors of Influencing Drivers to Give Precedence to Jaywalking Pedestrians at Signalized Crosswalk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobei Jiang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A large number of fatalities are caused by the vehicle-pedestrian accidents. Under a potential conflict between the vehicle and jaywalking pedestrian, giving precedence to the pedestrian will be a proper decision taken by the driver to avoid collision. Field traffic data has been collected by video recording and image processing at two signalized crosswalks. Vehicle speed performance in the single vehicle-pedestrian encounter and platoon vehicle-pedestrian encounter were analyzed for understanding the driver behavior in the conflict process. Binary logic model was proposed to estimate the drivers' giving precedence influenced by the situational factors and the model was validated to predict the drivers' choices accurately. The vehicle speed, pedestrian speed, pedestrian lateral distance and the vehicle longitudinal distance to the conflict point were proved to affect the drivers' choices in platoon driving. The research results would hopefully be helpful to the design of intelligent vehicles and pedestrian protection systems by the knowledge-based decision making process.

  13. The flashing right turn signal with pedestrian indication : human factors studies to understand the potential of a new signal to increase awareness of and attention to crossing pedestrians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The flashing pedestrian indicator (FPI) is intended to alert turning drivers to the potential presence of : pedestrians in the roadway, facilitate scanning in the likely direction of pedestrians, and encourage caution and : yielding behavior in respo...

  14. Analysis of Crossing Speed of the Pedestrians in Marked and Unmarked Crosswalks in the Signalized and Un-Signalized Intersections (Case Study: Rasht city)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behbahani, Hamid; Najafi Moghaddam Gilani, Vahid; Jahangir Samet, Mehdi; Salehfard, Reza

    2017-10-01

    Pedestrians affect the traffic in the signalized and un-signalized intersections. Therefore, identifying the behavioural features of the pedestrians is of great importance and may result in better designing facilities for them. In this study, by shooting the four intersections in Rasht for 15 hours and inventory from 4568 pedestrians, crossing speed of the pedestrians in the marked crosswalks and unmarked crosswalks was evaluated and analysed. Results showed that pedestrians‧ crossing speed in the marked crosswalks is higher than their crossing speed in the unmarked crosswalks in both signalized and un-signalized intersections. Moreover, in the unmarked crosswalks in the signalized intersections, 15th percentile speed of male pedestrians, female pedestrians and group of pedestrians’ decrease 6.4%, 5.4% and 12.2%, respectively, compared with the 15th percentile speed in the marked crosswalks. Above-mentioned values in the unmarked crosswalks in the un-signalized intersections for male pedestrians, female pedestrians, and group of pedestrians decrease 1.2%, 3.8%, and 1.4%, respectively.

  15. Traffic signal phasing at intersections to improve safety for alcohol-affected pedestrians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenné, Michael G; Corben, Bruce F; Stephan, Karen

    2007-07-01

    Alcohol-affected pedestrians are among the highest-risk groups involved in pedestrian casualty crashes. This paper investigates the opportunities to use a modified form of traffic signal operation during high-risk periods and at high-risk locations to reduce alcohol-affected pedestrian crashes and the severity of injuries that might otherwise occur. The 'Dwell-on-Red' treatment involves displaying a red traffic signal to all vehicle directions during periods when no vehicular traffic is detected, so that drivers approach high-risk intersections at a lower speed than if a green signal were displayed. Vehicle speed data were collected before and after treatment activation at both a control and treatment site. Speed data were collected both 30 m prior to and at the intersection stop line. The treatment was associated with a reduction in mean vehicle speeds of 3.9 kph (9%) and 11.0 kph (28%) at 30 m and stop line collection points, respectively, and substantial reductions in the proportion of vehicles travelling at threatening speeds with regard to the severity of pedestrian injury. Other important road safety concerns may also benefit from this form of traffic signal modification, and it is recommended that other areas of application be explored, including the other severe trauma categories typically concentrated around signalised intersections.

  16. Effect of Pedestrians on the Saturation Flow Rate of Right Turn Movements at Signalized Intersection - Case Study from Rasht City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshani, Mostafa; Bargegol, Iraj

    2017-10-01

    Saturation flow rate is one of the important items in the analysis of the capacity of signalized intersections that are affected by some factors. Pedestrian crossing on signalized intersection is one of the factors which influence the vehicles flow. In addition, the released researches determined that the greatest impact of pedestrian on the saturation flow occurred in the Conflict zone where the highest chance of the encounter of pedestrians and vehicles has in turning movements. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the saturation flow rate considering the effect of a pedestrian on right turn movements of the signalized intersections in Rasht city. For this goal, 6 signalized intersections with 90 cycles of reviews were selected for the estimation of saturation flow rate by the microscopic method and also 3 right turn lanes containing radius differences with 70 cycles of reviews were collected for the investigation of the pedestrians’ effects. Each phase of right turn lanes cycle was divided in the pieces of 10-second period which was totally 476 sample volumes of considered pedestrians and vehicles at that period. Only 101 samples of those were ranged as saturated conditions. Finally, using different regression models, the best relationship between pedestrian’s volume and right turning vehicles flow parameters was evaluated. The results indicate that there is a primarily linear relationship between pedestrian volume and right turning vehicles flow with R2=0.6261. According to this regression model with the increase in pedestrians, saturation flow rate will be reduced. In addition, by comparing the adjustment factor obtained in the present study and other studies, it was found that the effect of pedestrians on the right-turn movements in Rasht city is less than the rest of the world.

  17. Audibility of harmonics in 'periodic white noise'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duifhuis, H.; Tomesen, H.H.

    1970-01-01

    In a previous article (Duifhuis, 1970) results' concerning the audibility of harmonics in a periodic pulse have been presented. Each of the lower harmonics could be perceived separately, whereas the high harmonics were heard together as one complex signal. High harmonics, however, appeared to be

  18. Estimating Safety Effects of Green-Man Countdown Devices at Signalized Pedestrian Crosswalk Based on Cellular Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Safety effects of Green-Man Countdown Device (GMCD at signalized pedestrian crosswalks are evaluated. Pedestrian behavior at GMCD and non-GMCD crosswalks is observed and analyzed. A microsimulation model is developed based on field observations to estimate safety performance. Simulation outputs allow analysts to assess the impacts of GMCD at various conditions with different geometric layout, traffic and pedestrian volumes, and the green time. According to simulation results, it is found that the safety impact of GMCD is affected by traffic condition as well as different time duration within green-man signal phase. In general, GMCD increases average walking velocity, especially during the last few seconds. The installation of GMCD improves safety performance generally, especially at more crowded crossings. Conflict severity is increased during last 10 s after GMCD installation. Findings from this study suggest that the current practice, which is to install GMCD at more crowded crosswalks or near the school zone, is effective. Moreover, at crosswalks with GMCD, longer all red signal phase is suggested to improve pedestrian safety during intergreen period.

  19. Audible thunder characteristic and the relation between peak ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    can detect, generally a few tens of hertz. Audi- ... paper, audible thunder signals have been obtained and analysed. Thunder ... thunder data when the optical spectrum of light- ning could .... finally a relatively weak sound of long duration and.

  20. Effects of mobile phone distraction on pedestrians' crossing behavior and visual attention allocation at a signalized intersection: An outdoor experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Kang; Ling, Feiyang; Feng, Zhongxiang; Ma, Changxi; Kumfer, Wesley; Shao, Chen; Wang, Kun

    2018-06-01

    With the rapid growth in mobile phone use worldwide, traffic safety experts have begun to consider the impact of mobile phone distractions on pedestrian crossing safety. This study sought to investigate how mobile phone distractions (music distraction, phone conversation distraction and text distraction) affect the behavior of pedestrians while they are crossing the street. An outdoor-environment experiment was conducted among 28 college student pedestrians. Two HD videos and an eye tracker were employed to record and analyze crossing behavior and visual attention allocation. The results of the research showed that the three mobile phone distractions cause different levels of impairment to pedestrians' crossing performance, with the greatest effect from text distraction, followed by phone conversation distraction and music distraction. Pedestrians distracted by music initiate crossing later, have increased pupil diameter, and reduce their scanning frequency, fixation points and fixation times toward traffic signal area priorities. In addition to the above effects, pedestrians distracted by phone conversation cross the street more slowly, direct fewer fixation points to the right traffic area, and spend less fixation time and lower average fixation duration on the left traffic area. Moreover, pedestrians distracted by texting look left and right less often and switch, distribute and maintain less visual attention on the traffic environment. These findings may inform researchers, policy makers, and pedestrians. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Failure Analysis of Network Based Accessible Pedestrian Signals in Closed-Loop Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    The potential failure modes of a network based accessible pedestrian system were analyzed to determine the limitations and benefits of closed-loop operation. The vulnerabilities of the system are accessed using the industry standard process known as ...

  2. Pedestrian hybrid beacon guide : recommendations and case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    A pedestrian hybrid beacon (PHB) is a traffic control : device similar to a European pedestrian signal : (PELICAN) that was imported to the US and adapted by : engineers in Arizona to increase motorists awareness of : pedestrian crossings at uncon...

  3. Traffic flow behavior at un-signalized intersection with crossings pedestrians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khallouk, A.; Echab, H.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Lakouari, N.

    2018-02-01

    Mixed traffic flux composed of crossing pedestrians and vehicles extensively exists in cities. To study the characteristics of the interference traffic flux, we develop a pedestrian-vehicle cellular automata model to present the interaction behaviors on a simple cross road. By realizing the fundamental parameters (i.e. injecting rates α1, α2, the extracting rate β and the pedestrian arrival rate αP), simulations are carried out. The vehicular traffic flux is calculated in terms of rates. The effect of the crosswalk can be regarded as a dynamic impurity. The system phase diagrams in the (α1 ,αP) plane are built. It is found that the phase diagrams consist essentially of four phases namely Free Flow, Congested, Maximal Current and Gridlock. The value of the Maximal current phase depends on the extracting rate β, while the Gridlock phase is achieved only when the pedestrians generating rate is higher than a critical value. Furthermore, the effect of vehicles changing lane (Pch1 ,Pch2) and the location of the crosswalk XP on the dynamic characteristics of vehicles flow are investigated. It is found that traffic situation in the system is slightly enhanced if the location of the crosswalks XP is far from the intersection. However, when Pch1, Pch2 increase, the traffic becomes congested and the Gridlock phase enlarges.

  4. The flashing right turn signal with pedestrian indication : human factors studies to understand the potential of a new signal to increase awareness of and attention to crossing pedestrians, [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) has placed a high priority on understanding : the nature of pedestrian injury and fatality incidents and on developing interventions that will : make Floridas roads safer for pedestrians.

  5. Effects of Pedestrian Prompts on Motorist Yielding at Crosswalks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley-Koch, Brian J.; Van Houten, Ron; Lim, Eunyoung

    2011-01-01

    Pedestrian safety is a serious concern at busy intersections and pedestrian campuses across the nation. Although crosswalks and signs inform pedestrians where to cross, there is no standard protocol for pedestrians to signal drivers that they wish to use the crosswalks, except to stand in or at the crosswalk. We examined the effects of two…

  6. Pedestrian Crashes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This data set maps the locations of crashes involving pedestrians in the Chapel Hill Region of North Carolina.The data comes from police-reported bicycle-motor...

  7. Audible Aliasing Distortion in Digital Audio Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schimmel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with aliasing distortion in digital audio signal synthesis of classic periodic waveforms with infinite Fourier series, for electronic musical instruments. When these waveforms are generated in the digital domain then the aliasing appears due to its unlimited bandwidth. There are several techniques for the synthesis of these signals that have been designed to avoid or reduce the aliasing distortion. However, these techniques have high computing demands. One can say that today's computers have enough computing power to use these methods. However, we have to realize that today’s computer-aided music production requires tens of multi-timbre voices generated simultaneously by software synthesizers and the most of the computing power must be reserved for hard-disc recording subsystem and real-time audio processing of many audio channels with a lot of audio effects. Trivially generated classic analog synthesizer waveforms are therefore still effective for sound synthesis. We cannot avoid the aliasing distortion but spectral components produced by the aliasing can be masked with harmonic components and thus made inaudible if sufficient oversampling ratio is used. This paper deals with the assessment of audible aliasing distortion with the help of a psychoacoustic model of simultaneous masking and compares the computing demands of trivial generation using oversampling with those of other methods.

  8. Mobile Sensing of Pedestrian Flocks in Indoor Environments using WiFi Signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Wirz, Martin; Roggen, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    a cohesive whole - specifically flocks - with clustering approaches operating on three different feature sets derived from WiFi signals which are comparatively analysed. Automatic detection of flocks has several important applications, including social and psychological sensing and emergency research studies...

  9. The Crossing Speed of Elderly Pedestrians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Trpković

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The population of elderly people is rapidly growing and in terms of safety, senior pedestrians represent one of the most vulnerable group. The pedestrian crossing speed is a significant input parameter in traffic engineering, which can have effect on pedestrians’ safety, especially of older population. The objective of this study was to determine the value of the crossing speed of elderly pedestrians (65+ for different types of urban crossings. The research was conducted at ten intersections in the city of Belgrade, Serbia, using the method of direct observation and a questionnaire for collecting data. The data were analysed in the statistical software package IBM SPSS Statistics. The results showed that elderly pedestrians walk slower and the crossing type significantly influenced the speed of older population. The order of crossing types in relation to the measured speed is ranked as follows, from the lowest to the highest speed value: unsignalized, signalized, signalized with pedestrian countdown display, signalized with pedestrian island and pedestrian countdown display and finally signalized crossing with pedestrian island. According to the questionnaire results, the elderly recognize the importance of implementing pedestrian counters. This indicates the necessity to provide safe street crossing for the elderly using the corresponding engineering measures.

  10. Pedestrian recognition using automotive radar sensors

    OpenAIRE

    A. Bartsch; F. Fitzek; R. H. Rasshofer

    2012-01-01

    The application of modern series production automotive radar sensors to pedestrian recognition is an important topic in research on future driver assistance systems. The aim of this paper is to understand the potential and limits of such sensors in pedestrian recognition. This knowledge could be used to develop next generation radar sensors with improved pedestrian recognition capabilities. A new raw radar data signal processing algorithm is proposed that allows deep insight...

  11. Pedestrians´and cyclists´effect on capacity of right turn movement at signalized intersections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, N O; Aagaard, Pierre E.; Rysgaard, Rikke

    1998-01-01

    Observations from 4 intersections in Copenhagen are used to formulate a model for the delays which right turning car traffic experience due to straight ahead going pedestrians and cyclists. The empirical data are used to formulate a simulation model which allows estimation of delays in cases...

  12. Pedestrian safety action plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    In 2005, Arizona ranked 5th among states in pedestrian fatalities per 100,000 residents, with 164 : pedestrian fatalities on Arizonas roadwaysa nearly 30 percent increase from 2003 levels. To reduce : the number of pedestrian crashes in Arizona...

  13. Pedestrian injury causation study (pedestrian accident typing)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    A new computerized pedestrian accident typing procedure was tested on 1,997 cases from the Pedestrian Injury Causation Study (PICS). Two coding procedures were used to determine the effects of quantity and quality of information on accident typing ac...

  14. Remote infrared audible signage (RIAS) pilot program report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The Remote Infrared Audible Sign Model Accessibility Program (RIAS MAP) is a program funded by the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) to evaluate the effectiveness of remote infrared audible sign systems in enabling persons with visual and cognitiv...

  15. PT-SAFE: a software tool for development and annunciation of medical audible alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Christopher L; McNeer, Richard R

    2012-03-01

    Recent reports by The Joint Commission as well as the Anesthesia Patient Safety Foundation have indicated that medical audible alarm effectiveness needs to be improved. Several recent studies have explored various approaches to improving the audible alarms, motivating the authors to develop real-time software capable of comparing such alarms. We sought to devise software that would allow for the development of a variety of audible alarm designs that could also integrate into existing operating room equipment configurations. The software is meant to be used as a tool for alarm researchers to quickly evaluate novel alarm designs. A software tool was developed for the purpose of creating and annunciating audible alarms. The alarms consisted of annunciators that were mapped to vital sign data received from a patient monitor. An object-oriented approach to software design was used to create a tool that is flexible and modular at run-time, can annunciate wave-files from disk, and can be programmed with MATLAB by the user to create custom alarm algorithms. The software was tested in a simulated operating room to measure technical performance and to validate the time-to-annunciation against existing equipment alarms. The software tool showed efficacy in a simulated operating room environment by providing alarm annunciation in response to physiologic and ventilator signals generated by a human patient simulator, on average 6.2 seconds faster than existing equipment alarms. Performance analysis showed that the software was capable of supporting up to 15 audible alarms on a mid-grade laptop computer before audio dropouts occurred. These results suggest that this software tool provides a foundation for rapidly staging multiple audible alarm sets from the laboratory to a simulation environment for the purpose of evaluating novel alarm designs, thus producing valuable findings for medical audible alarm standardization.

  16. Analysis on influencing factors and decision-making of pedestrian crossing at intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Likun; Wang, Ziyang

    2017-10-01

    The city signal intersection always has complex traffic flow and many traffic accidents. As vulnerable participants, the proportion of traffic accidents involving pedestrians remain high. And a lot of insecure crossing behavior seriously reduce the safety of the intersection. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out in-depth study on the traversing characteristics of pedestrians, reveal the inherent laws of pedestrian crossing, and then put forward targeted measures to improve pedestrian traffic environment, protect pedestrian crossing safety and improve traffic efficiency.

  17. Pedestrian Friendly Outdoor Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, N. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Koltai, R. N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McGowan, T. K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The GATEWAY program followed two pedestrian-scale lighting projects that required multiple mockups – one at Stanford University in California and the other at Chautauqua Institution in upstate New York. The report provides insight into pedestrian lighting criteria, how they differ from street and area lighting criteria, and how solid-state lighting can be better applied in pedestrian applications.

  18. Countermeasures in the field of human factors in relation, to pedestrian behaviour, regulations, and law enforcement.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraay, J.H.

    1974-01-01

    Existing measures and theoretical studies on pedestrian behavior, regulations, and enforcement are reviewed. Specific consideration is given to: types of crossings; traffic signal effectiveness; bridges and subways; traffic training areas for children; characteristic movements of pedestrian

  19. Melodic algorithms for pulse oximetry to allow audible discrimination of abnormal systolic blood pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chima, Ranjit S; Ortega, Rafael; Connor, Christopher W

    2014-12-01

    An anesthesiologist must remain vigilant of the patient's clinical status, incorporating many independent physiological measurements. Oxygen saturation and heart rate are represented by continuous audible tones generated by the pulse oximeter, a mandated monitoring device. Other important clinical parameters--notably blood pressure--lack any audible representation beyond arbitrarily-configured threshold alarms. Attempts to introduce further continuous audible tones have apparently foundered; the complexity and interaction of these tones have exceeded the ability of clinicians to interpret them. Instead, we manipulate the tonal and rhythmic structure of the accepted pulse oximeter tone pattern melodically. Three melodic algorithms were developed to apply tonal and rhythmic variations to the continuous pulse oximeter tone, dependent on the systolic blood pressure. The algorithms distort the original audible pattern minimally, to facilitate comprehension of both the underlying pattern and the applied variations. A panel of anesthesia practitioners (attending anesthesiologists, residents and nurse anesthetists) assessed these algorithms in characterizing perturbations in cardiopulmonary status. Twelve scenarios, incorporating combinations of oxygen desaturation, bradycardia, tachycardia, hypotension and hypertension, were tested. A rhythmic variation in which additional auditory information was conveyed only at halftime intervals, with every other "beat" of the pulse oximeter, was strongly favored. The respondents also strongly favored the use of musical chords over single tones. Given three algorithms of tones embedded in the pulse oximeter signal, anesthesiologists preferred a melodic tone to signal a significant change in blood pressure.

  20. Pedestrian recognition using automotive radar sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, A.; Fitzek, F.; Rasshofer, R. H.

    2012-09-01

    The application of modern series production automotive radar sensors to pedestrian recognition is an important topic in research on future driver assistance systems. The aim of this paper is to understand the potential and limits of such sensors in pedestrian recognition. This knowledge could be used to develop next generation radar sensors with improved pedestrian recognition capabilities. A new raw radar data signal processing algorithm is proposed that allows deep insights into the object classification process. The impact of raw radar data properties can be directly observed in every layer of the classification system by avoiding machine learning and tracking. This gives information on the limiting factors of raw radar data in terms of classification decision making. To accomplish the very challenging distinction between pedestrians and static objects, five significant and stable object features from the spatial distribution and Doppler information are found. Experimental results with data from a 77 GHz automotive radar sensor show that over 95% of pedestrians can be classified correctly under optimal conditions, which is compareable to modern machine learning systems. The impact of the pedestrian's direction of movement, occlusion, antenna beam elevation angle, linear vehicle movement, and other factors are investigated and discussed. The results show that under real life conditions, radar only based pedestrian recognition is limited due to insufficient Doppler frequency and spatial resolution as well as antenna side lobe effects.

  1. Ranking the types of intersections for assessing the safety of pedestrians using TOPSIS method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Călin ŞERBU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Every year, more than 1500 accidents with pedestrian occur in the intersections in Romania. The number of accidents involving pedestrians in roundabouts intersections type increased approximately three times in 2013 compared to 2009 in Romania. This alarming increase led to the need of assessing the safety of pedestrians in intersections with or without safety systems. The safety systems for pedestrians and drivers include: the road marking, the pedestrian crossings marking, signal intersections with road signs, traffic lights or pedestrian safety barriers. We propose to assess the types of intersections with TOPSIS method.

  2. Prevention of pedestrian accidents.

    OpenAIRE

    Kendrick, D

    1993-01-01

    Child pedestrian accidents are the most common road traffic accident resulting in injury. Much of the existing work on road traffic accidents is based on analysing clusters of accidents despite evidence that child pedestrian accidents tend to be more dispersed than this. This paper analyses pedestrian accidents in 573 children aged 0-11 years by a locally derived deprivation score for the years 1988-90. The analysis shows a significantly higher accident rate in deprived areas and a dose respo...

  3. 32 CFR 636.26 - Pedestrian's rights and duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.26 Pedestrian's rights and duties. (a) Pedestrians will obey all traffic control... signals are not in place or not in operation, the driver of a vehicle will yield the right of way, by...

  4. Remote Infrared Audible Signage (RIAS) Pilot Program : evaluation report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    This report presents evaluation findings on the Remote Infrared Audible Signage (RIAS) Pilot Program in the Puget Sound Region of Washington. The installation, demonstration and evaluation of RIAS were required by a provision in the Safe, Accountable...

  5. Pedestrian Friendly Outdoor Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Naomi J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Koltai, Rita [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McGowan, Terry [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-12-31

    This GATEWAY report discusses the problems of pedestrian lighting that occur with all technologies with a focus on the unique optical options and opportunities offered by LEDs through the findings from two pedestrian-focused projects, one at Stanford University in California, and one at the Chautauqua Institution in upstate New York. Incorporating user feedback this report reviews the tradeoffs that must be weighed among visual comfort, color, visibility, efficacy and other factors to stimulate discussion among specifiers, users, energy specialists, and in industry in hopes that new approaches, metrics, and standards can be developed to support pedestrian-focused communities, while reducing energy use.

  6. Microsimulation of the Impact of Access Management Practices to Pedestrians

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-12-31

    The study applied microsimulation to analyze the impact of access management (AM) to the operational performances of vehicles and pedestrians. A conceptual model was developed in VISSIM and VISWALK to examine the effect of access and signals density ...

  7. Greenways Pedestrian & Cyclist Counters

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Pedestrian and cyclist sensor data time stamped from sensors on the Bolin Creek Trail and Meadowmont Trail in Chapel Hill. Each sensor has four value points that...

  8. Influence of approaching tram on behaviour of pedestrians in signalised crosswalks in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruszyna, Maciej; Rychlewski, Jeremi

    2013-06-01

    Research done in two Polish cities has uncovered an influence of an approaching tram on pedestrian behaviour. The measurements were done by counting pedestrians waiting for a green signal, crossing on red signal safely, or crossing on red signal taking a risk of being hit by a car, differentiating between pedestrians attempting to board a public transport vehicle and other pedestrians. It was expected, that pedestrian behaviour might be influenced by traffic control predictability, therefore two cities were chosen for the task: Wrocław with fixed time traffic control and Poznań with a majority of traffic responsive traffic signals. Data from the measurements was compared in order to find behaviour patterns - the comparison led to a conclusion, that an attempt to get on board of an incoming public transport vehicle can be a major cause for pedestrians to violate a red signal, including an increase of unsafe behaviour. These pedestrians may provoke other pedestrians to cross on a red signal. On the other hand if traffic control guarantees boarding the public transport vehicle, passengers-to-be may be even more obedient than other pedestrians. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Managing Pedestrian and Car Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-26

    In urban areas and especially in inner cities, pedestrians crossing the road considerably influence the road traffic flow. For political (environmental) reasons, priority could be given to pedestrians. A larger number of crossings reduces the pedestr...

  10. Influence of children pedestrian behaviour on pedestrian space usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makalew, F. P.; Adisasmita, S. A.; Wunas, S.; Hamid, S.

    2017-11-01

    School children pedestrian behaviour can be seen along their journey to and from school. Pedestrian spaces used by children are places available in urban and rural areas including streets with and without pedestrian pathways. Samples data are collected from 23 elementary schools in urban and rural areas in North Sulawesi, Indonesia in the form of video records and photos taken. The aim of this research is to analyse children pedestrian behaviour and its influence on the space usage on pedestrian areas. Method of analysis is a comparative study on urban and rural areas. Results of this research are types of behaviour, factors that influence the behaviour, physical condition of pedestrian areas and space usage by children. The behaviours are duck-line walking, running, playing, walking backward and walking with bare foot in which running is the main behaviour. These behaviours are influenced by factors including following friends and responding to acts. There are similarities and differences between pedestrian space usage in urban and rural areas. Space use by children pedestrian demonstrates the way pedestrian areas should be planned. Space usage by children pedestrian indicates that there is a need of evaluation of the space available considering pedestrian children behaviour.

  11. Exploring pedestrian movement patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orellana, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to develop an approach for exploring, analysing and interpreting movement patterns of pedestrians interacting with the environment. This objective is broken down in sub-objectives related to four research questions. A case study of the movement of visitors in a

  12. Evaluation of geometrically personalized THUMS pedestrian model response against sedan-pedestrian PMHS impact test data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huipeng; Poulard, David; Forman, Jason; Crandall, Jeff; Panzer, Matthew B

    2018-07-04

    Evaluating the biofidelity of pedestrian finite element models (PFEM) using postmortem human subjects (PMHS) is a challenge because differences in anthropometry between PMHS and PFEM could limit a model's capability to accurately capture cadaveric responses. Geometrical personalization via morphing can modify the PFEM geometry to match the specific PMHS anthropometry, which could alleviate this issue. In this study, the Total Human Model for Safety (THUMS) PFEM (Ver 4.01) was compared to the cadaveric response in vehicle-pedestrian impacts using geometrically personalized models. The AM50 THUMS PFEM was used as the baseline model, and 2 morphed PFEM were created to the anthropometric specifications of 2 obese PMHS used in a previous pedestrian impact study with a mid-size sedan. The same measurements as those obtained during the PMHS tests were calculated from the simulations (kinematics, accelerations, strains), and biofidelity metrics based on signals correlation (correlation and analysis, CORA) were established to compare the response of the models to the experiments. Injury outcomes were predicted deterministically (through strain-based threshold) and probabilistically (with injury risk functions) and compared with the injuries reported in the necropsy. The baseline model could not accurately capture all aspects of the PMHS kinematics, strain, and injury risks, whereas the morphed models reproduced biofidelic response in terms of trajectory (CORA score = 0.927 ± 0.092), velocities (0.975 ± 0.027), accelerations (0.862 ± 0.072), and strains (0.707 ± 0.143). The personalized THUMS models also generally predicted injuries consistent with those identified during posttest autopsy. The study highlights the need to control for pedestrian anthropometry when validating pedestrian human body models against PMHS data. The information provided in the current study could be useful for improving model biofidelity for vehicle-pedestrian impact scenarios.

  13. Prediction equation for vehicle-pedestrian crash and safety analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The occurrences of vehicle-pedestrian crashes at signalized intersections were investigated using a 3 year (2004-2006) crash records of 82 signalized intersections in Accra, Kumasi, Tema, Sekondi-Takoradi and Tamale. The data were analyzed using Micro-computer Accident Analysis Package. Traffic flow characteristics ...

  14. Isolated and Single Pedestrians and Pedestrian Groups on Sidewalks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Pinna

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Walking freedom can define the quality of an urban area, but this freedom is conditioned by various factors. The research objective is to study pedestrian behavior on sidewalks. Data are collected during on site surveys by means of concealed camcorders. For each pedestrian many factors are observed, such as gender, age, direction, distractions, transport of objects, etc., which could influence pedestrian behavior. Data processing allows the identification of mathematical models describing the average pedestrian’s behavior, subdivided for user type (isolated, single, group. In general, the mean walking pedestrian speed decreases depending on user type (in a linear manner if age class grows for isolated pedestrians, while with the square of age for other user types, of gender, and of facing type. Models obtained for the different pedestrian types were compared to understand the differences in speeds, underlining that pedestrian interferences play a significant role in defining behavior and, therefore, speed. The results support the idea that, to define a smooth pedestrian speed as an indicator of the “walkability” of a path, in addition to considering the path and user’s characteristics, it is also necessary to define the type of user for which the infrastructure is designed.

  15. Rapid detection and identification of pedestrian impacts using a distributed sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Andrew C.; Chang, Fu-Kuo

    2005-05-01

    Pedestrian fatalities from automobile accidents often occur as a result of head injuries suffered from impacts with an automobile front end. Active pedestrian protection systems with proper pedestrian recognition algorithms can protect pedestrians from such head trauma. An investigation was conducted to assess the feasibility of using a network of piezoelectric sensors mounted on the front bumper beam of an automobile to discriminate between impacts with "pedestrian" and "non-pedestrian" objects. This information would be used to activate a safety device (e.g., external airbag or pop-up hood) to provide protection for the vulnerable pedestrian. An analytical foundation for the object-bumper impact problem will be presented, as well as the classical beam impact theory. The mechanical waves that propagate in the structure from an external impact contain a wealth of information about the specifics of a particular impact -- object mass, size, impact speed, etc. -- but most notably the object stiffness, which identifies the impacted object. Using the frequency content of the sensor signals, it can be shown that impacts with a "pedestrian" object of varying size, weight, and speed can be easily differentiated from impacts with other "non-pedestrian" objects. Simulation results will illustrate this phenomenon, and experimental tests will verify the results. A comprehensive series of impact tests were performed for validation, using both a stationary front bumper with a drop-pendulum impactor and a moving car with stationary impact objects. Results from both tests will be presented.

  16. Analyzing fault in pedestrian-motor vehicle crashes in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulfarsson, Gudmundur F; Kim, Sungyop; Booth, Kathleen M

    2010-11-01

    Crashes between pedestrians and motor vehicles are an important traffic safety concern. This paper explores the assignment of fault in such crashes, where observed factors are associated with pedestrian at fault, driver at fault, or both at fault. The analysis is based on police reported crash data for 1997 through 2000 in North Carolina, U.S.A. The results show that pedestrians are found at fault in 59% of the crashes, drivers in 32%, and both are found at fault in 9%. The results indicate drivers need to take greater notice of pedestrians when drivers are turning, merging, and backing up as these are some of the prime factors associated with the driver being found at fault in a crash. Pedestrians must apply greater caution when crossing streets, waiting to cross, and when walking along roads, as these are correlated with pedestrians being found at fault. The results suggest a need for campaigns focused on positively affecting pedestrian street-crossing behavior in combination with added jaywalking enforcement. The results also indicate that campaigns to increase the use of pedestrian visibility improvements at night can have a significant positive impact on traffic safety. Intoxication is a concern and the results show that it is not only driver intoxication that is affecting safety, but also pedestrian intoxication. The findings show in combination with other research in the field, that results from traffic safety studies are not necessarily transferable between distant geographic locations, and that location-specific safety research needs to take place. It is also important to further study the specific effects of the design of the pedestrian environment on safety, e.g. crosswalk spacing, signal timings, etc., which together may affect pedestrian safety and pedestrian behavior. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Audibility of spectral differences in head-related transfer functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Pablo F.F.; Møller, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    The spatial resolution at which head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) are available is an important aspect in the implementation of three-dimensional sound. Specifically, synthesis of moving sound requires that HRTFs are sufficiently close so the simulated sound is perceived as moving smoothly....... How close they must be, depends directly on how much the characteristics of neighboring HRTFs differ, and, most important, when these differences become audible. Differences between HRTFs exist in the interaural delay (ITD) and in the spectral characteristics, i.e. the magnitude spectrum of the HRTFs...

  18. Objective Evaluation of the Audibility of Transient Errors in an Adaptive A/D Conversion Channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marker-Villumsen, Niels; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger; Bruun, Erik

    2014-01-01

    An adaptive analog-to-digital conversion channel for audio, using automatic gain control, generates transient errors that may be audible. Evaluating the audibility of such errors requires subjective evaluation using listening tests. From an electrical circuit design point-of-view this is not feas......An adaptive analog-to-digital conversion channel for audio, using automatic gain control, generates transient errors that may be audible. Evaluating the audibility of such errors requires subjective evaluation using listening tests. From an electrical circuit design point...

  19. Development of a portable bicycle/pedestrian monitoring system for safety enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, Colin; Daley, W. D. R.

    2015-03-01

    Pedestrians involved in roadway accidents account for nearly 12 percent of all traffic fatalities and 59,000 injuries each year. Most injuries occur when pedestrians attempt to cross roads, and there have been noted differences in accident rates midblock vs. at intersections. Collecting data on pedestrian behavior is a time consuming manual process that is prone to error. This leads to a lack of quality information to guide the proper design of lane markings and traffic signals to enhance pedestrian safety. Researchers at the Georgia Tech Research Institute are developing and testing an automated system that can be rapidly deployed for data collection to support the analysis of pedestrian behavior at intersections and midblock crossings with and without traffic signals. This system will analyze the collected video data to automatically identify and characterize the number of pedestrians and their behavior. It consists of a mobile trailer with four high definition pan-tilt cameras for data collection. The software is custom designed and uses state of the art commercial pedestrian detection algorithms. We will be presenting the system hardware and software design, challenges, and results from the preliminary system testing. Preliminary results indicate the ability to provide representative quantitative data on pedestrian motion data more efficiently than current techniques.

  20. Situations of car-to-pedestrian contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Yasuhiro; Hitosugi, Masahito; Takahashi, Kunio; Doi, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    To reduce the severity of injuries and the number of pedestrian deaths in traffic accidents, active safety devices providing pedestrian detection are considered effective countermeasures. The features of car-to-pedestrian collisions need to be known in detail to develop such safety devices. Because information on real-world accidents is limited, this study investigated near-miss situations captured by drive recorders installed in passenger cars. We showed similarities of the contact situation between near-miss incidents and real-world fatal pedestrian accidents in Japan. We analyzed the near-miss incident data via video capturing pedestrians crossing the road in front of forward-moving cars. Using a video frame captured by a drive recorder, the time to collision (TTC) was calculated from the car velocity and the distance between the car and pedestrian at the moment that the pedestrian initially appeared. The average TTC in the cases where pedestrians were not using a pedestrian crossing was shorter than that in the cases where pedestrians were using a pedestrian crossing. The average TTC in the cases where pedestrians emerged from behind obstructions was shorter than that in the cases where drivers had unobstructed views of the pedestrians. We propose that the specifications of the safety device for pedestrian detection and automatic braking should reflect the severe approach situation for a pedestrian and car including the TTC observed for near-miss incidents.

  1. Pedestrian Safety in Road Traffic in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzynski, Marcin; Jamroz, Kazimierz; Mackun, Tomasz

    2017-10-01

    Every third road accident in Poland involves a pedestrian as a participant or, most of the time, a casualty. Pedestrian accidents are usually the result of complex situations and the outcome of a number of factors related to driver and pedestrian behaviour and road infrastructure. Safety depends largely on how well the traffic condition is perceived and on visibility in traffic. The paper presents the results of analyses of methodologies for systematic studies of pedestrian behaviour and pedestrian-driver relations. The effects of the location of the site, type of cross-section and other selected parameters on pedestrian and driver behaviour are demonstrated. The analyses showed that pedestrians are most often put at risk by too long pedestrian crossings, vehicles going too fast around pedestrian crossings, lack of proper sight distance and poorly lit or unlit pedestrian crossings. The reason for such defective infrastructure is that planners, designers, contractors and maintenance services are not receiving any support from design, marking and maintenance regulations for pedestrian traffic. In addition, the Road Traffic Law is not restrictive enough when it comes to drivers’ obligations towards pedestrian safety. Polish design regulations allow long pedestrian crossings up to four lanes in one direction or three lanes in two directions irrespective of traffic control and speed limits. Pedestrian crossings should be kept at a maximum of three lanes. There is nothing in the design regulations about the required driver-pedestrian sight distance. Neither does the Road Traffic Law help engineers with that. It is legal to park vehicles within 10 m of a pedestrian crossing which does not guarantee the necessary sight distance. Drivers must be able to see a pedestrian waiting or stepping onto the crossing from a distance that will help them come to a stop safely. It is safer to follow the principle of providing adequate pedestrian sight distance. Recommendations for

  2. Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Kirsch, Uwe; Schreckenberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The 6th International Conference on Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics conference (PED2012) showcased research on human locomotion. This book presents the proceedings of PED2012. Humans have walked for eons; our drive to settle the globe began with a walk out of Africa. However, much remains to discover. As the world moves toward sustainability while racing to assess and accommodate climate change, research must provide insight on the physical requirements of walking, the dynamics of pedestrians on the move and more. We must understand, predict and simulate pedestrian behaviour, to avoid dangerous situations, to plan for emergencies, and not least, to make walking more attractive and enjoyable. PED2012 offered 70 presentations and keynotes and 70 poster presentations covering new and improved mathematical models, describing new insights on pedestrian behaviour in normal and emergency cases and presenting research based on sensors and advanced observation methods. These papers offer a starting point for innova...

  3. Explaining reduction of pedestrian-motor vehicle crashes in Arkhangelsk, Russia, in 2005-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryavtsev, Alexander V; Nilssen, Odd; Lund, Johan; Grjibovski, Andrej M; Ytterstad, Børge

    2012-01-01

    To explain a reduction in pedestrian-motor vehicle crashes in Arkhangelsk, Russia, in 2005-2010. Retrospective ecological study. For 2005-2010, police data on pedestrian-motor vehicle crashes, traffic violations, and total motor vehicles (MVs) were combined with data on changes in national road traffic legislation and municipal road infrastructure. Negative binomial regression was used to investigate trends in monthly rates of pedestrian-motor vehicle crashes per total MVs and estimate changes in these rates per unit changes in the safety measures. During the 6 years, the police registered 2,565 pedestrian-motor vehicle crashes: 1,597 (62%) outside crosswalks, 766 (30%) on non-signalized crosswalks, and 202 (8%) on signalized crosswalks. Crash rates outside crosswalks and on signalized crosswalks decreased on average by 1.1% per month, whereas the crash rate on non-signalized crosswalks remained unchanged. Numbers of signalized and non-signalized crosswalks increased by 14 and 19%, respectively. Also, 10% of non-signalized crosswalks were combined with speed humps, and 4% with light-reflecting vertical signs. Pedestrian penalties for traffic violations increased 4-fold. Driver penalties for ignoring prohibiting signal and failure to give way to pedestrian on non-signalized crosswalk increased 7- and 8-fold, respectively. The rate of total registered drivers' traffic violations per total MVs decreased on average by 0.3% per month. All studied infrastructure and legislative measures had inverse associations with the rate of crashes outside crosswalks. The rate of crashes on signalized crosswalks showed inverse associations with related monetary penalties. The introduction of infrastructure and legislative measures is the most probable explanation of the reduction of pedestrian-motor vehicle crashes in Arkhangelsk. The overall reduction is due to decreases in rates of crashes outside crosswalks and on signalized crosswalks. No change was observed in the rate of

  4. Road users’ opinion about pedestrian safety in the emirate of Sharjah, UAE- survey results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhmoudi Mariam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is to investigate the pedestrian safety in Sharjah (UAE, and suggest recommendations to improve safety in the emirate. A survey data was collected from 570 participants in December, 2016, and included the following informations: measure the awareness of drivers and pedestrians, determine the behavior of road users, take general views from the road users, and measure the level of users` satisfaction. The results showed that characteristics of road users including (gender, age group, nationality, social status, education level and the income can affect their behavior at different levels and that may lead to pedestrian accidents. Also, most participants noticed that there are differences in the behavior of drivers and pedestrians based on their nationalities, and they indicated that pedestrian mistakes are main cause of this type of accidents. Moreover, the data showed that most drivers confirmed that they give more attention to pedestrians in mixed land used than other areas and they mentioned that “traffic signal + marked lines” is the clearest place for them to be attentive to pedestrians crossing the road. Overall, based on the results of this paper, there is an urgent need to re-evaluate the pedestrian facilities in the Emirate such as (Design, locations, and their availability as well as focusing more on the education and the law enforcement.

  5. Investigating the risk factors associated with pedestrian injury severity in Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pour-Rouholamin, Mahdi; Zhou, Huaguo

    2016-06-01

    Pedestrians are known as the most vulnerable road users, which means their needs and safety require specific attention in strategic plans. Given the fact that pedestrians are more prone to higher injury severity levels compared to other road users, this study aims to investigate the risk factors associated with various levels of injury severity that pedestrians experience in Illinois. Ordered-response models are used to analyze single-vehicle, single-pedestrian crash data from 2010 to 2013 in Illinois. As a measure of net change in the effect of significant variables, average direct pseudo-elasticities are calculated that can be further used to prioritize safety countermeasures. A model comparison using AIC and BIC is also provided to compare the performance of the studied ordered-response models. The results recognized many variables associated with severe injuries: older pedestrians (more than 65years old), pedestrians not wearing contrasting clothing, adult drivers (16-24), drunk drivers, time of day (20:00 to 05:00), divided highways, multilane highways, darkness, and heavy vehicles. On the other hand, crossing the street at crosswalks, older drivers (more than 65years old), urban areas, and presence of traffic control devices (signal and sign) are associated with decreased probability of severe injuries. The comparison between three proposed ordered-response models shows that the partial proportional odds (PPO) model outperforms the conventional ordered (proportional odds-PO) model and generalized ordered logit model (GOLM). Based on the findings, stricter rules to address DUI driving is suggested. Educational programs need to focus on older pedestrians given the increasing number of older people in Illinois in the upcoming years. Pedestrians should be educated to use pedestrian crosswalks and contrasting clothing at night. In terms of engineering countermeasures, installation of crosswalks where pedestrian activity is high seems a promising practice

  6. Investigating and improving pedestrian safety in an urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Keshia M; Gielen, Andrea C; Mohd Ismail, Mohd Nasir; Mitzner, Molly; Wu, Michael; Links, Jonathan M

    2014-12-01

    Prompted by a series of fatal and nonfatal pedestrian-vehicle collisions, university leadership from one urban institution collaborated with its academic injury research center to investigate traffic-related hazards facing pedestrians. This descriptive epidemiologic study used multiple data collection strategies to determine the burden of pedestrian injury in the target area. Data were collected in 2011 through a review of university crash reports from campus police; a systematic environmental audit and direct observations using a validated instrument and trained raters; and focus groups with faculty, students, and staff. Study findings were synthesized and evidence-informed recommendations were developed and disseminated to university leadership. Crash reports provided some indication of the risks on the streets adjacent to the campus. The environmental audit identified a lack of signage posting the speed limit, faded crosswalks, issues with traffic light and walk sign synchronization, and limited formal pedestrian crossings, which led to jaywalking. Focus groups participants described dangerous locations and times, signal controls and signage, enforcement of traffic laws, use of cell phones and iPods, and awareness of pedestrian safety. Recommendations to improve pedestrian safety were developed in accordance with the three E's of injury prevention (education, enforcement, and engineering), and along with plans for implementation and evaluation, were presented to university leadership. These results underscore the importance of using multiple methods to understand fully the problem, developing pragmatic recommendations that align with the three E's of injury prevention, and collaborating with leadership who have the authority to implement recommended injury countermeasures. These lessons are relevant for the many colleges and universities in urban settings where a majority of travel to offices, classrooms, and surrounding amenities are by foot.

  7. Research on the correlation between corona current spectrum and audible noise spectrum of HVDC transmission line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingyi; Zhou, Lijuan; Liu, Yuanqing; Yuan, Haiwen; Ji, Liang

    2017-11-01

    Audible noise is closely related to corona current on a high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission line. In this paper, we measured a large amount of audible noise and corona current waveforms simultaneously based on the largest outdoor HVDC corona cage all over the world. By analyzing the experimental data, the related statistical regularities between a corona current spectrum and an audible noise spectrum were obtained. Furthermore, the generation mechanism of audible noise was analyzed theoretically, and the related mathematical expression between the audible noise spectrum and the corona current spectrum, which is suitable for all of these measuring points in the space, has been established based on the electro-acoustic conversion theory. Finally, combined with the obtained mathematical relation, the internal reasons for these statistical regularities appearing in measured corona current and audible noise data were explained. The results of this paper not only present the statistical association regularities between the corona current spectrum and the audible noise spectrum on a HVDC transmission line, but also reveal the inherent reasons of these associated rules.

  8. Modeling the impact of pedestrian behavior diversity on traffic dynamics at a crosswalk with push button

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dong-Fan; Zhao, Xiao-Mei; Li, Xin-Gang; Zhu, Tai-Lang

    2016-01-01

    Crosswalk with push button is prevalent in lots of cities for the purpose of promoting the efficiency of the crosswalk, and thus the delays of both vehicles and pedestrians can be reduced. This strategy has been confirmed to be effective in several developed countries. However, it is a pity that application of push button is aborted in some cities in China. In this work, diverse behaviors of vehicles and pedestrians are analyzed and discussed. Then, a microscopic model is developed by incorporating the interaction between vehicles and pedestrians. Numerical simulations are performed to reveal the characteristics of traffic flow and the efficiency of the signal control strategy. Also, the impacts of risker proportion and button reaction time, as well as the impacts of various behaviors as mass behavior, the patience of pedestrian and push button habit are investigated. It is expected that the results will be helpful to the strategy design of a signalized crosswalk in such developing countries as China.

  9. Vehicular camera pedestrian detection research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiahui

    2018-03-01

    With the rapid development of science and technology, it has made great development, but at the same time of highway traffic more convenient in highway traffic and transportation. However, in the meantime, traffic safety accidents occur more and more frequently in China. In order to deal with the increasingly heavy traffic safety. So, protecting the safety of people's personal property and facilitating travel has become a top priority. The real-time accurate pedestrian and driving environment are obtained through a vehicular camera which are used to detection and track the preceding moving targets. It is popular in the domain of intelligent vehicle safety driving, autonomous navigation and traffic system research. Based on the pedestrian video obtained by the Vehicular Camera, this paper studies the trajectory of pedestrian detection and its algorithm.

  10. Age and pedestrian injury severity in motor-vehicle crashes: a heteroskedastic logit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joon-Ki; Ulfarsson, Gudmundur F; Shankar, Venkataraman N; Kim, Sungyop

    2008-09-01

    This research explores the injury severity of pedestrians in motor-vehicle crashes. It is hypothesized that the variance of unobserved pedestrian characteristics increases with age. In response, a heteroskedastic generalized extreme value model is used. The analysis links explanatory factors with four injury outcomes: fatal, incapacitating, non-incapacitating, and possible or no injury. Police-reported crash data between 1997 and 2000 from North Carolina, USA, are used. The results show that pedestrian age induces heteroskedasticity which affects the probability of fatal injury. The effect grows more pronounced with increasing age past 65. The heteroskedastic model provides a better fit than the multinomial logit model. Notable factors increasing the probability of fatal pedestrian injury: increasing pedestrian age, male driver, intoxicated driver (2.7 times greater probability of fatality), traffic sign, commercial area, darkness with or without streetlights (2-4 times greater probability of fatality), sport-utility vehicle, truck, freeway, two-way divided roadway, speeding-involved, off roadway, motorist turning or backing, both driver and pedestrian at fault, and pedestrian only at fault. Conversely, the probability of a fatal injury decreased: with increasing driver age, during the PM traffic peak, with traffic signal control, in inclement weather, on a curved roadway, at a crosswalk, and when walking along roadway.

  11. Safety effectiveness of pavement design treatment at intersections: Left turning vehicles and pedestrians on crosswalks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasina Iasmin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrians are the most vulnerable road users as they are more exposed than other road users. Pedestrian safety at road intersections still remains the most vital and yet unsolved issue. One of the critical points in pedestrian safety is the occurrence of accidents between left-turning vehicle and pedestrians on crosswalks at signalized intersections. A crosswalk is a place designated for pedestrians and cyclists to cross vehicular roads safely. Drivers are expected to give priority to pedestrians or cyclists during interactions between them on the crosswalk. If a driver exhibits non-yielding behavior, the interaction will turn into a collision. This study examined the safety effect of three crosswalks designed with different materials such as red-colored material or brick pavement based on a safety performance study. The safety performance study considered left-turning driver's gap acceptance behavior and the severity of traffic conflict events between left-turning vehicles and pedestrians. The results of the study indicates that using brick pavement on a crosswalk increases the safety level of the crosswalk. Drivers at such crosswalks are more acquiescent to the priority rule.

  12. Kinematic responses and injuries of pedestrian in car-pedestrian collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, T. L.; Liang, C. C.; Hsu, C. Y.; Tai, S. F.

    2017-10-01

    How to protect pedestrians and reduce the collision injury has gradually become the new field of automotive safety research and focus in the world. Many engineering studies have appeared and their purpose is trying to reduce the pedestrian injuries caused by traffic accident. The physical model involving impactor model and full scale pedestrian model are costly when taking the impact test. This study constructs a vehicle-pedestrian collision model by using the MADYMO. To verify the accuracy of the proposed vehicle-pedestrian collision model, the experimental data are used in the pedestrian model test. The proposed model also will be applied to analyze the kinematic responses and injuries of pedestrian in collisions in this study. The modeled results can help assess the pedestrian friendliness of vehicles and assist in the future development of pedestrian friendliness vehicle technologies.

  13. Dissecting auditory verbal hallucinations into two components: audibility (Gedankenlautwerden) and alienation (thought insertion).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Iris E; Selten, Jean-Paul; Diederen, Kelly M; Blom, Jan Dirk

    2010-01-01

    This study proposes a theoretical framework which dissects auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) into 2 essential components: audibility and alienation. Audibility, the perceptual aspect of AVH, may result from a disinhibition of the auditory cortex in response to self-generated speech. In isolation, this aspect leads to audible thoughts: Gedankenlautwerden. The second component is alienation, which is the failure to recognize the content of AVH as self-generated. This failure may be related to the fact that cerebral activity associated with AVH is predominantly present in the speech production area of the right hemisphere. Since normal inner speech is derived from the left speech area, an aberrant source may lead to confusion about the origin of the language fragments. When alienation is not accompanied by audibility, it will result in the experience of thought insertion. The 2 hypothesized components are illustrated using case vignettes. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Pedestrian and motorists' actions at pedestrian hybrid beacon sites: findings from a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulugurtha, Srinivas S; Self, Debbie R

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on an analysis of pedestrian and motorists' actions at sites with pedestrian hybrid beacons and assesses their effectiveness in improving the safety of pedestrians. Descriptive and statistical analyses (one-tail two-sample T-test and two-proportion Z-test) were conducted using field data collected during morning and evening peak hours at three study sites in the city of Charlotte, NC, before and after the installation of pedestrian hybrid beacons. Further, an analysis was conducted to assess the change in pedestrian and motorists' actions over time (before the installation; 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months after the installation). Results showed an increase in average traffic speed at one of the pedestrian hybrid beacon sites while no specific trends were observed at the other two pedestrian hybrid beacon sites. A decrease in the number of motorists not yielding to pedestrians, pedestrians trapped in the middle of the street, and pedestrian-vehicle conflicts were observed at all the three pedestrian hybrid beacon sites. The installation of pedestrian hybrid beacons did not have a negative effect on pedestrian actions at two out of the three sites. Improvements seem to be relatively more consistent 3 months after the installation of the pedestrian hybrid beacon.

  15. DATA COLLECTION METHOD FOR PEDESTRIAN MOVEMENT VARIABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime Inamura

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The need of tools for design and evaluation of pedestrian areas, subways stations, entrance hall, shopping mall, escape routes, stadium etc lead to the necessity of a pedestrian model. One approach pedestrian model is Microscopic Pedestrian Simulation Model. To be able to develop and calibrate a microscopic pedestrian simulation model, a number of variables need to be considered. As the first step of model development, some data was collected using video and the coordinate of the head path through image processing were also taken. Several numbers of variables can be gathered to describe the behavior of pedestrian from a different point of view. This paper describes how to obtain variables from video taking and simple image processing that can represent the movement of pedestrians and its variables

  16. Audible vision for the blind and visually impaired in indoor open spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xunyi; Ganz, Aura

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we introduce Audible Vision, a system that can help blind and visually impaired users navigate in large indoor open spaces. The system uses computer vision to estimate the location and orientation of the user, and enables the user to perceive his/her relative position to a landmark through 3D audio. Testing shows that Audible Vision can work reliably in real-life ever-changing environment crowded with people.

  17. The safety of pedestrian crossing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goede, M. de; Groenewoud, C.; Horst, A.R.A. van der

    2010-01-01

    More than half of all severe traffic accidents in which pedestrians or cyclists are involved, occur during road crossing. In this chapter insights, based on previous studies and literature, concerning requirements for safe and comfortable crossing facilities are discussed. In order to develop

  18. Multiscale modeling of pedestrian dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Cristiani, Emiliano; Tosin, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    This book presents mathematical models and numerical simulations of crowd dynamics. The core topic is the development of a new multiscale paradigm, which bridges the microscopic and macroscopic scales taking the most from each of them for capturing the relevant clues of complexity of crowds. The background idea is indeed that most of the complex trends exhibited by crowds are due to an intrinsic interplay between individual and collective behaviors. The modeling approach promoted in this book pursues actively this intuition and profits from it for designing general mathematical structures susceptible of application also in fields different from the inspiring original one. The book considers also the two most traditional points of view: the microscopic one, in which pedestrians are tracked individually, and the macroscopic one, in which pedestrians are assimilated to a continuum. Selected existing models are critically analyzed. The work is addressed to researchers and graduate students.

  19. The moving minimum audible angle is smaller during self motion than during source motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Owen eBrimijoin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We are rarely perfectly still: our heads rotate in three axes and move in three dimensions, constantly varying the spectral and binaural cues at the ear drums. In spite of this motion, static sound sources in the world are typically perceived as stable objects. This argues that the auditory system – in a manner not unlike the vestibulo-ocular reflex – works to compensate for self motion and stabilize our sensory representation of the world. We tested a prediction arising from this postulate: that self motion should be processed more accurately than source motion.We used an infrared motion tracking system to measure head angle, and real-time interpolation of head related impulse responses to create head-stabilized signals that appeared to remain fixed in space as the head turned. After being presented with pairs of simultaneous signals consisting of a man and a woman speaking a snippet of speech, normal and hearing impaired listeners were asked to report whether the female voice was to the left or the right of the male voice. In this way we measured the moving minimum audible angle (MMAA. This measurement was made while listeners were asked to turn their heads back and forth between ± 15° and the signals were stabilized in space. After this self-motion condition we measured MMAA in a second source-motion condition when listeners remained still and the virtual locations of the signals were moved using the trajectories from the first condition.For both normal and hearing impaired listeners, we found that the MMAA for signals moving relative to the head was ~1-2° smaller when the movement was the result of self motion than when it was the result of source motion, even though the motion with respect to the head was identical. These results as well as the results of past experiments suggest that spatial processing involves an ongoing and highly accurate comparison of spatial acoustic cues with self-motion cues.

  20. Efficacy of virtual reality in pedestrian safety research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Shuchisnigdha; Carruth, Daniel W; Sween, Richard; Strawderman, Lesley; Garrison, Teena M

    2017-11-01

    Advances in virtual reality technology present new opportunities for human factors research in areas that are dangerous, difficult, or expensive to study in the real world. The authors developed a new pedestrian simulator using the HTC Vive head mounted display and Unity software. Pedestrian head position and orientation were tracked as participants attempted to safely cross a virtual signalized intersection (5.5 m). In 10% of 60 trials, a vehicle violated the traffic signal and in 10.84% of these trials, a collision between the vehicle and the pedestrian was observed. Approximately 11% of the participants experienced simulator sickness and withdrew from the study. Objective measures, including the average walking speed, indicate that participant behavior in VR matches published real world norms. Subjective responses indicate that the virtual environment was realistic and engaging. Overall, the study results confirm the effectiveness of the new virtual reality technology for research on full motion tasks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Audibility of time switching in dynamic binaural synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Pablo F.F.; Møller, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    In binaural synthesis, signals are convolved with head-related transfer functions (HRTFs). In dynamic systems, the update is often done by cross- fading between signals that have been filtered in parallel with two HRTFs. An alternative to cross-fading that is attractive in terms of computing power...

  2. Multilevel models for evaluating the risk of pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions at intersections and mid-blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quistberg, D Alex; Howard, Eric J; Ebel, Beth E; Moudon, Anne V; Saelens, Brian E; Hurvitz, Philip M; Curtin, James E; Rivara, Frederick P

    2015-11-01

    Walking is a popular form of physical activity associated with clear health benefits. Promoting safe walking for pedestrians requires evaluating the risk of pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions at specific roadway locations in order to identify where road improvements and other interventions may be needed. The objective of this analysis was to estimate the risk of pedestrian collisions at intersections and mid-blocks in Seattle, WA. The study used 2007-2013 pedestrian-motor vehicle collision data from police reports and detailed characteristics of the microenvironment and macroenvironment at intersection and mid-block locations. The primary outcome was the number of pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions over time at each location (incident rate ratio [IRR] and 95% confidence interval [95% CI]). Multilevel mixed effects Poisson models accounted for correlation within and between locations and census blocks over time. Analysis accounted for pedestrian and vehicle activity (e.g., residential density and road classification). In the final multivariable model, intersections with 4 segments or 5 or more segments had higher pedestrian collision rates compared to mid-blocks. Non-residential roads had significantly higher rates than residential roads, with principal arterials having the highest collision rate. The pedestrian collision rate was higher by 9% per 10 feet of street width. Locations with traffic signals had twice the collision rate of locations without a signal and those with marked crosswalks also had a higher rate. Locations with a marked crosswalk also had higher risk of collision. Locations with a one-way road or those with signs encouraging motorists to cede the right-of-way to pedestrians had fewer pedestrian collisions. Collision rates were higher in locations that encourage greater pedestrian activity (more bus use, more fast food restaurants, higher employment, residential, and population densities). Locations with higher intersection density had a lower

  3. Red light walking, transportation time and attitudes in crossing with intelligent green light for pedestrians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønning, Charlotte; Agerholm, Niels; Andersen, Camilla Sloth

    registration, 72+53 interviewed persons, and what will be extracted from the literature review. Based on the collected data, it will be studied, if the share of red light walking will be reduced. Also, the transportation time including any waiting time will be calculated for the two periods. Furthermore......, the attitude and experiences with this traffic signals will be measured. It is the hypotheses that red light walking will be reduced and that the overall transportation time for pedestrians will be reduced due to a more applicable and dynamic traffic signal system. Likewise, it is expected that the pedestrian...

  4. Audible sound treatment of the microalgae Picochlorum oklahomensis for enhancing biomass productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Weiming; Dunford, Nurhan Turgut; Wang, Ning; Zhu, Songming; He, Huinong

    2016-02-01

    It has been reported in the literature that exposure of microalgae cells to audible sound could promote growth. This study examined the effect of sound waves with the frequency of 1100 Hz, 2200 Hz, and 3300 Hz to stimulate the biomass productivity of an Oklahoma native strain, Picochlorum oklahomensis (PO). The effect of the frequency of sound on biomass mass was measured. This study demonstrated that audible sound treatment of the algae cultures at 2200 Hz was the most effective in terms of biomass production and volumetric oil yield. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. FUNGSI DAN PERAN JALUR PEDESTRIAN BAGI PEJALAN KAKI Sebuah Studi Banding Terhadap Fungsi Pedestrian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Mauliani

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK. Jalur pedestrian pada sebuah kota adalah bagian yang sangat penting, baik sebagai kelengkapan (amenity kota maupun sebagai tempat orang berjalan kaki dengan aman dan nyaman. Namun untuk kota Jakarta, dan mungkin juga kota-kota lainnya di Indonesia, pedestrian seringkali mengalami perubahan fungsi tidak hanya sekedar sebagai jalur pejalan kaki namun juga bisa menjadi jalur kendaraan bermotor, area berjualan para pedagang kaki lima yang bersifat mobile, tetapi bisa juga menjadi “ruko” alias rumah toko. Permasalahannya adalah bagaimana nasib para pejalan kaki, dimana mereka dapat berjalan kaki dengan aman, tanpa takut tertabrak pengendara sepeda motor, tersenggol bajay, mikrolet atau mobil pribadi? Pembahasan tentang pedestrian ini dilakukan dengan cara mengamati dan membandingkan antara pedestrian yang ada di Jakarta dan di Singapura, dilihat dari segi fungsi dan penataannya.   Kata kunci : pedestrian, fungsi, pejalan kaki   ABSTRACT. Pedestrian path within the city has been regarded as an important element, either as a city amenity which contribute an aesthetic of city space or as a space for people or pedestrian to walk safely and comfort. Jakarta as one of a big city in Indonesia, has many pedestrian paths within it, but there are many pedestrian paths which have been changed in function. The pedestrian paths are not as a space for people to walk but have been accommodated as motorcycle lines as well as mobile shop or shop-house which has been known as RUKO or rumah toko. The main problem is how people could walk safely and comfort. This discussion of pedestrian paths will be explored in this paper by comparing the function and the design as well as the plan of pedestrian paths in Jakarta and Singapore.   Keywords : pedestrian path, function, pedestrian.

  6. Pedestrian wind environment around tall buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stathopoulos, T.; Blocken, B.; Tamura, Yukio; Yoshie, Ryuichiro

    2016-01-01

    Pedestrian-level wind conditions around tall buildings are described by examining the aerodynamics of the urban environment and the various wind comfort criteria established in the wind engineering field. Experimental and, possibly, computational assessment of pedestrian-level wind conditions in the

  7. Vehicle-pedestrian collisions - Aspects regarding pedestrian kinematics, dynamics and biomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrescu, L.; Petrescu, Al

    2017-10-01

    Vehicle-pedestrian collisions result in a substantial number of pedestrian fatalities and injuries worldwide. Concern continues to limit and reduce the tragic consequences suffered by pedestrians involved in road accidents, caused the vehicle-pedestrian accident reconstruction become an important area and distinctly outlined in the reconstruction of road incidents involving vehicle. This paper analyzes the dynamics of vehicle-pedestrian impact influence over pedestrian biomechanics, which is directly connected with the severity of injury after contact with the vehicle profile and with the place where the pedestrian is projected. The main goal of this paper is to highlight some features of reconstruction of road accidents involving pedestrian, looking at the kinematics and dynamics of pedestrian impact for a better understanding of the phenomena that occur. The study on the dynamics and biomechanics of the pedestrian hit by the vehicle is useful in order to understand how the injuries, including the lethal ones, are generated in the collision, what is essential in road accidents reconstruction.

  8. Cellular automata model for urban road traffic flow considering pedestrian crossing street

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Han-Tao; Yang, Shuo; Chen, Xiao-Xu

    2016-11-01

    In order to analyze the effect of pedestrians' crossing street on vehicle flows, we investigated traffic characteristics of vehicles and pedestrians. Based on that, rules of lane changing, acceleration, deceleration, randomization and update are modified. Then we established two urban two-lane cellular automata models of traffic flow, one of which is about sections with non-signalized crosswalk and the other is on uncontrolled sections with pedestrians crossing street at random. MATLAB is used for numerical simulation of the different traffic conditions; meanwhile space-time diagram and relational graphs of traffic flow parameters are generated and then comparatively analyzed. Simulation results indicate that when vehicle density is lower than around 25 vehs/(km lane), pedestrians have modest impact on traffic flow, whereas when vehicle density is higher than about 60 vehs/(km lane), traffic speed and volume will decrease significantly especially on sections with non-signal-controlled crosswalk. The results illustrate that the proposed models reconstruct the traffic flow's characteristic with the situation where there are pedestrians crossing and can provide some practical reference for urban traffic management.

  9. A Pedestrian Dead Reckoning System Integrating Low-Cost MEMS Inertial Sensors and GPS Receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-feng Li

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The body-mounted inertial systems for pedestrian navigation do not require any preinstalled facilities and can run autonomously. The advantages over other technologies make it especially attractive for the applications such as first responders, military and consumer markets. The hardware platform integrating the low-cost, low-power and small-size MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical systems inertial sensors and GPS (global positioning system receiver is proposed. When the satellite signals are available, the location of the pedestrian is directly obtained from the GPS receiver. The inertial sensors are the complement of the GPS receiver in places where the GPS signals are not available, such as indoors, urban canyons and places under dense foliages. The height tracking is achieved by the barometer. The proposed PDR (pedestrian dead reckoning algorithm is real-timely implemented in the platform. The simple but effective step detection and step length estimation method are realized to reduce the computation and memory requirements on the microprocessor. A complementary filter is proposed to fuse the data from the accelerometer, gyroscope and digital compass for decreasing the heading error, which is the main error source in positioning. The reliability and accuracy of the proposed system is verified by field pedestrian walking tests in outdoors and indoors. The positioning error is less than 4% of the total traveled distance. The results indicate that the pedestrian dead reckoning system is able to provide satisfactory tracking performance.

  10. Pedestrian ascent and descent fundamental diagram on stairway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Lo, S. M.; Ma, Jian

    2017-08-01

    Due to the interaction among individuals, pedestrian walking speeds in relatively dense crowds when descending and ascending stairs may present different features from a single pedestrian moving freely. Thus, to obtain a large range of densities, a series of single-file pedestrian movement experiments under laboratory conditions were performed. The trends of the fundamental diagram in a wide pedestrian density range for staircase movement are captured. Detailed features of pedestrian speed with the increase of pedestrian density, headway, and the influence of pedestrians’ lateral sway are further discussed. It is found that with the increase of pedestrian density, the speed decrease rate varies. Meanwhile, the decrease of headway, leads to two speed regimes, i.e. free movement and linear constrained movement. We show that pedestrian speed can be described by counting the number of steps separating pedestrians in longitudinal direction. These enrichments can benefit pedestrian modelling and improve the evaluation of the evacuation performance of a staircase.

  11. 30 CFR 75.1600-2 - Communication facilities; working sections; installation and maintenance requirements; audible or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Communication facilities; working sections; installation and maintenance requirements; audible or visual alarms. 75.1600-2 Section 75.1600-2 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Communications § 75.1600-2 Communication facilities; working...

  12. Crossing Behaviour of Pedestrians Along Urban Streets in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Al Bargi Walid A.; David Daniel Basil; Prasetijo Joewono; Rohani Munzilah Md; Mohamad Nor Siti Naquiyah

    2017-01-01

    Road crossings are considered as an unavoidable part of walking in which the desirable route of pedestrians interacts with vehicles. These interactions may expose the pedestrians to risks or delays. In Malaysia, road accident statistics show that pedestrian casualties are fairly high. Inappropriate gap acceptance when pedestrians cross roads is a main contributing element to this situation. In this context, the purpose of this study was to develop realistic models for pedestrian road crossing...

  13. Pedestrian detection based on redundant wavelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lin; Ji, Liping; Hu, Ping; Yang, Tiejun

    2016-10-01

    Intelligent video surveillance is to analysis video or image sequences captured by a fixed or mobile surveillance camera, including moving object detection, segmentation and recognition. By using it, we can be notified immediately in an abnormal situation. Pedestrian detection plays an important role in an intelligent video surveillance system, and it is also a key technology in the field of intelligent vehicle. So pedestrian detection has very vital significance in traffic management optimization, security early warn and abnormal behavior detection. Generally, pedestrian detection can be summarized as: first to estimate moving areas; then to extract features of region of interest; finally to classify using a classifier. Redundant wavelet transform (RWT) overcomes the deficiency of shift variant of discrete wavelet transform, and it has better performance in motion estimation when compared to discrete wavelet transform. Addressing the problem of the detection of multi-pedestrian with different speed, we present an algorithm of pedestrian detection based on motion estimation using RWT, combining histogram of oriented gradients (HOG) and support vector machine (SVM). Firstly, three intensities of movement (IoM) are estimated using RWT and the corresponding areas are segmented. According to the different IoM, a region proposal (RP) is generated. Then, the features of a RP is extracted using HOG. Finally, the features are fed into a SVM trained by pedestrian databases and the final detection results are gained. Experiments show that the proposed algorithm can detect pedestrians accurately and efficiently.

  14. Pedestrian injury mitigation by autonomous braking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosén, Erik; Källhammer, Jan-Erik; Eriksson, Dick; Nentwich, Matthias; Fredriksson, Rikard; Smith, Kip

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this study was to calculate the potential effectiveness of a pedestrian injury mitigation system that autonomously brakes the car prior to impact. The effectiveness was measured by the reduction of fatally and severely injured pedestrians. The database from the German In-Depth Accident Study (GIDAS) was queried for pedestrians hit by the front of cars from 1999 to 2007. Case by case information on vehicle and pedestrian velocities and trajectories were analysed to estimate the field of view needed for a vehicle-based sensor to detect the pedestrians one second prior to the crash. The pre-impact braking system was assumed to activate the brakes one second prior to crash and to provide a braking deceleration up to the limit of the road surface conditions, but never to exceed 0.6 g. New impact speeds were then calculated for pedestrians that would have been detected by the sensor. These calculations assumed that all pedestrians who were within a given field of view but not obstructed by surrounding objects would be detected. The changes in fatality and severe injury risks were quantified using risk curves derived by logistic regression of the accident data. Summing the risks for all pedestrians, relationships between mitigation effectiveness, sensor field of view, braking initiation time, and deceleration were established. The study documents that the effectiveness at reducing fatally (severely) injured pedestrians in frontal collisions with cars reached 40% (27%) at a field of view of 40 degrees. Increasing the field of view further led to only marginal improvements in effectiveness. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Modeling Spatially Unrestricted Pedestrian Traffic on Footbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zivanovic, Stana; Pavic, Aleksandar; Ingólfsson, Einar Thór

    2010-01-01

    restricted movement of pedestrians, has kept attracting attention of researchers. However, it is the normal spatially unrestricted pedestrian traffic, and its vertical dynamic loading component, that are most relevant for vibration serviceability checks for most footbridges. Despite the existence of numerous...... design procedures concerned with this loading, the current confidence in its modelling is low due to lack of verification of the models on as-built structures. This is the motivation behind reviewing the existing design procedures for modelling normal pedestrian traffic in this paper and evaluating...

  16. Literature review on the preschool pedestrian

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review was to describe (1) the factors leading to typical preschool pedestrian accidents, (2) the developmental characteristics of the preschool child that affect his/her behavior in traffic, (3) social factors that may...

  17. Classification and checking model of pedestrian crossing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Delgado Méndez

    2012-11-01

    After realizing this investigation it can be confirmed that the functionality of a pedestrian crossing depends on almost a hundred parameters which must be checked or measured, in turn proving that this design and construction process is indeed complex.

  18. Evaluation of alternative pedestrian control devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    A literature review, field study of Rectangular Rapid Flashing Beacon (RRFB) installations in Oregon, and a static survey : on the sequencing of the Pedestrian Hybrid Beacon (PHB) were completed. : The field study conducted in this project was design...

  19. Influence of pedestrian age and gender on spatial and temporal distribution of pedestrian crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toran Pour, Alireza; Moridpour, Sara; Tay, Richard; Rajabifard, Abbas

    2018-01-02

    Every year, about 1.24 million people are killed in traffic crashes worldwide and more than 22% of these deaths are pedestrians. Therefore, pedestrian safety has become a significant traffic safety issue worldwide. In order to develop effective and targeted safety programs, the location- and time-specific influences on vehicle-pedestrian crashes must be assessed. The main purpose of this research is to explore the influence of pedestrian age and gender on the temporal and spatial distribution of vehicle-pedestrian crashes to identify the hotspots and hot times. Data for all vehicle-pedestrian crashes on public roadways in the Melbourne metropolitan area from 2004 to 2013 are used in this research. Spatial autocorrelation is applied in examining the vehicle-pedestrian crashes in geographic information systems (GIS) to identify any dependency between time and location of these crashes. Spider plots and kernel density estimation (KDE) are then used to determine the temporal and spatial patterns of vehicle-pedestrian crashes for different age groups and genders. Temporal analysis shows that pedestrian age has a significant influence on the temporal distribution of vehicle-pedestrian crashes. Furthermore, men and women have different crash patterns. In addition, results of the spatial analysis shows that areas with high risk of vehicle-pedestrian crashes can vary during different times of the day for different age groups and genders. For example, for those between ages 18 and 65, most vehicle-pedestrian crashes occur in the central business district (CBD) during the day, but between 7:00 p.m. and 6:00 a.m., crashes among this age group occur mostly around hotels, clubs, and bars. This research reveals that temporal and spatial distributions of vehicle-pedestrian crashes vary for different pedestrian age groups and genders. Therefore, specific safety measures should be in place during high crash times at different locations for different age groups and genders to

  20. Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics 2005

    CERN Document Server

    Gattermann, Peter; Knoflacher, Hermann; Schreckenberg, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Due to an increasing number of reported catastrophes all over the world, the safety especially of pedestrians today, is a dramatically growing field of interest, both for practitioners as well as scientists from various disciplines. The questions arising mainly address the dynamics of evacuating people and possible optimisations of the process by changing the architecture and /or the procedure. This concerns not only the case of ships, stadiums or buildings, all with restricted geometries, but also the evacuation of complete geographical regions due to natural disasters. Furthermore, also ‘simple’ crowd motion in ‘relaxed’ situations poses new questions with respect to higher comfort and efficiency since the number of involved persons at large events is as high as never before. In addition, as a new research topic in this field, collective animal behaviour is attracting increasing attention. All this was in the scope of the conference held in Vienna, September 28–30, 2005, the third one in a series ...

  1. A Subjective Evaluation of the Minimum Audible Channel Separation in Binaural Reproduction Systems Through Loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacouture Parodi, Yesenia; Rubak, Per

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the performance of crosstalk cancellation systems the channel separation is usually used as parameter.  However, no systematic evaluation of the minimum audible channel separation has been found in the literature known by the authors.  This paper describes a set of subjective experime......To evaluate the performance of crosstalk cancellation systems the channel separation is usually used as parameter.  However, no systematic evaluation of the minimum audible channel separation has been found in the literature known by the authors.  This paper describes a set of subjective...... simulated.  Results indicate that  in order to avoid lateralization the  channel separation should be below -15dB for most of the stimuli and around -20dB for broad-band noise....

  2. Cell type-specific suppression of mechanosensitive genes by audible sound stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumeta, Masahiro; Takahashi, Daiji; Takeyasu, Kunio; Yoshimura, Shige H

    2018-01-01

    Audible sound is a ubiquitous environmental factor in nature that transmits oscillatory compressional pressure through the substances. To investigate the property of the sound as a mechanical stimulus for cells, an experimental system was set up using 94.0 dB sound which transmits approximately 10 mPa pressure to the cultured cells. Based on research on mechanotransduction and ultrasound effects on cells, gene responses to the audible sound stimulation were analyzed by varying several sound parameters: frequency, wave form, composition, and exposure time. Real-time quantitative PCR analyses revealed a distinct suppressive effect for several mechanosensitive and ultrasound-sensitive genes that were triggered by sounds. The effect was clearly observed in a wave form- and pressure level-specific manner, rather than the frequency, and persisted for several hours. At least two mechanisms are likely to be involved in this sound response: transcriptional control and RNA degradation. ST2 stromal cells and C2C12 myoblasts exhibited a robust response, whereas NIH3T3 cells were partially and NB2a neuroblastoma cells were completely insensitive, suggesting a cell type-specific response to sound. These findings reveal a cell-level systematic response to audible sound and uncover novel relationships between life and sound.

  3. Silent and a audible stereotypes: The constitution of "ethnic character" in Serbian epic poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đerić Gordana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the explanatory relevance of the concept of stereotype in one of its original meanings - as a "mental image". This meaning of the term is the starting point for further differentiations, such as: between linguistic and behavioral stereotypes (in the sense of nonverbal, expected responses; universal and particular stereotypes; self representative and introspective stereotypes; permanent and contemporary stereotypes; and finally, what is most important for our purposes, the difference between silent and audible stereotypes. These distinctions, along with the functions of stereotype, are discussed in the first part of the paper. In the second part, the relations of silent and audible stereotypes are tested against the introduction of "innovative vocabularies" in popular lore. In other words, the explanatory power of this differentiation is checked through an analysis of unconventional motives in Serbian epic poems. The goal of the argument is to clarify the procedure of self creation of masculinity as a relevant feature of the "national character" through "tactic games" of silent and audible stereotypes. The examination of these "poetic strategies" serves a twofold purpose: to illustrate the process of constructing particular features of the "ethno type", on one hand, and to check hypotheses and models which are taken as frameworks in analyzing stereotypes, on the other.

  4. The homogeneity of audibility and prosody of Zulu words for speech reception threshold (SRT) testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panday, Seema; Kathard, Harsha; Pillay, Mershen; Govender, Cyril

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine which of 58 preselected Zulu words developed by Panday et al. (2007) could be used for Speech Reception Threshold (SRT) testing. To realize this aim the homogeneity of audibility of 58 bisyllabic Zulu low tone verbs was measured, followed by an analysis of the prosodic features of the selected words. The words were digitally recorded by a Zulu first language male speaker and presented at 6 intensity levels to 30 Zulu first language speakers (18-25 years, mean age of 21.5 years), whose hearing was normal. Homogeneity of audibility was determined by employing logistic regression analysis. Twenty eight words met the criterion of homogeneity of audibility. This was evidenced by a mean slope of 50% at 5.98%/dB. The prosodic features of the twenty eight words were further analyzed using a computerized speech laboratory system. The findings confirmed that the pitch contours of the words followed the prosodic pattern apparent within Zulu linguistic structure. Eighty nine percent of the Zulu verbs were found to have a difference in the pitch pattern between the two syllables i.e. the first syllable was low in pitch, while the second syllable was high in pitch. It emerged that the twenty eight words could be used for establishing SRT within a normal hearing Zulu speaking population. Further research within clinical populations is recommended.

  5. Collaboratively Adaptive Vibration Sensing System for High-fidelity Monitoring of Structural Responses Induced by Pedestrians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijia Pan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a collaboratively adaptive vibration monitoring system that captures high-fidelity structural vibration signals induced by pedestrians. These signals can be used for various human activities’ monitoring by inferring information about the impact sources, such as pedestrian footsteps, door opening and closing, and dragging objects. Such applications often require high-fidelity (high resolution and low distortion signals. Traditionally, expensive high resolution and high dynamic range sensors are adopted to ensure sufficient resolution. However, for sensing systems that use low-cost sensing devices, the resolution and dynamic range are often limited; hence this type of sensing methods is not well explored ubiquitously. We propose a low-cost sensing system that utilizes (1 a heuristic model of the investigating excitations and (2 shared information through networked devices to adapt hardware configurations and obtain high-fidelity structural vibration signals. To further explain the system, we use indoor pedestrian footstep sensing through ambient structural vibration as an example to demonstrate the system performance. We evaluate the application with three metrics that measure the signal quality from different aspects: the sufficient resolution rate to present signal resolution improvement without clipping, the clipping rate to measure the distortion of the footstep signal, and the signal magnitude to quantify the detailed resolution of the detected footstep signal. In experiments conducted in a school building, our system demonstrated up to 2× increase on the sufficient resolution rate and 2× less error rate when used to locate the pedestrians as they walk along the hallway, compared to a fixed sensing setting.

  6. Towards an integrated approach of pedestrian behaviour and exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Eleonora

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, an integrated methodology for the analysis of pedestrian behaviour and exposure is proposed, allowing to identify and quantify the effect of pedestrian behaviour, road and traffic characteristics on pedestrian risk exposure, for each pedestrian and for populations of pedestrians. The paper builds on existing research on pedestrian exposure, namely the Routledge microscopic indicator, proposes adjustments to take into account road, traffic and human factors and extends the use of this indicator on area-wide level. Moreover, this paper uses integrated choice and latent variables (ICLV) models of pedestrian behaviour, taking into account road, traffic and human factors. Finally, a methodology is proposed for the integrated estimation of pedestrian behaviour and exposure on the basis of road, traffic and human factors. The method is tested with data from a field survey in Athens, Greece, which used pedestrian behaviour observations as well as a questionnaire on human factors of pedestrian behaviour. The data were used (i) to develop ICLV models of pedestrian behaviour and (ii) to estimate the behaviour and exposure of pedestrians for different road, traffic and behavioural scenarios. The results suggest that both pedestrian behaviour and exposure are largely defined by a small number of factors: road type, traffic volume and pedestrian risk-taking. The probability for risk-taking behaviour and the related exposure decrease in less demanding road and traffic environments. A synthesis of the results allows to enhance the understanding of the interactions between behaviour and exposure of pedestrians and to identify conditions of increased risk exposure. These conditions include principal urban arterials (where risk-taking behaviour is low but the related exposure is very high) and minor arterials (where risk-taking behaviour is more frequent, and the related exposure is still high). A "paradox" of increased risk-taking behaviour of pedestrians with low

  7. The Effects of Audible Sound for Enhancing the Growth Rate of Microalgae Haematococcus pluvialis in Vegetative Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelinus Christwardana

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Physico-stimulant like audible sound is one of the new promising methods for enhancing microalgae growth rate. Here, microalgae Haematococcus pluvialis was cultivated with the addition of audible sound with titles “Blues for Elle” and “Far and Wide.” The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of audible sound to the growth and productivity of microalgae. The experiment has been conducted by exposing the audible sound for 8 h in 22 days to microalgae cultivation. The result showed that microalgae H. pluvialis treated by the music “Blues for Elle” shows the highest growth rate (0.03 per day, and 58% higher than the one without audible sound. The average number of cells in stationary phase is 0.76 × 104 cells/mL culture and the productivity is 3.467 × 102 cells/mL/day. The pH of microalgae medium slightly decreases because of proton production during photosynthesis process. The kinetic rate constant (kapp is 0.078 per day, reaction half-life (t1/2 is 8.89 days, and catalytic surface (Ksurf is 1.66 × 10−5/day/cm2. In conclusion, this audible sound is very useful to stimulate microalgae growth rate, especially H. pluvialis.

  8. Literature review on vehicle travel speeds and pedestrian injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    The relationship between vehicle travel speeds and resulting pedestrian injury was reviewed in the literature and in existing data sets. Results indicated that higher vehicle speeds are strongly associated with both a greater likelihood of pedestrian...

  9. Evaluating Countermeasures to Improve Pedestrian and Bicycle Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-11-01

    Pedestrian crashes have reached an alarming level in the U.S. Different factors could contribute to the occurrence of these crashes at an intersection, including driver errors, the type of maneuver, and pedestrian behaviors. All these factors highlig...

  10. Pedestrian and bicycle crash data analysis : 2005-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    The safety of pedestrians and bicyclists using the roadway is an increasing concern for the Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT). This report summarizes data for motor vehicle crashes involving pedestrians and bicyclists in Michigan from 2005...

  11. Application of demographic analysis to pedestrian safety : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, many departments of transportation in the US have invested additional resources to enhance : pedestrian safety. However, there is still a need to effectively and systematically address the pedestrian experience : in low-income areas....

  12. The risk of pedestrian collisions with peripheral visual field loss

    OpenAIRE

    Peli, Eli; Apfelbaum, Henry; Berson, Eliot L.; Goldstein, Robert B.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with peripheral field loss complain of colliding with other pedestrians in open-space environments such as shopping malls. Field expansion devices (e.g., prisms) can create artificial peripheral islands of vision. We investigated the visual angle at which these islands can be most effective for avoiding pedestrian collisions, by modeling the collision risk density as a function of bearing angle of pedestrians relative to the patient. Pedestrians at all possible locations were assumed...

  13. Traffic signal design and simulation for vulnerable road users safety and bus preemption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, Shih-Ching; Huang, Hsieh-Chu

    2015-01-01

    Mostly, pedestrian car accidents occurred at a signalized interaction is because pedestrians cannot across the intersection safely within the green light. From the viewpoint of pedestrian, there might have two reasons. The first one is pedestrians cannot speed up to across the intersection, such as the elders. The other reason is pedestrians do not sense that the signal phase is going to change and their right-of-way is going to be lost. Developing signal logic to protect pedestrian, who is crossing an intersection is the first purpose of this study. In addition, to improve the reliability and reduce delay of public transportation service is the second purpose. Therefore, bus preemption is also considered in the designed signal logic. In this study, the traffic data of the intersection of Chong-Qing North Road and Min-Zu West Road, Taipei, Taiwan, is employed to calibrate and validate the signal logic by simulation. VISSIM 5.20, which is a microscopic traffic simulation software, is employed to simulate the signal logic. From the simulated results, the signal logic presented in this study can protect pedestrians crossing the intersection successfully. The design of bus preemption can reduce the average delay. However, the pedestrian safety and bus preemption signal will influence the average delay of cars largely. Thus, whether applying the pedestrian safety and bus preemption signal logic to an intersection or not should be evaluated carefully

  14. Traffic signal design and simulation for vulnerable road users safety and bus preemption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Shih-Ching; Huang, Hsieh-Chu [Department of Transportation Technology and Logistics Management, Chung Hua University, No. 707, Sec. 2, WuFu Rd., Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan (China)

    2015-01-22

    Mostly, pedestrian car accidents occurred at a signalized interaction is because pedestrians cannot across the intersection safely within the green light. From the viewpoint of pedestrian, there might have two reasons. The first one is pedestrians cannot speed up to across the intersection, such as the elders. The other reason is pedestrians do not sense that the signal phase is going to change and their right-of-way is going to be lost. Developing signal logic to protect pedestrian, who is crossing an intersection is the first purpose of this study. In addition, to improve the reliability and reduce delay of public transportation service is the second purpose. Therefore, bus preemption is also considered in the designed signal logic. In this study, the traffic data of the intersection of Chong-Qing North Road and Min-Zu West Road, Taipei, Taiwan, is employed to calibrate and validate the signal logic by simulation. VISSIM 5.20, which is a microscopic traffic simulation software, is employed to simulate the signal logic. From the simulated results, the signal logic presented in this study can protect pedestrians crossing the intersection successfully. The design of bus preemption can reduce the average delay. However, the pedestrian safety and bus preemption signal will influence the average delay of cars largely. Thus, whether applying the pedestrian safety and bus preemption signal logic to an intersection or not should be evaluated carefully.

  15. A FORM ANALYSIS OF JAPANESE PEDESTRIAN DECKS AND EUROPEAN PLAZAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDO Naomi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study compares Japanese pedestrian decks and European plazas as public pedestrian spaces. The characteristics of both types of spaces will be clarified through a schematic analysis. The connections of these spaces with their surroundings will also be analyzed. Further, the spatial image of these spaces are discussed. Pedestrian spaces in Romania will be discussed as well.

  16. In pedestrian crashes, it's vehicle speed that matters the most

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-05-13

    A recently prepared report on pedestrian injuries provides these two main findings: 1) regardless of age, pedestrians involved in crashes are more likely to be killed as vehicle speeds increase; and 2) in crashes at any speed, older pedestrians are m...

  17. A Pedestrian Detection Scheme Using a Coherent Phase Difference Method Based on 2D Range-Doppler FMCW Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Eugin; Jin, Young-Seok; Lee, Jong-Hun

    2016-01-01

    For an automotive pedestrian detection radar system, fast-ramp based 2D range-Doppler Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) radar is effective for distinguishing between moving targets and unwanted clutter. However, when a weak moving target such as a pedestrian exists together with strong clutter, the pedestrian may be masked by the side-lobe of the clutter even though they are notably separated in the Doppler dimension. To prevent this problem, one popular solution is the use of a windowing scheme with a weighting function. However, this method leads to a spread spectrum, so the pedestrian with weak signal power and slow Doppler may also be masked by the main-lobe of clutter. With a fast-ramp based FMCW radar, if the target is moving, the complex spectrum of the range- Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is changed with a constant phase difference over ramps. In contrast, the clutter exhibits constant phase irrespective of the ramps. Based on this fact, in this paper we propose a pedestrian detection for highly cluttered environments using a coherent phase difference method. By detecting the coherent phase difference from the complex spectrum of the range-FFT, we first extract the range profile of the moving pedestrians. Then, through the Doppler FFT, we obtain the 2D range-Doppler map for only the pedestrian. To test the proposed detection scheme, we have developed a real-time data logging system with a 24 GHz FMCW transceiver. In laboratory tests, we verified that the signal processing results from the proposed method were much better than those expected from the conventional 2D FFT-based detection method. PMID:26805835

  18. A Pedestrian Detection Scheme Using a Coherent Phase Difference Method Based on 2D Range-Doppler FMCW Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugin Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For an automotive pedestrian detection radar system, fast-ramp based 2D range-Doppler Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW radar is effective for distinguishing between moving targets and unwanted clutter. However, when a weak moving target such as a pedestrian exists together with strong clutter, the pedestrian may be masked by the side-lobe of the clutter even though they are notably separated in the Doppler dimension. To prevent this problem, one popular solution is the use of a windowing scheme with a weighting function. However, this method leads to a spread spectrum, so the pedestrian with weak signal power and slow Doppler may also be masked by the main-lobe of clutter. With a fast-ramp based FMCW radar, if the target is moving, the complex spectrum of the range- Fast Fourier Transform (FFT is changed with a constant phase difference over ramps. In contrast, the clutter exhibits constant phase irrespective of the ramps. Based on this fact, in this paper we propose a pedestrian detection for highly cluttered environments using a coherent phase difference method. By detecting the coherent phase difference from the complex spectrum of the range-FFT, we first extract the range profile of the moving pedestrians. Then, through the Doppler FFT, we obtain the 2D range-Doppler map for only the pedestrian. To test the proposed detection scheme, we have developed a real-time data logging system with a 24 GHz FMCW transceiver. In laboratory tests, we verified that the signal processing results from the proposed method were much better than those expected from the conventional 2D FFT-based detection method.

  19. Fast Pedestrian Recognition Based on Multisensor Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Hu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A fast pedestrian recognition algorithm based on multisensor fusion is presented in this paper. Firstly, potential pedestrian locations are estimated by laser radar scanning in the world coordinates, and then their corresponding candidate regions in the image are located by camera calibration and the perspective mapping model. For avoiding time consuming in the training and recognition process caused by large numbers of feature vector dimensions, region of interest-based integral histograms of oriented gradients (ROI-IHOG feature extraction method is proposed later. A support vector machine (SVM classifier is trained by a novel pedestrian sample dataset which adapt to the urban road environment for online recognition. Finally, we test the validity of the proposed approach with several video sequences from realistic urban road scenarios. Reliable and timewise performances are shown based on our multisensor fusing method.

  20. Pedestrian-induced lateral vibrations of footbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingólfsson, Einar Thór

    by pedestrians during walking on a laterally moving treadmill. Two different conditions are investigated; initially the treadmill is fixed and then it is laterally driven in a sinusoidal motion at varying combinations of frequencies (0.33 – 1.07 Hz) and amplitudes (4.5 – 48mm). The experimental campaign involved...... is triggered. This disproportionate increase in the lateral vibration response is caused by a dynamic interaction between the pedestrian and the laterally moving structure, although the governing mechanism which generates the load is still disputed. In this thesis, a comprehensive literature review...... 71 test subjects who covered approximately 55 km of walking distributed on almost 5000 individual tests. An in-depth analysis of the movement of the pedestrians that participated in the experimental campaign reveal that synchronisation is not a pre-condition for the ix development of large amplitude...

  1. Psychological distance of pedestrian at the bus terminal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdaus Mohamad Ali, Mohd; Salleh Abustan, Muhamad; Hidayah Abu Talib, Siti; Abustan, Ismail; Rahman, Noorhazlinda Abd; Gotoh, Hitoshi

    2018-03-01

    Walking is a part of transportation modes that is effective for pedestrian in either short or long trips. All people are classified as pedestrian because people do walk every day and the higher number of people walking will lead to crowd conditions and that is the reason of the importance to study about the behaviour of pedestrian specifically the psychological distance in both indoor and outdoor. Nowadays, the number of studies of crowd dynamics among pedestrian have increased due to the concern about the safety issues primarily related to the emergency cases such as fire, earthquake, festival and etc. An observation of pedestrian was conducted at one of the main bus terminals in Kuala Lumpur with the main objective to obtain pedestrian psychological distance and it took place for 45 minutes by using a camcorder that was set up by using a tripod on the upper floor from the area of observation at the main lobby and the trapped area was approximately 100 m2. The analysis was focused on obtaining the gap between pedestrian based on two different categories, which are; (a) Pedestrian with relationship, and (b) Pedestrian without relationship. In total, 1,766 data were obtained during the analysis in which 561 data were obtained for `Pedestrian with relationship' and 1,205 data were obtained for "Pedestrian without relationship". Based on the obtained results, "Pedestrian without relationship" had shown a slightly higher average value of psychological distance between them compare to "Pedestrian with relationship" with the results of 1.6360m and 1.5909m respectively. In gender case, "Pedestrian without relationship" had higher mean of psychological distance in all three categories as well. Therefore, it can be concluded that pedestrian without relationship tend to have longer distance when walking in crowds.

  2. Health-based audible noise guidelines account for infrasound and low-frequency noise produced by wind turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Robert G; Ashtiani, Payam; Ollson, Christopher A; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa; McCallum, Lindsay C; Leventhall, Geoff; Knopper, Loren D

    2015-01-01

    Setbacks for wind turbines have been established in many jurisdictions to address potential health concerns associated with audible noise. However, in recent years, it has been suggested that infrasound (IS) and low-frequency noise (LFN) could be responsible for the onset of adverse health effects self-reported by some individuals living in proximity to wind turbines, even when audible noise limits are met. The purpose of this paper was to investigate whether current audible noise-based guidelines for wind turbines account for the protection of human health, given the levels of IS and LFN typically produced by wind turbines. New field measurements of indoor IS and outdoor LFN at locations between 400 and 900 m from the nearest turbine, which were previously underrepresented in the scientific literature, are reported and put into context with existing published works. Our analysis showed that indoor IS levels were below auditory threshold levels while LFN levels at distances >500 m were similar to background LFN levels. A clear contribution to LFN due to wind turbine operation (i.e., measured with turbines on in comparison to with turbines off) was noted at a distance of 480 m. However, this corresponded to an increase in overall audible sound measures as reported in dB(A), supporting the hypothesis that controlling audible sound produced by normally operating wind turbines will also control for LFN. Overall, the available data from this and other studies suggest that health-based audible noise wind turbine siting guidelines provide an effective means to evaluate, monitor, and protect potential receptors from audible noise as well as IS and LFN.

  3. Health-Based Audible Noise Guidelines Account for Infrasound and Low-Frequency Noise Produced by Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Robert G.; Ashtiani, Payam; Ollson, Christopher A.; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa; McCallum, Lindsay C.; Leventhall, Geoff; Knopper, Loren D.

    2015-01-01

    Setbacks for wind turbines have been established in many jurisdictions to address potential health concerns associated with audible noise. However, in recent years, it has been suggested that infrasound (IS) and low-frequency noise (LFN) could be responsible for the onset of adverse health effects self-reported by some individuals living in proximity to wind turbines, even when audible noise limits are met. The purpose of this paper was to investigate whether current audible noise-based guidelines for wind turbines account for the protection of human health, given the levels of IS and LFN typically produced by wind turbines. New field measurements of indoor IS and outdoor LFN at locations between 400 and 900 m from the nearest turbine, which were previously underrepresented in the scientific literature, are reported and put into context with existing published works. Our analysis showed that indoor IS levels were below auditory threshold levels while LFN levels at distances >500 m were similar to background LFN levels. A clear contribution to LFN due to wind turbine operation (i.e., measured with turbines on in comparison to with turbines off) was noted at a distance of 480 m. However, this corresponded to an increase in overall audible sound measures as reported in dB(A), supporting the hypothesis that controlling audible sound produced by normally operating wind turbines will also control for LFN. Overall, the available data from this and other studies suggest that health-based audible noise wind turbine siting guidelines provide an effective means to evaluate, monitor, and protect potential receptors from audible noise as well as IS and LFN. PMID:25759808

  4. Predicting the walking speed of pedestrians on stairs

    OpenAIRE

    Fujiyama, T.; Tyler, N.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a framework in which the behaviour of a pedestrian is predicted based on the characteristics of both the pedestrian and the facility the pedestrian uses. As an example of its application, we develop a model to predict the walking speed of a pedestrian on stairs. We examine the physiology and biomechanics of walking on stairs, and then develop a model that predicts walking speed based on the weight and leg extensor power of the pedestrian, and the gradient of the stai...

  5. A Review on Macroscopic Pedestrian Flow Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kormanová

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews several various approaches to macroscopic pedestrian modelling. It describes hydrodynamic models based on similarity of pedestrian flow with fluids and gases; first-order flow models that use fundamental diagrams and conservation equation; and a model similar to LWR vehicular traffic model, which allows non-classical shocks. At the end of the paper there is stated a comparison of described models, intended to find appropriate macroscopic model to eventually be a part of a hybrid model. The future work of the author is outlined.

  6. Pedestrian-induced lateral forces on footbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingolfsson, Einar Thor; Georgakis, Christos T.; Jönsson, Jeppe

    2012-01-01

    of the underlying pavement. An extensive experimental analysis has been carried out to determine the lateral forces generated by pedestrians when walking on a laterally moving treadmill. Two different conditions are investigated; initially the treadmill is fixed and then it is laterally driven in a sinusoidal...... motion at varying combinations of frequencies (0.33-1.07 Hz) and amplitudes (4.5-48 mm). The component of the pedestrian-induced force which is caused by the laterally moving surface is herewith quantified through equivalent velocity and acceleration proportional coefficients. It is shown that large...

  7. Pedestrian-induced lateral forces on footbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingólfsson, Einar Thór; Georgakis, Christos T.; Jönsson, Jeppe

    2011-01-01

    of the underlying pavement. An extensive experimental analysis has been carried out to determine the lateral forces generated by pedestrians when walking on a laterally moving treadmill. Two different conditions are investigated; initially the treadmill is fixed and then it is laterally driven in a sinusoidal...... motion at varying combinations of frequencies (0.33-1.07 Hz) and amplitudes (4.5-48 mm). The component of the pedestrian-induced force which is caused by the laterally moving surface is herewith quantified through equivalent velocity and acceleration proportional coefficients. It is shown that large...

  8. From Ant Trails to Pedestrian Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Schadschneider

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model for the simulation of pedestrian dynamics inspired by the behaviour of ants in ant trails. Ants communicate by producing a pheromone that can be smelled by other ants. In this model, pedestrians produce a virtual pheromone that influences the motion of others. In this way all interactions are strictly local, and so even large crowds can be simulated very efficiently. Nevertheless, the model is able to reproduce the collective effects observed empirically, eg the formation of lanes in counterflow. As an application, we reproduce a surprising result found in experiments of evacuation from an aircraft.

  9. Experimental identification of the behaviour of and lateral forces from freely-walking pedestrians on laterally oscillating structures in a virtual reality environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocian, Mateusz; Macdonald, John H G; Burn, Jeremy F; Redmill, David

    2015-12-15

    Modelling pedestrian loading on lively structures such as bridges remains a challenge. This is because pedestrians have the capacity to interact with vibrating structures which can lead to amplification of the structural response. Current design guidelines are often inaccurate and limiting as they do not sufficiently acknowledge this effect. This originates in scarcity of data on pedestrian behaviour on vibrating ground and uncertainty as to the accuracy of results from previous experimental campaigns aiming to quantify pedestrian behaviour in this case. To this end, this paper presents a novel experimental setup developed to evaluate pedestrian actions on laterally oscillating ground in the laboratory environment while avoiding the implications of artificiality and allowing for unconstrained gait. A biologically-inspired approach was adopted in its development, relying on appreciation of operational complexities of biological systems, in particular their adaptability and control requirements. In determination of pedestrian forces to the structure consideration was given to signal processing issues which have been neglected in past studies. The results from tests conducted on the setup are related to results from previous experimental investigations and outputs of the inverted pendulum pedestrian model for walking on laterally oscillating ground, which is capable of generating self-excited forces.

  10. Daily Living Movement Recognition for Pedestrian Dead Reckoning Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Martinelli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, activity recognition is a central topic in numerous applications such as patient and sport activity monitoring, surveillance, and navigation. By focusing on the latter, in particular Pedestrian Dead Reckoning navigation systems, activity recognition is generally exploited to get landmarks on the map of the buildings in order to permit the calibration of the navigation routines. The present work aims to provide a contribution to the definition of a more effective movement recognition for Pedestrian Dead Reckoning applications. The signal acquired by a belt-mounted triaxial accelerometer is considered as the input to the movement segmentation procedure which exploits Continuous Wavelet Transform to detect and segment cyclic movements such as walking. Furthermore, the segmented movements are provided to a supervised learning classifier in order to distinguish between activities such as walking and walking downstairs and upstairs. In particular, four supervised learning classification families are tested: decision tree, Support Vector Machine, k-nearest neighbour, and Ensemble Learner. Finally, the accuracy of the considered classification models is evaluated and the relative confusion matrices are presented.

  11. Advanced Pedestrian Positioning System to Smartphones and Smartwatches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Correa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the development of pedestrian navigation systems for satellite-denied scenarios. The popularization of smartphones and smartwatches is an interesting opportunity for reducing the infrastructure cost of the positioning systems. Nowadays, smartphones include inertial sensors that can be used in pedestrian dead-reckoning (PDR algorithms for the estimation of the user’s position. Both smartphones and smartwatches include WiFi capabilities allowing the computation of the received signal strength (RSS. We develop a new method for the combination of RSS measurements from two different receivers using a Gaussian mixture model. We also analyze the implication of using a WiFi network designed for communication purposes in an indoor positioning system when the designer cannot control the network configuration. In this work, we design a hybrid positioning system that combines inertial measurements, from low-cost inertial sensors embedded in a smartphone, with RSS measurements through an extended Kalman filter. The system has been validated in a real scenario, and results show that our system improves the positioning accuracy of the PDR system thanks to the use of two WiFi receivers. The designed system obtains an accuracy up to 1.4 m in a scenario of 6000 m 2 .

  12. 3D simulation of an audible ultrasonic electrolarynx using difference waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Patrick; Zara, Jason

    2014-01-01

    A total laryngectomy removes the vocal folds which are fundamental in forming voiced sounds that make speech possible. Although implanted prosthetics are commonly used in developed countries, simple handheld vibrating electrolarynxes are still common worldwide. These devices are easy to use but suffer from many drawbacks including dedication of a hand, mechanical sounding voice, and sound leakage. To address some of these drawbacks, we introduce a novel electrolarynx that uses vibro-acoustic interference of dual ultrasonic waves to generate an audible fundamental frequency. A 3D simulation of the principles of the device is presented in this paper.

  13. Modelling Behaviour Patterns of Pedestrians for Mobile Robot Trajectory Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Tamura

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Robots are expected to be operated in environments where they coexist with humans, such as shopping malls and offices. Both the safety and efficiency of a robot are necessary in such environments. To achieve this, pedestrian behaviour should be accurately predicted. However, the behaviour is uncertain and cannot be easily predicted. This paper proposes a probabilistic method of determining pedestrian trajectory based on an estimation of pedestrian behaviour patterns. The proposed method focuses on the specific behaviour of pedestrians around the robot. The proposed model classifies the behaviours of pedestrians into definite patterns. The behaviour patterns, distribution of the positions of the pedestrians, and the direction of each behaviour pattern are determined by learning through observation. The behaviour pattern of a pedestrian can be estimated correctly by a likelihood calculation. A robot decides to move with an emphasis on either safety or efficiency depending on the result of the pattern estimation. If the pedestrian trajectory follows a known behaviour pattern, the robot would move with an emphasis on efficiency because the pedestrian trajectory can be predicted. Otherwise, the robot would move with an emphasis on safety because the behaviour of the pedestrian cannot be predicted. Experimental results show that robots can move efficiently and safely when passing by a pedestrian by applying the proposed method.

  14. Evaluation of pedestrian safety at intersections: A theoretical framework based on pedestrian-vehicle interaction patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Ying; Wang, Menglong; Sun, Jian; Li, Keping

    2016-11-01

    Pedestrians are the most vulnerable road users, and pedestrian safety has become a major research focus in recent years. Regarding the quality and quantity issues with collision data, conflict analysis using surrogate safety measures has become a useful method to study pedestrian safety. However, given the inequality between pedestrians and vehicles in encounters and the multiple interactions between pedestrians and vehicles, it is insufficient to simply use the same indicator(s) or the same way to aggregate indicators for all conditions. In addition, behavioral factors cannot be neglected. To better use information extracted from trajectories for safety evaluation and pay more attention on effects of behavioral factors, this paper develops a more sophisticated framework for pedestrian conflict analysis that takes pedestrian-vehicle interactions into consideration. A concept of three interaction patterns has been proposed for the first time, namely "hard interaction," "no interaction," and "soft-interaction." Interactions have been categorized under one of these patterns by analyzing profiles of speed and conflict indicators during the whole interactive processes. In this paper, a support vector machine (SVM) approach has been adopted to classify severity levels for a dataset including 1144 events extracted from three intersections in Shanghai, China, followed by an analysis of variable importance. The results revealed that different conflict indicators have different contributions to indicating the severity level under various interaction patterns. Therefore, it is recommended either to use specific conflict indicators or to use weighted indicator aggregation for each interaction pattern when evaluating pedestrian safety. The implementation has been carried out at the fourth crosswalk, and the results indicate that the proposed method can achieve a higher accuracy and better robustness than conventional methods. Furthermore, the method is helpful for better

  15. Investigating the Applicability of Upstream Detection Strategy at Pedestrian Signalised Crossings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitti A Hassan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the UK, the Puffin crossing has provision to extend pedestrian green time for those who take longer to cross. However, even at such a pedestrian friendly facility, the traffic signal control is usually designed to minimise vehicle delay while providing the crossing facility. This situation is rather contrary to the current policies to encourage walking. It is this inequity that has prompted the need to re-examine the traffic control of signalised crossings to provide more benefit to both pedestrians and vehicles. In this context, this paper explores the possibility of implementing an Upstream Detection strategy at a Puffin crossing to provide a user friendly crossing. The study has been carried out by simulating a mid-block Puffin crossing for various detector distances and a number of combinations of pedestrian and traffic flows. This paper presents the simulation results and recommends the situations at which Upstream Detection would be suitable.

  16. Smart Pedestrian Crossing Management at Traffic Light Junctions through a Fuzzy-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Pau

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, numerous research efforts have been conducted to merge the Internet of Things (IoT with smart city environments. The goal to make a city “smart” is arising as a possible solution to lessen the issues caused by the urban population growth and fast urbanization. Attention also has focused on the pedestrian crossings because they are one of the most dangerous places in the transport field. Information and Communications Technologies (ICT can undoubtedly be an excellent support in developing infrastructures that can best manage pedestrian crossing. For this reason, this paper introduces a fuzzy logic-based solution able to manage dynamically the traffic lights’ phases in signalized pedestrian crossings. The proposed approach provides the possibility to change the phases of the traffic light taking into account the time of the day and the number of pedestrians about to cross the road. The paper presents a thorough description of the fuzzy logic controller configuration, an in-depth analysis of the application scenario and simulative assessments obtained through Vissim simulations.

  17. Pedestrian Flow in the Mean Field Limit

    KAUST Repository

    Haji Ali, Abdul Lateef

    2012-01-01

    -dependent density of two-dimensional pedestrians satisfies a four-dimensional integro-differential Fokker-Planck equation. To approximate the solution of the Fokker-Planck equation we use a time-splitting approach and solve the diffusion part using a Crank

  18. Linking pedestrian flow characteristics with stepping locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiayue; Boltes, Maik; Seyfried, Armin; Zhang, Jun; Ziemer, Verena; Weng, Wenguo

    2018-06-01

    While properties of human traffic flow are described by speed, density and flow, the locomotion of pedestrian is based on steps. To relate characteristics of human locomotor system with properties of human traffic flow, this paper aims to connect gait characteristics like step length, step frequency, swaying amplitude and synchronization with speed and density and thus to build a ground for advanced pedestrian models. For this aim, observational and experimental study on the single-file movement of pedestrians at different densities is conducted. Methods to measure step length, step frequency, swaying amplitude and step synchronization are proposed by means of trajectories of the head. Mathematical models for the relations of step length or frequency and speed are evaluated. The problem how step length and step duration are influenced by factors like body height and density is investigated. It is shown that the effect of body height on step length and step duration changes with density. Furthermore, two different types of step in-phase synchronization between two successive pedestrians are observed and the influence of step synchronization on step length is examined.

  19. Monocular pedestrian detection: Survey and experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enzweiler, M.; Gavrila, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    Pedestrian detection is a rapidly evolving area in computer vision with key applications in intelligent vehicles, surveillance, and advanced robotics. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the current state of the art from both methodological and experimental perspectives. The

  20. Cooper Drive pedestrian study : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the findings of the pedestrian study conducted for Cooper Drive from Nicholasville Road to Sports Center Drive on the University of Kentucky Campus in Lexington, KY. This study was initiated by the Universit...

  1. Indices of pedestrian behavior in shopping areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgers, A.; Timmermans, H.

    2014-01-01

    A number of indices to describe and compare sets of pedestrian routes in shopping environments will be introduced. The first set of indices is related to characteristics of the trajectories and the second set to visiting outlets. These statistics can be used to assess the performance of models

  2. Experimental demonstrations in audible frequency range of band gap tunability and negative refraction in two-dimensional sonic crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichard, Hélène; Richoux, Olivier; Groby, Jean-Philippe

    2012-10-01

    The propagation of audible acoustic waves in two-dimensional square lattice tunable sonic crystals (SC) made of square cross-section infinitely rigid rods embedded in air is investigated experimentally. The band structure is calculated with the plane wave expansion (PWE) method and compared with experimental measurements carried out on a finite extend structure of 200 cm width, 70 cm depth and 15 cm height. The structure is made of square inclusions of 5 cm side with a periodicity of L = 7.5 cm placed inbetween two rigid plates. The existence of tunable complete band gaps in the audible frequency range is demonstrated experimentally by rotating the scatterers around their vertical axis. Negative refraction is then analyzed by use of the anisotropy of the equi-frequency surface (EFS) in the first band and of a finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. Experimental results finally show negative refraction in the audible frequency range.

  3. Dual effects of pedestrian density on emergency evacuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Yi, E-mail: yima23-c@my.cityu.edu.hk [School of Transportation and Logistics, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu (China); Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Lee, Eric Wai Ming; Yuen, Richard Kwok Kit [Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2017-02-05

    This paper investigates the effect of the pedestrian density in building on the evacuation dynamic with simulation method. In the simulations, both the visibility in building and the exit limit of building are taken into account. The simulation results show that the effect of the pedestrian density in building on the evacuation dynamics is dual. On the one hand, when the visibility in building is very large, the increased pedestrian density plays a negative effect. On the other hand, when the visibility in building is very small, the increased pedestrian density can play a positive effect. The simulation results also show that when both the exit width and visibility are very small, the varying of evacuation time with regard to the pedestrian density is non-monotonous and presents a U-shaped tendency. That is, in this case, too large or too small pedestrian density in building is disadvantageous to the evacuation process. Our findings provide a new insight about the effect of the pedestrian density in building on the evacuation dynamic. - Highlights: • Pedestrian density inside buildings has dual effects on evacuation. • Increased pedestrian density has a negative effect in cases of increased visibility. • Increased pedestrian density has a positive effect in cases of decreased visibility.

  4. Jamming transitions induced by an attraction in pedestrian flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Jaeyoung; Jo, Hang-Hyun; Luttinen, Tapio; Kosonen, Iisakki

    2017-08-01

    We numerically study jamming transitions in pedestrian flow interacting with an attraction, mostly based on the social force model for pedestrians who can join the attraction. We formulate the joining probability as a function of social influence from others, reflecting that individual choice behavior is likely influenced by others. By controlling pedestrian influx and the social influence parameter, we identify various pedestrian flow patterns. For the bidirectional flow scenario, we observe a transition from the free flow phase to the freezing phase, in which oppositely walking pedestrians reach a complete stop and block each other. On the other hand, a different transition behavior appears in the unidirectional flow scenario, i.e., from the free flow phase to the localized jam phase and then to the extended jam phase. It is also observed that the extended jam phase can end up in freezing phenomena with a certain probability when pedestrian flux is high with strong social influence. This study highlights that attractive interactions between pedestrians and an attraction can trigger jamming transitions by increasing the number of conflicts among pedestrians near the attraction. In order to avoid excessive pedestrian jams, we suggest suppressing the number of conflicts under a certain level by moderating pedestrian influx especially when the social influence is strong.

  5. Jamming transitions induced by an attraction in pedestrian flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Jaeyoung; Jo, Hang-Hyun; Luttinen, Tapio; Kosonen, Iisakki

    2017-08-01

    We numerically study jamming transitions in pedestrian flow interacting with an attraction, mostly based on the social force model for pedestrians who can join the attraction. We formulate the joining probability as a function of social influence from others, reflecting that individual choice behavior is likely influenced by others. By controlling pedestrian influx and the social influence parameter, we identify various pedestrian flow patterns. For the bidirectional flow scenario, we observe a transition from the free flow phase to the freezing phase, in which oppositely walking pedestrians reach a complete stop and block each other. On the other hand, a different transition behavior appears in the unidirectional flow scenario, i.e., from the free flow phase to the localized jam phase and then to the extended jam phase. It is also observed that the extended jam phase can end up in freezing phenomena with a certain probability when pedestrian flux is high with strong social influence. This study highlights that attractive interactions between pedestrians and an attraction can trigger jamming transitions by increasing the number of conflicts among pedestrians near the attraction. In order to avoid excessive pedestrian jams, we suggest suppressing the number of conflicts under a certain level by moderating pedestrian influx especially when the social influence is strong.

  6. Dual effects of pedestrian density on emergency evacuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Yi; Lee, Eric Wai Ming; Yuen, Richard Kwok Kit

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of the pedestrian density in building on the evacuation dynamic with simulation method. In the simulations, both the visibility in building and the exit limit of building are taken into account. The simulation results show that the effect of the pedestrian density in building on the evacuation dynamics is dual. On the one hand, when the visibility in building is very large, the increased pedestrian density plays a negative effect. On the other hand, when the visibility in building is very small, the increased pedestrian density can play a positive effect. The simulation results also show that when both the exit width and visibility are very small, the varying of evacuation time with regard to the pedestrian density is non-monotonous and presents a U-shaped tendency. That is, in this case, too large or too small pedestrian density in building is disadvantageous to the evacuation process. Our findings provide a new insight about the effect of the pedestrian density in building on the evacuation dynamic. - Highlights: • Pedestrian density inside buildings has dual effects on evacuation. • Increased pedestrian density has a negative effect in cases of increased visibility. • Increased pedestrian density has a positive effect in cases of decreased visibility.

  7. Detecting New Pedestrian Facilities from VGI Data Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, S.; Xie, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Pedestrian facility (e.g. footbridge, pedestrian crossing and underground passage) information is an important basic data of location based service (LBS) for pedestrians. However, timely updating pedestrian facility information challenges due to facilities change frequently. Previous pedestrian facility information collecting and updating tasks are mainly completed by highly trained specialized persons. However, this conventional approach has several disadvantages such as high cost, long update cycle and so on. Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) has proven efficiency to provide new, free and fast growing spatial data. Pedestrian trajectory, which can be seen as measurements of real pedestrian road, is one of the most valuable information of VGI data. Although the accuracy of the trajectories is not too high, due to the large number of measurements, an improvement of quality of the road information can be achieved. Thus, we develop a method for detecting new pedestrian facilities based on the current road network and pedestrian trajectories. Specifically, 1) by analyzing speed, distance and direction, those outliers of pedestrian trajectories are removed, 2) a road network matching algorithm is developed for eliminating redundant trajectories, and 3) a space-time cluster algorithm is adopted for detecting new walking facilities. The performance of the method is evaluated with a series of experiments conducted on a part of the road network of Heifei and a large number of real pedestrian trajectories, and verified the results by using Tencent Street map. The results show that the proposed method is able to detecting new pedestrian facilities from VGI data accurately. We believe that the proposed method provides an alternative way for general road data acquisition, and can improve the quality of LBS for pedestrians.

  8. Survey about pedestrian safety and attitudes toward automated traffic enforcement in Washington, D.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchino, Jessica B; Wells, Joann K; McCartt, Anne T

    2014-01-01

    Pedestrians represent more than one third of all traffic deaths in Washington, D.C. The District plans to expand its long-standing automated traffic enforcement program in 2013 from speed and red light cameras to cameras to enforce pedestrian right-of-way laws at crosswalks and stop sign laws. This study collected information on the opinions, behaviors, and knowledge of D.C. residents related to camera enforcement and pedestrian safety issues. A telephone survey of 801 adult D.C. residents was conducted in November 2012 with approximately equal numbers of respondents in each of D.C.'s eight wards. Quotas were used to ensure that the sample was representative of the demographic characteristics of adults in each ward. For analyses combining responses across the wards, data were weighted to correspond with the demographic characteristics of adults in the city. Most respondents believed that drivers speeding, running red lights, running stop signs, and not stopping for pedestrians are serious threats to their safety. Respondents strongly supported the speed and red light camera programs, with 76 percent of respondents favoring speed cameras and 87 percent favoring red light cameras. Support was more limited for the camera enforcement that was not yet in place at the time of the survey, with 50 percent of respondents favoring stop sign cameras and 47 percent of respondents favoring crosswalk cameras. Twenty-four percent of respondents had not driven a car in D.C. in the past month, and higher proportions of these nondrivers favored speed cameras (90%), stop sign cameras (67%), and crosswalk cameras (59%) than respondents who drove in D.C. in the past month. Respondents who supported camera enforcement cited safety as their main reason. More than 9 in 10 respondents knew that D.C. law requires drivers to stop for pedestrians crossing the street in marked crosswalks at intersections without traffic signals and midblock, but only 54 percent knew that drivers must stop for

  9. Correlation Between Euro NCAP Pedestrian Test Results and Injury Severity in Injury Crashes with Pedestrians and Bicyclists in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandroth, Johan; Sternlund, Simon; Lie, Anders; Tingvall, Claes; Rizzi, Matteo; Kullgren, Anders; Ohlin, Maria; Fredriksson, Rikard

    2014-11-01

    Pedestrians and bicyclists account for a significant share of deaths and serious injuries in the road transport system. The protection of pedestrians in car-to-pedestrian crashes has therefore been addressed by friendlier car fronts and since 1997, the European New Car Assessment Program (Euro NCAP) has assessed the level of protection for most car models available in Europe. In the current study, Euro NCAP pedestrian scoring was compared with real-life injury outcomes in car-to-pedestrian and car-tobicyclist crashes occurring in Sweden. Approximately 1200 injured pedestrians and 2000 injured bicyclists were included in the study. Groups of cars with low, medium and high pedestrian scores were compared with respect to pedestrian injury severity on the Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale (MAIS)-level and risk of permanent medical impairment (RPMI). Significant injury reductions to both pedestrians and bicyclists were found between low and high performing cars. For pedestrians, the reduction of MAIS2+, MAIS3+, RPMI1+ and RPMI10+ ranged from 20-56% and was significant on all levels except for MAIS3+ injuries. Pedestrian head injuries had the highest reduction, 80-90% depending on level of medical impairment. For bicyclist, an injury reduction was only observed between medium and high performing cars. Significant injury reductions were found for all body regions. It was also found that cars fitted with autonomous emergency braking including pedestrian detection might have a 60-70% lower crash involvement than expected. Based on these results, it was recommended that pedestrian protection are implemented on a global scale to provide protection for vulnerable road users worldwide.

  10. Randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a video game as a child pedestrian educational tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbogast, Helen; Burke, Rita V; Muller, Valerie; Ruiz, Pearl; Knudson, M Margaret; Knudson, Margaret M; Upperman, Jeffrey S

    2014-05-01

    Injury is the number one cause of death and disability in children in the United States and an increasingly important public health problem globally. While prevention of injuries is an important goal, prevention efforts are currently fragmented, poorly funded, and rarely studied. Among school-aged children, pedestrian crashes are a major mechanism of injury. We hypothesized that we could develop a game-based educational tool that would be effective in teaching elementary school children the principles of pedestrian safety. Between November 2011 and June 2013, second- and third-grade children in Los Angeles Unified School District were randomly assigned to play a unique interactive video game (Ace's Adventure) about pedestrian safety or to a traditional didactic session about pedestrian safety. A pretest and posttest were administered to the study participants. Afterward, study participants were observed for appropriate pedestrian behavior on a simulated street set called Street Smarts. All statistical analyses were performed using SAS version 9.2. A total of 348 study participants took the pretest and posttest. There were 180 who were randomized to the didactic and 168 who were randomized to the video game. The didactic group demonstrated a higher mean score increase (1.01, p video game group (0.44, p video game, as compared with the didactic group, more frequently exhibited appropriate behavior during the following: exiting a parked car (p = 0.01), signaling to a car that was backing up (p = 0.01), signaling to a stopped car (p = 0.0002), and crossing the street (p = 0.01). Students who played the educational video game about pedestrian safety performed similarly to those who attended a more traditional and labor-intensive didactic learning. Innovative educational methods, such as game playing, could significantly change our approach to injury prevention and have the potential to decrease the burden of injury among children worldwide.

  11. Crossing Behaviour of Pedestrians Along Urban Streets in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Bargi Walid A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Road crossings are considered as an unavoidable part of walking in which the desirable route of pedestrians interacts with vehicles. These interactions may expose the pedestrians to risks or delays. In Malaysia, road accident statistics show that pedestrian casualties are fairly high. Inappropriate gap acceptance when pedestrians cross roads is a main contributing element to this situation. In this context, the purpose of this study was to develop realistic models for pedestrian road crossing behaviour using the regression technique for mid-block street crossing. A choice model was produced to capture the decision making process of pedestrians whereas rejected or accepted vehicular gaps was based on the discrete choice theory. Gap acceptance data under real mix traffic conditions was collected using video camera on a typical unsignalised two lane one way urban street section in the city center of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The lognormal regression model developed for the crossing behaviour model shows that traffic speed, pedestrian waiting time, gender, crossing distance, age group, frequency of attempts and pedestrian number are the significant factors which are able to predict 77.0% of variance or changes in accepted gap size at 0.05 significance level. Higher traffic speed, lower waiting time, being a male, wider crossing distance, older age group, lower frequency of attempts and higher number of pedestrian were found to influence pedestrians to accept a bigger gap size. The binary logistic regression developed for the crossing choice model was found to be influenced by traffic speed, driver yield, pedestrian number and age group. Furthermore, lower traffic speed, willingness of drivers to slow down, more pedestrian crossings at the same time and a younger age group lead to a higher chance or probability of crossing roads. The model was validated again using 100 isolated samples and an accuracy of 98% was obtained compared to the calibrated

  12. Enhancing the Driver Awareness of Pedestrian using Augmented Reality Cues

    OpenAIRE

    Phan , Minh Tien; Thouvenin , Indira; Frémont , Vincent

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Pedestrian accident is a serious problem for the society. Pedestrian Collision Warning Systems (PCWS) are proposed to detect the presence of pedestrians and to warn the driver about the potential dangers. However, their interfaces associated with ambiguous alerts can distract drivers and create more dangers. On the other hand, Augmented Reality (AR) with Head-Up Display (HUD) interfaces have recently attracted the attention in the field of automotive research as they c...

  13. Audible Noise Measurement and Analysis of the Main Power Apparatus in UHV GIS Substations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Nian Guang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of audible noise characteristics of the main power apparatus in UHV GIS substations provides essential statistics for the noise prediction and control. Noise pressure level, spectrum and attenuation characteristics of the main transformers and high voltage (HV reactors are measured and analyzed in this paper. The result shows that the main transformer and HV reactor have identical A-weighted equivalent sound pressure level. The medium- and low-frequency noises are the primary components in the spectral. More attention should be paid to the low-frequency bands in the noise control process. The noise of cooling fan has a large influence on that of the main transformer. Without the consideration of corona noise, the average A-weighted sound pressure level shows an overall decreasing trend with the increase of the propagation distance. Obvious interference phenomenon of the noises at 100 and 200Hz exists in the noise propagation process.

  14. Oriented regions grouping based candidate proposal for infrared pedestrian detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiangtao; Zhang, Jingai; Li, Huaijiang

    2018-04-01

    Effectively and accurately locating the positions of pedestrian candidates in image is a key task for the infrared pedestrian detection system. In this work, a novel similarity measuring metric is designed. Based on the selective search scheme, the developed similarity measuring metric is utilized to yield the possible locations for pedestrian candidate. Besides this, corresponding diversification strategies are also provided according to the characteristics of the infrared thermal imaging system. Experimental results indicate that the presented scheme can achieve more efficient outputs than the traditional selective search methodology for the infrared pedestrian detection task.

  15. Biomechanically Excited SMD Model of a Walking Pedestrian

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Mengshi; Georgakis, Christos T.; Chen, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Through their biomechanical properties, pedestrians interact with the structures they occupy. Although this interaction has been recognized by researchers, pedestrians' biomechanical properties have not been fully addressed. In this paper, a spring-mass-damper (SMD) system, with a pair of biomech......Through their biomechanical properties, pedestrians interact with the structures they occupy. Although this interaction has been recognized by researchers, pedestrians' biomechanical properties have not been fully addressed. In this paper, a spring-mass-damper (SMD) system, with a pair...... produced the pedestrian's center of mass (COM) trajectories from the captured motion markers. The vertical COM trajectory was approximated to be the pedestrian SMD dynamic responses under the excitation of biomechanical forces. SMD model parameters of a pedestrian for a specific walking frequency were...... estimated from a known walking frequency and the pedestrian's weight, assuming that pedestrians always walk in displacement resonance and retain a constant damping ratio of 0.3. Thus, biomechanical forces were extracted using the measured SMD dynamic responses and the estimated SMD parameters. Extracted...

  16. 49 CFR 214.511 - Required audible warning devices for new on-track roadway maintenance machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... roadway maintenance machines. 214.511 Section 214.511 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... SAFETY On-Track Roadway Maintenance Machines and Hi-Rail Vehicles § 214.511 Required audible warning devices for new on-track roadway maintenance machines. Each new on-track roadway maintenance machine shall...

  17. Experimental research on pedestrian lower leg impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, B. A.; Iozsa, D. M.; Stan, C.

    2017-10-01

    The present paper is centred on the research of deceleration measured at the level of the lower leg during a pedestrian impact in multiple load cases. Basically, the used methodology for physical test setup is similar to EuroNCAP and European Union regulatory requirements. Due cost reduction reasons, it was not used a pneumatic system in order to launch the lower leg impactor in the direction of the vehicle front-end. During the test it was used an opposite solution, namely the vehicle being in motion, aiming the standstill lower leg impactor. The impactor has similar specifications to those at EU level, i.e. dimensions, materials, and principle of measurement of the deceleration magnitude. Therefore, all the results obtained during the study comply with the requirements of both EU regulation and EuroNCAP. As a limitation, due to unavailability of proper sensors in the equipment of the lower leg impactor, that could provide precise results, the bending angle, the shearing and the detailed data at the level of knee ligaments were not evaluated. The knee joint should be improved for future studies as some bending angles observed during the post processing of several impact video files were too high comparing to other studies. The paper highlights the first pedestrian impact physical test conducted by the author, following an extensive research in the field. Deceleration at the level of pedestrian knee can be substantially improved by providing enough volume between the bumper fascia and the front-end structure and by using pedestrian friendly materials for shock absorbers, such as foams.

  18. Reclaiming Pedestrian Space from Car Dominated Neighborhoods

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas L. Savvides

    2012-01-01

    For a long time as a result of accommodating car traffic, planning ideologies in the past put a low priority on public space, pedestrianism and the role of city space as a meeting place for urban dwellers. In addition, according to authors such as Jan Gehl, market forces and changing architectural perceptions began to shift the focus of planning practice from the integration of public space in various pockets around the contemporary city to individual buildings. Eventuall...

  19. Microscopic and macroscopic models for pedestrian crowds

    OpenAIRE

    Makmul, Juntima

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with microscopic and macroscopic models for pedes- trian crowds. In the first chapter, we consider pedestrians exit choices and model human behaviour in an evacuation process. Two microscopic models, discrete and continuous, are studied in this chapter. The former is a cellular automaton model and the latter is a social force model. Different numerical test cases are investigated and their results are compared. In chapter 2, a hierarchy of models for...

  20. Are pedestrians invisible in the planning process?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gemzøe, Lars

    2001-01-01

    The vehicular traffic is very visible in the planning process. One of the reasons is that there is always plenty of data on the problems of car traffic - but what about data on the pedestrians and their needs? Three major studies on people in public spaces in the Inner City of Copenhagen have...... supplied data that show the quantity, character and changes through 30 years of public life. People in Copenhagen have become visible in the planning process. cd-rom....

  1. Pedestrian Flow in the Mean Field Limit

    KAUST Repository

    Haji Ali, Abdul Lateef

    2012-11-01

    We study the mean-field limit of a particle-based system modeling the behavior of many indistinguishable pedestrians as their number increases. The base model is a modified version of Helbing\\'s social force model. In the mean-field limit, the time-dependent density of two-dimensional pedestrians satisfies a four-dimensional integro-differential Fokker-Planck equation. To approximate the solution of the Fokker-Planck equation we use a time-splitting approach and solve the diffusion part using a Crank-Nicholson method. The advection part is solved using a Lax-Wendroff-Leveque method or an upwind Backward Euler method depending on the advection speed. Moreover, we use multilevel Monte Carlo to estimate observables from the particle-based system. We discuss these numerical methods, and present numerical results showing the convergence of observables that were calculated using the particle-based model as the number of pedestrians increases to those calculated using the probability density function satisfying the Fokker-Planck equation.

  2. The effect of conformity tendency on pedestrians' road-crossing intentions in China: an application of the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ronggang; Horrey, William J; Yu, Ruifeng

    2009-05-01

    This paper presents a survey investigating the effects of age, gender and conformity tendency on Chinese pedestrians' intention to cross the road in potentially dangerous situations. A sample of 426 respondents completed a demographic questionnaire, a scale measuring their tendency towards social conformity, and a questionnaire based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB). This questionnaire measured people's intentions to cross the road in two different road crossing situations, their attitude towards the behavior, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, anticipated affect, moral norms, and perceived risk. The two scenarios depicted (i) a situation where the crossing was consistent with other pedestrians' behavior (Conformity scenario) and (ii) a situation where the road crossing was inconsistent with other pedestrians (Non-Conformity scenario). Pedestrians reported greater likelihood in crossing the road when other pedestrians were crossing the road. People who showed greater tendencies towards social conformity also had stronger road crossing intentions than low conformity people for both scenarios. The predictive model explained 36% and 48% of the variance in the Non-Conformity and Conformity scenarios, respectively. Attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and perceived risk emerged as the common predictors for both situations. The results have a number of theoretical and practical implications. In particular, interventions should focus on perceptions of risk that inform road users that crossing with other pedestrians against the signal is also unsafe and prohibited, and may lead to negative outcomes.

  3. Exploring the determinants of pedestrian-vehicle crash severity in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, H M Abdul; Ukkusuri, Satish V; Hasan, Samiul

    2013-01-01

    Pedestrian-vehicle crashes remain a major concern in New York City due to high percentage of fatalities. This study develops random parameter logit models for explaining pedestrian injury severity levels of New York City accounting for unobserved heterogeneity in the population and across the boroughs. A log-likelihood ratio test for joint model suitability suggests that separate models for each of the boroughs should be estimated. Among many variables, road characteristics (e.g., number of lanes, grade, light condition, road surface, etc.), traffic attributes (e.g., presence of signal control, type of vehicle, etc.), and land use (e.g., parking facilities, commercial and industrial land use, etc.) are found to be statistically significant in the estimated model. The study also suggests that the set of counter measures should be different for different boroughs in the New York City and the priority ranks of countermeasures should be different as well. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Pedestrian-driver communication and decision strategies at marked crossings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucha, Matus; Dostal, Daniel; Risser, Ralf

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this work is to describe pedestrian-driver encounters, communication, and decision strategies at marked but unsignalised crossings in urban areas in the Czech Republic and the ways in which the parties involved experience and handle these encounters. A mixed-methods design was used, consisting of focus groups with pedestrians and drivers regarding their subjective views of the situations, on-site observations, camera recordings, speed measurements, the measurement of car and pedestrian densities, and brief on-site interviews with pedestrians. In close correspondence with the literature, our study revealed that the most relevant predictors of pedestrians' and drivers' behaviour at crossings were the densities of car traffic and pedestrian flows and car speed. The factors which influenced pedestrians' wait/go behaviour were: car speed, the distance of the car from the crossing, traffic density, whether there were cars approaching from both directions, various signs given by the driver (eye contact, waving a hand, flashing their lights), and the presence of other pedestrians. The factors influencing drivers' yield/go behaviour were: speed, traffic density, the number of pedestrians waiting to cross, and pedestrians being distracted. A great proportion of drivers (36%) failed to yield to pedestrians at marked crossings. The probability of conflict situations increased with cars travelling at a higher speed, higher traffic density, and pedestrians being distracted by a different activity while crossing. The findings of this study can add to the existing literature by helping to provide an understanding of the perception of encounter situations by the parties involved and the motives lying behind certain aspects of behaviour associated with these encounters. This seems necessary in order to develop suggestions for improvements. For instance, the infrastructure near pedestrian crossings should be designed in such a way as to take proper account of pedestrians

  5. Creating pedestrian crash scenarios in a driving simulator environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysler, Susan T; Ahmad, Omar; Schwarz, Chris W

    2015-01-01

    In 2012 in the United States, pedestrian injuries accounted for 3.3% of all traffic injuries but, disproportionately, pedestrian fatalities accounted for roughly 14% of traffic-related deaths (NHTSA 2014 ). In many other countries, pedestrians make up more than 50% of those injured and killed in crashes. This research project examined driver response to crash-imminent situations involving pedestrians in a high-fidelity, full-motion driving simulator. This article presents a scenario development method and discusses experimental design and control issues in conducting pedestrian crash research in a simulation environment. Driving simulators offer a safe environment in which to test driver response and offer the advantage of having virtual pedestrian models that move realistically, unlike test track studies, which by nature must use pedestrian dummies on some moving track. An analysis of pedestrian crash trajectories, speeds, roadside features, and pedestrian behavior was used to create 18 unique crash scenarios representative of the most frequent and most costly crash types. For the study reported here, we only considered scenarios where the car is traveling straight because these represent the majority of fatalities. We manipulated driver expectation of a pedestrian both by presenting intersection and mid-block crossing as well as by using features in the scene to direct the driver's visual attention toward or away from the crossing pedestrian. Three visual environments for the scenarios were used to provide a variety of roadside environments and speed: a 20-30 mph residential area, a 55 mph rural undivided highway, and a 40 mph urban area. Many variables of crash situations were considered in selecting and developing the scenarios, including vehicle and pedestrian movements; roadway and roadside features; environmental conditions; and characteristics of the pedestrian, driver, and vehicle. The driving simulator scenarios were subjected to iterative testing to

  6. Research on the Effects of Heterogeneity on Pedestrian Dynamics in Walkway of Subway Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoling Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The major objective of this paper is to study the effects of heterogeneity on pedestrian dynamics in walkway of subway station. We analyze the observed data of the selected facility and find that walking speed and occupied space were varied in the population. In reality, pedestrians are heterogeneous individuals with different attributes. However, the research on how the heterogeneity affects the pedestrian dynamics in facilities of subway stations is insufficient. The improved floor field model is therefore presented to explore the effects of heterogeneity. Pedestrians are classified into pedestrians walking in pairs, fast pedestrians, and ordinary pedestrians. For convenience, they are denoted as P-pedestrians, F-pedestrians, and O-pedestrians, respectively. The proposed model is validated under homogeneous and heterogeneous conditions. Three pedestrian compositions are simulated to analyze the effects of heterogeneity on pedestrian dynamics. The results show that P-pedestrians have negative effect and F-pedestrians have positive effect. All of the results in this paper indicate that the capacity of walkway is not a constant value. It changes with different component proportions of heterogeneous pedestrians. The heterogeneity of pedestrian has an important influence on the pedestrian dynamics in the walkway of the subway station.

  7. Concept of an enhanced V2X pedestrian collision avoidance system with a cost function-based pedestrian model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotte, Jens; Schmeichel, Carsten; Zlocki, Adrian; Gathmann, Hauke; Eckstein, Lutz

    2017-05-29

    State-of-the-art collision avoidance and collision mitigation systems predict the behavior of pedestrians based on trivial models that assume a constant acceleration or velocity. New sources of sensor information-for example, smart devices such as smartphones, tablets, smartwatches, etc.-can support enhanced pedestrian behavior models. The objective of this article is the development and implementation of a V2Xpedestrian collision avoidance system that uses new information sources. A literature review of existing state-of-the-art pedestrian collision avoidance systems, pedestrian behavior models in advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS), and traffic simulations is conducted together with an analysis of existing studies on typical pedestrian patterns in traffic. Based on this analysis, possible parameters for predicting pedestrian behavior were investigated. The results led to new requirements from which a concept was developed and implemented. The analysis of typical pedestrian behavior patterns in traffic situations showed the complexity of predicting pedestrian behavior. Requirements for an improved behavior prediction were derived. A concept for a V2X collision avoidance system, based on a cost function that predicts pedestrian near future presence, and its implementation is presented. The concept presented considers several challenges such as information privacy, inaccuracies of the localization, and inaccuracies of the prediction. A concept for an enhanced V2X pedestrian collision avoidance system was developed and introduced. The concept uses new information sources such as smart devices to improve the prediction of the pedestrian's presence in the near future and considers challenges that come along with the usage of these information sources.

  8. Using connected vehicle technology to deliver timely warnings to pedestrians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Pedestrian injuries and deaths caused by collisions with motor vehicles are on the : rise in the U.S. One factor that may increase the risk of such collisions is pedestrian : mobile device use. Both field observations and controlled experiments indic...

  9. Experimental validation and calibration of pedestrian loading models for footbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricciardelli, Fransesco; Briatico, C; Ingólfsson, Einar Thór

    2006-01-01

    Different patterns of pedestrian loading of footbridges exist, whose occurrence depends on a number of parameters, such as the bridge span, frequency, damping and mass, and the pedestrian density and activity. In this paper analytical models for the transient action of one walker and for the stat...

  10. Pedestrian safety management using the risk-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanowska Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a concept of a multi-level pedestrian safety management system. Three management levels are distinguished: strategic, tactical and operational. The basis for the proposed approach to pedestrian safety management is a risk-based method. In the approach the elements of behavioural and systemic theories were used, allowing for the development of a formalised and repeatable procedure integrating the phases of risk assessment and response to the hazards of road crashes involving pedestrians. Key to the method are tools supporting pedestrian safety management. According to the risk management approach, the tools can be divided into two groups: tools supporting risk assessment and tools supporting risk response. In the paper attention is paid to selected tools supporting risk assessment, with particular emphasis on the methods for estimating forecasted pedestrian safety measures (at strategic, national and regional level and identification of particularly dangerous locations in terms of pedestrian safety at tactical (regional and local and operational level. The proposed pedestrian safety management methods and tools can support road administration in making rational decisions in terms of road safety, safety of road infrastructure, crash elimination measures or reducing the consequences suffered by road users (particularly pedestrians as a result of road crashes.

  11. An Algorithm for Pedestrian Detection in Multispectral Image Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniaz, V. V.; Fedorenko, V. V.

    2017-05-01

    The growing interest for self-driving cars provides a demand for scene understanding and obstacle detection algorithms. One of the most challenging problems in this field is the problem of pedestrian detection. Main difficulties arise from a diverse appearances of pedestrians. Poor visibility conditions such as fog and low light conditions also significantly decrease the quality of pedestrian detection. This paper presents a new optical flow based algorithm BipedDetet that provides robust pedestrian detection on a single-borad computer. The algorithm is based on the idea of simplified Kalman filtering suitable for realization on modern single-board computers. To detect a pedestrian a synthetic optical flow of the scene without pedestrians is generated using slanted-plane model. The estimate of a real optical flow is generated using a multispectral image sequence. The difference of the synthetic optical flow and the real optical flow provides the optical flow induced by pedestrians. The final detection of pedestrians is done by the segmentation of the difference of optical flows. To evaluate the BipedDetect algorithm a multispectral dataset was collected using a mobile robot.

  12. The effect of spatial planning patterns on distribution of pedestrians ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focuses on public spaces of residential neighbourhoods in the City of Nairobi. It establishes various spatial characteristics, hence patterns, that have a bearing on the distribution of pedestrians therein. A higher encounter rate of pedestrians is a desirable public space quality given that the higher degree of ...

  13. Pedestrian fatalities and injuries involving Irish older people.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin, A J

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been established internationally that road traffic accidents (RTAs) involving older drivers follow clearly different patterns of timing, location and outcomes from those of younger age groups. Older pedestrians are also a vulnerable group and fewer analyses have been undertaken of the phenomenology of their injuries and fatalities. We studied the pattern of pedestrian RTAs in Ireland over a five-year period with the aim of identifying differences between older pedestrians (aged 65 or older) and younger adults. METHODS: We examined the datasets of the Irish National Road Authority (now the Road Safety Authority) from 1998-2002. We analysed patterns of crashes involving older pedestrians (aged 65) and compared them with younger adults (aged 18-64). RESULTS: Older people represented 36% (n = 134) of pedestrian fatalities and 23% of serious injuries while they only account for 19% of total RTAs. Mortality in RTA is more than doubled for older pedestrians compared to younger adults (RR 2.30). Most accidents involving older pedestrians happen in daylight with good visibility (56%) and in good weather conditions (77%). CONCLUSIONS: Older pedestrians are particularly vulnerable in RTAs. These occur more frequently during daylight hours and in good weather conditions. This may point to a need for prevention strategies that are targeted at the traffic environment and other road users rather than at older people.

  14. Mapping patterns of pedestrian fatal accidents in Israel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Gitelman, Victoria; Bekhor, Shlomo

    2012-01-01

    This study intends to provide insight into pedestrian accidents by uncovering their patterns in order to design preventive measures and to allocate resources for identified problems. Kohonen neural networks are applied to a database of pedestrian fatal accidents occurred during the four-year peri...

  15. Trajectory Analysis and Prediction for Improved Pedestrian Safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelmose, Andreas; Trivedi, Mohan M.; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a monocular and purely vision based pedestrian trajectory tracking and prediction framework with integrated map-based hazard inference. In Advanced Driver Assistance systems research, a lot of effort has been put into pedestrian detection over the last decade, and several pede...

  16. Some aspects of the safety of elderly pedestrians and cyclists.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenzieker, M.P.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper some aspects of the safety of elderly pedestrians and cyclists will be addressed. First, fatality data concerning older pedestrians and cyclists will be presented for a number of countries. Then, attention will be paid to fatality rates per 100,000 inhabitants, and the risks of elderly

  17. Pedestrian interaction with vehicles : roles of explicit and implicit communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dey, D.; Terken, J.M.B.

    This paper presents a study that aimed to identify the importance of eye contact and gestures between pedestrians and drivers. A video-based observation and coding was undertaken to categorize the road-crossing and communication behavior of pedestrians and drivers in busy traffic situations where

  18. 10 CFR 431.224 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption for traffic signal modules and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption for traffic signal modules and pedestrian modules. 431.224 Section 431.224 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... measurement of energy consumption for traffic signal modules and pedestrian modules. (a) Scope. This section...

  19. Neurological Manifestations Among US Government Personnel Reporting Directional Audible and Sensory Phenomena in Havana, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Randel L; Hampton, Stephen; Green-McKenzie, Judith; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Grady, M Sean; Verma, Ragini; Biester, Rosette; Duda, Diana; Wolf, Ronald L; Smith, Douglas H

    2018-03-20

    From late 2016 through August 2017, US government personnel serving on diplomatic assignment in Havana, Cuba, reported neurological symptoms associated with exposure to auditory and sensory phenomena. To describe the neurological manifestations that followed exposure to an unknown energy source associated with auditory and sensory phenomena. Preliminary results from a retrospective case series of US government personnel in Havana, Cuba. Following reported exposure to auditory and sensory phenomena in their homes or hotel rooms, the individuals reported a similar constellation of neurological symptoms resembling brain injury. These individuals were referred to an academic brain injury center for multidisciplinary evaluation and treatment. Report of experiencing audible and sensory phenomena emanating from a distinct direction (directional phenomena) associated with an undetermined source, while serving on US government assignments in Havana, Cuba, since 2016. Descriptions of the exposures and symptoms were obtained from medical record review of multidisciplinary clinical interviews and examinations. Additional objective assessments included clinical tests of vestibular (dynamic and static balance, vestibulo-ocular reflex testing, caloric testing), oculomotor (measurement of convergence, saccadic, and smooth pursuit eye movements), cognitive (comprehensive neuropsychological battery), and audiometric (pure tone and speech audiometry) functioning. Neuroimaging was also obtained. Of 24 individuals with suspected exposure identified by the US Department of State, 21 completed multidisciplinary evaluation an average of 203 days after exposure. Persistent symptoms (>3 months after exposure) were reported by these individuals including cognitive (n = 17, 81%), balance (n = 15, 71%), visual (n = 18, 86%), and auditory (n = 15, 68%) dysfunction, sleep impairment (n = 18, 86%), and headaches (n = 16, 76%). Objective findings included cognitive (n

  20. Training strategy for convolutional neural networks in pedestrian gender classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Choon-Boon; Tay, Yong-Haur; Goi, Bok-Min

    2017-06-01

    In this work, we studied a strategy for training a convolutional neural network in pedestrian gender classification with limited amount of labeled training data. Unsupervised learning by k-means clustering on pedestrian images was used to learn the filters to initialize the first layer of the network. As a form of pre-training, supervised learning for the related task of pedestrian classification was performed. Finally, the network was fine-tuned for gender classification. We found that this strategy improved the network's generalization ability in gender classification, achieving better test results when compared to random weights initialization and slightly more beneficial than merely initializing the first layer filters by unsupervised learning. This shows that unsupervised learning followed by pre-training with pedestrian images is an effective strategy to learn useful features for pedestrian gender classification.

  1. Modeling the Perceptions and Preferences of Pedestrians on Crossing Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrian’s street-crossing behaviour has a significant effect on traffic performance and safety. The crossing behaviour is determined by human factors and environmental factors. Aiming at examining the pedestrian perceptions toward crossing facilities and preferences for crossing locations, an observational study of pedestrian crossing behaviour at urban street is conducted. The perceptions and preferences of pedestrians are collected using stated preference technique. A specific questionnaire is designed to conduct the stated preference survey. A multinomial logit model is proposed to describe the perceptions and preferences of pedestrians on crossing facilities and locations. The sensitivity analysis is performed to discuss the influence of various factors on crossing behaviour. Then the relationship between crossing locations and crossing distances is analyzed by a new proposed method. With the theoretical analysis, the engineering solutions considering pedestrian behaviour are suggested. The results are helpful to design human-centered crossing facilities in urban traffic.

  2. Improving Walkability Through Control Strategies at Signalized Intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    As cities and communities nationwide seek to develop Complete Streets that foster livability and accommodate all modes, signal timing control strategies that include pedestrians in the operational decision process are gaining importance. This researc...

  3. Psychological Differences toward Pedestrian Red Light Crossing between University Students and Their Peers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghui Suo

    Full Text Available Based on our site investigation conducted in 2013, we found that the pedestrian red light crossing at the midblock connecting the campus of Southwest University and living area was low, where most of pedestrians are university students and staff. This paper reports a supplementary work applying the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB to identify any psychological differences toward pedestrian red light crossing between university students and their peers. Three social groups participated in the investigation. The first group is the university students in Grade one (Group 1, the other two groups are their previous senior middle school classmates who are now working full time (Group 2 or who are now out of work and school (Group 3. The statistical results indicated The TPB components accounted for 42.9%, 55.3% and 55.4% of the variance of red signal crossing intention for Group 1, Group 2 and Group 3 in the depicted road crossing scenario. The data also showed that there are obvious differences among the participants' responses to "refrain from crossing" between university students and others, and the subsequent regression analysis revealed the ability to "refrain from crossing" played the most important role in the intention of red light crossing in the depicted scenario.

  4. Estimation of left-turning vehicle maneuvers for the assessment of pedestrian safety at intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael K.M. Alhajyaseen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Improving pedestrian safety at intersections remains a critical issue. Although several types of safety countermeasures, such as reforming intersection layouts, have been implemented, methods have not yet been established to quantitatively evaluate the effects of these countermeasures before installation. One of the main issues in pedestrian safety is conflicts with turning vehicles. This study aims to develop an integrated model to represent the variations in the maneuvers of left-turners (left-hand traffic at signalized intersections that dynamically considers the vehicle reaction to intersection geometry and crossing pedestrians. The proposed method consists of four empirically developed stochastic sub-models, including a path model, free-flow speed profile model, lag/gap acceptance model, and stopping/clearing speed profile model. Since safety assessment is the main objective driving the development of the proposed model, this study uses post-encroachment time (PET and vehicle speed at the crosswalk as validation parameters. Preliminary validation results obtained by Monte Carlo simulation show that the proposed integrated model can realistically represent the variations in vehicle maneuvers as well as the distribution of PET and vehicle speeds at the crosswalk.

  5. Applications guide to pedestrian SNM monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehlau, P.E.

    1986-02-01

    The applications guide introduces readers to the pedestrian special nuclear material (SNM) monitors that provide nuclear material control at DOE contractor facilities. It explains the principles of operation, the strong and weak points, and steps for calibration and maintenance of the monitors. Administrators and security specialists will find an overview of pedestrain monitor application and upkeep in Part 1 of the guide and a descriptive catalog of present-day monitors in Part 3. Technically oriented readers will be interested in the more detailed discussion of SNM monitoring physics and SNM monitor design principles found in Part 2. 18 refs., 33 figs., 9 tabs

  6. Applications guide to pedestrian SNM monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehlau, P.E.

    1986-02-01

    The applications guide introduces readers to the pedestrian special nuclear material (SNM) monitors that provide nuclear material control at DOE contractor facilities. It explains the principles of operation, the strong and weak points, and steps for calibration and maintenance of the monitors. Administrators and security specialists will find an overview of pedestrain monitor application and upkeep in Part 1 of the guide and a descriptive catalog of present-day monitors in Part 3. Technically oriented readers will be interested in the more detailed discussion of SNM monitoring physics and SNM monitor design principles found in Part 2. 18 refs., 33 figs., 9 tabs.

  7. Analysis of Pedestrian Gap Acceptance and Crossing Decision in Kuala Lumpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Nor Siti Naquiyah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrians are most vulnerable of all road users. This research aims to investigate and model pedestrian road crossing behaviour at crossing facilities. In particular, they have two aspects of pedestrians crossing behaviour are examined, namely the size of traffic gaps acceptance by pedestrians and the decision of pedestrians either to cross the road or not. A fields survey was carried out at six crossing facilities which from a zebra crossing at midblock. In this survey, the data were recorded in real traffic condition using video recorder. Determine the associations between characteristics of pedestrians, crossing facilities and vehicular traffic through on-site observations of pedestrian behaviour. This data will analysis using statistical analysis which is multiple regression and binary logit regression method. It is hope that through this research, the model of pedestrian gap acceptance and pedestrian crossing decision can be reached and what are the indicators that pedestrians look for when accepting gaps to cross the road.

  8. Propagation characteristics of audible noise generated by single corona source under positive DC voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuebao Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The directivity and lateral profile of corona-generated audible noise (AN from a single corona source are measured through experiments carried out in the semi-anechoic laboratory. The experimental results show that the waveform of corona-generated AN consists of a series of random sound pressure pulses whose pulse amplitudes decrease with the increase of measurement distance. A single corona source can be regarded as a non-directional AN source, and the A-weighted SPL (sound pressure level decreases 6 dB(A as doubling the measurement distance. Then, qualitative explanations for the rationality of treating the single corona source as a point source are given on the basis of the Ingard’s theory for sound generation in corona discharge. Furthermore, we take into consideration of the ground reflection and the air attenuation to reconstruct the propagation features of AN from the single corona source. The calculated results agree with the measurement well, which validates the propagation model. Finally, the influence of the ground reflection on the SPL is presented in the paper.

  9. Converting sunlight into audible sound by means of the photoacoustic effect: The Heliophone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozen, N B; Glorieux, C; Liu, L; Rychtáriková, M; Van der Donck, T; Jacobs, A

    2016-09-01

    One hundred and thirty-five years after Alexander Graham Bell and his assistant Charles Sumner Tainter explored the photoacoustic effect, and about 40 years after Rosencwaig and Gersho modeled the effect in a photoacoustic cell configuration, the phenomenon is revisited in a "Heliophone" device that converts sunlight into sound. The light is focused on a carbon blackened copper coated Kapton foil in an acoustic cell by means of a compound parabolic collimator, and its intensity is modulated by a mechanical chopper. A horn is employed to make the sound audible without electronic amplification. The description of the photoacoustic effect that was introduced by Rosencwaig and Gersho is extended to a cell-horn configuration, in which the periodically heated air above the foil acts as an oscillating piston, driving acoustic waves in the horn. The pressure in the cavity-horn assembly is calculated by considering the air layer piston as an equivalent volume velocity source. The importance of the carbon black (soot) layer to enhance light absorption, but above all to enhance the photothermal excitation efficiency, is elucidated by means of an experimentally supported physical model.

  10. Safer passenger car front shapes for pedestrians: A computational approach to reduce overall pedestrian injury risk in realistic impact scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guibing; Yang, Jikuang; Simms, Ciaran

    2017-03-01

    Vehicle front shape has a significant influence on pedestrian injuries and the optimal design for overall pedestrian protection remains an elusive goal, especially considering the variability of vehicle-to-pedestrian accident scenarios. Therefore this study aims to develop and evaluate an efficient framework for vehicle front shape optimization for pedestrian protection accounting for the broad range of real world impact scenarios and their distributions in recent accident data. Firstly, a framework for vehicle front shape optimization for pedestrian protection was developed based on coupling of multi-body simulations and a genetic algorithm. This framework was then applied for optimizing passenger car front shape for pedestrian protection, and its predictions were evaluated using accident data and kinematic analyses. The results indicate that the optimization shows a good convergence and predictions of the optimization framework are corroborated when compared to the available accident data, and the optimization framework can distinguish 'good' and 'poor' vehicle front shapes for pedestrian safety. Thus, it is feasible and reliable to use the optimization framework for vehicle front shape optimization for reducing overall pedestrian injury risk. The results also show the importance of considering the broad range of impact scenarios in vehicle front shape optimization. A safe passenger car for overall pedestrian protection should have a wide and flat bumper (covering pedestrians' legs from the lower leg up to the shaft of the upper leg with generally even contacts), a bonnet leading edge height around 750mm, a short bonnet (17° or car front shape for head and leg protection are generally consistent, but partially conflict with pelvis protection. In particular, both head and leg injury risk increase with increasing bumper lower height and depth, and decrease with increasing bonnet leading edge height, while pelvis injury risk increases with increasing bonnet leading

  11. Relationship between pedestrian headform tests and injury and fatality rates in vehicle-to-pedestrian crashes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Becky; Farmer, Charles; Jermakian, Jessica; Zuby, David

    2013-11-01

    Pedestrian protection evaluations have been developed to encourage vehicle front-end designs that mitigate the consequences of vehicle-to-pedestrian crashes. The European New Car Assessment Program (Euro NCAP) evaluates pedestrian head protection with impacts against vehicle hood, windshield, and A-pillars. The Global Technical Regulation No. 9 (GTR 9), being evaluated for U.S. regulation, limits head protection evaluations to impacts against vehicle hoods. The objective of this study was to compare results from pedestrian head impact testing to the real-world rates of fatal and incapacitating injuries in U.S. pedestrian crashes. Data from police reported pedestrian crashes in 14 states were used to calculate real-world fatal and in- capacitating injury rates for seven 2002-07 small cars. Rates were 2.17-4.04 per 100 pedestrians struck for fatal injuries and 10.45-15.35 for incapacitating injuries. Euro NCAP style pedestrian headform tests were conducted against windshield, A-pillar, and hoods of the study vehicles. When compared with pedestrian injury rates, the vehicles' Euro NCAP scores, ranging 5-10 points, showed strong negative correlations (-0.6) to injury rates, though none were statistically significant. Data from the headform impacts for each of the study vehicles were used to calculate that vehicle's predicted serious injury risk. The predicted risks from both the Euro NCAP and GTR 9 test zones showed high positive correlations with the pedestrian fatal and incapacitating injury rates, though few were statistically significant. Whether vehicle stiffness is evaluated on all components of vehicle front ends (Euro NCAP) or is limited to hoods (GTR 9), softer vehicle components correspond to a lower risk of fatality.

  12. Young drivers' perception of adult and child pedestrians in potential street-crossing situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abele, Liva; Haustein, Sonja; Møller, Mette

    2018-01-01

    Despite overall improvements in road traffic safety, pedestrian accidents continue to be a serious public health problem. Due to lack of experience, limited cognitive and motoric skills, and smaller size, children have a higher injury risk as pedestrians than adults. To what extent drivers adjust...... that appropriately accounts for the limitations of a child pedestrian. A better understanding of how drivers respond to different types of pedestrians and why could contribute to the development of pedestrian detection and emergency braking systems....

  13. Training Children in Pedestrian Safety: Distinguishing Gains in Knowledge from Gains in Safe Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Schwebel, David C.; McClure, Leslie A.

    2014-01-01

    Pedestrian injuries contribute greatly to child morbidity and mortality. Recent evidence suggests that training within virtual pedestrian environments may improve children’s street crossing skills, but may not convey knowledge about safety in street environments. We hypothesized that (a) children will gain pedestrian safety knowledge via videos/software/internet websites, but not when trained by virtual pedestrian environment or other strategies; (b) pedestrian safety knowledge will be associ...

  14. End-tidal CO2 Detection of an Audible Heart Rate During Neonatal Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Following Asystole in Asphyxiated Piglets

    OpenAIRE

    Chalak, Lina F.; Barber, Chad A.; Hynan, Linda; Garcia, Damian; Christie, Lucy; Wyckoff, Myra H.

    2011-01-01

    Even brief interruption of cardiac compressions significantly reduces critical coronary perfusion pressure during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). End-tidal CO2 (ETCO2) monitoring may provide a continuous non-invasive method of assessing return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) without stopping to auscultate for heart rate (HR). However, the ETCO2 value that correlates with an audible HR is unknown. Our objective was to determine the threshold ETCO2 that is associated with ROSC following ...

  15. The effects of audibility and novel word learning ability on vocabulary level in children with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Lisa S; Geers, Ann E; Nicholas, Johanna G

    2014-07-01

    A novel word learning (NWL) paradigm was used to explore underlying phonological and cognitive mechanisms responsible for delayed vocabulary level in children with cochlear implants (CIs). One hundred and one children using CIs, 6-12 years old, were tested along with 47 children with normal hearing (NH). Tests of NWL, receptive vocabulary, and speech perception at 2 loudness levels were administered to children with CIs. Those with NH completed the NWL task and a receptive vocabulary test. CI participants with good audibility (GA) versus poor audibility (PA) were compared on all measures. Analysis of variance was used to compare performance across the children with NH and the two groups of children with CIs. Multiple regression analysis was employed to identify independent predictors of vocabulary outcomes. Children with CIs in the GA group scored higher in receptive vocabulary and NWL than children in the PA group, although they did not reach NH levels. CI-aided pure tone threshold and performance on the NWL task predicted independent variance in vocabulary after accounting for other known predictors. Acquiring spoken vocabulary is facilitated by GA with a CI and phonological learning and memory skills. Children with CIs did not learn novel words at the same rate or achieve the same receptive vocabulary levels as their NH peers. Maximizing audibility for the perception of speech and direct instruction of new vocabulary may be necessary for children with CIs to reach levels seen in peers with NH.

  16. Mapping patterns of pedestrian fatal accidents in Israel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Gitelman, Victoria; Bekhor, Shlomo

    2010-01-01

    This study intends to provide insight into pedestrian accidents by uncovering their patterns in order to design preventive measures and to allocate resources for identifiable problems. Kohonen neural networks are applied to a database of pedestrian fatal accidents occurred during the four-year pe......, results suggest the necessity of designing education campaigns for parents, promoting information campaigns for road users and allocating resources for infrastructural interventions and law enforcement in order to address the identified major problems.......-year period between 2003 and 2006. Results show the existence of five pedestrian accident patterns: (i) elderly pedestrians crossing on crosswalks far from intersection in metropolitan areas; (ii) pedestrians crossing suddenly or from hidden places and colliding with two-wheel vehicles on urban road sections......; (iii) male pedestrians crossing at night and being hit by four-wheel vehicles on rural road sections; (iv) young male pedestrians crossing at night wide road sections in both urban and rural areas; (v) children and teenagers crossing road sections in small rural communities. From the policy perspective...

  17. Effects of Switching Behavior for the Attraction on Pedestrian Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Jaeyoung; Jo, Hang-Hyun; Luttinen, Tapio; Kosonen, Iisakki

    2015-01-01

    Walking is a fundamental activity of our daily life not only for moving to other places but also for interacting with surrounding environment. While walking on the streets, pedestrians can be aware of attractions like shopping windows. They can be influenced by the attractions and some of them might shift their attention towards the attractions, namely switching behavior. As a first step to incorporate the switching behavior, this study investigates collective effects of switching behavior for an attraction by developing a behavioral model. Numerical simulations exhibit different patterns of pedestrian behavior depending on the strength of the social influence and the average length of stay. When the social influence is strong along with a long length of stay, a saturated phase can be defined at which all the pedestrians have visited the attraction. If the social influence is not strong enough, an unsaturated phase appears where one can observe that some pedestrians head for the attraction while others walk in their desired direction. These collective patterns of pedestrian behavior are summarized in a phase diagram by comparing the number of pedestrians who visited the attraction to the number of passersby near the attraction. Measuring the marginal benefits with respect to the strength of the social influence and the average length of stay enables us to identify under what conditions enhancing these variables would be more effective. The findings from this study can be understood in the context of the pedestrian facility management, for instance, for retail stores.

  18. Dual effects of pedestrian density on emergency evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yi; Lee, Eric Wai Ming; Yuen, Richard Kwok Kit

    2017-02-01

    This paper investigates the effect of the pedestrian density in building on the evacuation dynamic with simulation method. In the simulations, both the visibility in building and the exit limit of building are taken into account. The simulation results show that the effect of the pedestrian density in building on the evacuation dynamics is dual. On the one hand, when the visibility in building is very large, the increased pedestrian density plays a negative effect. On the other hand, when the visibility in building is very small, the increased pedestrian density can play a positive effect. The simulation results also show that when both the exit width and visibility are very small, the varying of evacuation time with regard to the pedestrian density is non-monotonous and presents a U-shaped tendency. That is, in this case, too large or too small pedestrian density in building is disadvantageous to the evacuation process. Our findings provide a new insight about the effect of the pedestrian density in building on the evacuation dynamic.

  19. Fuzzy Pheromone Potential Fields for Virtual Pedestrian Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meriem Mandar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of collective movement of pedestrians is crucial in various situations, such as evacuation of buildings, stadiums, or external events like concerts or public events. In such situations and under panic conditions, several incidents and disasters may arise, resulting in loss of human lives. Hence, the study and modeling of the pedestrians behavior are imperative in both normal and panic situations. In a previous work, we developed a microscopic model for pedestrian movement based on the algorithm of Ant Colonies and the principles of cellular automata. We took advantage of a fuzzy model to better reflect the uncertainty and vagueness of the perception of space to pedestrians, especially to represent the desirability or blurred visibility of virtual pedestrians. This paper uses the mechanism of artificial potential fields. Said fields provide virtual pedestrians with better visibility of their surroundings and its various components (goals and obstacles. The predictions provided by the first-order traffic flow theory are confirmed by the results of the simulation. The advantage of this model lies in the combination of benefits provided by the model of ants and artificial potential fields in a fuzzy modeling, to better understand the perceptions of pedestrians.

  20. Effects of Switching Behavior for the Attraction on Pedestrian Dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeyoung Kwak

    Full Text Available Walking is a fundamental activity of our daily life not only for moving to other places but also for interacting with surrounding environment. While walking on the streets, pedestrians can be aware of attractions like shopping windows. They can be influenced by the attractions and some of them might shift their attention towards the attractions, namely switching behavior. As a first step to incorporate the switching behavior, this study investigates collective effects of switching behavior for an attraction by developing a behavioral model. Numerical simulations exhibit different patterns of pedestrian behavior depending on the strength of the social influence and the average length of stay. When the social influence is strong along with a long length of stay, a saturated phase can be defined at which all the pedestrians have visited the attraction. If the social influence is not strong enough, an unsaturated phase appears where one can observe that some pedestrians head for the attraction while others walk in their desired direction. These collective patterns of pedestrian behavior are summarized in a phase diagram by comparing the number of pedestrians who visited the attraction to the number of passersby near the attraction. Measuring the marginal benefits with respect to the strength of the social influence and the average length of stay enables us to identify under what conditions enhancing these variables would be more effective. The findings from this study can be understood in the context of the pedestrian facility management, for instance, for retail stores.

  1. New functional pavements for pedestrians and cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallqvist, V; Kjell, G; Cupina, E; Kraft, L; Deck, C; Willinger, R

    2017-08-01

    When many fields of pedestrian and cyclist safety have been extensively studied, the surfacing has long been left unquestioned, despite being developed for another mode of transport and being one of the main causes for falls and fall injuries. In this project new surfacing materials for pedestrian and cyclist safety have been produced. Focusing on augmenting previously largely disregarded parameters as impact absorption, comfort and visibility at the same time as avoiding deteriorating of crucial parameters as friction and wear resistance. Rubber content, binder type, and pigment addition have been varied and evaluated. The results demonstrate that by increasing rubber content of the mixtures the head injury criterion (HIC) value and injury risk can be decreased while maintaining frictional properties according to existing criteria. Assembly of test-lanes demonstrate that some developed materials experience lower flow and component separation than standard materials due to rubber addition, calling for further optimisation of construction procedure linked to content development. Initial trials on the test-lanes indicate that a polyurethane (PU) based material has high cycling comfort, visibility and can be modified with phosphorescence properties. For standard asphalt, impact absorption might be inflicted by modification of bitumen alone but is mostly augmented by rubber addition. The results also indicate that rubber content can decrease ice formation on the materials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pedestrian collective motion in competitive room evacuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcimartín, A; Pastor, J M; Martín-Gómez, C; Parisi, D; Zuriguel, I

    2017-09-07

    When a sizable number of people evacuate a room, if the door is not large enough, an accumulation of pedestrians in front of the exit may take place. This is the cause of emerging collective phenomena where the density is believed to be the key variable determining the pedestrian dynamics. Here, we show that when sustained contact among the individuals exists, density is not enough to describe the evacuation, and propose that at least another variable -such as the kinetic stress- is required. We recorded evacuation drills with different degrees of competitiveness where the individuals are allowed to moderately push each other in their way out. We obtain the density, velocity and kinetic stress fields over time, showing that competitiveness strongly affects them and evidencing patterns which have been never observed in previous (low pressure) evacuation experiments. For the highest competitiveness scenario, we detect the development of sudden collective motions. These movements are related to a notable increase of the kinetic stress and a reduction of the velocity towards the door, but do not depend on the density.

  3. Modeling pedestrian gap crossing index under mixed traffic condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naser, Mohamed M; Zulkiple, Adnan; Al Bargi, Walid A; Khalifa, Nasradeen A; Daniel, Basil David

    2017-12-01

    There are a variety of challenges faced by pedestrians when they walk along and attempt to cross a road, as the most recorded accidents occur during this time. Pedestrians of all types, including both sexes with numerous aging groups, are always subjected to risk and are characterized as the most exposed road users. The increased demand for better traffic management strategies to reduce the risks at intersections, improve quality traffic management, traffic volume, and longer cycle time has further increased concerns over the past decade. This paper aims to develop a sustainable pedestrian gap crossing index model based on traffic flow density. It focusses on the gaps accepted by pedestrians and their decision for street crossing, where (Log-Gap) logarithm of accepted gaps was used to optimize the result of a model for gap crossing behavior. Through a review of extant literature, 15 influential variables were extracted for further empirical analysis. Subsequently, data from the observation at an uncontrolled mid-block in Jalan Ampang in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia was gathered and Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) and Binary Logit Model (BLM) techniques were employed to analyze the results. From the results, different pedestrian behavioral characteristics were considered for a minimum gap size model, out of which only a few (four) variables could explain the pedestrian road crossing behavior while the remaining variables have an insignificant effect. Among the different variables, age, rolling gap, vehicle type, and crossing were the most influential variables. The study concludes that pedestrians' decision to cross the street depends on the pedestrian age, rolling gap, vehicle type, and size of traffic gap before crossing. The inferences from these models will be useful to increase pedestrian safety and performance evaluation of uncontrolled midblock road crossings in developing countries. Copyright © 2017 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Pedestrian Counting with Occlusion Handling Using Stereo Thermal Cameras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Miklas Strøm; Dueholm, Jacob Velling; Gade, Rikke

    2016-01-01

    and the complexity of scenes with many people occluding one another. To address these challenges, this paper introduces the use of a stereo thermal camera setup for pedestrian counting. We investigate the reconstruction of 3D points in a pedestrian street with two thermal cameras and propose an algorithm......The number of pedestrians walking the streets or gathered in public spaces is a valuable piece of information for shop owners, city governments, event organizers and many others. However, automatic counting that takes place day and night is challenging due to changing lighting conditions...

  5. Evaluation of pedestrian mid-block road crossing behaviour using artificial neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Raghuram Kadali

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrians usually cross the road at mid-block locations in India because of the ease and convenience to reach their destination as compared to intersection locations. It is important to evaluate the pedestrian gap acceptance behavior at mid-block locations because of inadequate vehicular gaps under mixed traffic condition, which translates into the pedestrian road crossing behavior. The present study examines the pedestrian gap acceptance behaviour by employing an artificial neural network (ANN model for understanding the decision making process of pedestrians, i.e., acceptance or rejection of vehicular gaps at a mid-block location. From the results it has been found that the pedestrian rolling gap, frequency of attempt, vehicular gap size, pedestrian speed change condition and vehicle speed have major role in pedestrian gap acceptance. These results can lead to a better design of pedestrian crossing facilities where adequate gaps are not available in vehicular flow at mid-block crosswalk locations.

  6. Modeling Unidirectional Pedestrian Movement: An Investigation of Diffusion Behavior in the Built Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Unidirectional pedestrian movement is a special phenomenon in the evacuation process of large public buildings and urban environments at pedestrian scale. Several macroscopic models for collective behaviors have been built to predict pedestrian flow. However, current models do not explain the diffusion behavior in pedestrian crowd movement, which can be important in representing spatial-temporal crowd density differentiation in the movement process. This study builds a macroscopic model for describing crowd diffusion behavior and evaluating unidirectional pedestrian flow. The proposed model employs discretization of time and walking speed in geometric distribution to calculate downstream pedestrian crowd flow and analyze movement process based on upstream number of pedestrians and average walking speed. The simulated results are calibrated with video observation data in a baseball stadium to verify the model precision. Statistical results have verified that the proposed pedestrian diffusion model could accurately describe pedestrian macromovement behavior within the margin of error.

  7. Increase in Efficiency of Use of Pedestrian Radiation Portal Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovev, D. B.; Merkusheva, A. E.

    2017-11-01

    Most international airports in the world use radiation portal monitors (RPM) for primary radiation control organization. During the exploitation pedestrian radiation portal monitors operators (in the Russian Federation it is a special subdivision of customs officials) have certain problems related to the search of an ionizing radiation source causing the alarm signal of a radiation monitor. Radiation portal monitors at standard (factory) settings have to find out the illegal moving of the radioisotopes moved by physical persons passing through a controlled zone and having a steady radiation by the gamma or neutron channel. The problem is that recently the number of the ownerships who underwent treatment or medical diagnostics with the use of radio pharmaceuticals considerably increased, i.e,. ownerships represent such an ionizing radiation source. The operator of the radiation portal monitor has to define very quickly whether the ownership is a violator (takes unsolved radioisotopes illegally) or is just a patient of the clinic who underwent treatment/diagnostics with the use of radio pharmaceuticals. The research showing the radioisotopes which are most often used in the medical purposes are given in article, it is offered to use the new software developed by the authors allowing the operator of the radiation portal monitor to define the location of the ownership which has such ionizing radiation source by the activity of radiation similar to the radiation from radio pharmaceuticals.

  8. Mendenhall Glacier Visitor Center vehicular and pedestrian traffic congestion study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    The Mendenhall Glacier Visitor Center of Tongass National Forest in Juneau, Alaska is experiencing vehicular and pedestrian congestion. This study was initiated by the United States Forest Service, Alaska Region, in cooperation with Western Federal L...

  9. Pedestrian count estimation using texture feature with spatial distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Hu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel pedestrian count estimation approach based on global image descriptors formed from multi-scale texture features that considers spatial distribution. For regions of interest, local texture features are represented based on histograms of multi-scale block local binary pattern, which jointly constitute the feature vector of the whole image. Therefore, to achieve an effective estimation of pedestrian count, principal component analysis is used to reduce the dimension of the global representation features, and a fitting model between image global features and pedestrian count is constructed via support vector regression. The experimental result shows that the proposed method exhibits high accuracy on pedestrian count estimation and can be applied well in the real world.

  10. Quieter Cars and the Safety of Blind Pedestrians: Phase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration recognizes that quieter cars such as hybrid-electric vehicles in low-speed operation using their : electric motors, may introduce a safety issue for pedestrians who are blind. This study documents th...

  11. Study on bi-directional pedestrian movement using ant algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokce, Sibel; Kayacan, Ozhan

    2016-01-01

    A cellular automata model is proposed to simulate bi-directional pedestrian flow. Pedestrian movement is investigated by using ant algorithms. Ants communicate with each other by dropping a chemical, called a pheromone, on the substrate while crawling forward. Similarly, it is considered that oppositely moving pedestrians drop ‘visual pheromones’ on their way and the visual pheromones might cause attractive or repulsive interactions. This pheromenon is introduced into modelling the pedestrians’ walking preference. In this way, the decision-making process of pedestrians will be based on ‘the instinct of following’. At some densities, the relationships of velocity–density and flux–density are analyzed for different evaporation rates of visual pheromones. Lane formation and phase transition are observed for certain evaporation rates of visual pheromones. (paper)

  12. Study design and analysis of automobile bumper for pedestrian safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Akash; Vora, Rushabh; Ravi, K.

    2017-11-01

    This paper aims to design and analyse the bumper beam structure, in order to ensure the protection of the pedestrians along with the occupants inside the vehicle. The concern shown towards the pedestrian safety is because, each year about 2,70,000 pedestrians are killed in road accidents that accounts to 22% of the total deaths. From the literature review, it was inferred that the mounting position of bumper and material selection play a crucial role in maximising the pedestrian safety. Hence in this paper, the effects of bumper mounting position and the bumper beam material have been studied, with reference to an explicit dynamic collision involving with a dummy human lower leg set-up. The acceptance of a particular mounting position/material was based on the fact that the maximum stress and deformation induced were less than the yield limits of the human leg form structure (representing the skin, femur and tibia).

  13. Application of demographic analysis to pedestrian safety : [project summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    FDOT has been working diligently to improve its facilities for pedestrians and cyclists, including : initiatives like the Complete Streets Policy and Implementation Plan. However, one of the : challenges facing FDOT is targeting those areas of greate...

  14. Pedestrian Walking Behavior Revealed through a Random Walk Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Xiong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies method of continuous-time random walks for pedestrian flow simulation. In the model, pedestrians can walk forward or backward and turn left or right if there is no block. Velocities of pedestrian flow moving forward or diffusing are dominated by coefficients. The waiting time preceding each jump is assumed to follow an exponential distribution. To solve the model, a second-order two-dimensional partial differential equation, a high-order compact scheme with the alternating direction implicit method, is employed. In the numerical experiments, the walking domain of the first one is two-dimensional with two entrances and one exit, and that of the second one is two-dimensional with one entrance and one exit. The flows in both scenarios are one way. Numerical results show that the model can be used for pedestrian flow simulation.

  15. Mud concrete paving block for pedestrian pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chameera Udawattha

    2017-12-01

    This is an attempt to search for alternative eco-friendly earth paving material for public walkways with both the strength and durable properties of concrete while ensuring pedestrian comfort. Approaches were made to change the fine particle percentage while keeping the sand and gravel constant, once the optimum most practical mixture was known, the standard tests were done. The results obtained revealed that the proposed self-compacting block can be produced by using soil with less than 5% fine particles, 55% of 65% sand particles and 18% of 22% cement by weight together with the moisture content between 14% and 15%The tested mud concrete paving blocks were already used in practical application in Sri Lankan urban context.

  16. Consistent evolution in a pedestrian flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Junbiao; Wang, Kaihua

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, pedestrian evacuation considering different human behaviors is studied by using a cellular automaton (CA) model combined with the snowdrift game theory. The evacuees are divided into two types, i.e. cooperators and defectors, and two different human behaviors, herding behavior and independent behavior, are investigated. It is found from a large amount of numerical simulations that the ratios of the corresponding evacuee clusters are evolved to consistent states despite 11 typically different initial conditions, which may largely owe to self-organization effect. Moreover, an appropriate proportion of initial defectors who are of herding behavior, coupled with an appropriate proportion of initial defectors who are of rationally independent thinking, are two necessary factors for short evacuation time.

  17. Dynamic Response to Pedestrian Loads with Statistical Frequency Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    2012-01-01

    on the magnitude of the resulting response. A frequency representation of vertical pedestrian load is developed, and a compact explicit formula is developed for the magnitude of the resulting response, in terms of the damping ratio of the structure, the bandwidth of the pedestrian load, and the mean footfall...... frequency. The accuracy of the formula is verified by a statistical moment analysis using the Lyapunov equations....

  18. Pedestrian Movement Direction Recognition Using Convolutional Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Dominguez-Sanchez, Alex; Cazorla, Miguel; Orts-Escolano, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    Pedestrian movement direction recognition is an important factor in autonomous driver assistance and security surveillance systems. Pedestrians are the most crucial and fragile moving objects in streets, roads, and events, where thousands of people may gather on a regular basis. People flow analysis on zebra crossings and in shopping centers or events such as demonstrations are a key element to improve safety and to enable autonomous cars to drive in real life environments. This paper focuses...

  19. Virtual reality by mobile smartphone: improving child pedestrian safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwebel, David C; Severson, Joan; He, Yefei; McClure, Leslie A

    2017-10-01

    Pedestrian injuries are a leading cause of paediatric injury. Effective, practical and cost-efficient behavioural interventions to teach young children street crossing skills are needed. They must be empirically supported and theoretically based. Virtual reality (VR) offers promise to fill this need and teach child pedestrian safety skills for several reasons, including: (A) repeated unsupervised practice without risk of injury, (B) automated feedback on crossing success or failure, (C) tailoring to child skill levels: (D) appealing and fun training environment, and (E) most recently given technological advances, potential for broad dissemination using mobile smartphone technology. Extending previous work, we will evaluate delivery of an immersive pedestrian VR using mobile smartphones and the Google Cardboard platform, technology enabling standard smartphones to function as immersive VR delivery systems. We will overcome limitations of previous research suggesting children learnt some pedestrian skills after six VR training sessions but did not master adult-level pedestrian skills by implementing a randomised non-inferiority trial with two equal-sized groups of children ages 7-8 years (total N=498). All children will complete baseline, postintervention and 6-month follow-up assessments of pedestrian safety and up to 25 30-min pedestrian safety training trials until they reach adult levels of functioning. Half the children will be randomly assigned to train in Google Cardboard and the other half in a semi-immersive kiosk VR. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) models will assess primary outcomes. If results are as hypothesised, mobile smartphones offer substantial potential to overcome barriers of dissemination and implementation and deliver pedestrian safety training to children worldwide. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. Exploring physical attributes of walkability from perspective of blind pedestrians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bona Frazila Russ

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Access has become a crucial issue for the persons with disabilities (PWDs, in which the inconvenient transportation facilities is contributed to the dependent living issue of PWD, specifically the visual impaired person. As a primary aspect of transportation, the walking facilities further needs to be carefully considered for facilitating their moving activities. Recently, the effect of built environment on walking behavior has obtained significant attention, which is generally constructed within the framework of walkability concept. The walkability has been extensively used for evaluating the physical attributes of pedestrian facilities by comparing it to the walker perception. Hence, the evaluation result can directly answer the needs of pedestrian. Despite of their recent research achievements, the walkability concept is mostly unsuccessful to take into account the blind walker characteristics. This paper then explore physical attributes of walkability environment in order to provide the friendly pedestrian facilities for the blind pedestrian, which is rarely explored. The research is established based on the blind walker perspectives within the micro-level analysis that incorporates a smaller unit of measurement (i.e., the street-level physical attributes. The physical attributes result are thus potentially to be utilized for analyzing the required pedestrian facilities for the blind pedestrians.

  1. Pedestrian fatality risk as a function of car impact speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosén, Erik; Sander, Ulrich

    2009-05-01

    Knowledge of the amount of violence tolerated by the human body is essential when developing and implementing pedestrian safety strategies. When estimating the potential benefits of new countermeasures, the pedestrian fatality risk as a function of impact speed is of particular importance. Although this function has been analysed previously, we state that a proper understanding does not exist. Based on the largest in-depth, pedestrian accident study undertaken to date, we derive an improved risk function for adult pedestrians hit by the front of passenger cars. Our results show far lower fatality risks than generally reported in the traffic safety literature. This discrepancy is primarily explained by sample bias towards severe injury accidents in earlier studies. Nevertheless, a strong dependence on impact speed is found, with the fatality risk at 50 km/h being more than twice as high as the risk at 40 km/h and more than five times higher than the risk at 30 km/h. Our findings should have important implications for the development of pedestrian accident countermeasures worldwide. In particular, the scope of future pedestrian safety policies and research should be broadened to include accidents with impact speeds exceeding 50 km/h.

  2. The risk of pedestrian collisions with peripheral visual field loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peli, Eli; Apfelbaum, Henry; Berson, Eliot L; Goldstein, Robert B

    2016-12-01

    Patients with peripheral field loss complain of colliding with other pedestrians in open-space environments such as shopping malls. Field expansion devices (e.g., prisms) can create artificial peripheral islands of vision. We investigated the visual angle at which these islands can be most effective for avoiding pedestrian collisions, by modeling the collision risk density as a function of bearing angle of pedestrians relative to the patient. Pedestrians at all possible locations were assumed to be moving in all directions with equal probability within a reasonable range of walking speeds. The risk density was found to be highly anisotropic. It peaked at ≈45° eccentricity. Increasing pedestrian speed range shifted the risk to higher eccentricities. The risk density is independent of time to collision. The model results were compared to the binocular residual peripheral island locations of 42 patients with forms of retinitis pigmentosa. The natural residual island prevalence also peaked nasally at about 45° but temporally at about 75°. This asymmetry resulted in a complementary coverage of the binocular field of view. Natural residual binocular island eccentricities seem well matched to the collision-risk density function, optimizing detection of other walking pedestrians (nasally) and of faster hazards (temporally). Field expansion prism devices will be most effective if they can create artificial peripheral islands at about 45° eccentricities. The collision risk and residual island findings raise interesting questions about normal visual development.

  3. Pedestrians have the right of way at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    At CERN, we are all pedestrians, often drivers, and occasionally cyclists. But our means of locomotion do not matter so long as we exercise caution and remember that a pedestrian has equal rights as a road user, except that he runs greater risks.   Whether we also travel by bike or car, irrrespective of our means of locomotion at CERN we are all pedestrians! Whether going on foot to our office, the cafeteria or a building where colleagues work, we are much more in harm's way than as a driver sitting in the shell of steel that is a car. There are some 8000 people working on the different sites of CERN. That means 8000 potential pedestrians and 8000 reasons for trying to keep the roads safe. Whether behind the steering wheel or on a bike, we sometimes forget that the roadway is not just for vehicles. Pedestrians are also fully fledged road users with equal rights. That is why drivers must remain alert and take care not to block pedestrian crossings, pavements or access ways, and why special caution...

  4. Dual effects of guide-based guidance on pedestrian evacuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Yi, E-mail: yima23-c@my.cityu.edu.hk; Lee, Eric Wai Ming; Shi, Meng

    2017-06-15

    This study investigates the effects of guide-based guidance on the pedestrian evacuation under limited visibility via the simulations based on an extended social force model. The results show that the effects of guides on the pedestrian evacuation under limited visibility are dual, and related to the neighbor density within the visual field. On the one hand, in many cases, the effects of guides are positive, particularly when the neighbor density within the visual field is moderate; in this case, a few guides can already assist the evacuation effectively and efficiently. However, when the neighbor density within the visual field is particularly small or large, the effects of guides may be adverse and make the evacuation time longer. Our results not only provide a new insight into the effects of guides on the pedestrian evacuation under limited visibility, but also give some practical suggestions as to how to assign guides to assist the evacuation under different evacuation conditions. - Highlights: • Extended social force model is used to simulate guided pedestrian evacuation. • Effects of guides on pedestrian evacuation under limited visibility are dual. • Effects of guides on pedestrian evacuation under limited visibility are related to neighbor density within visual field.

  5. Robust Pedestrian Classification Based on Hierarchical Kernel Sparse Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Sun

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Vision-based pedestrian detection has become an active topic in computer vision and autonomous vehicles. It aims at detecting pedestrians appearing ahead of the vehicle using a camera so that autonomous vehicles can assess the danger and take action. Due to varied illumination and appearance, complex background and occlusion pedestrian detection in outdoor environments is a difficult problem. In this paper, we propose a novel hierarchical feature extraction and weighted kernel sparse representation model for pedestrian classification. Initially, hierarchical feature extraction based on a CENTRIST descriptor is used to capture discriminative structures. A max pooling operation is used to enhance the invariance of varying appearance. Then, a kernel sparse representation model is proposed to fully exploit the discrimination information embedded in the hierarchical local features, and a Gaussian weight function as the measure to effectively handle the occlusion in pedestrian images. Extensive experiments are conducted on benchmark databases, including INRIA, Daimler, an artificially generated dataset and a real occluded dataset, demonstrating the more robust performance of the proposed method compared to state-of-the-art pedestrian classification methods.

  6. PEDESTRIAN DETECTION BY LASER SCANNING AND DEPTH IMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Barsi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrian flow is much less regulated and controlled compared to vehicle traffic. Estimating flow parameters would support many safety, security or commercial applications. Current paper discusses a method that enables acquiring information on pedestrian movements without disturbing and changing their motion. Profile laser scanner and depth camera have been applied to capture the geometry of the moving people as time series. Procedures have been developed to derive complex flow parameters, such as count, volume, walking direction and velocity from laser scanned point clouds. Since no images are captured from the faces of pedestrians, no privacy issues raised. The paper includes accuracy analysis of the estimated parameters based on video footage as reference. Due to the dense point clouds, detailed geometry analysis has been conducted to obtain the height and shoulder width of pedestrians and to detect whether luggage has been carried or not. The derived parameters support safety (e.g. detecting critical pedestrian density in mass events, security (e.g. detecting prohibited baggage in endangered areas and commercial applications (e.g. counting pedestrians at all entrances/exits of a shopping mall.

  7. Calibrating cellular automaton models for pedestrians walking through corners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Charitha; Lovreglio, Ruggiero

    2018-05-01

    Cellular Automata (CA) based pedestrian simulation models have gained remarkable popularity as they are simpler and easier to implement compared to other microscopic modeling approaches. However, incorporating traditional floor field representations in CA models to simulate pedestrian corner navigation behavior could result in unrealistic behaviors. Even though several previous studies have attempted to enhance CA models to realistically simulate pedestrian maneuvers around bends, such modifications have not been calibrated or validated against empirical data. In this study, two static floor field (SFF) representations, namely 'discrete representation' and 'continuous representation', are calibrated for CA-models to represent pedestrians' walking behavior around 90° bends. Trajectory data collected through a controlled experiment are used to calibrate these model representations. Calibration results indicate that although both floor field representations can represent pedestrians' corner navigation behavior, the 'continuous' representation fits the data better. Output of this study could be beneficial for enhancing the reliability of existing CA-based models by representing pedestrians' corner navigation behaviors more realistically.

  8. Pedestrian Detection by Laser Scanning and Depth Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsi, A.; Lovas, T.; Molnar, B.; Somogyi, A.; Igazvolgyi, Z.

    2016-06-01

    Pedestrian flow is much less regulated and controlled compared to vehicle traffic. Estimating flow parameters would support many safety, security or commercial applications. Current paper discusses a method that enables acquiring information on pedestrian movements without disturbing and changing their motion. Profile laser scanner and depth camera have been applied to capture the geometry of the moving people as time series. Procedures have been developed to derive complex flow parameters, such as count, volume, walking direction and velocity from laser scanned point clouds. Since no images are captured from the faces of pedestrians, no privacy issues raised. The paper includes accuracy analysis of the estimated parameters based on video footage as reference. Due to the dense point clouds, detailed geometry analysis has been conducted to obtain the height and shoulder width of pedestrians and to detect whether luggage has been carried or not. The derived parameters support safety (e.g. detecting critical pedestrian density in mass events), security (e.g. detecting prohibited baggage in endangered areas) and commercial applications (e.g. counting pedestrians at all entrances/exits of a shopping mall).

  9. Features of microscopic pedestrian movement in a panic situation based on cellular automata model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Najihah; Hassan, Fadratul Hafinaz

    2017-10-01

    Pedestrian movement is the one of the subset for the crowd management under simulation objective. During panic situation, pedestrian usually will create a microscopic movement that lead towards the self-organization. During self-organizing, the behavioral and physical factors had caused the mass effect on the pedestrian movement. The basic CA model will create a movement path for each pedestrian over a time step. However, due to the factors immerge, the CA model needs some enhancement that will establish a real simulation state. Hence, this concept paper will discuss on the enhanced features of CA model for microscopic pedestrian movement during panic situation for a better pedestrian simulation.

  10. Agent Based Modeling and Simulation of Pedestrian Crowds In Panic Situations

    KAUST Repository

    Alrashed, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    to self-propelling interactions between pedestrians. Although every pedestrian has personal preferences, the motion dynamics can be modeled as a social force in such crowds. These forces are representations of internal preferences and objectives to perform

  11. Development of Statewide Guidelines for Implementing Leading Pedestrian Intervals in Florida [Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Pedestrian safety is always a high priority for the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT), especially as FDOT moves Florida toward a truly multimodal transportation system. Intersections are where vehicles and pedestrians are most likely to int...

  12. Development of Statewide Guidelines for Implementing Leading Pedestrian Intervals in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Pedestrian safety is an ongoing major concern throughout the United States and is one of the highest priorities for the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT). Vehicles often fail to yield to pedestrians at intersections, especially when pedestr...

  13. Spectral integration of broadband signals in diotoc and dichotic masking experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langhans, A.; Kohlrausch, A.G.

    1992-01-01

    The method of Gässler [Acustica 4, 408–414 (1954)] was used to measure the audibility of multicomponent signals as a function of their bandwidth against a broadband, white-noise masker. Test signals were composed of 1 to 41 sinusoids with a spectral spacing of 10 Hz and were always spectrally

  14. New orientation and accessibility option for persons with visual impairment: transportation applications for remote infrared audible signage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, William; Bentzen, Billie Louise; Myers, Linda; Brabyn, John

    2001-05-01

    BACKGROUND: For a blind or visually impaired person, a vital prerequisite to accessing any feature of the built environment is being able to find this feature. Braille signs, even where available, do not replace the functions of print signage because they cannot be read from a distance. Remotely readable infrared signs utilise spoken infrared message transmissions to label key environmental features, so that a blind person with a suitable receiver can locate and identify them from a distance. METHODS: Three problems that are among the most challenging and dangerous faced by blind travellers are negotiating complex transit stations, locating bus stops and safely and efficiently crossing light-controlled intersections. We report the results of human factors studies using a remote infrared audible sign system (RIAS), Talking Signs(R), in these critical tasks, examining issues such as the amount of training needed to use the system, its impact on performance and safety, benefits for different population subgroups and user opinions of its value. RESULTS: Results are presented in the form of both objective performance measures and in subjects' ratings of the usefulness of the system in performing these tasks. Findings are that blind people can quickly and easily learn to use remote infrared audible signage effectively and that its use improves travel safety, efficiency and independence.? CONCLUSIONS: The technology provides equal access to a wide variety of public facilities.

  15. Modeling detour behavior of pedestrian dynamics under different conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yunchao; Xiao, Yao; Wu, Jianjun; Tang, Tao; Gao, Ziyou

    2018-02-01

    Pedestrian simulation approach has been widely used to reveal the human behavior and evaluate the performance of crowd evacuation. In the existing pedestrian simulation models, the social force model is capable of predicting many collective phenomena. Detour behavior occurs in many cases, and the important behavior is a dominate factor of the crowd evacuation efficiency. However, limited attention has been attracted for analyzing and modeling the characteristics of detour behavior. In this paper, a modified social force model integrated by Voronoi diagram is proposed to calculate the detour direction and preferred velocity. Besides, with the consideration of locations and velocities of neighbor pedestrians, a Logit-based choice model is built to describe the detour direction choice. The proposed model is applied to analyze pedestrian dynamics in a corridor scenario with either unidirectional or bidirectional flow, and a building scenario in real-world. Simulation results show that the modified social force model including detour behavior could reduce the frequency of collision and deadlock, increase the average speed of the crowd, and predict more practical crowd dynamics with detour behavior. This model can also be potentially applied to understand the pedestrian dynamics and design emergent management strategies for crowd evacuations.

  16. Validity of instruments to assess students' travel and pedestrian safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranowski Tom

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Safe Routes to School (SRTS programs are designed to make walking and bicycling to school safe and accessible for children. Despite their growing popularity, few validated measures exist for assessing important outcomes such as type of student transport or pedestrian safety behaviors. This research validated the SRTS school travel survey and a pedestrian safety behavior checklist. Methods Fourth grade students completed a brief written survey on how they got to school that day with set responses. Test-retest reliability was obtained 3-4 hours apart. Convergent validity of the SRTS travel survey was assessed by comparison to parents' report. For the measure of pedestrian safety behavior, 10 research assistants observed 29 students at a school intersection for completion of 8 selected pedestrian safety behaviors. Reliability was determined in two ways: correlations between the research assistants' ratings to that of the Principal Investigator (PI and intraclass correlations (ICC across research assistant ratings. Results The SRTS travel survey had high test-retest reliability (κ = 0.97, n = 96, p Conclusions These validated instruments can be used to assess SRTS programs. The pedestrian safety behavior checklist may benefit from further formative work.

  17. Distracted walking: Examining the extent to pedestrian safety problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Mwakalonge

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrians, much like drivers, have always been engaged in multi-tasking like using hand-held devices, listening to music, snacking, or reading while walking. The effects are similar to those experienced by distracted drivers. However, distracted walking has not received similar policies and effective interventions as distracted driving to improve pedestrian safety. This study reviewed the state-of-practice on policies, campaigns, available data, identified research needs, and opportunities pertaining to distracted walking. A comprehensive review of literature revealed that some of the agencies/organizations disseminate useful information about certain distracting activities that pedestrians should avoid while walking to improve their safety. Various walking safety rules/tips have been given, such as not wearing headphones or talking on a cell phone while crossing a street, keeping the volume down, hanging up the phone while walking, being aware of traffic, and avoiding distractions like walking with texting. The majority of the past observational-based and experimental-based studies reviewed in this study on distracted walking is in agreement that there is a positive correlation between distraction and unsafe walking behavior. However, limitations of the existing crash data suggest that distracted walking may not be a severe threat to the public health. Current pedestrian crash data provide insufficient information for researchers to examine the extent to which distracted walking causes and/or contributes to actual pedestrian safety problems.

  18. Neighborhood Influences on Vehicle-Pedestrian Crash Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toran Pour, Alireza; Moridpour, Sara; Tay, Richard; Rajabifard, Abbas

    2017-12-01

    Socioeconomic factors are known to be contributing factors for vehicle-pedestrian crashes. Although several studies have examined the socioeconomic factors related to the location of the crashes, limited studies have considered the socioeconomic factors of the neighborhood where the road users live in vehicle-pedestrian crash modelling. This research aims to identify the socioeconomic factors related to both the neighborhoods where the road users live and where crashes occur that have an influence on vehicle-pedestrian crash severity. Data on vehicle-pedestrian crashes that occurred at mid-blocks in Melbourne, Australia, was analyzed. Neighborhood factors associated with road users' residents and location of crash were investigated using boosted regression tree (BRT). Furthermore, partial dependence plots were applied to illustrate the interactions between these factors. We found that socioeconomic factors accounted for 60% of the 20 top contributing factors to vehicle-pedestrian crashes. This research reveals that socioeconomic factors of the neighborhoods where the road users live and where the crashes occur are important in determining the severity of the crashes, with the former having a greater influence. Hence, road safety countermeasures, especially those focussing on the road users, should be targeted at these high-risk neighborhoods.

  19. Cellular automaton simulation of counter flow with paired pedestrians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Xiong

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on pedestrian behavior is the basis to build decision support system for crowd evacuation management in emergency. In this paper, the impact of paired walking behavior on pedestrian counter flow in a channel is studied. The pedestrian walking behaviors are simulated by the cellular automaton model and the pedestrians are classified as single right walker, single left walker, paired right walker, and paired left walker. Single walker can move forward, leftward, rightward or stand still. The paired pedestrians are considered as a combined unit similar to the single walker in terms of route choice and they can move to the same direction simultaneously. It is found that flow and velocity decrease with increase of the paired rate in case of stable density. Simulation results reveal the phase transitions in terms of density from free flow to the unstable flow and from the unstable flow to the congestion flow. However, the critical densities of phase transition are unaffected by the channel size.

  20. The role of fluctuations and interactions in pedestrian dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbetta, Alessandro; Meeusen, Jasper; Benzi, Roberto; Lee, Chung-Min; Toschi, Federico

    Understanding quantitatively the statistical behaviour of pedestrians walking in crowds is a major scientific challenge of paramount societal relevance. Walking humans exhibit a rich (stochastic) dynamics whose small and large deviations are driven, among others, by own will as well as by environmental conditions. Via 24/7 automatic pedestrian tracking from multiple overhead Microsoft Kinect depth sensors, we collected large ensembles of pedestrian trajectories (in the order of tens of millions) in different real-life scenarios. These scenarios include both narrow corridors and large urban hallways, enabling us to cover and compare a wide spectrum of typical pedestrian dynamics. We investigate the pedestrian motion measuring the PDFs, e.g. those of position, velocity and acceleration, and at unprecedentedly high statistical resolution. We consider the dependence of PDFs on flow conditions, focusing on diluted dynamics and pair-wise interactions (''collisions'') for mutual avoidance. By means of Langevin-like models we provide models for the measured data, inclusive typical fluctuations and rare events. This work is part of the JSTP research programme ``Vision driven visitor behaviour analysis and crowd management'' with Project Number 341-10-001, which is financed by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO).

  1. [Parental practices and pedestrian risk behaviors in Chilean adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Andrea C; Repetto, Paula B

    2014-08-01

    Traffic accidents are the second leading cause of death among adolescents and young adults in Chile. However, few studies have examined this behavior among this age group. Parental practices have a great influence on risk behaviors in adolescents, such as substance use, sexuality and violence, among others. Specifically, we propose that these practices will influence pedestrian risk behaviors among adolescents. To study the role of parental practices such as mother and father support, and behavioral control (monitoring and presence of rules) in pedestrian risk behaviors of teenagers. A sample of 470 adolescents attending schools in the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile were studied. They answered a self-administered questionnaire in which they were asked about parental practices and pedestrian risk behaviors. Analyses were performed using descriptive and inferential statistics, using multiple regression. Paternal support and the presence of rules were protective factors for pedestrian risky behaviors. However, maternal support or monitoring did not influence these behaviors. Parental practices influence pedestrian behaviors of teenagers. The study provides further evidence for the importance of these practices in the development of behavioral self-regulation.

  2. A heterogeneous lattice gas model for simulating pedestrian evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiwei; Chen, Jianqiao; Zheng, Yaochen; Wei, Junhong

    2012-02-01

    Based on the cellular automata method (CA model) and the mobile lattice gas model (MLG model), we have developed a heterogeneous lattice gas model for simulating pedestrian evacuation processes in an emergency. A local population density concept is introduced first. The update rule in the new model depends on the local population density and the exit crowded degree factor. The drift D, which is one of the key parameters influencing the evacuation process, is allowed to change according to the local population density of the pedestrians. Interactions including attraction, repulsion, and friction between every two pedestrians and those between a pedestrian and the building wall are described by a nonlinear function of the corresponding distance, and the repulsion forces increase sharply as the distances get small. A critical force of injury is introduced into the model, and its effects on the evacuation process are investigated. The model proposed has heterogeneous features as compared to the MLG model or the basic CA model. Numerical examples show that the model proposed can capture the basic features of pedestrian evacuation, such as clogging and arching phenomena.

  3. Pedestrian detection from thermal images: A sparse representation based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Bin; John, Vijay; Liu, Zheng; Mita, Seiichi

    2016-05-01

    Pedestrian detection, a key technology in computer vision, plays a paramount role in the applications of advanced driver assistant systems (ADASs) and autonomous vehicles. The objective of pedestrian detection is to identify and locate people in a dynamic environment so that accidents can be avoided. With significant variations introduced by illumination, occlusion, articulated pose, and complex background, pedestrian detection is a challenging task for visual perception. Different from visible images, thermal images are captured and presented with intensity maps based objects' emissivity, and thus have an enhanced spectral range to make human beings perceptible from the cool background. In this study, a sparse representation based approach is proposed for pedestrian detection from thermal images. We first adopted the histogram of sparse code to represent image features and then detect pedestrian with the extracted features in an unimodal and a multimodal framework respectively. In the unimodal framework, two types of dictionaries, i.e. joint dictionary and individual dictionary, are built by learning from prepared training samples. In the multimodal framework, a weighted fusion scheme is proposed to further highlight the contributions from features with higher separability. To validate the proposed approach, experiments were conducted to compare with three widely used features: Haar wavelets (HWs), histogram of oriented gradients (HOG), and histogram of phase congruency (HPC) as well as two classification methods, i.e. AdaBoost and support vector machine (SVM). Experimental results on a publicly available data set demonstrate the superiority of the proposed approach.

  4. The importance of rotational kinematics in pedestrian head to windshield impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mordaka, J.; Kleiven, S.; Schijndel-de Nooij, M. van; Lange, R. de; Casanova, L.J.G.; Carter, E.L.; Holst, H. von

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to analyze the effect of angular kinematics on head injury in pedestrian head-to-windshield impacts. Three cases of pedestrian head impacts were simulated with FE head and windshield models. The initial impact conditions were obtained from pedestrian accident

  5. Pedestrian Choice Behavior at Shopping Mall Intersections in China and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitgood, Stephen; Davey, Gareth; Huang, Xiaoyi; Fung, Holly

    2013-01-01

    Pedestrian navigation through public spaces reflects the nature of interaction between behavior and environment. This study compared pedestrian choice behavior at shopping mall intersections in China and the United States. The study found that in both countries (a) pedestrians chose movement patterns that involved the fewest steps and (b) there…

  6. PEDESTRIAN PATHFINDING IN URBAN ENVIRONMENTS: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. López-Pazos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available With the rise of urban population, many initiatives are focused upon the smart city concept, in which mobility of citizens arises as one of the main components. Updated and detailed spatial information of outdoor environments is needed to accurate path planning for pedestrians, especially for people with reduced mobility, in which physical barriers should be considered. This work presents a methodology to use point clouds to direct path planning. The starting point is a classified point cloud in which ground elements have been previously classified as roads, sidewalks, crosswalks, curbs and stairs. The remaining points compose the obstacle class. The methodology starts by individualizing ground elements and simplifying them into representative points, which are used as nodes in the graph creation. The region of influence of obstacles is used to refine the graph. Edges of the graph are weighted according to distance between nodes and according to their accessibility for wheelchairs. As a result, we obtain a very accurate graph representing the as-built environment. The methodology has been tested in a couple of real case studies and Dijkstra algorithm was used to pathfinding. The resulting paths represent the optimal according to motor skills and safety.

  7. Pedestrian Pathfinding in Urban Environments: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Pazos, G.; Balado, J.; Díaz-Vilariño, L.; Arias, P.; Scaioni, M.

    2017-12-01

    With the rise of urban population, many initiatives are focused upon the smart city concept, in which mobility of citizens arises as one of the main components. Updated and detailed spatial information of outdoor environments is needed to accurate path planning for pedestrians, especially for people with reduced mobility, in which physical barriers should be considered. This work presents a methodology to use point clouds to direct path planning. The starting point is a classified point cloud in which ground elements have been previously classified as roads, sidewalks, crosswalks, curbs and stairs. The remaining points compose the obstacle class. The methodology starts by individualizing ground elements and simplifying them into representative points, which are used as nodes in the graph creation. The region of influence of obstacles is used to refine the graph. Edges of the graph are weighted according to distance between nodes and according to their accessibility for wheelchairs. As a result, we obtain a very accurate graph representing the as-built environment. The methodology has been tested in a couple of real case studies and Dijkstra algorithm was used to pathfinding. The resulting paths represent the optimal according to motor skills and safety.

  8. Policy paper no. 1 : Pedestrians and cycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zbogar, H. [City of Brampton, ON (Canada)

    2004-06-01

    The City of Brampton's Transportation and Transit Master Plan includes a workable plan to promote walking and cycling facilities in the area. This paper reviewed existing policies, programs and practices in the City of Brampton that pertain to cycling and walking. Walking and cycling issues and trends were also reviewed with reference to the principles that improve the pedestrian and cycling environment, such as safety, security, convenience, continuity, comfort, coherence and attractiveness. The recreation, health and fitness benefits of walking and cycling were also outlined along with transportation, environmental, and economic benefits. The official plan for the city was included with reference to walking and cycling sections in the city. It was noted that effective pathways should be customer driven and respond to the needs of residents. They should also accommodate all uses, including walking, jogging, cycling and in-line skating. Experience of other jurisdictions in Ontario in providing walking and cycling facilities were also reviewed. It was noted that walking and cycling are significant elements of an intermodal transportation system and have a strong bearing on a city's vision for urban street design. 11 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  9. Spatial Analysis in Determining Physical Factors of Pedestrian Space Livability, Case Study: Pedestrian Space on Jalan Kemasan, Yogyakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauzi, A. F.; Aditianata, A.

    2018-02-01

    The existence of street as a place to perform various human activities becomes an important issue nowadays. In the last few decades, cars and motorcycles dominate streets in various cities in the world. On the other hand, human activity on the street is the determinant of the city livability. Previous research has pointed out that if there is lots of human activity in the street, then the city will be interesting. Otherwise, if the street has no activity, then the city will be boring. Learning from that statement, now various cities in the world are developing the concept of livable streets. Livable streets shown by diversity of human activities conducted in the streets’ pedestrian space. In Yogyakarta, one of the streets shown diversity of human activities is Jalan Kemasan. This study attempts to determine the physical factors of pedestrian space affecting the livability in Jalan Kemasan Yogyakarta through spatial analysis. Spatial analysis was performed by overlay technique between liveable point (activity diversity) distribution map and variable distribution map. Those physical pedestrian space research variable included element of shading, street vendors, building setback, seat location, divider between street and pedestrian way, and mixed use building function. More diverse the activity of one variable, then those variable are more affected then others. Overlay result then strengthened by field observation to qualitatively ensure the deduction. In the end, this research will provide valuable input for street and pedestrian space planning that is comfortable for human activities.

  10. Mean field games with nonlinear mobilities in pedestrian dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Martin

    2014-04-01

    In this paper we present an optimal control approach modeling fast exit scenarios in pedestrian crowds. In particular we consider the case of a large human crowd trying to exit a room as fast as possible. The motion of every pedestrian is determined by minimizing a cost functional, which depends on his/her position, velocity, exit time and the overall density of people. This microscopic setup leads in the mean-field limit to a parabolic optimal control problem. We discuss the modeling of the macroscopic optimal control approach and show how the optimal conditions relate to the Hughes model for pedestrian flow. Furthermore we provide results on the existence and uniqueness of minimizers and illustrate the behavior of the model with various numerical results.

  11. Mean field games with nonlinear mobilities in pedestrian dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Martin; Di Francesco, Marco; Markowich, Peter A.; Wolfram, Marie Therese

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present an optimal control approach modeling fast exit scenarios in pedestrian crowds. In particular we consider the case of a large human crowd trying to exit a room as fast as possible. The motion of every pedestrian is determined by minimizing a cost functional, which depends on his/her position, velocity, exit time and the overall density of people. This microscopic setup leads in the mean-field limit to a parabolic optimal control problem. We discuss the modeling of the macroscopic optimal control approach and show how the optimal conditions relate to the Hughes model for pedestrian flow. Furthermore we provide results on the existence and uniqueness of minimizers and illustrate the behavior of the model with various numerical results.

  12. Domain Adaptation for Pedestrian Detection Based on Prediction Consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Li-ping

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrian detection is an active area of research in computer vision. It remains a quite challenging problem in many applications where many factors cause a mismatch between source dataset used to train the pedestrian detector and samples in the target scene. In this paper, we propose a novel domain adaptation model for merging plentiful source domain samples with scared target domain samples to create a scene-specific pedestrian detector that performs as well as rich target domain simples are present. Our approach combines the boosting-based learning algorithm with an entropy-based transferability, which is derived from the prediction consistency with the source classifications, to selectively choose the samples showing positive transferability in source domains to the target domain. Experimental results show that our approach can improve the detection rate, especially with the insufficient labeled data in target scene.

  13. Effect of cell phone distraction on pediatric pedestrian injury risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinos, Despina; Byington, Katherine W; Schwebel, David C

    2009-02-01

    Early adolescents are using cell phones with increasing frequency. Cell phones are known to distract motor vehicle drivers to the point that their safety is jeopardized, but it is unclear if cell phones might also distract child pedestrians. This study was designed to examine the influence of talking on a cell phone for pediatric pedestrian injury risk. Seventy-seven children aged 10 to 11 years old completed simulated road crossings in an immersive, interactive virtual pedestrian environment. In a within-subjects design, children crossed the virtual street 6 times while undistracted and 6 times while distracted by a cell phone conversation with an unfamiliar research assistant. Participants also completed several other experimental tasks hypothesized to predict the impact of distraction while crossing the street and talking on a cell phone. Children's pedestrian safety was compromised when distracted by a cell phone conversation. While distracted, children were less attentive to traffic; left less safe time between their crossing and the next arriving vehicle; experienced more collisions and close calls with oncoming traffic; and waited longer before beginning to cross the street. Analyses testing experience using a cell phone and experience as a pedestrian yielded few significant results, suggesting that distraction on the cell phone might affect children's pedestrian safety no matter what their experience level. There was some indication that younger children and children who are less attentive and more oppositional may be slightly more susceptible to distraction while talking on the cell phone than older, more attentive, and less oppositional children. Our results suggest that cell phones distract preadolescent children while crossing streets.

  14. Validity of instruments to assess students' travel and pedestrian safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Jason A; Watson, Kathy; Baranowski, Tom; Nicklas, Theresa A; Uscanga, Doris K; Hanfling, Marcus J

    2010-05-18

    Safe Routes to School (SRTS) programs are designed to make walking and bicycling to school safe and accessible for children. Despite their growing popularity, few validated measures exist for assessing important outcomes such as type of student transport or pedestrian safety behaviors. This research validated the SRTS school travel survey and a pedestrian safety behavior checklist. Fourth grade students completed a brief written survey on how they got to school that day with set responses. Test-retest reliability was obtained 3-4 hours apart. Convergent validity of the SRTS travel survey was assessed by comparison to parents' report. For the measure of pedestrian safety behavior, 10 research assistants observed 29 students at a school intersection for completion of 8 selected pedestrian safety behaviors. Reliability was determined in two ways: correlations between the research assistants' ratings to that of the Principal Investigator (PI) and intraclass correlations (ICC) across research assistant ratings. The SRTS travel survey had high test-retest reliability (kappa = 0.97, n = 96, p < 0.001) and convergent validity (kappa = 0.87, n = 81, p < 0.001). The pedestrian safety behavior checklist had moderate reliability across research assistants' ratings (ICC = 0.48) and moderate correlation with the PI (r = 0.55, p = < 0.01). When two raters simultaneously used the instrument, the ICC increased to 0.65. Overall percent agreement (91%), sensitivity (85%) and specificity (83%) were acceptable. These validated instruments can be used to assess SRTS programs. The pedestrian safety behavior checklist may benefit from further formative work.

  15. The influence of traffic signal solutions on self-reported road-crossing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stasi, Leandro L; Megías, Alberto; Cándido, Antonio; Maldonado, Antonio; Catena, Andrés

    2015-01-07

    Injury to pedestrians is a major safety hazard in many countries. Since the beginning of the last century, modern cities have been designed around the use of motor vehicles despite the unfavourable interactions between the vehicles and pedestrians. This push towards urbanization resulted in a substantial number of crashes and fatalities involving pedestrians every day, all over the world. Thus, improving the design of urban cities and townships is a pressing issue for modern society. The study presented here provides a characterization of pedestrian safety problems, with the emphasis on signalized crosswalks (i.e. traffic signal) design solutions. We tested the impact of seven different traffic light configurations (steady [green, yellow, and red], flashing [green, yellow, and red], and light off) on pedestrian self-reported road-crossing behavior, using a 11-point scale -ranging from 0 ("I never cross in this situation") to 10 ("I always cross in this situation"). Results showed that mandatory solutions (steady green vs. steady red) are the best solutions to avoid unsafe pedestrian behaviors while crossing controlled intersections (frequency of crossing: Mgreen = 9.4 ± 1 vs. Mred = 2.6 ± 2). These findings offer important guidelines for the design of future traffic signals for encouraging a pedestrian/transit-friendly environment.

  16. Crumple zone design for pedestrian protection using impact analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Hyung Il; Jeon, Young Eun; Kim, Dae Young; Kim, Heon Young [Kangwon National Univ., Chuncheon si (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Soo [Product Development Team, Gyeongsan si (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    This paper describes the design process for an automobile crumple zone for pedestrian protection. The impact load and bending moments predicted by impact analysis were used to design a plastic structure that may help reduce pedestrian injuries to the thigh area. The fracture effect was incorporated into the model by calculating the damage to the plastic material during impact, and the analysis was conducted under the European New Car Assessment Program (Euro NCAP) test conditions, using the upper legform developed by ESI Corporation. In addition, the values predicted by the analysis were validated by comparison with results of actual impact tests.

  17. Crumple zone design for pedestrian protection using impact analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Hyung Il; Jeon, Young Eun; Kim, Dae Young; Kim, Heon Young; Kim, Yong Soo

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the design process for an automobile crumple zone for pedestrian protection. The impact load and bending moments predicted by impact analysis were used to design a plastic structure that may help reduce pedestrian injuries to the thigh area. The fracture effect was incorporated into the model by calculating the damage to the plastic material during impact, and the analysis was conducted under the European New Car Assessment Program (Euro NCAP) test conditions, using the upper legform developed by ESI Corporation. In addition, the values predicted by the analysis were validated by comparison with results of actual impact tests

  18. An excess of pedestrian injuries in icy conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merrild, Ulrik; Bak, Soeren

    1983-01-01

    An "icy condition epidemic" has been analyzed in an investigation of patients treated in the casualty department of Odense University Hospital: it was found that the victims were mainly comprised of pedestrians and that the pedestrians had 14 times more injuries than during a normal winter period...... clearing of the snow, and (3) spreading of sand, and possibly salt, on footpaths and bicycle paths. Specific measures should be launched to help the elderly during such periods, in order that outdoor activities may be cut to a minimum....

  19. Autonomous pedestrian localization technique using CMOS camera sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Chanwoo

    2014-09-01

    We present a pedestrian localization technique that does not need infrastructure. The proposed angle-only measurement method needs specially manufactured shoes. Each shoe has two CMOS cameras and two markers such as LEDs attached on the inward side. The line of sight (LOS) angles towards the two markers on the forward shoe are measured using the two cameras on the other rear shoe. Our simulation results shows that a pedestrian walking down in a shopping mall wearing this device can be accurately guided to the front of a destination store located 100m away, if the floor plan of the mall is available.

  20. The relationship between the availability of the supporting elements of pedestrian with pedestrian crossing facility usage based on user preferences (Case Study corridor of Sumbersari Street, Gajayana Street, MT. Haryono Street, Malang City)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soetrisno, D. P.

    2017-06-01

    Pedestrian crossing facilities are effective enough to avoid pedestrians with vehicles, but its utilization is still quite low. It indicated that safety is not the only factor that influences a person to utilize the pedestrian crossing facilities. In addition, the availability of supporting elements of the pedestrian is still not quite attention, which is also became a factor that causes the pedestrians doesn’t utilize the pedestrian crossing facilities. Therefore, this research was structured to examine the relationship between the availability of the supporting elements of the pedestrian with pedestrian crossing facility usage based on user preferences. Data collection method used is primary survey consist of observation and the questionnaire. Sampling techniques used is purposive sampling with the number of respondents as many as 211 respondents by using questionnaire with ordinal scales to identify respondents’ consideration level of supporting elements pedestrian and crossing facility utilization factors. The survey is done on 15 crossing facilities area in 3 different locations with the same characteristics of land use in the form of higher education area (university area) and trades and services activities area. The analysis technique used is frequency distribution analysis in order to identify preference pedestrian on the availability of supporting elements of pedestrian and pedestrian crossing facility utilization factors, and chi square analysis is used to analyze the relationship between the availability of the supporting elements of the pedestrian with pedestrian crossing facility utilization. Based on the chi square analysis results with significance 5 % obtained the result that there are six supporting elements of pedestrian having correlation to the factors of pedestrian crossing facility utilization consist of the availability of sidewalk, pedestrian lights, Street Lighting Lamps, Pedestrian Crossing Markings Facilities, Sign Crossings

  1. Reciprocal Estimation of Pedestrian Location and Motion State toward a Smartphone Geo-Context Computing Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingbin Liu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The rapid advance in mobile communications has made information and services ubiquitously accessible. Location and context information have become essential for the effectiveness of services in the era of mobility. This paper proposes the concept of geo-context that is defined as an integral synthesis of geographical location, human motion state and mobility context. A geo-context computing solution consists of a positioning engine, a motion state recognition engine, and a context inference component. In the geo-context concept, the human motion states and mobility context are associated with the geographical location where they occur. A hybrid geo-context computing solution is implemented that runs on a smartphone, and it utilizes measurements of multiple sensors and signals of opportunity that are available within a smartphone. Pedestrian location and motion states are estimated jointly under the framework of hidden Markov models, and they are used in a reciprocal manner to improve their estimation performance of one another. It is demonstrated that pedestrian location estimation has better accuracy when its motion state is known, and in turn, the performance of motion state recognition can be improved with increasing reliability when the location is given. The geo-context inference is implemented simply with the expert system principle, and more sophisticated approaches will be developed.

  2. Proposing a Revised Pedestrian Walkway Level of Service Based on Characteristics of Pedestrian Interactive Behaviours in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaonian Shan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyse characteristics of Pedestrian Interactive Behaviours (PIBs in order to propose a revised pedestrian walkway Level of Service (LOS in China. Field data on overtaking and evasive behaviours were collected at a metro station walkway in Shanghai, China to calculate macro and micro indicators. Occurrence intensities of these two PIBs initially increased with moderate density and later decreased with high density that reduced available space. PIBs were also analysed in terms of sideways behaviours to account for the varying difficulties of PIBs at different densities. It was found that available space for PIBs was the main factor contributing to the intensity features. Moreover, the different space demands of the two PIBs resulted in different features between them. Finally, a revised pedestrian walkway LOS was proposed based on the macro and micro characteristics of PIBs in China.

  3. Young drivers' perception of adult and child pedestrians in potential street-crossing situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ābele, Līva; Haustein, Sonja; Møller, Mette

    2018-04-03

    Despite overall improvements in road traffic safety, pedestrian accidents continue to be a serious public health problem. Due to lack of experience, limited cognitive and motoric skills, and smaller size, children have a higher injury risk as pedestrians than adults. To what extent drivers adjust their driving behaviour to children's higher vulnerability is largely unknown. To determine whether young male drivers' behaviour and scanning pattern differs when approaching a child and an adult pedestrian in a potential street-crossing situation, sixty-five young (18-24) male drivers' speed, lateral position and eye movements were recorded in a driving simulator. Results showed that fewer drivers responded by slowing down and that drivers had a higher driving speed when approaching a child pedestrian, although the time of the first fixation on both types of pedestrians was the same. However, drivers drove farther away from a child than an adult pedestrian. Additionally, fewer drivers who did not slow down fixated on the speedometer while approaching the child pedestrian. The results show that young drivers behave differently when approaching a child and an adult pedestrian, though not in a way that appropriately accounts for the limitations of a child pedestrian. A better understanding of how drivers respond to different types of pedestrians and why could contribute to the development of pedestrian detection and emergency braking systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis of Telescopic Mechanism for Truss Structure Bridge Inspection Vehicle Under Pedestrian Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenwen Sui

    Full Text Available Abstract Nonlinear dynamic analysis of an axially moving telescopic mechanism for truss structure bridge inspection vehicle under pedestrian excitation is carried out. A biomechanically inspired inverted-pendulum model is utilized to simplify the pedestrian. The nonlinear equations of motion for the beam-pedestrian system are derived using the Hamilton's principle. The equations are transformed into two ordinary differential equations by applying the Galerkin's method at the first two orders. The solutions to the equations are acquired by using the Newmark-β method associated with the Newton-Raphson method. The time-dependent feature of the eigenfunctions for the two beams are taken into consideration in the solutions. Accordingly, the equations of motion for a simplified system, in which the pedestrian is regarded as moving cart, are given. In the numerical examples, dynamic responses of the telescopic mechanism in eight conditions of different beam-telescoping and pedestrian-moving directions are simulated. Comparisons between the vibrations of the beams under pedestrian excitation and corresponding moving cart are carried out to investigate the influence of the pedestrian excitation on the telescopic mechanism. The results show that the displacement of the telescopic mechanism under pedestrian excitation is smaller than that under moving cart especially when the pedestrian approaches the beams end. Additionally, compared with moving cart, the pedestrian excitation can effectively strengthen the vibration when the beam extension is small or when the pedestrian is close to the beams end.

  5. Update schemes of multi-velocity floor field cellular automaton for pedestrian dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lin; Fu, Zhijian; Cheng, Han; Yang, Lizhong

    2018-02-01

    Modeling pedestrian movement is an interesting problem both in statistical physics and in computational physics. Update schemes of cellular automaton (CA) models for pedestrian dynamics govern the schedule of pedestrian movement. Usually, different update schemes make the models behave in different ways, which should be carefully recalibrated. Thus, in this paper, we investigated the influence of four different update schemes, namely parallel/synchronous scheme, random scheme, order-sequential scheme and shuffled scheme, on pedestrian dynamics. The multi-velocity floor field cellular automaton (FFCA) considering the changes of pedestrians' moving properties along walking paths and heterogeneity of pedestrians' walking abilities was used. As for parallel scheme only, the collisions detection and resolution should be considered, resulting in a great difference from any other update schemes. For pedestrian evacuation, the evacuation time is enlarged, and the difference in pedestrians' walking abilities is better reflected, under parallel scheme. In face of a bottleneck, for example a exit, using a parallel scheme leads to a longer congestion period and a more dispersive density distribution. The exit flow and the space-time distribution of density and velocity have significant discrepancies under four different update schemes when we simulate pedestrian flow with high desired velocity. Update schemes may have no influence on pedestrians in simulation to create tendency to follow others, but sequential and shuffled update scheme may enhance the effect of pedestrians' familiarity with environments.

  6. Gender Differences in Pedestrian Perception and Satisfaction on the Walkability of Kuala Lumpur City Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Ahmad Kamil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of built environment usually influences the walkability of a city. This is because each pedestrian walk differently on different type of facilities or built environment provided to them. This paper aims to investigate whether gender differences influences the pedestrian perception and satisfaction level at three sidewalks located within the Kuala Lumpur City Center by means of questionnaire survey. A total of 317 pedestrians were involved in the questionnaire survey at the three different sidewalk locations. The result shows significant differences in mean satisfaction value between male and female pedestrians. Female pedestrian give lower satisfaction value for overall travel experience at Jalan Tuanku Abdul Rahman but higher satisfaction value at Petaling Street and Bukit Bintang compared to male pedestrian. Overall, the satisfaction level was rated between acceptable to satisfactory regardless of gender differences. Improvements should be made for the safety parameter because both male and female pedestrian gives lowest satisfaction level in that area.

  7. Quantitative analysis of pedestrian safety at uncontrolled multi-lane mid-block crosswalks in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cunbao; Zhou, Bin; Chen, Guojun; Chen, Feng

    2017-11-01

    A lot of pedestrian-vehicle crashes at mid-block crosswalks severely threaten pedestrian's safety around the world. The situations are even worse in China due to low yielding rate of vehicles at crosswalks. In order to quantitatively analyze pedestrian's safety at multi-lane mid-block crosswalks, the number of pedestrian-vehicle conflicts was utilized to evaluate pedestrian's accident risk. Five mid-block crosswalks (Wuhan, China) were videoed to collect data of traffic situation and pedestrian-vehicle conflicts, and the quantity and spatial distribution of pedestrian-vehicle conflicts at multi-lane mid-block crosswalk were analyzed according to lane-based post-encroachment time(LPET). Statistical results indicate that conflicts are mainly concentrated in lane3 and lane6. Percentage of conflict of each lane numbered from 1 to 6 respectively are 4.1%, 13.1%, 19.8%, 8.4%, 19.0%, 28.1%. Conflict rate under different crossing strategies are also counted. Moreover, an order probit (OP) model of pedestrian-vehicle conflict analysis (PVCA) was built to find out the contributions corresponding to those factors (such as traffic volume, vehicle speed, pedestrian crossing behavior, pedestrian refuge, etc.) to pedestrian-vehicle conflicts. The results show that: pedestrian refuge have positive effects on pedestrian safety; on the other hand, high vehicle speed, high traffic volume, rolling gap crossing pattern, and larger pedestrian platoon have negative effects on pedestrian safety. Based on our field observation and PVCA model, the number of conflicts will rise by 2% while the traffic volume increases 200 pcu/h; similarly, if the vehicle speed increases 5km/h, the number of conflicts will rise by 12% accordingly. The research results could be used to evaluate pedestrian safety at multi-lane mid-block crosswalks, and useful to improve pedestrian safety by means of pedestrian safety education, pedestrian refuge setting, vehicle speed limiting, and so on. Copyright © 2017

  8. Pedestrian wind environment around buildings: Literature review and practical examples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blocken, B.J.E.; Carmeliet, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    The construction of a building inevitably changes the microclimate in its vicinity. In particular near high-rise buildings, high wind velocities are often introduced at pedestrian level that can be experienced as uncomfortable or even dangerous. Therefore, the design of a building should not only

  9. Pedestrian protection integrated in the motor hood; Fussgaengerschutz bei Motorhauben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilfrich, E.; Roettger, R.; Zoernack, M.; Patberg, L. [Vertrieb/Engineering, Fahrzeugtechnik, ThyssenKrupp Steel, Duisburg (Germany)

    2005-12-01

    New legislation provides for better pedestrian protection in case of collision with motor cars. This is a great challenge in car design. ThyssenKrupp Steel are working on concepts for motor hoods that meet these requirements. Steel is the material of choice as it combines effective energy absorption with an excellent cost-benefit ration. (orig.)

  10. Injured pedestrians in Cape Town - the role of alcohol

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pedestrians and attempt to define the role which alcohol plays in this ... Forensic Chemistry Laboratory, Department of National Health, Cape. Town. J. Monis .... Short term « 8 wks). 80. 40.8. 47. 39.2. 33. 43.4. Long tenn (;;. 8 wks). 54 27.6.

  11. Active pedestrian safety by automatic braking and evasive steering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keller, C.; Dang, T.; Fritz, H.; Joos, A.; Rabe, C.; Gavrila, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    Active safety systems hold great potential for reducing accident frequency and severity by warning the driver and/or exerting automatic vehicle control ahead of crashes. This paper presents a novel active pedestrian safety system that combines sensing, situation analysis, decision making, and

  12. Optimal Design of HGV Front Structure for Pedestrian Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Faiz Redza; Yamazaki, Koetsu

    This paper addresses a pedestrian safety design of front structure of Heavy Goods Vehicle (HGV) by two concepts; firstly by equipping a lower bumper stiffener structure under the front bumper and secondly by putting an airbag in front of the HGV front panel. In this study, HGV-pedestrian collision accident was simulated by the crash analysis solver MADYMO environment, where the HGV model with the speed of 20 km/h was collided with an adult male and with an adult female pedestrian, respectively. The bumper and lower bumper stiffener were varied their positions, while the airbag was adjusted the vent hole size and the position of airbag in front of front panel vertically. The pedestrian injuries that can be sustained during the simulation impact were limited at the critical body parts of head, chest, upper leg; an injury criteria of Head Injury Criterion (HIC), Thorax Cumulative 3ms Acceleration (C3ms) and peak loads of femur, respectively. Because of various parameters and constraints of initial conditions and injury thresholds, a multi-objective optimization design problem considered these main injury criterion is solved in order to achieve the best solution for this study. The results of optimized design parameters for each cases and conditions were obtained and the possibilities of the proposed concept were discussed.

  13. Real-time Pedestrian Crossing Recognition for Assistive Outdoor Navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanesi, Simone; Frigerio, Alessandro; Fanucci, Luca; Li, William

    2015-01-01

    Navigation in urban environments can be difficult for people who are blind or visually impaired. In this project, we present a system and algorithms for recognizing pedestrian crossings in outdoor environments. Our goal is to provide navigation cues for crossing the street and reaching an island or sidewalk safely. Using a state-of-the-art Multisense S7S sensor, we collected 3D pointcloud data for real-time detection of pedestrian crossing and generation of directional guidance. We demonstrate improvements to a baseline, monocular-camera-based system by integrating 3D spatial prior information extracted from the pointcloud. Our system's parameters can be set to the actual dimensions of real-world settings, which enables robustness of occlusion and perspective transformation. The system works especially well in non-occlusion situations, and is reasonably accurate under different kind of conditions. As well, our large dataset of pedestrian crossings, organized by different types and situations of pedestrian crossings in order to reflect real-word environments, is publicly available in a commonly used format (ROS bagfiles) for further research.

  14. Aging driver and pedestrian safety : parking lot hazards study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    In 2009, Florida reported the highest rate of : pedestrian fatalities in the nation. At 2.51 : deaths per 100,000 residents, Floridas rate was : nearly twice the national average. These deaths : occurred in all age groups, but compared to : other ...

  15. Aging driver and pedestrian safety : parking lot hazards study [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Florida reported the highest rate of pedestrian fatalities in the nation. At 2.51 deaths per 100,000 residents, Floridas rate was nearly twice the national average. These deaths occurred in all age groups, but compared to other age groups...

  16. Survey of pedestrian detection for advanced driver assistance systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerónimo, David; López, Antonio M; Sappa, Angel D; Graf, Thorsten

    2010-07-01

    Advanced driver assistance systems (ADASs), and particularly pedestrian protection systems (PPSs), have become an active research area aimed at improving traffic safety. The major challenge of PPSs is the development of reliable on-board pedestrian detection systems. Due to the varying appearance of pedestrians (e.g., different clothes, changing size, aspect ratio, and dynamic shape) and the unstructured environment, it is very difficult to cope with the demanded robustness of this kind of system. Two problems arising in this research area are the lack of public benchmarks and the difficulty in reproducing many of the proposed methods, which makes it difficult to compare the approaches. As a result, surveying the literature by enumerating the proposals one--after-another is not the most useful way to provide a comparative point of view. Accordingly, we present a more convenient strategy to survey the different approaches. We divide the problem of detecting pedestrians from images into different processing steps, each with attached responsibilities. Then, the different proposed methods are analyzed and classified with respect to each processing stage, favoring a comparative viewpoint. Finally, discussion of the important topics is presented, putting special emphasis on the future needs and challenges.

  17. Evaluating public space pedestrian accessibility: a GIS approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morar, T.; Bertolini, L.; Radoslav, R.

    2013-01-01

    Public spaces are sources of quality of life in neighborhoods. Seeking to help professionals and municipalities assess how well a public space can be used by the community it serves, this paper presents a GIS-based methodology for evaluating its pedestrian accessibility. The Romanian city of

  18. THE WOODEN GLUE STRUCTURES OF FOREIGN MODERN PEDESTRIAN BRIDGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Trach

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A brief review on the application of wooden bridges is presented as well as wooden structures of modern pedestrian and road bridges built in recent years in the Western Europe are described. Based upon the review, the conclusions concerning the construction of similar structures in Ukraine are made.

  19. Pedestrian Path Prediction with Recursive Bayesian Filters: A Comparative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, N.; Gavrila, D.M.

    2013-01-01

    In the context of intelligent vehicles, we perform a comparative study on recursive Bayesian filters for pedestrian path prediction at short time horizons (< 2s). We consider Extended Kalman Filters (EKF) based on single dynamical models and Interacting Multiple Models (IMM) combining several such

  20. Mapping of pedestrian characteristics and level of service for facilities at Universitas Negeri Malang using geographic information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayuningsih, Titi; Pranoto, Nindyawati, Umniati, B. Sri; Mardhika, Moch Aqfa Syabahid

    2017-09-01

    Universitas Negeri Malang (UM) is a university with the second largest academic community in Malang. The activities of the academic community should be supported by adequate facilities, such as pedestrian facilities—crucial yet much neglected matters, so pedestrians to walk along the roadway. As a result, conflicts between pedestrians with motor vehicle users and accidents might occur at any time. This research aimed at: 1) investigating the geometric conditions of pedestrian facilities at UM; 2) identifying the characteristics of pedestrians and the pedestrian facilities at UM; and 3) determining the level of service for pedestrian facilities at UM using Geographic Information System (GIS). The research was conducted through survey of location, survey of geometric conditions, estimation of the number of pedestrians using sidewalk (data were recorded every 15 minutes), measurement of pedestrian speed, and questionnaire about pedestrians' identity, destination, as well as travel time and distance. Data analysis was carried out to identify the pedestrian characteristics, pedestrian flow characteristics, and pedestrian level of service. The research result showed that the percentage of road segments in campus without sidewalks was 52%. The average width of sidewalk was 1.33 m, which was less than the minimum standard of i.e. 2 m. In terms of pedestrian characteristics, the pedestrians consisted of more female (51%) who were mostly students of the Faculty of Letters whose destination was classroom building. The maximum pedestrian flow was at 10.00-13.30 i.e. 4.2018 p/m/min. The average speed of pedestrian was 63.49 m/min. The highest pedestrian density of 0.0609 p/m2 occurred at 10.00-13.30. The largest walking space was 28.0348 m2/p and occurred in the afternoon at 13.30-17.00. The level of service for pedestrian facilities belonged to category A in the morning and afternoon. The level of service at 10.00-13.30 decreased to category B.

  1. Design Issues for MEMS-Based Pedestrian Inertial Navigation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Marinushkin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes design issues for MEMS-based pedestrian inertial navigation systems. By now the algorithms to estimate navigation parameters for strap-down inertial navigation systems on the basis of plural observations have been already well developed. At the same time mathematical and software processing of information in the case of pedestrian inertial navigation systems has its specificity, due to the peculiarities of their functioning and exploitation. Therefore, there is an urgent task to enhance existing fusion algorithms for use in pedestrian navigation systems. For this purpose the article analyzes the characteristics of the hardware composition and configuration of existing systems of this class. The paper shows advantages of various technical solutions. Relying on their main features it justifies a choice of the navigation system architecture and hardware composition enabling improvement of the estimation accuracy of user position as compared to the systems using only inertial sensors. The next point concerns the development of algorithms for complex processing of heterogeneous information. To increase an accuracy of the free running pedestrian inertial navigation system we propose an adaptive algorithm for joint processing of heterogeneous information based on the fusion of inertial info rmation with magnetometer measurements using EKF approach. Modeling of the algorithm was carried out using a specially developed functional prototype of pedestrian inertial navigation system, implemented as a hardware/software complex in Matlab environment. The functional prototype tests of the developed system demonstrated an improvement of the navigation parameters estimation compared to the systems based on inertial sensors only. It enables to draw a conclusion that the synthesized algorithm provides satisfactory accuracy for calculating the trajectory of motion even when using low-grade inertial MEMS sensors. The developed algorithm can be

  2. Traffic instabilities in self-organized pedestrian crowds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Moussaïd

    Full Text Available In human crowds as well as in many animal societies, local interactions among individuals often give rise to self-organized collective organizations that offer functional benefits to the group. For instance, flows of pedestrians moving in opposite directions spontaneously segregate into lanes of uniform walking directions. This phenomenon is often referred to as a smart collective pattern, as it increases the traffic efficiency with no need of external control. However, the functional benefits of this emergent organization have never been experimentally measured, and the underlying behavioral mechanisms are poorly understood. In this work, we have studied this phenomenon under controlled laboratory conditions. We found that the traffic segregation exhibits structural instabilities characterized by the alternation of organized and disorganized states, where the lifetime of well-organized clusters of pedestrians follow a stretched exponential relaxation process. Further analysis show that the inter-pedestrian variability of comfortable walking speeds is a key variable at the origin of the observed traffic perturbations. We show that the collective benefit of the emerging pattern is maximized when all pedestrians walk at the average speed of the group. In practice, however, local interactions between slow- and fast-walking pedestrians trigger global breakdowns of organization, which reduce the collective and the individual payoff provided by the traffic segregation. This work is a step ahead toward the understanding of traffic self-organization in crowds, which turns out to be modulated by complex behavioral mechanisms that do not always maximize the group's benefits. The quantitative understanding of crowd behaviors opens the way for designing bottom-up management strategies bound to promote the emergence of efficient collective behaviors in crowds.

  3. The correlation between pedestrian injury severity in real-life crashes and Euro NCAP pedestrian test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandroth, Johan; Rizzi, Matteo; Sternlund, Simon; Lie, Anders; Tingvall, Claes

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the correlation between Euro NCAP pedestrian rating scores and injury outcome in real-life car-to-pedestrian crashes, with special focus on long-term disability. Another aim was to determine whether brake assist (BA) systems affect the injury outcome in real-life car-to-pedestrian crashes and to estimate the combined effects in injury reduction of a high Euro NCAP ranking score and BA. In the current study, the Euro NCAP pedestrian scoring was compared with the real-life outcome in pedestrian crashes that occurred in Sweden during 2003 to 2010. The real-life crash data were obtained from the data acquisition system Swedish Traffic Accident Data Acquisition (STRADA), which combines police records and hospital admission data. The medical data consisted of International Classification of Diseases (ICD) diagnoses and Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) scoring. In all, approximately 500 pedestrians submitted to hospital were included in the study. Each car model was coded according to Euro NCAP pedestrian scores. In addition, the presence or absence of BA was coded for each car involved. Cars were grouped according to their scoring. Injury outcomes were analyzed with AIS and, at the victim level, with permanent medical impairment. This was done by translating the injury scores for each individual to the risk of serious consequences (RSC) at 1, 5, and 10 percent risk of disability level. This indicates the total risk of a medical disability for each victim, given the severity and location of injuries. The mean RSC (mRSC) was then calculated for each car group and t-tests were conducted to falsify the null hypothesis at p ≤ .05 that the mRSC within the groups was equal. The results showed a significant reduction of injury severity for cars with better pedestrian scoring, although cars with a high score could not be studied due to lack of cases. The reduction in RSC for medium-performing cars in comparison with low-performing cars

  4. Time-lag Method for Detecting Following and Leadership Behavior of Pedestrians from Mobile Sensing Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Blunck, Henrik; Wüstenberg, Markus

    2013-01-01

    that quantify how humans move, interact and group. In this paper we propose methods for detecting two common pedestrian movement patterns, namely individual following relations and group leadership. The proposed methods for identifying following patterns employ machine learning on features derived using...... similarity analysis on time lagged sequences of WiFi measurements containing either raw signal strength values or derived locations. To detect leadership we combine the individual following relations into directed graphs and detect leadership within groups by graph link analysis. Methods for detecting...... for following patterns and up to twenty percentage points for leadership patterns. Our method is, contrary to state of the art, also applicable in challenging indoor environments, e.g., multi-story buildings. This implies that even quite small samples allow us to detect information such as how events...

  5. Assessment methodologies for forward looking integrated pedestrian systems and further extension to cyclist safety: experimental and virtual testing for pedestrian protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrer, A.; Hair-Buijssen, S.H.H.M. de; Zander, O.; Fredriksson, R.; Schaub, S.; Nuss, F.; Caspar, M.

    2015-01-01

    Pedestrians and cyclists are the most unprotected road users and their injury risk in case of accidents is significantly higher than for other road users. The understanding of the influence and sensitivity between important variables describing a pedestrian crash is key for the development of more

  6. The roles of gender, age and cognitive development in children's pedestrian route selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, B K; Ulrich, T; Lyday, B

    2012-03-01

    Thousands of American children under the age of 10 years are injured annually as pedestrians. Despite the scope of this public health problem, knowledge about behavioural control and developmental factors involved in the aetiology of child pedestrian safety is limited. The present study examined the roles of gender, age and two aspects of cognitive development (visual search and efficiency of processing) in children's safe pedestrian route selection. Measures of cognitive functioning (visual search and efficiency) and selections of risky pedestrian routes were collected from 65 children aged 5-9 years. Boys, younger children and those with less developed cognitive functioning selected riskier pedestrian routes. Cognitive functioning also subsumed age as a predictor of risky route selections. Our findings suggest developmental differences, specifically less developed cognitive functioning, play important roles in children's pedestrian decision making. Directions for future examination are discussed. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Small-size pedestrian detection in large scene based on fast R-CNN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengke; Yang, Na; Duan, Lianghua; Liu, Lu; Dong, Junyu

    2018-04-01

    Pedestrian detection is a canonical sub-problem of object detection with high demand during recent years. Although recent deep learning object detectors such as Fast/Faster R-CNN have shown excellent performance for general object detection, they have limited success for small size pedestrian detection in large-view scene. We study that the insufficient resolution of feature maps lead to the unsatisfactory accuracy when handling small instances. In this paper, we investigate issues involving Fast R-CNN for pedestrian detection. Driven by the observations, we propose a very simple but effective baseline for pedestrian detection based on Fast R-CNN, employing the DPM detector to generate proposals for accuracy, and training a fast R-CNN style network to jointly optimize small size pedestrian detection with skip connection concatenating feature from different layers to solving coarseness of feature maps. And the accuracy is improved in our research for small size pedestrian detection in the real large scene.

  8. Pedestrian Tracking Based on Camshift with Kalman Prediction for Autonomous Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lie Guo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrian detection and tracking is the key to autonomous vehicle navigation systems avoiding potentially dangerous situations. Firstly, the probability distribution of colour information is established after a pedestrian is located in an image. Then the detected results are utilized to initialize a Kalman filter to predict the possible position of the pedestrian centroid in the future frame. A Camshift tracking algorithm is used to track the pedestrian in the specific search window of the next frame based on the prediction results. The actual position of the pedestrian centroid is output from the Camshift tracking algorithm to update the gain and error covariance matrix of the Kalman filter. Experimental results in real traffic situations show the proposed pedestrian tracking algorithm can achieve good performance even when they are partly occluded in inconsistent illumination circumstances.

  9. Enlightenment of Qilou Street Space Intelligence to Pedestrian System Design in Commercial District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at those generally existing problems in urban commercial pedestrian districts, through the design methods of extracting separation of man from vehicle in traditional Qilou pedestrian street space, continuous pedestrian space with shelter, and the behavior paths with combination of commercial activities, this thesis sets about from the behaviors of pedestrians in walking state, and finds that the traditional Qilou pedestrian street space can satisfy pedestrians’ physiological and psychological demands in shopping better. At the same time, combining current urban commercial districts developing demands, and the successful experience from traditional Qilou, this thesis also proposes relevant improvement measures. The improvements in design means are expected to improve pedestrian environment for, and achieve the commercial values of these districts, as well as the win-win of environment improvement and commercial activity development.

  10. Simulation of Pedestrian Behavior in the Collision-Avoidance Process considering Their Moving Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilu Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Walking habits can affect the self-organizing movement in pedestrian flow. In China, pedestrians prefer to walk along the right-hand side in the collision-avoidance process, and the same is true for the left-hand preference that is followed in several countries. Through experiments with pedestrian flow, we find that the relative position between pedestrians can affect their moving preferences. We propose a kind of collision-avoidance force based on the social force model, which considers the predictions of potential conflict and the relative position between pedestrians. In the simulation, we use the improved model to explore the effect of moving preference on the collision-avoidance process and self-organizing pedestrian movement. We conclude that the improved model can bring the simulation closer to reality and that moving preference is conducive to the self-adjustment of counterflow.

  11. A Case Study on the Walking Speed of Pedestrian at the Bus Terminal Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Ali Mohd Firdaus

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Walking speed is one of the factors in understanding the pedestrian walking behaviours. Every pedestrian has different level of walking speed that are regulated by some factors such as gender and age. This study was conducted at a bus terminal area with two objectives in which the first one was to determine the average walking speed of pedestrian by considering the factors of age, gender, people with and without carrying baggage; and the second one was to make a comparison of the average walking speed that considered age as the factor of comparison between pedestrian at the bus terminal area and crosswalk. Demographic factor of pedestrian walking speed in this study are gender and age consist of male, female, and 7 groups of age categories that are children, adult men and women, senior adult men and women, over 70 and disabled person. Data of experiment was obtained by making a video recording of the movement of people that were walking and roaming around at the main lobby for 45 minutes by using a camcorder. Hence, data analysis was done by using software named Human Behaviour Simulator (HBS for analysing the data extracted from the video. The result of this study was male pedestrian walked faster than female with the average of walking speed 1.13m/s and 1.07m/s respectively. Averagely, pedestrian that walked without carrying baggage had higher walking speed compared to pedestrian that were carrying baggage with the speed of 1.02m/s and 0.70m/s respectively. Male pedestrian walks faster than female because they have higher level of stamina and they are mostly taller than female pedestrian. Furthermore, pedestrian with baggage walks slower because baggage will cause distractions such as pedestrian will have more weight to carry and people tend to walk slower.

  12. Impact of social and technological distraction on pedestrian crossing behaviour: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Leah L; Rivara, Frederick P; Ayyagari, Rajiv C; Ebel, Beth E

    2013-08-01

    The objective of the present work was to study the impact of technological and social distraction on cautionary behaviours and crossing times in pedestrians. Pedestrians were observed at 20 high-risk intersections during 1 of 3 randomly assigned time windows in 2012. Observers recorded demographic and behavioural information, including use of a mobile device (talking on the phone, text messaging, or listening to music). We examined the association between distraction and crossing behaviours, adjusting for age and gender. All multivariate analyses were conducted with random effect logistic regression (binary outcomes) and random effect linear regression (continuous outcomes), accounting for clustering by site. Observers recorded crossing behaviours for 1102 pedestrians. Nearly one-third (29.8%) of all pedestrians performed a distracting activity while crossing. Distractions included listening to music (11.2%), text messaging (7.3%) and using a handheld phone (6.2%). Text messaging, mobile phone use and talking with a companion increased crossing time. Texting pedestrians took 1.87 additional seconds (18.0%) to cross the average intersection (3.4 lanes), compared to undistracted pedestrians. Texting pedestrians were 3.9 times more likely than undistracted pedestrians to display at least 1 unsafe crossing behaviour (disobeying the lights, crossing mid-intersection, or failing to look both ways). Pedestrians listening to music walked more than half a second (0.54) faster across the average intersection than undistracted pedestrians. Distracting activity is common among pedestrians, even while crossing intersections. Technological and social distractions increase crossing times, with text messaging associated with the highest risk. Our findings suggest the need for intervention studies to reduce risk of pedestrian injury.

  13. A Case Study on the Walking Speed of Pedestrian at the Bus Terminal Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdaus Mohamad Ali, Mohd; Salleh Abustan, Muhamad; Hidayah Abu Talib, Siti; Abustan, Ismail; Rahman, Noorhazlinda Abd; Gotoh, Hitoshi

    2018-03-01

    Walking speed is one of the factors in understanding the pedestrian walking behaviours. Every pedestrian has different level of walking speed that are regulated by some factors such as gender and age. This study was conducted at a bus terminal area with two objectives in which the first one was to determine the average walking speed of pedestrian by considering the factors of age, gender, people with and without carrying baggage; and the second one was to make a comparison of the average walking speed that considered age as the factor of comparison between pedestrian at the bus terminal area and crosswalk. Demographic factor of pedestrian walking speed in this study are gender and age consist of male, female, and 7 groups of age categories that are children, adult men and women, senior adult men and women, over 70 and disabled person. Data of experiment was obtained by making a video recording of the movement of people that were walking and roaming around at the main lobby for 45 minutes by using a camcorder. Hence, data analysis was done by using software named Human Behaviour Simulator (HBS) for analysing the data extracted from the video. The result of this study was male pedestrian walked faster than female with the average of walking speed 1.13m/s and 1.07m/s respectively. Averagely, pedestrian that walked without carrying baggage had higher walking speed compared to pedestrian that were carrying baggage with the speed of 1.02m/s and 0.70m/s respectively. Male pedestrian walks faster than female because they have higher level of stamina and they are mostly taller than female pedestrian. Furthermore, pedestrian with baggage walks slower because baggage will cause distractions such as pedestrian will have more weight to carry and people tend to walk slower.

  14. Dynamic analysis of pedestrian crossing behaviors on traffic flow at unsignalized mid-block crosswalks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; He, Jing; Luo, Zhiyong; Yang, Wunian; Zhang, Xiping

    2015-05-01

    It is important to study the effects of pedestrian crossing behaviors on traffic flow for solving the urban traffic jam problem. Based on the Nagel-Schreckenberg (NaSch) traffic cellular automata (TCA) model, a new one-dimensional TCA model is proposed considering the uncertainty conflict behaviors between pedestrians and vehicles at unsignalized mid-block crosswalks and defining the parallel updating rules of motion states of pedestrians and vehicles. The traffic flow is simulated for different vehicle densities and behavior trigger probabilities. The fundamental diagrams show that no matter what the values of vehicle braking probability, pedestrian acceleration crossing probability, pedestrian backing probability and pedestrian generation probability, the system flow shows the "increasing-saturating-decreasing" trend with the increase of vehicle density; when the vehicle braking probability is lower, it is easy to cause an emergency brake of vehicle and result in great fluctuation of saturated flow; the saturated flow decreases slightly with the increase of the pedestrian acceleration crossing probability; when the pedestrian backing probability lies between 0.4 and 0.6, the saturated flow is unstable, which shows the hesitant behavior of pedestrians when making the decision of backing; the maximum flow is sensitive to the pedestrian generation probability and rapidly decreases with increasing the pedestrian generation probability, the maximum flow is approximately equal to zero when the probability is more than 0.5. The simulations prove that the influence of frequent crossing behavior upon vehicle flow is immense; the vehicle flow decreases and gets into serious congestion state rapidly with the increase of the pedestrian generation probability.

  15. Expanding pedestrian injury risk to the body region level: how to model passive safety systems in pedestrian injury risk functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebuhr, Tobias; Junge, Mirko; Achmus, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of the effectiveness of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) plays a crucial role in accident research. A common way to evaluate the effectiveness of new systems is to determine the potentials for injury severity reduction. Because injury risk functions describe the probability of an injury of a given severity conditional on a technical accident severity (closing speed, delta V, barrier equivalent speed, etc.), they are predestined for such evaluations. Recent work has stated an approach on how to model the pedestrian injury risk in pedestrian-to-passenger car accidents as a family of functions. This approach gave explicit and easily interpretable formulae for the injury risk conditional on the closing speed of the car. These results are extended to injury risk functions for pedestrian body regions. Starting with a double-checked German In-depth Accident Study (GIDAS) pedestrian-to-car accident data set (N = 444) and a functional-anatomical definition of the body regions, investigations on the influence of specific body regions on the overall injury severity will be presented. As the measure of injury severity, the ISSx, a rescaled version of the well-known Injury Severity Score (ISS), was used. Though traditional ISS is computed by summation of the squares of the 3 most severe injured body regions, ISSx is computed by the summation of the exponentials of the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) severities of the 3 most severely injured body regions. The exponentials used are scaled to fit the ISS range of values between 0 and 75. Three body regions (head/face/neck, thorax, hip/legs) clearly dominated abdominal and upper extremity injuries; that is, the latter 2 body regions had no influence at all on the overall injury risk over the range of technical accident severities. Thus, the ISSx is well described by use of the injury codes from the same body regions for any pedestrian injury severity. As a mathematical consequence, the ISSx becomes explicitly

  16. Red light crossing, transportation time and attitudes in crossing with intelligent green light for pedestrians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhlenschlæger, Rasmus; Tønning, Charlotte; Andersen, Camilla Sloth

    2018-01-01

    In order to increase mobility and promote modal shift to walking, intersections in the city of Aarhus, Denmark, have been equipped with intelligent management of green light for pedestrians. This allows adjustment of green time based on radar detection of pedestrians in the crossing...... and prolongation of the green time for the pedestrians if required. The effect is examined in a before/after study of a two-stage pedestrian crossing with a centre refuge island in an intersection of four-lane roads. The data consists of responses from an on-site questionnaire including 72+53 individuals and 266...

  17. New insights into turbulent pedestrian movement pattern in crowd-quakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, J; Song, W G; Lo, S M; Fang, Z M

    2013-01-01

    Video recordings right before the Love Parade disaster have been quantitatively analyzed to explore the bursts of unusual crowd movement patterns, crowd-quakes. The pedestrian movement pattern in this incident was special for the reason that it happened in a congested counter flow scenario, where stopped pedestrians were involved. No one was believed to have pushed others intentionally at the beginning, however, under this situation, the body contacts among the pedestrians still induced a force spread, which then led to velocity fluctuation. As indicated by the individual velocity-related features, the densely crowded pedestrian movement displayed turbulent flow features. Further analyzing the overall flow field, we also found that the pedestrian flow field shared typical patterns with turbulent fluid flow. As a result of the turbulent state, different clusters of pedestrians displayed different velocity features. Thus crowd pressure which took into account the velocity and density information was proved to be a good indicator of crowd disasters. Based on these essential features of pedestrian crowd-quakes, a minimal model, i.e., a pedestrian crowd-quake model, was established. Effects including pedestrian gait, stress conservation level and personal intention to escape were explored. (paper)

  18. Effect of prediction on the self-organization of pedestrian counter flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ziyang; Zhao Hui; Ma Jian; Qin Yong; Jia Limin

    2012-01-01

    Pedestrians may predict the behavior of others and then adjust their movement accordingly to avoid potential conflicts in advance. Motivated by this fact, we propose a predictive control theory-based pedestrian counter flow model, which describes the predictive mechanism underlying pedestrian self-organization phenomena. In this model, a pedestrian will make in-advance-avoid behavior based on the estimation of future moving gain within a given predictive length to reduce potential conflicts. The future gain in the present model is affected by three factors, i.e. the predictive length, the smooth degree of entrance and the influential area of coming pedestrians. Simulation results of the model show that increasing predictive length has a remarkable effect on reducing conflicts, improving pedestrian velocity, smoothing pedestrian movement and stabilizing the self-organized lanes. When enlarging the influential area of coming pedestrians, pedestrians tend to aggregate to the formed self-organized lanes, which makes the lanes wider and the lane number reduced. Interestingly, moderate enlargement (of the influential area) will reduce conflicts significantly, while excessive enlargement will lead to an increase in conflicts. We also discuss the predictive effect toward the smooth degree of entrance. When there are some formed self-organized lanes in the system, the effect is significant, and it will make the lanes more regular and stable, while when the existing lanes are unstable, the effect has little impact on the system. (paper)

  19. Improving pedestrian facilities in congested urban areas: a case study of Chennai city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanyam, B.; Prasanna Kumar, R.

    2017-07-01

    Traffic congestion and lack of public pedestrian space are some problems faced by most urban metropolises. Conventionally walking has been a mode of transportation in Indian cities. The percentage of pedestrians may vary from 16 to 57 depending upon the city. Encounters between vehicular traffic and pedestrian traffic are at its rise currently. Rapid industrialization and urbanization in India has resulted in neglecting of pedestrian facilities. Consequently pedestrian are at greater risk for their safety more especially in the commercial zones of large cities. A change in perspective spotlight will create a sense of awareness that the pedestrian traffic is also vital as the vehicular traffic. Soothing the traffic would moderately cut the driving expediency but the pedestrians will get a much safer and peaceful route to their terminuses. Safety and comfort are the two pans of a balance while considering the pedestrian traffic. Considering these aspects, this study deals a study in improving pedestrian facilities by analysing the existing skeleton of the selected locations. The adequacy of facility is checked based on IRC latest guidelines and counteractive measures are postulated.

  20. Method for Pedestrian Crossing Risk Assessment and Safety Level Determination: the Case Study of Tallinn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pashkevich, M.; Krasilnikova, A.; Antov, D.

    2016-07-01

    Pedestrians are a part of vulnerable road users which safety requires a special attention. Official statistics in Estonia from the last decade returns the following numbers: around 30 % of all road traffic accidents in the country were accidents with pedestrians, 32 % of all traffic fatalities were finished with pedestrian death. Pedestrian crossing has the biggest risk level between all kinds of pedestrian facilities, because it includes a direct conflict point between vehicle and pedestrian traffics. The article presents a method to assess risk of pedestrian crossing users and to determine safety level of this road infrastructure element. This approach is based on observation and collection of infrastructural as well as traffic data, which includes: (1) information about each pedestrian crossing facility, its location and state, (2) data about accidents with pedestrians and their features, (3) data from road traffic measurements. The main advantages of the described method are universality and comprehensiveness. The case study was done in Kristiine district of the city Tallinn, which was chosen as the most typical average district of Estonian capital. Results of this study are also presented in the article. (Author)

  1. Game theory in models of pedestrian room evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzat, S.; Kuperman, M. N.

    2014-03-01

    We analyze the pedestrian evacuation of a rectangular room with a single door considering a lattice gas scheme with the addition of behavioral aspects of the pedestrians. The movement of the individuals is based on random and rational choices and is affected by conflicts between two or more agents that want to advance to the same position. Such conflicts are solved according to certain rules closely related to the concept of strategies in game theory, cooperation and defection. We consider game rules analogous to those from the Prisoner's Dilemma and Stag Hunt games, with payoffs associated to the probabilities of the individuals to advance to the selected site. We find that, even when defecting is the rational choice for any agent, under certain conditions, cooperators can take advantage from mutual cooperation and leave the room more rapidly than defectors.

  2. Distracted pedestrian sustains orbital fracture while on cell phone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edell AR

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aimée R Edell, Jesse J Jung, Joel M Solomon, Richard N Palu Department of Ophthalmology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Use of cell phones in the general population has become increasingly commonplace. The distracting effects of cell phones among automobile drivers are well established, and legislation prohibits the use of handheld cell phones while driving in several states. Recent research has focused on the similar distracting effects of cell phones in the pedestrian population. In this report, an older gentleman suffered extensive facial trauma requiring surgery as a direct effect of cell phone use at the time the trauma occurred. This case highlights the role that portable electronic devices can play as a cause of ocular trauma. Keywords: orbital fracture, ocular trauma, orbital floor fracture, cell phone distraction, pedestrian safety

  3. Smartphone-based integrated PDR/GPS/Bluetooth pedestrian location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianghong; Wei, Dongyan; Lai, Qifeng; Xu, Ying; Yuan, Hong

    2017-02-01

    Typical indoor location method is fingerprint and traditional outdoor location system is GPS. Both of them are of poor accuracy and limited only for indoor or outdoor environments. As the smartphones are equipped with MEMS sensors, it means PDR can be widely used. In this paper, an algorithm of smartphone-based integrated PDR/GPS/Bluetooth for pedestrian location in the indoor/outdoor is proposed, which can be highly expected to realize seamless indoor/outdoor localization of the pedestrian. In addition, we also provide technologies to estimate orientation with Magnetometer and Gyroscope and detect context with output of sensors. The extensive experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can realize seamless indoor/outdoor localization.

  4. Two-Stage Part-Based Pedestrian Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelmose, Andreas; Prioletti, Antonio; Trivedi, Mohan M.

    2012-01-01

    Detecting pedestrians is still a challenging task for automotive vision system due the extreme variability of targets, lighting conditions, occlusions, and high speed vehicle motion. A lot of research has been focused on this problem in the last 10 years and detectors based on classifiers has...... gained a special place among the different approaches presented. This work presents a state-of-the-art pedestrian detection system based on a two stages classifier. Candidates are extracted with a Haar cascade classifier trained with the DaimlerDB dataset and then validated through part-based HOG...... of several metrics, such as detection rate, false positives per hour, and frame rate. The novelty of this system rely in the combination of HOG part-based approach, tracking based on specific optimized feature and porting on a real prototype....

  5. Experimental and analytical studies on pedestrian induced footbridge vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Gudmundur Valur; Ingólfsson, Einar Thór; Einarsson, Baldvin

    2007-01-01

    characteristics and to measure the response of the bridges to human induced excitation such as walking, running and jumping. Two of the bridges were a part of a design competition related to the realignment of an existing highway in the city centre of Reykjavik in 2005. The bridges have similar cross sections...... modes corresponding to the measured values. The models were subsequently used to calculate the predicted acceleration according to the preliminary version of the Eurocode (ENV 1992-2: Concrete bridges) using time-history analysis with a moving load as representative for a single pedestrian. The load...... models describing human-induced vibrations on structures in current literature and standards are explained, both for a single person walking or running and crowd loading. The measured vertical acceleration induced by single pedestrians was compared against the predictions and it was found that all...

  6. Experimental identification of pedestrian-induced lateral forces on footbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingólfsson, Einar Thór; Georgakis, Christos; Ricciardelli, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    combinations of frequencies (0.33-1.07 Hz) and amplitudes 4.5-48 mm). The experimental campaign involved seventy-one male and female human adults and covered approximately 55 km of walking distributed between 4954 individual tests. When walking on a laterally moving surface, motion-induced forces develop also......This paper presents a comprehensive experimental analysis of lateral forces generated by single pedestrians during continuous walking on a treadmill. Two different conditions are investigated; initially the treadmill is fixed and then it is laterally driven in a sinusoidal motion at varying...... and inter-subject variability. It is shown that the motion induced portion of the pedestrian load (on average) inputs energy into the structure in the frequency range (normalised by the average walking frequency) between approximately 0.6 and 1.2. Furthermore, it is shown that the load component in phase...

  7. Empirical study on social groups in pedestrian evacuation dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Krüchten, Cornelia; Schadschneider, Andreas

    2017-06-01

    Pedestrian crowds often include social groups, i.e. pedestrians that walk together because of social relationships. They show characteristic configurations and influence the dynamics of the entire crowd. In order to investigate the impact of social groups on evacuations we performed an empirical study with pupils. Several evacuation runs with groups of different sizes and different interactions were performed. New group parameters are introduced which allow to describe the dynamics of the groups and the configuration of the group members quantitatively. The analysis shows a possible decrease of evacuation times for large groups due to self-ordering effects. Social groups can be approximated as ellipses that orientate along their direction of motion. Furthermore, explicitly cooperative behaviour among group members leads to a stronger aggregation of group members and an intermittent way of evacuation.

  8. Statistical characteristic in time-domain of direct current corona-generated audible noise from conductor in corona cage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xuebao, E-mail: lxb08357x@ncepu.edu.cn; Cui, Xiang, E-mail: x.cui@ncepu.edu.cn; Ma, Wenzuo; Bian, Xingming; Wang, Donglai [State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Lu, Tiebing, E-mail: tiebinglu@ncepu.edu.cn [Beijing Key Laboratory of High Voltage and EMC, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Hiziroglu, Huseyin [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Kettering University, Flint, Michigan 48504 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    The corona-generated audible noise (AN) has become one of decisive factors in the design of high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission lines. The AN from transmission lines can be attributed to sound pressure pulses which are generated by the multiple corona sources formed on the conductor, i.e., transmission lines. In this paper, a detailed time-domain characteristics of the sound pressure pulses, which are generated by the DC corona discharges formed over the surfaces of a stranded conductors, are investigated systematically in a laboratory settings using a corona cage structure. The amplitude of sound pressure pulse and its time intervals are extracted by observing a direct correlation between corona current pulses and corona-generated sound pressure pulses. Based on the statistical characteristics, a stochastic model is presented for simulating the sound pressure pulses due to DC corona discharges occurring on conductors. The proposed stochastic model is validated by comparing the calculated and measured A-weighted sound pressure level (SPL). The proposed model is then used to analyze the influence of the pulse amplitudes and pulse rate on the SPL. Furthermore, a mathematical relationship is found between the SPL and conductor diameter, electric field, and radial distance.

  9. Ignoring the irrelevant: auditory tolerance of audible but innocuous sounds in the bat-detecting ears of moths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullard, James H.; Ratcliffe, John M.; Jacobs, David S.

    2008-03-01

    Noctuid moths listen for the echolocation calls of hunting bats and respond to these predator cues with evasive flight. The African bollworm moth, Helicoverpa armigera, feeds at flowers near intensely singing cicadas, Platypleura capensis, yet does not avoid them. We determined that the moth can hear the cicada by observing that both of its auditory receptors (A1 and A2 cells) respond to the cicada’s song. The firing response of the A1 cell rapidly adapts to the song and develops spike periods in less than a second that are in excess of those reported to elicit avoidance flight to bats in earlier studies. The possibility also exists that for at least part of the day, sensory input in the form of olfaction or vision overrides the moth’s auditory responses. While auditory tolerance appears to allow H. armigera to exploit a food resource in close proximity to acoustic interference, it may render their hearing defence ineffective and make them vulnerable to predation by bats during the evening when cicadas continue to sing. Our study describes the first field observation of an eared insect ignoring audible but innocuous sounds.

  10. End-tidal CO2 Detection of an Audible Heart Rate During Neonatal Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Following Asystole in Asphyxiated Piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalak, Lina F.; Barber, Chad A.; Hynan, Linda; Garcia, Damian; Christie, Lucy; Wyckoff, Myra H.

    2011-01-01

    Even brief interruption of cardiac compressions significantly reduces critical coronary perfusion pressure during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). End-tidal CO2 (ETCO2) monitoring may provide a continuous non-invasive method of assessing return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) without stopping to auscultate for heart rate (HR). However, the ETCO2 value that correlates with an audible HR is unknown. Our objective was to determine the threshold ETCO2 that is associated with ROSC following asphyxia-induced asystole. Neonatal swine (n=46) were progressively asphyxiated until asystole occurred. Resuscitation followed current neonatal guidelines with initial ventilation with 100% O2 followed by cardiac compressions followed by epinephrine for continued asystole. HR was auscultated every 30 sec and ETCO2 was continuously recorded. A receiver operator curve was generated using the calculated sensitivity and specificity for various ETCO2 values where a positive test was defined as the presence of HR >60 bpm by auscultation. An ETCO2 cut off value of 14 mmHg is the most sensitive ETCO2 value with the least false positives. When using ETCO2 to guide uninterrupted CPR in this model of asphyxia-induced asystole, auscultative confirmation of return of an adequate HR should be performed when ETCO2 ≥14 mmHg is achieved. Correlation during human neonatal CPR needs further investigation. PMID:21283051

  11. End-tidal CO₂ detection of an audible heart rate during neonatal cardiopulmonary resuscitation after asystole in asphyxiated piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalak, Lina F; Barber, Chad A; Hynan, Linda; Garcia, Damian; Christie, Lucy; Wyckoff, Myra H

    2011-05-01

    Even brief interruption of cardiac compressions significantly reduces critical coronary perfusion pressure during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). End-tidal CO₂ (ETCO₂) monitoring may provide a continuous noninvasive method of assessing return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) without stopping to auscultate for heart rate (HR). However, the ETCO₂ value that correlates with an audible HR is unknown. Our objective was to determine the threshold ETCO₂ that is associated with ROSC after asphyxia-induced asystole. Neonatal swine (n = 46) were progressively asphyxiated until asystole occurred. Resuscitation followed current neonatal guidelines with initial ventilation with 100% O₂ followed by cardiac compressions followed by epinephrine for continued asystole. HR was auscultated every 30 s, and ETCO₂ was continuously recorded. A receiver operator curve was generated using the calculated sensitivity and specificity for various ETCO₂ values, where a positive test was defined as the presence of HR >60 bpm by auscultation. An ETCO₂ cut-off value of 14 mm Hg is the most sensitive ETCO₂ value with the least false positives. When using ETCO₂ to guide uninterrupted CPR in this model of asphyxia-induced asystole, auscultative confirmation of return of an adequate HR should be performed when ETCO₂ ≥ 14 mm Hg is achieved. Correlation during human neonatal CPR needs further investigation.

  12. Statistical characteristic in time-domain of direct current corona-generated audible noise from conductor in corona cage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuebao; Cui, Xiang; Lu, Tiebing; Ma, Wenzuo; Bian, Xingming; Wang, Donglai; Hiziroglu, Huseyin

    2016-03-01

    The corona-generated audible noise (AN) has become one of decisive factors in the design of high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission lines. The AN from transmission lines can be attributed to sound pressure pulses which are generated by the multiple corona sources formed on the conductor, i.e., transmission lines. In this paper, a detailed time-domain characteristics of the sound pressure pulses, which are generated by the DC corona discharges formed over the surfaces of a stranded conductors, are investigated systematically in a laboratory settings using a corona cage structure. The amplitude of sound pressure pulse and its time intervals are extracted by observing a direct correlation between corona current pulses and corona-generated sound pressure pulses. Based on the statistical characteristics, a stochastic model is presented for simulating the sound pressure pulses due to DC corona discharges occurring on conductors. The proposed stochastic model is validated by comparing the calculated and measured A-weighted sound pressure level (SPL). The proposed model is then used to analyze the influence of the pulse amplitudes and pulse rate on the SPL. Furthermore, a mathematical relationship is found between the SPL and conductor diameter, electric field, and radial distance.

  13. Prediction of the behavior of pedestrian bridges using computer models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan José Cala Monroy

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present article is aimed to present a brief introduction of the issues related to the low-frequency vibrations, by indicating human walking as its relevant source which affecting structures of the footbridges and is turned into inconveniences to the pedestrian traffic. Objective: The main objective of this research paper is to explain the most common methods used by engineers for the evaluation of the vibrations and their effects as well as their limitations, furthermore a computer modeling technique was developed in order to approach it to the reality of the phenomenon of vibrations in pedestrian bridges. Methodology: The present work was divided into main phases: The first phase was a conceptual bibliographical review of the subject of floor vibrations by focusing on the use of the Design Guide No. 11 of the American Institute of Steel Constructions, with regard to the second phase, it had to do with the developing of a computer model which included a definition of variables, the elaboration of a dynamic model of the structure, the calibration of the model, the evaluation of the parameters under study and the analysis of results and conclusions. Results: Consequently, and according to the preliminary stages, the results of the acceleration were obtained to different frequencies and to different degrees of damping by observing that the chosen sample was potentially susceptible between four and eight Hz ranges, hence when resonances took place the mentioned structure presented a peak acceleration above the threshold recommended by human beings comfort related to pedestrian bridges. Conclusions: To conclude it can be said that through the appropriate modeling techniques and finite elements convenient and reliable results should be accomplished that leading the design process of structures as pedestrian bridges.

  14. Optimizing aspects of pedestrian traffic in building designs

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez, Samuel

    2013-11-01

    In this work, we investigate aspects of building design that can be optimized. Architectural features that we explore include pillar placement in simple corridors, doorway placement in buildings, and agent placement for information dispersement in an evacuation. The metrics utilized are tuned to the specific scenarios we study, which include continuous flow pedestrian movement and building evacuation. We use Multidimensional Direct Search (MDS) optimization with an extreme barrier criteria to find optimal placements while enforcing building constraints. © 2013 IEEE.

  15. Optimizing aspects of pedestrian traffic in building designs

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez, Samuel; Yinghua Zhang,; Gans, Nicholas; Amato, Nancy M.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we investigate aspects of building design that can be optimized. Architectural features that we explore include pillar placement in simple corridors, doorway placement in buildings, and agent placement for information dispersement in an evacuation. The metrics utilized are tuned to the specific scenarios we study, which include continuous flow pedestrian movement and building evacuation. We use Multidimensional Direct Search (MDS) optimization with an extreme barrier criteria to find optimal placements while enforcing building constraints. © 2013 IEEE.

  16. Effect of a perfume on prosocial behavior of pedestrians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéguen, N

    2001-06-01

    Several studies have shown that perfumes encourage prosocial behavior of people from whom help is requested in the street. Implicit requests for help were studied. On a pedestrian walk, a woman confederate, with or without a heavy perfume, walked by the subject while dropping a packet of paper handkerchiefs or a glove apparently without noticing. Results show that the confederate was warned more often when wearing a perfume.

  17. Assessing Pedestrian Accessibility to Green Space Using Gis

    OpenAIRE

    Tudor MORAR; Radu RADOSLAV; Luiza Cecilia SPIRIDON; Lidia PĂCURAR

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at comparing the parameter of green space per capita currently requested by the Romanian legislation to accessible green space per capita. The comparison is undertaken through a Geographic Information System methodology that uses publicly available data to evaluate actual population numbers with pedestrian access to parks and green squares. Using the city of Timișoara as a case study, population is divided into three main groups according to neigh borhood type in order to inve...

  18. Modeling Stop-and-Go Waves in Pedestrian Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Portz, Andrea; Seyfried, Armin

    2010-01-01

    Several spatially continuous pedestrian dynamics models have been validated against empirical data. We try to reproduce the experimental fundamental diagram (velocity versus density) with simulations. In addition to this quantitative criterion, we tried to reproduce stop-and-go waves as a qualitative criterion. Stop-and-go waves are a characteristic phenomenon for the single file movement. Only one of three investigated models satisfies both criteria.

  19. Pedestrian-motorcycle collisions: associated risks and issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariffin Aqbal Hafeez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available From the statistics, there are serious concerns over the relatively high number of fatal motor vehicle crashes involving pedestrianmotorcycle in Malaysia. The high number of motorcycle registration on road, compounded by its popularity as the major mode of transportation in the nation, imposes safety risk to pedestrians, as well as to other road users. Data from 1,626 related road crashes of Royal Malaysia Police (RMP for the 2009-2013 period were retrospectively collected via MIROS Road Accident Analysis and Database System (M-ROADS. The data were then analyzed via logistic regression method to determine associations between risks and injury severity in pedestrian-motorcycle collisions. The results indicate that five factors were significantly related to injury severity, which include age, location of body injury, as well as speed limit, road geometry and lighting condition of collision site. Subsequently, focus group discussions with stakeholders were also conducted to gather relevant data to identify related issues and suggestions on motorcycle safety technology with regards to collision with pedestrian.

  20. Simulation of Cognitive Pedestrian Agents Crowds in Crisis Situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Lyell

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In crisis situations in an urban environment, first responder teams often must deal with crowds of people. Consider the case of a building fire in a dense city environment. People may be injured; walkways may be blocked, with fire equipment attempting to reach the scene. Crowd behavior can become an issue when trying to reach the injured, ensure safety and restore conditions to normal. The motivations of pedestrians that form the crowd can vary. Some are there because they are curious about the crisis situation. Others, attending to their individual concerns, may have found themselves in the 'wrong' location. They may be trying to leave the area, but the density of people as well as the spatial layout of the walkways may be impeding their progress. Other individuals, unaware of the fire, may be attempting to reach their intended destinations that happen to be near the crisis area, thus adding to crowd congestion. With a model of crowd behavior, effective strategies for resource usage in managing crowd behavior can be developed. Our approach to this problem is that of agent-based modeling and simulation. We develop a cognitive pedestrian agent model. Utilizing this model, we simulate crowd behavior in a 'city fire' scenario. Characteristics of crowd behavior with different pedestrian personality mixes and a strategy for crowd management are investigated

  1. On the Eikonal equation in the pedestrian flow problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felcman, J.; Kubera, P.

    2017-07-01

    We consider the Pedestrian Flow Equations (PFEs) as the coupled system formed by the Eikonal equation and the first order hyperbolic system with the source term. The hyperbolic system consists of the continuity equation and momentum equation of fluid dynamics. Specifying the social and pressure forces in the momentum equation we come to the assumption that each pedestrian is trying to move in a desired direction (e.g. to the exit in the panic situation) with a desired velocity, where his velocity and the direction of movement depend on the density of pedestrians in his neighborhood. In [1] we used the model, where the desired direction of movement is given by the solution of the Eikonal equation (more precisely by the gradient of the solution). Here we avoid the solution of the Eikonal equation, which is the novelty of the paper. Based on the fact that the solution of the Eikonal equation has the meaning of the shortest time to reach the exit, we define explicitly such a function in the framework of the Dijkstra's algorithm for the shortest path in the graph. This is done at the discrete level of the solution. As the graph we use the underlying triangulation, where the norm of each edge is density depending and has the dimension of the time. The numerical examples of the solution of the PFEs with and without the solution of the Eikonal equation are presented.

  2. Do lower income areas have more pedestrian casualties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, Robert B; Klein, Nicholas J; Tulach, Nicholas K

    2013-10-01

    Pedestrian and motor vehicle casualties are analyzed for the State of New Jersey with the objective of determining how the income of an area may be associated with casualties. We develop a maximum-likelihood negative binomial model to examine how various spatially defined variables, including road, income, and vehicle ownership, may be associated with casualties using census block-group level data. Due to suspected spatial correlation in the data we also employ a conditional autoregressive Bayesian model using Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation, implemented with Crimestat software. Results suggest that spatial correlation is an issue as some variables are not statistically significant in the spatial model. We find that both pedestrian and motor vehicle casualties are greater in lower income block groups. Both are also associated with less household vehicle ownership, which is not surprising for pedestrian casualties, but is a surprising result for motor vehicle casualties. Controls for various road categories provide expected relationships. Individual level data is further examined to determine relationships between the location of a crash victim and their residence zip code, and this largely confirms a residual effect associated with both lower income individuals and lower income areas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Pedestrian deaths in children--potential for prevention.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hamilton, K

    2015-01-01

    The National Paediatric Mortality Database was reviewed for the six year period 1st January 2006 to 31st December 2011 and all pedestrian deaths extracted, after review of available data the deaths were categorized as either traffic or non-traffic related. There were 45 child pedestrian fatalities in the period examined. Traffic related deaths accounted for 26 (58%) vs. 19 (42%) non-traffic related. Analysis of the deaths showed there was a male preponderance 28 (62%), weekend trend 22 (49%) with an evening 16 (35%) and summer peak 20 (44%). The highest proportion of deaths occurred in the 1-4 year age group 24 (53%), with 13 (28%) due to low speed vehicle rollovers, mainly occurring in residential driveways 8 (61%). Child pedestrian fatalities are highly preventable through the modification of risk factors including behavioural, social and environmental. Preventative action needs to be addressed, particularly in relation to non-traffic related deaths i.e, low speed vehicle rollovers.

  4. A Lattice Model for Bidirectional Pedestrian Flow on Gradient Road

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge Hong-Xia; Cheng Rong-Jun; Lo Siu-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Ramps and sloping roads appear everywhere in the built environment. It is obvious that the movement pattern of people in the sloping path may be different as compared with the pattern on level roads. Previously, most of the studies, especially the mathematical and simulation models, on pedestrian movement consider the flow at level routes. This study proposes a new lattice model for bidirectional pedestrian flow on gradient road. The stability condition is obtained by using linear stability theory. The nonlinear analysis method is employed to derive the modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equation, and the space of pedestrian flow is divided into three regions: the stable region, the metastable region, and the unstable region respectively. Furthermore, the time-dependent Ginzburg—Landan (TDGL) equation is deduced and solved through the reductive perturbation method. Finally, we present detailed results obtained from the model, and it is found that the stability of the model is enhanced in uphill situation while reduced in downhill situation with increasing slope. (general)

  5. Flow of pedestrians through narrow doors with different competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcimartín, A; Pastor, J M; Zuriguel, I; Parisi, D R; Martín-Gómez, C

    2016-01-01

    We report a thorough analysis of the intermittent flow of pedestrians through a narrow door. The observations include five different sets of evacuation drills with which we have investigated the effect of door size and competitiveness on the flow dynamics. Although the outcomes are in general compatible with the existence of the faster-is-slower effect, the temporal evolution of the instantaneous flow rate provides evidence of new features. These stress the crucial role of the number of people performing the tests, which has an influence on the obtained results. Once the transients at the beginning and end of the evacuation are removed, we have found that the time lapses between the passage of two consecutive pedestrians display heavy-tailed distributions in all the scenarios studied. Meanwhile, the distribution of burst sizes decays exponentially; this can be linked to a constant probability of finding a long-lasting clog during the evacuation process. Based on these results, a discussion is presented on the caution that should be exercised when measuring or describing the intermittent flow of pedestrians through narrow doors. (paper: interdisciplinary statistical mechanics)

  6. Quantification of the level of crowdedness for pedestrian movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duives, Dorine C.; Daamen, Winnie; Hoogendoorn, Serge P.

    2015-06-01

    Within the realm of pedestrian research numerous measures have been proposed to estimate the level of crowdedness experienced by pedestrians. However, within the field of pedestrian traffic flow modelling there does not seem to be consensus on the question which of these measures performs best. This paper shows that the shape and scatter within the resulting fundamental diagrams differs a lot depending on the measure of crowdedness used. The main aim of the paper is to establish the advantages and disadvantages of the currently existing measures to quantify crowdedness in order to evaluate which measures provide both accurate and consistent results. The assessment is not only based on the theoretical differences, but also on the qualitative and quantitative differences between the resulting fundamental diagrams computed using the crowdedness measures on one and the same data set. The qualitative and quantitative functioning of the classical Grid-based measure is compared to with the X-T measure, an Exponentially Weighted Distance measure, and a Voronoi-Diagram measure. The consistency of relating these measures for crowdedness to the two macroscopic flow variables velocity and flow, the computational efficiency and the amount of scatter present within the fundamental diagrams produced by the implementation of the different measures are reviewed. It is found that the Voronoi-Diagram and X-T measure are the most efficient and consistent measures for crowdedness.

  7. Magnetic, Acceleration Fields and Gyroscope Quaternion (MAGYQ-Based Attitude Estimation with Smartphone Sensors for Indoor Pedestrian Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Renaudin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The dependence of proposed pedestrian navigation solutions on a dedicated infrastructure is a limiting factor to the deployment of location based services. Consequently self-contained Pedestrian Dead-Reckoning (PDR approaches are gaining interest for autonomous navigation. Even if the quality of low cost inertial sensors and magnetometers has strongly improved, processing noisy sensor signals combined with high hand dynamics remains a challenge. Estimating accurate attitude angles for achieving long term positioning accuracy is targeted in this work. A new Magnetic, Acceleration fields and GYroscope Quaternion (MAGYQ-based attitude angles estimation filter is proposed and demonstrated with handheld sensors. It benefits from a gyroscope signal modelling in the quaternion set and two new opportunistic updates: magnetic angular rate update (MARU and acceleration gradient update (AGU. MAGYQ filter performances are assessed indoors, outdoors, with dynamic and static motion conditions. The heading error, using only the inertial solution, is found to be less than 10° after 1.5 km walking. The performance is also evaluated in the positioning domain with trajectories computed following a PDR strategy.

  8. Priorities and Potential of Pedestrian Protection - Accident data, Experimental tests and Numerical Simulations of Car-to-Pedestrian Impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Fredriksson, Rikard

    2011-01-01

    Pedestrian disability and fatality as a consequence of car crashes is a large global health problem. To introduce maximally effective car-based countermeasures it is important to understand which injuries are most common and from which car parts they originate. It is also important to focus on the most severe injuries resulting in disability or death. The aim of this thesis was therefore to determine priorities for and evaluate the potential of car-mounted safety systems designed to mitigate ...

  9. Investigation of pedestrian crashes on two-way two-lane rural roads in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulu, Getu Segni; Washington, Simon; Haque, Md Mazharul; King, Mark J

    2015-05-01

    Understanding pedestrian crash causes and contributing factors in developing countries is critically important as they account for about 55% of all traffic crashes. Not surprisingly, considerable attention in the literature has been paid to road traffic crash prediction models and methodologies in developing countries of late. Despite this interest, there are significant challenges confronting safety managers in developing countries. For example, in spite of the prominence of pedestrian crashes occurring on two-way two-lane rural roads, it has proven difficult to develop pedestrian crash prediction models due to a lack of both traffic and pedestrian exposure data. This general lack of available data has further hampered identification of pedestrian crash causes and subsequent estimation of pedestrian safety performance functions. The challenges are similar across developing nations, where little is known about the relationship between pedestrian crashes, traffic flow, and road environment variables on rural two-way roads, and where unique predictor variables may be needed to capture the unique crash risk circumstances. This paper describes pedestrian crash safety performance functions for two-way two-lane rural roads in Ethiopia as a function of traffic flow, pedestrian flows, and road geometry characteristics. In particular, random parameter negative binomial model was used to investigate pedestrian crashes. The models and their interpretations make important contributions to road crash analysis and prevention in developing countries. They also assist in the identification of the contributing factors to pedestrian crashes, with the intent to identify potential design and operational improvements. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Heading Estimation for Indoor Pedestrian Navigation Using a Smartphone in the Pocket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-An Deng

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Heading estimation is a central problem for indoor pedestrian navigation using the pervasively available smartphone. For smartphones placed in a pocket, one of the most popular device positions, the essential challenges in heading estimation are the changing device coordinate system and the severe indoor magnetic perturbations. To address these challenges, we propose a novel heading estimation approach based on a rotation matrix and principal component analysis (PCA. Firstly, through a related rotation matrix, we project the acceleration signals into a reference coordinate system (RCS, where a more accurate estimation of the horizontal plane of the acceleration signal is obtained. Then, we utilize PCA over the horizontal plane of acceleration signals for local walking direction extraction. Finally, in order to translate the local walking direction into the global one, we develop a calibration process without requiring noisy compass readings. Besides, a turn detection algorithm is proposed to improve the heading estimation accuracy. Experimental results show that our approach outperforms the traditional uDirect and PCA-based approaches in terms of accuracy and feasibility.

  11. Risk Factors for Road Transport-Related Injury among Pedestrians in Rural Ghana: Implications for Road Safety Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teye-Kwadjo, Enoch

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Injuries and mortality resulting from pedestrian road traffic crashes are a major public health problem in Ghana. This study investigated risk factors for road transport-related injury among pedestrians in rural Ghana. Design: Case study design using qualitative data. Method: In-depth interviews were conducted with pedestrians.…

  12. Potential of pedestrian protection systems--a parameter study using finite element models of pedestrian dummy and generic passenger vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksson, Rikard; Shin, Jaeho; Untaroiu, Costin D

    2011-08-01

    To study the potential of active, passive, and integrated (combined active and passive) safety systems in reducing pedestrian upper body loading in typical impact configurations. Finite element simulations using models of generic sedan car fronts and the Polar II pedestrian dummy were performed for 3 impact configurations at 2 impact speeds. Chest contact force, head injury criterion (HIC(15)), head angular acceleration, and the cumulative strain damage measure (CSDM(0.25)) were employed as injury parameters. Further, 3 countermeasures were modeled: an active autonomous braking system, a passive deployable countermeasure, and an integrated system combining the active and passive systems. The auto-brake system was modeled by reducing impact speed by 10 km/h (equivalent to ideal full braking over 0.3 s) and introducing a pitch of 1 degree and in-crash deceleration of 1 g. The deployable system consisted of a deployable hood, lifting 100 mm in the rear, and a lower windshield air bag. All 3 countermeasures showed benefit in a majority of impact configurations in terms of injury prevention. The auto-brake system reduced chest force in a majority of the configurations and decreased HIC(15), head angular acceleration, and CSDM in all configurations. Averaging all impact configurations, the auto-brake system showed reductions of injury predictors from 20 percent (chest force) to 82 percent (HIC). The passive deployable countermeasure reduced chest force and HIC(15) in a majority of configurations and head angular acceleration and CSDM in all configurations, although the CSDM decrease in 2 configurations was minimal. On average a reduction from 20 percent (CSDM) to 58 percent (HIC) was recorded in the passive deployable countermeasures. Finally, the integrated system evaluated in this study reduced all injury assessment parameters in all configurations compared to the reference situations. The average reductions achieved by the integrated system ranged from 56 percent

  13. Phoneme Compression: processing of the speech signal and effects on speech intelligibility in hearing-Impaired listeners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Goedegebure (Andre)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractHearing-aid users often continue to have problems with poor speech understanding in difficult acoustical conditions. Another generally accounted problem is that certain sounds become too loud whereas other sounds are still not audible. Dynamic range compression is a signal processing

  14. Preferences and behaviour of pedestrians and cyclists by age and gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernhoft, Inger Marie; Carstensen, Gitte

    2008-01-01

    significantly more than the younger respondents do. To a larger extent they feel that it is dangerous to cross the road where these facilities are missing. The older pedestrians also find the presence of a pavement very important on their route whereas the younger pedestrians more often focus on a fast passage...

  15. New safety systems for better impact shock protection of pedestrians; Neue Sicherheitssysteme fuer besseren Fussgaengerschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechling, J.

    2005-06-01

    From October 2005, new vehicles in the European Union must be equipped successively with impact shock protection systems for pedestrians. There are many different concepts and solutions, from optimised front ends and flexible hoods to outside airbags, flexible shock absorbers and systems to prevent rolling over pedestrians. (orig.)

  16. Acoustic characteristics of hybrid electric vehicles and the safety of pedestrians who are blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Quieter cars such as electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) may reduce auditory cues used by pedestrians to assess the state of nearby traffic and, as a result, their use may have an adverse impact on pedestrian safety. In order ...

  17. Auditory detectability of hybrid electric vehicles by pedestrians who are blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Quieter cars such as electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) may reduce auditory cues used by pedestrians to assess the state of nearby traffic and, as a result, their use may have an adverse impact on pedestrian safety. In order ...

  18. A Model for Assessing Pedestrian Corridors. Application to Vitoria-Gasteiz City (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Delso

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available From a mobility perspective, walking is considered to be the most sustainable transport mode. One of the consequences of motor-oriented urban configuration on pedestrian mobility is urban fragmentation, which affects sustainability in cities. In this paper, we use a natural-based approach to landscape fragmentation and connectivity (inherited from landscape ecology for pedestrian mobility planning. Our aim is to design a useful methodology to identify priority pedestrian corridors, and to assess the effects of implementing barrier-free pedestrian corridors in the city. For this purpose, we developed a method that integrates Geographical Information Systems (GIS network analysis with kernel density methods, which are commonly used for designating habitat corridors. It was applied to Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spain. Pedestrian mobility was assessed by comparison of travel times between different scenarios. Results show that the implementation of pedestrian corridors reduces travel time by approximately 6%. Thus, an intervention in a small percentage of the city’s street network could considerably reduce pedestrian travel times. The proposed methodology is a useful tool for urban and transport planners to improve pedestrian mobility and manage motorised traffic.

  19. Pedestrian hybrid beacon crosswalk system (PHB) or high-intensity activated crosswalk (HAWK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The Pedestrian Hybrid Beacon Crosswalk (PHB) is a type of traffic control system, used to aid : pedestrians safely crossing the street and to regulate traffic flow. This study examines the : success of the first PHB installed in the state of Vermont....

  20. Automatic Pedestrian Crossing Detection and Impairment Analysis Based on Mobile Mapping System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Zhang, Y.; Li, Q.

    2017-09-01

    Pedestrian crossing, as an important part of transportation infrastructures, serves to secure pedestrians' lives and possessions and keep traffic flow in order. As a prominent feature in the street scene, detection of pedestrian crossing contributes to 3D road marking reconstruction and diminishing the adverse impact of outliers in 3D street scene reconstruction. Since pedestrian crossing is subject to wearing and tearing from heavy traffic flow, it is of great imperative to monitor its status quo. On this account, an approach of automatic pedestrian crossing detection using images from vehicle-based Mobile Mapping System is put forward and its defilement and impairment are analyzed in this paper. Firstly, pedestrian crossing classifier is trained with low recall rate. Then initial detections are refined by utilizing projection filtering, contour information analysis, and monocular vision. Finally, a pedestrian crossing detection and analysis system with high recall rate, precision and robustness will be achieved. This system works for pedestrian crossing detection under different situations and light conditions. It can recognize defiled and impaired crossings automatically in the meanwhile, which facilitates monitoring and maintenance of traffic facilities, so as to reduce potential traffic safety problems and secure lives and property.

  1. The accuracy and timing of pedestrian warnings at intersections: the acceptance from drivers and their preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Josine; Chaziris, Antonios; Vreeswijk, Jacob Dirk; Bie, Jing; van Arem, Bart; Abadi, A.; Bauer e.a., D.

    2010-01-01

    The safety of vulnerable road users at traffic intersections is critical. Driver assistance systems can improve safety but have to rely on accurate detection of hazardous situations. Given the complexity of pedestrian movement, detection of pedestrian presence and prediction of their behaviour are

  2. A least-effort principle based model for heterogeneous pedestrian flow considering overtaking behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chi; Ye, Rui; Lian, Liping; Song, Weiguo; Zhang, Jun; Lo, Siuming

    2018-05-01

    In the context of global aging, how to design traffic facilities for a population with a different age composition is of high importance. For this purpose, we propose a model based on the least effort principle to simulate heterogeneous pedestrian flow. In the model, the pedestrian is represented by a three-disc shaped agent. We add a new parameter to realize pedestrians' preference to avoid changing their direction of movement too quickly. The model is validated with numerous experimental data on unidirectional pedestrian flow. In addition, we investigate the influence of corridor width and velocity distribution of crowds on unidirectional heterogeneous pedestrian flow. The simulation results reflect that widening corridors could increase the specific flow for the crowd composed of two kinds of pedestrians with significantly different free velocities. Moreover, compared with a unified crowd, the crowd composed of pedestrians with great mobility differences requires a wider corridor to attain the same traffic efficiency. This study could be beneficial in providing a better understanding of heterogeneous pedestrian flow, and quantified outcomes could be applied in traffic facility design.

  3. TINGKAT KENYAMANAN JALUR PEDESTRIAN DI KAWASAN SIMPANG LIMA KOTA SEMARANG BERDASARKAN PERSEPSI PENGGUNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Purnomo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The comfortability of access from each region in big cities has led to the rapid increasing of regional mobility.The mobility incude the motorists and also pedestrians. Pedestrian path is a container or space for pedestrian activities and activities to provide services to pedestrians so as to improve the smoothness, safety, and comfort for pedestrians. Convenience is one of the vital values that should be enjoyed by people when doing activities. Pedestrian path in Semarang in Simpang Lima area itself is fairly crowded, and has been laid out in such a way for vendors. Crowd arising from the existence of street vendors sometimes make some people feel less comfortable to pass through. Problems that occur will be observed and analyzed, namely the level of comfort in the pedestrian path in Simpang Lima area based on user perception. The method used is descriptive qualitative theory describing the pedestrian path and direct observation to the object observed coupled with interviewing some respondents.

  4. Evaluating the impact of connectivity, continuity, and topography of sidewalk network on pedestrian safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osama, Ahmed; Sayed, Tarek

    2017-10-01

    With the increasing demand for sustainability, walking is being encouraged as one of the main active modes of transportation. However, pedestrians are vulnerable to severe injuries when involved in crashes which can discourage road users from walking. Therefore, studying factors that affect the safety of pedestrians is important. This paper investigates the relationship between pedestrian-motorist crashes and various sidewalk network indicators in the city of Vancouver. The goal is to assess the impact of network connectivity, directness, and topography on pedestrian safety using macro-level collision prediction models. The models were developed using generalized linear regression and full Bayesian techniques. Both walking trips and vehicle kilometers travelled were used as the main traffic exposure variables in the models. The safety models supported the safety in numbers hypothesis showing a non-linear positive association between pedestrian-motorist crashes and the increase in walking trips and vehicle traffic. The model results also suggested that higher continuity, linearity, coverage, and slope of sidewalk networks were associated with lower crash occurrence. However, network connectivity was associated with higher crash occurrence. The spatial effects were accounted for in the full Bayes models and were found significant. The models provide insights about the factors that influence pedestrian safety and the spatial variability of pedestrian crashes within a city, which can be useful for the planning of pedestrian networks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Pedestrian simulation model based on principles of bounded rationality: results of validation tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, W.; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Lo, H.P.; Leung, Stephen C.H.; Tan, Susanna M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Over the years, different modelling approaches to simulating pedestrian movement have been suggested. The majority of pedestrian decision models are based on the concept of utility maximization. To explore alternatives, we developed the heterogeneous heuristic model (HHM), based on principles of

  6. A Partial Proportional Odds Model for Pedestrian Crashes at Mid-Blocks in Melbourne Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toran Pour Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrian crashes account for 11% of all reported traffic crashes in Melbourne metropolitan area between 2004 and 2013. There are very limited studies on pedestrian accidents at mid-blocks. Mid-block crashes account for about 46% of the total pedestrian crashes in Melbourne metropolitan area. Meanwhile, about 50% of all pedestrian fatalities occur at mid-blocks. In this research, Partial Proportional Odds (PPO model is applied to examine vehicle-pedestrian crash severity at mid-blocks in Melbourne metropolitan area. The PPO model is a logistic regression model that allows the covariates that meet the proportional odds assumption to affect different crash severity levels with the same magnitude; whereas the covariates that do not meet the proportional odds assumption can have different effects on different severity levels. In this research vehicle-pedestrian crashes at mid-blocks are analysed for first time. In addition, some factors such as distance of crashes to public transport stops, average road slope and some social characteristics are considered to develop the model in this research for first time. Results of PPO model show that speed limit, light condition, pedestrian age and gender, and vehicle type are the most significant factors that influence vehicle-pedestrian crash severity at mid-blocks.

  7. Velocity correlations and spatial dependencies between neighbors in a unidirectional flow of pedestrians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porzycki, Jakub; WÄ s, Jarosław; Hedayatifar, Leila; Hassanibesheli, Forough; Kułakowski, Krzysztof

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the paper is an analysis of self-organization patterns observed in the unidirectional flow of pedestrians. On the basis of experimental data from Zhang et al. [J. Zhang et al., J. Stat. Mech. (2011) P06004, 10.1088/1742-5468/2011/06/P06004], we analyze the mutual positions and velocity correlations between pedestrians when walking along a corridor. The angular and spatial dependencies of the mutual positions reveal a spatial structure that remains stable during the crowd motion. This structure differs depending on the value of n , for the consecutive n th -nearest-neighbor position set. The preferred position for the first-nearest neighbor is on the side of the pedestrian, while for further neighbors, this preference shifts to the axis of movement. The velocity correlations vary with the angle formed by the pair of neighboring pedestrians and the direction of motion and with the time delay between pedestrians' movements. The delay dependence of the correlations shows characteristic oscillations, produced by the velocity oscillations when striding; however, a filtering of the main frequency of individual striding out reduces the oscillations only partially. We conclude that pedestrians select their path directions so as to evade the necessity of continuously adjusting their speed to their neighbors'. They try to keep a given distance, but follow the person in front of them, as well as accepting and observing pedestrians on their sides. Additionally, we show an empirical example that illustrates the shape of a pedestrian's personal space during movement.

  8. Pedestrian Falls: A review of the literature and future research directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, JP; Den Brinker, B; Methorst, R; Helbich, M

    Introduction Pedestrian falls (PFs) – falls in public spaces without collisions with other road users – are a significant cause of serious transport-related injuries, amounting to three-quarters of all pedestrians admitted to hospital. Methods This scoping review examined peer-reviewed research on

  9. Evaluation of microwave detection equipment in terms of reliability, durability and pedestrian safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schagen, I. van & Sherborne, D.

    1991-01-01

    Urban traffic light cycle times are almost exclusively directed at maximizing throughput and minimizing delay of motorized traffic. The needs of pedestrians and pedal cyclists are of minor importance and their delay times are usually disregarded. Both safety and mobility of pedestrians and pedal

  10. Pedestrian falls : A review of the literature and future research directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, Paul; den Brinker, Berry; Methorst, Rob; Helbich, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Pedestrian falls (PFs) – falls in public spaces without collisions with other road users – are a significant cause of serious transport-related injuries, amounting to three-quarters of all pedestrians admitted to hospital. Methods This scoping review examined peer-reviewed research on

  11. Similarities and differences in pedestrian shopping behavior in emerging Chinese metropolises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, W.; Wang, Donggen; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Saito, S.

    2007-01-01

    To give a general impression on the fast development of Chinese retailing, this paper reports a study on pedestrian shopping behavior in two city centers, East Nanjing Road and Wang Fujing Street in Shanghai and Beijing. Similarities and differences in pedestrian profiles, activities and movement

  12. Pedestrian safety engineering and intelligent transportation system-based countermeasures program for reduced pedestrian fatalities, injuries, conflicts and other surrogate measures : Miami-Dade site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-25

    This report presents the methods and key findings from the Miami-Dade comprehensive pedestrian safety planning and engineering project. It is one of three such projects in the nation funded by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) to evaluate: In...

  13. Pedestrians' estimates of their own nighttime conspicuity are unaffected by severe reductions in headlight illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whetsel Borzendowski, Stephanie A; Rosenberg, Rachel L; Sewall, Ashley Stafford; Tyrrell, Richard A

    2013-12-01

    At night pedestrians tend to overestimate their conspicuity to oncoming drivers, but little is known about factors affecting pedestrians' conspicuity estimates. This study examines how headlamp intensity and pedestrians' clothing influence judgments of their own conspicuity. Forty-eight undergraduate students estimated their own conspicuity on an unilluminated closed road by walking in front of a stationary vehicle to the point at which they judged that they were just recognizable to the driver. Unknown to the participants, high beam intensity was manipulated between subjects by placing neutral density filters on the headlamps. Estimated conspicuity distances did not significantly vary with changes in headlamp intensity even when only 3% of the illumination from the headlamps was present. These findings underscore the need to educate pedestrians about the visual challenges that drivers face at night and the need to minimize pedestrians' exposure to traffic flow at night. © 2013.

  14. Considering built environment and spatial correlation in modelling pedestrian injury severity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo G.; Kaplan, Sigal; Patrier, Alexandre

    traffic calming measures, illumination solutions, road maintenance programs and speed limit reductions. Moreover, this study emphasises the role of the built environment, as shopping areas, residential areas, and walking traffic density are positively related to a reduction in pedestrian injury severity......This study looks at mitigating and aggravating factors that are associated with the injury severity of pedestrians when they have crashes with another road user and overcomes existing limitations in the literature by posing attention on the built environment and considering spatial correlation...... of pedestrians to sustain a severe or fatal injury conditional on the occurrence of a crash with another road user. This study confirms previous findings about older pedestrians and intoxicated pedestrians being the most vulnerable road users, and crashes with heavy vehicles and in roads with higher speed limits...

  15. Considering built environment and spatial correlation in modelling pedestrian injury severity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo G.; Kaplan, Sigal; Patrier, Alexandre

    2018-01-01

    traffic calming measures, illumination solutions, road maintenance programs and speed limit reductions. Moreover, this study emphasises the role of the built environment, as shopping areas, residential areas, and walking traffic density are positively related to a reduction in pedestrian injury severity......This study looks at mitigating and aggravating factors that are associated with the injury severity of pedestrians when they have crashes with another road user and overcomes existing limitations in the literature by posing attention on the built environment and considering spatial correlation...... of pedestrians to sustain a severe or fatal injury conditional on the occurrence of a crash with another road user. This study confirms previous findings about older pedestrians and intoxicated pedestrians being the most vulnerable road users, and crashes with heavy vehicles and in roads with higher speed limits...

  16. Pedestrian Zones As Important Urban Strategies in Redeveloping the Community - Case Study: Alba Iulia Borough Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Elena BLAGA

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The pedestrian zone issue is by far an important matter in the context of urban regeneration. Cities which adopted this strategy – the pedestrian zones – have recorded better urban attitudes regarding the urban environment, a continuous growth of the urban quality, an improved urban ecosystem  and continuous attractiveness for investment and  tourism. This article explores the evolution of the pedestrian zones as ideas in utopian urban models in the early 1900 and later as efficient environmental friendly strategies adopted by cities. After identifying the path this concept followed, from a simple idea to an important strategy of urban development, the paper focuses on the major characteristics and benefits of the pedestrian precincts. Next, the article focuses on the newest pedestrian zone in one of the Romanian cities, Alba Iulia and it tries to identify the types of impact this area has so far on the community and entire city.

  17. Distributed Pedestrian Detection Alerts Based on Data Fusion with Accurate Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo de la Escalera

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Among Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS pedestrian detection is a common issue due to the vulnerability of pedestrians in the event of accidents. In the present work, a novel approach for pedestrian detection based on data fusion is presented. Data fusion helps to overcome the limitations inherent to each detection system (computer vision and laser scanner and provides accurate and trustable tracking of any pedestrian movement. The application is complemented by an efficient communication protocol, able to alert vehicles in the surroundings by a fast and reliable communication. The combination of a powerful location, based on a GPS with inertial measurement, and accurate obstacle localization based on data fusion has allowed locating the detected pedestrians with high accuracy. Tests proved the viability of the detection system and the efficiency of the communication, even at long distances. By the use of the alert communication, dangerous situations such as occlusions or misdetections can be avoided.

  18. Distributed pedestrian detection alerts based on data fusion with accurate localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Fernando; Jiménez, Felipe; Anaya, José Javier; Armingol, José María; Naranjo, José Eugenio; de la Escalera, Arturo

    2013-09-04

    Among Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) pedestrian detection is a common issue due to the vulnerability of pedestrians in the event of accidents. In the present work, a novel approach for pedestrian detection based on data fusion is presented. Data fusion helps to overcome the limitations inherent to each detection system (computer vision and laser scanner) and provides accurate and trustable tracking of any pedestrian movement. The application is complemented by an efficient communication protocol, able to alert vehicles in the surroundings by a fast and reliable communication. The combination of a powerful location, based on a GPS with inertial measurement, and accurate obstacle localization based on data fusion has allowed locating the detected pedestrians with high accuracy. Tests proved the viability of the detection system and the efficiency of the communication, even at long distances. By the use of the alert communication, dangerous situations such as occlusions or misdetections can be avoided.

  19. Real-time pedestrian detection with the videos of car camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunling Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrians in the vehicle path are in danger of being hit, thus causing severe injury to pedestrians and vehicle occupants. Therefore, real-time pedestrian detection with the video of vehicle-mounted camera is of great significance to vehicle–pedestrian collision warning and traffic safety of self-driving car. In this article, a real-time scheme was proposed based on integral channel features and graphics processing unit. The proposed method does not need to resize the input image. Moreover, the computationally expensive convolution of the detectors and the input image was converted into the dot product of two larger matrixes, which can be computed effectively using a graphics processing unit. The experiments showed that the proposed method could be employed to detect pedestrians in the video of car camera at 20+ frames per second with acceptable error rates. Thus, it can be applied in real-time detection tasks with the videos of car camera.

  20. Pedestrian temporal and spatial gap acceptance at mid-block street crossing in developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Digvijay S; Patil, Gopal R

    2015-02-01

    Most of the midblock pedestrian crossings on urban roads in India are uncontrolled; wherein the high degree of discretion in pedestrians' behavior while crossing the traffic stream, has made the situation complex to analyze. Vehicles do not yield to pedestrians, even though the traffic laws give priority to pedestrians over motorized vehicles at unsignalized pedestrian crossings. Therefore, a pedestrian has to decide if an available gap is safe or not for crossing. This paper aims to investigate pedestrian temporal and spatial gap acceptance for midblock street crossings. Field data were collected using video camera at two midblock pedestrian crossings. The data extraction in laboratory resulted in 1107 pedestrian gaps. Available gaps, pedestrians' decision, traffic volume, etc. were extracted from the videos. While crossing a road with multiple lanes, rolling gap acceptance behavior was observed. Using binary logit analysis, six utility models were developed, three each for temporal and spatial gaps. The 50th percentile temporal and spatial gaps ranged from 4.1 to 4.8s and 67 to 79 m respectively, whereas the 85th percentile temporal and spatial gaps ranged from 5 to 5.8s and 82 to 95 m respectively. These gap values were smaller than that reported in the studies in developed countries. The speed of conflicting vehicle was found to be significant in spatial gap but not in temporal gap acceptance. The gap acceptance decision was also found to be affected by the type of conflicting vehicles. The insights from this study can be used for the safety and performance evaluation of uncontrolled midblock street crossings in developing countries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  1. Child pedestrian safety knowledge, behaviour and road injury in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koekemoer, Karin; Van Gesselleen, Megan; Van Niekerk, Ashley; Govender, Rajen; Van As, Arjan Bastiaan

    2017-02-01

    Pedestrian injuries are a leading cause of death among South African children, and young children residing in low-income communities are more at risk, due to various factors such as inadequate road infrastructure, exposure to traffic due to reliance on walking as a means of transport, and lack of supervision. This study used a cross-sectional, non-randomized self-report survey to assess pedestrian safety knowledge, road-crossing behaviour and pedestrian injuries of primary school children in selected low-income settings in Cape Town. The survey focused on three primary schools that had joined the Safe Kids Worldwide Model School Zone Project and was administered to 536 children aged 6-15 years, in their home language of isiXhosa. Descriptive and bivariate analyses as well as multivariate regression analyses were conducted to investigate potential predictor variables for pedestrian collision severity and unsafe road-crossing behaviour. Walking was the sole form of travel for 81% of the children, with a large proportion regularly walking unsupervised. Children who walk to or from school alone were younger and reported riskier road-crossing behaviour, although children who walk accompanied tended to have higher pedestrian collision severity. "Negligent Behaviour" related to road-crossing was significantly associated with higher pedestrian collision severity, with predictors of "Negligent Behaviour" including the lack of pedestrian safety knowledge and greater exposure to traffic in terms of time spent walking. More than half of the reported pedestrian collisions involved a bicycle, and older boys (10-15 years) were most at risk of experiencing a severe pedestrian injury. The findings substantiate emerging evidence that children in low-income settings are at greater risk for child pedestrian injury, and emphasise the need for evidence-based safety promotion and injury prevention interventions in these settings. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Estimating the value of life and injury for pedestrians using a stated preference framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niroomand, Naghmeh; Jenkins, Glenn P

    2017-09-01

    The incidence of pedestrian death over the period 2010 to 2014 per 1000,000 in North Cyprus is about 2.5 times that of the EU, with 10.5 times more pedestrian road injuries than deaths. With the prospect of North Cyprus entering the EU, many investments need to be undertaken to improve road safety in order to reach EU benchmarks. We conducted a stated choice experiment to identify the preferences and tradeoffs of pedestrians in North Cyprus for improved walking times, pedestrian costs, and safety. The choice of route was examined using mixed logit models to obtain the marginal utilities associated with each attribute of the routes that consumers chose. These were used to estimate the individuals' willingness to pay (WTP) to save walking time and to avoid pedestrian fatalities and injuries. We then used the results to obtain community-wide estimates of the value of a statistical life (VSL) saved, the value of an injury (VI) prevented, and the value per hour of walking time saved. The estimate of the VSL was €699,434 and the estimate of VI was €20,077. These values are consistent, after adjusting for differences in incomes, with the median results of similar studies done for EU countries. The estimated value of time to pedestrians is €7.20 per person hour. The ratio of deaths to injuries is much higher for pedestrians than for road accidents, and this is completely consistent with the higher estimated WTP to avoid a pedestrian accident than to avoid a car accident. The value of time of €7.20 is quite high relative to the wages earned. Findings provide a set of information on the VRR for fatalities and injuries and the value of pedestrian time that is critical for conducing ex ante appraisals of investments to improve pedestrian safety. Copyright © 2017 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Pedestrian Detection and Tracking from Low-Resolution Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Thermal Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalong Ma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Driven by the prominent thermal signature of humans and following the growing availability of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs, more and more research efforts have been focusing on the detection and tracking of pedestrians using thermal infrared images recorded from UAVs. However, pedestrian detection and tracking from the thermal images obtained from UAVs pose many challenges due to the low-resolution of imagery, platform motion, image instability and the relatively small size of the objects. This research tackles these challenges by proposing a pedestrian detection and tracking system. A two-stage blob-based approach is first developed for pedestrian detection. This approach first extracts pedestrian blobs using the regional gradient feature and geometric constraints filtering and then classifies the detected blobs by using a linear Support Vector Machine (SVM with a hybrid descriptor, which sophisticatedly combines Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG and Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT features in order to achieve accurate detection. This research further proposes an approach for pedestrian tracking. This approach employs the feature tracker with the update of detected pedestrian location to track pedestrian objects from the registered videos and extracts the motion trajectory data. The proposed detection and tracking approaches have been evaluated by multiple different datasets, and the results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods. This research is expected to significantly benefit many transportation applications, such as the multimodal traffic performance measure, pedestrian behavior study and pedestrian-vehicle crash analysis. Future work will focus on using fused thermal and visual images to further improve the detection efficiency and effectiveness.

  4. Predictors of road crossing safety in pedestrians with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chin-Hsien; Ou, Yang-Kun; Wu, Ruey-Meei; Liu, Yung-Ching

    2013-03-01

    Road-crossing safety is an important issue in an aging society. Information regarding the risk of crossing the street to pedestrians with Parkinson's disease (PD) is limited. To assess the risk and predictors of unsafe crossing behaviors in patients with PD, we compared 31 pedestrians with mild-to-moderate PD to 50 age/gender/education-matched controls using a battery of cognitive, visual, and motor tests. With a simulated simple street-crossing situation, we determined the remaining time and safety margin for each participant in different traffic situations, including variable motor vehicle speed, time gap, and time of the day. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated by logistic regression models. We found that pedestrians with PD were more vulnerable to traffic accidents than controls (OR 1.61 [1.28-2.02], P=0.01). The risk of crossing road correlated in a dose-dependent manner with the severity of PD, based on both Hoehn and Yahr (H&Y) stages and unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS) motor scores (OR 1.13 for each increasing point of UPDSR, Psafety errors, rather than executive function. Environmental factors, such as fast approaching motor vehicle speed (OR 4.50 [2.92-6.95], Proad-crossing safety. Future large sample studies are needed to confirm our findings. Training programs or portable stimulator devices that compensate for the visual-spatial disabilities of PD patients are required to improve road safety for PD patients. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Audible monitor for electroplating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burowick, E. A.

    1979-01-01

    "No buzzer" indicates early problem in electroplating when parts are properly immersed into electropolating bath. Buzzer sounds when current flows through part; however, if current is cut, buzzer stops warning that parts must be removed and refinished thus preventing unnecessary waste of electrical energy and labor.

  6. Prévessin site – Pedestrian and cycle entrances

    CERN Multimedia

    GS-IS

    2013-01-01

      A second entrance for pedestrians and cyclists on Route du Maroc will be opened and the existing entrance on Chemin du Moulin des Ponts will be re-opened: - for the period 2 April to 31 October 2013, - from 7.00 a.m. to 9.00 a.m. and from 5.00 p.m. to 7.00 p.m. on working days (Monday to Friday). IMPORTANT: all users must show their access cards to the security guard as a matter of course when passing through the gates, both on entering and leaving the site.

  7. Prévessin site – Pedestrian and cycle entrances

    CERN Multimedia

    GS-DI

    2014-01-01

    Entrances for pedestrians and cyclists on Route du Maroc and on Chemin du Moulin des Ponts, in Prévessin, will be re-opened:   from 7 April to 31 October 2014, from 7.00 a.m. to 9.00 a.m. and from 5.00 p.m. to 7.00 p.m. on working days (Monday to Friday).   IMPORTANT: all users must show their access cards to the security guard as a matter of course when passing through the gates, both on entering and leaving the site.

  8. Distracted pedestrian sustains orbital fracture while on cell phone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edell, Aimée R; Jung, Jesse J; Solomon, Joel M; Palu, Richard N

    2013-01-01

    Use of cell phones in the general population has become increasingly commonplace. The distracting effects of cell phones among automobile drivers are well established, and legislation prohibits the use of handheld cell phones while driving in several states. Recent research has focused on the similar distracting effects of cell phones in the pedestrian population. In this report, an older gentleman suffered extensive facial trauma requiring surgery as a direct effect of cell phone use at the time the trauma occurred. This case highlights the role that portable electronic devices can play as a cause of ocular trauma.

  9. Vision-based pedestrian protection systems for intelligent vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Geronimo, David

    2013-01-01

    Pedestrian Protection Systems (PPSs) are on-board systems aimed at detecting and tracking people in the surroundings of a vehicle in order to avoid potentially dangerous situations. These systems, together with other Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) such as lane departure warning or adaptive cruise control, are one of the most promising ways to improve traffic safety. By the use of computer vision, cameras working either in the visible or infra-red spectra have been demonstrated as a reliable sensor to perform this task. Nevertheless, the variability of human's appearance, not only in

  10. Prévessin site: Pedestrian and cycle entrance

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The entrance to the Prévessin site for pedestrians and cyclists on Chemin du Moulin des Ponts will be re-opened: from 7 April to 30 October 2015, from 7.00 a.m. to 9.00 a.m. and from 5.00 p.m. to 7.00 p.m. on working days (Monday to Friday).   IMPORTANT: all users must show their access cards to the security guard as a matter of course when passing through the gates, both on entering and leaving the site.

  11. Pedestrian injury risk and the effect of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebuhr, Tobias; Junge, Mirko; Rosén, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Older adults and pedestrians both represent especially vulnerable groups in traffic. In the literature, hazards are usually described by the corresponding injury risks of a collision. This paper investigates the MAIS3+F risk (the risk of sustaining at least one injury of AIS 3 severity or higher, or fatal injury) for pedestrians in full-frontal pedestrian-to-passenger car collisions. Using some assumptions, a model-based approach to injury risk, allowing for the specification of individual injury risk parameters for individuals, is presented. To balance model accuracy and sample size, the GIDAS (German In-depth Accident Study) data set is divided into three age groups; children (0-14); adults (15-60); and older adults (older than 60). For each group, individual risk curves are computed. Afterwards, the curves are re-aggregated to the overall risk function. The derived model addresses the influence of age on the outcome of pedestrian-to-car accidents. The results show that older people compared with younger people have a higher MAIS3+F injury risk at all collision speeds. The injury risk for children behaves surprisingly. Compared to other age groups, their MAIS3+F injury risk is lower at lower collision speeds, but substantially higher once a threshold has been exceeded. The resulting injury risk curve obtained by re-aggregation looks surprisingly similar to the frequently used logistic regression function computed for the overall injury risk. However, for homogenous subgroups - such as the three age groups - logistic regression describes the typical risk behavior less accurately than the introduced model-based approach. Since the effect of demographic change on traffic safety is greater nowadays, there is a need to incorporate age into established models. Thus far, this is one of the first studies incorporating traffic participant age to an explicit risk function. The presented approach can be especially useful for the modeling and prediction of risks, and for the

  12. Pedestrian and bicyclist motivation: an assessment of influences on pedestrians’ and bicyclists’ mode choice in Mt. Pleasant, Vancouver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffery M. Guinn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of short distance travel in North America is completed by single occupancy vehicles. Substituting walking and bicycling for these trips would reduce energy use and environmental pollution, while improving quality of life. Therefore, understanding influences on non-automotive travel behavior is crucial. Researchers and planners have touted specific factors for encouraging walking and biking, but the body of work remains fragmented. Previous studies have focused on a smaller number of factors and most of them relate to physical design. This study tests the relative importance of a range of factors, both physical and perceptual that could influence one’s choice to walk or bike. The Mt. Pleasant neighborhood in Vancouver, B.C., Canada was chosen as the location for this study as all of the pedestrian-motivating factors identified in a literature review were present. A questionnaire-based survey addressing distance, sidewalks/bike lanes, pedestrian/bicycle traffic signals, buffering from auto traffic, sense of security, cleanliness, opportunities to talk with others, enforcement of traffic laws, concern for the environment, weather, terrain, saving money, opportunities for exercise, and a visually appealing environment as influential factors was administered in person and online yielding 774 responses. All factors were shown to influence the decision to walk or bike, but some proved more significant than others, especially opportunities for exercise.

  13. Development of Model for Pedestrian Gap Based on Land Use Pattern at Midblock Location and Estimation of Delay at Intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Adepu; Ashritha, Kilari; Kumar, Molugaram

    2018-04-01

    Walking has always been a prime source of human mobility for short distance travel. Traffic congestion has become a major problem for safe pedestrian crossing in most of the metropolitan cities. This has emphasized for providing a sufficient pedestrian gap for safe crossing on urban road. The present works aims in understanding factors that influence pedestrian crossing behaviour. Four locations were chosen for identification of pedestrian crossing behaviour, gap characteristics, waiting time etc., in Hyderabad city. From the study it was observed that pedestrian behaviour and crossing patterns are different and is influenced by land use pattern. A gap acceptance model was developed from the data for improving pedestrian safety at mid-block location; the model was validated using the existing data. Pedestrian delay was estimated at intersection using Highway Capacity Manual (HCM). It was observed that field delays are less when compared to delay arrived from HCM method.

  14. Measuring accident risk exposure for pedestrians in different micro-environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassarre, Sylvain; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Yannis, George; Golias, John

    2007-11-01

    Pedestrians are mainly exposed to the risk of road accident when crossing a road in urban areas. Traditionally in the road safety field, the risk of accident for pedestrian is estimated as a rate of accident involvement per unit of time spent on the road network. The objective of this research is to develop an approach of accident risk based on the concept of risk exposure used in environmental epidemiology, such as in the case of exposure to pollutants. This type of indicator would be useful for comparing the effects of urban transportation policy scenarios on pedestrian safety. The first step is to create an indicator of pedestrians' exposure, which is based on motorised vehicles' "concentration" by lane and also takes account of traffic speed and time spent to cross. This is applied to two specific micro-environments: junctions and mid-block locations. A model of pedestrians' crossing behaviour along a trip is then developed, based on a hierarchical choice between junctions and mid-block locations and taking account of origin and destination, traffic characteristics and pedestrian facilities. Finally, a complete framework is produced for modelling pedestrians' exposure in the light of their crossing behaviour. The feasibility of this approach is demonstrated on an artificial network and a first set of results is obtained from the validation of the models in observational studies.

  15. The Study on In-City Capacity Affected by Pedestrian Crossing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-jiang Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the urban road traffic congestion is serious and the traffic accident is happening at a high frequency; thus it has not satisfied the travel needs of security and affects the quality of urban trips. In order to effectively relieve the confliction of people and motor vehicle, to make sure of the safety of pedestrians crossing the road, and to improve the capacity of urban roads, this passage focuses on studying the influence of pedestrians crossing the roads on the capacity of urban roads in three pedestrian crossing approaches including freely crossing the street, uncontrolled crossing of the pedestrian crosswalk, and controlled crossing of the pedestrian crosswalk. Firstly, it confirms the general formula of the road capacity when pedestrians are crossing the road based on three preassumptions, combined with the survey data, and then constructs the empirical mathematical model of pedestrian crossing on the capacity impact. Lastly, it takes the step of case calculation and simulation evaluation and calculates errors between them, finding that the error between the model calculation and software simulation is small. The efficiency of the model is validated and improved.

  16. Numerical analysis of a pedestrian to car collision: Effect of variations in walk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špička J.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is focused on the modelling of car to pedestrian crash scenario. Virtual hybrid human body model VIRTHUMAN as well as a simplified model of car chassis is modelled under Virtual Performance Solution software. The main idea of the work is the investigation and sensitivity analysis of various initial conditions of the pedestrian during frontal car crash scenario, such as position of the extremities due to different step phases or turning of the pedestrian around his own axis. The experimental data of human gait measurement are used so that one human step is divided into 9 phases to capture the effect of walk when the pedestrian crosses a road. Consequently, the influence of different initial conditions on the kinematics, dynamics of the collision together with injury prediction of pedestrian is discussed. Moreover, the effect of walk is taken into account within translational velocities of the full human body and rotational velocities of the extremities. The trend of the injury prediction for varying initial conditions is monitored. The configurations with zero and non-zero initial velocities are compared with each other, in order to study the effect of walking speed of the pedestrian. Note that only the average walking speed is considered. On the basis of the achieved results, the importance or redundancy of modelling the walking motion and the consideration of different step phases in the car-pedestrian accident can be examined.

  17. Video-processing-based system for automated pedestrian data collection and analysis when crossing the street

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Nabila; Watelain, Eric; Ben Jemaa, Yousra; Motamed, Cina

    2018-03-01

    Computer-vision techniques for pedestrian detection and tracking have progressed considerably and become widely used in several applications. However, a quick glance at the literature shows a minimal use of these techniques in pedestrian behavior and safety analysis, which might be due to the technical complexities facing the processing of pedestrian videos. To extract pedestrian trajectories from a video automatically, all road users must be detected and tracked during sequences, which is a challenging task, especially in a congested open-outdoor urban space. A multipedestrian tracker based on an interframe-detection-association process was proposed and evaluated. The tracker results are used to implement an automatic tool for pedestrians data collection when crossing the street based on video processing. The variations in the instantaneous speed allowed the detection of the street crossing phases (approach, waiting, and crossing). These were addressed for the first time in the pedestrian road security analysis to illustrate the causal relationship between pedestrian behaviors in the different phases. A comparison with a manual data collection method, by computing the root mean square error and the Pearson correlation coefficient, confirmed that the procedures proposed have significant potential to automate the data collection process.

  18. Study on the Weaving Behavior of High Density Bidirectional Pedestrian Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lishan Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Weaving area may be the critical risk place in the subway transfer station. When improving service level of the weaving area, the characteristic of pedestrian weaving behavior should be systemically discussed. This paper described the mechanism of weaving behavior on high density pedestrian which was analyzed by the collection data of controlled experiment. Different weaving behaviors were contrasted due to different volumes in the bidirectional passageway. Video analysis was conducted to extract pedestrian moving behavior and calibrate the movement data with SIMI Motion. Influence of the high density weaving pedestrian was studied based on the statistical results (e.g., velocity, walking distance, and journey time. Furthermore, the quantitative method by speed analysis was announced to discriminate the conflict point. The scopes of weaving area and impact area at different pedestrian volumes were revealed to analyze the pedestrian turning angle. The paper concluded that walking pedestrians are significantly influenced by the weaving conflict and trend to turn the moving direction to avoid the conflict in weaving area; the ratio of stable weaving area and impact area is 2 to 3. The conclusions do provide a method to evaluate the transfer station safety and a facility layout guidance to improve the capacity.

  19. The effect of road and environmental characteristics on pedestrian hit-and-run accidents in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidoo, Eric Nimako; Amoh-Gyimah, Richard; Ackaah, Williams

    2013-04-01

    The number of pedestrians who have died as a result of being hit by vehicles has increased in recent years, in addition to vehicle passenger deaths. Many pedestrians who were involved in road traffic accident died as a result of the driver leaving the pedestrian who was struck unattended at the scene of the accident. This paper seeks to determine the effect of road and environmental characteristics on pedestrian hit-and-run accidents in Ghana. Using pedestrian accident data extracted from the National Road Traffic Accident Database at the Building and Road Research Institute (BRRI) of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Ghana, a binary logit model was employed in the analysis. The results from the estimated model indicate that fatal accidents, unclear weather, nighttime conditions, and straight and flat road sections without medians and junctions significantly increase the likelihood that the vehicle driver will leave the scene after hitting a pedestrian. Thus, integrating median separation and speed humps into road design and construction and installing street lights will help to curb the problem of pedestrian hit-and-run accidents in Ghana. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. AUTOMATIC PEDESTRIAN CROSSING DETECTION AND IMPAIRMENT ANALYSIS BASED ON MOBILE MAPPING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrian crossing, as an important part of transportation infrastructures, serves to secure pedestrians’ lives and possessions and keep traffic flow in order. As a prominent feature in the street scene, detection of pedestrian crossing contributes to 3D road marking reconstruction and diminishing the adverse impact of outliers in 3D street scene reconstruction. Since pedestrian crossing is subject to wearing and tearing from heavy traffic flow, it is of great imperative to monitor its status quo. On this account, an approach of automatic pedestrian crossing detection using images from vehicle-based Mobile Mapping System is put forward and its defilement and impairment are analyzed in this paper. Firstly, pedestrian crossing classifier is trained with low recall rate. Then initial detections are refined by utilizing projection filtering, contour information analysis, and monocular vision. Finally, a pedestrian crossing detection and analysis system with high recall rate, precision and robustness will be achieved. This system works for pedestrian crossing detection under different situations and light conditions. It can recognize defiled and impaired crossings automatically in the meanwhile, which facilitates monitoring and maintenance of traffic facilities, so as to reduce potential traffic safety problems and secure lives and property.

  1. Increasing of visibility on the pedestrian crossing by the additional lighting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baleja, Richard; Bos, Petr; Novak, Tomas; Sokansky, Karel; Hanusek, Tomas

    2017-09-01

    Pedestrian crossings are critical places for road accidents between pedestrians and motor vehicles. For this reason, it is very important to increase attention when the pedestrian crossings are designed and it is necessary to take into account all factors that may contribute to higher safety. Additional lighting systems for pedestrian crossings are one of them and the lighting systems must fulfil the requirements for higher visibility from the point of view of car drivers from both directions. This paper describes the criteria for the suitable additional lighting system on pedestrian crossings. Generally, it means vertical illuminance on the pedestrian crossing from the driver’s view, horizontal illuminance on the crossing and horizontal illuminance both in front of and behind the crossing placed on the road and their acceptable ratios. The article also describes the choice of the colours of the light (correlated colour temperature) and its influence on visibility. As a part of the article, there are case designs of additional lighting systems for pedestrian crossings and measurements from realized additional lighting systems by luxmeters and luminance cameras and their evaluation.

  2. Vector Graph Assisted Pedestrian Dead Reckoning Using an Unconstrained Smartphone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuchao Qian

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a hybrid indoor positioning solution based on a pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR approach using built-in sensors on a smartphone. To address the challenges of flexible and complex contexts of carrying a phone while walking, a robust step detection algorithm based on motion-awareness has been proposed. Given the fact that step length is influenced by different motion states, an adaptive step length estimation algorithm based on motion recognition is developed. Heading estimation is carried out by an attitude acquisition algorithm, which contains a two-phase filter to mitigate the distortion of magnetic anomalies. In order to estimate the heading for an unconstrained smartphone, principal component analysis (PCA of acceleration is applied to determine the offset between the orientation of smartphone and the actual heading of a pedestrian. Moreover, a particle filter with vector graph assisted particle weighting is introduced to correct the deviation in step length and heading estimation. Extensive field tests, including four contexts of carrying a phone, have been conducted in an office building to verify the performance of the proposed algorithm. Test results show that the proposed algorithm can achieve sub-meter mean error in all contexts.

  3. Identification of contributing factors to pedestrian overpass selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Wu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the efficiency of overpass and the safety level of pedestrian, this paper aims to investigate the contributing factors for selective preference of overpass. Eight overpasses were investigated in Xi’an, and a questionnaire was conducted by the pedestrians near the overpass. Totally, 1131 valid samples (873 used of overpasses and 258 non-used of overpasses were collected. Based on the data, a binary logit (BL model was developed to identify what and how the factors affect the selective preference of overpass. The BL model was calibrated by the maximum likelihood method. Likelihood ratio test and McFadden-R2 were used to analyze the goodness-of-fit of the model. The results show that the BL model has a reasonable goodness-of-fit, and the prediction accuracy of the BL model can reach 81.9%. The BL model showed that the selective preference of overpass was significantly influenced by eight factors, including gender, age, career, education level, license, detour wishes, detour distance, and crossing time. Besides, the odds ratios of significant factors were also analyzed to explain the impacts of the factors on selective preference of overpass.

  4. On the hazard of quiet vehicles to pedestrians and drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wogalter, Michael S; Lim, Raymond W; Nyeste, Patrick G

    2014-09-01

    The need to produce more efficient and less polluting vehicles has encouraged mass production of alternative energy vehicles, such as hybrid and electric cars. Many of these vehicles are capable of very quiet operation. While reducing noise pollution is desirable, quieter vehicles could negatively affect pedestrian safety because of reduced sound cues compared to louder internal combustion engines. Three studies were performed to investigate people's concern about this issue. In Study 1, a questionnaire completed by 378 people showed substantial positive interest in quiet hybrid and electric cars. However, they also indicated concern about the reduced auditory cues of quiet vehicles. In Study 2, 316 participants rated 14 sounds that could be potentially added to quiet alternative-energy vehicles. The data showed that participants did not want annoying sounds, but preferred adding "engine" and "hum" sounds relative to other types of sounds. In Study 3, 24 persons heard and rated 18 actual sounds within 6 categories that were added to a video of a hybrid vehicle driving by. The sounds most preferred were "engine" followed by "white noise" and "hum". Implications for adding sounds to facilitate pedestrians' detection of moving vehicles and for aiding drivers' awareness of speed are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Pedestrian detection in infrared image using HOG and Autoencoder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tianbiao; Zhang, Hao; Shi, Wenjie; Zhang, Yu

    2017-11-01

    In order to guarantee the safety of driving at night, vehicle-mounted night vision system was used to detect pedestrian in front of cars and send alarm to prevent the potential dangerous. To decrease the false positive rate (FPR) and increase the true positive rate (TPR), a pedestrian detection method based on HOG and Autoencoder (HOG+Autoencoder) was presented. Firstly, the HOG features of input images were computed and encoded by Autoencoder. Then the encoded features were classified by Softmax. In the process of training, Autoencoder was trained unsupervised. Softmax was trained with supervision. Autoencoder and Softmax were stacked into a model and fine-tuned by labeled images. Experiment was conducted to compare the detection performance between HOG and HOG+Autoencoder, using images collected by vehicle-mounted infrared camera. There were 80000 images for training set and 20000 for the testing set, with a rate of 1:3 between positive and negative images. The result shows that when TPR is 95%, FPR of HOG+Autoencoder is 0.4%, while the FPR of HOG is 5% with the same TPR.

  6. Pedestrian evacuation at the subway station under fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao-Xia, Yang; Hai-Rong, Dong; Xiu-Ming, Yao; Xu-Bin, Sun

    2016-04-01

    With the development of urban rail transit, ensuring the safe evacuation of pedestrians at subway stations has become an important issue in the case of an emergency such as a fire. This paper chooses the platform of line 4 at the Beijing Xuanwumen subway station to study the emergency evacuation process under fire. Based on the established platform, effects of the fire dynamics, different initial pedestrian densities, and positions of fire on evacuation are investigated. According to simulation results, it is found that the fire increases the air temperature and the smoke density, and decreases pedestrians’ visibility and walking velocity. Also, there is a critical initial density at the platform if achieving a safe evacuation within the required 6 minutes. Furthermore, different positions of fire set in this paper have little difference on crowd evacuation if the fire is not large enough. The suggestions provided in this paper are helpful for the subway operators to prevent major casualties. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61322307 and 61233001).

  7. Deciphering the crowd: modeling and identification of pedestrian group motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücel, Zeynep; Zanlungo, Francesco; Ikeda, Tetsushi; Miyashita, Takahiro; Hagita, Norihiro

    2013-01-14

    Associating attributes to pedestrians in a crowd is relevant for various areas like surveillance, customer profiling and service providing. The attributes of interest greatly depend on the application domain and might involve such social relations as friends or family as well as the hierarchy of the group including the leader or subordinates. Nevertheless, the complex social setting inherently complicates this task. We attack this problem by exploiting the small group structures in the crowd. The relations among individuals and their peers within a social group are reliable indicators of social attributes. To that end, this paper identifies social groups based on explicit motion models integrated through a hypothesis testing scheme. We develop two models relating positional and directional relations. A pair of pedestrians is identified as belonging to the same group or not by utilizing the two models in parallel, which defines a compound hypothesis testing scheme. By testing the proposed approach on three datasets with different environmental properties and group characteristics, it is demonstrated that we achieve an identification accuracy of 87% to 99%. The contribution of this study lies in its definition of positional and directional relation models, its description of compound evaluations, and the resolution of ambiguities with our proposed uncertainty measure based on the local and global indicators of group relation.

  8. Deciphering the Crowd: Modeling and Identification of Pedestrian Group Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norihiro Hagita

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Associating attributes to pedestrians in a crowd is relevant for various areas like surveillance, customer profiling and service providing. The attributes of interest greatly depend on the application domain and might involve such social relations as friends or family as well as the hierarchy of the group including the leader or subordinates. Nevertheless, the complex social setting inherently complicates this task. We attack this problem by exploiting the small group structures in the crowd. The relations among individuals and their peers within a social group are reliable indicators of social attributes. To that end, this paper identifies social groups based on explicit motion models integrated through a hypothesis testing scheme. We develop two models relating positional and directional relations. A pair of pedestrians is identified as belonging to the same group or not by utilizing the two models in parallel, which defines a compound hypothesis testing scheme. By testing the proposed approach on three datasets with different environmental properties and group characteristics, it is demonstrated that we achieve an identification accuracy of 87% to 99%. The contribution of this study lies in its definition of positional and directional relation models, its description of compound evaluations, and the resolution of ambiguities with our proposed uncertainty measure based on the local and global indicators of group relation.

  9. Wi-Fi/MARG Integration for Indoor Pedestrian Localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zengshan; Jin, Yue; Zhou, Mu; Wu, Zipeng; Li, Ze

    2016-12-10

    With the wide deployment of Wi-Fi networks, Wi-Fi based indoor localization systems that are deployed without any special hardware have caught significant attention and have become a currently practical technology. At the same time, the Magnetic, Angular Rate, and Gravity (MARG) sensors installed in commercial mobile devices can achieve highly-accurate localization in short time. Based on this, we design a novel indoor localization system by using built-in MARG sensors and a Wi-Fi module. The innovative contributions of this paper include the enhanced Pedestrian Dead Reckoning (PDR) and Wi-Fi localization approaches, and an Extended Kalman Particle Filter (EKPF) based fusion algorithm. A new Wi-Fi/MARG indoor localization system, including an Android based mobile client, a Web page for remote control, and a location server, is developed for real-time indoor pedestrian localization. The extensive experimental results show that the proposed system is featured with better localization performance, with the average error 0.85 m, than the one achieved by using the Wi-Fi module or MARG sensors solely.

  10. Disparities in pedestrian streetscape environments by income and race/ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M. Thornton

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence suggests that microscale pedestrian environment features, such as sidewalk quality, crosswalks, and neighborhood esthetics, may affect residents’ physical activity. This study examined whether disparities in microscale pedestrian features existed between neighborhoods of differing socioeconomic and racial/ethnic composition. Using the validated Microscale Audit of Pedestrian Streetscapes (MAPS, pedestrian environment features were assessed by trained observers along 1/4-mile routes (N=2117 in neighborhoods in three US metropolitan regions (San Diego, Seattle, and Baltimore during 2009–2010. Neighborhoods, defined as Census block groups, were selected to maximize variability in median income and macroscale walkability factors (e.g., density. Mixed-model linear regression analyses explored main and interaction effects of income and race/ethnicity separately by region. Across all three regions, low-income neighborhoods and neighborhoods with a high proportion of racial/ethnic minorities had poorer esthetics and social elements (e.g., graffiti, broken windows, litter than neighborhoods with higher median income or fewer racial/ethnic minorities (p<.05. However, there were also instances where neighborhoods with higher incomes and fewer racial/ethnic minorities had worse or absent pedestrian amenities such as sidewalks, crosswalks, and intersections (p<.05. Overall, disparities in microscale pedestrian features occurred more frequently in residential as compared to mixed-use routes with one or more commercial destination. However, considerable variation existed between regions as to which microscale pedestrian features were unfavorable and whether the unfavorable features were associated with neighborhood income or racial/ethnic composition. The variation in pedestrian streetscapes across cities suggests that findings from single-city studies are not generalizable. Local streetscape audits are recommended to identify disparities

  11. Development Study of Pedestrian Bridge at Gramedia Bookstore Jalan Raden Intan Bandar Lampung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernaditha, C. M.

    2018-03-01

    Bandar Lampung with high enough population densities has provides transportation facilities for pedestrian such as pedestrian bridge. This pedestrian bridges spread at Bandar Lampung’s traffic congested area, shopping centre nor education centre. Jl. Raden Intan as one of primary collector road with four lanes one direction at Bandar Lampung has high LHR (average daily traffic) movemenet pattern especially at morning, day and afternoon rush hour that make it difficult for pedestrian who want to cross the road. Therefore pedes trian bridge at this section Jl. Raden Intan highly needed especially at in front of Gramedia Bookstore with large amount of crossing pedestrian volume. From this research and analysis, found that number of LHR (average daily traffic) at Jl. Raden Intan shows large number traffic volume that is 4509 passenger car unit/hour at morning rush hour (07.00-08.30), with value of V/C Ratio or Degree of Saturation reach 0,92 (E category), while the amount of pedestrian who cross ahead from Gramedia Bookstore to Bank Muammalat is 29 people per 15 minutes. Other than that based on the calculation results of pedestrian volume and traffic volume at rush hour as follow: average pedestrian volume at rush hour is 146 people/hour between the range 100-1250 people/hour and traffic volume 7521 vehicles/hour over than 7000 vehicles/hour, and also the value PV2=1,682x1010 which is means the value of PV2 worth over 2x108, moreover the speed plan Jl. Raden Intan between 60-80 km/hour above 70 km/hour. Based on the calculation and analysis above, it can be concluded transportation facilities recommended for Jl. Raden Intan is pedestrian bridge.

  12. Effects of mobile Internet use on college student pedestrian injury risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byington, Katherine W; Schwebel, David C

    2013-03-01

    College-age individuals have the highest incidence of pedestrian injuries of any age cohort. One factor that might contribute to elevated pedestrian injuries among this age group is injuries incurred while crossing streets distracted by mobile devices. Examine whether young adult pedestrian safety is compromised while crossing a virtual pedestrian street while distracted using the Internet on a mobile "smartphone." A within-subjects design was implemented with 92 young adults. Participants crossed a virtual pedestrian street 20 times, half the time while undistracted and half while completing an email-driven "scavenger hunt" to answer mundane questions using mobile Internet on their cell phones. Six measures of pedestrian behavior were assessed during crossings. Participants also reported typical patterns of street crossing and mobile Internet use. Participants reported using mobile Internet with great frequency in daily life, including while walking across streets. In the virtual street environment, pedestrian behavior was greatly altered and generally more risky when participants were distracted by Internet use. While distracted, participants waited longer to cross the street (F=42.37), missed more safe opportunities to cross (F=42.63), took longer to initiate crossing when a safe gap was available (F=53.03), looked left and right less often (F=124.68), spent more time looking away from the road (F=1959.78), and were more likely to be hit or almost hit by an oncoming vehicle (F=29.54; all psmobile Internet experience. Pedestrian behavior was influenced, and generally considerably riskier, when participants were simultaneously using mobile Internet and crossing the street than when crossing the street with no distraction. This finding reinforces the need for increased awareness concerning the risks of distracted pedestrian behavior. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Spatiotemporal approaches to analyzing pedestrian fatalities: the case of Cali, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Lani; Serre, Marc L; Lippmann, Steven J; Rodríguez, Daniel A; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I; Gutiérrez, María Isabel; Escobar, Guido; Villaveces, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Injuries among pedestrians are a major public health concern in Colombian cities such as Cali. This is one of the first studies in Latin America to apply Bayesian maximum entropy (BME) methods to visualize and produce fine-scale, highly accurate estimates of citywide pedestrian fatalities. The purpose of this study is to determine the BME method that best estimates pedestrian mortality rates and reduces statistical noise. We further utilized BME methods to identify and differentiate spatial patterns and persistent versus transient pedestrian mortality hotspots. In this multiyear study, geocoded pedestrian mortality data from the Cali Injury Surveillance System (2008 to 2010) and census data were utilized to accurately visualize and estimate pedestrian fatalities. We investigated the effects of temporal and spatial scales, addressing issues arising from the rarity of pedestrian fatality events using 3 BME methods (simple kriging, Poisson kriging, and uniform model Bayesian maximum entropy). To reduce statistical noise while retaining a fine spatial and temporal scale, data were aggregated over 9-month incidence periods and censal sectors. Based on a cross-validation of BME methods, Poisson kriging was selected as the best BME method. Finally, the spatiotemporal and urban built environment characteristics of Cali pedestrian mortality hotspots were linked to intervention measures provided in Mead et al.'s (2014) pedestrian mortality review. The BME space-time analysis in Cali resulted in maps displaying hotspots of high pedestrian fatalities extending over small areas with radii of 0.25 to 1.1 km and temporal durations of 1 month to 3 years. Mapping the spatiotemporal distribution of pedestrian mortality rates identified high-priority areas for prevention strategies. The BME results allow us to identify possible intervention strategies according to the persistence and built environment of the hotspot; for example, through enforcement or long-term environmental

  14. INFLUENCE OF PLANNING, ORGANIZATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS AND REGULATION ON ROAD TRAFFIC SAFETY OF PEDESTRIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Kuharenok

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of research on planning, organizational characteristics and regulation modes at  the regulated pedestrian crossings, located out of crossroads in the street and road network of Minsk. Some regularities pertaining to the influence of the investigated characteristics on road traffic safety of pedestrians are revealed in the paper. Practical offers on increase of road traffic safety of pedestrians in the Republic of Belarus have been developed on the basis of the executed investigations and cited in the paper. 

  15. Short-Term and Working Memory Impairments in Early-Implanted, Long-Term Cochlear Implant Users Are Independent of Audibility and Speech Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AuBuchon, Angela M; Pisoni, David B; Kronenberger, William G

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether early-implanted, long-term cochlear implant (CI) users display delays in verbal short-term and working memory capacity when processes related to audibility and speech production are eliminated. Twenty-three long-term CI users and 23 normal-hearing controls each completed forward and backward digit span tasks under testing conditions that differed in presentation modality (auditory or visual) and response output (spoken recall or manual pointing). Normal-hearing controls reproduced more lists of digits than the CI users, even when the test items were presented visually and the responses were made manually via touchscreen response. Short-term and working memory delays observed in CI users are not due to greater demands from peripheral sensory processes such as audibility or from overt speech-motor planning and response output organization. Instead, CI users are less efficient at encoding and maintaining phonological representations in verbal short-term memory using phonological and linguistic strategies during memory tasks.

  16. Data Integration from GPS and Inertial Navigation Systems for Pedestrians in Urban Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Bikonis

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The GPS system is widely used in navigation and the GPS receiver can offer long-term stable absolute positioning information. The overall system performance depends largely on the signal environments. The position obtained from GPS is often degraded due to obstruction and multipath effect caused by buildings, city infrastructure and vegetation, whereas, the current performance achieved by inertial navigation systems (INS is still relatively poor due to the large inertial sensor errors. The complementary features of GPS and INS are the main reasons why integrated GPS/INS systems are becoming increasingly popular. GPS/INS systems offer a high data rate, high accuracy position and orientation that can work in all environments, particularly those where satellite availability is restricted. In the paper integration algorithm of GPS and INS systems data for pedestrians in urban area is presented. For data integration an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF algorithm is proposed. Complementary characteristics of GPS and INS with EKF can overcome the problem of huge INS drifts, GPS outages, dense multipath effect and other individual problems associated with these sensors.

  17. Stationery equipment for detecting radioactive material on passing pedestrians developed and made in RFYC - VNIIEF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapustin, D.S.

    2000-01-01

    At VNIIEF, radiation monitors have been designed that measure for transported or pedestrian carried radioactive material and allow a quick determination of an excess gamma and/or neutron background on natural or fixed levels. For this problem, neither the type of the material or its amount need to be determined, but other parameters are measured to detect highly sensitive or priority materials, defined by the threshold of detection, operational monitoring efficiency, simplicity of use and demonstrative imaging of results. All these parameters were considered at VNlIEF in the design of pedestrian radiation monitor KPRM-P1. Post KPRM-P1 is an automatic pedestrian radiation monitor, installed on communicating and KPP enterprises, and intended for checking for authorized or unauthorized radioactive material possessed by pedestrians crossing a controlled space. (authors)

  18. A Pilot Study of Pedestrians with Visual Impairments Detecting Traffic Gaps and Surges Containing Hybrid Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Robert Wall; Naghshineh, Koorosh; Hapeman, Julie; Wiener, William

    2011-03-01

    The increasing number of hybrid and quiet internal combustion engine vehicles may impact the travel abilities of pedestrians who are blind. Pedestrians who rely on auditory cues for structuring their travel may face challenges in making crossing decisions in the presence of quiet vehicles. This article describes results of initial studies looking at the crossing decisions of pedestrians who are blind at an uncontrolled crossing (no traffic control) and a light controlled intersection. The presence of hybrid vehicles was a factor in each situation. At the uncontrolled crossing, Toyota hybrids were most difficult to detect but crossing decisions were made more often in small gaps ended by a Honda hybrid. These effects were seen only at speed under 20 mph. At the light controlled intersection, parallel surges of traffic were most difficult to detect when made up only of a Ford Escape hybrid. Results suggest that more controlled studies of vehicle characteristics impacting crossing decisions of pedestrians who are blind are warranted.

  19. Effective environmental factors on geographical distribution of traffic accidents on pedestrians, downtown of Tehran City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Ali; Rahmani, Khaled; Kavousi, Amir; Eshghabadi, Farshid; Nematollahi, Shahrzad; Zainni, Slahedyn; Soori, Hamid

    2018-02-20

    The aim of this study was to geographically analyse the traffic casualties in pedestrians in downtown of Tehran City. Study population consisted of pedestrians who had traffic injury accidents from April 2014 to March 2015 in Tehran City. Data were extracted from the offices of traffic police and municipality. For analysis of environmental factors and site of accidents, Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression models and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) were used. All pedestrian accidents including 514 accidents were assessed in this study in which the site of accidents included arterial streets in 370 (71.9%) cases, collector streets in 133 cases (25.2%) and highways in 11 cases (2.1%). Geographical units of traffic accidents in pedestrians had statistically significant relationship with the number of bus stations, number of crossroads and recreational areas. Neighbourhoods close to markets are considered as the most dangerous places for injury in traffic accidents.

  20. Regulatory assessment of proposed accessibility guidelines for pedestrians in the public right-of-way

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    This report assesses the potential costs and benefits of proposed accessibility guidelines issued by the Access Board for pedestrian facilities in the public right-of-way. The report also analyzes the potential impacts of the proposed guidelines on s...

  1. The stepping behavior analysis of pedestrians from different age groups via a single-file experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shuchao; Zhang, Jun; Song, Weiguo; Shi, Chang'an; Zhang, Ruifang

    2018-03-01

    The stepping behavior of pedestrians with different age compositions in single-file experiment is investigated in this paper. The relation between step length, step width and stepping time are analyzed by using the step measurement method based on the calculation of curvature of the trajectory. The relations of velocity-step width, velocity-step length and velocity-stepping time for different age groups are discussed and compared with previous studies. Finally effects of pedestrian gender and height on stepping laws and fundamental diagrams are analyzed. The study is helpful for understanding pedestrian dynamics of movement. Meanwhile, it offers experimental data to develop a microscopic model of pedestrian movement by considering stepping behavior.

  2. Workshop to review problem-behavior research programs : pedestrian, bicycle, and pupil transportation safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the proceedings of a workshop on pedestrian, bicycle, and pupil transportation safety. The purpose of this workshop was to develop specific recommendations for the planning and implementation of NHTSA research, development, and d...

  3. Multi-Modal Intersections: Resolving Conflicts between Trains, Motor Vehicles, Bicyclists and Pedestrians

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This research report investigates the relationship between pedestrians and bicyclists on paths parallel to railroad tracks and with a road perpendicular to the path. The possible conflicts at intersections within these design parameters are of concer...

  4. Effect of electronic device use on pedestrian safety : a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    This literature review on the effect of electronic device use on pedestrian safety is part of a research project sponsored by the Office of Behavioral Safety Research in the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). An extensive literat...

  5. Evaluating Bicycle, Pedestrian, Transit and Economic Data Collection Needs and Measures of Effectiveness in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-06

    The purpose of this research project was to evaluate the current data collection procedures for bicycle and pedestrian projects utilized by the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation (PennDOT) and Pennsylvania's Metropolitan Planning Organizations...

  6. A Fractional Micro-Macro Model for Crowds of Pedestrians Based on Fractional Mean Field Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kecai Cao; Yang Quan Chen; Daniel Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Modeling a crowd of pedestrians has been considered in this paper from different aspects. Based on fractional microscopic model that may be much more close to reality, a fractional macroscopic model has been proposed using conservation law of mass. Then in order to characterize the competitive and cooperative interactions among pedestrians, fractional mean field games are utilized in the modeling problem when the number of pedestrians goes to infinity and fractional dynamic model composed of fractional backward and fractional forward equations are constructed in macro scale. Fractional micromacro model for crowds of pedestrians are obtained in the end.Simulation results are also included to illustrate the proposed fractional microscopic model and fractional macroscopic model,respectively.

  7. Modeling and simulating pedestrian shopping behavior based on principles of boundede rationality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, W.; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Modeling pedestrian behavior and decision making has dominantly relied on rational choice models, especially discrete choice models. These models, however, may not be appropriate for modeling the decision processes because they assume unrealistic cognitive and computational abilities of decision

  8. Examining Pedestrian Injury Severity Using Alternative Disaggregate Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abay, Kibrom Araya

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the injury severity of pedestrians considering detailed road user characteristics and alternative model specification using a high-quality Danish road accident data. Such detailed and alternative modeling approach helps to assess the sensitivity of empirical inferences...... to the choice of these models. The empirical analysis reveals that detailed road user characteristics such as crime history of drivers and momentary activities of road users at the time of the accident provides an interesting insight in the injury severity analysis. Likewise, the alternative analytical...... specification of the models reveals that some of the conventionally employed fixed parameters injury severity models could underestimate the effect of some important behavioral attributes of the accidents. For instance, the standard ordered logit model underestimated the marginal effects of some...

  9. Pedestrians and cyclists interaction in urban settings of Pardubice city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Bulíček

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Presented paper is focused on questions of cyclist transport in urban settings, specifically in the city of Pardubice. Emphasis is put on analysis of potentially conflict places, especially in interaction with pedestrians. Direct terrain observation and consequent evaluation of conflict potential are used as method for data collecting. When cycling routes are designed, the requirements of the cyclists should be taken into account in order to ensure that the routes are accepted. In order to make planning user oriented one has to know which criteria are important for cyclists` route choice. Until now not many studies were conducted on this topic in Czech Republic. Theoretical background used states 5 basic requirements for cycle routes. These are: 1. Coherence (the cycling infrastructure forms a coherent unit and links with all departure points and destinations of cyclist, 2. Directness (the cycling infrastructure continually offers the cyclists as direct a route as possible, so detours are kept to a minimum, 3. attractiveness (the cycling infrastructure is designed and fitted to the surroundings in such a way that cycling is attractive, 4. safety (the cycling infrastructure guarantees the road safety of cyclists and other road users, 5. comfort (the cycling infrastructure enables a quick and comfortable flow of bicycle traffic.. Planners need a clear understanding of what influences bicycling behavior to develop effective strategies to increase use of those modes. Transportation practitioners have largely focused on infrastructure and the built environment, although researchers have found that attitudes are also very important. Theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1985 - intentions to perform behaviors of different kinds can be predicted with high accuracy from attitudes toward the behavior, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control; and these intentions, together with perceptions of behavioral control, account for considerable variance in

  10. CP violation outside the standard model phenomenology for pedestrians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipkin, H.J.

    1993-01-01

    So far the only experimental evidence for CP violation is the 1964 discovery of K L →2π where the two mass eigenstates produced by neutral meson mixing both decay into the same CP eigenstate. This result is described by two parameters ε and ε'. Today ε ∼ its 1964 value, ε' data are still inconclusive and there is no new evidence for CP violation. One might expect to observe similar phenomena in other systems and also direct CP violation as charge asymmetries between decays of charge conjugate hadrons H ± → f ± . Why is it so hard to find CP violation? How can B Physics help? Does CP lead beyond the standard model? The author presents a pedestrian symmetry approach which exhibits the difficulties and future possibilities of these two types of CP-violation experiments, neutral meson mixing and direct charge asymmetry: what may work, what doesn't work and why

  11. Impact of improving vehicle front design on the burden of pedestrian injuries in Germany, the United States, and India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Dane; Bose, Dipan; Bhalla, Kavi

    2017-11-17

    European car design regulations and New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) ratings have led to reductions in pedestrian injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of improving vehicle front design on mortality and morbidity due to pedestrian injuries in a European country (Germany) and 2 countries (the United States and India) that do not have pedestrian-focused NCAP testing or design regulations. We used data from the International Road Traffic and Accident Database and the Global Burden of Disease project to estimate baseline pedestrian deaths and nonfatal injuries in each country in 2013. The effect of improved passenger car star ratings on probability of pedestrian injury was based on recent evaluations of pedestrian crash data from Germany. The effect of improved heavy motor vehicle (HMV) front end design on pedestrian injuries was based on estimates reported by simulation studies. We used burden of disease methods to estimate population health loss by combining the burden of morbidity and mortality in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost. Extrapolating from evaluations in Germany suggests that improving front end design of cars can potentially reduce the burden of pedestrian injuries due to cars by up to 24% in the United States and 41% in India. In Germany, where cars comply with the United Nations regulation on pedestrian safety, additional improvements would have led to a 1% reduction. Similarly, improved HMV design would reduce DALYs lost by pedestrian victims hit by HMVs by 20% in each country. Overall, improved vehicle design would reduce DALYs lost to road traffic injuries (RTIs) by 0.8% in Germany, 4.1% in the United States, and 6.7% in India. Recent evaluations show a strong correlation between Euro NCAP pedestrian scores and real-life pedestrian injuries, suggesting that improved car front end design in Europe has led to substantial reductions in pedestrian injuries. Although the United States has fewer pedestrian crashes, it would

  12. Powered two-wheeler drivers' risk of hitting a pedestrian in towns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clabaux, Nicolas; Fournier, Jean-Yves; Michel, Jean-Emmanuel

    2014-12-01

    The risk of collision between pedestrians and powered two-wheelers is poorly understood today. The objective of this research is to determine the risk for powered two-wheeler drivers of hitting and injuring a pedestrian per kilometer driven in towns and to compare this risk with that run by four-wheeled vehicle drivers. Using the bodily injury accidents recorded by the police on nine roads in the city of Marseille in 2011 and a campaign of observations of powered two-wheeler traffic, we estimated the risk per kilometer driven by powered two-wheeler drivers of hitting a pedestrian and compared it with the risk run by four-wheeled vehicle drivers. The results show that the risk for powered two-wheeler drivers of hitting and injuring a pedestrian is significantly higher than the risk run by four-wheeled vehicle drivers. On the nine roads studied, it is on average 3.33 times higher (95% CI: 1.63; 6.78). Taking four more years into account made it possible to consolidate these results and to tighten the confidence interval. There does indeed seem to be problems in the interactions between pedestrians and powered two-wheeler users in urban traffic. These interaction problems lead to a higher risk of hitting and injuring a pedestrian for powered two-wheeler drivers than for four-wheeled vehicle drivers. The analysis of the police reports suggests that part of this increased risk comes from filtering maneuvers by powered two-wheelers. Possible countermeasures deal with the urban street layout. Measures consisting in reducing the width and the number of traffic lanes to a strict minimum and installing medians or pedestrian islands could be an effective way for the prevention of urban accidents between pedestrians and powered two-wheelers. Copyright © 2014 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Users’ Perceptions on Pedestrian Prioritized Neighborhoods: a study on Terrace Row Housing Estates in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Tareef Hayat Khan; Abubakar Danladi Isah; Elahe Anjomshoaa; Soheil Sabri

    2015-01-01

    Malaysia is currently enjoying an overhang of housing supply. The focus is gradually shifting from providing just a mere shelter to something more socially. Terrace row housing estates in Malaysia is the major prototype of housing in the country. Pedestrian activities are catalyst to social interaction, but have been ignored in this model. During the last century, motor age established the supremacy of car prioritized models over that of pedestrians around the world, Malaysia has ...

  14. Advanced Emergency Braking Controller Design for Pedestrian Protection Oriented Automotive Collision Avoidance System

    OpenAIRE

    Lie, Guo; Zejian, Ren; Pingshu, Ge; Jing, Chang

    2014-01-01

    Automotive collision avoidance system, which aims to enhance the active safety of the vehicle, has become a hot research topic in recent years. However, most of the current systems ignore the active protection of pedestrian and other vulnerable groups in the transportation system. An advanced emergency braking control system is studied by taking into account the pedestrians and the vehicles. Three typical braking scenarios are defined and the safety situations are assessed by comparing the cu...

  15. Considering built environment and spatial correlation in modeling pedestrian injury severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prato, Carlo G; Kaplan, Sigal; Patrier, Alexandre; Rasmussen, Thomas K

    2018-01-02

    This study looks at mitigating and aggravating factors that are associated with the injury severity of pedestrians when they have crashes with another road user and overcomes existing limitations in the literature by focusing attention on the built environment and considering spatial correlation across crashes. Reports for 6,539 pedestrian crashes occurred in Denmark between 2006 and 2015 were merged with geographic information system resources containing detailed information about the built environment and exposure at the crash locations. A linearized spatial logit model estimated the probability of pedestrians sustaining a severe or fatal injury conditional on the occurrence of a crash with another road user. This study confirms previous findings about older pedestrians and intoxicated pedestrians being the most vulnerable road users and crashes with heavy vehicles and in roads with higher speed limits being related to the most severe outcomes. This study provides novel perspectives by showing positive spatial correlations of crashes with the same severity outcomes and emphasizing the role of the built environment in the proximity of the crash. This study emphasizes the need for thinking about traffic calming measures, illumination solutions, road maintenance programs, and speed limit reductions. Moreover, this study emphasizes the role of the built environment, because shopping areas, residential areas, and walking traffic density are positively related to a reduction in pedestrian injury severity. Often, these areas have in common a larger pedestrian mass that is more likely to make other road users more aware and attentive, whereas the same does not seem to apply to areas with lower pedestrian density.

  16. Self-propelled pedestrian dynamics model: Application to passenger movement and infection propagation in airplanes

    OpenAIRE

    Namilae, S.; Srinivasan, A.; Mubayi, A.; Scotch, M.; Pahle, R.

    2017-01-01

    Reducing the number of contacts between passengers on an airplane can potentially curb the spread of infectious diseases. In this paper, a social force based pedestrian movement model is formulated and applied to evaluate the movement and contacts among passengers during boarding and deplaning of an airplane. Within the social force modeling framework, we introduce location dependence on the self-propelling momentum of pedestrian particles. The model parameters are varied over a large design ...

  17. Real-time pedestrian detection in a Truck's blind spot camera

    OpenAIRE

    Van Beeck, Kristof; Goedemé, Toon

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a multi-pedestrian detection and tracking framework targeting a specific application: detecting vulnerable road users in a truck's blind spot zone. Research indicates that existing non-vision based safety solutions are not able to handle this problem completely. Therefore we aim to develop an active safety system which warns the truck driver if pedestrians are present in the truck's blind spot zone. Our system solely uses the vision input from the truck's blind spot c...

  18. The effects of acute sleep restriction on adolescents' pedestrian safety in a virtual environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Aaron L; Avis, Kristin T; Schwebel, David C

    2013-12-01

    Over 8,000 American adolescents ages 14-15 years require medical attention owing to pedestrian injury annually. Cognitive factors contributing to pedestrian safety include reaction time, impulsivity, risk taking, attention, and decision making. These characteristics are also influenced by sleep restriction. Experts recommend that adolescents obtain 8.5 hours of uninterrupted sleep each night, but most American adolescents do not. Inadequate sleep may place adolescents at risk for pedestrian injury. Using a within-subjects design, 55 14- and 15-year-olds engaged in a virtual reality pedestrian environment under two conditions, scheduled a week apart: sleep-restricted (4 hours' sleep the previous night) and adequate sleep (8.5 hours). Sleep was assessed using actigraphy and pedestrian behavior via four outcome measures: time to initiate crossing, time before contact with vehicle while crossing, virtual hits or close calls and attention to traffic (looks left and right). While acutely sleep restricted, adolescents took more time to initiate pedestrian crossings, crossed with less time before contact with vehicles, experienced more virtual hits or close calls, and looked left and right more often compared with when adequately rested. Results were maintained after controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, and average total sleep duration before each condition. Adolescent pedestrian behavior in the simulated virtual environment was markedly different, and generally more risky, when acutely sleep restricted compared with adequately rested. Inadequate sleep may influence cognitive functioning to the extent that pedestrian safety is jeopardized among adolescents capable of crossing streets safely when rested. Policy decisions might be educated by these results. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Temporal and Fine-Grained Pedestrian Action Recognition on Driving Recorder Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokatsu Kataoka

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an emerging issue of fine-grained pedestrian action recognition that induces an advanced pre-crush safety to estimate a pedestrian intention in advance. The fine-grained pedestrian actions include visually slight differences (e.g., walking straight and crossing, which are difficult to distinguish from each other. It is believed that the fine-grained action recognition induces a pedestrian intention estimation for a helpful advanced driver-assistance systems (ADAS. The following difficulties have been studied to achieve a fine-grained and accurate pedestrian action recognition: (i In order to analyze the fine-grained motion of a pedestrian appearance in the vehicle-mounted drive recorder, a method to describe subtle change of motion characteristics occurring in a short time is necessary; (ii even when the background moves greatly due to the driving of the vehicle, it is necessary to detect changes in subtle motion of the pedestrian; (iii the collection of large-scale fine-grained actions is very difficult, and therefore a relatively small database should be focused. We find out how to learn an effective recognition model with only a small-scale database. Here, we have thoroughly evaluated several types of configurations to explore an effective approach in fine-grained pedestrian action recognition without a large-scale database. Moreover, two different datasets have been collected in order to raise the issue. Finally, our proposal attained 91.01% on National Traffic Science and Environment Laboratory database (NTSEL and 53.23% on the near-miss driving recorder database (NDRDB. The paper has improved +8.28% and +6.53% from baseline two-stream fusion convnets.

  20. Temporal and Fine-Grained Pedestrian Action Recognition on Driving Recorder Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Hirokatsu; Satoh, Yutaka; Aoki, Yoshimitsu; Oikawa, Shoko; Matsui, Yasuhiro

    2018-02-20

    The paper presents an emerging issue of fine-grained pedestrian action recognition that induces an advanced pre-crush safety to estimate a pedestrian intention in advance. The fine-grained pedestrian actions include visually slight differences (e.g., walking straight and crossing), which are difficult to distinguish from each other. It is believed that the fine-grained action recognition induces a pedestrian intention estimation for a helpful advanced driver-assistance systems (ADAS). The following difficulties have been studied to achieve a fine-grained and accurate pedestrian action recognition: (i) In order to analyze the fine-grained motion of a pedestrian appearance in the vehicle-mounted drive recorder, a method to describe subtle change of motion characteristics occurring in a short time is necessary; (ii) even when the background moves greatly due to the driving of the vehicle, it is necessary to detect changes in subtle motion of the pedestrian; (iii) the collection of large-scale fine-grained actions is very difficult, and therefore a relatively small database should be focused. We find out how to learn an effective recognition model with only a small-scale database. Here, we have thoroughly evaluated several types of configurations to explore an effective approach in fine-grained pedestrian action recognition without a large-scale database. Moreover, two different datasets have been collected in order to raise the issue. Finally, our proposal attained 91.01% on National Traffic Science and Environment Laboratory database (NTSEL) and 53.23% on the near-miss driving recorder database (NDRDB). The paper has improved +8.28% and +6.53% from baseline two-stream fusion convnets.

  1. Macro-level safety analysis of pedestrian crashes in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuesong; Yang, Junguang; Lee, Chris; Ji, Zhuoran; You, Shikai

    2016-11-01

    Pedestrian safety has become one of the most important issues in the field of traffic safety. This study aims at investigating the association between pedestrian crash frequency and various predictor variables including roadway, socio-economic, and land-use features. The relationships were modeled using the data from 263 Traffic Analysis Zones (TAZs) within the urban area of Shanghai - the largest city in China. Since spatial correlation exists among the zonal-level data, Bayesian Conditional Autoregressive (CAR) models with seven different spatial weight features (i.e. (a) 0-1 first order, adjacency-based, (b) common boundary-length-based, (c) geometric centroid-distance-based, (d) crash-weighted centroid-distance-based, (e) land use type, adjacency-based, (f) land use intensity, adjacency-based, and (g) geometric centroid-distance-order) were developed to characterize the spatial correlations among TAZs. Model results indicated that the geometric centroid-distance-order spatial weight feature, which was introduced in macro-level safety analysis for the first time, outperformed all the other spatial weight features. Population was used as the surrogate for pedestrian exposure, and had a positive effect on pedestrian crashes. Other significant factors included length of major arterials, length of minor arterials, road density, average intersection spacing, percentage of 3-legged intersections, and area of TAZ. Pedestrian crashes were higher in TAZs with medium land use intensity than in TAZs with low and high land use intensity. Thus, higher priority should be given to TAZs with medium land use intensity to improve pedestrian safety. Overall, these findings can help transportation planners and managers understand the characteristics of pedestrian crashes and improve pedestrian safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Composite material pedestrian bridge for the Port of Bilbao

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorrochategui, I.; Manteca, C.; Yedra, A.; Miguel, R.; del Valle, F. J.

    2012-09-01

    Composite materials in comparison to traditional ones, steel and concrete, present advantages in civil works construction: lower weight, higher corrosion resistance (especially in the marine environment), and ease of installation. On the other hand, fabrication costs are generally higher. This is the reason why this technology is not widely used. This work illustrates the process followed for the design, fabrication and installation of a composite material pedestrian bridge in the Port of Bilbao (Northern Spain). In order to reduce the price of the bridge, the use of low cost materials was considered, therefore polyester resin was selected as the polymeric matrix, and glass fibres as reinforcement. Two material choices were studied. Currently in the market there is high availability of carbon nanoparticles: carbon nanotubes (CNT) and carbon nanofibres (CNF), so it was decided to add this kind of nanoparticles to the reference material with the objective of improving its mechanical properties. The main challenge was to transfer the CNT and CNF excellent properties to the polymeric matrix. This requires dispersing the nanoreinforcements as individual particles in the polymeric matrix to avoid agglomerates. For this reason, an advanced high shear forces dispersion technique (called "three roll mills") was studied and implemented. Also surface functionalization of the nanoreinforcements by chemical treatment was carried out. Herein, a comparison is performed between both materials studied, the explanation of the employment of the reference material (without nanoreinforcement) as the one used in the fabrication of the pedestrian bridge is justified and, finally, the main characteristics of the final design of the structural element are described.

  3. Shape memory alloy resetable spring lift for pedestrian protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Brian M.; Brei, Diann E.; Luntz, Jonathan E.; Strom, Kenneth; Browne, Alan L.; Johnson, Nancy

    2008-03-01

    Pedestrian protection has become an increasingly important aspect of automotive safety with new regulations taking effect around the world. Because it is increasingly difficult to meet these new regulations with traditional passive approaches, active lifts are being explored that increase the "crush zone" between the hood and rigid under-hood components as a means of mitigating the consequences of an impact with a non-occupant. Active lifts, however, are technically challenging because of the simultaneously high forces, stroke and quick timing resulting in most of the current devices being single use. This paper introduces the SMArt (Shape Memory Alloy ReseTable) Spring Lift, an automatically resetable and fully reusable device, which couples conventional standard compression springs to store the energy required for a hood lift, with Shape Memory Alloys actuators to achieve both an ultra high speed release of the spring and automatic reset of the system for multiple uses. Each of the four SMArt Device subsystems, lift, release, lower and reset/dissipate, are individually described. Two identical complete prototypes were fabricated and mounted at the rear corners of the hood, incorporated within a full-scale vehicle testbed at the SMARTT (Smart Material Advanced Research and Technology Transfer) lab at University of Michigan. Full operational cycle testing of a stationary vehicle in a laboratory setting confirms the ultrafast latch release, controlled lift profile, gravity lower to reposition the hood, and spring recompression via the ratchet engine successfully rearming the device for repeat cycles. While this is only a laboratory demonstration and extensive testing and development would be required for transition to a fielded product, this study does indicate that the SMArt Lift has promise as an alternative approach to pedestrian protection.

  4. Composite material pedestrian bridge for the Port of Bilbao

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorrochategui, I; Manteca, C; Yedra, A; Miguel, R; Valle, F J del

    2012-01-01

    Composite materials in comparison to traditional ones, steel and concrete, present advantages in civil works construction: lower weight, higher corrosion resistance (especially in the marine environment), and ease of installation. On the other hand, fabrication costs are generally higher. This is the reason why this technology is not widely used. This work illustrates the process followed for the design, fabrication and installation of a composite material pedestrian bridge in the Port of Bilbao (Northern Spain). In order to reduce the price of the bridge, the use of low cost materials was considered, therefore polyester resin was selected as the polymeric matrix, and glass fibres as reinforcement. Two material choices were studied. Currently in the market there is high availability of carbon nanoparticles: carbon nanotubes (CNT) and carbon nanofibres (CNF), so it was decided to add this kind of nanoparticles to the reference material with the objective of improving its mechanical properties. The main challenge was to transfer the CNT and CNF excellent properties to the polymeric matrix. This requires dispersing the nanoreinforcements as individual particles in the polymeric matrix to avoid agglomerates. For this reason, an advanced high shear forces dispersion technique (called 'three roll mills') was studied and implemented. Also surface functionalization of the nanoreinforcements by chemical treatment was carried out. Herein, a comparison is performed between both materials studied, the explanation of the employment of the reference material (without nanoreinforcement) as the one used in the fabrication of the pedestrian bridge is justified and, finally, the main characteristics of the final design of the structural element are described.

  5. Kinetic theory of situated agents applied to pedestrian flow in a corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-Huerta, A.; Muñoz-Meléndez, A.

    2010-03-01

    A situated agent-based model for simulation of pedestrian flow in a corridor is presented. In this model, pedestrians choose their paths freely and make decisions based on local criteria for solving collision conflicts. The crowd consists of multiple walking agents equipped with a function of perception as well as a competitive rule-based strategy that enables pedestrians to reach free access areas. Pedestrians in our model are autonomous entities capable of perceiving and making decisions. They apply socially accepted conventions, such as avoidance rules, as well as individual preferences such as the use of specific exit points, or the execution of eventual comfort turns resulting in spontaneous changes of walking speed. Periodic boundary conditions were considered in order to determine the density-average walking speed, and the density-average activity with respect to specific parameters: comfort angle turn and frequency of angle turn of walking agents. The main contribution of this work is an agent-based model where each pedestrian is represented as an autonomous agent. At the same time the pedestrian crowd dynamics is framed by the kinetic theory of biological systems.

  6. Effective environmental factors on geographical distribution of traffic accidents on pedestrians, downtown Tehran city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Ali; Soori, Hamid; Kavousi, Amir; Eshghabadi, Farshid; Nematollahi, Shahrzad; Zeini, Salahdien

    2017-01-01

    In most countries, occurrence of traffic causalities is high in pedestrians. The aim of this study is to geographically analyze the traffic casualties in pedestrians in downtown Tehran city. The study population consisted of traffic injury accidents in pedestrians occurred during 2015 in Tehran city. Data were extracted from offices of traffic police and municipality. For analysis of environmental factors and site of accidents, ordinary least square regression models and geographically weighted regression were used. Fitness and performance of models were checked using the Akaike information criteria, Bayesian information criteria, deviance, and adjusted R 2 . Totally, 514 accidents were included in this study. Of them, site of accidents was arterial streets in 370 (71.9%) cases, collector streets in 133 cases (25.2%), and highways in 11 cases (2.1%). Geographical units of traffic accidents in pedestrians had statistically significant relationship with a number of bus stations, number of crossroads, and recreational areas. Distribution of injury traffic accidents in pedestrians is different in downtown Tehran city. Neighborhoods close to markets are considered as most dangerous neighborhoods for injury traffic accidents. Different environmental factors are involved in determining the distribution of these accidents. The health of pedestrians in Tehran city can be improved by proper traffic management, control of environmental factors, and educational programs.

  7. A collision avoidance model for two-pedestrian groups: Considering random avoidance patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhuping; Cai, Yifei; Ke, Ruimin; Yang, Jiwei

    2017-06-01

    Grouping is a common phenomenon in pedestrian crowds and group modeling is still an open challenging problem. When grouping pedestrians avoid each other, different patterns can be observed. Pedestrians can keep close with group members and avoid other groups in cluster. Also, they can avoid other groups separately. Considering this randomness in avoidance patterns, we propose a collision avoidance model for two-pedestrian groups. In our model, the avoidance model is proposed based on velocity obstacle method at first. Then grouping model is established using Distance constrained line (DCL), by transforming DCL into the framework of velocity obstacle, the avoidance model and grouping model are successfully put into one unified calculation structure. Within this structure, an algorithm is developed to solve the problem when solutions of the two models conflict with each other. Two groups of bidirectional pedestrian experiments are designed to verify the model. The accuracy of avoidance behavior and grouping behavior is validated in the microscopic level, while the lane formation phenomenon and fundamental diagrams is validated in the macroscopic level. The experiments results show our model is convincing and has a good expansibility to describe three or more pedestrian groups.

  8. Qualitative comparison of north-american procedures for areawide pedestrian travel measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Greene-Roesel

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available

    There is no standard system for estimating area-wide pedestrian volumes in the United States. As a result, pedestrian volumes cannot be routinely used to guide transportation investments and monitoring measures performance. Vehicle volumes, by contrast, are measured systematically in each state and are reported to the Federal Highway Administration annually to be used in the allocation of federal funds. This paper investigates the advantages and disadvantages of three approaches to the creation of a standard system of pedestrian volume measurement: direct sampling, survey methods, and modeling. Examples of each method are given, and the potential of each to become a national standard is discussed. Of the three approaches, the modeling methods were judged to be most suitable for tracking pedestrian volumes at the national, state, and sub-state level. A standardized pedestrian volume modeling method could make use of existing data sources without generating the need for a new national pedestrian data collection effort.

  9. Epidemiology of pedestrian-MVCs by road type in Cluj, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Cara; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Rus, Diana

    2015-04-01

    Pedestrian-motor vehicle (PMV) crash rates in Romania are among the highest in all of Europe. The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics of pedestrian-MVCs in Cluj County, Romania, on the two major types of roadways: national or local. Cluj County police crash report data from 2010 were used to identify pedestrian, driver and crash characteristics of pedestrian-MVCs. Crashes with available location data were geocoded and road type (national or local) for each crash was determined. Distributions of crash characteristics were examined by road type and multivariable logistic regression models were built to determine predictors of crash road type. Crashes occurring on national roads involved more teenagers and adults, while those on local roads involved more young children (0-12) and older adults (65+) (pRomania. Results from this study suggest that factors leading to PMV crashes on national roads are more likely to involve driver-related causes compared with local roads. Intervention priorities to reduce pedestrian crashes on national roads should be directed towards driver behaviour on national roads. Further examination of driver and pedestrian behaviours related to crash risk on both national and local roads, such as distraction and speeding, is warranted. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Walk This Way: Improving Pedestrian Agent-Based Models through Scene Activity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Crooks

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrian movement is woven into the fabric of urban regions. With more people living in cities than ever before, there is an increased need to understand and model how pedestrians utilize and move through space for a variety of applications, ranging from urban planning and architecture to security. Pedestrian modeling has been traditionally faced with the challenge of collecting data to calibrate and validate such models of pedestrian movement. With the increased availability of mobility datasets from video surveillance and enhanced geolocation capabilities in consumer mobile devices we are now presented with the opportunity to change the way we build pedestrian models. Within this paper we explore the potential that such information offers for the improvement of agent-based pedestrian models. We introduce a Scene- and Activity-Aware Agent-Based Model (SA2-ABM, a method for harvesting scene activity information in the form of spatiotemporal trajectories, and incorporate this information into our models. In order to assess and evaluate the improvement offered by such information, we carry out a range of experiments using real-world datasets. We demonstrate that the use of real scene information allows us to better inform our model and enhance its predictive capabilities.

  11. Increased neurofibrillary tangles in the brains of older pedestrians killed in traffic accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorrie, C A; Rodriguez, M; Sachdev, P; Duflou, J; Waite, P M E

    2006-01-01

    Older people are over-represented in pedestrian fatalities, and it has been suggested that the presence of cognitive impairment or dementia in these individuals may contribute to their accidents. Using neuropathological methods, we aimed to compare the prevalence of dementia pathology in fatally injured older pedestrians with similarly aged ambulatory subjects who died from other causes. The brains of 52 pedestrians (65-93 years) and 52 controls (65-92 years) were assessed for neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), neuritic plaques, Lewy bodies and vascular lesions using established neuropathological criteria. The examination for Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology showed that 43% of the pedestrians had NFT scores of III-VI using Braak and Braak staging, compared with 23% of the controls (p vascular dementia or dementia with Lewy bodies. These results suggest that cognitive decline associated with AD, even in the earliest stages of the disease, may be a factor in fatal traffic accidents for older pedestrians. Special measures for pedestrian safety are necessary in areas with high densities of older citizens and especially for those diagnosed as having a mild cognitive impairment or AD.

  12. Public open spaces and walking for recreation: moderation by attributes of pedestrian environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Takemi; Paquet, Catherine; Howard, Natasha J; Coffee, Neil T; Taylor, Anne W; Adams, Robert J; Daniel, Mark

    2014-05-01

    This study examined whether attributes of pedestrian environments moderate the relationships between access to public open spaces (POS) and adults' recreational walking. Data were collected from participants of the North West Adelaide Health Study in 2007. Recreational walking was determined using self-reported walking frequency. Measures of POS access (presence, count, and distance to the nearest POS) were assessed using a Geographic Information System. Pedestrian environmental attributes included aesthetics, walking infrastructure, barrier/traffic, crime concern, intersection density, and access to walking trails. Regression analyses examined whether associations between POS access and recreational walking were moderated by pedestrian environmental attributes. The sample included 1574 participants (45% men, mean age: 55). POS access measures were not associated with recreational walking. However, aesthetics, walking infrastructure, and access to walking trail were found to moderate the POS-walking relationships. The presence of POS was associated with walking among participants with aesthetically pleasing pedestrian environments. Counter-intuitively, better access to POS was associated with recreational walking for those with poorer walking infrastructure or no access to walking trails. Local pedestrian environments moderate the relationships between access to POS and recreational walking. Our findings suggest the presence of complex relationships between POS availability and pedestrian environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Cellular automaton simulation of pedestrian counter flow with different walk velocities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, W. G.; Chen, T.; Yuan, H. Y.; Fan, W. C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a cellular automaton model without step back for pedestrian dynamics considering the human behaviors which can make judgments in some complex situations. This model can simulate pedestrian movement with different walk velocities through update at different time-step intervals. Two kinds of boundary conditions including periodic and open boundary for pedestrian counter flow are considered, and their dynamical characteristics are discussed. Simulation results show that for periodic boundary condition there are three phases of pedestrian patterns, i.e., freely moving phase, lane formation phase, and perfectly stopped phase at some certain total density ranges. In the stage of lane formation, the phenomenon that pedestrians exceed those with lower walk velocity through a narrow walkway can be found. For open boundary condition, at some certain entrance densities, there are two steady states of pedestrian patterns; but the first is metastable. Spontaneous fluctuations can break the first steady state, i.e., freely moving phase, and run into the second steady state, i.e., perfectly stopped phase

  14. Effect of Aspiration and Mean Gain on the Emergence of Cooperation in Unidirectional Pedestrian Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zi-Yang; Zhao Hui; Ma Jian; Qin Yong; Jia Li-Min; Zhu Wei

    2013-01-01

    When more than one pedestrian want to move to the same site, conflicts appear and thus the involved pedestrians play a motion game. In order to describe the emergence of cooperation during the conflict resolving process, an evolutionary cellular automation model is established considering the effect of aspiration and mean gain. In each game, pedestrian may be gentle cooperator or aggressive defector. We propose a set of win-stay-lose-shrift (WSLS) like rules for updating pedestrian's strategy. These rules prescribe that if the mean gain of current strategy between some given steps is larger than aspiration the strategy keeps, otherwise the strategy changes. The simulation results show that a high level aspiration will lead to more cooperation. With the increment of the statistic length, pedestrians will be more rational in decision making. It is also found that when the aspiration level is small enough and the statistic length is large enough all the pedestrian will turn to defectors. We use the prisoner's dilemma model to explain it. At last we discuss the effect of aspiration on fundamental diagram. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  15. Quieter Cars and the Safety of Blind Pedestrians, Phase 2 : Development of Potential Specifications for Vehicle Countermeasure Sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    This project performed research to support the development of potential specifications for vehicle : sounds, (i.e., audible countermeasures) to be used in vehicles while operating in electric mode in specific low speed : conditions. The purpose of th...

  16. Time-dependent spectral analysis of interactions within groups of walking pedestrians and vertical structural motion using wavelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocian, M.; Brownjohn, J. M. W.; Racic, V.; Hester, D.; Quattrone, A.; Gilbert, L.; Beasley, R.

    2018-05-01

    A multi-scale and multi-object interaction phenomena can arise when a group of walking pedestrians crosses a structure capable of exhibiting dynamic response. This is because each pedestrian is an autonomous dynamic system capable of displaying intricate behaviour affected by social, psychological, biomechanical and environmental factors, including adaptations to the structural motion. Despite a wealth of mathematical models attempting to describe and simulate coupled crowd-structure system, their applicability can generally be considered uncertain. This can be assigned to a number of assumptions made in their development and the scarcity or unavailability of data suitable for their validation, in particular those associated with pedestrian-pedestrian and pedestrian-structure interaction. To alleviate this problem, data on behaviour of individual pedestrians within groups of six walkers with different spatial arrangements are gathered simultaneously with data on dynamic structural response of a footbridge, from a series of measurements utilising wireless motion monitors. Unlike in previous studies on coordination of pedestrian behaviour, the collected data can serve as a proxy for pedestrian vertical force, which is of critical importance from the point of view of structural stability. A bivariate analysis framework is proposed and applied to these data, encompassing wavelet transform, synchronisation measures based on Shannon entropy and circular statistics. A topological pedestrian map is contrived showing the strength and directionality of between-subjects interactions. It is found that the coordination in pedestrians' vertical force depends on the spatial collocation within a group, but it is generally weak. The relationship between the bridge and pedestrian behaviour is also analysed, revealing stronger propensity for pedestrians to coordinate their force with the structural motion rather than with each other.

  17. Pedestrian crossing behavior, an observational study in the city of Ushuaia, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poó, Fernando Martín; Ledesma, Ruben Daniel; Trujillo, Roberto

    2018-04-03

    Pedestrian crashes are a critical problem in Latin American countries. However, little research has been published about pedestrians and even less about their behaviors in a naturalistic context. The objective of the present research was to explore risky pedestrian crossing behaviors in traffic intersections in an argentine city (Ushuaia). It is focused in different stages of the crossing process, traffic code violations, and other potentially risky behaviors such as distractions. A high frequency of risky behaviors among pedestrians was expected. Moreover, according to previous findings, it was hypothesized that men and younger pedestrians would show riskier behaviors. Participants were 802 pedestrians (53.9% females) observed at several intersections (with and without traffic lights) in the city of Ushuaia. Behaviors were codified following a standardized observation protocol. Observers documented information on behavior previous to, during, and after crossing. Gender and age were also registered. Data were gathered through video recording. Frequency analyses of observed behaviors were conducted for the total sample, as well as by gender and by age group. A general crossing risk index was calculated to facilitate comparisons between the genders and age groups. We conducted an analysis of variance to evaluate gender and age differences for this index. A high proportion of risky behaviors were observed among pedestrians. The majority of pedestrian waited in the street (as opposed to on the sidewalk) before crossing, did not comply with traffic lights, or crossed outside the crosswalk. A large number of pedestrians were distracted while crossing. Men presented higher scores on risky behaviors than women. No differences were observed by age group. The high level of risk behaviors during the different stages of street crossing is worrisome and reinforces the idea that pedestrians are responsible for many of the conflicts with motorists. Many of the risky behaviors

  18. Analysis of pedestrian accident costs in Sudan using the willingness-to-pay method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mofadal, Adam I A; Kanitpong, Kunnawee; Jiwattanakulpaisarn, Piyapong

    2015-05-01

    The willingness-to-pay (WTP) with contingent valuation (CV) method has been proven to be a valid tool for the valuation of non-market goods or socio-economic costs of road traffic accidents among communities in developed and developing countries. Research on accident costing tends to estimate the value of statistical life (VOSL) for all road users by providing a principle for the evaluation of road safety interventions in cost-benefit analysis. As in many other developing countries, the economic loss of traffic accidents in Sudan is noticeable; however, analytical research to estimate the magnitude and impact of that loss is lacking. Reports have shown that pedestrians account for more than 40% of the total number of fatalities. In this study, the WTP-CV approach was used to determine the amount of money that pedestrians in Sudan are willing to pay to reduce the risk of their own death. The impact of the socioeconomic factors, risk levels, and walking behaviors of pedestrians on their WTP for fatality risk reduction was also evaluated. Data were collected from two cities-Khartoum and Nyala-using a survey questionnaire that included 1400 respondents. The WTP-CV Payment Card Questionnaire was designed to ensure that Sudan pedestrians can easily determine the amount of money that would be required to reduce the fatality risk from a pedestrian-related accident. The analysis results show that the estimated VOSL for Sudanese pedestrians ranges from US$0.019 to US$0.101 million. In addition, the willingness-to-pay by Sudanese pedestrians to reduce their fatality risk tends to increase with age, household income, educational level, safety perception, and average time spent on social activities with family and community. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A cell-based study on pedestrian acceleration and overtaking in a transfer station corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiangfeng; Zhou, Xuemei; Ran, Bin

    2013-04-01

    Pedestrian speed in a transfer station corridor is faster than usual and sometimes running can be found among some of them. In this paper, pedestrians are divided into two categories. The first one is aggressive, and the other is conservative. Aggressive pedestrians weaving their way through crowd in the corridor are the study object of this paper. During recent decades, much attention has been paid to the pedestrians' behavior, such as overtaking (also deceleration) and collision avoidance, and that continues in this paper. After sufficiently analyzing the characteristics of pedestrian flow in transfer station corridor, a cell-based model is presented in this paper, including the acceleration (also deceleration) and overtaking analysis. Acceleration (also deceleration) in a corridor is fixed according to Newton's Law and then speed calculated with a kinematic formula is discretized into cells based on the fuzzy logic. After the speed is updated, overtaking is analyzed based on updated speed and force explicitly, compared to rule-based models, which herein we call implicit ones. During the analysis of overtaking, a threshold value to determine the overtaking direction is introduced. Actually, model in this paper is a two-step one. The first step is to update speed, which is the cells the pedestrian can move in one time interval and the other is to analyze the overtaking. Finally, a comparison between the rule-based cellular automata, the model in this paper and data in HCM 2000 is made to demonstrate our model can be used to achieve reasonable simulation of acceleration (also deceleration) and overtaking among pedestrians.

  20. Pedestrian-vehicle crashes and analytical techniques for stratified contingency tables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghamdi, Ali S

    2002-03-01

    In 1999 there were 450 fatalities due to road crashes in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia, of which 130 were pedestrians. Hence, every fourth person killed on the roads is a pedestrian. The aim of this study is to investigate pedestrian-vehicle crashes in this fast-growing city with two objectives in mind: to analyze pedestrian collisions with regard to their causes, characteristics, location of injury on the victim's body, and most common patterns and to determine the potential for use of the odds ratio technique in the analysis of stratified contingency tables. Data from 638 pedestrian-vehicle crashes reported by police, during the period 1997-1999, were used. A systematic sampling technique was followed in which every third record was used. The analysis showed that the pedestrian fatality rate per 10(5) population is 2.8. The rates were relatively high within the childhood (1-9 years) and young adult (10-19 years) groups, and the old-age groups (60 - > 80 years), which indicate that young as well as the elderly people in this city are more likely to be involved in fatal accidents of this type than are those in other age groups. The analysis revealed that 77.1% of pedestrians were probably struck while crossing a roadway either not in a crosswalk or where no crosswalk existed. In addition, the distribution of injuries on the victims' bodies was determined from hospital records. More than one-third of the fatal injuries were located on the head and chest. An attempt was made to conduct an association analysis between crash severity (i.e. injury or fatal) and some of the study variables using chi-square and odds ratio techniques. The categorical nature of the data helped in using these analytical techniques.

  1. Nighttime Foreground Pedestrian Detection Based on Three-Dimensional Voxel Surface Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrian detection is among the most frequently-used preprocessing tasks in many surveillance application fields, from low-level people counting to high-level scene understanding. Even though many approaches perform well in the daytime with sufficient illumination, pedestrian detection at night is still a critical and challenging problem for video surveillance systems. To respond to this need, in this paper, we provide an affordable solution with a near-infrared stereo network camera, as well as a novel three-dimensional foreground pedestrian detection model. Specifically, instead of using an expensive thermal camera, we build a near-infrared stereo vision system with two calibrated network cameras and near-infrared lamps. The core of the system is a novel voxel surface model, which is able to estimate the dynamic changes of three-dimensional geometric information of the surveillance scene and to segment and locate foreground pedestrians in real time. A free update policy for unknown points is designed for model updating, and the extracted shadow of the pedestrian is adopted to remove foreground false alarms. To evaluate the performance of the proposed model, the system is deployed in several nighttime surveillance scenes. Experimental results demonstrate that our method is capable of nighttime pedestrian segmentation and detection in real time under heavy occlusion. In addition, the qualitative and quantitative comparison results show that our work outperforms classical background subtraction approaches and a recent RGB-D method, as well as achieving comparable performance with the state-of-the-art deep learning pedestrian detection method even with a much lower hardware cost.

  2. Nighttime Foreground Pedestrian Detection Based on Three-Dimensional Voxel Surface Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Zhang, Fangbing; Wei, Lisong; Yang, Tao; Lu, Zhaoyang

    2017-10-16

    Pedestrian detection is among the most frequently-used preprocessing tasks in many surveillance application fields, from low-level people counting to high-level scene understanding. Even though many approaches perform well in the daytime with sufficient illumination, pedestrian detection at night is still a critical and challenging problem for video surveillance systems. To respond to this need, in this paper, we provide an affordable solution with a near-infrared stereo network camera, as well as a novel three-dimensional foreground pedestrian detection model. Specifically, instead of using an expensive thermal camera, we build a near-infrared stereo vision system with two calibrated network cameras and near-infrared lamps. The core of the system is a novel voxel surface model, which is able to estimate the dynamic changes of three-dimensional geometric information of the surveillance scene and to segment and locate foreground pedestrians in real time. A free update policy for unknown points is designed for model updating, and the extracted shadow of the pedestrian is adopted to remove foreground false alarms. To evaluate the performance of the proposed model, the system is deployed in several nighttime surveillance scenes. Experimental results demonstrate that our method is capable of nighttime pedestrian segmentation and detection in real time under heavy occlusion. In addition, the qualitative and quantitative comparison results show that our work outperforms classical background subtraction approaches and a recent RGB-D method, as well as achieving comparable performance with the state-of-the-art deep learning pedestrian detection method even with a much lower hardware cost.

  3. Motor vehicle and pedestrian collisions: burden of severe injury on major versus neighborhood roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Linda; Slater, Morgan; Meaney, Christopher; Howard, Andrew

    2010-02-01

    To determine whether the severity of injuries sustained by pedestrians involved in motor vehicle collisions varies by road type and age. All police-reported pedestrian motor vehicle collisions in the city of Toronto, Canada, between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2005, were analyzed. Geographic Information Systems software was used to determine whether the collisions occurred on major or neighborhood roads. Age-specific estimates of the burden of pedestrian collisions are presented. Odds ratios and 95 percent confidence intervals were calculated to examine age-specific relationships between injury severity and road type. A second analysis comparing the distribution of severe injury location between age groups was also performed. The majority of collisions involved adults (68%), although elderly pedestrians were overrepresented in fatal collisions (49%). Severe and fatal collisions involving working-age and elderly adult pedestrians were more likely on major roads. Odds of severe injury occurring on a major road were 1.36 (95% CI: 1.17-1.57) times higher for adults ages 18 to 64, and 1.55 (95% CI: 1.22-1.99) times higher for elderly aged 65+. By contrast, severe injuries among children were more common on neighborhood roads, with odds of severe injury on a major road of 0.64 (95% CI: 0.37-1.1) for children aged 5 to 9. Among children under 9, 64-67 percent of hospitalized or fatal injuries occurred on neighborhood roads, a marked difference from the distribution of such injuries in adults or the elderly, for whom only 29-30 percent of hospitalized or fatal injuries occurred on neighborhood roads (chi-square = 52.6, p roads alone will not make child pedestrians safer. Pedestrian interventions specific to children and focused on neighborhood roads must be considered in urban centers like Toronto.

  4. Agent Based Modeling and Simulation of Pedestrian Crowds In Panic Situations

    KAUST Repository

    Alrashed, Mohammed

    2016-11-01

    The increasing occurrence of panic stampedes during mass events has motivated studying the impact of panic on crowd dynamics and the simulation of pedestrian flows in panic situations. The lack of understanding of panic stampedes still causes hundreds of fatalities each year, not to mention the scarce methodical studies of panic behavior capable of envisaging such crowd dynamics. Under those circumstances, there are thousands of fatalities and twice that many of injuries every year caused be crowd stampede worldwide, despite the tremendous efforts of crowd control and massive numbers of safekeeping forces. Pedestrian crowd dynamics are generally predictable in high-density crowds where pedestrians cannot move freely and thus gives rise to self-propelling interactions between pedestrians. Although every pedestrian has personal preferences, the motion dynamics can be modeled as a social force in such crowds. These forces are representations of internal preferences and objectives to perform certain actions or movements. The corresponding forces can be controlled for each individual to represent a different variety of behaviors that can be associated with panic situations such as escaping danger, clustering, and pushing. In this thesis, we use an agent-based model of pedestrian behavior in panic situations to predict the collective human behavior in such crowd dynamics. The proposed simulations suggests a practical way to alleviate fatalities and minimize the evacuation time in panic situations. Moreover, we introduce contagious panic and pushing behavior, resulting in a more realistic crowd dynamics model. The proposed methodology describes the intensity and spread of panic for each individual as a function of distances between pedestrians.

  5. Evaluating the effect of advance yield markings and symbolic signs on vehicle-pedestrian conflicts at marked midblock crosswalks across multilane roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The Commonwealth of Massachusetts has made walkable communities a priority. Pedestrian safety is key to the success of : this objective. Pedestrians are at high risk when traversing unsignalized, marked crosswalks located either midblock or at Tinter...

  6. Exit selection strategy in pedestrian evacuation simulation with multi-exits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Hao; Zhang Bin-Ya; Shao Chun-Fu; Xing Yan

    2014-01-01

    A mixed strategy of the exit selection in a pedestrian evacuation simulation with multi-exits is constructed by fusing the distance-based and time-based strategies through a cognitive coefficient, in order to reduce the evacuation imbalance caused by the asymmetry of exits or pedestrian layout, to find a critical density to distinguish whether the strategy of exit selection takes effect or not, and to analyze the exit selection results with different cognitive coefficients. The strategy of exit selection is embedded in the computation of the shortest estimated distance in a dynamic parameter model, in which the concept of a jam area layer and the procedure of step-by-step expending are introduced. Simulation results indicate the characteristics of evacuation time gradually varying against cognitive coefficient and the effectiveness of reducing evacuation imbalance caused by the asymmetry of pedestrian or exit layout. It is found that there is a critical density to distinguish whether a pedestrian jam occurs in the evacuation and whether an exit selection strategy is in effect. It is also shown that the strategy of exit selection has no effect on the evacuation process in the no-effect phase with a low density, and that evacuation time and exit selection are dependent on the cognitive coefficient and pedestrian initial density in the in-effect phase with a high density. (general)

  7. Zero velocity interval detection based on a continuous hidden Markov model in micro inertial pedestrian navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Ding, Wei; Yan, Huifang; Duan, Shunli

    2018-06-01

    Shoe-mounted pedestrian navigation systems based on micro inertial sensors rely on zero velocity updates to correct their positioning errors in time, which effectively makes determining the zero velocity interval play a key role during normal walking. However, as walking gaits are complicated, and vary from person to person, it is difficult to detect walking gaits with a fixed threshold method. This paper proposes a pedestrian gait classification method based on a hidden Markov model. Pedestrian gait data are collected with a micro inertial measurement unit installed at the instep. On the basis of analyzing the characteristics of the pedestrian walk, a single direction angular rate gyro output is used to classify gait features. The angular rate data are modeled into a univariate Gaussian mixture model with three components, and a four-state left–right continuous hidden Markov model (CHMM) is designed to classify the normal walking gait. The model parameters are trained and optimized using the Baum–Welch algorithm and then the sliding window Viterbi algorithm is used to decode the gait. Walking data are collected through eight subjects walking along the same route at three different speeds; the leave-one-subject-out cross validation method is conducted to test the model. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can accurately detect different walking gaits of zero velocity interval. The location experiment shows that the precision of CHMM-based pedestrian navigation improved by 40% when compared to the angular rate threshold method.

  8. Probabilistic assessment of the dynamic interaction between multiple pedestrians and vertical vibrations of footbridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubino, Federica

    2018-03-01

    The effect of human-structure interaction in the vertical direction for footbridges is studied based on a probabilistic approach. The bridge is modeled as a continuous dynamic system, while pedestrians are schematized as moving single-degree-of-freedom systems with random dynamic properties. The non-dimensional form of the equations of motion allows us to obtain results that can be applied in a very wide set of cases. An extensive Monte Carlo simulation campaign is performed, varying the main non-dimensional parameters identified, and the mean values and coefficients of variation of the damping ratio and of the non-dimensional natural frequency of the coupled system are reported. The results obtained can be interpreted from two different points of view. If the characterization of pedestrians' equivalent dynamic parameters is assumed as uncertain, as revealed from a current literature review, then the paper provides a range of possible variations of the coupled system damping ratio and natural frequency as a function of pedestrians' parameters. Assuming that a reliable characterization of pedestrians' dynamic parameters is available (which is not the case at present, but could be in the future), the results presented can be adopted to estimate the damping ratio and natural frequency of the coupled footbridge-pedestrian system for a very wide range of real structures.

  9. Effect of interactions between vehicles and pedestrians on fuel consumption and emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Sun, Jian-Qiao

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a study of variations of fuel consumption and emissions of vehicles due to random street crossings of pedestrians. The pedestrian and vehicle movement models as well as the interaction model between the two entities are presented. Extensive numerical simulations of single and multiple cars are carried out to investigate the traffic flow rate, vehicle average speed, fuel consumption, CO, HC and NOx emissions. Generally more noncompliant road-crossings of pedestrians lead to higher level of fuel consumptions and emissions of vehicles, and the traffic situation can be improved by imposing higher vehicle speed limit to some extent. Different traffic characteristics in low and high vehicle density regions are studied. The traffic flow is more influenced by crossing pedestrians in the low vehicle density region, while in the high vehicle density region, the interactions among vehicles dominate. The main contribution of this paper lies in the qualitative analysis of the impact of the interactions between pedestrians and vehicles on the traffic, its energy economy and emissions.

  10. Systematic review and meta-analysis of behavioral interventions to improve child pedestrian safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwebel, David C; Barton, Benjamin K; Shen, Jiabin; Wells, Hayley L; Bogar, Ashley; Heath, Gretchen; McCullough, David

    2014-09-01

    Pedestrian injuries represent a pediatric public health challenge. This systematic review/meta-analysis evaluated behavioral interventions to teach children pedestrian safety. Multiple strategies derived eligible manuscripts (published before April 1, 2013, randomized design, evaluated behavioral child pedestrian safety interventions). Screening 1,951 abstracts yielded 125 full-text retrievals. 25 were retained for data extraction, and 6 were later omitted due to insufficient data. In all, 19 articles reporting 25 studies were included. Risk of bias and quality of evidence were assessed. Behavioral interventions generally improve children's pedestrian safety, both immediately after training and at follow-up several months later. Quality of the evidence was low to moderate. Available evidence suggested interventions targeting dash-out prevention, crossing at parked cars, and selecting safe routes across intersections were effective. Individualized/small-group training for children was the most effective training strategy based on available evidence. Behaviorally based interventions improve children's pedestrian safety. Efforts should continue to develop creative, cost-efficient, and effective interventions. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Evaluation of users' satisfaction on pedestrian facilities using pair-wise comparison approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainol, R.; Ahmad, F.; Nordin, N. A.; Aripin, A. W. M.

    2014-02-01

    Global climate change issues demand people of the world to change the way they live today. Thus, current cities need to be redeveloped towards less use of carbon in their day to day operations. Pedestrianized environment is one of the approaches used in reducing carbon foot print in cities. Heritage cities are the first to be looked into since they were built in the era in which motorized vehicles were minimal. Therefore, the research explores users' satisfaction on assessment of physical attributes of pedestrianization in Melaka Historical City, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It aims to examine users' satisfaction on pedestrian facilities provided within the study area using pair wise questionnaire comparison approach. A survey of 200 respondents using random sampling was conducted in six different sites namely Jonker Street, Church Street, Kota Street, Goldsmith Street, Merdeka Street to Taming Sari Tower and Merdeka Street to River Cruise terminal. The survey consists of an assessment tool based on a nine-point scale of users' satisfaction level of pathway properties, zebra pedestrian crossing, street furniture, personal safety, adjacent to traffic flow, aesthetic and amenities. Analytical hierarchical process (AHP) was used to avoid any biasness in analyzing the data collected. Findings show that Merdeka Street to Taming Sari Tower as the street that scores the highest satisfaction level that fulfils all the required needs of a pedestrianized environment. Similar assessment elements can be used to evaluate existing streets in other cities and these criteria should also be used in planning for future cities.

  12. Simulating large-scale pedestrian movement using CA and event driven model: Methodology and case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Fu, Siyao; He, Haibo; Jia, Hongfei; Li, Yanzhong; Guo, Yi

    2015-11-01

    Large-scale regional evacuation is an important part of national security emergency response plan. Large commercial shopping area, as the typical service system, its emergency evacuation is one of the hot research topics. A systematic methodology based on Cellular Automata with the Dynamic Floor Field and event driven model has been proposed, and the methodology has been examined within context of a case study involving the evacuation within a commercial shopping mall. Pedestrians walking is based on Cellular Automata and event driven model. In this paper, the event driven model is adopted to simulate the pedestrian movement patterns, the simulation process is divided into normal situation and emergency evacuation. The model is composed of four layers: environment layer, customer layer, clerk layer and trajectory layer. For the simulation of movement route of pedestrians, the model takes into account purchase intention of customers and density of pedestrians. Based on evacuation model of Cellular Automata with Dynamic Floor Field and event driven model, we can reflect behavior characteristics of customers and clerks at the situations of normal and emergency evacuation. The distribution of individual evacuation time as a function of initial positions and the dynamics of the evacuation process is studied. Our results indicate that the evacuation model using the combination of Cellular Automata with Dynamic Floor Field and event driven scheduling can be used to simulate the evacuation of pedestrian flows in indoor areas with complicated surroundings and to investigate the layout of shopping mall.

  13. Experimental and modeling study on relation of pedestrian step length and frequency under different headways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Guang; Cao, Shuchao; Liu, Chi; Song, Weiguo

    2018-06-01

    It is important to study pedestrian stepping behavior and characteristics for facility design and pedestrian flow study due to pedestrians' bipedal movement. In this paper, data of steps are extracted based on trajectories of pedestrians from a single-file experiment. It is found that step length and step frequency will decrease 75% and 33%, respectively, when global density increases from 0.46 ped/m to 2.28 ped/m. With the increment of headway, they will first increase and then remain constant when the headway is beyond 1.16 m and 0.91 m, respectively. Step length and frequency under different headways can be described well by normal distributions. Meanwhile, relationships between step length and frequency under different headways exist. Step frequency decreases with the increment of step length. However, the decrease tendencies depend on headways as a whole. And there are two decrease tendencies: when the headway is between about 0.6 m and 1.0 m, the decrease rate of the step frequency will increase with the increment of step length; while it will decrease when the headway is beyond about 1.0 m and below about 0.6 m. A model is built based on the experiment results. In fundamental diagrams, the results of simulation agree well with those of experiment. The study can be helpful for understanding pedestrian stepping behavior and designing public facilities.

  14. Using smartphone technology to deliver a virtual pedestrian environment: usability and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwebel, David C; Severson, Joan; He, Yefei

    2017-09-01

    Various programs effectively teach children to cross streets more safely, but all are labor- and cost-intensive. Recent developments in mobile phone technology offer opportunity to deliver virtual reality pedestrian environments to mobile smartphone platforms. Such an environment may offer a cost- and labor-effective strategy to teach children to cross streets safely. This study evaluated usability, feasibility, and validity of a smartphone-based virtual pedestrian environment. A total of 68 adults completed 12 virtual crossings within each of two virtual pedestrian environments, one delivered by smartphone and the other a semi-immersive kiosk virtual environment. Participants completed self-report measures of perceived realism and simulator sickness experienced in each virtual environment, plus self-reported demographic and personality characteristics. All participants followed system instructions and used the smartphone-based virtual environment without difficulty. No significant simulator sickness was reported or observed. Users rated the smartphone virtual environment as highly realistic. Convergent validity was detected, with many aspects of pedestrian behavior in the smartphone-based virtual environment matching behavior in the kiosk virtual environment. Anticipated correlations between personality and kiosk virtual reality pedestrian behavior emerged for the smartphone-based system. A smartphone-based virtual environment can be usable and valid. Future research should develop and evaluate such a training system.

  15. Modeling of pedestrian evacuation based on the particle swarm optimization algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yaochen; Chen, Jianqiao; Wei, Junhong; Guo, Xiwei

    2012-09-01

    By applying the evolutionary algorithm of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), we have developed a new pedestrian evacuation model. In the new model, we first introduce the local pedestrian’s density concept which is defined as the number of pedestrians distributed in a certain area divided by the area. Both the maximum velocity and the size of a particle (pedestrian) are supposed to be functions of the local density. An attempt to account for the impact consequence between pedestrians is also made by introducing a threshold of injury into the model. The updating rule of the model possesses heterogeneous spatial and temporal characteristics. Numerical examples demonstrate that the model is capable of simulating the typical features of evacuation captured by CA (Cellular Automata) based models. As contrast to CA-based simulations, in which the velocity (via step size) of a pedestrian in each time step is a constant value and limited in several directions, the new model is more flexible in describing pedestrians’ velocities since they are not limited in discrete values and directions according to the new updating rule.

  16. Issues and challenges for pedestrian active safety systems based on real world accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdane, Hédi; Serre, Thierry; Masson, Catherine; Anderson, Robert

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze real crashes involving pedestrians in order to evaluate the potential effectiveness of autonomous emergency braking systems (AEB) in pedestrian protection. A sample of 100 real accident cases were reconstructed providing a comprehensive set of data describing the interaction between the vehicle, the environment and the pedestrian all along the scenario of the accident. A generic AEB system based on a camera sensor for pedestrian detection was modeled in order to identify the functionality of its different attributes in the timeline of each crash scenario. These attributes were assessed to determine their impact on pedestrian safety. The influence of the detection and the activation of the AEB system were explored by varying the field of view (FOV) of the sensor and the level of deceleration. A FOV of 35° was estimated to be required to detect and react to the majority of crash scenarios. For the reaction of a system (from hazard detection to triggering the brakes), between 0.5 and 1s appears necessary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Far-infrared pedestrian detection for advanced driver assistance systems using scene context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guohua; Liu, Qiong; Wu, Qingyao

    2016-04-01

    Pedestrian detection is one of the most critical but challenging components in advanced driver assistance systems. Far-infrared (FIR) images are well-suited for pedestrian detection even in a dark environment. However, most current detection approaches just focus on pedestrian patterns themselves, where robust and real-time detection cannot be well achieved. We propose a fast FIR pedestrian detection approach, called MAP-HOGLBP-T, to explicitly exploit the scene context for the driver assistance system. In MAP-HOGLBP-T, three algorithms are developed to exploit the scene contextual information from roads, vehicles, and background objects of high homogeneity, and we employ the Bayesian approach to build a classifier learner which respects the scene contextual information. We also develop a multiframe approval scheme to enhance the detection performance based on spatiotemporal continuity of pedestrians. Our empirical study on real-world datasets has demonstrated the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed method. The performance is shown to be better than that of state-of-the-art low-level feature-based approaches.

  18. Walking and child pedestrian injury: a systematic review of built environment correlates of safe walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Linda; Buliung, Ron; Macarthur, Colin; To, Teresa; Howard, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    The child active transportation literature has focused on walking, with little attention to risk associated with increased traffic exposure. This paper reviews the literature related to built environment correlates of walking and pedestrian injury in children together, to broaden the current conceptualization of walkability to include injury prevention. Two independent searches were conducted focused on walking in children and child pedestrian injury within nine electronic databases until March, 2012. Studies were included which: 1) were quantitative 2) set in motorized countries 3) were either urban or suburban 4) investigated specific built environment risk factors 5) had outcomes of either walking in children and/or child pedestrian roadway collisions (ages 0-12). Built environment features were categorized according to those related to density, land use diversity or roadway design. Results were cross-tabulated to identify how built environment features associate with walking and injury. Fifty walking and 35 child pedestrian injury studies were identified. Only traffic calming and presence of playgrounds/recreation areas were consistently associated with more walking and less pedestrian injury. Several built environment features were associated with more walking, but with increased injury. Many features had inconsistent results or had not been investigated for either outcome. The findings emphasise the importance of incorporating safety into the conversation about creating more walkable cities.

  19. A thermostatted kinetic theory model for event-driven pedestrian dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianca, Carlo; Mogno, Caterina

    2018-06-01

    This paper is devoted to the modeling of the pedestrian dynamics by means of the thermostatted kinetic theory. Specifically the microscopic interactions among pedestrians and an external force field are modeled for simulating the evacuation of pedestrians from a metro station. The fundamentals of the stochastic game theory and the thermostatted kinetic theory are coupled for the derivation of a specific mathematical model which depicts the time evolution of the distribution of pedestrians at different exits of a metro station. The perturbation theory is employed in order to establish the stability analysis of the nonequilibrium stationary states in the case of a metro station consisting of two exits. A general sensitivity analysis on the initial conditions, the magnitude of the external force field and the number of exits is presented by means of numerical simulations which, in particular, show how the asymptotic distribution and the convergence time are affected by the presence of an external force field. The results show how, in evacuation conditions, the interaction dynamics among pedestrians can be negligible with respect to the external force. The important role of the thermostat term in allowing the reaching of the nonequilibrium stationary state is stressed out. Research perspectives are underlined at the end of paper, in particular for what concerns the derivation of frameworks that take into account the definition of local external actions and the introduction of the space and velocity dynamics.

  20. Laser-based pedestrian tracking in outdoor environments by multiple mobile robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Masataka; Kakimuma, Kei; Hashimoto, Masafumi; Takahashi, Kazuhiko

    2012-10-29

    This paper presents an outdoors laser-based pedestrian tracking system using a group of mobile robots located near each other. Each robot detects pedestrians from its own laser scan image using an occupancy-grid-based method, and the robot tracks the detected pedestrians via Kalman filtering and global-nearest-neighbor (GNN)-based data association. The tracking data is broadcast to multiple robots through intercommunication and is combined using the covariance intersection (CI) method. For pedestrian tracking, each robot identifies its own posture using real-time-kinematic GPS (RTK-GPS) and laser scan matching. Using our cooperative tracking method, all the robots share the tracking data with each other; hence, individual robots can always recognize pedestrians that are invisible to any other robot. The simulation and experimental results show that cooperating tracking provides the tracking performance better than conventional individual tracking does. Our tracking system functions in a decentralized manner without any central server, and therefore, this provides a degree of scalability and robustness that cannot be achieved by conventional centralized architectures.

  1. Methodology for assessing the lighting of pedestrian crossings based on light intensity parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomczuk Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the possible preventive measures that could improve safety at crossings is to assess the state of illumination of the lighting installation located in the transition area for pedestrians. The City of Warsaw has undertaken to comprehensively assess the pedestrian crossings to determine the level of road safety and the condition of lighting. The lighting conditions related to pedestrian crossings without traffic lights in three central districts of the city were investigated. The conducted field research and the work of the team of experts lead to the development of tools to assess the level of risk due to the lighting conditions measured at night. The newly developed and used method of assessment and the experience gained should provide a valuable contribution to the development of uniform risk assessment rules for pedestrian crossings in Poland. The authors of this paper have attempted to systematize the description of the method of evaluation of the lighting installed in the area of pedestrian crossings.

  2. Fuzzy Logic-Based Model That Incorporates Personality Traits for Heterogeneous Pedestrians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuxin Xue

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Most models designed to simulate pedestrian dynamical behavior are based on the assumption that human decision-making can be described using precise values. This study proposes a new pedestrian model that incorporates fuzzy logic theory into a multi-agent system to address cognitive behavior that introduces uncertainty and imprecision during decision-making. We present a concept of decision preferences to represent the intrinsic control factors of decision-making. To realize the different decision preferences of heterogeneous pedestrians, the Five-Factor (OCEAN personality model is introduced to model the psychological characteristics of individuals. Then, a fuzzy logic-based approach is adopted for mapping the relationships between the personality traits and the decision preferences. Finally, we have developed an application using our model to simulate pedestrian dynamical behavior in several normal or non-panic scenarios, including a single-exit room, a hallway with obstacles, and a narrowing passage. The effectiveness of the proposed model is validated with a user study. The results show that the proposed model can generate more reasonable and heterogeneous behavior in the simulation and indicate that individual personality has a noticeable effect on pedestrian dynamical behavior.

  3. Multiscale model for pedestrian and infection dynamics during air travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namilae, Sirish; Derjany, Pierrot; Mubayi, Anuj; Scotch, Mathew; Srinivasan, Ashok

    2017-05-01

    In this paper we develop a multiscale model combining social-force-based pedestrian movement with a population level stochastic infection transmission dynamics framework. The model is then applied to study the infection transmission within airplanes and the transmission of the Ebola virus through casual contacts. Drastic limitations on air-travel during epidemics, such as during the 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa, carry considerable economic and human costs. We use the computational model to evaluate the effects of passenger movement within airplanes and air-travel policies on the geospatial spread of infectious diseases. We find that boarding policy by an airline is more critical for infection propagation compared to deplaning policy. Enplaning in two sections resulted in fewer infections than the currently followed strategy with multiple zones. In addition, we found that small commercial airplanes are better than larger ones at reducing the number of new infections in a flight. Aggregated results indicate that passenger movement strategies and airplane size predicted through these network models can have significant impact on an event like the 2014 Ebola epidemic. The methodology developed here is generic and can be readily modified to incorporate the impact from the outbreak of other directly transmitted infectious diseases.

  4. Clogging arches in grains, colloids, and pedestrians flowing through constrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuriguel, Iker

    When a group of particles pass through a narrow orifice, the flow might become intermittent due to the development of clogs that obstruct the constriction. This effect has been observed in many different fields such as mining transport, microbial growing, crowd dynamics, colloids, granular and active matter. In this work we introduce a general framework in which research in some of such scenarios can be encompassed. In particular, we analyze the statistical properties of the bottleneck flow in different experiments and simulations: granular media within vibrated silos, colloids, a flock of sheep and pedestrian evacuations. We reveal a common phenomenology that allows us to rigorously define a transition to a clogged state. Using this definition we explore the main variables involved, which are then grouped into three generic parameters. In addition, we will present results of the geometrical characteristics that the clogging arches have which are related with their stability against perturbations. We experimentally analyse the temporal evolution of the arches evidencing important differences among the structures that are easily destroyed and those that seem to resist forever (longer than the temporal window employed in our measurements). Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (Spanish Government). Project No. FIS2014-57325.

  5. An Accurate Framework for Arbitrary View Pedestrian Detection in Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Y.; Wen, G.; Qiu, S.

    2018-01-01

    We consider the problem of detect pedestrian under from images collected under various viewpoints. This paper utilizes a novel framework called locality-constrained affine subspace coding (LASC). Firstly, the positive training samples are clustered into similar entities which represent similar viewpoint. Then Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is used to obtain the shared feature of each viewpoint. Finally, the samples that can be reconstructed by linear approximation using their top- k nearest shared feature with a small error are regarded as a correct detection. No negative samples are required for our method. Histograms of orientated gradient (HOG) features are used as the feature descriptors, and the sliding window scheme is adopted to detect humans in images. The proposed method exploits the sparse property of intrinsic information and the correlations among the multiple-views samples. Experimental results on the INRIA and SDL human datasets show that the proposed method achieves a higher performance than the state-of-the-art methods in form of effect and efficiency.

  6. Applied gis software for improving pedestrian & bicycle safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ziari

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available People are important in towns. They are the foundation of the social and economic processes that drive the urban system and sustain the urban fabric. While people spend much of their time inside buildings – at home, at work, and at play – it is the movement of people, whether in vehicles or on foot, that is indicative of the vibrancy of the town. Comfort and safety are important for people movement. The crash data in cities, provinces started with the Traffic Organization of Inner Ministry looking at access management controls on functionally classified streets. Safety is a driving factor in access management and the crash reports are the best indicator of the lack of safe roads. This paper presents the development and findings of crash data from police reports and how they are being used in Geographic Information System (GIS. This tool generates a contour map identifying areas of high crash occurrence determined by crash density and clusters of crashes involving pedestrians or bicyclists. Summary statistics of the selected zones can be generated and displayed in a table or chart form.

  7. Assessing Pedestrian Accessibility to Green Space Using Gis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor MORAR

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at comparing the parameter of green space per capita currently requested by the Romanian legislation to accessible green space per capita. The comparison is undertaken through a Geographic Information System methodology that uses publicly available data to evaluate actual population numbers with pedestrian access to parks and green squares. Using the city of Timișoara as a case study, population is divided into three main groups according to neigh borhood type in order to investigate the urban planning implications of residential typologies in relation to green space. Two scenarios are compared, namely the existing situation which describes access to municipally-administered parks and squares and the possible situation where both existing and informal green spaces are considered. The main findings show that, at present, only a quarter of the city’s population benefits from proper access, yet by developing all residual green areas this proportion could be raised to over 40%. However, the current parameter of square meters per person requested by the Romanian legislation proves to be insufficient in indicating green space accessibility because of the uneven distribution of population and green areas across the city.

  8. Master plans for pedestrian and bicycle transportation: community characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, Lesley; Doescher, Mark; Levinger, David; Perry, Cynthia; Carter, Louise; Eyler, Amy; Aytur, Semra; Cradock, Angie L I; Evenson, Kelly R; Heinrich, Katie; Kerr, Jacqueline; Litt, Jill; Severcan, Yucel; Voorhees, Carolyn

    2010-03-01

    Recent research demonstrates the importance of targeting the built environment to support individual physical activity, particularly for people experiencing health disparities. Master plans to promote biking and/or pedestrians (BPMPs) are a potential method for environmental change. This descriptive study aims to provide a snapshot of plan attributes and better understand demographic, social and transportation characteristics of communities with BPMPs. We collected a census sample of BPMPs from 4 states. Population and commuting data were obtained from national statistics. 294 master plans were included, with most plans representing municipalities. 62% of plans targeted biking only, one-fifth targeted biking and walking, and 15% targeted walking only. The sampled locations have a similar demographic profile as the overall U.S. for median age and household income, people of color, high school education, and income inequality. The degree of racial diversity of sampled communities is slightly less than the U.S. average and the percentage of people who walk to work were slightly higher. Given that communities with master plans have a similar profile as the overall U.S., BPMPs could feasibly be spread to communities throughout the country. Further research is planned to describe BPMPs in detail toward informing future plan development.

  9. Aggregated channels network for real-time pedestrian detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorban, Farzin; Marín, Javier; Su, Yu; Colombo, Alessandro; Kummert, Anton

    2018-04-01

    Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have demonstrated their superiority in numerous computer vision tasks, yet their computational cost results prohibitive for many real-time applications such as pedestrian detection which is usually performed on low-consumption hardware. In order to alleviate this drawback, most strategies focus on using a two-stage cascade approach. Essentially, in the first stage a fast method generates a significant but reduced amount of high quality proposals that later, in the second stage, are evaluated by the CNN. In this work, we propose a novel detection pipeline that further benefits from the two-stage cascade strategy. More concretely, the enriched and subsequently compressed features used in the first stage are reused as the CNN input. As a consequence, a simpler network architecture, adapted for such small input sizes, allows to achieve real-time performance and obtain results close to the state-of-the-art while running significantly faster without the use of GPU. In particular, considering that the proposed pipeline runs in frame rate, the achieved performance is highly competitive. We furthermore demonstrate that the proposed pipeline on itself can serve as an effective proposal generator.

  10. Factors influencing safety in a sample of marked pedestrian crossings selected for safety inspections in the city of Oslo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvik, Rune; Sørensen, Michael W J; Nævestad, Tor-Olav

    2013-10-01

    This paper reports an analysis of factors influencing safety in a sample of marked pedestrian crossings in the city of Oslo, Norway. The sample consists of 159 marked pedestrian crossings where a total of 316 accidents were recorded during a period of five years. The crossings were selected for inspection because of they were, for various reasons, regarded as sub-standard. The sample of crossings is therefore not representative of all pedestrian crossings in Oslo. Factors influencing the number of accidents were studied by means of negative binomial regression. Factors that were studied included the volume of pedestrians and vehicles, the number of traffic lanes at the crossing, the location of the crossing (midblock or junction), the type of traffic control, the share of pedestrians using the crossing and the speed of approaching vehicles. The analysis confirmed the presence of a "safety-in-numbers" effect, meaning that an increase in the number of pedestrians is associated with a lower risk of accident for each pedestrian. Crossings located in four-leg junctions or roundabouts had more accidents than crossings located in three-leg junctions or on sections between junctions. A high share of pedestrians crossing the road outside the marked crossing was associated with a high number of accidents. Increased speed was associated with an increased number of accidents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of street canyon design on pedestrian thermal comfort in the hot-humid area of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yufeng; Du, Xiaohan; Shi, Yurong

    2017-08-01

    The design characteristics of street canyons were investigated in Guangzhou in the hot-humid area of China, and the effects of the design factors and their interactions on pedestrian thermal comfort were studied by numerical simulations. The ENVI-met V4.0 (BASIC) model was validated by field observations and used to simulate the micrometeorological conditions and the standard effective temperature (SET) at pedestrian level of the street canyons for a typical summer day of Guangzhou. The results show that the micrometeorological parameters of mean radiant temperature (MRT) and wind speed play key roles in pedestrian thermal comfort. Street orientation has the largest contribution on SET at pedestrian level, followed by aspect ratio and greenery, while surface albedo and interactions between factors have small contributions. The street canyons oriented southeast-northwest or with a higher aspect ratio provide more shade, higher wind speed, and better thermal comfort conditions for pedestrians. Compared with the east-west-oriented street canyons, the north-south-oriented street canyons have higher MRTs and worse pedestrian thermal comfort due to their wider building spacing along the street. The effects of greenery change with the road width and the time of the day. Street canyon design is recommended to improve pedestrian thermal comfort. This study provides a better understanding of the effects of street canyon design on pedestrian thermal comfort and is a useful guide on urban design for the hot-humid area of China.

  12. Simulating bi-directional pedestrian flow in a cellular automaton model considering the body-turning behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Cheng-Jie; Jiang, Rui; Yin, Jun-Lin; Dong, Li-Yun; Li, Dawei

    2017-09-01

    In the experiments of bi-directional pedestrian flow, it is often observed that pedestrians turn their bodies and change from walking straight to walking sideways, in order to mitigate or avoid the conflicts with opposite walking ones. When these conflicts disappear, pedestrians restore and walk straight again. In the turning states, the forward velocities of pedestrians are not affected. In order to simulate this body-turning behavior, we use a cellular automaton (CA) model named ITP model, which has been proposed before. But the occupied area of one pedestrian is set as 0.4 m∗0.2 m. After the introduction of new rules of turnings and restorations, the pedestrians become more intelligent and flexible during the lane formation process, and some improvements of the fundamental diagram of pedestrian flow can be found. The simulation results of two different scenarios under open boundary conditions are also presented, and compared with the experimental data. It is shown that the new model performs much better than the original model in various tests, which further confirms the validity of the new rules. We think this approach is one useful contribution to the pedestrian flow modeling.

  13. Improving Inertial Pedestrian Dead-Reckoning by Detecting Unmodified Switched-on Lamps in Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio R. Jiménez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how inertial Pedestrian Dead-Reckoning (PDR location systems can be improved with the use of a light sensor to measure the illumination gradients created when a person walks under ceiling-mounted unmodified indoor lights. The process of updating the inertial PDR estimates with the information provided by light detections is a new concept that we have named Light-matching (LM. The displacement and orientation change of a person obtained by inertial PDR is used by the LM method to accurately propagate the location hypothesis, and vice versa; the LM approach benefits the PDR approach by obtaining an absolute localization and reducing the PDR-alone drift. Even from an initially unknown location and orientation, whenever the person passes below a switched-on light spot, the location likelihood is iteratively updated until it potentially converges to a unimodal probability density function. The time to converge to a unimodal position hypothesis depends on the number of lights detected and the asymmetries/irregularities of the spatial distribution of lights. The proposed LM method does not require any intensity illumination calibration, just the pre-storage of the position and size of all lights in a building, irrespective of their current on/off state. This paper presents a detailed description of the light-matching concept, the implementation details of the LM-assisted PDR fusion scheme using a particle filter, and several simulated and experimental tests, using a light sensor-equipped Galaxy S3 smartphone and an external foot-mounted inertial sensor. The evaluation includes the LM-assisted PDR approach as well as the fusion with other signals of opportunity (WiFi, RFID, Magnetometers or Map-matching in order to compare their contribution in obtaining high accuracy indoor localization. The integrated solution achieves a localization error lower than 1 m in most of the cases.

  14. Improving inertial Pedestrian Dead-Reckoning by detecting unmodified switched-on lamps in buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Antonio R; Zampella, Francisco; Seco, Fernando

    2014-01-03

    This paper explores how inertial Pedestrian Dead-Reckoning (PDR) location systems can be improved with the use of a light sensor to measure the illumination gradients created when a person walks under ceiling-mounted unmodified indoor lights. The process of updating the inertial PDR estimates with the information provided by light detections is a new concept that we have named Light-matching (LM). The displacement and orientation change of a person obtained by inertial PDR is used by the LM method to accurately propagate the location hypothesis, and vice versa; the LM approach benefits the PDR approach by obtaining an absolute localization and reducing the PDR-alone drift. Even from an initially unknown location and orientation, whenever the person passes below a switched-on light spot, the location likelihood is iteratively updated until it potentially converges to a unimodal probability density function. The time to converge to a unimodal position hypothesis depends on the number of lights detected and the asymmetries/irregularities of the spatial distribution of lights. The proposed LM method does not require any intensity illumination calibration, just the pre-storage of the position and size of all lights in a building, irrespective of their current on/off state. This paper presents a detailed description of the light-matching concept, the implementation details of the LM-assisted PDR fusion scheme using a particle filter, and several simulated and experimental tests, using a light sensor-equipped Galaxy S3 smartphone and an external foot-mounted inertial sensor. The evaluation includes the LM-assisted PDR approach as well as the fusion with other signals of opportunity (WiFi, RFID, Magnetometers or Map-matching) in order to compare their contribution in obtaining high accuracy indoor localization. The integrated solution achieves a localization error lower than 1 m in most of the cases.

  15. Experiential exposure to texting and walking in virtual reality: A randomized trial to reduce distracted pedestrian behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwebel, David C; McClure, Leslie A; Porter, Bryan E

    2017-05-01

    Distracted pedestrian behavior is a significant public health concern, as research suggests distracted pedestrians have significantly higher risk of injury compared to fully attentive pedestrians. Despite this, efforts to reduce distracted pedestrian behavior are scant. Using a repeated measures experimental research design, we implemented a behavioral intervention to reduce distracted pedestrian behavior in the high-risk environment of an urban college campus and simultaneously monitored behavior on a control urban college campus not exposed to the intervention. We had two primary aims: reduce perceived vulnerability to injury among individual pedestrians and reduce distracted pedestrian behavior in the environment through a change in community-based norms. The hallmark of the behavioral intervention was a week-long opportunity for community members to experience personally the risks of distracted pedestrian behavior by attempting to cross a virtual pedestrian environment street while text-messaging. This was supplemented by traditional and social marketing and publicity through various campus partners. A sample of 219 individuals completed self-report surveys about perceived vulnerability to distracted pedestrian injury before experiencing the distracted virtual street-crossing and again after 2 weeks and 5 months. Observational assessment of distracted pedestrian behavior was conducted at a busy intersection on the campus as well as at a control campus not exposed to the intervention at baseline, post-intervention, 10 weeks, and 6 months. The intervention achieved mixed results. Individuals exposed to texting within a simulated pedestrian environment reported changes in their intentions to cross streets while distracted and in perceived vulnerability to risk while crossing streets, but we did not witness evidence of changed community norms based on observed rates of distracted pedestrian behavior before and after the intervention compared to a control campus not

  16. An M/M/c/K State-Dependent Model for Pedestrian Flow Control and Design of Facilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalidur Rahman

    Full Text Available Pedestrian overflow causes queuing delay and in turn, is controlled by the capacity of a facility. Flow control or blocking control takes action to avoid queues from building up to extreme values. Thus, in this paper, the problem of pedestrian flow control in open outdoor walking facilities in equilibrium condition is investigated using M/M/c/K queuing models. State dependent service rate based on speed and density relationship is utilized. The effective rate of the Poisson arrival process to the facility is determined so as there is no overflow of pedestrians. In addition, the use of the state dependent queuing models to the design of the facilities and the effect of pedestrian personal capacity on the design and the traffic congestion are discussed. The study does not validate the sustainability of adaptation of Western design codes for the pedestrian facilities in the countries like Bangladesh.

  17. Blind's Eye: Employing Google Directions API for Outdoor Navigation of Visually Impaired Pedestrians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SABA FEROZMEMON

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Vision plays a paramount role in our everyday life and assists human in almost every walk of life. The people lacking vision sense require assistance to move freely. The inability of unassisted navigation and orientation in outdoor environments is one of the most important constraints for people with visual impairment. Motivated by this problem, we developed a simplified and user friendly navigation system that allows visually impaired pedestrians to reach their desired outdoor location. We designed a Braille keyboard to allow the blind user to input their destination. The proposed system makes use of Google Directions API (Application Program Interface to generate the right path to a destination. The visually impaired pedestrians have to wear a vibration belt to keep them on the track. The evaluation exposes shortcomings of Google Directions API when used for navigating the visually impaired pedestrians in an outdoor environment.

  18. High pressures in room evacuation processes and a first approach to the dynamics around unconscious pedestrians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornes, F. E.; Frank, G. A.; Dorso, C. O.

    2017-10-01

    Clogging raises as the principal phenomenon during many evacuation processes of pedestrians in an emergency situation. As people push to escape from danger, compression forces may increase to harming levels. Many individuals might fall down, while others will try to dodge the fallen people, or, simply pass through them. We studied the dynamics of the crowd for these situations, in the context of the "social force model". We modeled the unconscious (fallen) pedestrians as inanimate bodies that can be dodged (or not) by the surrounding individuals. We found that new morphological structures appear along the evacuating crowd. Under specific conditions, these structures may enhance the evacuation performance. The pedestrian's willings for either dodging or passing through the unconscious individuals play a relevant role in the overall evacuation performance.

  19. Delving Deep into Multiscale Pedestrian Detection via Single Scale Feature Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinchuan Fu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The standard pipeline in pedestrian detection is sliding a pedestrian model on an image feature pyramid to detect pedestrians of different scales. In this pipeline, feature pyramid construction is time consuming and becomes the bottleneck for fast detection. Recently, a method called multiresolution filtered channels (MRFC was proposed which only used single scale feature maps to achieve fast detection. However, there are two shortcomings in MRFC which limit its accuracy. One is that the receptive field correspondence in different scales is weak. Another is that the features used are not scale invariance. In this paper, two solutions are proposed to tackle with the two shortcomings respectively. Specifically, scale-aware pooling is proposed to make a better receptive field correspondence, and soft decision tree is proposed to relive scale variance problem. When coupled with efficient sliding window classification strategy, our detector achieves fast detecting speed at the same time with state-of-the-art accuracy.

  20. Improved social force model based on exit selection for microscopic pedestrian simulation in subway station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑勋; 李海鹰; 孟令云; 许心越; 陈旭

    2015-01-01

    An improved social force model based on exit selection is proposed to simulate pedestrians’ microscopic behaviors in subway station. The modification lies in considering three factors of spatial distance, occupant density and exit width. In addition, the problem of pedestrians selecting exit frequently is solved as follows: not changing to other exits in the affected area of one exit, using the probability of remaining preceding exit and invoking function of exit selection after several simulation steps. Pedestrians in subway station have some special characteristics, such as explicit destinations, different familiarities with subway station. Finally, Beijing Zoo Subway Station is taken as an example and the feasibility of the model results is verified through the comparison of the actual data and simulation data. The simulation results show that the improved model can depict the microscopic behaviors of pedestrians in subway station.

  1. An Optimal Enhanced Kalman Filter for a ZUPT-Aided Pedestrian Positioning Coupling Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qigao; Zhang, Hai; Sun, Yan; Zhu, Yixin; Zhuang, Xiangpeng; Jia, Jie; Zhang, Pengsong

    2018-05-02

    Aimed at overcoming the problems of cumulative errors and low positioning accuracy in single Inertial Navigation Systems (INS), an Optimal Enhanced Kalman Filter (OEKF) is proposed in this paper to achieve accurate positioning of pedestrians within an enclosed environment. Firstly, the errors of the inertial sensors are analyzed, modeled, and reconstructed. Secondly, the cumulative errors in attitude and velocity are corrected using the attitude fusion filtering algorithm and Zero Velocity Update algorithm (ZUPT), respectively. Then, the OEKF algorithm is described in detail. Finally, a pedestrian indoor positioning experimental platform is established to verify the performance of the proposed positioning system. Experimental results show that the accuracy of the pedestrian indoor positioning system can reach 0.243 m, giving it a high practical value.

  2. Hearing aid processing of loud speech and noise signals: Consequences for loudness perception and listening comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Erik

    2007-01-01

    sounds, has found that both normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners prefer loud sounds to be closer to the most comfortable loudness-level, than suggested by common non-linear fitting rules. During this project, two listening experiments were carried out. In the first experiment, hearing aid users......Hearing aid processing of loud speech and noise signals: Consequences for loudness perception and listening comfort. Sound processing in hearing aids is determined by the fitting rule. The fitting rule describes how the hearing aid should amplify speech and sounds in the surroundings......, such that they become audible again for the hearing impaired person. The general goal is to place all sounds within the hearing aid users’ audible range, such that speech intelligibility and listening comfort become as good as possible. Amplification strategies in hearing aids are in many cases based on empirical...

  3. Effects of transverse rumble strips on safety of pedestrian crosswalks on rural roads in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pan; Huang, Jia; Wang, Wei; Xu, Chengcheng

    2011-11-01

    The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the impacts of transverse rumble strips in reducing crashes and vehicle speeds at pedestrian crosswalks on rural roads in China. Using crash data reported at 366 sites, the research team conducted an observational before-after study using a comparison group and the Empirical Bayesian (EB) method to evaluate the effectiveness of transverse rumble strips in reducing crashes at pedestrian crosswalks. It was found that transverse rumble strips may reduce expected crash frequency at pedestrian crosswalks by 25%. The research team collected more than 15,000 speed observations at 12 sites. The speed data analysis results show that transverse rumble strips significantly reduce vehicle speeds in vicinity of pedestrian crosswalks on rural roads with posted speed limits of 60 km/h and 80 km/h. On average, the mean speed at pedestrian crosswalks declined 9.2 km/h on roads with a speed limit of 60 km/h; and 11.9 km/h on roads with a speed limit of 80 km/h. The 85th percentile speed declined 9.1 km/h on roads with a speed limit of 60 km/h; and 12.0 km/h on roads with a speed limit of 80 km/h. However, the speed reduction impacts were not found to be statistically significant for the pedestrian crosswalk on the road with a speed limit of 40 km/h. The study also looked extensively at the influence area of transverse rumble strips on rural roads. Speed profiles developed in this study show that the influence area of transverse rumble strips is generally less than 0.3 km. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Empirical Behavioral Models to Support Alternative Tools for the Analysis of Mixed-Priority Pedestrian-Vehicle Interaction in a Highway Capacity Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouphail, Nagui M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents behavioral-based models for describing pedestrian gap acceptance at unsignalized crosswalks in a mixed-priority environment, where some drivers yield and some pedestrians cross in gaps. Logistic regression models are developed to predict the probability of pedestrian crossings as a function of vehicle dynamics, pedestrian assertiveness, and other factors. In combination with prior work on probabilistic yielding models, the results can be incorporated in a simulation environment, where they can more fully describe the interaction of these two modes. The approach is intended to supplement HCM analytical procedure for locations where significant interaction occurs between drivers and pedestrians, including modern roundabouts. PMID:21643488

  5. Pedestrian detection in thermal images: An automated scale based region extraction with curvelet space validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, A.; Faheema, A. G. J.; Deodhare, Dipti

    2016-05-01

    Pedestrian detection is a key problem in night vision processing with a dozen of applications that will positively impact the performance of autonomous systems. Despite significant progress, our study shows that performance of state-of-the-art thermal image pedestrian detectors still has much room for improvement. The purpose of this paper is to overcome the challenge faced by the thermal image pedestrian detectors, which employ intensity based Region Of Interest (ROI) extraction followed by feature based validation. The most striking disadvantage faced by the first module, ROI extraction, is the failed detection of cloth insulted parts. To overcome this setback, this paper employs an algorithm and a principle of region growing pursuit tuned to the scale of the pedestrian. The statistics subtended by the pedestrian drastically vary with the scale and deviation from normality approach facilitates scale detection. Further, the paper offers an adaptive mathematical threshold to resolve the problem of subtracting the background while extracting cloth insulated parts as well. The inherent false positives of the ROI extraction module are limited by the choice of good features in pedestrian validation step. One such feature is curvelet feature, which has found its use extensively in optical images, but has as yet no reported results in thermal images. This has been used to arrive at a pedestrian detector with a reduced false positive rate. This work is the first venture made to scrutinize the utility of curvelet for characterizing pedestrians in thermal images. Attempt has also been made to improve the speed of curvelet transform computation. The classification task is realized through the use of the well known methodology of Support Vector Machines (SVMs). The proposed method is substantiated with qualified evaluation methodologies that permits us to carry out probing and informative comparisons across state-of-the-art features, including deep learning methods, with six

  6. Urban sprawl as a risk factor in motor vehicle occupant and pedestrian fatalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Reid; Schieber, Richard A; Zegeer, Charles V

    2003-09-01

    We sought to determine the association between urban sprawl and traffic fatalities. We created a sprawl index by applying principal components analysis to data for 448 US counties in the largest 101 metropolitan areas. Regression analysis was used to determine associations between the index and traffic fatalities. For every 1% increase in the index (i.e., more compact, less sprawl), all-mode traffic fatality rates fell by 1.49% (P Urban sprawl was directly related to traffic fatalities and pedestrian fatalities. Subsequent studies should investigate relationships at a finer geographic scale and should strive to improve on the measure of exposure used to adjust pedestrian fatality rates.

  7. A Macroscopic Approach to the Lane Formation Phenomenon in Pedestrian Counterflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Tao; Zhang, Peng; Wong, S. C.; Shu, Chi-Wang; Zhang, Meng-Ping

    2011-10-01

    We simulate pedestrian counterflow by adopting an optimal path-choice strategy and a recently observed speed-density relationship. Although the whole system is symmetric, the simulation demonstrates the segregation and formation of many walking lanes for two groups of pedestrians. The symmetry breaking is most likely triggered by a small numerical viscosity or “noise", and the segregation is associated with the minimization of travel time. The underlying physics can be compared with the “optimal self-organization" mechanism in Helbing's social force model, by which driven entities in an open system tend to minimize their interaction to enable them to reach some ordering state.

  8. New criteria for assessing low wind environment at pedestrian level in Hong Kong

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Yaxing; Mak, Cheuk Ming; Kwok, Kenny

    2017-01-01

    The choice of proper wind comfort criterion is considered to be crucial to reliable assessment of pedestrian level wind comfort. This paper aims to propose a wind comfort criterion that can be applied to Hong Kong, in which the wind comfort is seriously deteriorated by the moderated airflow, part...... represent the weak wind condition and provide suitable assessments of the wind comfort in Hong Kong. Moreover, the findings in this study provide scientific basis for future policy-making and the proposed criteria can also help city planners to improve the pedestrian level wind comfort....

  9. Hidden Markov Model-based Pedestrian Navigation System using MEMS Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yingjun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a foot-mounted pedestrian navigation system using MEMS inertial sensors is implemented, where the zero-velocity detection is abstracted into a hidden Markov model with 4 states and 15 observations. Moreover, an observations extraction algorithm has been developed to extract observations from sensor outputs; sample sets are used to train and optimize the model parameters by the Baum-Welch algorithm. Finally, a navigation system is developed, and the performance of the pedestrian navigation system is evaluated using indoor and outdoor field tests, and the results show that position error is less than 3% of total distance travelled.

  10. Fast and Accurate Pedestrian Detection in a Truck’s Blind Spot Camera

    OpenAIRE

    Van Beeck, Kristof; Goedemé, Toon

    2015-01-01

    We propose a multi-pedestrian detection and tracking framework targeting a specific application: detecting vulnerable road users in a truck’s blind spot zone. Existing safety solutions are not able to handle this problem completely. Therefore we aim to develop an active safety system which warns the truck driver if pedestrians are present in the truck’s blind spot zone, using solely the vision input from the truck’s blind spot camera. This is not a trivial task, since—aside from the large dis...

  11. A stochastic load model for pedestrian-induced lateral forces on footbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingólfsson, Einar Thór; Georgakis, Christos

    2011-01-01

    to support their applicability. Recently, an extensive experimental campaign was carried out, in which the lateral forces generated by pedestrians during walking on a laterally moving treadmill were determined for various combinations of lateral frequencies (0.33–1.07 Hz) and amplitudes (4.5–48 mm...... between limited and excessive lateral vibrations occurs for a small increase in the number of people occupying the bridge. This disproportionate increase in the lateral vibration amplitude is caused by a dynamic interaction between the pedestrian and the laterally moving structure, although the governing...

  12. A pedestrian dead-reckoning system that considers the heel-strike and toe-off phases when using a foot-mounted IMU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Hojin; Lee, Min Su; Park, So Young; Song, Jin Woo; Park, Chan Gook

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an advanced pedestrian dead-reckoning (PDR) algorithm that considers the heel-strike and toe-off phases. Generally, PDR systems that use a foot-mounted inertial measurement unit are based on an inertial navigation system with an extended Kalman filter (EKF). To reduce the influence of the bias and white noises in the gyroscope and accelerometer signals, a zero-velocity update is often adopted at the stance phase. However, transient and large acceleration, which cannot be measured by the accelerometer used in pedestrian navigation, occur momentarily in the heel-strike phase. The velocity information from integration of the acceleration is not reliable because the acceleration is not measured in the heel-strike phase. Therefore, the designed EKF does not correctly reflect the actual environment, because conventional algorithms do not take the non-measurable acceleration into consideration. In order to reflect the actual environment, we propose a PDR system that considers the non-measurable acceleration from the heel-strike impact. To improve the PDR system’s performance, the proposed algorithm uses a new velocity measurement obtained using the constraint between the surface and the foot during the toe-off phase. The experimental results show improved filter performance after comparison of the proposed algorithm and a conventional algorithm.

  13. A pedestrian dead-reckoning system that considers the heel-strike and toe-off phases when using a foot-mounted IMU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Hojin; Lee, Min Su; Park, So Young; Park, Chan Gook; Song, Jin Woo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an advanced pedestrian dead-reckoning (PDR) algorithm that considers the heel-strike and toe-off phases. Generally, PDR systems that use a foot-mounted inertial measurement unit are based on an inertial navigation system with an extended Kalman filter (EKF). To reduce the influence of the bias and white noises in the gyroscope and accelerometer signals, a zero-velocity update is often adopted at the stance phase. However, transient and large acceleration, which cannot be measured by the accelerometer used in pedestrian navigation, occur momentarily in the heel-strike phase. The velocity information from integration of the acceleration is not reliable because the acceleration is not measured in the heel-strike phase. Therefore, the designed EKF does not correctly reflect the actual environment, because conventional algorithms do not take the non-measurable acceleration into consideration. In order to reflect the actual environment, we propose a PDR system that considers the non-measurable acceleration from the heel-strike impact. To improve the PDR system’s performance, the proposed algorithm uses a new velocity measurement obtained using the constraint between the surface and the foot during the toe-off phase. The experimental results show improved filter performance after comparison of the proposed algorithm and a conventional algorithm. (paper)

  14. Spatial hearing ability of the pigmented Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus): Minimum audible angle and spatial release from masking in azimuth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Nathaniel T; Anbuhl, Kelsey L; Ferber, Alexander T; DeGuzman, Marisa; Allen, Paul D; Tollin, Daniel J

    2018-08-01

    Despite the common use of guinea pigs in investigations of the neural mechanisms of binaural and spatial hearing, their behavioral capabilities in spatial hearing tasks have surprisingly not been thoroughly investigated. To begin to fill this void, we tested the spatial hearing of adult male guinea pigs in several experiments using a paradigm based on the prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response. In the first experiment, we presented continuous broadband noise from one speaker location and switched to a second speaker location (the "prepulse") along the azimuth prior to presenting a brief, ∼110 dB SPL startle-eliciting stimulus. We found that the startle response amplitude was systematically reduced for larger changes in speaker swap angle (i.e., greater PPI), indicating that using the speaker "swap" paradigm is sufficient to assess stimulus detection of spatially separated sounds. In a second set of experiments, we swapped low- and high-pass noise across the midline to estimate their ability to utilize interaural time- and level-difference cues, respectively. The results reveal that guinea pigs can utilize both binaural cues to discriminate azimuthal sound sources. A third set of experiments examined spatial release from masking using a continuous broadband noise masker and a broadband chirp signal, both presented concurrently at various speaker locations. In general, animals displayed an increase in startle amplitude (i.e., lower PPI) when the masker was presented at speaker locations near that of the chirp signal, and reduced startle amplitudes (increased PPI) indicating lower detection thresholds when the noise was presented from more distant speaker locations. In summary, these results indicate that guinea pigs can: 1) discriminate changes in source location within a hemifield as well as across the midline, 2) discriminate sources of low- and high-pass sounds, demonstrating that they can effectively utilize both low-frequency interaural

  15. NOAEL-dose of a neonicotinoid pesticide, clothianidin, acutely induce anxiety-related behavior with human-audible vocalizations in male mice in a novel environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Tetsushi; Yanai, Shogo; Takada, Tadashi; Yoneda, Naoki; Omotehara, Takuya; Kubota, Naoto; Minami, Kiichi; Yamamoto, Anzu; Mantani, Youhei; Yokoyama, Toshifumi; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Hoshi, Nobuhiko

    2018-01-05

    Neonicotinoids are novel systemic pesticides acting as agonists on the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) of insects. Experimental studies have revealed that neonicotinoids pose potential risks for the nervous systems of non-target species, but the brain regions responsible for their behavioral effects remain incompletely understood. This study aimed to assess the neurobehavioral effects of clothianidin (CTD), a later neonicotinoid developed in 2001 and widely used worldwide, and to explore the target regions of neonicotinoids in the mammalian brain. A single-administration of 5 or 50mg/kg CTD to male C57BL/6N mice at or below the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) induced an acute increase in anxiety during the elevated plus-maze test. In addition, mice in the CTD-administered group spontaneously emitted human-audible vocalizations (4-16kHz), which are behavioral signs of aversive emotions, and showed increased numbers of c-fos immunoreactive cells in the paraventricular thalamic nucleus and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. In conclusion, mice exposed to NOAEL-dose CTD would be rendered vulnerable to a novel environment via the activation of thalamic and hippocampal regions related to stress responses. These findings should provide critical insight into the neurobehavioral effects of neonicotinoids on mammals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Towards direct realisation of the SI unit of sound pressure in the audible hearing range based on optical free-field acoustic particle measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koukoulas, Triantafillos, E-mail: triantafillos.koukoulas@npl.co.uk; Piper, Ben [Acoustics Group, National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington, Middlesex TW11 0LW (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-20

    Since the introduction of the International System of Units (the SI system) in 1960, weights, measures, standardised approaches, procedures, and protocols have been introduced, adapted, and extensively used. A major international effort and activity concentrate on the definition and traceability of the seven base SI units in terms of fundamental constants, and consequently those units that are derived from the base units. In airborne acoustical metrology and for the audible range of frequencies up to 20 kHz, the SI unit of sound pressure, the pascal, is realised indirectly and without any knowledge or measurement of the sound field. Though the principle of reciprocity was originally formulated by Lord Rayleigh nearly two centuries ago, it was devised in the 1940s and eventually became a calibration standard in the 1960s; however, it can only accommodate a limited number of acoustic sensors of specific types and dimensions. International standards determine the device sensitivity either through coupler or through free-field reciprocity but rely on the continuous availability of specific acoustical artefacts. Here, we show an optical method based on gated photon correlation spectroscopy that can measure sound pressures directly and absolutely in fully anechoic conditions, remotely, and without disturbing the propagating sound field. It neither relies on the availability or performance of any measurement artefact nor makes any assumptions of the device geometry and sound field characteristics. Most importantly, the required units of sound pressure and microphone sensitivity may now be experimentally realised, thus providing direct traceability to SI base units.

  17. Exploring the mechanisms of vehicle front-end shape on pedestrian head injuries caused by ground impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Sha; Li, Jiani; Xu, Jun

    2017-09-01

    In pedestrian-vehicle accidents, pedestrians typically suffer from secondary impact with the ground after the primary contact with vehicles. However, information about the fundamental mechanism of pedestrian head injury from ground impact remains minimal, thereby hindering further improvement in pedestrian safety. This study addresses this issue by using multi-body modeling and computation to investigate the influence of vehicle front-end shape on pedestrian safety. Accordingly, a simulation matrix is constructed to vary bonnet leading-edge height, bonnet length, bonnet angle, and windshield angle. Subsequently, a set of 315 pedestrian-vehicle crash simulations are conducted using the multi-body simulation software MADYMO. Three vehicle velocities, i.e., 20, 30, and 40km/h, are set as the scenarios. Results show that the top governing factor is bonnet leading-edge height. The posture and head injury at the instant of head ground impact vary dramatically with increasing height because of the significant rise of the body bending point and the movement of the collision point. The bonnet angle is the second dominant factor that affects head-ground injury, followed by bonnet length and windshield angle. The results may elucidate one of the critical barriers to understanding head injury caused by ground impact and provide a solid theoretical guideline for considering pedestrian safety in vehicle design. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Infrasonic Signals from the 29 June 2012 Derecho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslow, N.; Howard, W. B.; Pulli, J. J.; Kofford, A. S.

    2012-12-01

    Common weather events such as pressure fronts, tornados, and hurricanes generate infrasonic signals (sub-audible acoustic signals with an oscillatory frequency below 20 Hz). These signals can provide a distal (>10km) analysis of weather events because: (1) the attenuation of an infrasonic signal with distance is less than that of a similar audible signal, and (2) the propagation velocities of typical weather events are much slower than the speed of sound. The 29 June, 2012 Derecho (a widespread, long-lived, rapidly moving linear band of storms extending more than 240 miles and including wind gusts in excess of 58 mph) that stretched from Chicago, IL to Washington, DC generated infrasonic signals in addition to causing over $100 million in damage to the power systems of Virginia, West Virginia, and Maryland alone. The infrasonic (and seismic) signals from this event were recorded on the NCPA micro barometers along the northeastern edge of the current configuration of the USArray. These instruments, which sample at 40 Hz, exhibit a flat frequency response from around 0.1 Hz to above 20 Hz and show a sensitivity of 1.57 x 104 Volts/Pascal at 0.8 Hz. An analysis of the recordings observed at multiple stations identified several infrasonic signatures from the Derecho. The signal's duration was approximately 40 minutes and exhibited a large peak pressure fluctuation. A characteristic ramp up occurred before the peak pressure fluctuation, and the majority of the infrasonic energy occurred below 1 Hz. These signatures are analyzed within the context of the Derecho as an infrasonic source, and the propagation of infrasound in the atmosphere.

  19. Engineering design for pedestrian safety at highway-rail grade crossings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    A number of pedestrian treatments at railroad grade crossings have been developed and are used throughout the United States. The decision of when to use these treatments is generally a matter of best practices, using a decision tree, or conducting a ...

  20. Eulerian vs. Lagrangian analyses of pedestrian dynamics asymmetries in a staircase landing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corbetta, A.; Lee, C.-M.; Muntean, A.; Toschi, F.

    2016-01-01

    Real-life, out-of-laboratory, measurements of pedestrian movements allow extensive and fully-resolved statistical analyses. However, data acquisition in real-life is subjected to the wide heterogeneity that characterizes crowd flows over time. Disparate flow conditions, such as co-flows and