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Sample records for audible pedestrian signals

  1. Guidelines for Assessing the Need for Adaptive Devices for Visually Impaired Pedestrians at Signalized Intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Brian R.; de Oca, Patricia Montes

    1998-01-01

    Presents guidelines for orientation and mobility instructors and traffic engineers to assess the need for adaptive devices to make crosswalks at signalized intersections accessible to pedestrians with visual impairments. The discussions of audible and tactile pedestrian devices, along with case examples, distinguish when each device should be…

  2. PEDESTRIAN RISK AT THE SIGNALIZED PEDESTRIAN CROSSING EQUIPPED WITH COUNTDOWN DISPLAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Vujanić

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we proposed method for assessing pedestrian risk at the signalized pedestrian crossing equipped with counter. Results showed that 17.5% of pedestrians were at high risk and male pedestrians are more often in dangerous situation (20.4% than female pedestrians (14.4%. About 3% of all examined pedestrians created conflict situations, more frequently in first 5 seconds and last 5 seconds of red light phase (79.7% of all offenders, but the risk that pedestrians will create a conflict situation were higher in other time of red light phase. Analysis of pedestrians’ behavior at pedestrian crossings equipped with countdown display could point to potentially safety problems for pedestrians and those analysis could give direction for proposing and implementing adequate countermeasures. Also, numerically defined pedestrian accident risk could assess road safety level for pedestrians and show accident occurrence probability.

  3. Quality of pedestrian flow and crosswalk width at signalized intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael K.M. Alhajyaseen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Among various pedestrian facilities, signalized crosswalks are the most complex and critical ones. Their geometry and configuration including width, position and angle directly affect the safety, cycle length and resulting delays for all users. Existing manuals do not provide clear and rational specifications for the required crosswalk width under different pedestrian demand combinations and properties. Furthermore, they do not consider the bi-directional flow effects on crossing speed and time when addressing pedestrian flow at signalized crosswalks. However, quantifying the effects of such interactions on the behavior of pedestrian flow is a prerequisite for improving the geometric design and configuration of signalized crosswalks. The objective of this paper is to develop a methodology for estimating the required crosswalk width at different pedestrian demand combinations and a pre-defined LOS. The developed methodology is based on theoretical modeling for total pedestrian platoon crossing time, which consists of discharge and crossing times. The developed models are utilized to generate the fundamental diagrams of pedestrian flow at signalized crosswalks. A comprehensive discussion about the effects of bi-directional flow and various pedestrian age groups on the characteristics of pedestrian flow and the capacity of signalized crosswalks is presented. It is found that the maximum reduction in the capacity of signalized crosswalks occurs at roughly equal pedestrian flows from both sides of the crosswalk. By utilizing existing LOS thresholds for pedestrian flow at signalized crosswalks, the required crosswalk widths for various pedestrian demand combinations are proposed for implementation.

  4. Multinomial Logit Model of Pedestrian Crossing Behaviors at Signalized Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu-Ping Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrian crashes, making up a large proportion of road casualties, are more likely to occur at signalized intersections in China. This paper aims to study the different pedestrian behaviors of regular users, late starters, sneakers, and partial sneakers. Behavior information was observed manually in the field study. After that, the survey team distributed a questionnaire to the same participant who has been observed, to acquire detailed demographic and socioeconomic characteristics as well as attitude and preference indicators. Totally, 1878 pedestrians were surveyed at 16 signalized intersections in Nanjing. First, correlation analysis is performed to analyze each factor’s effect. Then, five latent variables including safety, conformity, comfort, flexibility, and fastness are obtained by structure equation modeling (SEM. Moreover, based on the results of SEM, a multinomial logit model with latent variables is developed to describe how the factors influence pedestrians’ behavior. Finally, some conclusions are drawn from the model: (1 for the choice of being late starters, arrival time, the presence of oncoming cars, and crosswalk length are the most important factors; (2 gender has the most significant effect on the pedestrians to be sneakers; and (3 age is the most important factor when pedestrians choose to be partial sneakers.

  5. Intelligent traffic signals for pedestrians : evaluation of trials in three countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carsten, OMJ; Sherborne, DJ; Rothengatter, JA

    1998-01-01

    The DRIVE II project VRU-TOO (Vulnerable Road User Traffic Observation and Optimization) carried out trials of innovative pedestrian signalized crossings that were designed to be more responsive to pedestrians needs and thereby improve pedestrian safety and comfort. These advanced crossings were ins

  6. Using Cellular Automata to Investigate Pedestrian Conflicts with Vehicles in Crosswalk at Signalized Intersection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomeng Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The operational efficiency and safety of pedestrian flows at intersections is an important aspect of urban traffic. Particularly, conflicts between pedestrians and vehicles in crosswalk are one of the most influential factors for intersection safety. This paper presents a cellular automata model that simulates pedestrian and vehicle crossing behaviors at signalized intersections. Through the simulation, we investigate the effects of different pedestrian signal timing and crosswalk widths on the crosswalk capacity, the number of traffic conflicts between pedestrians and vehicles, and pedestrian delay due to the conflicts. The simulation results indicate that the cellular automata is an effective simulation platform for investigating complex pedestrian-related traffic phenomenon at signalized intersections.

  7. Pedestrian Urban Safety System and Comfort at Traffic Signals PUSSYCATS : new pedestrian facilities : technique, observations and opinions, a drive-project in France, the UK and The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levelt, P.B.M.

    1994-01-01

    PUSSYCATS (Pedestrian Urban Safety System and Comfort at Traffic Signals) is a new system incorporating technical improvements better adapted to pedestrians needs and behaviour. A Kerb-side detector mat replaces the push buttons, with infrared sensors detecting the presence of pedestrians on the cro

  8. Safety of pedestrian crossing facilities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraay, J.H. Slop, M. & Oppe, S.

    1974-01-01

    International comparative research was undertaken to establish the relationship between the existence of pedestrian facilities and the relative risk to pedestrians crossing urban roads. Making more signal controlled crossings does however, have a favourable effect on pedestrian safety.

  9. A Model for Capacity Considering the Interference by Pedestrian Traffic at Signal Intersections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yixin Chen; Yulong He; Xiaoduan Sun

    2016-01-01

    The capacity is impacted badly by pedestrians’ violation behavior at signal intersections. In order to quantify the impact, the time⁃headway and the vehicular speed from start⁃up to reach the stable saturation flow with and without pedestrian traffic are used as the direct measurements. Using the statistical analysis, the time⁃headway of saturation flow is mainly affected by the position of pedestrians and the degree of pedestrians ’ influence is classified into four levels. Then the speed⁃time profile for the vehicular acceleration at each level is fitted by Curve Fitting Software. Based on the effect to the time⁃headway and acceleration time, the model of capacity influenced by pedestrians is established and the influence is quantified, which enriches the fundamental theory of traffic engineering. The result shows that the vehicular capacity can be decreased by 14%at the worst case ( level I ) . The conclusions obtained in this paper are valuable for better management of the signal intersection.

  10. Response of skin to audible signal and skin-hearing aid%皮肤对于声音信号响应与皮肤听声器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建文; 于晓明; 曹力佳

    2008-01-01

    ①介绍了皮肤听声器的基本组成与昕声效果.这种新型的助听工具可使任何人通过皮肤获得听觉,但辨析语音的效果还不理想.②为了进一步研究皮肤响应声音信号的理论,构造了测试皮肤响应声音信号的实验环境.通过实验测试了皮肤响应声音信号的关键部件音频变压器、平面电极与皮肤听声之间的临界频率电压特性曲线,讨论了皮肤响应声音信号的关键部件与皮肤听声效果之间的关系,说明了通过声一电转换实现皮肤听声的特点和可行性.③介绍了新型可便携、低功耗助听产品一皮肤听声器,并与助听器、电子耳蜗、导聋犬等传统的助听工具进行了对比,说明了皮肤听声器的优越性能.%This study was designed to introduce basic components and sound-receiving effects of skin-hearing aid with transformer. This new device helped all people receive audible signals via skin, but the effects on discriminating phone were still not ideal.The experimental environment of the response of skin to audible signals was constructed for the theory research. The response on critical frequency and voltage among the transformer, the flat electrode and the skin has gotten in the experiment. It was discussed that the effect of the response of skin to audible signal between the key parts of device of hearing by skin with transformer and the skin. It was illustrated the practicability of skin hearing by sound-electricity converting.The skin-hearing aid, a low power consumption aid, was compared with traditional tools, such as hearing aid, electronic cochlea, and guide dogs, and the results proved the superiority of skin-hearing aid.

  11. EFFECT OF PEDESTRIANS UN-SIGNALIZED MID-BLOCK CROSSING ON VEHICULAR SPEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Raghuram Kadali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrian is one of the important component in urban transportation system and also vulnerable at un-protected mid-block locations under mixed traffic conditions. At un-protected mid-block locations, some of the vehicles may yield to pedestrians who are already at crosswalk location. However, some of the pedestrians are using forced gaps to cross the road. Hence, while pedestrians use the mid-block crosswalk with forced gaps, which decreases the vehicular flow characteristics. The pedestrian sidewalks do not show a direct effect on the vehicular flow characteristics when the pedestrian have pleasant walking facilities. The present study has analyzed the effect of pedestrian crossing on the characteristics of vehicular flow at mid-block location under mixed traffic conditions. The results indicate that the pedestrian forced gap condition has significant effect on vehicular characteristics. The study results may be useful for decreasing the travel time for vehicular drivers by controlling usage of pedestrian forced gaps.

  12. Exploring safety impacts of pedestrian-crossing configurations at signalized junctions on urban roads with public transport routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitelman, Victoria; Carmel, Roby; Doveh, Etti; Hakkert, Shalom

    2017-04-07

    This study explored the impacts of pedestrian-crossing configurations and other design features, on accident occurrences at signalized junctions situated on central public transport routes (PTRs) of urban arterials. Statistical tests and negative-binomial regression models were applied to identify factors affecting accidents and to examine accident numbers of the PTR junctions as opposed to comparison-sites. At the PTR junctions, a consistent impact of pedestrian-crossing configurations on accidents was found, where a gradated-crossing with mixed-shifting is the least safe. Four-legged junctions tend to higher accident numbers relative to the three-legged junctions. PTR junctions are characterized by higher accident numbers, related to comparison-sites, when controlling for other design characteristics. The study findings may assist in selecting preferable design solutions while planning PTR.

  13. Design of Pedestrian Road Crossing System with Actuated Signal Control%路段感应式信号控制行人过街系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何赏璐; 郑长江; 过秀成; 李岩; 杨洁

    2012-01-01

    A novel pedestrian crossing system based on the actuated signal control is designed to improve the safety and efficiency of pedestrian crossing. This system achieves the functions of real-time detection pedestrian and vehicle with video and loops. Then, the actuated pedestrian signal timing plan is carried out. Three relevant auxiliary facilities, deceleration zone crosswalk, channel lighting system and smart sidewalk barrier are designed to protect pedestrian safety and improve traffic efficiency by separating pedestrian from vehicles temporally and spatially.%为保障路段行人安全过街,提高行人过街效率,设计了基于感应控制的路段行人安全过街系统.该系统分别采用视频和感应线圈实现对过街行人和路段车辆的自动检测,并据此设计行人过街感应信号控制方案,辅以“减速带式”人行横道、路段行人过街通道灯和智能人行道护栏3种过街辅助设施,实现时空上的人车分离.

  14. Pedestrian Crossing Speed: The Case of Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boon Hoe Goh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrians are vulnerable road users, and they are always at risk when making their daily trips. Hence, roadway design and traffic’ control devices need to consider pedestrians’ safety. Pedestrian walking speed is fundamental to any roadway and traffic’ control design. Unfortunately, no specific guidelines exist for pedestrian crossing speed in Malaysia. The ultimate goals of this research are to establish the local pedestrian crossing speed and to identify the contributing factors. A total of 1579 samples on pedestrian crossing speed were collected at signalized and non-signalized crosswalks. The Bi-variate analysis (chi-square test was carried out to study statistically the association of the contributing factors. The Bi-variate analysis shows that crosswalk type, age and gender significantly contribute to pedestrian speed in Malaysia. However, lighting (daytime and night-time and race are not contributing to the pedestrians’ speed. Besides, pedestrians at non-signalized crosswalk have significantly faster crossing speed than at signalized crosswalk. Chi-square test also showed that children pedestrians are the fastest group, and elderly pedestrians are the slowest group in terms of pedestrian crossing speed. Moreover, male pedestrians have significantly faster crossing speed than female pedestrians do.

  15. Modeling pedestrian's conformity violation behavior: a complex network based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhuping; Hu, Qizhou; Wang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Pedestrian injuries and fatalities present a problem all over the world. Pedestrian conformity violation behaviors, which lead to many pedestrian crashes, are common phenomena at the signalized intersections in China. The concepts and metrics of complex networks are applied to analyze the structural characteristics and evolution rules of pedestrian network about the conformity violation crossings. First, a network of pedestrians crossing the street is established, and the network's degree distributions are analyzed. Then, by using the basic idea of SI model, a spreading model of pedestrian illegal crossing behavior is proposed. Finally, through simulation analysis, pedestrian's illegal crossing behavior trends are obtained in different network structures and different spreading rates. Some conclusions are drawn: as the waiting time increases, more pedestrians will join in the violation crossing once a pedestrian crosses on red firstly. And pedestrian's conformity violation behavior will increase as the spreading rate increases.

  16. Mobile Sensing of Pedestrian Flocks in Indoor Environments using WiFi Signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Wirz, Martin; Roggen, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    a cohesive whole - specifically flocks - with clustering approaches operating on three different feature sets derived from WiFi signals which are comparatively analysed. Automatic detection of flocks has several important applications, including social and psychological sensing and emergency research studies...

  17. Audible Aliasing Distortion in Digital Audio Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schimmel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with aliasing distortion in digital audio signal synthesis of classic periodic waveforms with infinite Fourier series, for electronic musical instruments. When these waveforms are generated in the digital domain then the aliasing appears due to its unlimited bandwidth. There are several techniques for the synthesis of these signals that have been designed to avoid or reduce the aliasing distortion. However, these techniques have high computing demands. One can say that today's computers have enough computing power to use these methods. However, we have to realize that today’s computer-aided music production requires tens of multi-timbre voices generated simultaneously by software synthesizers and the most of the computing power must be reserved for hard-disc recording subsystem and real-time audio processing of many audio channels with a lot of audio effects. Trivially generated classic analog synthesizer waveforms are therefore still effective for sound synthesis. We cannot avoid the aliasing distortion but spectral components produced by the aliasing can be masked with harmonic components and thus made inaudible if sufficient oversampling ratio is used. This paper deals with the assessment of audible aliasing distortion with the help of a psychoacoustic model of simultaneous masking and compares the computing demands of trivial generation using oversampling with those of other methods.

  18. Pedestrians´and cyclists´effect on capacity of right turn movement at signalized intersections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Pierre E.; Rysgaard, Rikke; Jørgensen, N O

    1998-01-01

    Observations from 4 intersections in Copenhagen are used to formulate a model for the delays which right turning car traffic experience due to straight ahead going pedestrians and cyclists. The empirical data are used to formulate a simulation model which allows estimation of delays in cases...

  19. An Adaptation Level Theory of tinnitus audibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant eSearchfield

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Models of tinnitus suggest roles for auditory, attention and emotional networks in tinnitus perception. A model of tinnitus audibility based on Helson’s (1964 Adaptation Level Theory (ALT is hypothesized to explain the relationship between tinnitus audibility, personality, memory and attention. This theory attempts to describe how tinnitus audibility or detectability might change with experience and context. The basis of ALT and potential role of Auditory Scene Analysis in tinnitus perception are discussed. The proposed psychoacoustic model lends itself to incorporation into existing neurophysiological models of tinnitus perception. It is hoped that the ALT hypothesis will allow for greater empirical investigation of factors influencing tinnitus perception, such as attention and tinnitus sound therapies.

  20. Pedestrian Friendly Outdoor Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, N. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Koltai, R. N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McGowan, T. K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The GATEWAY program followed two pedestrian-scale lighting projects that required multiple mockups – one at Stanford University in California and the other at Chautauqua Institution in upstate New York. The report provides insight into pedestrian lighting criteria, how they differ from street and area lighting criteria, and how solid-state lighting can be better applied in pedestrian applications.

  1. Countermeasures in the field of human factors in relation, to pedestrian behaviour, regulations, and law enforcement.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraay, J.H.

    1974-01-01

    Existing measures and theoretical studies on pedestrian behavior, regulations, and enforcement are reviewed. Specific consideration is given to: types of crossings; traffic signal effectiveness; bridges and subways; traffic training areas for children; characteristic movements of pedestrian behavior

  2. Pedestrian recognition using automotive radar sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, A.; Fitzek, F.; Rasshofer, R. H.

    2012-09-01

    The application of modern series production automotive radar sensors to pedestrian recognition is an important topic in research on future driver assistance systems. The aim of this paper is to understand the potential and limits of such sensors in pedestrian recognition. This knowledge could be used to develop next generation radar sensors with improved pedestrian recognition capabilities. A new raw radar data signal processing algorithm is proposed that allows deep insights into the object classification process. The impact of raw radar data properties can be directly observed in every layer of the classification system by avoiding machine learning and tracking. This gives information on the limiting factors of raw radar data in terms of classification decision making. To accomplish the very challenging distinction between pedestrians and static objects, five significant and stable object features from the spatial distribution and Doppler information are found. Experimental results with data from a 77 GHz automotive radar sensor show that over 95% of pedestrians can be classified correctly under optimal conditions, which is compareable to modern machine learning systems. The impact of the pedestrian's direction of movement, occlusion, antenna beam elevation angle, linear vehicle movement, and other factors are investigated and discussed. The results show that under real life conditions, radar only based pedestrian recognition is limited due to insufficient Doppler frequency and spatial resolution as well as antenna side lobe effects.

  3. Interactions between Intersecting Pedestrian and Vehicle Flows on Roads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Ren-Yong; GUO Xi

    2011-01-01

    The crossing of vehicle How by pedestrians at either signalized crosswalks or locations away from crosswalks is studied using a car-following model. The model process is constructed, and two safe criterions deciding whether pedestrians begin to cross a road and a rule stopping vehicles at a signal intersection are proposed. Numerical results indicate that the relations of both vehicles' and pedestrians' delays to the width of pedestrian arrival interval are nonlinear; careful pedestrians unnecessarily spend more time to cross a road than aggressive ones; pedestrians crossing near a traffic signal have more influence on their and vehicles' delays. When pedestrians are permitted to cross a road using the gaps between slow vehicles, their delay may increase.%The crossing of vehicle flow by pedestrians at either signalized crosswalks or locations away from crosswalks is studied using a car-following model.The model process is constructed,and two safe criterions deciding whether pedestrians begin to cross a road and a rule stopping vehicles at a signal intersection are proposed.Numerical results indicate that the relations of both vehicles' and pedestrians' delays to the width of pedestrian arrival interval are nonlinear;careful pedestrians unnecessarily spend more time to cross a road than aggressive ones;pedestrians crossing near a traffic signal have more influence on their and vehicles' delays.When pedestrians are permitted to cross a road using the gaps between slow vehicles,their delay may increase.In recent years,intersecting pedestrian and vehicle flows on roads have been studied by using the microscopic simulation method.[1-5] In the method,the dynamics of vehicle flow are formulated by cell automata (CA) models[5] or car-following (CF) models[1-3] generally.It is well known that space is discretized into cells and the length of cells measures the moving distance of vehicles in the CA models.Thus,the CA models are used to investigate the effects of vehicles

  4. Ranking the types of intersections for assessing the safety of pedestrians using TOPSIS method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Călin ŞERBU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Every year, more than 1500 accidents with pedestrian occur in the intersections in Romania. The number of accidents involving pedestrians in roundabouts intersections type increased approximately three times in 2013 compared to 2009 in Romania. This alarming increase led to the need of assessing the safety of pedestrians in intersections with or without safety systems. The safety systems for pedestrians and drivers include: the road marking, the pedestrian crossings marking, signal intersections with road signs, traffic lights or pedestrian safety barriers. We propose to assess the types of intersections with TOPSIS method.

  5. 信号交叉口人车交互运行元胞自动机模型构建%Construction of cellular automata model of alternate operation between pedestrians and vehicles at signal intersection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁国华; 邓亚娟; 韩海; 马荣国; 卢杨

    2015-01-01

    为了确定过街设施的形式,分析了十字信号交叉口行人步行速度及机动车排队净空间距、转向车头时距等交通运行特性,通过对人车冲突行为调查与分析,构建了行人过街可插间隙选择概率模型。以人车交互运行特性为理论基础,建立了双向6车道行人正向前进、避让、侧向前进和机动车停车线前慢启动跟驰、停车线后转向跟驰、目标车道选择规则,引入了人行横道处行人和机动车冲突判定选择规则,将行人过街规则和机动车通行规则进行了叠加,构建信号交叉口人车交互运行元胞自动机模型。以主主相交的双向6车道十字信号交叉口为例,分析了采用行人过街专用信号相位和立体过街设施形式的适用性。结果表明:当交通量不小于4500 pcu·h-1、右转车比例不小于70%、信号周期不小于90 s、左转相位绿信比不小于50%、行人流量不小于2700人·( h·m)-1时,应采用立体过街设施形式。%To determine the form of crossing facilities,The traffic characteristics of pedestrians’ walking speed and vehicles’ queuing spacing, headway of steering were analyzed in signalized intersection. The probabilistic model of acceptable gap choice for pedestrians crossing the intersection was constructed by survey and analysis of conflicting operations between pedestrians and vehicles. On the theoretical foundation of characteristics from alternate operations between pedestrians and vehicles, rules concerning pedestrians walking forward, avoidance, lateral walking forward, vehicles stop⁃to⁃slow following, steering following, and target lanes selection in bidirectional six lanes were established;selective rules concerning conflicts identification between pedestrians and vehicles at pedestrian crossroads were introduced. Therefore, the cellular automata model of alternate operations between pedestrians and vehicles at signal

  6. Identification of radionuclides for the spectroscopic radiation portal monitor for pedestrian screening under a low signal-to-noise ratio condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Eungi [Department of IT Convergence, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); School of Biomedical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Mincheol [School of Biomedical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Bio-convergence Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hakjae [School of Biomedical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Health Science, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yongkwon [NuCare Medical Systems, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Health Science, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Joung, Jinhun [NuCare Medical Systems, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Sung-Kwan [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kisung, E-mail: kisung@korea.ac.kr [School of Biomedical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Bio-convergence Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Medical Devices, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-11

    The spectroscopic radiation portal monitor (SPM) is widely used for homeland security. Many research groups are studying the radionuclide identification method which is one of the most important factors in the performance of the SPM using the large size of a thallium activated sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) detector. In this study, we developed the radionuclide identification method for the SPM for pedestrian screening using a single NaI(Tl) detector that is small in size (2 in.), which is much smaller than those in the existing studies under the low signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) condition. From the anomalous radionuclide spectrum, the noise component was effectively reduced by the wavelet decomposition and the proposed background subtraction method, and the signal component was enhanced by the principal component analysis. Finally, peak locations which have been determined by the peak search algorithm with a valley check method were compared with a pre-calibrated and constructed radionuclide database. To verify the radiation identification performance of the proposed method, experiments with various kinds of sources ({sup 137}Cs, {sup 133}Ba, {sup 22}Na, and {sup 57}Co) and different SNR values (from distances of 10–150 cm and for scan times of 1–5 s) were performed. Although the high-SNR condition was explored as well, most experiments were conducted under the low-SNR condition to verify the robustness and reproducibility of the proposed algorithm. The results showed that over 98.3% of the single radionuclide detection rate was achieved regardless of which radionuclides were used, up to 50 cm under the worst SNR condition (1 s of scan time) and up to 90 cm under the best SNR condition (5 s of scan time). Furthermore we achieved accurate identification of multiple radionuclides at 40 cm with only 1 s of scan time. The results show that the proposed algorithm is competitive with the commercial method and our radionuclide identification method can be successfully applied

  7. Audibility-based predictions of speech recognition for children and adults with normal hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreery, Ryan W; Stelmachowicz, Patricia G

    2011-12-01

    This study investigated the relationship between audibility and predictions of speech recognition for children and adults with normal hearing. The Speech Intelligibility Index (SII) is used to quantify the audibility of speech signals and can be applied to transfer functions to predict speech recognition scores. Although the SII is used clinically with children, relatively few studies have evaluated SII predictions of children's speech recognition directly. Children have required more audibility than adults to reach maximum levels of speech understanding in previous studies. Furthermore, children may require greater bandwidth than adults for optimal speech understanding, which could influence frequency-importance functions used to calculate the SII. Speech recognition was measured for 116 children and 19 adults with normal hearing. Stimulus bandwidth and background noise level were varied systematically in order to evaluate speech recognition as predicted by the SII and derive frequency-importance functions for children and adults. Results suggested that children required greater audibility to reach the same level of speech understanding as adults. However, differences in performance between adults and children did not vary across frequency bands.

  8. Pedestrian Friendly Outdoor Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Naomi J.; Koltai, Rita; McGowan, Terry

    2013-12-31

    This GATEWAY report discusses the problems of pedestrian lighting that occur with all technologies with a focus on the unique optical options and opportunities offered by LEDs through the findings from two pedestrian-focused projects, one at Stanford University in California, and one at the Chautauqua Institution in upstate New York. Incorporating user feedback this report reviews the tradeoffs that must be weighed among visual comfort, color, visibility, efficacy and other factors to stimulate discussion among specifiers, users, energy specialists, and in industry in hopes that new approaches, metrics, and standards can be developed to support pedestrian-focused communities, while reducing energy use.

  9. 北京市道路信号交叉口自行车和行人的行为研究%The Behavior of Cyclists and Pedestrians at Signalized Intersections in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建平; 黄岭; 赵坚利

    2004-01-01

    Investigations have been carried out at a signalized intersection in Beijing to study the behavior of cyclists and pedestrians in mixed traffic situations. Video cameras and data analysis technologies have been used to collect and analyze image data of cyclists and pedestrians at the signalized intersection. Results are useful for understanding the performance of mixed traffic at signalized intersections, and for building microscopic simulation models for urban mixed traffic.%对北京市信号交叉口的自行车和行人在混和交通流中的微观行为进行研究分析.研究中使用视频采集技术和数据分析技术来收集和分析自行车和行人在交叉口的行为.论文的主要研究结果是信号交叉口自行车和行人的各种微观行为特征和基础行为模型,这些结果有助于理解信号交叉口混和交通流的行为,并为城市混和交通流的微观交通模拟模型提供基础数据和理论依据.

  10. High-frequency audibility: benefits for hearing-impaired listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, C A; Turner, C W

    1998-07-01

    The present study was a systematic investigation of the benefit of providing hearing-impaired listeners with audible high-frequency speech information. Five normal-hearing and nine high-frequency hearing-impaired listeners identified nonsense syllables that were low-pass filtered at a number of cutoff frequencies. As a means of quantifying audibility for each condition, Articulation Index (AI) was calculated for each condition for each listener. Most hearing-impaired listeners demonstrated an improvement in speech recognition as additional audible high-frequency information was provided. In some cases for more severely impaired listeners, increasing the audibility of high-frequency speech information resulted in no further improvement in speech recognition, or even decreases in speech recognition. A new measure of how well hearing-impaired listeners used information within specific frequency bands called "efficiency" was devised. This measure compared the benefit of providing a given increase in speech audibility to a hearing-impaired listener to the benefit observed in normal-hearing listeners for the same increase in speech audibility. Efficiencies were calculated using the old AI method and the new AI method (which takes into account the effects of high speech presentation levels). There was a clear pattern in the results suggesting that as the degree of hearing loss at a given frequency increased beyond 55 dB HL, the efficacy of providing additional audibility to that frequency region was diminished, especially when this degree of hearing loss was present at frequencies of 4000 Hz and above. A comparison of analyses from the "old" and "new" AI procedures suggests that some, but not all, of the deficiencies of speech recognition in these listeners was due to high presentation levels.

  11. 信号交叉口右转机动车与行人冲突运动模型%A Conflict Model Involving Right-turning Vehicles and Cross-walking Pedestrians at Signalized Intersections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍怡婷; 周竹萍; 徐永能

    2016-01-01

    Normally,the right-turning movement of vehicles at signalized intersections is not controlled.Thus, there are potential risks of conflicts between the right-turning vehicles and cross-walking pedestrians.Current studies ad-dressed on the identification and classification of such conflicts,no theoretical model is proposed to analyze such processes of conflicts.With the purpose to reduce conflicts and improve safety of pedestrians,a new simulation model to describe the conflict processes between right-turning vehicles and cross-walking pedestrians is proposed in this study.The decision-making process of right-turning vehicles is studied.Then the mechanism of conflicts between vehicles and pedestrians is analyzed.Finally,a vehicle-pedestrian conflict model is established.Meanwhile,the coefficients for this model are calibra-ted using actual data including vehicle speed and gap acceptance.A simulation study is then conducted to optimize the measurements for safety evaluation:time-to-collision (TTC),post-encroachment time (PET),safety braking decelera-tion,and gap time.The results reveal that PET is the most significant measurement to evaluate vehicle-pedestrian con-flict.The accuracy analysis results show that the deviation of vehicle speed and PET between simulation and actual data is less than 5%,which indicates the validity of this model.An implementation of sensitivity analysis shows that PET of small size intersections increases 10% compared with large size of intersections,which indicates that small intersections have the advantage to reduce the severity of conflicts.%在一些信号交叉口,右转机动车的转弯行为不受信号控制,容易与过街行人发生冲突。现有冲突研究的内容多为冲突判别和冲突分级研究,对人车冲突运动过程研究相对较少。为减少交通冲突,提高行人过街安全性,提出一种新的右转机动车与行人冲突运动过程的仿真模型。研究右转车辆的决策过程,

  12. Exploring pedestrian movement patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orellana, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to develop an approach for exploring, analysing and interpreting movement patterns of pedestrians interacting with the environment. This objective is broken down in sub-objectives related to four research questions. A case study of the movement of visitors in a n

  13. Audibility of spectral switching in head-related transfer functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Pablo Faundez; Møller, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    small, a direct switching between them will cause an audible artifact that is heard as a click. By modeling HRTFs as minimum-phase filters and pure delays, it is possible to study the effects of spectral and time switching separately. Time switching was studied in a previous investigation. This work...

  14. Audibility of spectral switching in head-related transfer functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Pablo F.F.; Møller, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    small, a direct switching between them will cause an audible artifact that is heard as a click. By modeling HRTFs as minimum- phase filters and pure delays, it is possible to study the effects of spectral and time switching separately. Time switching was studied in a previous investigation. This work...

  15. Will the Pedestrian Cross? A Study on Pedestrian Path Prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keller, C.G.; Gavrila, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    Future vehicle systems for active pedestrian safety will not only require a high recognition performance but also an accurate analysis of the developing traffic situation. In this paper, we present a study on pedestrian path prediction and action classification at short subsecond time intervals. We

  16. 信号控制交叉口行人过街行为虚拟实验%Virtual Reality Experiment on Pedestrian Crossing Behaviors At Signalized Intersections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙剑; 杨燕; 李克平; 王怀东

    2011-01-01

    A pedestrian crossing behavior virtual reality system (PCBVRS) was developed on the basis of the micro traffic simulation Software VISSIM and VR technology. 29 typical travelers from Zhongyuan Community and Tongji University were recruited and 230 crossing samples were obtained with PCBVRS in Shanghai. Reliability and validity theory in experimental science was adopted to comparatively analyze the data obtained respectively from field survey and PCBVRS experiment, which proved that PCBVRS could effectively catch pedestrian' s crossing behavior. The characteristics of VR system, such as immersion, interaction and reality was satisfied by PCBVRS, and apart from that,PCBVRS was of the virtue of low building cost, high portability, which, therefore, can acted as a training tool to promote safety awareness during pedestrian crossing after a further improvement.%以交通系统微观仿真模型VISSIM为基础,基于虚拟现实仿真理论开发了行人过街行为虚拟实验系统(PCBVRS).在上海市的中原社区和同济大学内招募了29名有代表性的出行者,以上海市大连路与飞虹路交叉口为对象,进行了行人过街行为虚拟实验,获得了230份行人过街样本数据.运用实验科学中的信度与效度理论,将实验数据与实测数据进行了对比分析.结果表明,PCBVRS可以有效地模拟实际场景中的行人过街行为;PCBVRS满足VR(虚拟现实)系统沉浸性、交互性以及现实感等实验特点,且造价便宜,易于携带.经过进一步的研究改进,将来可作为提高行人过街安全意识的培训工具.

  17. Animating Autonomous Pedestrians

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    simulator to a reconstruction of the Great Temple archaeological site of ancient Petra in Jordan (Figure 1.5). Our work has also enabled research in the...details of the pedestrian cognitive model. 46 Chapter 4 Behavioral Control “(Julian) Huxley likened the human to a ship also commanded by many captains...word for “rock”) lies in a great rift valley east of Wadi Araba in Jordan about 80 kilometers south of the Dead Sea. As the principal city of ancient

  18. Development of a portable bicycle/pedestrian monitoring system for safety enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, Colin; Daley, W. D. R.

    2015-03-01

    Pedestrians involved in roadway accidents account for nearly 12 percent of all traffic fatalities and 59,000 injuries each year. Most injuries occur when pedestrians attempt to cross roads, and there have been noted differences in accident rates midblock vs. at intersections. Collecting data on pedestrian behavior is a time consuming manual process that is prone to error. This leads to a lack of quality information to guide the proper design of lane markings and traffic signals to enhance pedestrian safety. Researchers at the Georgia Tech Research Institute are developing and testing an automated system that can be rapidly deployed for data collection to support the analysis of pedestrian behavior at intersections and midblock crossings with and without traffic signals. This system will analyze the collected video data to automatically identify and characterize the number of pedestrians and their behavior. It consists of a mobile trailer with four high definition pan-tilt cameras for data collection. The software is custom designed and uses state of the art commercial pedestrian detection algorithms. We will be presenting the system hardware and software design, challenges, and results from the preliminary system testing. Preliminary results indicate the ability to provide representative quantitative data on pedestrian motion data more efficiently than current techniques.

  19. Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Kirsch, Uwe; Schreckenberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The 6th International Conference on Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics conference (PED2012) showcased research on human locomotion. This book presents the proceedings of PED2012. Humans have walked for eons; our drive to settle the globe began with a walk out of Africa. However, much remains to discover. As the world moves toward sustainability while racing to assess and accommodate climate change, research must provide insight on the physical requirements of walking, the dynamics of pedestrians on the move and more. We must understand, predict and simulate pedestrian behaviour, to avoid dangerous situations, to plan for emergencies, and not least, to make walking more attractive and enjoyable. PED2012 offered 70 presentations and keynotes and 70 poster presentations covering new and improved mathematical models, describing new insights on pedestrian behaviour in normal and emergency cases and presenting research based on sensors and advanced observation methods. These papers offer a starting point for innova...

  20. Pedestrian Injuries: Emergency Care Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakravarthy, Bharath

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Traffic-related pedestrian injuries are a growing public health threat worldwide. The global economic burden of motor vehicle collisions and pedestrian injuries totals $500 billion. In 2004, there were 4,641 pedestrian deaths and over 70,000 injuries in the United States. Injury patterns vary depending on the age, gender and socioeconomic status of the individual. Children, older adults, and those of lower socioeconomic status are most affected. The burden of injury upon the individual, families and society is frequently overwhelming. Although pedestrian injuries and deaths are relatively on the decline in the United States, this is not universally true throughout the world. It requires particular attention by emergency medicine physicians, public health experts and policy makers.

  1. A preliminary experimental investigation into lateral pedestrian-structure interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingólfsson, Einar Thór; Georgakis, Christos; Knudsen, Anders

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents results from a preliminary experimental study on lateral human-structure dynamic interaction on footbridges using an instrumented platform. The platform has a natural frequency within the range of an average pedestrian and consists of a suspended concrete girder. With a length...... of 17 m and weight of 19.6 ton, the platform provides a realistic comparison to an actual footbridge. Based on experiments with single pedestrians walking across the platform at resonance, the fundamental dynamic load factor is determined using only the recorded acceleration signal. Furthermore, tests...

  2. Symmetry Breaking in Pedestrian Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Morton, Nickolas A

    2016-01-01

    When two pedestrians travelling in opposite directions approach one another, each must decide on which side (the left or the right) they will attempt to pass. If both make the same choice then passing can be completed with ease, while if they make opposite choices an embarrassing stand-off or collision can occur. Pedestrians who encounter each other frequently can establish "social norms" that bias this decision. In this study we investigate the effect of binary decision-making by pedestrians when passing on the dynamics of pedestrian flows in order to study the emergence of a social norm in crowds with a mixture of individual biases. Such a situation may arise, for instance, when individuals from different communities mix at a large sporting event or at transport hubs. We construct a phase diagram that shows that a social norm can still emerge provided pedestrians are sufficiently attentive to the choices of others in the crowd. We show that this collective behaviour has the potential to greatly influence th...

  3. Modeling the impact of pedestrian behavior diversity on traffic dynamics at a crosswalk with push button

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dong-Fan; Zhao, Xiao-Mei; Li, Xin-Gang; Zhu, Tai-Lang

    2016-01-01

    Crosswalk with push button is prevalent in lots of cities for the purpose of promoting the efficiency of the crosswalk, and thus the delays of both vehicles and pedestrians can be reduced. This strategy has been confirmed to be effective in several developed countries. However, it is a pity that application of push button is aborted in some cities in China. In this work, diverse behaviors of vehicles and pedestrians are analyzed and discussed. Then, a microscopic model is developed by incorporating the interaction between vehicles and pedestrians. Numerical simulations are performed to reveal the characteristics of traffic flow and the efficiency of the signal control strategy. Also, the impacts of risker proportion and button reaction time, as well as the impacts of various behaviors as mass behavior, the patience of pedestrian and push button habit are investigated. It is expected that the results will be helpful to the strategy design of a signalized crosswalk in such developing countries as China.

  4. Biometeorological phases influence pedestrian trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajić Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Biometeorological circumstances have a big influence on all traffic participants, especially reflexes, moving coordination and perception ability. With a lower attention and drivers’ and pedestrians’ concentration, there was a larger amount of pedestrian trauma in certain biometeorological phases. Objective. The aim of this study was to establish the correlation between pedestrian trauma and biometeorological phases. Methods. The comparative analysis of everyday biometeorological phases for the city of Kragujevac determined by RHMI and the evidence of knocked-down pedestrians from the Kragujevac traffic police for the period 2003-2008. Results. There were 6,127 accidents, with 696 knocked pedestrians in 666 (10.87% accidents. Most of them happened in 2003 (135, and the fewest in 2005 (90. Most accidents were during December (74, the fewest were in June (46. The fewest accidents were during 04-05-06 hour interval (by 2, most during 13-14 hours (61. There were 374 males and 349 females. Most of the males (by 60 were 0-10 and 11-20 years old, most of the females (74 were 11-20 years old. There were 443 pedestrians who suffered slight body injuries (112 were 11-20, 225 suffered heavy and 28 had lethal injuries (most over 70. As provokers, the pedestrians suffered because of improper crossing roads (185, while as a casualties, they suffered due to speeding of vechicles (285. Most accidents happened in biometeorological phases 4 (168 and 9 (151, the fewest in phase 10 (4. Conclussion. Statistical analysis shows a significant correlation between pedestrians’ accidents and biometeorological phases, when the most accidents occurred during penetrations of cold fronts, while there was a sudden switch of weather conditions from warm-dry to cold-wet weather.

  5. A rapid method for identifying and characterizing structural impacts using distributed sensors: An application for automotive pedestrian protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Andrew C.

    This research is motivated by recent activity to improve automotive safety, especially for pedestrians. In many parts of the world today, injuries and fatalities from road accidents are a significant problem. Safety features such as seat restraints and air bags provide considerable levels of protection for car occupants; however, no such protective measures currently exist for pedestrians. Drawing upon the success and effectiveness of occupant air bag systems, current research aims to develop similar devices for pedestrians. These active pedestrian protection systems deploy a safety feature such as an external air bag when a pedestrian is hit by a vehicle. Contact with the front bumper induces a body rotation that may result in a violent head collision. The deployable safety device provides a cushioning surface for the vulnerable pedestrian during impact. The challenge of such a system is an effective sensory unit that can rapidly and correctly discriminate pedestrian impacts from non-pedestrian ones. The fast kinematics of the automobile-pedestrian impact leaves a minimal amount of time for signal processing and computation. This research study focuses on a discrimination scheme that satisfies both the time and accuracy requirements for a proposed sensory system for pedestrian protection. A unique methodology was developed to identify structural impacts using dominant frequency features extracted from sensory data. Contact sensors mounted on the front bumper of an automobile measure the strain response from an impact event. The dominant frequencies obtained from these sensor signals are greatly influenced by the impact object's properties and can be used to discriminate between different objects. Extensive tests were conducted to gather sensor data and validate the proposed methodology and impact discrimination algorithm. Results of the impact tests indicate that the approach is sound, and the sensory system effectively identifies "pedestrian" impacts within a

  6. Pedestrian and motorists' actions at pedestrian hybrid beacon sites: findings from a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulugurtha, Srinivas S; Self, Debbie R

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on an analysis of pedestrian and motorists' actions at sites with pedestrian hybrid beacons and assesses their effectiveness in improving the safety of pedestrians. Descriptive and statistical analyses (one-tail two-sample T-test and two-proportion Z-test) were conducted using field data collected during morning and evening peak hours at three study sites in the city of Charlotte, NC, before and after the installation of pedestrian hybrid beacons. Further, an analysis was conducted to assess the change in pedestrian and motorists' actions over time (before the installation; 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months after the installation). Results showed an increase in average traffic speed at one of the pedestrian hybrid beacon sites while no specific trends were observed at the other two pedestrian hybrid beacon sites. A decrease in the number of motorists not yielding to pedestrians, pedestrians trapped in the middle of the street, and pedestrian-vehicle conflicts were observed at all the three pedestrian hybrid beacon sites. The installation of pedestrian hybrid beacons did not have a negative effect on pedestrian actions at two out of the three sites. Improvements seem to be relatively more consistent 3 months after the installation of the pedestrian hybrid beacon.

  7. Safety effectiveness of pavement design treatment at intersections: Left turning vehicles and pedestrians on crosswalks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasina Iasmin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrians are the most vulnerable road users as they are more exposed than other road users. Pedestrian safety at road intersections still remains the most vital and yet unsolved issue. One of the critical points in pedestrian safety is the occurrence of accidents between left-turning vehicle and pedestrians on crosswalks at signalized intersections. A crosswalk is a place designated for pedestrians and cyclists to cross vehicular roads safely. Drivers are expected to give priority to pedestrians or cyclists during interactions between them on the crosswalk. If a driver exhibits non-yielding behavior, the interaction will turn into a collision. This study examined the safety effect of three crosswalks designed with different materials such as red-colored material or brick pavement based on a safety performance study. The safety performance study considered left-turning driver's gap acceptance behavior and the severity of traffic conflict events between left-turning vehicles and pedestrians. The results of the study indicates that using brick pavement on a crosswalk increases the safety level of the crosswalk. Drivers at such crosswalks are more acquiescent to the priority rule.

  8. Comparative Evaluation for Pedestrian Safety Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Chaudhari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrian injuries, fatalities, and accessibility continue to be a serious concern in India and also across the world. There are major two systems used to protect the pedestrian from injury or death. Collisions between pedestrians and road vehicles present a major challenge for public health and traffic safety professionals. Pedestrian safety is a complicated problem due to the many variables that comprise the built environment and the complexity of understanding behavioral decisionmaking and outcomes. This literature review explores recent research on the roles of human factors and environmental factors in vehicle-pedestrian crashes, including a brief summary of recent sources that address countermeasures to improve the safety of the physical environment for pedestrians. Adult skull and face injuries in car pedestrian accidents is account for 60 percent of all pedestrian serious injuries, whereas 18 percent of skull injuries were due to the structure of bonnet. The above values show the essential to think more carefully the role of the bonnet in pedestrian skull safety. In 2010, 4,280 pedestrians were killed and an estimated 70,000 were injured in traffic crashes in the United States. On average, a pedestrian was killed every two hours and injured every eight minutes in traffic crashes. Pedestrians are the main fatality of fatal accidents. Nearly 90 percent of the total fatalities in our country occur on rural roads while only 10 percent occur on urban roads. Conventional planning is greatly biased to the motorized modes of transport, even though every road users is a pedestrian at some stage of journey. The problem is realized but efforts are negligent; therefore, authors suggest the need to address it within an integrated system of roads, road users and vehicles. As automobile transportation continues to increase around the world, bicyclists, pedestrians, and motorcyclists, also known as Vulnerable Road Users (VRU, will become more

  9. Pedestrian, Crowd, and Evacuation Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Helbing, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    This contribution describes efforts to model the behavior of individual pedestrians and their interactions in crowds, which generate certain kinds of self-organized patterns of motion. Moreover, this article focusses on the dynamics of crowds in panic or evacuation situations, methods to optimize building designs for egress, and factors potentially causing the breakdown of orderly motion.

  10. The safety of pedestrian crossing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goede, M. de; Groenewoud, C.; Horst, A.R.A. van der

    2010-01-01

    More than half of all severe traffic accidents in which pedestrians or cyclists are involved, occur during road crossing. In this chapter insights, based on previous studies and literature, concerning requirements for safe and comfortable crossing facilities are discussed. In order to develop notion

  11. The Impact of Built Environment on Pedestrian Crashes and the Identification of Crash Clusters on an Urban University Campus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strasser, Sheryl

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Motor vehicle-pedestrian crash is a significant public health concern. The urban campus of Georgia State University poses unique challenges due to a large number of students and university employees. The objectives of this study are twofold: (1 to examine the correlation between specific features of the built environment on and around the University campus and pedestrian crashes; and (2 to identify crash clusters in the study area using network-based geospatial techniques.Methods: We obtained pedestrian crash data (n=119 from 2003 to 2007 from Georgia Department of Transportation and evaluated environmental features pertaining to the road infrastructure, pedestrian infrastructure and streetscape for each road segment and intersection. Prevalence rate of each feature with pedestrian crashes present was calculated. We used network-based Kernel Density Estimation to identify the high density road segments and intersections, then used network-based K-function to examine the clustering of pedestrian crashes.Results: Over 50% of the crosswalk signs, pedestrian signals, public transit, and location branding signs (more than three at intersections involved pedestrian crashes. More than half of wider streets (greater than 29 feet, two-way streets, and streets in good condition had pedestrian crashes present. Crashes occurred more frequently in road segments with strong street compactness and mixed land use present and were significantly (p<0.05 clustered in these high-density zones.Conclusions: Findings can be used to understand the correlation between built environment and pedestrian safety, to prioritize the high-density zones for intervention efforts, and to formulate research hypotheses for investigating pedestrian crashes. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(3: 295-302.

  12. Pedestrian injury and the built environment: an environmental scan of hotspots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crooks Valorie A

    2009-07-01

    minority of high-incident locations. More importantly, bars were highly associated with risk of pedestrian injury. This study is the basis for potential public health intervention by clearly indicating optimal locations for signalized pedestrian crosswalks.

  13. Impact of Impulse Stops on Pedestrian Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Kwak, Jaeyoung; Luttinen, Tapio; Kosonen, Iisakki

    2015-01-01

    We numerically study the impact of impulse stops on pedestrian flow for a straight corridor with multiple attractions. The impulse stop is simulated by the switching behavior model, a function of the social influence strength and the number of attendees near the attraction. When the pedestrian influx is low, one can observe a stable flow where attendees make a complete stop at an attraction and then leave the attraction after a certain amount of time. When the pedestrian influx is high, an unstable flow is observed for strong social influence. In the unstable flow, attendees near the attraction are crowded out from the clusters by others due to the interpersonal repulsion. The expelled pedestrians impede the pedestrian traffic between the left and right boundaries of the corridor. These collective patterns of pedestrian flow are summarized in a schematic phase diagram.

  14. Simulation of Pedestrians Crossing a Street

    CERN Document Server

    Boenisch, Cornelia

    2009-01-01

    The simulation of vehicular traffic as well as pedestrian dynamics meanwhile both have a decades long history. The success of this conference series, PED and others show that the interest in these topics is still strongly increasing. This contribution deals with a combination of both systems: pedestrians crossing a street. In a VISSIM simulation for varying demand jam sizes of vehicles as well as pedestrians and the travel times of the pedestrians are measured and compared. The study is considered as a study of VISSIM's con ict area functionality as such, as there is no empirical data available to use for calibration issues. Above a vehicle demand threshold the results show a non-monotonic dependence of pedestrians' travel time on pedestrian demand.

  15. An Indoor Pedestrian Positioning Method Using HMM with a Fuzzy Pattern Recognition Algorithm in a WLAN Fingerprint System

    OpenAIRE

    Yepeng Ni; Jianbo Liu; Shan Liu; Yaxin Bai

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid development of smartphones and wireless networks, indoor location-based services have become more and more prevalent. Due to the sophisticated propagation of radio signals, the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) shows a significant variation during pedestrian walking, which introduces critical errors in deterministic indoor positioning. To solve this problem, we present a novel method to improve the indoor pedestrian positioning accuracy by embedding a fuzzy pattern reco...

  16. Injuries to pedestrians in road traffic accidents.

    OpenAIRE

    Atkins, R. M.; Turner, W H; Duthie, R. B.; Wilde, B. R.

    1988-01-01

    Although there have been many reports on injuries to occupants of cars in road traffic accidents, there have been few prospective studies of injuries to pedestrians in such accidents. For this reason a two year prospective study of pedestrians in road traffic accidents in the Oxford region was carried out. The incidence of death in pedestrians was significantly higher than in car occupants or motorcyclists. The principal determinant of death was the weight of the vehicle concerned. The most c...

  17. Pedestrian-induced lateral forces on footbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingólfsson, Einar Thór; Georgakis, Christos T.; Jönsson, Jeppe

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the phenomenon of excessive pedestrian-induced lateral vibrations as observed on several high-profile footbridges. The vibrations are a consequence of human-structure interaction, in which the forces generated by the pedestrians depend strongly on the vibration of the unde......This paper investigates the phenomenon of excessive pedestrian-induced lateral vibrations as observed on several high-profile footbridges. The vibrations are a consequence of human-structure interaction, in which the forces generated by the pedestrians depend strongly on the vibration...

  18. Pedestrian-induced lateral forces on footbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingolfsson, Einar Thor; Georgakis, Christos T.; Jönsson, Jeppe

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the phenomenon of excessive pedestrian-induced lateral vibrations as observed on several high-profile footbridges. The vibrations are a consequence of human-structure interaction, in which the forces generated by the pedestrians depend strongly on the vibration of the unde......This paper investigates the phenomenon of excessive pedestrian-induced lateral vibrations as observed on several high-profile footbridges. The vibrations are a consequence of human-structure interaction, in which the forces generated by the pedestrians depend strongly on the vibration...

  19. Cellular automata modeling of pedestrian's crossing dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晋; 王慧; 李平

    2004-01-01

    Cellular automata modeling techniques and the characteristics of mixed traffic flow were used to derive the 2-dimensional model presented here for simulation of pedestrian's crossing dynamics.A conception of "stop point" is introduced to deal with traffic obstacles and resolve conflicts among pedestrians or between pedestrians and the other vehicles on the crosswalk.The model can be easily extended,is very efficient for simulation of pedestrian's crossing dynamics,can be integrated into traffic simulation software,and has been proved feasible by simulation experiments.

  20. Multiscale modeling of pedestrian dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Cristiani, Emiliano; Tosin, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    This book presents mathematical models and numerical simulations of crowd dynamics. The core topic is the development of a new multiscale paradigm, which bridges the microscopic and macroscopic scales taking the most from each of them for capturing the relevant clues of complexity of crowds. The background idea is indeed that most of the complex trends exhibited by crowds are due to an intrinsic interplay between individual and collective behaviors. The modeling approach promoted in this book pursues actively this intuition and profits from it for designing general mathematical structures susceptible of application also in fields different from the inspiring original one. The book considers also the two most traditional points of view: the microscopic one, in which pedestrians are tracked individually, and the macroscopic one, in which pedestrians are assimilated to a continuum. Selected existing models are critically analyzed. The work is addressed to researchers and graduate students.

  1. Audible thunder characteristic and the relation between peak frequency and lightning parameters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    OuYang Yuhua; Yuan Ping

    2012-02-01

    In recent summers, some natural lightning optical spectra and audible thunder signals were observed. Twelve events on 15 August 2008 are selected as samples since some synchronizing information about them are obtained, such as lightning optical spectra, surface E-field changes, etc. By using digital filter and Fourier transform, thunder frequency spectra in observation location have been calculated. Then the two main propagation effects, finite amplitude propagation and attenuation by air, are calculated. Upon that we take the test thunder frequency spectra and work backward to recalculate the original frequency spectra near generation location. Thunder frequency spectra and the frequency distribution varying with distance are researched. According to the theories on plasma, the channel temperature and electron density are further calculated by transition parameters of lines in lightning optical spectra. Pressure and the average ionization degree of each discharge channel are obtained by using Saha equations, charge conservation equations and particle conservation equations. Moreover, the relationship between the peak frequency of each thunder and channel parameters of the lightning is studied.

  2. Quickest Paths in Simulations of Pedestrians

    CERN Document Server

    Kretz, Tobias; Hengst, Stefan; Kautzsch, Lukas; Pohlmann, Andrej; Vortisch, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This contribution proposes a method to make agents in a microscopic simulation of pedestrian traffic walk approximately along a path of estimated minimal remaining travel time to their destination. Usually models of pedestrian dynamics are (implicitly) built on the assumption that pedestrians walk along the shortest path. Model elements formulated to make pedestrians locally avoid collisions and intrusion into personal space do not produce motion on quickest paths. Therefore a special model element is needed, if one wants to model and simulate pedestrians for whom travel time matters most (e.g. travelers in a station hall who are late for a train). Here such a model element is proposed, discussed and used within the Social Force Model.

  3. Vibration and Audible Noise of Filter Capacitors in HVDC Converter Stations%Vibration and Audible Noise of Filter Capacitors in HVDC Converter Stations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Ling-yu; JI Sheng-chang

    2011-01-01

    The filter capacitor stack is one of the main acoustic noise sources in high-voltage DC (HVDC) converter stations. As HVDC systems are built more and more recently, it is significant to research the audible noise of filter capacitors. In this paper, the current situation of research on vibration and audible noise of filter capacitors in HVDC converter stations, which is departed into three parts--generation mechanism, prediction methods, and reduction measures, is presented and the research achievements are discussed. Scholars have built the model that the alternating electric force caused by the voltage conduces to the vibration, which propagates to the enclosure and radiates audible noise. As a result, the parts contributing most to the generation of audible noise are the top and the bottom of capacitors. In the noise level prediction respect, several methods have been prospected including impact hammer, sweep frequency, impact current, monopole and Kirchhoff formula method, which are suitable for single capacitors or capacitors stacks individually. However, the sweep frequency method is restricted by experiment condition, and the impact current method needs further research and verified. On the other hand, CIGRE WG14.26 provides three sound reduction measures, but all of them are not so practicable, while MPP absorber and compressible space absorber prospected by Dr. Wu Peng are proved to be effective. The sound barriers are also considered by scholars, and the acoustic directivity performance of capacitors is also researched. Besides, the developing direction of each research field is prospected in corresponding part.

  4. Fourier transformation for pedestrians

    CERN Document Server

    Butz, Tilman

    2015-01-01

    This book is an introduction to Fourier Transformation with a focus on signal analysis, based on the first edition. It is well suited for undergraduate students in physics, mathematics, electronic engineering as well as for scientists in research and development. It gives illustrations and recommendations when using existing Fourier programs and thus helps to avoid frustrations. Moreover, it is entertaining and you will learn a lot unconsciously. Fourier series as well as continuous and discrete Fourier transformation are discussed with particular emphasis on window functions. Filter effects of digital data processing are illustrated. Two new chapters are devoted to modern applications. The first deals with data streams and fractional delays and the second with the back-projection of filtered projections in tomography. There are many figures and mostly easy to solve exercises with solutions.

  5. Cellular automata model for urban road traffic flow considering pedestrian crossing street

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Han-Tao; Yang, Shuo; Chen, Xiao-Xu

    2016-11-01

    In order to analyze the effect of pedestrians' crossing street on vehicle flows, we investigated traffic characteristics of vehicles and pedestrians. Based on that, rules of lane changing, acceleration, deceleration, randomization and update are modified. Then we established two urban two-lane cellular automata models of traffic flow, one of which is about sections with non-signalized crosswalk and the other is on uncontrolled sections with pedestrians crossing street at random. MATLAB is used for numerical simulation of the different traffic conditions; meanwhile space-time diagram and relational graphs of traffic flow parameters are generated and then comparatively analyzed. Simulation results indicate that when vehicle density is lower than around 25 vehs/(km lane), pedestrians have modest impact on traffic flow, whereas when vehicle density is higher than about 60 vehs/(km lane), traffic speed and volume will decrease significantly especially on sections with non-signal-controlled crosswalk. The results illustrate that the proposed models reconstruct the traffic flow's characteristic with the situation where there are pedestrians crossing and can provide some practical reference for urban traffic management.

  6. A Pedestrian Dead Reckoning System Integrating Low-Cost MEMS Inertial Sensors and GPS Receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-feng Li

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The body-mounted inertial systems for pedestrian navigation do not require any preinstalled facilities and can run autonomously. The advantages over other technologies make it especially attractive for the applications such as first responders, military and consumer markets. The hardware platform integrating the low-cost, low-power and small-size MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical systems inertial sensors and GPS (global positioning system receiver is proposed. When the satellite signals are available, the location of the pedestrian is directly obtained from the GPS receiver. The inertial sensors are the complement of the GPS receiver in places where the GPS signals are not available, such as indoors, urban canyons and places under dense foliages. The height tracking is achieved by the barometer. The proposed PDR (pedestrian dead reckoning algorithm is real-timely implemented in the platform. The simple but effective step detection and step length estimation method are realized to reduce the computation and memory requirements on the microprocessor. A complementary filter is proposed to fuse the data from the accelerometer, gyroscope and digital compass for decreasing the heading error, which is the main error source in positioning. The reliability and accuracy of the proposed system is verified by field pedestrian walking tests in outdoors and indoors. The positioning error is less than 4% of the total traveled distance. The results indicate that the pedestrian dead reckoning system is able to provide satisfactory tracking performance.

  7. Pedestrian detection based on redundant wavelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lin; Ji, Liping; Hu, Ping; Yang, Tiejun

    2016-10-01

    Intelligent video surveillance is to analysis video or image sequences captured by a fixed or mobile surveillance camera, including moving object detection, segmentation and recognition. By using it, we can be notified immediately in an abnormal situation. Pedestrian detection plays an important role in an intelligent video surveillance system, and it is also a key technology in the field of intelligent vehicle. So pedestrian detection has very vital significance in traffic management optimization, security early warn and abnormal behavior detection. Generally, pedestrian detection can be summarized as: first to estimate moving areas; then to extract features of region of interest; finally to classify using a classifier. Redundant wavelet transform (RWT) overcomes the deficiency of shift variant of discrete wavelet transform, and it has better performance in motion estimation when compared to discrete wavelet transform. Addressing the problem of the detection of multi-pedestrian with different speed, we present an algorithm of pedestrian detection based on motion estimation using RWT, combining histogram of oriented gradients (HOG) and support vector machine (SVM). Firstly, three intensities of movement (IoM) are estimated using RWT and the corresponding areas are segmented. According to the different IoM, a region proposal (RP) is generated. Then, the features of a RP is extracted using HOG. Finally, the features are fed into a SVM trained by pedestrian databases and the final detection results are gained. Experiments show that the proposed algorithm can detect pedestrians accurately and efficiently.

  8. Microscopic Pedestrian Simulation Model to Evaluate "Lane-Like Segregation" of Pedestrian Crossing

    CERN Document Server

    Teknomo, Kardi; Inamura, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    One of the objectives of the pedestrian analysis is to evaluate the effects of proposed policy on the pedestrian facilities before its implementation. The implementation of a policy without pedestrian analysis might lead to a very costly trial and error due to the implementation cost (i.e. user cost, construction time and cost, etc.). On the other hand, using good analysis tools, the trial and error of policy could be done in the analysis level. Once the analysis could prove a good performance, the implementation of the policy is straightforward. The problem is how to evaluate the impact of the policy quantitatively toward the behavior of pedestrians before its implementation. Since the interaction of pedestrians cannot be well address using a macroscopic level of analysis, a microscopic level of analysis is the choice. However, the analytical solution of the microscopic pedestrian model is very difficult and simulation models are more practical approach. To evaluate the impact of the policy quantitatively to...

  9. Calculation Model for the Propagation of Audible Noise from High Voltage Transmission Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xuebao; CUI Xiang; LU Tiebing; HE Jiamei

    2013-01-01

    Audible noise from high voltage transmission lines' corona discharge has become one of the decisive factors affecting design of high voltage transmission lines,thus it is very important to study the spatial propagation characteristics of audible noise for its accurate prediction.A calculation model for the propagation of audible noise is presented in this paper,which is based on the basic equation of the sound wave and can involve the influences of the atmosphere absorption and ground effects.The effects of different ground impedances and the atmospheric attenuation on the distribution of sound pressure level are discussed in this paper.The results show that the atmospheric absorption may increase the attenuation of the audible noise,and the ground surface affects both the amplitude and phase of the sound.The spatial distribution fluctuates considering the ground effects.The atmospheric attenuation and the ground effect are closely related to the frequency of the noise.In the frequency range of the audible noise,the influence of atmospheric attenuation on the spatial propagation characteristics is more obvious in high frequency while ground has significant influences in low frequency.

  10. Objective Evaluation of the Audibility of Transient Errors in an Adaptive A/D Conversion Channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marker-Villumsen, Niels; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger; Bruun, Erik

    2014-01-01

    An adaptive analog-to-digital conversion channel for audio, using automatic gain control, generates transient errors that may be audible. Evaluating the audibility of such errors requires subjective evaluation using listening tests. From an electrical circuit design point-of-view this is not feas......An adaptive analog-to-digital conversion channel for audio, using automatic gain control, generates transient errors that may be audible. Evaluating the audibility of such errors requires subjective evaluation using listening tests. From an electrical circuit design point......-of-view this is not feasible, due to design time constraints. This paper investigates the use of the model output variables (MOVs) from the Perceptual Evaluation of Audio Quality (PEAQ) method, for objectively evaluating the transient errors of the conversion channel, in order to optimize the design and reduce design time....... The objective method is compared with results from an alternative forced choice listening test. The comparison shows that the objective method can be used to evaluate the audibility of the transient errors; thus the method can be applied when designing the circuit implementing the channel....

  11. Pedestrian injury mitigation by autonomous braking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosén, Erik; Källhammer, Jan-Erik; Eriksson, Dick; Nentwich, Matthias; Fredriksson, Rikard; Smith, Kip

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this study was to calculate the potential effectiveness of a pedestrian injury mitigation system that autonomously brakes the car prior to impact. The effectiveness was measured by the reduction of fatally and severely injured pedestrians. The database from the German In-Depth Accident Study (GIDAS) was queried for pedestrians hit by the front of cars from 1999 to 2007. Case by case information on vehicle and pedestrian velocities and trajectories were analysed to estimate the field of view needed for a vehicle-based sensor to detect the pedestrians one second prior to the crash. The pre-impact braking system was assumed to activate the brakes one second prior to crash and to provide a braking deceleration up to the limit of the road surface conditions, but never to exceed 0.6 g. New impact speeds were then calculated for pedestrians that would have been detected by the sensor. These calculations assumed that all pedestrians who were within a given field of view but not obstructed by surrounding objects would be detected. The changes in fatality and severe injury risks were quantified using risk curves derived by logistic regression of the accident data. Summing the risks for all pedestrians, relationships between mitigation effectiveness, sensor field of view, braking initiation time, and deceleration were established. The study documents that the effectiveness at reducing fatally (severely) injured pedestrians in frontal collisions with cars reached 40% (27%) at a field of view of 40 degrees. Increasing the field of view further led to only marginal improvements in effectiveness.

  12. The moving minimum audible angle is smaller during self motion than during source motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Owen eBrimijoin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We are rarely perfectly still: our heads rotate in three axes and move in three dimensions, constantly varying the spectral and binaural cues at the ear drums. In spite of this motion, static sound sources in the world are typically perceived as stable objects. This argues that the auditory system – in a manner not unlike the vestibulo-ocular reflex – works to compensate for self motion and stabilize our sensory representation of the world. We tested a prediction arising from this postulate: that self motion should be processed more accurately than source motion.We used an infrared motion tracking system to measure head angle, and real-time interpolation of head related impulse responses to create head-stabilized signals that appeared to remain fixed in space as the head turned. After being presented with pairs of simultaneous signals consisting of a man and a woman speaking a snippet of speech, normal and hearing impaired listeners were asked to report whether the female voice was to the left or the right of the male voice. In this way we measured the moving minimum audible angle (MMAA. This measurement was made while listeners were asked to turn their heads back and forth between ± 15° and the signals were stabilized in space. After this self-motion condition we measured MMAA in a second source-motion condition when listeners remained still and the virtual locations of the signals were moved using the trajectories from the first condition.For both normal and hearing impaired listeners, we found that the MMAA for signals moving relative to the head was ~1-2° smaller when the movement was the result of self motion than when it was the result of source motion, even though the motion with respect to the head was identical. These results as well as the results of past experiments suggest that spatial processing involves an ongoing and highly accurate comparison of spatial acoustic cues with self-motion cues.

  13. Simulation of large scale pedestrian flow

    OpenAIRE

    Dridi, Mohamed H.

    2015-01-01

    Pedestrian simulation is a challenging and fruitful application area for particle simulation, especially in places where many people are gathered (e.g. the Hajj, sports and concert events). Traffic and transportation domains take advantage of this simulation as well. Here the design and implementation involves interesting issues and particle-based modelling allows for the reproduction of pedestrian behaviour to a level of detail beyond pure collision-free locomotion. In this dissertation we w...

  14. Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics 2005

    CERN Document Server

    Gattermann, Peter; Knoflacher, Hermann; Schreckenberg, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Due to an increasing number of reported catastrophes all over the world, the safety especially of pedestrians today, is a dramatically growing field of interest, both for practitioners as well as scientists from various disciplines. The questions arising mainly address the dynamics of evacuating people and possible optimisations of the process by changing the architecture and /or the procedure. This concerns not only the case of ships, stadiums or buildings, all with restricted geometries, but also the evacuation of complete geographical regions due to natural disasters. Furthermore, also ‘simple’ crowd motion in ‘relaxed’ situations poses new questions with respect to higher comfort and efficiency since the number of involved persons at large events is as high as never before. In addition, as a new research topic in this field, collective animal behaviour is attracting increasing attention. All this was in the scope of the conference held in Vienna, September 28–30, 2005, the third one in a series ...

  15. Video surveillance of pedestrians and vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutchess, Daniel; Ablavsky, Vitaly; Thangali, Ashwin; Sclaroff, Stan; Snorrason, Magnús

    2007-04-01

    In this paper, we focus on the problem of automated surveillance in a parking lot scenario. We call our research system VANESSA, for Video Analysis for Nighttime Surveillance and Situational Awareness. VANESSA is capable of: 1) detecting moving objects via background modeling and false motion suppression, 2) tracking and classifying pedestrians and vehicles, and 3) detecting events such as person entering or exiting a vehicle. Moving object detection utilizes a multi-stage cascading approach to identify pixels that belong to the true objects and reject any spurious motion, (e.g., due to vehicle headlights or moving foliage). Pedestrians and vehicles are tracked using a multiple hypothesis tracker coupled with a particle filter for state estimation and prediction. The space-time trajectory of each tracked object is stored in an SQL database along with sample imagery to support video forensics applications. The detection of pedestrians entering/exiting vehicles is accomplished by first estimating the three-dimensional pose and the corresponding entry and exit points of each tracked vehicle in the scene. A pedestrian activity model is then used to probabilistically assign pedestrian tracks that appear or disappear in the vicinity of these entry/exit points. We evaluate the performance of tracking and pedestrian-vehicle association on an extensive data set collected in a challenging real-world scenario.

  16. Audibility of time switching in dynamic binaural synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Pablo F.F.; Møller, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    In binaural synthesis, signals are convolved with head-related transfer functions (HRTFs). In dynamic systems, the update is often done by cross- fading between signals that have been filtered in parallel with two HRTFs. An alternative to cross-fading that is attractive in terms of computing powe...

  17. Coupling of Head and Body Movement with Motion of the Audible Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffregen, Thomas A.; Villard, Sebastien; Kim, ChungGon; Ito, Kiyohide; Bardy, Benoit G.

    2009-01-01

    The authors asked whether standing posture could be controlled relative to audible oscillation of the environment. Blindfolded sighted adults were exposed to acoustic flow in a moving room, and were asked to move so as to maintain a constant distance between their head and the room. Acoustic flow had direct (source) and indirect (reflected)…

  18. 30 CFR 75.1600-2 - Communication facilities; working sections; installation and maintenance requirements; audible or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Communication facilities; working sections; installation and maintenance requirements; audible or visual alarms. 75.1600-2 Section 75.1600-2 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Communications § 75.1600-2 Communication facilities;...

  19. Audibility of high Q-factor all-pass components in HRTFs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toledo, Daniela; Møller, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    Head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) can be decomposed into minimum phase, linear phase and all-pass components.  It is known that low Q-factor all-pass sections in HRTFs are audible as lateral shifts when the interaural group delay at low frequencies exceeds 30usec.  The goal of our investiga...

  20. Modelling Behaviour Patterns of Pedestrians for Mobile Robot Trajectory Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Tamura

    2013-08-01

    an emphasis on safety because the behaviour of the pedestrian cannot be predicted. Experimental results show that robots can move efficiently and safely when passing by a pedestrian by applying the proposed method.

  1. Exposure to audible and infrasonic noise by modern agricultural tractors operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilski, Bartosz

    2013-03-01

    The wheeled agricultural tractor is one of the most prominent sources of noise in agriculture. This paper presents the assessment of the operator's exposure to audible and infrasonic noise in 32 selected modern wheeled agricultural tractors designed and produced by world-renowned companies in normal working conditions. The tractors have been in use for no longer than 4 years, with rated power of 51 kW to up to 228 kW (as per 97/68 EC). Audible and infrasonic noise level measurements and occupational exposure analysis to noise were performed according to ISO 9612:2009 (strategy 1 - task-based measurements). The measurements were made in different typical work conditions inside and outside of tractors cabs. The results indicated that exposure levels to noise perceived by the operators (L(ex,Te) between 62,3 and 84,7 dB-A) and can make a small risk of potential adversely effects on hearing during tasks performed inside the closed cab. It should be remarked that uncertainty interval is wider and in in some conditions can occur transgression of audible noise occupational exposure limits. The measured audible noise levels can potentially develop the non-auditory effects. Analysed tractors emit considerable infrasonic noise levels that tend to exceed the occupational exposure limits (both inside and outside the driver's cab). The levels of infrasound: 83,8-111,4 dB-G. All tractors introduced for sale should be subjected to tests in terms of infrasonic noise levels. The applicable standards for low frequency noise and its measurement methods for vehicles, including agricultural tractors, should be scientifically revised. In the last years there has been a noticeable technical progress in reduction of audible noise exposure at the tractors operators workplaces with simultaneously lack of important works for limitation of exposure to infrasound. Author discuss possible health and ergonomic consequencies of such exposure.

  2. Trajectory Analysis and Prediction for Improved Pedestrian Safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelmose, Andreas; Trivedi, Mohan M.; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2015-01-01

    pedestrian detection systems are indeed showing impressive results. Considerably less effort has been put into processing the detections further. We present a tracking system for pedestrians, which based on detection bounding boxes tracks pedestrians and is able to predict their positions in the near future...

  3. Modeling Spatially Unrestricted Pedestrian Traffic on Footbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zivanovic, Stana; Pavic, Aleksandar; Ingólfsson, Einar Thór

    2010-01-01

    The research into modelling walking-induced dynamic loading and its effects on footbridge structures and people using them has been intensified in the last decade after some high profile vibration serviceability failures. In particular, the crowd induced loading, characterised by spatially...... restricted movement of pedestrians, has kept attracting attention of researchers. However, it is the normal spatially unrestricted pedestrian traffic, and its vertical dynamic loading component, that are most relevant for vibration serviceability checks for most footbridges. Despite the existence of numerous...... their performance against the experimental data acquired on two as-built footbridges. Additionally, the use of Monte Carlo simulations is also investigated. Possible factors that cause discrepancies between measured and calculated vibration responses, including possibility of existence of pedestrian...

  4. Pedestrian-induced lateral vibrations of footbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingólfsson, Einar Thór; Georgakis, Christos T.; Jönsson, Jeppe

    2012-01-01

    The earliest scientific descriptions of excessive pedestrian-induced lateral vibrations are dated back to the 1970s, but it was not until the beginning of the new millennium that bridge engineers fully comprehended the potential negative effect of pedestrian crowds on long-span footbridges....... Following the unexpected serviceability failures of Paris’ Solférino and London’s Millennium footbridges in 1999 and 2000, a new tract of research was initiated, focused on understanding the phenomenon which has become known as Synchronous Lateral Excitation (SLE). In this paper, a comprehensive review...... of studies related to pedestrian-induced lateral vibrations of footbridges is provided, primarily focusing on studies published within the last decade. Research in this field can generally be split into three categories; (i) fullscale testing of existing bridges subject to crowd loading, (ii) laboratory...

  5. Pedestrian-induced lateral vibrations of footbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingólfsson, Einar Thór

    The dissertation investigates the phenomenon of excessive pedestrian-induced lateral vibrations as observed on several high-profile footbridges. In particular, the temporary closures of both Paris’ Solferino Bridge (1999) and the London Millennium Bridge (2000) have led to an understanding...... on the part of engineers and architects of the need to evaluate the potential for footbridge vibrations that can be attributed to pedestrians. Within the scientific community, the closures have also led to the initiation of a new tract of research, focused on the understanding of pedestrian loading, bridge...... is presented, solely focused on pedestrianinduced lateral forces, their effect on footbridges and existing theoretical models of humanstructure interaction. It is shown that different hypotheses exist about the nature of this interaction, many of which are only supported by theoretical modelling and lack...

  6. Pedestrian Route Choice by Iterated Equilibrium Search

    CERN Document Server

    Kretz, Tobias; Hofsäß, Ingmar

    2014-01-01

    In vehicular traffic planning it is a long standing problem how to assign demand such on the available model of a road network that an equilibrium with regard to travel time or generalized costs is realized. For pedestrian traffic this question can be asked as well. However, as the infrastructure of pedestrian dynamics is not a network (a graph), but two-dimensional, there is in principle an infinitely large set of routes. As a consequence none of the iterating assignment methods developed for road traffic can be applied for pedestrians. In this contribution a method to overcome this problem is briefly summarized and applied with an example geometry which as a result is enhanced with routes with intermediate destination areas of certain shape. The enhanced geometry is used in some exemplary assignment calculations.

  7. Fast Pedestrian Recognition Based on Multisensor Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Hu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A fast pedestrian recognition algorithm based on multisensor fusion is presented in this paper. Firstly, potential pedestrian locations are estimated by laser radar scanning in the world coordinates, and then their corresponding candidate regions in the image are located by camera calibration and the perspective mapping model. For avoiding time consuming in the training and recognition process caused by large numbers of feature vector dimensions, region of interest-based integral histograms of oriented gradients (ROI-IHOG feature extraction method is proposed later. A support vector machine (SVM classifier is trained by a novel pedestrian sample dataset which adapt to the urban road environment for online recognition. Finally, we test the validity of the proposed approach with several video sequences from realistic urban road scenarios. Reliable and timewise performances are shown based on our multisensor fusing method.

  8. Pedestrians rotation measurement in bidirectional streams

    CERN Document Server

    Feliciani, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    This study presents an experimental measurement of pedestrians' body rotation in bidirectional streams. A mock-up corridor monitored using a camera placed on azimuthal position is used to study pedestrians' behavior in unidirectional and bidirectional flows. Additionally, a commercial tablet is fixed on the chest of sample pedestrians to examine their body rotation (or yawing) which cannot be obtained using position tracking alone. Angular velocity is recorded and simultaneously stored in a central location using a wireless network, thus allowing the analysis of body movements with a high sampling rate and a limited delay. To investigate the influence of major/minor flow proportion (flow-ratio) on bidirectional streams two different situations were tested: the balanced configuration (with equal flows in both directions) and an unbalanced configuration (with different major and minor flow). Results clearly show that unidirectional flow is more stable compared to the bidirectional case, requiring less time to c...

  9. A Pedestrian Detection Scheme Using a Coherent Phase Difference Method Based on 2D Range-Doppler FMCW Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Eugin; Jin, Young-Seok; Lee, Jong-Hun

    2016-01-01

    For an automotive pedestrian detection radar system, fast-ramp based 2D range-Doppler Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) radar is effective for distinguishing between moving targets and unwanted clutter. However, when a weak moving target such as a pedestrian exists together with strong clutter, the pedestrian may be masked by the side-lobe of the clutter even though they are notably separated in the Doppler dimension. To prevent this problem, one popular solution is the use of a windowing scheme with a weighting function. However, this method leads to a spread spectrum, so the pedestrian with weak signal power and slow Doppler may also be masked by the main-lobe of clutter. With a fast-ramp based FMCW radar, if the target is moving, the complex spectrum of the range- Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is changed with a constant phase difference over ramps. In contrast, the clutter exhibits constant phase irrespective of the ramps. Based on this fact, in this paper we propose a pedestrian detection for highly cluttered environments using a coherent phase difference method. By detecting the coherent phase difference from the complex spectrum of the range-FFT, we first extract the range profile of the moving pedestrians. Then, through the Doppler FFT, we obtain the 2D range-Doppler map for only the pedestrian. To test the proposed detection scheme, we have developed a real-time data logging system with a 24 GHz FMCW transceiver. In laboratory tests, we verified that the signal processing results from the proposed method were much better than those expected from the conventional 2D FFT-based detection method. PMID:26805835

  10. A Pedestrian Detection Scheme Using a Coherent Phase Difference Method Based on 2D Range-Doppler FMCW Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugin Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For an automotive pedestrian detection radar system, fast-ramp based 2D range-Doppler Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW radar is effective for distinguishing between moving targets and unwanted clutter. However, when a weak moving target such as a pedestrian exists together with strong clutter, the pedestrian may be masked by the side-lobe of the clutter even though they are notably separated in the Doppler dimension. To prevent this problem, one popular solution is the use of a windowing scheme with a weighting function. However, this method leads to a spread spectrum, so the pedestrian with weak signal power and slow Doppler may also be masked by the main-lobe of clutter. With a fast-ramp based FMCW radar, if the target is moving, the complex spectrum of the range- Fast Fourier Transform (FFT is changed with a constant phase difference over ramps. In contrast, the clutter exhibits constant phase irrespective of the ramps. Based on this fact, in this paper we propose a pedestrian detection for highly cluttered environments using a coherent phase difference method. By detecting the coherent phase difference from the complex spectrum of the range-FFT, we first extract the range profile of the moving pedestrians. Then, through the Doppler FFT, we obtain the 2D range-Doppler map for only the pedestrian. To test the proposed detection scheme, we have developed a real-time data logging system with a 24 GHz FMCW transceiver. In laboratory tests, we verified that the signal processing results from the proposed method were much better than those expected from the conventional 2D FFT-based detection method.

  11. A Pedestrian Detection Scheme Using a Coherent Phase Difference Method Based on 2D Range-Doppler FMCW Radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Eugin; Jin, Young-Seok; Lee, Jong-Hun

    2016-01-20

    For an automotive pedestrian detection radar system, fast-ramp based 2D range-Doppler Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) radar is effective for distinguishing between moving targets and unwanted clutter. However, when a weak moving target such as a pedestrian exists together with strong clutter, the pedestrian may be masked by the side-lobe of the clutter even though they are notably separated in the Doppler dimension. To prevent this problem, one popular solution is the use of a windowing scheme with a weighting function. However, this method leads to a spread spectrum, so the pedestrian with weak signal power and slow Doppler may also be masked by the main-lobe of clutter. With a fast-ramp based FMCW radar, if the target is moving, the complex spectrum of the range- Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is changed with a constant phase difference over ramps. In contrast, the clutter exhibits constant phase irrespective of the ramps. Based on this fact, in this paper we propose a pedestrian detection for highly cluttered environments using a coherent phase difference method. By detecting the coherent phase difference from the complex spectrum of the range-FFT, we first extract the range profile of the moving pedestrians. Then, through the Doppler FFT, we obtain the 2D range-Doppler map for only the pedestrian. To test the proposed detection scheme, we have developed a real-time data logging system with a 24 GHz FMCW transceiver. In laboratory tests, we verified that the signal processing results from the proposed method were much better than those expected from the conventional 2D FFT-based detection method.

  12. Road risk-perception and pedestrian injuries among students at Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maged El-Setouhy

    2012-07-01

    approach together with modification of the traffic environment (such as provision of crossing signals might be effective in preventing the occurrence of pedestrian injury.

  13. General Operational Procedure for Pedestrian Radiation Portal Monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belooussov, Andrei V. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-08

    This document outlines the basic conduct of operation (CONOPS) for a pedestrian radiation portal monitor (RPM), provided that the CONOPS is not facility or RPM specific and that it is based on a general understanding of a pedestrian RPM operation. The described CONOPS for a pedestrian RPM is defined by: (1) RPM design and operational characteristics, (2) type of pedestrian traffic, and (3) goal for RPM installation. Pedestrian RPMs normally are deployed for the continuous monitoring of individuals passing through point of control to detect the unauthorized traffic of radioactive/nuclear materials. RPMs generally are designed to detect gamma- and neutron-emitting materials.

  14. From Ant Trails to Pedestrian Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Schadschneider

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model for the simulation of pedestrian dynamics inspired by the behaviour of ants in ant trails. Ants communicate by producing a pheromone that can be smelled by other ants. In this model, pedestrians produce a virtual pheromone that influences the motion of others. In this way all interactions are strictly local, and so even large crowds can be simulated very efficiently. Nevertheless, the model is able to reproduce the collective effects observed empirically, eg the formation of lanes in counterflow. As an application, we reproduce a surprising result found in experiments of evacuation from an aircraft.

  15. Improvement of pedestrian flow by slow rhythm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, Daichi; Tomoeda, Akiyasu; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a simple model for pedestrians by dividing walking velocity into two parts, which are step size and pace of walking (number of steps per unit time). Theoretical analysis on pace indicates that rhythm that is slower than normal-walking pace in a low-density regime increases flow if the flow-density diagram is convex downward in a high-density regime. In order to verify this result, we have performed an experiment with real pedestrians and observed the improvement of flow in a congested situation using slow rhythm.

  16. Dynamic Assignment in Microsimulations of Pedestrians

    CERN Document Server

    Kretz, Tobias; Hofsäß, Ingmar; Leonhardt, Axel

    2014-01-01

    A generic method for dynamic assignment used with microsimulation of pedestrian dynamics is introduced. As pedestrians - unlike vehicles - do not move on a network, but on areas they in principle can choose among an infinite number of routes. To apply assignment algorithms one has to select for each OD pair a finite (realistically a small) number of relevant representatives from these routes. This geometric task is the main focus of this contribution. The main task is to find for an OD pair the relevant routes to be used with common assignment methods. The method is demonstrated for one single OD pair and exemplified with an example.

  17. Stochastic transition model for pedestrian dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Schultz, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The proposed stochastic model for pedestrian dynamics is based on existing approaches using cellular automata, combined with substantial extensions, to compensate the deficiencies resulting of the discrete grid structure. This agent motion model is extended by both a grid-based path planning and mid-range agent interaction component. The stochastic model proves its capabilities for a quantitative reproduction of the characteristic shape of the common fundamental diagram of pedestrian dynamics. Moreover, effects of self-organizing behavior are successfully reproduced. The stochastic cellular automata approach is found to be adequate with respect to uncertainties in human motion patterns, a feature previously held by artificial noise terms alone.

  18. Biomechanically Excited SMD Model of a Walking Pedestrian

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Mengshi; Georgakis, Christos T.; Chen, Jun

    2016-01-01

    estimated from a known walking frequency and the pedestrian's weight, assuming that pedestrians always walk in displacement resonance and retain a constant damping ratio of 0.3. Thus, biomechanical forces were extracted using the measured SMD dynamic responses and the estimated SMD parameters. Extracted...... of biomechanical forces, was used to model a pedestrian for application in vertical human-structure interaction (HSI). Tests were undertaken in a gait laboratory, where a three-dimensional motion-capture system was used to record a pedestrian's walking motions at various frequencies. The motion-capture system...... produced the pedestrian's center of mass (COM) trajectories from the captured motion markers. The vertical COM trajectory was approximated to be the pedestrian SMD dynamic responses under the excitation of biomechanical forces. SMD model parameters of a pedestrian for a specific walking frequency were...

  19. Motor Schema-Based Cellular Automaton Model for Pedestrian Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Wenguo; Hasemi, Yuji; Fan, Weicheng

    A new cellular automaton model for pedestrian dynamics based on motor schema is presented. Each pedestrian is treated as an intelligent mobile robot, and motor schemas including move-to-goal, avoid-away and avoid-around drive pedestrians to interact with their environment. We investigate the phenomenon of many pedestrians with different move velocities escaping from a room. The results show that the pedestrian with high velocity have predominance in competitive evacuation, if we only consider repulsion from or avoiding around other pedestrians, and interaction with each other leads to disordered evacuation, i.e., decreased evacuation efficiency. Extensions of the model using learning algorithms for controlling pedestrians, i.e., reinforcement learning, neural network and genetic algorithms, etc. are noted.

  20. Determining and Designing of Pedestrian Zones in Tekirdag City Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Sisman

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Today, pedestrian zones have been achieved to increase open space that are increasingly disappearing and to provide comfortable and safety circulation for pedestrians.Within this paper, the existing pedestrian zones and the streets free from traffic with adequate amenities for pedestrians are indicated and projects of alternative pedestrian zones are suggested. Hükümet Street, the main axis of the downtown and the Mimar Sinan Street is planned as one way road, besides, the part of Hükümet Street extending in front of the Governorship building is designed as pedestrian zone. Dependig on the data, projects of pedestrian zones are prepared by using AutoCAD 2006 and 3ds Max 8.

  1. Daily Living Movement Recognition for Pedestrian Dead Reckoning Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Martinelli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, activity recognition is a central topic in numerous applications such as patient and sport activity monitoring, surveillance, and navigation. By focusing on the latter, in particular Pedestrian Dead Reckoning navigation systems, activity recognition is generally exploited to get landmarks on the map of the buildings in order to permit the calibration of the navigation routines. The present work aims to provide a contribution to the definition of a more effective movement recognition for Pedestrian Dead Reckoning applications. The signal acquired by a belt-mounted triaxial accelerometer is considered as the input to the movement segmentation procedure which exploits Continuous Wavelet Transform to detect and segment cyclic movements such as walking. Furthermore, the segmented movements are provided to a supervised learning classifier in order to distinguish between activities such as walking and walking downstairs and upstairs. In particular, four supervised learning classification families are tested: decision tree, Support Vector Machine, k-nearest neighbour, and Ensemble Learner. Finally, the accuracy of the considered classification models is evaluated and the relative confusion matrices are presented.

  2. Advanced Pedestrian Positioning System to Smartphones and Smartwatches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Correa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the development of pedestrian navigation systems for satellite-denied scenarios. The popularization of smartphones and smartwatches is an interesting opportunity for reducing the infrastructure cost of the positioning systems. Nowadays, smartphones include inertial sensors that can be used in pedestrian dead-reckoning (PDR algorithms for the estimation of the user’s position. Both smartphones and smartwatches include WiFi capabilities allowing the computation of the received signal strength (RSS. We develop a new method for the combination of RSS measurements from two different receivers using a Gaussian mixture model. We also analyze the implication of using a WiFi network designed for communication purposes in an indoor positioning system when the designer cannot control the network configuration. In this work, we design a hybrid positioning system that combines inertial measurements, from low-cost inertial sensors embedded in a smartphone, with RSS measurements through an extended Kalman filter. The system has been validated in a real scenario, and results show that our system improves the positioning accuracy of the PDR system thanks to the use of two WiFi receivers. The designed system obtains an accuracy up to 1.4 m in a scenario of 6000 m 2 .

  3. Advanced Pedestrian Positioning System to Smartphones and Smartwatches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Alejandro; Munoz Diaz, Estefania; Bousdar Ahmed, Dina; Morell, Antoni; Lopez Vicario, Jose

    2016-11-11

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the development of pedestrian navigation systems for satellite-denied scenarios. The popularization of smartphones and smartwatches is an interesting opportunity for reducing the infrastructure cost of the positioning systems. Nowadays, smartphones include inertial sensors that can be used in pedestrian dead-reckoning (PDR) algorithms for the estimation of the user's position. Both smartphones and smartwatches include WiFi capabilities allowing the computation of the received signal strength (RSS). We develop a new method for the combination of RSS measurements from two different receivers using a Gaussian mixture model. We also analyze the implication of using a WiFi network designed for communication purposes in an indoor positioning system when the designer cannot control the network configuration. In this work, we design a hybrid positioning system that combines inertial measurements, from low-cost inertial sensors embedded in a smartphone, with RSS measurements through an extended Kalman filter. The system has been validated in a real scenario, and results show that our system improves the positioning accuracy of the PDR system thanks to the use of two WiFi receivers. The designed system obtains an accuracy up to 1.4 m in a scenario of 6000 m 2 .

  4. Evaluation of pedestrian safety at intersections: A theoretical framework based on pedestrian-vehicle interaction patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Ying; Wang, Menglong; Sun, Jian; Li, Keping

    2016-11-01

    Pedestrians are the most vulnerable road users, and pedestrian safety has become a major research focus in recent years. Regarding the quality and quantity issues with collision data, conflict analysis using surrogate safety measures has become a useful method to study pedestrian safety. However, given the inequality between pedestrians and vehicles in encounters and the multiple interactions between pedestrians and vehicles, it is insufficient to simply use the same indicator(s) or the same way to aggregate indicators for all conditions. In addition, behavioral factors cannot be neglected. To better use information extracted from trajectories for safety evaluation and pay more attention on effects of behavioral factors, this paper develops a more sophisticated framework for pedestrian conflict analysis that takes pedestrian-vehicle interactions into consideration. A concept of three interaction patterns has been proposed for the first time, namely "hard interaction," "no interaction," and "soft-interaction." Interactions have been categorized under one of these patterns by analyzing profiles of speed and conflict indicators during the whole interactive processes. In this paper, a support vector machine (SVM) approach has been adopted to classify severity levels for a dataset including 1144 events extracted from three intersections in Shanghai, China, followed by an analysis of variable importance. The results revealed that different conflict indicators have different contributions to indicating the severity level under various interaction patterns. Therefore, it is recommended either to use specific conflict indicators or to use weighted indicator aggregation for each interaction pattern when evaluating pedestrian safety. The implementation has been carried out at the fourth crosswalk, and the results indicate that the proposed method can achieve a higher accuracy and better robustness than conventional methods. Furthermore, the method is helpful for better

  5. Silent and a audible stereotypes: The constitution of "ethnic character" in Serbian epic poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đerić Gordana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the explanatory relevance of the concept of stereotype in one of its original meanings - as a "mental image". This meaning of the term is the starting point for further differentiations, such as: between linguistic and behavioral stereotypes (in the sense of nonverbal, expected responses; universal and particular stereotypes; self representative and introspective stereotypes; permanent and contemporary stereotypes; and finally, what is most important for our purposes, the difference between silent and audible stereotypes. These distinctions, along with the functions of stereotype, are discussed in the first part of the paper. In the second part, the relations of silent and audible stereotypes are tested against the introduction of "innovative vocabularies" in popular lore. In other words, the explanatory power of this differentiation is checked through an analysis of unconventional motives in Serbian epic poems. The goal of the argument is to clarify the procedure of self creation of masculinity as a relevant feature of the "national character" through "tactic games" of silent and audible stereotypes. The examination of these "poetic strategies" serves a twofold purpose: to illustrate the process of constructing particular features of the "ethno type", on one hand, and to check hypotheses and models which are taken as frameworks in analyzing stereotypes, on the other.

  6. Activity classification and dead reckoning for pedestrian navigation with wearable sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zuolei; Mao, Xuchu; Tian, Weifeng; Zhang, Xiangfen

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses an approach which integrates activity classification and dead reckoning techniques in step-based pedestrian navigation. In the proposed method, the pedestrian is equipped with a prototype wearable sensor module to record accelerations and determine the headings while walking. To improve the step detection accuracy, different types of activities are classified according to extracted features by means of a probabilistic neural network (PNN). The vertical acceleration data, which indicate the periodic vibration during gait cycle are filtered through a wavelet transform before being used to count the steps and assess the step length from which the distance traveled is estimated. By coupling the distance with the azimuth, navigation through pedestrian dead reckoning is implemented. This research provides a possible seamless pedestrian navigation solution which can be applied to a wide range of areas where the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) signal remains vulnerable. Results of two experiments in this paper reveal that the proposed approach is effective in reducing navigation errors and improving accuracy.

  7. The Pedestrian Behaviour of Spanish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullman, M. J. M.; Gras, M. E.; Font-Mayolas, S.; Masferrer, L.; Cunill, M.; Planes, M.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent pedestrians are a particularly vulnerable group of road users. This research tested the applicability of the recently developed Adolescent Road user Behaviour Questionnaire (ARBQ) amongst a sample of 2006 Spanish adolescents. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the full scale found that the original three factors did not adequately fit the…

  8. Pedestrian flows in bounded domains with obstacles

    CERN Document Server

    Piccoli, Benedetto

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we systematically apply the mathematical structures by time-evolving measures developed in a previous work to the macroscopic modeling of pedestrian flows. We propose a discrete-time Eulerian model, in which the space occupancy by pedestrians is described via a sequence of Radon positive measures generated by a push-forward recursive relation. We assume that two fundamental aspects of pedestrian behavior rule the dynamics of the system: On the one hand, the will to reach specific targets, which determines the main direction of motion of the walkers; on the other hand, the tendency to avoid crowding, which introduces interactions among the individuals. The resulting model is able to reproduce several experimental evidences of pedestrian flows pointed out in the specialized literature, being at the same time much easier to handle, from both the analytical and the numerical point of view, than other models relying on nonlinear hyperbolic conservation laws. This makes it suitable to address two-dime...

  9. Traffic signal design and simulation for vulnerable road users safety and bus preemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Shih-Ching; Huang, Hsieh-Chu

    2015-01-01

    Mostly, pedestrian car accidents occurred at a signalized interaction is because pedestrians cannot across the intersection safely within the green light. From the viewpoint of pedestrian, there might have two reasons. The first one is pedestrians cannot speed up to across the intersection, such as the elders. The other reason is pedestrians do not sense that the signal phase is going to change and their right-of-way is going to be lost. Developing signal logic to protect pedestrian, who is crossing an intersection is the first purpose of this study. In addition, to improve the reliability and reduce delay of public transportation service is the second purpose. Therefore, bus preemption is also considered in the designed signal logic. In this study, the traffic data of the intersection of Chong-Qing North Road and Min-Zu West Road, Taipei, Taiwan, is employed to calibrate and validate the signal logic by simulation. VISSIM 5.20, which is a microscopic traffic simulation software, is employed to simulate the signal logic. From the simulated results, the signal logic presented in this study can protect pedestrians crossing the intersection successfully. The design of bus preemption can reduce the average delay. However, the pedestrian safety and bus preemption signal will influence the average delay of cars largely. Thus, whether applying the pedestrian safety and bus preemption signal logic to an intersection or not should be evaluated carefully.

  10. Pedestrian traffic: on the quickest path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretz, Tobias

    2009-03-01

    When a large group of pedestrians moves around a corner, most pedestrians do not follow the shortest path, which is to stay as close as possible to the inner wall, but try to minimize the travel time. For this they accept to move on a longer path with some distance to the corner, to avoid large densities and by this succeed in maintaining a comparatively high speed. In many models of pedestrian dynamics the basic rule of motion is often either 'move as far as possible toward the destination' or—reformulated—'of all coordinates accessible in this time step move to the one with the smallest distance to the destination'. On top of this rule modifications are placed to make the motion more realistic. These modifications usually focus on local behavior and neglect long-ranged effects. Compared to real pedestrians this leads to agents in a simulation valuing the shortest path a lot better than the quickest. So, in a situation such as the movement of a large crowd around a corner, one needs an additional element in a model of pedestrian dynamics that makes the agents deviate from the rule of the shortest path. In this work it is shown how this can be achieved by using a flood fill dynamic potential field method, where during the filling process the value of a field cell is not increased by 1, but by a larger value, if it is occupied by an agent. This idea may be an obvious one: however, the tricky part—and therefore in a strict sense the contribution of this work—is (a) to minimize unrealistic artifacts, as naive flood fill metrics deviate considerably from the Euclidean metric and in this respect yield large errors, (b) do this with limited computational effort and (c) keep agents' movement at very low densities unaltered.

  11. Distance between speed humps and pedestrian crossings: does it matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Charlotta; Rosander, Peter; Leden, Lars

    2011-09-01

    Speed humps are a common physical measure installed at pedestrian crossings to reduce vehicle speeds therefore improve the safety and mobility of pedestrians at the crossing. The aim of this study was to determine whether variations in distance between speed humps and pedestrian crossings contribute differently to the safety and mobility of pedestrians and cyclists, especially children and the elderly, and if so, how. Three sites in Sweden were studied, where vehicle speed measurements and video filming at the site resulted in manually coded, road user behaviour of 1972 pedestrians and cyclists. Road user behaviour at three test sites and two comparison sites equipped with speed cushion at distances of about 5m and 10 m from the pedestrian crossing, i.e. about one or two car lengths, were studied. As vehicle speeds were somewhat lower at the pedestrian crossing when the distance between the speed cushion to the pedestrian crossing was greater, and there were positive aspects regarding the mobility of the pedestrians and cyclists, a greater distance of about 10 m or two car lengths between the hump and the pedestrian crossing is suggested. The present study only covers speed cushions, but the same distance is also regarded as important when installing other types of physical measures to reduce vehicle speed.

  12. Correlation Between Euro NCAP Pedestrian Test Results and Injury Severity in Injury Crashes with Pedestrians and Bicyclists in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandroth, Johan; Sternlund, Simon; Lie, Anders; Tingvall, Claes; Rizzi, Matteo; Kullgren, Anders; Ohlin, Maria; Fredriksson, Rikard

    2014-11-01

    Pedestrians and bicyclists account for a significant share of deaths and serious injuries in the road transport system. The protection of pedestrians in car-to-pedestrian crashes has therefore been addressed by friendlier car fronts and since 1997, the European New Car Assessment Program (Euro NCAP) has assessed the level of protection for most car models available in Europe. In the current study, Euro NCAP pedestrian scoring was compared with real-life injury outcomes in car-to-pedestrian and car-tobicyclist crashes occurring in Sweden. Approximately 1200 injured pedestrians and 2000 injured bicyclists were included in the study. Groups of cars with low, medium and high pedestrian scores were compared with respect to pedestrian injury severity on the Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale (MAIS)-level and risk of permanent medical impairment (RPMI). Significant injury reductions to both pedestrians and bicyclists were found between low and high performing cars. For pedestrians, the reduction of MAIS2+, MAIS3+, RPMI1+ and RPMI10+ ranged from 20-56% and was significant on all levels except for MAIS3+ injuries. Pedestrian head injuries had the highest reduction, 80-90% depending on level of medical impairment. For bicyclist, an injury reduction was only observed between medium and high performing cars. Significant injury reductions were found for all body regions. It was also found that cars fitted with autonomous emergency braking including pedestrian detection might have a 60-70% lower crash involvement than expected. Based on these results, it was recommended that pedestrian protection are implemented on a global scale to provide protection for vulnerable road users worldwide.

  13. METHODOLOGY FOR DETERMINATION OF ECONOMIC LOSSES AT COORDINATED REGULATION OF TRANSPORT-PEDESTRIAN FLOWS

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents some peculiar features of the developed methodology for determination of economic losses at coordinated regulation of transport and pedestrian flow movement. Preconditions for introduction of pre-signals on light objects which raise efficiency of coordinated control over transport flows are considered separately in the paper. The paper proposes to estimate the coordinated regulation by such criterion as minimization of economic, ecological and emergency losses. Basic princi...

  14. 33 CFR 86.05 - Sound signal intensity and range of audibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... direction of the forward axis of the whistle and at a distance of 1 meter from it, a sound pressure level in... following frequency ranges (±1 percent): (a) 130-1200 Hz, for a vessel 75 meters or more in length; (b) 250-1600 Hz, for a vessel 20 meters but less than 75 meters in length; (c) 250-2100 Hz, for a vessel...

  15. Inflow process of pedestrians to a confined space

    CERN Document Server

    Ezaki, Takahiro; Chraibi, Mohcine; Boltes, Maik; Yanagisawa, Daichi; Seyfried, Armin; Schadschneider, Andreas; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    To better design safe and comfortable urban spaces, understanding the nature of human crowd movement is important. However, precise interactions among pedestrians are difficult to measure in the presence of their complex decision-making processes and many related factors. While extensive studies on pedestrian flow through bottlenecks and corridors have been conducted, the dominant mode of interaction in these scenarios may not be relevant in different scenarios. Here, we attempt to decipher the factors that affect human reactions to other individuals from a different perspective. We conducted experiments employing the inflow process in which pedestrians successively enter a confined area (like an elevator) and look for a temporary position. In this process, pedestrians have a wider range of options regarding their motion than in the classical scenarios; therefore, other factors might become relevant. The preference of location is visualized by pedestrian density profiles obtained from recorded pedestrian traj...

  16. Health-based audible noise guidelines account for infrasound and low-frequency noise produced by wind turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Robert G; Ashtiani, Payam; Ollson, Christopher A; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa; McCallum, Lindsay C; Leventhall, Geoff; Knopper, Loren D

    2015-01-01

    Setbacks for wind turbines have been established in many jurisdictions to address potential health concerns associated with audible noise. However, in recent years, it has been suggested that infrasound (IS) and low-frequency noise (LFN) could be responsible for the onset of adverse health effects self-reported by some individuals living in proximity to wind turbines, even when audible noise limits are met. The purpose of this paper was to investigate whether current audible noise-based guidelines for wind turbines account for the protection of human health, given the levels of IS and LFN typically produced by wind turbines. New field measurements of indoor IS and outdoor LFN at locations between 400 and 900 m from the nearest turbine, which were previously underrepresented in the scientific literature, are reported and put into context with existing published works. Our analysis showed that indoor IS levels were below auditory threshold levels while LFN levels at distances >500 m were similar to background LFN levels. A clear contribution to LFN due to wind turbine operation (i.e., measured with turbines on in comparison to with turbines off) was noted at a distance of 480 m. However, this corresponded to an increase in overall audible sound measures as reported in dB(A), supporting the hypothesis that controlling audible sound produced by normally operating wind turbines will also control for LFN. Overall, the available data from this and other studies suggest that health-based audible noise wind turbine siting guidelines provide an effective means to evaluate, monitor, and protect potential receptors from audible noise as well as IS and LFN.

  17. Estimating Bicycle and Pedestrian Demand in San Diego

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Michael; Buckland, Lauren

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces the concepts behind estimating bicycle and pedestrian demand and provides an example of the development of a sketch-plan method for estimating bicycle and pedestrian demand from land use in San Diego County. The paper describes the methodology involved in collecting counts for the currently ongoing Seamless Travel project. The Seamless Travel project intends to develop a model for estimating bicycle and pedestrian demand within San Diego County. The project methodology i...

  18. Dynamic Response to Pedestrian Loads with Statistical Frequency Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    2012-01-01

    Pedestrian loads depend on the regularity and frequency of the footfall process. Traditionally, pedestrian loads have been represented by one or more specific harmonic components with a well-defined frequency, and light footbridges have been investigated for resonance vibration generated by the h......Pedestrian loads depend on the regularity and frequency of the footfall process. Traditionally, pedestrian loads have been represented by one or more specific harmonic components with a well-defined frequency, and light footbridges have been investigated for resonance vibration generated...

  19. Experimental validation and calibration of pedestrian loading models for footbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricciardelli, Fransesco; Briatico, C; Ingólfsson, Einar Thór

    2006-01-01

    Different patterns of pedestrian loading of footbridges exist, whose occurrence depends on a number of parameters, such as the bridge span, frequency, damping and mass, and the pedestrian density and activity. In this paper analytical models for the transient action of one walker and for the stat......Different patterns of pedestrian loading of footbridges exist, whose occurrence depends on a number of parameters, such as the bridge span, frequency, damping and mass, and the pedestrian density and activity. In this paper analytical models for the transient action of one walker...... on a model footbridge will be shown, aimed at setting the limits of applicability of the proposed models....

  20. GPS in Pedestrian and Spatial Behaviour Surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Hovgesen, Henrik Harder

    The planning of the environment for pedestrians can be improved by using the newest gps tools for monitoring changes in human activity patterns in time and space. Using a personal GPS device, the locations and movements of respondents can be followed over a longer period of time. It will then be ......The planning of the environment for pedestrians can be improved by using the newest gps tools for monitoring changes in human activity patterns in time and space. Using a personal GPS device, the locations and movements of respondents can be followed over a longer period of time....... It will then be possible to analyse how the use of urban spaces are embedded in the wider context of activity patterns (work, school etc.). The general pattern of everyday itineraries, including route choice and time spent at different locations ?on the way? can also be analysed.    If the personal GPS device is combined...

  1. System and Method for Providing a Real Time Audible Message to a Pilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Walter W. (Inventor); Lachter, Joel B. (Inventor); Battiste, Vernol (Inventor); Koteskey, Robert W. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A system and method for providing information to a crew of the aircraft while in-flight. The system includes a module having: a receiver for receiving a message while in-flight; a filter having a set of screening parameters and operative to filter the message based on the set of screening parameters; and a converter for converting the message into an audible message. The message includes a pilot report having at least one of weather information, separation information, congestion information, flight deviation information and destination information. The message is sent to the aircraft by another aircraft or an air traffic controller.

  2. Concept of an enhanced V2X pedestrian collision avoidance system with a cost function-based pedestrian model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotte, Jens; Schmeichel, Carsten; Zlocki, Adrian; Gathmann, Hauke; Eckstein, Lutz

    2017-04-03

    Objective State-of-the-art collision avoidance and collision mitigation systems predict the behavior of pedestrians based on trivial models that assume a constant acceleration or velocity. New sources of sensor information, for example smart devices (smartphones, tablets, smartwatches, …), can support enhanced pedestrian behavior models. The objective of this paper is the development and implementation of a V2X pedestrian collision avoidance system that uses new information sources. Methods A literature review of existing state-of-the-art pedestrian collision avoidance systems, pedestrian behavior models in Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS), and traffic simulations is conducted together with an analysis of existing studies on typical pedestrian patterns in traffic. Based on this analysis, possible parameters for predicting pedestrian behavior were investigated. The results led to new requirements from which a concept was developed and implemented. Results The analysis of typical pedestrian behavior patterns in traffic situations showed the complexity of predicting pedestrian behavior. Requirements for an improved behavior prediction were derived. A concept for a V2X collision avoidance system, based on a cost function that predicts pedestrian near future presence, and its implementation, is presented. The concept presented considers several challenges such as information privacy, inaccuracies of the localization, and inaccuracies of the prediction. Conclusion A concept for an enhanced V2X pedestrian collision avoidance system was developed and introduced. The concept uses new information sources such as smart devices to improve the prediction of the pedestrian's presence in the near future and considers challenges that come along with the usage of these information sources.

  3. Are pedestrians invisible in the planning process?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gemzøe, Lars

    2001-01-01

    The vehicular traffic is very visible in the planning process. One of the reasons is that there is always plenty of data on the problems of car traffic - but what about data on the pedestrians and their needs? Three major studies on people in public spaces in the Inner City of Copenhagen have...... supplied data that show the quantity, character and changes through 30 years of public life. People in Copenhagen have become visible in the planning process. cd-rom....

  4. Pedestrian Flow in the Mean Field Limit

    KAUST Repository

    Haji Ali, Abdul Lateef

    2012-11-01

    We study the mean-field limit of a particle-based system modeling the behavior of many indistinguishable pedestrians as their number increases. The base model is a modified version of Helbing\\'s social force model. In the mean-field limit, the time-dependent density of two-dimensional pedestrians satisfies a four-dimensional integro-differential Fokker-Planck equation. To approximate the solution of the Fokker-Planck equation we use a time-splitting approach and solve the diffusion part using a Crank-Nicholson method. The advection part is solved using a Lax-Wendroff-Leveque method or an upwind Backward Euler method depending on the advection speed. Moreover, we use multilevel Monte Carlo to estimate observables from the particle-based system. We discuss these numerical methods, and present numerical results showing the convergence of observables that were calculated using the particle-based model as the number of pedestrians increases to those calculated using the probability density function satisfying the Fokker-Planck equation.

  5. Pedestrian- and driver-related factors associated with the risk of causing collisions involving pedestrians in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Mejías, Eladio; Martínez-Ruiz, Virginia; Amezcua-Prieto, Carmen; Olmedo-Requena, Rocío; Luna-Del-Castillo, Juan de Dios; Lardelli-Claret, Pablo

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to quantify the association between pedestrian- and driver-related factors and the risk of causing road crashes involving pedestrians in urban areas in Spain between 1993 and 2011. From the nationwide police-based registry of road crashes with victims in Spain, we analyzed all 63,205 pairs of pedestrians and drivers involved in crashes in urban areas in which only the pedestrian or only the driver was at fault. Logistic regression models were used to obtain adjusted odds ratios to assess the strength of association between each individual-related variable and the pedestrian's odds of being at fault for the crash (and conversely, the driver's odds of not being at fault). The subgroups of road users at high risk of causing a road crash with a pedestrian in urban areas were young and male pedestrians, pedestrians with psychophysical conditions or health problems, the youngest and the oldest drivers, and drivers with markers of high-risk behaviors (alcohol use, nonuse of safety devices, and driving without a valid license). These subgroups should be targeted by preventive strategies intended to decrease the rate of urban road crashes involving pedestrians in Spain.

  6. The effect of conformity tendency on pedestrians' road-crossing intentions in China: an application of the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ronggang; Horrey, William J; Yu, Ruifeng

    2009-05-01

    This paper presents a survey investigating the effects of age, gender and conformity tendency on Chinese pedestrians' intention to cross the road in potentially dangerous situations. A sample of 426 respondents completed a demographic questionnaire, a scale measuring their tendency towards social conformity, and a questionnaire based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB). This questionnaire measured people's intentions to cross the road in two different road crossing situations, their attitude towards the behavior, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, anticipated affect, moral norms, and perceived risk. The two scenarios depicted (i) a situation where the crossing was consistent with other pedestrians' behavior (Conformity scenario) and (ii) a situation where the road crossing was inconsistent with other pedestrians (Non-Conformity scenario). Pedestrians reported greater likelihood in crossing the road when other pedestrians were crossing the road. People who showed greater tendencies towards social conformity also had stronger road crossing intentions than low conformity people for both scenarios. The predictive model explained 36% and 48% of the variance in the Non-Conformity and Conformity scenarios, respectively. Attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and perceived risk emerged as the common predictors for both situations. The results have a number of theoretical and practical implications. In particular, interventions should focus on perceptions of risk that inform road users that crossing with other pedestrians against the signal is also unsafe and prohibited, and may lead to negative outcomes.

  7. 西樵金典广场人行车行隧道方案设计比选%Xiqiao Golden Plaza Pedestrian-vehicle Tunnel Design Plan Comparison

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯杰

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve traffic organization for pedestrians and vehicles around the Golden Plaza of Xiqiao Town,after compar-ison between pedestrian tunnel and pedestrian-vehicle tunnel,pedestrian-vehicle tunnel scheme has been selected. The scheme has given allowances for pedestrians between the stores and shopping malls going through underground tunnels and for part of left-turning vehicle not being affected by the traffic signal lamp system,which could provide reference for future design of similar pedestrian-vehi-cle tunnels.%为了改善西樵镇金典广场路段人行车行交通组织混乱的交通状况,经人行车行隧道与人行隧道的方案比选后,选择人行车行隧道方案。该方案具有商场与商场之间的人流地下通行、部分左转弯车辆不受交通信号灯管制等特点,为同类人行车行隧道的设计提供借鉴价值。

  8. Research on the Effects of Heterogeneity on Pedestrian Dynamics in Walkway of Subway Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoling Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The major objective of this paper is to study the effects of heterogeneity on pedestrian dynamics in walkway of subway station. We analyze the observed data of the selected facility and find that walking speed and occupied space were varied in the population. In reality, pedestrians are heterogeneous individuals with different attributes. However, the research on how the heterogeneity affects the pedestrian dynamics in facilities of subway stations is insufficient. The improved floor field model is therefore presented to explore the effects of heterogeneity. Pedestrians are classified into pedestrians walking in pairs, fast pedestrians, and ordinary pedestrians. For convenience, they are denoted as P-pedestrians, F-pedestrians, and O-pedestrians, respectively. The proposed model is validated under homogeneous and heterogeneous conditions. Three pedestrian compositions are simulated to analyze the effects of heterogeneity on pedestrian dynamics. The results show that P-pedestrians have negative effect and F-pedestrians have positive effect. All of the results in this paper indicate that the capacity of walkway is not a constant value. It changes with different component proportions of heterogeneous pedestrians. The heterogeneity of pedestrian has an important influence on the pedestrian dynamics in the walkway of the subway station.

  9. Pedestrian-driver communication and decision strategies at marked crossings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucha, Matus; Dostal, Daniel; Risser, Ralf

    2017-03-02

    The aim of this work is to describe pedestrian-driver encounters, communication, and decision strategies at marked but unsignalised crossings in urban areas in the Czech Republic and the ways in which the parties involved experience and handle these encounters. A mixed-methods design was used, consisting of focus groups with pedestrians and drivers regarding their subjective views of the situations, on-site observations, camera recordings, speed measurements, the measurement of car and pedestrian densities, and brief on-site interviews with pedestrians. In close correspondence with the literature, our study revealed that the most relevant predictors of pedestrians' and drivers' behaviour at crossings were the densities of car traffic and pedestrian flows and car speed. The factors which influenced pedestrians' wait/go behaviour were: car speed, the distance of the car from the crossing, traffic density, whether there were cars approaching from both directions, various signs given by the driver (eye contact, waving a hand, flashing their lights), and the presence of other pedestrians. The factors influencing drivers' yield/go behaviour were: speed, traffic density, the number of pedestrians waiting to cross, and pedestrians being distracted. A great proportion of drivers (36%) failed to yield to pedestrians at marked crossings. The probability of conflict situations increased with cars travelling at a higher speed, higher traffic density, and pedestrians being distracted by a different activity while crossing. The findings of this study can add to the existing literature by helping to provide an understanding of the perception of encounter situations by the parties involved and the motives lying behind certain aspects of behaviour associated with these encounters. This seems necessary in order to develop suggestions for improvements. For instance, the infrastructure near pedestrian crossings should be designed in such a way as to take proper account of pedestrians

  10. A Pedestrian Navigation System Using Cellular Phone Video-Conferencing Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiko Sugiura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A user’s position-specific field has been developed using the Global Positioning System (GPS technology. To determine the position using cellular phones, a device was developed, in which a pedestrian navigation unit carries the GPS. However, GPS cannot specify a position in a subterranean environment or indoors, which is beyond the reach of transmitted signals. In addition, the position-specification precision of GPS, that is, its resolution, is on the order of several meters, which is deemed insufficient for pedestrians. In this study, we proposed and evaluated a technique for locating a user’s 3D position by setting up a marker in the navigation space detected in the image of a cellular phone. By experiment, we verified the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed method. Additionally, we improved the positional precision because we measured the position distance using numerous markers.

  11. Quantification of the effects of audible rattle and source type on the human response to environmental vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, J; Sica, G; Peris, E; Sharp, C; Moorhouse, A T; Waddington, D C

    2016-03-01

    The present research quantifies the influence of source type and the presence of audible vibration-induced rattle on annoyance caused by vibration in residential environments. The sources of vibration considered are railway and the construction of a light rail system. Data were measured in the United Kingdom using a socio-vibration survey (N = 1281). These data are analyzed using ordinal logit models to produce exposure-response relationships describing community annoyance as a function of vibration exposure. The influence of source type and the presence of audible vibration-induced rattle on annoyance are investigated using dummy variable analysis, and quantified using odds-ratios and community tolerance levels. It is concluded that the sample population is more likely to express higher levels of annoyance if the vibration source is construction compared to railway, and if vibration-induced rattle is audible.

  12. Effect of speed matching on fundamental diagram of pedestrian flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhijian; Luo, Lin; Yang, Yue; Zhuang, Yifan; Zhang, Peitong; Yang, Lizhong; Yang, Hongtai; Ma, Jian; Zhu, Kongjin; Li, Yanlai

    2016-09-01

    Properties of pedestrian may change along their moving path, for example, as a result of fatigue or injury, which has never been properly investigated in the past research. The paper attempts to study the speed matching effect (a pedestrian adjusts his velocity constantly to the average velocity of his neighbors) and its influence on the density-velocity relationship (a pedestrian adjust his velocity to the surrounding density), known as the fundamental diagram of the pedestrian flow. By the means of the cellular automaton, the simulation results fit well with the empirical data, indicating the great advance of the discrete model for pedestrian dynamics. The results suggest that the system velocity and flow rate increase obviously under a big noise, i.e., a diverse composition of pedestrian crowd, especially in the region of middle or high density. Because of the temporary effect, the speed matching has little influence on the fundamental diagram. Along the entire density, the relationship between the step length and the average pedestrian velocity is a piecewise function combined two linear functions. The number of conflicts reaches the maximum with the pedestrian density of 2.5 m-2, while decreases by 5.1% with the speed matching.

  13. Typical features of pedestrian spatial distribution in the inflow process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaodong; Song, Weiguo; Fu, Libi; Lv, Wei; Fang, Zhiming

    2016-04-01

    Pedestrian inflow is frequently observed in various pedestrian facilities. In this work, we first proposed four hypotheses concerning the inflow process. Then, we performed a series of experiments to test the hypotheses. With several analytical methods, e.g., the proxemics theory and Voronoi diagram method, the features of pedestrian inflow are analyzed in detail. Results demonstrate that the distribution of pedestrians in the room is not uniform. Boundaries are attractive for these pedestrians. The impact of two factors of the inflow are analyzed, i.e., movement rule, and first-out reward. It is found pedestrians can enter the room more effectively under the random rule or two queues. Under some hurry circumstances, pedestrians may prefer to gather around the door, and the spatial distribution is not uniform, leading to the imbalance use of the room. Practical suggestions are given for pedestrians to improve the travel efficiency in the inflow process. This experimental study is meaningful to reveal some fundamental phenomena of inflow process, which can provide the realistic basis for building the theory and mathematical-physical models.

  14. Development of computer simulation models for pedestrian subsystem impact tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kant, R.; Konosu, A.; Ishikawa, H.

    2000-01-01

    The European Enhanced Vehicle-safety Committee (EEVC/WG10 and WG17) proposed three component subsystem tests for cars to assess pedestrian protection. The objective of this study is to develop computer simulation models of the EEVC pedestrian subsystem tests. These models are available to develop a

  15. Pedestrian kinematics: a detailed study from the aspects project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodarius, C.; Hair-Buijssen, S.H.H.M. de; Mottola, E.; Schaub, S.

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at providing insight on pedestrian kinematics during vehicle impact for the following variables: pedestrian size, position and posture as well as vehicle related variables like shape, speed and pre-crash braking. It is part of the work conducted within work package 3 “Injury assessme

  16. Breakdown Phenomenon Study in the Bidirectional Pedestrian Flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, X.; Daamen, W.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.; Chen, Y.; Dong, H.

    2014-01-01

    Pedestrian dynamics has been being a popular research area. In this paper, breakdown probability in the bidirectional flow that includes pedestrians with heterogeneities is investigated. Reaction time appears to have the most pronounced breakdown proba- bility, followed by desired velocity and then

  17. Pedestrian fatalities and injuries involving Irish older people.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin, A J

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been established internationally that road traffic accidents (RTAs) involving older drivers follow clearly different patterns of timing, location and outcomes from those of younger age groups. Older pedestrians are also a vulnerable group and fewer analyses have been undertaken of the phenomenology of their injuries and fatalities. We studied the pattern of pedestrian RTAs in Ireland over a five-year period with the aim of identifying differences between older pedestrians (aged 65 or older) and younger adults. METHODS: We examined the datasets of the Irish National Road Authority (now the Road Safety Authority) from 1998-2002. We analysed patterns of crashes involving older pedestrians (aged 65) and compared them with younger adults (aged 18-64). RESULTS: Older people represented 36% (n = 134) of pedestrian fatalities and 23% of serious injuries while they only account for 19% of total RTAs. Mortality in RTA is more than doubled for older pedestrians compared to younger adults (RR 2.30). Most accidents involving older pedestrians happen in daylight with good visibility (56%) and in good weather conditions (77%). CONCLUSIONS: Older pedestrians are particularly vulnerable in RTAs. These occur more frequently during daylight hours and in good weather conditions. This may point to a need for prevention strategies that are targeted at the traffic environment and other road users rather than at older people.

  18. Pedestrian Counting with Occlusion Handling Using Stereo Thermal Cameras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Miklas Strøm; Dueholm, Jacob Velling; Gade, Rikke;

    2016-01-01

    for pedestrian counting based on clustering and tracking of the 3D point clouds. The method is tested on two five-minute video sequences captured at a public event with a moderate density of pedestrians and heavy occlusions. The counting performance is compared to the manually annotated ground truth and shows...

  19. Taking the Temperature of Pedestrian Movement in Public Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Zebitz; Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B.;

    2014-01-01

    Cities require data on pedestrian movement to evaluate the use of public spaces. We propose a system using thermal cameras and Computer Vision (CV) combined with Geographical Information Systems (GIS) to track and assess pedestrian dynamics and behaviors in urban plazas. Thermal cameras operate...

  20. A mixed generative-discriminative framework for pedestrian classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enzweiler, M.; Gavrila, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to pedestrian classification which involves utilizing the synthesized virtual samples of a learned generative model to enhance the classification performance of a discriminative model. Our generative model captures prior knowledge about the pedestrian class in te

  1. Experimental characterization of collision avoidance in pedestrian dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, Daniel R.; Negri, Pablo A.; Bruno, Luciana

    2016-08-01

    In the present paper, the avoidance behavior of pedestrians was characterized by controlled experiments. Several conflict situations were studied considering different flow rates and group sizes in crossing and head-on configurations. Pedestrians were recorded from above, and individual two-dimensional trajectories of their displacement were recovered after image processing. Lateral swaying amplitude and step lengths were measured for free pedestrians, obtaining similar values to the ones reported in the literature. Minimum avoidance distances were computed in two-pedestrian experiments. In the case of one pedestrian dodging an arrested one, the avoidance distance did not depend on the relative orientation of the still pedestrian with respect to the direction of motion of the first. When both pedestrians were moving, the avoidance distance in a perpendicular encounter was longer than the one obtained during a head-on approach. It was found that the mean curvature of the trajectories was linearly anticorrelated with the mean speed. Furthermore, two common avoidance maneuvers, stopping and steering, were defined from the analysis of the acceleration and curvature in single trajectories. Interestingly, it was more probable to observe steering events than stopping ones, also the probability of simultaneous steering and stopping occurrences was negligible. The results obtained in this paper can be used to validate and calibrate pedestrian dynamics models.

  2. A new benchmark for stereo-based pedestrian detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.G. Keller; M. Enzweiler; D.M. Gavrila

    2011-01-01

    Pedestrian detection is a rapidly evolving area in the intelligent vehicles domain. Stereo vision is an attractive sensor for this purpose. But unlike for monocular vision, there are no realistic, large scale benchmarks available for stereo-based pedestrian detection, to provide a common point of re

  3. Mapping patterns of pedestrian fatal accidents in Israel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Gitelman, Victoria; Bekhor, Shlomo

    2010-01-01

    -year period between 2003 and 2006. Results show the existence of five pedestrian accident patterns: (i) elderly pedestrians crossing on crosswalks far from intersection in metropolitan areas; (ii) pedestrians crossing suddenly or from hidden places and colliding with two-wheel vehicles on urban road sections......; (iii) male pedestrians crossing at night and being hit by four-wheel vehicles on rural road sections; (iv) young male pedestrians crossing at night wide road sections in both urban and rural areas; (v) children and teenagers crossing road sections in small rural communities. From the policy perspective......, results suggest the necessity of designing education campaigns for parents, promoting information campaigns for road users and allocating resources for infrastructural interventions and law enforcement in order to address the identified major problems....

  4. Asymmetric pedestrian dynamics on a staircase landing from continuous measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Corbetta, Alessandro; Muntean, Adrian; Toschi, Federico

    2015-01-01

    We investigate via extensive experimental data the dynamics of pedestrians walking in a corridor-shaped landing in a building at Eindhoven University of Technology. With year-long automatic measurements employing a Microsoft KinectTM 3D-range sensor and ad hoc tracking techniques, we acquired few hundreds of thousands pedestrian trajectories in real-life conditions. Here we discuss the asymmetric features of the dynamics in the two walking directions with respect to the flights of stairs (i.e. ascending or descending). We provide a detailed analysis of position and speed fields for the cases of pedestrians walking alone undisturbed and for couple of pedestrians in counter-flow. Then, we show average walking velocities exploring all the observed combinations in terms of numbers of pedestrians and walking directions.

  5. Intelligent Pedestrian Detection using Optical Flow and HOG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huma Ramzan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrian detection is an important aspect of autonomous vehicle driving as recognizing pedestrians helps in reducing accidents between the vehicles and the pedestrians. In literature, feature based approaches have been mostly used for pedestrian detection. Features from different body portions are extracted and analyzed for interpreting the presence or absence of a person in a particular region in front of car. But these approaches alone are not enough to differentiate humans from non-humans in dynamic environments, where background is continuously changing. We present an automated pedestrian detection system by finding pedestrians’ motion patterns and combing them with HOG features. The proposed scheme achieved 17.7% and 14.22% average miss rate on ETHZ and Caltech datasets, respectively.

  6. Modeling the Perceptions and Preferences of Pedestrians on Crossing Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrian’s street-crossing behaviour has a significant effect on traffic performance and safety. The crossing behaviour is determined by human factors and environmental factors. Aiming at examining the pedestrian perceptions toward crossing facilities and preferences for crossing locations, an observational study of pedestrian crossing behaviour at urban street is conducted. The perceptions and preferences of pedestrians are collected using stated preference technique. A specific questionnaire is designed to conduct the stated preference survey. A multinomial logit model is proposed to describe the perceptions and preferences of pedestrians on crossing facilities and locations. The sensitivity analysis is performed to discuss the influence of various factors on crossing behaviour. Then the relationship between crossing locations and crossing distances is analyzed by a new proposed method. With the theoretical analysis, the engineering solutions considering pedestrian behaviour are suggested. The results are helpful to design human-centered crossing facilities in urban traffic.

  7. Study on pedestrian thorax injury in vehicle-to-pedestrian collisions using finite element analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenjun Liu; Hui Zhao; Kui Li; Sen Su; Xiaoxiang Fan; Zhiyong Yin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between the collision parameters of vehicle and the pedestrian thorax injury by establishing the chest simulation models in car-pedestrian collision at different velocities and angles.Methods: 87 cases of vehicle-to-pedestrian accidents, with detailed injury information and determined vehicle impact parameters, were included.The severity of injury was scaled in line with the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS).The chest biomechanical response parameters and change characteristics were obtained by using Hyperworks and LS-DYNA computing.Simulation analysis was applied to compare the characteristics of injuries.Results: When impact velocities at 25, 40 and 55 km/h, respectively, 1) the maximum values of thorax velocity criterion (VC) were for 0.29, 0.83 and 2.58 m/s;and at the same collision velocity, the thorax VC from the impact on pedestrian's front was successively greater than on his back and on his side;2) the maximum values of peak stress on ribs were 154, 177 and 209 MPa;and at the same velocity, peak stress values on ribs from the impact on pedestrian's side were greater than on his front and his back.Conclusion: There is a positive correlation between the severity and risk of thorax injury and the collision velocity and angle of car-thorax crashes.At the same velocity, it is of greater damage risk when the soft tissue of thorax under a front impact;and there is also a greater risk of ribs fracture under a side impact of the thorax.This result is of vital significance for diagnosis and protection of thorax collision injuries.

  8. The Use of Quick Response (QR Codes in Landmark-Based Pedestrian Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahid Basiri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle navigation systems usually simply function by calculating the shortest fastest route over a road network. In contrast, pedestrian navigation can have more diverse concerns. Pedestrians are not constrained to road/path networks; their route may involve going into buildings (where accurate satellite locational signals are not available and they have different priorities, for example, preferring routes that are quieter or more sheltered from the weather. In addition, there are differences in how people are best directed: pedestrians noticing landmarks such as buildings, doors, and steps rather than junctions and sign posts. Landmarks exist both indoors and outdoors. A system has been developed that uses quick response (QR codes affixed to registered landmarks allowing users to localise themselves with respect to their route and with navigational instructions given in terms of these landmarks. In addition, the system includes images of each landmark helping users to navigate visually in addition to through textual instructions and route maps. The system runs on a mobile device; the users use the device’s camera to register each landmark’s QR code and so update their position (particularly indoors and progress through the route itinerary.

  9. A Bayesian inference approach to the development of a multidirectional pedestrian stream model

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a mathematical model to represent the conflicting effects of multidirectional pedestrian flows in a large crowd. The model is formulated based on Drake's model of traffic flow. Rather than relate the speed of a pedestrian stream solely to the pedestrian density, we introduce the flow ratio and intersecting angle between streams as variables. To calibrate the model, data collection was conducted through the video recording of pedestrian movements on a pedestrian stree...

  10. Use of Audible and Chart-recorded Ultrasonography to Monitor Fetal Heart Rate and Uterine Blood Flow Parameters in Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the use of audible chart-recorded doppler ultrasonography (DUS) to monitor both uterine blood flow and fetal heart rate (FHR) during pregnancy in dairy cattle. Possible applications of DUS include the monitoring of fetal distress when a pregnancy be...

  11. Effects of Switching Behavior for the Attraction on Pedestrian Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Jaeyoung; Jo, Hang-Hyun; Luttinen, Tapio; Kosonen, Iisakki

    2015-01-01

    Walking is a fundamental activity of our daily life not only for moving to other places but also for interacting with surrounding environment. While walking on the streets, pedestrians can be aware of attractions like shopping windows. They can be influenced by the attractions and some of them might shift their attention towards the attractions, namely switching behavior. As a first step to incorporate the switching behavior, this study investigates collective effects of switching behavior for an attraction by developing a behavioral model. Numerical simulations exhibit different patterns of pedestrian behavior depending on the strength of the social influence and the average length of stay. When the social influence is strong along with a long length of stay, a saturated phase can be defined at which all the pedestrians have visited the attraction. If the social influence is not strong enough, an unsaturated phase appears where one can observe that some pedestrians head for the attraction while others walk in their desired direction. These collective patterns of pedestrian behavior are summarized in a phase diagram by comparing the number of pedestrians who visited the attraction to the number of passersby near the attraction. Measuring the marginal benefits with respect to the strength of the social influence and the average length of stay enables us to identify under what conditions enhancing these variables would be more effective. The findings from this study can be understood in the context of the pedestrian facility management, for instance, for retail stores.

  12. Fuzzy Pheromone Potential Fields for Virtual Pedestrian Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meriem Mandar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of collective movement of pedestrians is crucial in various situations, such as evacuation of buildings, stadiums, or external events like concerts or public events. In such situations and under panic conditions, several incidents and disasters may arise, resulting in loss of human lives. Hence, the study and modeling of the pedestrians behavior are imperative in both normal and panic situations. In a previous work, we developed a microscopic model for pedestrian movement based on the algorithm of Ant Colonies and the principles of cellular automata. We took advantage of a fuzzy model to better reflect the uncertainty and vagueness of the perception of space to pedestrians, especially to represent the desirability or blurred visibility of virtual pedestrians. This paper uses the mechanism of artificial potential fields. Said fields provide virtual pedestrians with better visibility of their surroundings and its various components (goals and obstacles. The predictions provided by the first-order traffic flow theory are confirmed by the results of the simulation. The advantage of this model lies in the combination of benefits provided by the model of ants and artificial potential fields in a fuzzy modeling, to better understand the perceptions of pedestrians.

  13. Dual effects of pedestrian density on emergency evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yi; Lee, Eric Wai Ming; Yuen, Richard Kwok Kit

    2017-02-01

    This paper investigates the effect of the pedestrian density in building on the evacuation dynamic with simulation method. In the simulations, both the visibility in building and the exit limit of building are taken into account. The simulation results show that the effect of the pedestrian density in building on the evacuation dynamics is dual. On the one hand, when the visibility in building is very large, the increased pedestrian density plays a negative effect. On the other hand, when the visibility in building is very small, the increased pedestrian density can play a positive effect. The simulation results also show that when both the exit width and visibility are very small, the varying of evacuation time with regard to the pedestrian density is non-monotonous and presents a U-shaped tendency. That is, in this case, too large or too small pedestrian density in building is disadvantageous to the evacuation process. Our findings provide a new insight about the effect of the pedestrian density in building on the evacuation dynamic.

  14. A Langevin model for low density pedestrian dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbetta, Alessandro; Lee, Chung-Min; Benzi, Roberto; Muntean, Adrian; Toschi, Federico

    The dynamics of pedestrian crowds shares deep connections with statistical physics and fluid dynamics. Reaching a quantitative understanding, not only of the average behaviours but also of the statistics of (rare) fluctuations would have major impact, for instance, on the design and safety of civil infrastructures. A key feature of pedestrian dynamics is its strong intrinsic variability, that we can already observe at the single individual level. In this work we aim at a quantitative characterisation of this statistical variability by studying individual fluctuations. We consider experimental observations of low-density pedestrian flows in a corridor within a building at Eindhoven University of Technology. Few hundreds of thousands of pedestrian trajectories with high space and time resolutions have been collected via a Microsoft Kinect 3D-range sensor and automatic head tracking techniques. From these observations we model pedestrians as active Brownian particles by means of a generalised Langevin equation. With this model we can quantitatively reproduce the observed dynamics including the statistics of ordinary pedestrian fluctuations and of rarer U-turn events. Low density, pair-wise interactions between pedestrians are also discussed.

  15. Evacuation dynamics of asymmetrically coupled pedestrian pairs

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Frank

    2016-01-01

    We propose and analyze extended floor field cellular automaton models for evacuation dynamics of inhomogeneous pedestrian pairs which are coupled by asymmetric group interactions. Such pairs consist of a leader, who mainly determines the couple's motion and a follower, who has a defined tendency to follow the leader. Examples for such pairs are mother and child or two siblings of different age. We examine the system properties and compare them to the case of a homogeneous crowd. We find a strong impact on evacuation times for the regime of strong pair coupling due to the occurrence of a clogging phenomenon. In addition we obtain a non-trivial dependence of evacuation times on the followers' coupling to the static floor field, which carries the information of the shortest way to the exit location. In particular we find that systems with fully passive followers, who are solely coupled to their leaders, show lower evacuation times than homogeneous systems where all pedestrians have an equal tendency to move towa...

  16. Friction Effects in Pedestrian Headform Impacts with Engine Hoods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Qi; XIA Yong; ZHOU Qing

    2009-01-01

    In the pedestrian headform impact test mandated by the European pedestrian safety requirements, the contact friction between the headform and the engine hood affects the headform kinematics and head injury criterion (HIC) to some extent. This study shows that the friction effect is more significant with child headform impact than with adult headform impact and the relative angle between the headform impact di-rection and the hood surface greatly affects the headform impact sensitivity to the friction coefficient. The sensitivity of the headform kinematics to the friction coefficient is also analyzed. The results show that ac-curate friction coefficients are needed to improve predictions of pedestrian headform impacts with hoods.

  17. Modeling Unidirectional Pedestrian Movement: An Investigation of Diffusion Behavior in the Built Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Unidirectional pedestrian movement is a special phenomenon in the evacuation process of large public buildings and urban environments at pedestrian scale. Several macroscopic models for collective behaviors have been built to predict pedestrian flow. However, current models do not explain the diffusion behavior in pedestrian crowd movement, which can be important in representing spatial-temporal crowd density differentiation in the movement process. This study builds a macroscopic model for describing crowd diffusion behavior and evaluating unidirectional pedestrian flow. The proposed model employs discretization of time and walking speed in geometric distribution to calculate downstream pedestrian crowd flow and analyze movement process based on upstream number of pedestrians and average walking speed. The simulated results are calibrated with video observation data in a baseball stadium to verify the model precision. Statistical results have verified that the proposed pedestrian diffusion model could accurately describe pedestrian macromovement behavior within the margin of error.

  18. Evaluation of pedestrian mid-block road crossing behaviour using artificial neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Raghuram Kadali

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrians usually cross the road at mid-block locations in India because of the ease and convenience to reach their destination as compared to intersection locations. It is important to evaluate the pedestrian gap acceptance behavior at mid-block locations because of inadequate vehicular gaps under mixed traffic condition, which translates into the pedestrian road crossing behavior. The present study examines the pedestrian gap acceptance behaviour by employing an artificial neural network (ANN model for understanding the decision making process of pedestrians, i.e., acceptance or rejection of vehicular gaps at a mid-block location. From the results it has been found that the pedestrian rolling gap, frequency of attempt, vehicular gap size, pedestrian speed change condition and vehicle speed have major role in pedestrian gap acceptance. These results can lead to a better design of pedestrian crossing facilities where adequate gaps are not available in vehicular flow at mid-block crosswalk locations.

  19. Features of the Vision of Elderly Pedestrians when Crossing a Road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Yasuhiro; Oikawa, Shoko; Aoki, Yoshio; Sekine, Michiaki; Mitobe, Kazutaka

    2014-11-01

    The present study clarifies the mechanism by which an accident occurs when an elderly pedestrian crosses a road in front of a car, focusing on features of the central and peripheral vision of elderly pedestrians who are judging when it is safe to cross the road. For the pedestrian's central visual field, we investigated the effect of age on the timing judgment using an actual car. The results for daytime conditions indicate that the elderly pedestrians tended to make later judgments of when they crossed the road from the right side of the driver's view at high car velocities. At night, for a car with its headlights on high beam, the average car-pedestrian distances of elderly pedestrians on the left side of the driver's view were significantly longer than those of young pedestrians at velocities of 20 and 40 km/h. The eyesight of the elderly pedestrians during the day did not affect the timing judgment of crossing a road. At night, for a car with its headlights on either high or low beam, the average car-pedestrian distances of elderly pedestrians having good eyesight were longer than those of elderly pedestrians having poor eyesight, for all car velocities. The color of the car body in the central visual field did not affect the timing judgment of elderly pedestrians crossing the road. Meanwhile, the car-body color in the elderly pedestrian's peripheral vision strongly affected the pedestrian's awareness of the car.

  20. The simulation and analysis of pedestrian crowd and behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Pedestrian crowd in public buildings is usually a hidden trouble.The more serious the crowd,the higher the accident risk,and the heavier the casualties and loss may be.Based on the social force model,this paper puts forward an improved model which takes into account the anisotropic charac-teristic of pedestrian movement and the avoidance of dynamic congested areas.Furthermore,the al-gorithm has been optimized with the help of static force grid,so the simulation becomes more veritable and computational speed is also greatly accelerated.The improved model is also applied to research on the characters of pedestrian crowd,and the conclusion can provide a basis for the risk assessment of pedestrian crowd and the design of public buildings.

  1. The simulation and analysis of pedestrian crowd and behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU QingMei; FANG WeiNing; JIA YuQuan; DENG Ye

    2009-01-01

    Pedestrian crowd in public buildings is usually a hidden trouble. The more serious the crowd, the higher the accident risk, and the heavier the casualties and loss may be. Based on the social force model, this paper puts forward an improved model which takes into account the anisotropic charac-teristic of pedestrian movement and the avoidance of dynamic congested areas. Furthermore, the al-gorithm has been optimized with the help of static force grid, so the simulation becomes more veritable and computational speed is also greatly accelerated. The improved model is also applied to research on the characters of pedestrian crowd, and the conclusion can provide a basis for the risk assessment of pedestrian crowd and the design of public buildings.

  2. Simulation of counter flow pedestrian dynamics in hallways using spheropolygons

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso-Marroquin, Fernando; Ramirez-Gomez, Alvaro; Busch, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    We developed a method for simulating pedestrian dynamics in a large, dense crowd. Our numerical model calculates pedestrian motion from Newton second laws, taking into account visco-elastic contact forces, contact friction, and ground reaction forces. In our computer simulation, non-spherical shapes (spheropolygons) modelled the positions of the chest and arms in the packing arrangement of pedestrian bodies, based on a cross-sectional profile using data from the US National Library of Medicine. Motive torque was taken to arise solely from the pedestrians orientation toward their preferred destination. The objective was to gain insight into a tragic incident at the Madrid Arena Pavilion in Spain, where five girls were crushed to death. The incident took place at a Halloween Celebration in 2012, in a long, densely crowded hallway used as entrance and exit at the same time. Our simulations reconstruct the mechanics of clogging in the hallway. The hypothetical case of a total evacuation order was also investigate...

  3. Pedestrian-bridge dynamic interaction, including human participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, J. W.; Law, S. S.; Yang, Q. S.; Yang, N.

    2013-02-01

    The pedestrian-bridge dynamic interaction problem based on bipedal walking model and damped compliant legs is presented in this work. A time-variant damper is modeled at a given walking speed. A control force is applied by the pedestrian to compensate for energy dissipated with the system damping in walking and to regulate the walking performance of the pedestrian. The effects of stiffness, damping of the leg and the landing angle of attack are investigated in the numerical studies. Simulation results show that the dynamic interaction will increase with a larger vibration level of structure. More external energy must be input to maintain steady walking and uniform dynamic behavior of the pedestrian in the process. The simple bipedal walking model could well describe the human-structure dynamic interaction.

  4. Effects of switching behavior for the attraction on pedestrian dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kwak, Jaeyoung; Luttinen, Tapio; Kosonen, Iisakki

    2014-01-01

    Walking is a fundamental activity of our daily life not only for moving to other places but also for interacting with surrounding environment. While walking on the streets, pedestrians can be aware of attractions like shopping windows. They can be influenced by the attractions and some of them might shift their attention towards the attractions, namely switching behavior. As a first step to incorporate the switching behavior, this study investigates collective effects of switching behavior for an attraction by developing a behavioral model. Numerical simulations exhibit different patterns of pedestrian behavior depending on the strength of the social influence and the average length of stay. When the social influence is strong along with a long length of stay, a saturated phase can be defined at which all the pedestrians have visited the attraction. If the social influence is not strong enough, an unsaturated phase appears where one can observe that some pedestrians head for the attraction while others walk i...

  5. Effects of Boundary Conditions on Single-File Pedestrian Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jun; Seyfried, Armin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate effects of boundary conditions on one dimensional pedestrian flow which involves purely longitudinal interactions. Qualitatively, stop-and-go waves are observed under closed boundary condition and dissolve when the boundary is open. To get more detailed information the fundamental diagrams of the open and closed systems are compared using Voronoi-based measurement method. Higher maximal specific flow is observed from the pedestrian movement at open boundary condition.

  6. METHODOLOGY FOR DETERMINATION OF ECONOMIC LOSSES AT COORDINATED REGULATION OF TRANSPORT-PEDESTRIAN FLOWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Kapsky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some peculiar features of the developed methodology for determination of economic losses at coordinated regulation of transport and pedestrian flow movement. Preconditions for introduction of pre-signals on light objects which raise efficiency of coordinated control over transport flows are considered separately in the paper. The paper proposes to estimate the coordinated regulation by such criterion as minimization of economic, ecological and emergency losses. Basic principles on investigation of main costs in the process of  coordinated pack movement are cited in the paper.

  7. Academic Training: String Theory for Pedestrians

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    2006-2007 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 29, 30, 31 January 2007, from 11:00 to 12:00 Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 on 29 and 30 January, TH Auditorium, Bldg 4, 3-006, on 31 January String Theory for Pedestrians B. ZWIEBACH, MIT, Cambridge, USA In this 3-lecture series I will discuss the basics of string theory, some physical applications, and the outlook for the future. I will begin with the main concepts of the classical theory and the application to the study of cosmic superstrings. Then I will turn to the quantum theory and discuss applications to the investigation of hadronic spectra and the recently discovered quark-gluon plasma. I will conclude with a sketch of string models of particle physics and showing some avenues that may lead to a complete formulation of string theory.

  8. Consistent evolution in a pedestrian flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Junbiao; Wang, Kaihua

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, pedestrian evacuation considering different human behaviors is studied by using a cellular automaton (CA) model combined with the snowdrift game theory. The evacuees are divided into two types, i.e. cooperators and defectors, and two different human behaviors, herding behavior and independent behavior, are investigated. It is found from a large amount of numerical simulations that the ratios of the corresponding evacuee clusters are evolved to consistent states despite 11 typically different initial conditions, which may largely owe to self-organization effect. Moreover, an appropriate proportion of initial defectors who are of herding behavior, coupled with an appropriate proportion of initial defectors who are of rationally independent thinking, are two necessary factors for short evacuation time.

  9. STEPPING - Smartphone-Based Portable Pedestrian Indoor Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukianto, C.; Sternberg, H.

    2011-12-01

    Many current smartphones are fitted with GPS receivers, which, in combination with a map application form a pedestrian navigation system for outdoor purposes. However, once an area with insufficient satellite signal coverage is entered, these navigation systems cease to function. For indoor positioning, there are already several solutions available which are usually based on measured distances to reference points. These solutions can achieve resolutions as low as the sub-millimetre range depending on the complexity of the set-up. STEPPING project, developed at HCU Hamburg Germany aims at designing an indoor navigation system consisting of a small inertial navigation system and a new, robust sensor fusion algorithm running on a current smartphone. As this system is theoretically able to integrate any available positioning method, it is independent of a particular method and can thus be realized on a smartphone without affecting user mobility. Potential applications include --but are not limited to: Large trade fairs, airports, parking decks and shopping malls, as well as ambient assisted living scenarios.

  10. Virtual and Real World Adaptation for Pedestrian Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, David; López, Antonio M; Marín, Javier; Ponsa, Daniel; Gerónimo, David

    2014-04-01

    Pedestrian detection is of paramount interest for many applications. Most promising detectors rely on discriminatively learnt classifiers, i.e., trained with annotated samples. However, the annotation step is a human intensive and subjective task worth to be minimized. By using virtual worlds we can automatically obtain precise and rich annotations. Thus, we face the question: can a pedestrian appearance model learnt in realistic virtual worlds work successfully for pedestrian detection in real-world images? Conducted experiments show that virtual-world based training can provide excellent testing accuracy in real world, but it can also suffer the data set shift problem as real-world based training does. Accordingly, we have designed a domain adaptation framework, V-AYLA, in which we have tested different techniques to collect a few pedestrian samples from the target domain (real world) and combine them with the many examples of the source domain (virtual world) in order to train a domain adapted pedestrian classifier that will operate in the target domain. V-AYLA reports the same detection accuracy than when training with many human-provided pedestrian annotations and testing with real-world images of the same domain. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work demonstrating adaptation of virtual and real worlds for developing an object detector.

  11. Pedestrians have the right of way at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    At CERN, we are all pedestrians, often drivers, and occasionally cyclists. But our means of locomotion do not matter so long as we exercise caution and remember that a pedestrian has equal rights as a road user, except that he runs greater risks.   Whether we also travel by bike or car, irrrespective of our means of locomotion at CERN we are all pedestrians! Whether going on foot to our office, the cafeteria or a building where colleagues work, we are much more in harm's way than as a driver sitting in the shell of steel that is a car. There are some 8000 people working on the different sites of CERN. That means 8000 potential pedestrians and 8000 reasons for trying to keep the roads safe. Whether behind the steering wheel or on a bike, we sometimes forget that the roadway is not just for vehicles. Pedestrians are also fully fledged road users with equal rights. That is why drivers must remain alert and take care not to block pedestrian crossings, pavements or access ways, and why special caution...

  12. Robust Pedestrian Classification Based on Hierarchical Kernel Sparse Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Sun

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Vision-based pedestrian detection has become an active topic in computer vision and autonomous vehicles. It aims at detecting pedestrians appearing ahead of the vehicle using a camera so that autonomous vehicles can assess the danger and take action. Due to varied illumination and appearance, complex background and occlusion pedestrian detection in outdoor environments is a difficult problem. In this paper, we propose a novel hierarchical feature extraction and weighted kernel sparse representation model for pedestrian classification. Initially, hierarchical feature extraction based on a CENTRIST descriptor is used to capture discriminative structures. A max pooling operation is used to enhance the invariance of varying appearance. Then, a kernel sparse representation model is proposed to fully exploit the discrimination information embedded in the hierarchical local features, and a Gaussian weight function as the measure to effectively handle the occlusion in pedestrian images. Extensive experiments are conducted on benchmark databases, including INRIA, Daimler, an artificially generated dataset and a real occluded dataset, demonstrating the more robust performance of the proposed method compared to state-of-the-art pedestrian classification methods.

  13. Pedestrian Detection by Laser Scanning and Depth Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsi, A.; Lovas, T.; Molnar, B.; Somogyi, A.; Igazvolgyi, Z.

    2016-06-01

    Pedestrian flow is much less regulated and controlled compared to vehicle traffic. Estimating flow parameters would support many safety, security or commercial applications. Current paper discusses a method that enables acquiring information on pedestrian movements without disturbing and changing their motion. Profile laser scanner and depth camera have been applied to capture the geometry of the moving people as time series. Procedures have been developed to derive complex flow parameters, such as count, volume, walking direction and velocity from laser scanned point clouds. Since no images are captured from the faces of pedestrians, no privacy issues raised. The paper includes accuracy analysis of the estimated parameters based on video footage as reference. Due to the dense point clouds, detailed geometry analysis has been conducted to obtain the height and shoulder width of pedestrians and to detect whether luggage has been carried or not. The derived parameters support safety (e.g. detecting critical pedestrian density in mass events), security (e.g. detecting prohibited baggage in endangered areas) and commercial applications (e.g. counting pedestrians at all entrances/exits of a shopping mall).

  14. Characterizing the audibility of sound field with diffusion in architectural spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utami, Sentagi Sesotya

    The significance of diffusion control in room acoustics is that it attempts to avoid echoes by dispersing reflections while removing less valuable sound energy. Some applications place emphasis on the enhancement of late reflections to promote a sense of envelopment, and on methods required to measure the performance of diffusers. What still remains unclear is the impact of diffusion on the audibility quality due to the geometric arrangement of architectural elements. The objective of this research is to characterize the audibility of the sound field with diffusion in architectural space. In order to address this objective, an approach utilizing various methods and new techniques relevant to room acoustics standards was applied. An array of microphones based on beam forming (i.e., an acoustic camera) was utilized for field measurements in a recording studio, classrooms, auditoriums, concert halls and sport arenas. Given the ability to combine a visual image with acoustical data, the impulse responses measured were analyzed to identify the impact of diffusive surfaces on the early, late, and reverberant sound fields. The effects of the room geometry and the proportions of the diffusive and absorptive surfaces were observed by utilizing geometrical room acoustics simulations. The degree of diffuseness in each space was measured by coherences from different measurement positions along with the acoustical conditions predicted by well-known objective parameters such as T30, EDT, C80, and C50. Noticeable differences of the auditory experience were investigated by utilizing computer-based survey techniques, including the use of an immersive virtual environment system, given the current software auralization capabilities. The results based on statistical analysis demonstrate the users' ability to localize the sound and to distinguish the intensity, clarity, and reverberation created within the virtual environment. Impact of architectural elements in diffusion control is

  15. Use of high sensitivity GNSS receiver Doppler measurements for indoor pedestrian dead reckoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhe; Renaudin, Valérie; Petovello, Mark G; Lachapelle, Gérard

    2013-03-28

    Dead-reckoning (DR) algorithms, which use self-contained inertial sensors combined with gait analysis, have proven to be effective for pedestrian navigation purposes. In such DR systems, the primary error is often due to accumulated heading drifts. By tightly integrating global navigation satellite system (GNSS) Doppler measurements with DR, such accumulated heading errors can usually be accurately compensated. Under weak signal conditions, high sensitivity GNSS (HSGNSS) receivers with block processing techniques are often used, however, the Doppler quality of such receivers is relatively poor due to multipath, fading and signal attenuation. This often limits the benefits of integrating HSGNSS Doppler with DR. This paper investigates the benefits of using Doppler measurements from a novel direct vector HSGNSS receiver with pedestrian dead-reckoning (PDR) for indoor navigation. An indoor signal and multipath model is introduced which explains how conventional HSGNSS Doppler measurements are affected by indoor multipath. Velocity and Doppler estimated by using direct vector receivers are introduced and discussed. Real experimental data is processed and analyzed to assess the veracity of proposed method. It is shown when integrating HSGNSS Doppler with PDR algorithm, the proposed direct vector method are more helpful than conventional block processing method for the indoor environments considered herein.

  16. 奥德博有声出版公司研究%A Case Study on Audible Inc

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺钰滢

    2016-01-01

    Taking Audible Inc., an Amazon.com subsidiary as a case, the paper analyzes the profile of audiobooks’listeners in the United States and introduces the company’s history, then it deeply explores how Audible produces, distributes and promotes its downloadable audiobooks.%以亚马逊旗下的奥德博(Audible)公司为研究对象,介绍美国有声读物的受众特点,梳理奥德博公司的发展历程,并重点对其有声产品开发、发行与推广环节进行深入探究。

  17. Integration of GPS and low cost INS for pedestrian navigation aided by building layout

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Wenquan; Zhao Hongbo; Zhao Qi; Li Jingwen

    2013-01-01

    In outdoor environments, GPS is often used for pedestrian navigation by utilizing its sig-nals for position computation, but in indoor or semi-obstructed environments, GPS signals are often unavailable. Therefore, pedestrian navigation for these environments should be realized by the integration of GPS and inertial navigation system (INS). However, the lowcost INS could induce errors that may result in a large position drift. The problem can be minimized by mounting the sensors on the pedestrian’s foot, using zero velocity update (ZUPT) method with the standard navigation algorithm to restrict the error growth. However, heading drift still remains despite using ZUPT measurements since the heading error is unobservable. Also, foot mounted INS suffers from the initialization ambiguity of position and heading from GPS. In this paper, a novel algorithm is developed to mitigate the heading drift problem when using ZUPT. The method uses building lay-out to aid the heading measurement in Kalman filter, and it could also be combined for the initial-ization. The algorithm has been investigated with real field trials using the low cost Microstrain 3DM-GX3-25 inertial sensor, a Leica GS10 GPS receiver and a uBlox EVK-6T GPS receiver. It could be concluded that the proposed method offers a significant improvement in position accuracy for the long period, allowing pedestrian navigation for nearly40 min with mean position error less than 2.8 m. This method also has a considerable effect on the accuracy of the initialization.

  18. Falling while walking: A hidden contributor to pedestrian injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxley, Jennifer; O'Hern, Steve; Burtt, Duane; Rossiter, Ben

    2017-02-07

    Walking is a sustainable mode of transportation which is beneficial to both individuals and to the broader community, however, there are risks and it is essential that road design and operation provides safe conditions for walking. In Victoria, pedestrians represent one of the most vulnerable road user groups, accounting for approximately 12% of all road fatalities and serious injuries. These figures largely represent injuries where the pedestrian has been struck by a vehicle with the extent of pedestrian-only injuries largely un-reported. Falling while walking may be a significant contributor to pedestrian only injuries. Indeed, the World Health Organisation has identified falls generally as the second leading cause of unintentional injury death in older populations. Despite the prevalence of fall-related injuries, there has been relatively little research undertaken to address the issues surrounding falls that occur while walking for transport and in public spaces. This study, therefore, aimed to address this gap in our knowledge. Analyses of various data sources were undertaken to enhance our understanding of fall-related injuries while walking in Victoria. Two sources of data were accessed: Only 85 fall-related incidents were reported in the crash-based data, however, pedestrian falls while walking in the road environment accounted for an average of 1680 hospital admissions and 3545 emergency department presentations each year, and this number is rising. The findings in this study show clearly that Police data is of little use when attempting to understand issues of safe travel for pedestrians other than vehicle-pedestrian incidents. However, analysis of hospital data provides a more realistic indication of the extent of pedestrian fall-related injuries and highlights the significant number of pedestrian fall-related injuries that occur each year. Moreover, the findings identified that older pedestrians are significantly over-represented amongst fall

  19. Effect of audible and visual reminders on adherence in glaucoma patients using a commercially available dosing aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Y Ho

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Lawrence Y Ho1, Larissa Camejo1, Malik Y Kahook2, Robert Noecker11UMPC Eye Center, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA; 2Rocky Mountain Lions Institute, University of Colorado, CO, USAAbstract: We studied the effects of audible and visual alarms on adherence with a recommended dosing regimen in the management of glaucoma. Forty-two patients were begun on therapy with the Travatan® Dosing Aid (TDA and randomly divided into two observation groups-one with visual and audible alarm functions turned on and the other with alarms off. Dosing information was analyzed for mean rates of adherence, missed days, and dosing at the wrong time. Twenty patients were randomized to the TDA alarm on group and 22 to the alarm off group. The rates of adherence were 87.9% and 79.7% (p = 0.02, rates of missed dosing were 7.6% and 14.4% (p = 0.03, and rates of dosing at the incorrect times were 7.1% and 9.8% (p = 0.19, respectively for alarm on versus alarm off groups. In the alarm on group, the adherence rate was significantly higher and proportion of missed dosing was significantly lower. It is still yet to be determined whether there is a relationship between adherence and progression of glaucoma.Keywords: adherence, glaucoma, Travatan® Dosing Aid, audible alarms, visual alarms

  20. Rules of conduct for pedestrians and motorists on or near zebra crossings.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraay, J.H.

    1973-01-01

    Traffic regulations which an influence the behaviour of the pedestrian as well as the driver on and near pedestrian crossings for all West-European countries and the U.S.A. are presented. (See also B 4795)

  1. Pedestrian choice behavior analysis and simulation of vertical walking facilities in transfer station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong-Xing; Jia, Hong-Fei; Li, Jun; Zhou, Ya-Nan; Yuan, Zhi-Lu; Li, Yan-Zhong

    2016-10-01

    Considering the interlayer height, luggage, the difference between queuing pedestrians, and walking speed, the pedestrian choice model of vertical walking facilities is established based on a support vector machine. This model is verified with the pedestrian flow data of Changchun light-rail transfer station and Beijing Xizhimen transfer station. Adding the pedestrian choice model of vertical walking facilities into the pedestrian simulation model which is based on cellular automata, the pedestrian choice behavior is simulated. In the simulation, the effects of the dynamic influence factors are analyzed. To reduce the conflicts between pedestrians in opposite directions, the layout of vertical walking facilities is improved. The simulations indicate that the improved layout of vertical walking facilities can improve the efficiency of pedestrians passing. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51278221 and 51378076) and the Science Technology Development Project of Jilin Province, China (Grant No. 20140204027SF).

  2. An Indoor Pedestrian Positioning Method Using HMM with a Fuzzy Pattern Recognition Algorithm in a WLAN Fingerprint System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yepeng Ni

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of smartphones and wireless networks, indoor location-based services have become more and more prevalent. Due to the sophisticated propagation of radio signals, the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI shows a significant variation during pedestrian walking, which introduces critical errors in deterministic indoor positioning. To solve this problem, we present a novel method to improve the indoor pedestrian positioning accuracy by embedding a fuzzy pattern recognition algorithm into a Hidden Markov Model. The fuzzy pattern recognition algorithm follows the rule that the RSSI fading has a positive correlation to the distance between the measuring point and the AP location even during a dynamic positioning measurement. Through this algorithm, we use the RSSI variation trend to replace the specific RSSI value to achieve a fuzzy positioning. The transition probability of the Hidden Markov Model is trained by the fuzzy pattern recognition algorithm with pedestrian trajectories. Using the Viterbi algorithm with the trained model, we can obtain a set of hidden location states. In our experiments, we demonstrate that, compared with the deterministic pattern matching algorithm, our method can greatly improve the positioning accuracy and shows robust environmental adaptability.

  3. An Indoor Pedestrian Positioning Method Using HMM with a Fuzzy Pattern Recognition Algorithm in a WLAN Fingerprint System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yepeng; Liu, Jianbo; Liu, Shan; Bai, Yaxin

    2016-09-08

    With the rapid development of smartphones and wireless networks, indoor location-based services have become more and more prevalent. Due to the sophisticated propagation of radio signals, the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) shows a significant variation during pedestrian walking, which introduces critical errors in deterministic indoor positioning. To solve this problem, we present a novel method to improve the indoor pedestrian positioning accuracy by embedding a fuzzy pattern recognition algorithm into a Hidden Markov Model. The fuzzy pattern recognition algorithm follows the rule that the RSSI fading has a positive correlation to the distance between the measuring point and the AP location even during a dynamic positioning measurement. Through this algorithm, we use the RSSI variation trend to replace the specific RSSI value to achieve a fuzzy positioning. The transition probability of the Hidden Markov Model is trained by the fuzzy pattern recognition algorithm with pedestrian trajectories. Using the Viterbi algorithm with the trained model, we can obtain a set of hidden location states. In our experiments, we demonstrate that, compared with the deterministic pattern matching algorithm, our method can greatly improve the positioning accuracy and shows robust environmental adaptability.

  4. Simulations of Pedestrian Impact Collisions with Virtual CRASH 3 and Comparisons with IPTM Staged Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Tony; Scurlock, Bob

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we present results from a series of Virtual CRASH-based pedestrian impact simulations. We compare the results of these Virtual CRASH pedestrian impact simulations to data from pedestrian impact collisions staged at the Institute of Police Technology and Management.

  5. Simulation of bidirectional pedestrian flow in transfer station corridor based on multi forces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周雪梅; 纪翔峰; 黄凰; 杨晓光

    2014-01-01

    A good understanding of pedestrian movement in the transfer corridor is vital for the planning and design of the station, especially for efficiency and safety.A multi-force vector grid model was presented to simulate the movement of bidirectional pedestrian flow based on cellular automata and forces between pedestrians. The model improves rule-based characteristics of cellular automata, details forces between pedestrians and solves pedestrian collisions by a several-step updating method to simulate pedestrian movements. Two general scenarios in corridor were simulated. One is bidirectional pedestrian flow simulation with isolation facility, and the other is bidirectional pedestrian flow simulation without isolation facility, where there exists disturbance in the middle. Through simulation, some facts can be seen that pedestrians in the case with isolation facility have the largest speed and pedestrians in the case without isolation facility have the smallest speed; pedestrians in the case of unidirectional flow have the largest volume and pedestrians in the case of without isolation facility have the smallest volume.

  6. Detection of sudden pedestrian crossings for driving assistance systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanwu; Xu, Dong; Lin, Stephen; Han, Tony X; Cao, Xianbin; Li, Xuelong

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we study the problem of detecting sudden pedestrian crossings to assist drivers in avoiding accidents. This application has two major requirements: to detect crossing pedestrians as early as possible just as they enter the view of the car-mounted camera and to maintain a false alarm rate as low as possible for practical purposes. Although many current sliding-window-based approaches using various features and classification algorithms have been proposed for image-/video-based pedestrian detection, their performance in terms of accuracy and processing speed falls far short of practical application requirements. To address this problem, we propose a three-level coarse-to-fine video-based framework that detects partially visible pedestrians just as they enter the camera view, with low false alarm rate and high speed. The framework is tested on a new collection of high-resolution videos captured from a moving vehicle and yields a performance better than that of state-of-the-art pedestrian detection while running at a frame rate of 55 fps.

  7. A new collision avoidance model for pedestrian dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian-Ling; Chen, Yao; Dong, Hai-Rong; Zhou, Min; Ning, Bin

    2015-03-01

    The pedestrians can only avoid collisions passively under the action of forces during simulations using the social force model, which may lead to unnatural behaviors. This paper proposes an optimization-based model for the avoidance of collisions, where the social repulsive force is removed in favor of a search for the quickest path to destination in the pedestrian’s vision field. In this way, the behaviors of pedestrians are governed by changing their desired walking direction and desired speed. By combining the critical factors of pedestrian movement, such as positions of the exit and obstacles and velocities of the neighbors, the choice of desired velocity has been rendered to a discrete optimization problem. Therefore, it is the self-driven force that leads pedestrians to a free path rather than the repulsive force, which means the pedestrians can actively avoid collisions. The new model is verified by comparing with the fundamental diagram and actual data. The simulation results of individual avoidance trajectories and crowd avoidance behaviors demonstrate the reasonability of the proposed model. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61233001 and 61322307) and the Fundamental Research Funds for Central Universities of China (Grant No. 2013JBZ007).

  8. How Stride Adaptation in Pedestrian Models Improves Navigation

    CERN Document Server

    von Sivers, Isabella

    2014-01-01

    Pedestrians adjust both speed and stride length when they navigate difficult situations such as tight corners or dense crowds. They do this with foresight reacting instantly when they encounter the difficulty. This has an impact on the movement of the whole crowd especially at bottlenecks where slower movement and smaller steps can be observed. State-of-the-art pedestrian motion models automatically reduce speed in dense crowds simply because there is no space where the virtual pedestrians could advance. The stride length, however, is rarely considered, which leads to artifacts. We reformulate the problem of correct stride adaptation as an optimization problem on a disk around the pedestrian. He or she seeks the position that is most attractive in a sense of balanced goals between the search for targets, the need of space of individual pedestrians and the need to keep a distance from obstacles. The result is a fully automatic adjustment that simplifies calibration, and gives visually natural results and an ex...

  9. Dempster-Shafer Multifeature Fusion for Pedestrian Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Cui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrian detection is of great importance for ensuring traffic safety. In recent years, many works employing image-based shape features to recognize pedestrians have been reported. However, previous pedestrian detectors were in many cases not sufficient to achieve satisfactory results under complex weather conditions and complex scenarios. As a solution this paper exploits two video-based motion feature descriptors and applies such motion features to the detection task in addition to four classical shape features with the aim of significantly improving the detection performance. Our motion features are defined as the trajectory smoothness degree and motion vector field, which are derived from our proposed point tracking strategy beyond tough target segmentation. And then the appealing Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence (D-S theory is applied to fuse these features, due to the fact that D-S theory is better than the classical Bayesian approach in handling the information with lack of prior probabilities. The proposed automatic pedestrian detection algorithm is evaluated on real data and in real traffic scenes under various weather conditions. Theoretical analysis and experiment results consistently show that the proposed method outperforms SVM-based multifeature fusion approach for pedestrian detection in terms of recognition ability and robustness in various real traffic scenes.

  10. Numerical simulation of pedestrian flow past a circular obstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Qun Jiang; Ru-Xun Liu; Ya-Li Duan

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a revisiting Hughes' dynamic continuum model is used to investigate and predict the essential macroscopic characteristics of pedestrian flow, such as flow,density and average speed, in a two dimensional continuous walking facility scattered with a circular obstruction. It is assumed that pedestrians prefer to walk a path with the lowest instantaneous travel cost from origin to destination, under the consideration of the current traffic conditions and the tendency to avoid a high-density region and an obstruction. An algorithm for the pedestrian flow model is based on a cellcentered finite volume method for a scalar conservation law equation, a fast sweeping method for an Eikonal-type equation and a second-order TVD Runge-Kutta method for the time integration on unstructured meshes. Numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm. It is verified that density distribution of pedestrian flow is influenced by the position of the obstruction and the path-choice behavior of pedestrians.

  11. Pedestrian detection from thermal images: A sparse representation based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Bin; John, Vijay; Liu, Zheng; Mita, Seiichi

    2016-05-01

    Pedestrian detection, a key technology in computer vision, plays a paramount role in the applications of advanced driver assistant systems (ADASs) and autonomous vehicles. The objective of pedestrian detection is to identify and locate people in a dynamic environment so that accidents can be avoided. With significant variations introduced by illumination, occlusion, articulated pose, and complex background, pedestrian detection is a challenging task for visual perception. Different from visible images, thermal images are captured and presented with intensity maps based objects' emissivity, and thus have an enhanced spectral range to make human beings perceptible from the cool background. In this study, a sparse representation based approach is proposed for pedestrian detection from thermal images. We first adopted the histogram of sparse code to represent image features and then detect pedestrian with the extracted features in an unimodal and a multimodal framework respectively. In the unimodal framework, two types of dictionaries, i.e. joint dictionary and individual dictionary, are built by learning from prepared training samples. In the multimodal framework, a weighted fusion scheme is proposed to further highlight the contributions from features with higher separability. To validate the proposed approach, experiments were conducted to compare with three widely used features: Haar wavelets (HWs), histogram of oriented gradients (HOG), and histogram of phase congruency (HPC) as well as two classification methods, i.e. AdaBoost and support vector machine (SVM). Experimental results on a publicly available data set demonstrate the superiority of the proposed approach.

  12. Distracted walking: Examining the extent to pedestrian safety problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Mwakalonge

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrians, much like drivers, have always been engaged in multi-tasking like using hand-held devices, listening to music, snacking, or reading while walking. The effects are similar to those experienced by distracted drivers. However, distracted walking has not received similar policies and effective interventions as distracted driving to improve pedestrian safety. This study reviewed the state-of-practice on policies, campaigns, available data, identified research needs, and opportunities pertaining to distracted walking. A comprehensive review of literature revealed that some of the agencies/organizations disseminate useful information about certain distracting activities that pedestrians should avoid while walking to improve their safety. Various walking safety rules/tips have been given, such as not wearing headphones or talking on a cell phone while crossing a street, keeping the volume down, hanging up the phone while walking, being aware of traffic, and avoiding distractions like walking with texting. The majority of the past observational-based and experimental-based studies reviewed in this study on distracted walking is in agreement that there is a positive correlation between distraction and unsafe walking behavior. However, limitations of the existing crash data suggest that distracted walking may not be a severe threat to the public health. Current pedestrian crash data provide insufficient information for researchers to examine the extent to which distracted walking causes and/or contributes to actual pedestrian safety problems.

  13. Academic training : String Theory for Pedestrians

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES 29, 30, 31 January 2007 from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 on 29 and 30 January TH Auditorium, Bldg 4, 3-006, on 31 January String Theory for Pedestrians B. ZWIEBACH/MIT, Cambridge, USA In this 3-lecture series I will discuss the basics of string theory, some physical applications, and the outlook for the future.  I will begin with the main concepts of the classical theory and the application to the study of cosmic superstrings. Then I will turn  to the quantum theory and discuss applications to the investigation of hadronic spectra and the recently discovered quark-gluon plasma.  I will conclude with a sketch of string models of particle physics and showing some avenues that may lead to a complete formulation of string theory.  

  14. Policy paper no. 1 : Pedestrians and cycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zbogar, H. [City of Brampton, ON (Canada)

    2004-06-01

    The City of Brampton's Transportation and Transit Master Plan includes a workable plan to promote walking and cycling facilities in the area. This paper reviewed existing policies, programs and practices in the City of Brampton that pertain to cycling and walking. Walking and cycling issues and trends were also reviewed with reference to the principles that improve the pedestrian and cycling environment, such as safety, security, convenience, continuity, comfort, coherence and attractiveness. The recreation, health and fitness benefits of walking and cycling were also outlined along with transportation, environmental, and economic benefits. The official plan for the city was included with reference to walking and cycling sections in the city. It was noted that effective pathways should be customer driven and respond to the needs of residents. They should also accommodate all uses, including walking, jogging, cycling and in-line skating. Experience of other jurisdictions in Ontario in providing walking and cycling facilities were also reviewed. It was noted that walking and cycling are significant elements of an intermodal transportation system and have a strong bearing on a city's vision for urban street design. 11 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  15. Child pedestrian safety: parental supervision, modeling behaviors, and beliefs about child pedestrian competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrongiello, Barbara A; Barton, Benjamin K

    2009-09-01

    Pedestrian injuries are a significant health risk to children, particularly those 5-9 years of age. Surprisingly, few studies have explored parent-related factors that may moderate this risk. The present study used naturalistic observations of parent-child pairs crossing at uncontrolled intersections and a short interview to examine parental supervision of children during crossings, modeling of safe-crossing behaviors, beliefs about how children come to cross streets safely, and whether child attributes (age, sex) relate to parental practices and beliefs. Results revealed that parents more closely supervised younger than older children, they modeled safer crossing practices for sons more than daughters, particularly younger sons, and although over half the sample believed children need to be explicitly taught how to cross safely, few actually provided any instruction when crossing with their children. Providing parents both with guidelines for how to accurately appraise their child's readiness for crossing independently and with information about best practices for teaching children how to cross safely may facilitate parents' implementing these practices, particularly if this is coupled with public advocacy highlighting the important role they could play to reduce the risk of child pedestrian injury.

  16. An excess of pedestrian injuries in icy conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merrild, Ulrik; Bak, Soeren

    1983-01-01

    An "icy condition epidemic" has been analyzed in an investigation of patients treated in the casualty department of Odense University Hospital: it was found that the victims were mainly comprised of pedestrians and that the pedestrians had 14 times more injuries than during a normal winter period....... Details of the accidents and definition of the high-risk groups were made possible by the routine registration of various data and by means of interviews of the patients. The difference in the risk of various injuries between the icy condition and normal winter periods are given as odds ratios (OR...... comprised women 50 and over, in contrast to the rest of the winter period where younger men prevailed. The investigation indicates that pedestrians have a need for prophylactic measures including (1) broadcast warnings of icy conditions both on the radio and T.V. on days of high risk, (2) more extensive...

  17. Simulation of a Collision between Passenger Car and Child Pedestrian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Schejbalová

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Department of Forensic Experts in Transportation at the Faculty of Transportation Sciences performed a second set of dynamic passive safety tests of a passenger car (M1 category - Škoda Octavia II in a child pedestrian collision. The initial and test conditions were similar to those of the first set of tests in September 2009 (Škoda Roomster. The deformations of the contact zones on the frontal vehicle surface were analyzed by a 3D scanning technology (3D handy scanner. Head, thorax and pelvic resultant acceleration, acceleration of knee joint in sagittal direction and contact force on the femoral structure of the dummy (P6 dummy, 1.17m; 22kg were measured. The aim of these tests is to provide a detailed description of pedestrian kinematics and comparison of primary and secondary impact seriousness.KEY WORDSpassenger car, child pedestrian, primary and secondary impact, dummy instrumentation, injury criteria, 3D scanning

  18. Mean field games with nonlinear mobilities in pedestrian dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Martin

    2014-04-01

    In this paper we present an optimal control approach modeling fast exit scenarios in pedestrian crowds. In particular we consider the case of a large human crowd trying to exit a room as fast as possible. The motion of every pedestrian is determined by minimizing a cost functional, which depends on his/her position, velocity, exit time and the overall density of people. This microscopic setup leads in the mean-field limit to a parabolic optimal control problem. We discuss the modeling of the macroscopic optimal control approach and show how the optimal conditions relate to the Hughes model for pedestrian flow. Furthermore we provide results on the existence and uniqueness of minimizers and illustrate the behavior of the model with various numerical results.

  19. Traffic Instabilities in Self-Organized Pedestrian Crowds

    CERN Document Server

    Moussaid, Mehdi; Moreau, Mathieu; Fehrenbach, Jerome; Chabiron, Olivier; Lemercier, Samuel; Pettre, Julien; Appert-Rolland, Cecile; Degond, Pierre; Theraulaz, Guy; 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002442

    2012-01-01

    In human crowds as well as in many animal societies, local interactions among individuals often give rise to self-organized collective organizations that offer functional benefits to the group. For instance, flows of pedestrians moving in opposite directions spontaneously segregate into lanes of uniform walking directions. This phenomenon is often referred to as a smart collective pattern, as it increases the traffic efficiency with no need of external control. However, the functional benefits of this emergent organization have never been experimentally measured, and the underlying behavioral mechanisms are poorly understood. In this work, we have studied this phenomenon under controlled laboratory conditions. We found that the traffic segregation exhibits structural instabilities characterized by the alternation of organized and disorganized states, where the lifetime of well-organized clusters of pedestrians follow a stretched exponential relaxation process. Further analysis show that the inter-pedestrian v...

  20. Simulation of High Density Pedestrian Flow: Microscopic Model

    CERN Document Server

    Dridi, Mohamed H

    2015-01-01

    In recent years modelling crowd and evacuation dynamics has become very important, with increasing huge numbers of people gathering around the world for many reasons and events. The fact that our global population grows dramatically every year and the current public transport systems are able to transport large amounts of people, heightens the risk of crowd panic or crush. Pedestrian models are based on macroscopic or microscopic behaviour. In this paper, we are interested in developing models that can be used for evacuation control strategies. This model will be based on microscopic pedestrian simulation models, and its evolution and design requires a lot of information and data. The people stream will be simulated, based on mathematical models derived from empirical data about pedestrian flows. This model is developed from image data bases, so called empirical data, taken from a video camera or data obtained using human detectors. We consider the individuals as autonomous particles interacting through socia...

  1. Modeling pedestrian evacuation movement in a swaying ship

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Juan; Lo, SM

    2015-01-01

    With the advance in living standard, cruise travel has been rapidly expanding around the world in recent years. The transportation of passengers in water has also made a rapid development. It is expected that ships will be more and more widely used. Unfortunately, ship disasters occurred in these years caused serious losses. It raised the concern on effectiveness of passenger evacuation on ships. The present study thus focuses on pedestrian evacuation features on ships. On ships, passenger movements are affected by the periodical water motion and thus are quite different from the characteristic when walking on static horizontal floor. Taking into consideration of this special feature, an agent-based pedestrian model is formulized and the effect of ship swaying on pedestrian evacuation efficiency is investigated. Results indicated that the proposed model can be used to quantify the special evacuation process on ships.

  2. Pedestrian Navigation Using Foot-Mounted Inertial Sensor and LIDAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Duy Duong; Suh, Young Soo

    2016-01-19

    Foot-mounted inertial sensors can be used for indoor pedestrian navigation. In this paper, to improve the accuracy of pedestrian location, we propose a method using a distance sensor (LIDAR) in addition to an inertial measurement unit (IMU). The distance sensor is a time of flight range finder with 30 m measurement range (at 33.33 Hz). Using a distance sensor, walls on corridors are automatically detected. The detected walls are used to correct the heading of the pedestrian path. Through experiments, it is shown that the accuracy of the heading is significantly improved using the proposed algorithm. Furthermore, the system is shown to work robustly in indoor environments with many doors and passing people.

  3. Fluctuations around mean walking behaviours in diluted pedestrian flows

    CERN Document Server

    Corbetta, Alessandro; Benzi, Roberto; Muntean, Adrian; Toschi, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and modeling the dynamics of pedestrian crowds can help with designing and increasing the safety of civil facilities. A key feature of crowds is its intrinsic stochasticity, appearing even under very diluted conditions, due to the variability in individual behaviours. Individual stochasticity becomes even more important under densely crowded conditions, since it can be nonlinearly magnified and may lead to potentially dangerous collective behaviours. To understand quantitatively crowd stochasticity, we study the real-life dynamics of a large ensemble of pedestrians walking undisturbed, and we perform a statistical analysis of the fully-resolved pedestrian trajectories obtained by a year-long high-resolution measurement campaign. Our measurements have been carried out in a corridor of the Eindhoven University of Technology via a combination of Microsoft Kinect 3D-range sensor and automatic head-tracking algorithms. The temporal homogeneity of our large database of trajectories allows us to robust...

  4. On a numerical flux for the pedestrian flow equations*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubera P.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The pedestrian flow equations are formulated as the hyperbolic problem with a source term, completed by the eikonal equation yielding the desired direction of the pedestrian velocity. The operator splitting consisting of successive discretization of the eikonal equation, ordinary differential equation with the right hand side being the source term and the homogeneous hyperbolic system is proposed. The numerical flux of the Vijayasundaram type is proposed for the finite volume solution of the hyperbolic problem. The Vijayasundaram numerical flux, originally proposed for the hyperbolic problems possessing the homogeneity property is extended for pedestrian flow, where the homogeneity property is lost. The application of the proposed numerical flux is demonstrated on the physically relevant problem.

  5. Robust pedestrian detection by combining visible and thermal infrared cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Hoon; Choi, Jong-Suk; Jeon, Eun Som; Kim, Yeong Gon; Le, Toan Thanh; Shin, Kwang Yong; Lee, Hyeon Chang; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2015-05-05

    With the development of intelligent surveillance systems, the need for accurate detection of pedestrians by cameras has increased. However, most of the previous studies use a single camera system, either a visible light or thermal camera, and their performances are affected by various factors such as shadow, illumination change, occlusion, and higher background temperatures. To overcome these problems, we propose a new method of detecting pedestrians using a dual camera system that combines visible light and thermal cameras, which are robust in various outdoor environments such as mornings, afternoons, night and rainy days. Our research is novel, compared to previous works, in the following four ways: First, we implement the dual camera system where the axes of visible light and thermal cameras are parallel in the horizontal direction. We obtain a geometric transform matrix that represents the relationship between these two camera axes. Second, two background images for visible light and thermal cameras are adaptively updated based on the pixel difference between an input thermal and pre-stored thermal background images. Third, by background subtraction of thermal image considering the temperature characteristics of background and size filtering with morphological operation, the candidates from whole image (CWI) in the thermal image is obtained. The positions of CWI (obtained by background subtraction and the procedures of shadow removal, morphological operation, size filtering, and filtering of the ratio of height to width) in the visible light image are projected on those in the thermal image by using the geometric transform matrix, and the searching regions for pedestrians are defined in the thermal image. Fourth, within these searching regions, the candidates from the searching image region (CSI) of pedestrians in the thermal image are detected. The final areas of pedestrians are located by combining the detected positions of the CWI and CSI of the thermal

  6. Effect of vehicle front end profiles leading to pedestrian secondary head impact to ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vishal; Yang, King H

    2013-11-01

    Most studies of pedestrian injuries focus on reducing traumatic injuries due to the primary impact between the vehicle and the pedestrian. However, based on the Pedestrian Crash Data Study (PCDS), some researchers concluded that one of the leading causes of head injury for pedestrian crashes can be attributed to the secondary impact, defined as the impact of the pedestrian with the ground after the primary impact of the pedestrian with the vehicle. The purpose of this study is to understand if different vehicle front-end profiles can affect the risk of pedestrian secondary head impact with the ground and thus help in reducing the risk of head injury during secondary head impact with ground. Pedestrian responses were studied using several front-end profiles based off a mid-size vehicle and a SUV that have been validated previously along with several MADYMO pedestrian models. Mesh morphing is used to explore changes to the bumper height, bonnet leading-edge height, and bonnet rear reference-line height. Simulations leading up to pedestrian secondary impact with ground are conducted at impact speeds of 40 and 30 km/h. In addition, three pedestrian sizes (50th, 5th and 6yr old child) are used to enable us to search for a front-end profile that performs well for multiple sizes of pedestrians, not just one particular size. In most of the simulations, secondary ground impact with pedestrian head/neck/shoulder region occurred. However, there were some front-end profiles that promoted secondary ground impact with pedestrian lower extremities, thus avoiding pedestrian secondary head impact with ground. Previous pedestrian safety research work has suggested the use of active safety methods, such as 'pop up hood', to reduce pedestrian head injury during primary impact. Accordingly, we also conducted simulations using a model with the hood raised to capture the effect of a pop-up hood. These simulations indicated that even though pop-up hood helped reducing the head injury

  7. Congestion Dynamics in Pedestrian Single-File Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Ziemer, Verena; Schadschneider, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    This article considers execution and analysis of laboratory experiments of pedestrians moving in a quasi-one-dimensional system with periodic boundary conditions. To analyze characteristics of jams in the system we aim to use the whole experimental setup as the measurement area. Thus the trajectories are transformed to a new coordinate system. We show that the trajectory data from the straight and curved parts are comparable and assume that the distributions of the residuals come from the same continuous distribution. Regarding the trajectories of the entire setup, the creation of stop-and-go waves in pedestrian traffic can be investigated and described.

  8. Modelling and simulations of macroscopic multi-group pedestrian flow

    CERN Document Server

    Mahato, Naveen K; Tiwari, Sudarshan

    2016-01-01

    We consider a multi-group microscopic model for pedestrian flow describing the behaviour of large groups. It is based on an interacting particle system coupled to an eikonal equation. Hydrodynamic multi-group models are derived from the underlying particle system as well as scalar multi-group models. The eikonal equation is used to compute optimal paths for the pedestrians. Particle methods are used to solve the macroscopic equations. Numerical test cases are investigated and the models and, in particular, the resulting evacuation times are compared for a wide range of different parameters.

  9. Development of a Pedestrian Special Nuclear Material Radiation Monitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Special nuclear material (SNM) monitor equipped at the exits of a protected SNM area can offer a rapid, effective means to search and prevent from unauthorized movement of SNM. In order to apply the detecting technique for SNM to nuclear field and improve the ability to nuclear material control, a pedestrian SNM monitor and a vehicle SNM monitor both with plastic scintillate detector will be developed during the years from 2001 to 2005. The overall design of the pedestrian SNM monitors, the design of relative electronics and control unit and relative mechanical design and machining has been performed in the year 2001. This equipment will be established by the end

  10. Proposing a Revised Pedestrian Walkway Level of Service Based on Characteristics of Pedestrian Interactive Behaviours in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaonian Shan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyse characteristics of Pedestrian Interactive Behaviours (PIBs in order to propose a revised pedestrian walkway Level of Service (LOS in China. Field data on overtaking and evasive behaviours were collected at a metro station walkway in Shanghai, China to calculate macro and micro indicators. Occurrence intensities of these two PIBs initially increased with moderate density and later decreased with high density that reduced available space. PIBs were also analysed in terms of sideways behaviours to account for the varying difficulties of PIBs at different densities. It was found that available space for PIBs was the main factor contributing to the intensity features. Moreover, the different space demands of the two PIBs resulted in different features between them. Finally, a revised pedestrian walkway LOS was proposed based on the macro and micro characteristics of PIBs in China.

  11. Modelling pedestrian travel time and the design of facilities: a queuing approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalidur Rahman

    Full Text Available Pedestrian movements are the consequence of several complex and stochastic facts. The modelling of pedestrian movements and the ability to predict the travel time are useful for evaluating the performance of a pedestrian facility. However, only a few studies can be found that incorporate the design of the facility, local pedestrian body dimensions, the delay experienced by the pedestrians, and level of service to the pedestrian movements. In this paper, a queuing based analytical model is developed as a function of relevant determinants and functional factors to predict the travel time on pedestrian facilities. The model can be used to assess the overall serving rate or performance of a facility layout and correlate it to the level of service that is possible to provide the pedestrians. It has also the ability to provide a clear suggestion on the designing and sizing of pedestrian facilities. The model is empirically validated and is found to be a robust tool to understand how well a particular walking facility makes possible comfort and convenient pedestrian movements. The sensitivity analysis is also performed to see the impact of some crucial parameters of the developed model on the performance of pedestrian facilities.

  12. Modelling pedestrian travel time and the design of facilities: a queuing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Khalidur; Ghani, Noraida Abdul; Kamil, Anton Abdulbasah; Mustafa, Adli; Kabir Chowdhury, Md Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Pedestrian movements are the consequence of several complex and stochastic facts. The modelling of pedestrian movements and the ability to predict the travel time are useful for evaluating the performance of a pedestrian facility. However, only a few studies can be found that incorporate the design of the facility, local pedestrian body dimensions, the delay experienced by the pedestrians, and level of service to the pedestrian movements. In this paper, a queuing based analytical model is developed as a function of relevant determinants and functional factors to predict the travel time on pedestrian facilities. The model can be used to assess the overall serving rate or performance of a facility layout and correlate it to the level of service that is possible to provide the pedestrians. It has also the ability to provide a clear suggestion on the designing and sizing of pedestrian facilities. The model is empirically validated and is found to be a robust tool to understand how well a particular walking facility makes possible comfort and convenient pedestrian movements. The sensitivity analysis is also performed to see the impact of some crucial parameters of the developed model on the performance of pedestrian facilities.

  13. Gender Differences in Pedestrian Perception and Satisfaction on the Walkability of Kuala Lumpur City Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Ahmad Kamil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of built environment usually influences the walkability of a city. This is because each pedestrian walk differently on different type of facilities or built environment provided to them. This paper aims to investigate whether gender differences influences the pedestrian perception and satisfaction level at three sidewalks located within the Kuala Lumpur City Center by means of questionnaire survey. A total of 317 pedestrians were involved in the questionnaire survey at the three different sidewalk locations. The result shows significant differences in mean satisfaction value between male and female pedestrians. Female pedestrian give lower satisfaction value for overall travel experience at Jalan Tuanku Abdul Rahman but higher satisfaction value at Petaling Street and Bukit Bintang compared to male pedestrian. Overall, the satisfaction level was rated between acceptable to satisfactory regardless of gender differences. Improvements should be made for the safety parameter because both male and female pedestrian gives lowest satisfaction level in that area.

  14. PDR/INS/WiFi Integration Based on Handheld Devices for Indoor Pedestrian Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zhuang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Providing an accurate and practical navigation solution anywhere with portable devices, such as smartphones, is still a challenge, especially in environments where global navigation satellite systems (GNSS signals are not available or are degraded. This paper proposes a new algorithm that integrates inertial navigation system (INS and pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR to combine the advantages of both mechanizations for micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS sensors in pedestrian navigation applications. In this PDR/INS integration algorithm, a pseudo-velocity-vector, which is composed of the PDR-derived forward speed and zero lateral and vertical speeds from non-holonomic constraints (NHC, works as an update for the INS to limit the velocity errors. To further limit the drift of MEMS inertial sensors, trilateration-based WiFi positions with small variances are also selected as updates for the PDR/INS integrated system. The experiments illustrate that positioning error is decreased by 60%–75% by using the proposed PDR/INS integrated MEMS solution when compared with PDR. The positioning error is further decreased by 15%–55% if the proposed PDR/INS/WiFi integrated solution is implemented. The average accuracy of the proposed PDR/INS/WiFi integration algorithm achieves 4.5 m in indoor environments.

  15. Reciprocal Estimation of Pedestrian Location and Motion State toward a Smartphone Geo-Context Computing Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingbin Liu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The rapid advance in mobile communications has made information and services ubiquitously accessible. Location and context information have become essential for the effectiveness of services in the era of mobility. This paper proposes the concept of geo-context that is defined as an integral synthesis of geographical location, human motion state and mobility context. A geo-context computing solution consists of a positioning engine, a motion state recognition engine, and a context inference component. In the geo-context concept, the human motion states and mobility context are associated with the geographical location where they occur. A hybrid geo-context computing solution is implemented that runs on a smartphone, and it utilizes measurements of multiple sensors and signals of opportunity that are available within a smartphone. Pedestrian location and motion states are estimated jointly under the framework of hidden Markov models, and they are used in a reciprocal manner to improve their estimation performance of one another. It is demonstrated that pedestrian location estimation has better accuracy when its motion state is known, and in turn, the performance of motion state recognition can be improved with increasing reliability when the location is given. The geo-context inference is implemented simply with the expert system principle, and more sophisticated approaches will be developed.

  16. Axis-Exchanged Compensation and Gait Parameters Analysis for High Accuracy Indoor Pedestrian Dead Reckoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honghui Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR is an effective way for navigation coupled with GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System or weak GNSS signal environment like indoor scenario. However, indoor location with an accuracy of 1 to 2 meters determined by PDR based on MEMS-IMU is still very challenging. For one thing, heading estimation is an important problem in PDR because of the singularities. For another thing, walking distance estimation is also a critical problem for pedestrian walking with randomness. Based on the above two problems, this paper proposed axis-exchanged compensation and gait parameters analysis algorithm to improve the navigation accuracy. In detail, an axis-exchanged compensation factored quaternion algorithm is put forward first to overcome the singularities in heading estimation without increasing the amount of computation. Besides, real-time heading is updated by R-adaptive Kalman filter. Moreover, gait parameters analysis algorithm can be divided into two steps: cadence detection and step length estimation. Thus, a method of cadence classification and interval symmetry is proposed to detect the cadence accurately. Furthermore, a step length model adjusted by cadence is established for step length estimation. Compared to the traditional PDR navigation, experimental results showed that the error of navigation reduces 32.6%.

  17. Landmark Orientation and Map Design for Pedestrians: Prototype of a Selcuk University Campus Area Pedestrian Navigation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahit Selvi, Huseyin; Oztug Bildirici, I.; Ulugtekin, Necla

    2016-10-01

    Orientation software produced today is generally designed for the navigation of cars. However, the navigation needs of pedestrians are different from those of drivers. The aim of this study is the design of a cartographic interface that supports the navigation of pedestrians in unfamiliar areas using landmarks and evaluation of this geo-mobile application by usability testing. In this study, an approach to landmark orientation based on the Voronoi diagram is proposed. Furthermore, the developed mobile application that uses this approach is explained in detail. The results of user tests are also given.

  18. Empirical Study of the Problems of Pedestrians' Crossing Facilities on Road Sections%路段行人过街设施问题实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨亦慧; 朱艳茹; 李晓蔚

    2011-01-01

    城市道路混合交通中,路段上的行人过街受到机动车行驶的干扰显著,同时行人过街也会影响机动车的正常行驶,造成了路段的拥堵.本文首先归纳了行人过街设施在人行横道、过街天桥与地下通道、人行便道以及路段行人过街信号设施等方面存在的常见问题;提出通过合理设置人行横道与行人过街灯、行人便道、过街天桥与过街地道、非机动车道、标识标线来完善行人过街设施的措施;最后以公交长椿街路口东站以东为案例展开行人二次过街信号优化设置的实际研究.研究结果表明,通过路段和临近交叉口信号联动,晚高峰行人的有效过街时间增加了25%,午平峰长椿街交叉口东进口的被利用绿灯时间增加了20%.%As for the mixed urban traffic, the influence between the pedestrians walking cross road sections and the normal driving of motor vehicles is so significant that it results in traffic jams. Firstly, this research summarizes the problems of pedestrians crossing facilities at crosswalks, overpasses, underground passages and sidewalks and pedestrians crossing signals. Thereafter, this study proposes the measures to solve these problems, including reasonably setting crosswalks and pedestrian crossing signals, sidewalks, overpasses and underground passages, non-motor-vehicle lanes and traffic signs and markings. Finally, the research on the optimization of the twice crossing signals for the pedestrians in the east area of the bus stop of Changchun Street Intersection East. It is shown that, the systematic signals for adjacent intersections makes the effective time for pedestrians crossing roads increase 25% in evening peak hours, and the efficient time of the green signals increases 20% in the non-peak hours at noon.

  19. Main characteristics of train-pedestrian fatalities on Finnish railroads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silla, Anne; Luoma, Juha

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the frequency of fatalities, timing of collisions and characteristics of persons killed in train-pedestrian collisions on Finnish railways during 2005-2009. In addition, the Finnish results were compared with those collected in Sweden. The Finnish data were combined from five different sources. The results showed that 311 pedestrians were killed in train-pedestrian collisions, including 264 suicides, 35 accidents and 12 unclassified events. For each event type, most of the victims were male. Most suicide victims were in the 20-29 year age group and on average younger than people who chose some other form of suicide. About half of all victims were intoxicated by alcohol, medicines and/or drugs. Both suicides and accidents occurred most often at the end of the week but no specific peak for time of year was found. Suicides occurred most frequently from afternoon to night and accidents during the rush hours. Most train-pedestrian fatalities happened in densely populated areas. In conclusion, the effective prevention of railway suicides and accidents calls for a systems approach involving effective measures introduced by authorities responsible for urban planning, railways, education and public health.

  20. Experimental identification of pedestrian-induced lateral forces on footbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingólfsson, Einar Thór; Georgakis, Christos; Ricciardelli, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive experimental analysis of lateral forces generated by single pedestrians during continuous walking on a treadmill. Two different conditions are investigated; initially the treadmill is fixed and then it is laterally driven in a sinusoidal motion at varying combi...

  1. Pedestrian Path Prediction with Recursive Bayesian Filters: A Comparative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, N.; Gavrila, D.M.

    2013-01-01

    In the context of intelligent vehicles, we perform a comparative study on recursive Bayesian filters for pedestrian path prediction at short time horizons (< 2s). We consider Extended Kalman Filters (EKF) based on single dynamical models and Interacting Multiple Models (IMM) combining several such b

  2. Fluctuations around mean walking behaviors in diluted pedestrian flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbetta, Alessandro; Lee, Chung-min; Benzi, Roberto; Muntean, Adrian; Toschi, Federico

    2017-03-01

    Understanding and modeling the dynamics of pedestrian crowds can help with designing and increasing the safety of civil facilities. A key feature of a crowd is its intrinsic stochasticity, appearing even under very diluted conditions, due to the variability in individual behaviors. Individual stochasticity becomes even more important under densely crowded conditions, since it can be nonlinearly magnified and may lead to potentially dangerous collective behaviors. To understand quantitatively crowd stochasticity, we study the real-life dynamics of a large ensemble of pedestrians walking undisturbed, and we perform a statistical analysis of the fully resolved pedestrian trajectories obtained by a yearlong high-resolution measurement campaign. Our measurements have been carried out in a corridor of the Eindhoven University of Technology via a combination of Microsoft Kinect 3D range sensor and automatic head-tracking algorithms. The temporal homogeneity of our large database of trajectories allows us to robustly define and separate average walking behaviors from fluctuations parallel and orthogonal with respect to the average walking path. Fluctuations include rare events when individuals suddenly change their minds and invert their walking directions. Such tendency to invert direction has been poorly studied so far, even if it may have important implications on the functioning and safety of facilities. We propose a model for the dynamics of undisturbed pedestrians, based on stochastic differential equations, that provides a good agreement with our field observations, including the occurrence of rare events.

  3. EVALUATING THREE INTERFACE TECHNOLOGIES IN ASSISTING PEDESTRIANS' SPATIAL KNOWLEDGE ACQUISITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Huang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen raising interests in mobile pedestrian navigation systems. Different interface technologies can be used to communicate/convey route directions to pedestrians, such as mobile maps, voices, and augmented reality (AR. Many field experiments have been conducted to study the effectiveness of different interface technologies in guiding pedestrians to their destinations. In contrast to other field studies, this article aims at investigating the influence of different interface technologies on spatial knowledge acquisition (spatial learning. With sufficient spatial knowledge about an environment, people can still find their way when navigation systems fail (e.g. out of battery. The goal of this article is to empirically evaluate three GPS-based navigation prototypes (implementing mobile map-based, AR-based, and voice-based guidance respectively in supporting spatial knowledge acquisition. The field test showed that in terms of spatial knowledge acquisition, the three interface technologies led to comparable poor results, which were also not significantly different from each other. This article concludes with some implications for designing mobile pedestrian navigation systems.

  4. Selfishness- and Selflessness-based models of pedestrian room evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiao; Ma, Liang; Ma, Yaofei; Yang, Chen; Ji, Hang

    2016-04-01

    Some pedestrian evacuation studies have employed game strategy to deal with moving conflicts involving two or three pedestrians. However, most of these have simply presented game strategies for pedestrians without analyzing the reasons why they choose to defect or cooperate. We believe that selfish and selfless behaviors are two main factors that should be considered in evacuation. In addition to these behaviors, human emotions such as sympathy and behaviors such as vying were also taken into account to investigate their impacts on pedestrians' strategies. Moreover, an essential objective factor, the building design factor of door width was tested and analyzed. Experimental results showed that the sense of self leads to more defectors and a longer evacuation time. However, sympathy does some good, leading to more cooperators and a shorter evacuation time. Moreover, the exit door width is an essential factor of the evacuation efficiency. When the width was less than 6 cells in a rectangular room with a size greater than 50 × 50, the evacuation time greatly decreased when the width increased. However, this effect was less obvious when the width increased.

  5. Planning for pedestrians: a way out of traffic congestion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Morar; L. Bertolini

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the negative effects of planning for personal motorized mobility, a phenomenon currently taking place in Romanian cities. After presenting the general and particular picture of the increase in private vehicle ownership, it analyse s the subject of pedestrian accessibility by loo

  6. Two-Stage Part-Based Pedestrian Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelmose, Andreas; Prioletti, Antonio; Trivedi, Mohan M.;

    2012-01-01

    Detecting pedestrians is still a challenging task for automotive vision system due the extreme variability of targets, lighting conditions, occlusions, and high speed vehicle motion. A lot of research has been focused on this problem in the last 10 years and detectors based on classifiers has...

  7. Use of media devices by cyclists and pedestrians.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    Many people in the Netherlands use media players and/or mobile phones while cycling or walking. Research has shown that the use of devices while walking or cycling involves less safe road user behaviour. Pedestrians and cyclists apparently do not compensate sufficiently for the distraction resultin

  8. New orientation and accessibility option for persons with visual impairment: transportation applications for remote infrared audible signage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, William; Bentzen, Billie Louise; Myers, Linda; Brabyn, John

    2001-05-01

    BACKGROUND: For a blind or visually impaired person, a vital prerequisite to accessing any feature of the built environment is being able to find this feature. Braille signs, even where available, do not replace the functions of print signage because they cannot be read from a distance. Remotely readable infrared signs utilise spoken infrared message transmissions to label key environmental features, so that a blind person with a suitable receiver can locate and identify them from a distance. METHODS: Three problems that are among the most challenging and dangerous faced by blind travellers are negotiating complex transit stations, locating bus stops and safely and efficiently crossing light-controlled intersections. We report the results of human factors studies using a remote infrared audible sign system (RIAS), Talking Signs(R), in these critical tasks, examining issues such as the amount of training needed to use the system, its impact on performance and safety, benefits for different population subgroups and user opinions of its value. RESULTS: Results are presented in the form of both objective performance measures and in subjects' ratings of the usefulness of the system in performing these tasks. Findings are that blind people can quickly and easily learn to use remote infrared audible signage effectively and that its use improves travel safety, efficiency and independence.? CONCLUSIONS: The technology provides equal access to a wide variety of public facilities.

  9. Traffic instabilities in self-organized pedestrian crowds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Moussaïd

    Full Text Available In human crowds as well as in many animal societies, local interactions among individuals often give rise to self-organized collective organizations that offer functional benefits to the group. For instance, flows of pedestrians moving in opposite directions spontaneously segregate into lanes of uniform walking directions. This phenomenon is often referred to as a smart collective pattern, as it increases the traffic efficiency with no need of external control. However, the functional benefits of this emergent organization have never been experimentally measured, and the underlying behavioral mechanisms are poorly understood. In this work, we have studied this phenomenon under controlled laboratory conditions. We found that the traffic segregation exhibits structural instabilities characterized by the alternation of organized and disorganized states, where the lifetime of well-organized clusters of pedestrians follow a stretched exponential relaxation process. Further analysis show that the inter-pedestrian variability of comfortable walking speeds is a key variable at the origin of the observed traffic perturbations. We show that the collective benefit of the emerging pattern is maximized when all pedestrians walk at the average speed of the group. In practice, however, local interactions between slow- and fast-walking pedestrians trigger global breakdowns of organization, which reduce the collective and the individual payoff provided by the traffic segregation. This work is a step ahead toward the understanding of traffic self-organization in crowds, which turns out to be modulated by complex behavioral mechanisms that do not always maximize the group's benefits. The quantitative understanding of crowd behaviors opens the way for designing bottom-up management strategies bound to promote the emergence of efficient collective behaviors in crowds.

  10. Pedestrian intention prediction based on dynamic fuzzy automata for vehicle driving at nighttime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Joon-Young; Ko, Byoung Chul; Nam, Jae-Yeal

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm that can predict a pedestrian's intention using images captured by a far-infrared thermal camera mounted on a moving car at nighttime. To predict a pedestrian's intention in consecutive sequences, we use the dynamic fuzzy automata (DFA) method, which not only provides a systemic approach for handling uncertainty but also is able to handle continuous spaces. As the spatio-temporal features, the distance between the curbs and the pedestrian and the pedestrian's velocity and head orientation are used. In this study, we define four intention states of the pedestrian: Standing-Sidewalk (S-SW), Walking-Sidewalk (W-SW), Walking-Crossing (W-Cro), and Running-Crossing (R-Cro). In every frame, the proposed system determines the final intention of the pedestrian as 'Stop' if the pedestrian's intention state is S-SW or W-SW. In contrast, the proposed system determines the final intention of a pedestrian as 'Cross' if the pedestrian's intention state is W-Cro or R-Cro. A performance comparison with other related methods shows that the performance of the proposed algorithm is better than that of other related methods. The proposed algorithm was successfully applied to our dataset, which includes complex environments with many pedestrians.

  11. Analyses of pedestrian behavior on mid-block unsignalized crosswalk comparing Chinese and German cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobei Jiang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A large number of pedestrian fatalities are caused by the vehicle-pedestrian accidents. The application of new theory and technological approaches may hold great potential to reduce the accident frequency and severity for pedestrians. Considered the different driving cultures between China and Germany, the adaptation of such application in new market triggers an “intercultural comparison” related to the road user behavior and traffic safety. Field traffic data have been collected by video recording and image processing at unsignalized mid-block crosswalks both in Beijing, China and Munich, Germany. Centered Vehicle-Pedestrian conflict situation, pedestrian speed performance in different pedestrian categories and walking phases, pedestrian waiting behavior related to waiting decision choice and waiting time, pedestrian gap acceptance were statistically analyzed for understanding the pedestrian behavior in the conflict process. Intercultural comparisons were made between China and Germany. The research results addressed how the conflict participants (pedestrians only behave differently and would hopefully be the impetus for further intercultural analyses from urban traffic side.

  12. Fatigue effect on phase transition of pedestrian movement: experiment and simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lin; Fu, Zhijian; Zhou, Xiaodong; Zhu, Kongjin; Yang, Hongtai; Yang, Lizhong

    2016-10-01

    How to model pedestrian movement is an intriguing problem in the area of statistical physics. As a common phenomenon of pedestrian movement, fatigue has a significant negative effect on pedestrian movement, especially when pedestrians move or run with heavy luggage, rescue the wounded in disaster, climb stairs and etc. According to the field observations and previous researches, fatigue coefficient is defined as the decrease of desired velocity in this study. However, previous researches lacked quantitative analysis of the effect of fatigue on pedestrian speed. It has been a great challenge to study the effect of fatigue on pedestrian flow, since pedestrians of heterogeneous walking abilities and the change of pedestrians’ moving properties need to be taken into consideration. Thus, at first, a series of pedestrian experiments, under three different conditions, were conducted to formulate the empirical relationship among fatigue, average free velocity, and walking distance. Then the empirical formulation of pedestrian fatigue was imported into the multi-velocity field floor cellular automata (FFCA) model for following pedestrian dynamics analysis. The velocity ratio was adjusted dynamically to adapt the change of pedestrians’ velocity due to fatigue. The fatigue, entrance flow rate and pedestrian’s initial desired velocity are found to have significant effects on the pedestrian flow. The space-time distributions of pedestrian density and velocity were explored in detail, with phase transition analyses from a free flow phase to a congestion phase. Additionally, the ‘density wave’ in the system can be observed if a certain ratio of burdened pedestrians lay in the high density region. The envelope of the ‘density wave’ reaches its maximum amplitude around the entrance position, and gradually diminishes away from the entrance.

  13. Capacity Reliability of Signalized Intersections with Mixed Traffic Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiaoming; SHAO Chunfu; LI Da; DONG Chunjiao

    2009-01-01

    The reliability of capacity of signalized intersections in mixed traffic conditions involving vehicles, bicycles, and pedestrians was investigated to complete the conventional, deterministic capacity calculations. Simulations using VISSIM provided estimates of capacity distributions, and demonstrated the effects of the analysis intervals on the distributions. With the random vehicle arrivals taken into account, a capacity reli-ability assessment method was given as a function. Assessments were also performed regarding the effects of the conflicting pedestrian and bicycle volumes on capacity reliability. The simulation indicates that the pe-destrians and bicycles result in greater random fluctuations of exclusive tuming lane capacities, but have less effect on the variability of shared lane capacities. Normal distributions can be used to model the capaci-ties for intervals not less than 10 min. At higher vehicular volumes, the capacity reliability is more sensitive to the mean and standard deviation of the pedestrian and bicycle volumes.

  14. Pedestrian and traffic safety in parking lots at SNL/NM : audit background report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Paul Ernest

    2009-03-01

    This report supplements audit 2008-E-0009, conducted by the ES&H, Quality, Safeguards & Security Audits Department, 12870, during fall and winter of FY 2008. The study evaluates slips, trips and falls, the leading cause of reportable injuries at Sandia. In 2007, almost half of over 100 of such incidents occurred in parking lots. During the course of the audit, over 5000 observations were collected in 10 parking lots across SNL/NM. Based on benchmarks and trends of pedestrian behavior, the report proposes pedestrian-friendly features and attributes to improve pedestrian safety in parking lots. Less safe pedestrian behavior is associated with older parking lots lacking pedestrian-friendly features and attributes, like those for buildings 823, 887 and 811. Conversely, safer pedestrian behavior is associated with newer parking lots that have designated walkways, intra-lot walkways and sidewalks. Observations also revealed that motorists are in widespread noncompliance with parking lot speed limits and stop signs and markers.

  15. How to Apply Assignment Methods that were Developed for Vehicular Traffic to Pedestrian Microsimulations

    CERN Document Server

    Roca, Vidal; Kretz, Tobias; Lehmann, Karsten; Hofsäß, Ingmar

    2014-01-01

    Applying assignment methods to compute user-equilibrium route choice is very common in traffic planning. It is common sense that vehicular traffic arranges in a user-equilibrium based on generalized costs in which travel time is a major factor. Surprisingly travel time has not received much attention for the route choice of pedestrians. In microscopic simulations of pedestrians the vastly dominating paradigm for the computation of the preferred walking direction is set into the direction of the (spatially) shortest path. For situations where pedestrians have travel time as primary determinant for their walking behavior it would be desirable to also have an assignment method in pedestrian simulations. To apply existing (road traffic) assignment methods with simulations of pedestrians one has to reduce the nondenumerably many possible pedestrian trajectories to a small subset of routes which represent the main, relevant, and significantly distinguished routing alternatives. All except one of these routes will m...

  16. Enlightenment of Qilou Street Space Intelligence to Pedestrian System Design in Commercial District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at those generally existing problems in urban commercial pedestrian districts, through the design methods of extracting separation of man from vehicle in traditional Qilou pedestrian street space, continuous pedestrian space with shelter, and the behavior paths with combination of commercial activities, this thesis sets about from the behaviors of pedestrians in walking state, and finds that the traditional Qilou pedestrian street space can satisfy pedestrians’ physiological and psychological demands in shopping better. At the same time, combining current urban commercial districts developing demands, and the successful experience from traditional Qilou, this thesis also proposes relevant improvement measures. The improvements in design means are expected to improve pedestrian environment for, and achieve the commercial values of these districts, as well as the win-win of environment improvement and commercial activity development.

  17. Community-based pedestrian safety training in virtual reality: A pragmatic trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwebel, David C; Combs, Tabitha; Rodriguez, Daniel; Severson, Joan; Sisiopiku, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    Child pedestrian injuries are a leading cause of mortality and morbidity across the United States and the world. Repeated practice at the cognitive-perceptual task of crossing a street may lead to safer pedestrian behavior. Virtual reality offers a unique opportunity for repeated practice without the risk of actual injury. This study conducted a pre-post within-subjects trial of training children in pedestrian safety using a semi-mobile, semi-immersive virtual pedestrian environment placed at schools and community centers. Pedestrian safety skills among a group of 44 seven- and eight-year-old children were assessed in a laboratory, and then children completed six 15-minute training sessions in the virtual pedestrian environment at their school or community center following pragmatic trial strategies over the course of three weeks. Following training, pedestrian safety skills were re-assessed. Results indicate improvement in delay entering traffic following training. Safe crossings did not demonstrate change. Attention to traffic and time to contact with oncoming vehicles both decreased somewhat, perhaps an indication that training was incomplete and children were in the process of actively learning to be safer pedestrians. The findings suggest virtual reality environments placed in community centers hold promise for teaching children to be safer pedestrians, but future research is needed to determine the optimal training dosage.

  18. Psychology-Based Research on Unsafe Behavior by Pedestrians When Crossing the Street

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongqiang Ding

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrians are some of the worst victims, as one of the weaker groups in road traffic accidents, but, at the same time, their unsafe behaviors are also an important factor in traffic accidents. This paper builds a pedestrian crossing hazard automatic-balance model and waiting-time threshold model by analyzing the process by which pedestrians cross the street. Then, the reasons for pedestrians’ unsafe behavior when crossing the street are analyzed by using traffic psychology. Finally, this paper puts forward some measures, based on aspects of pedestrian psychology, to reduce or alleviate pedestrians’ unsafe behaviors.

  19. Simulation of pedestrian evacuation based on an improved dynamic parameter model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Nuo; Jia Bin; Shao Chun-Fu; Yue Hao

    2012-01-01

    An improved dynamic parameter model is presented based on cellular automata.The dynamic parameters,including direction parameter,empty parameter,and cognition parameter,are formulated to simplify tactically the process of making decisions for pedestrians.The improved model reflects the judgement of pedestrians on surrounding conditions and the action of choosing or decision.According to the two-dimensional cellular automaton Moore neighborhood we establish the pedestrian moving rule,and carry out corresponding simulations of pedestrian evacuation.The improved model considers the impact of pedestrian density near exits on the evacuation process.Simulated and experimental results demonstrate that the improvement makes sense due to the fact that except for the spatial distance to exits,people also choose an exit according to the pedestrian density around exits.The impact factors α,β,and γ are introduced to describe transition payoff,and their optimal values are determined through simulation.Moreover,the effects of pedestrian distribution,pedestrian density,and the width of exits on the evacuation time are discussed.The optimal exit layout,i.e.,the optimal position and width,is offered.The comparison between the simulated results obtained with the improved model and that from a previous model and experiments indicates that the improved model can reproduce experimental results well.Thus,it has great significance for further study,and important instructional meaning for pedestrian evacuation so as to reduce the number of casualties.

  20. Jamming transitions in force-based models for pedestrian dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Chraibi, Mohcine; Tordeux, Antoine; Nishinari, Katsuhiro; Schadschneider, Andreas; Seyfried, Armin

    2015-01-01

    Force-based models describe pedestrian dynamics in analogy to classical mechanics by a system of second order ordinary differential equations. By investigating the linear stability of two main classes of forces, parameter regions with unstable homogeneous states are identified. In this unstable regime it is then checked whether phase transitions or stop-and-go waves occur. Results based on numerical simulations show, however, that the investigated models lead to unrealistic behavior in form of backwards moving pedestrians and overlapping. This is one reason why stop-and-go waves have not been observed in these models. The unrealistic behavior is not related to the numerical treatment of the dynamic equations but rather indicates an intrinsic problem of this model class. Identifying the underlying generic problems gives indications how to define models that do not show such unrealistic behavior. As an example we introduce a new force-based model which produces realistic jam dynamics without the appearance of u...

  1. Game theory in models of pedestrian room evacuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzat, S; Kuperman, M N

    2014-03-01

    We analyze the pedestrian evacuation of a rectangular room with a single door considering a lattice gas scheme with the addition of behavioral aspects of the pedestrians. The movement of the individuals is based on random and rational choices and is affected by conflicts between two or more agents that want to advance to the same position. Such conflicts are solved according to certain rules closely related to the concept of strategies in game theory, cooperation and defection. We consider game rules analogous to those from the Prisoner's Dilemma and Stag Hunt games, with payoffs associated to the probabilities of the individuals to advance to the selected site. We find that, even when defecting is the rational choice for any agent, under certain conditions, cooperators can take advantage from mutual cooperation and leave the room more rapidly than defectors.

  2. Properties of pedestrians walking in line: Stepping behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Jelić, Asja; Lemercier, Samuel; Pettré, Julien

    2012-01-01

    In human crowds, interactions among individuals give rise to a variety of self-organized collective motions that help the group to effectively solve the problem of coordination. However, it is still not known how exactly are the humans adjusting their behavior locally, nor what are the direct consequences on the emergent organization. One of the underlying mechanisms of adjusting individual motions is the stepping dynamics. In this paper, we present first quantitative analysis on the stepping behavior in a one-dimensional pedestrian flow studied under controlled laboratory conditions. We find that the step length is proportional to the velocity of the pedestrian, and is directly related to the space available in front of him, while the variations of the step duration are much weaker. Furthermore, we study the phenomena of synchronization --walking in lock-steps-- and show its dependence on the flow densities. We show that the synchronization of steps is particularly important at high densities, which has dire...

  3. Experimental studies of pedestrian flows under different boundary conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    In this article the dynamics of pedestrian streams in four different scenarios are compared empirically to investigate the influence of boundary conditions on it. The Voronoi method, which allows high resolution and small fluctuations of measured density in time and space, is used to analyze the experiments. It is found that pedestrian movement in systems with different boundary conditions (open, periodic boundary conditions and outflow restrained) presents various characteristics especially when the density is larger than 2 m-2. In open corridor systems the specific flow increases continuously with increasing density till 4 m-2. The specific flow keeps constant in systems with restrained outflow, whereas it decreases from 1 (m.s)-1 to zero in system with closed periodical condition.

  4. Game theory in models of pedestrian room evacuation

    CERN Document Server

    Bouzat, S

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the pedestrian evacuation of a rectangular room with a single door considering a Lattice Gas scheme with the addition of behavioral aspects of the pedestrians. The movement of the individuals is based on random and rational choices and is affected by conflicts between two or more agents that want to advance to the same position. Such conflicts are solved according to certain rules closely related to the concept of strategies in Game Theory, cooperation and defection. We consider game rules analogous to those from the Prisoner's Dilemma and Stag Hunt games, with payoffs associated to the probabilities of the individuals to advance to the selected site. We find that, even when defecting is the rational choice for any agent, under certain conditions, cooperators can take advantage from mutual cooperation and leave the room more rapidly than defectors.

  5. How simple rules determine pedestrian behavior and crowd disasters

    CERN Document Server

    Moussaid, Mehdi; Theraulaz, Guy

    2011-01-01

    With the increasing size and frequency of mass events, the study of crowd disasters and the simulation of pedestrian flows have become important research areas. Yet, even successful modeling approaches such as those inspired by Newtonian force models are still not fully consistent with empirical observations and are sometimes hard to calibrate. Here, a novel cognitive science approach is proposed, which is based on behavioral heuristics. We suggest that, guided by visual information, namely the distance of obstructions in candidate lines of sight, pedestrians apply two simple cognitive procedures to adapt their walking speeds and directions. While simpler than previous approaches, this model predicts individual trajectories and collective patterns of motion in good quantitative agreement with a large variety of empirical and experimental data. This includes the emergence of self-organization phenomena, such as the spontaneous formation of unidirectional lanes or stop-and-go waves. Moreover, the combination of...

  6. Distracted pedestrian sustains orbital fracture while on cell phone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edell AR

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aimée R Edell, Jesse J Jung, Joel M Solomon, Richard N Palu Department of Ophthalmology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Use of cell phones in the general population has become increasingly commonplace. The distracting effects of cell phones among automobile drivers are well established, and legislation prohibits the use of handheld cell phones while driving in several states. Recent research has focused on the similar distracting effects of cell phones in the pedestrian population. In this report, an older gentleman suffered extensive facial trauma requiring surgery as a direct effect of cell phone use at the time the trauma occurred. This case highlights the role that portable electronic devices can play as a cause of ocular trauma. Keywords: orbital fracture, ocular trauma, orbital floor fracture, cell phone distraction, pedestrian safety

  7. Smartphone-based integrated PDR/GPS/Bluetooth pedestrian location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianghong; Wei, Dongyan; Lai, Qifeng; Xu, Ying; Yuan, Hong

    2017-02-01

    Typical indoor location method is fingerprint and traditional outdoor location system is GPS. Both of them are of poor accuracy and limited only for indoor or outdoor environments. As the smartphones are equipped with MEMS sensors, it means PDR can be widely used. In this paper, an algorithm of smartphone-based integrated PDR/GPS/Bluetooth for pedestrian location in the indoor/outdoor is proposed, which can be highly expected to realize seamless indoor/outdoor localization of the pedestrian. In addition, we also provide technologies to estimate orientation with Magnetometer and Gyroscope and detect context with output of sensors. The extensive experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can realize seamless indoor/outdoor localization.

  8. Experimental approach of the single pedestrian-induced excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kala, J.; Bajer, M.; Barnat, J.; Smutný, J.

    2010-12-01

    Pedestrian-induced vibrations are a criterion for serviceability. This loading is significant for light-weight footbridge structures, but was established as a basic loading for the ceilings of various ordinary buildings. Wide variations of this action exist. To verify the different conclusions of various authors, vertical pressure measurements invoked during walking were performed. In the article the approaches of different design codes are also shown.

  9. Quantification of Dynamic Excitation Potential of Pedestrian Population Crossing Footbridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stana Žcaronivanović

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to their slenderness, many modern footbridges may vibrate significantly under pedestrian traffic. Consequently, the vibration serviceability of these structures under human-induced dynamic loading is becoming their governing design criterion. Many current vibration serviceability design guidelines, concerned with prediction of the vibration in the vertical direction, estimate a single response level that corresponds to an "average" person crossing the bridge with the step frequency that matches a footbridge natural frequency. However, different pedestrians have different dynamic excitation potential, and therefore could generate significantly different vibration response of the bridge structure. This paper aims to quantify this potential by estimating the range of structural vibrations (in the vertical direction that could be induced by different individuals and the probability of occurrence of any particular vibration level. This is done by introducing the inter- and intra-subject variability in the walking force modelling. The former term refers to inability of a pedestrian to induce an exactly the same force with each step while the latter refers to different forces (in terms of their magnitude, frequency and crossing speed induced by different people. Both types of variability are modelled using the appropriate probability density functions. The probability distributions were then implemented into a framework procedure for vibration response prediction under a single person excitation. Instead of a single response value obtained using currently available design guidelines, this new framework yields a range of possible acceleration responses induced by different people and a distribution function for these responses. The acceleration ranges estimated are then compared with experimental data from two real-life footbridges. The substantial differences in the dynamic response induced by different people are obtained in both the numerical and

  10. Effect of a perfume on prosocial behavior of pedestrians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéguen, N

    2001-06-01

    Several studies have shown that perfumes encourage prosocial behavior of people from whom help is requested in the street. Implicit requests for help were studied. On a pedestrian walk, a woman confederate, with or without a heavy perfume, walked by the subject while dropping a packet of paper handkerchiefs or a glove apparently without noticing. Results show that the confederate was warned more often when wearing a perfume.

  11. Pedestrian injury risk and the effect of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebuhr, Tobias; Junge, Mirko; Rosén, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Older adults and pedestrians both represent especially vulnerable groups in traffic. In the literature, hazards are usually described by the corresponding injury risks of a collision. This paper investigates the MAIS3+F risk (the risk of sustaining at least one injury of AIS 3 severity or higher, or fatal injury) for pedestrians in full-frontal pedestrian-to-passenger car collisions. Using some assumptions, a model-based approach to injury risk, allowing for the specification of individual injury risk parameters for individuals, is presented. To balance model accuracy and sample size, the GIDAS (German In-depth Accident Study) data set is divided into three age groups; children (0-14); adults (15-60); and older adults (older than 60). For each group, individual risk curves are computed. Afterwards, the curves are re-aggregated to the overall risk function. The derived model addresses the influence of age on the outcome of pedestrian-to-car accidents. The results show that older people compared with younger people have a higher MAIS3+F injury risk at all collision speeds. The injury risk for children behaves surprisingly. Compared to other age groups, their MAIS3+F injury risk is lower at lower collision speeds, but substantially higher once a threshold has been exceeded. The resulting injury risk curve obtained by re-aggregation looks surprisingly similar to the frequently used logistic regression function computed for the overall injury risk. However, for homogenous subgroups - such as the three age groups - logistic regression describes the typical risk behavior less accurately than the introduced model-based approach. Since the effect of demographic change on traffic safety is greater nowadays, there is a need to incorporate age into established models. Thus far, this is one of the first studies incorporating traffic participant age to an explicit risk function. The presented approach can be especially useful for the modeling and prediction of risks, and for the

  12. A Unique Prestressed Concrete Pedestrian Bridge in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Ivorra Chorro, Salvador; Alvado Bañón, Joaquín; Crespo Zaragoza, Miguel Ángel

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the so-called Kiss Bridge. This structure resembles a kiss, a subtle touch of structures. The beams have been structurally designed to adapt the Japanese art of paper folding called "origami." The material used for constructing the floating beams is white reinforced concrete in the form of folded shells. The two geometrically different parts have distinct structural behaviors. The length of the main pathway of both structures is over 60 m. The pedestrian bridge crosses an...

  13. Fusion Based Safety Application for Pedestrian Detection with Danger Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    García, Fernando; Escalera, Arturo de la; Armingol, José M.; García, Jesús; Llinas, James

    2011-01-01

    Proceedings of: 14th International Conference on Information Fusion (FUSION 2011). Chicago, Illinois, USA 5-8 July 2011. Road safety applications require the most reliable data. In recent years data fusion is becoming one of the main technologies for Advance Driver Assistant Systems (ADAS) to overcome the limitations of isolated use of the available sensors and to fulfil demanding safety requirements. In this paper a real application of data fusion for road safety for pedestrian detection ...

  14. Optimizing aspects of pedestrian traffic in building designs

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez, Samuel

    2013-11-01

    In this work, we investigate aspects of building design that can be optimized. Architectural features that we explore include pillar placement in simple corridors, doorway placement in buildings, and agent placement for information dispersement in an evacuation. The metrics utilized are tuned to the specific scenarios we study, which include continuous flow pedestrian movement and building evacuation. We use Multidimensional Direct Search (MDS) optimization with an extreme barrier criteria to find optimal placements while enforcing building constraints. © 2013 IEEE.

  15. Pedestrian deaths in children--potential for prevention.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hamilton, K

    2015-01-01

    The National Paediatric Mortality Database was reviewed for the six year period 1st January 2006 to 31st December 2011 and all pedestrian deaths extracted, after review of available data the deaths were categorized as either traffic or non-traffic related. There were 45 child pedestrian fatalities in the period examined. Traffic related deaths accounted for 26 (58%) vs. 19 (42%) non-traffic related. Analysis of the deaths showed there was a male preponderance 28 (62%), weekend trend 22 (49%) with an evening 16 (35%) and summer peak 20 (44%). The highest proportion of deaths occurred in the 1-4 year age group 24 (53%), with 13 (28%) due to low speed vehicle rollovers, mainly occurring in residential driveways 8 (61%). Child pedestrian fatalities are highly preventable through the modification of risk factors including behavioural, social and environmental. Preventative action needs to be addressed, particularly in relation to non-traffic related deaths i.e, low speed vehicle rollovers.

  16. Pedestrian-motorcycle collisions: associated risks and issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariffin Aqbal Hafeez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available From the statistics, there are serious concerns over the relatively high number of fatal motor vehicle crashes involving pedestrianmotorcycle in Malaysia. The high number of motorcycle registration on road, compounded by its popularity as the major mode of transportation in the nation, imposes safety risk to pedestrians, as well as to other road users. Data from 1,626 related road crashes of Royal Malaysia Police (RMP for the 2009-2013 period were retrospectively collected via MIROS Road Accident Analysis and Database System (M-ROADS. The data were then analyzed via logistic regression method to determine associations between risks and injury severity in pedestrian-motorcycle collisions. The results indicate that five factors were significantly related to injury severity, which include age, location of body injury, as well as speed limit, road geometry and lighting condition of collision site. Subsequently, focus group discussions with stakeholders were also conducted to gather relevant data to identify related issues and suggestions on motorcycle safety technology with regards to collision with pedestrian.

  17. Natural discretization of pedestrian movement in continuous space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Michael J.; Köster, Gerta

    2012-10-01

    Is there a way to describe pedestrian movement with simple rules, as in a cellular automaton, but without being restricted to a cellular grid? Inspired by the natural stepwise movement of humans, we develop a model that uses local discretization on a circle around virtual pedestrians. This allows for movement in arbitrary directions, only limited by the chosen optimization algorithm and numerical resolution. The radii of the circles correspond to the step lengths of pedestrians and thus are model parameters, which must be derived from empirical observation. Therefore, we conducted a controlled experiment, collected empirical data for step lengths in relation with different speeds, and used the findings in our model. We complement the model with a simple calibration algorithm that allows reproducing known density-velocity relations, which constitutes a proof of concept. Further validation of the model is achieved by reenacting an evacuation scenario from experimental research. The simulated egress times match the values reported for the experiment very well. A new normalized measure for space occupancy serves to visualize the results.

  18. Predictors of road crossing safety in pedestrians with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chin-Hsien; Ou, Yang-Kun; Wu, Ruey-Meei; Liu, Yung-Ching

    2013-03-01

    Road-crossing safety is an important issue in an aging society. Information regarding the risk of crossing the street to pedestrians with Parkinson's disease (PD) is limited. To assess the risk and predictors of unsafe crossing behaviors in patients with PD, we compared 31 pedestrians with mild-to-moderate PD to 50 age/gender/education-matched controls using a battery of cognitive, visual, and motor tests. With a simulated simple street-crossing situation, we determined the remaining time and safety margin for each participant in different traffic situations, including variable motor vehicle speed, time gap, and time of the day. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated by logistic regression models. We found that pedestrians with PD were more vulnerable to traffic accidents than controls (OR 1.61 [1.28-2.02], P=0.01). The risk of crossing road correlated in a dose-dependent manner with the severity of PD, based on both Hoehn and Yahr (H&Y) stages and unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS) motor scores (OR 1.13 for each increasing point of UPDSR, Psafety errors, rather than executive function. Environmental factors, such as fast approaching motor vehicle speed (OR 4.50 [2.92-6.95], Proad-crossing safety. Future large sample studies are needed to confirm our findings. Training programs or portable stimulator devices that compensate for the visual-spatial disabilities of PD patients are required to improve road safety for PD patients.

  19. Video Pedestrian Detection Based on Orthogonal Scene Motion Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianming Qu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In fixed video scenes, scene motion patterns can be a very useful prior knowledge for pedestrian detection which is still a challenge at present. A new approach of cascade pedestrian detection using an orthogonal scene motion pattern model in a general density video is developed in this paper. To statistically model the pedestrian motion pattern, a probability grid overlaying the whole scene is set up to partition the scene into paths and holding areas. Features extracted from different pattern areas are classified by a group of specific strategies. Instead of using a unitary classifier, the employed classifier is composed of two directional subclassifiers trained, respectively, with different samples which are selected by two orthogonal directions. Considering that the negative images from the detection window scanning are much more than the positive ones, the cascade AdaBoost technique is adopted by the subclassifiers to reduce the negative image computations. The proposed approach is proved effectively by static classification experiments and surveillance video experiments.

  20. The fundamental Diagram of Pedestrian Model with Slow Reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Jun; Hu, Hao; Xu, Zhaohui; Li, Huan

    2015-01-01

    The slow-to-start models are a classical cellular automata model in simulating vehicle traffic. However, to our knowledge, the slow-to-start effect has not considered in modeling pedestrian dynamic. We verify the similar behavior between pedestrian and vehicle, and propose an new lattice gas (LG) model called the slow reaction (SR) model to describe the pedestrian's delayed reaction in single-file movement. We simulate and reproduce the Seyfried's field experiments at the research centre Julich, and use its empirical data to validate our SR model. We compare the SR model with the standard LG model. We test different probability of slow reaction ps in SR model and found the simulation data of ps=0.3 fit the empirical data best. The RMS error of mean velocity of SR model is smaller than that of standard LG model. In the range of ps=0.1~0.3, our fundamental diagram between velocity and density by simulation coincides with field experiments. The distribution of individual velocity in fundamental diagram in SR mod...

  1. Simulation of Cognitive Pedestrian Agents Crowds in Crisis Situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Lyell

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In crisis situations in an urban environment, first responder teams often must deal with crowds of people. Consider the case of a building fire in a dense city environment. People may be injured; walkways may be blocked, with fire equipment attempting to reach the scene. Crowd behavior can become an issue when trying to reach the injured, ensure safety and restore conditions to normal. The motivations of pedestrians that form the crowd can vary. Some are there because they are curious about the crisis situation. Others, attending to their individual concerns, may have found themselves in the 'wrong' location. They may be trying to leave the area, but the density of people as well as the spatial layout of the walkways may be impeding their progress. Other individuals, unaware of the fire, may be attempting to reach their intended destinations that happen to be near the crisis area, thus adding to crowd congestion. With a model of crowd behavior, effective strategies for resource usage in managing crowd behavior can be developed. Our approach to this problem is that of agent-based modeling and simulation. We develop a cognitive pedestrian agent model. Utilizing this model, we simulate crowd behavior in a 'city fire' scenario. Characteristics of crowd behavior with different pedestrian personality mixes and a strategy for crowd management are investigated

  2. Enhancing Weak-Signal Carrier Phase Tracking in GNSS Receivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James T. Curran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Examining the performance of the GNSS PLL, this paper presents novel results describing the statistical properties of four popular phase estimators under both strong- and weak-signal conditions when subject to thermal noise, deterministic dynamics, and typical pedestrian motion. Design routines are developed which employ these results to enhance weak-signal performance of the PLL in terms of transient response, steady-state errors, and cycle-slips. By examining both single and data-pilot signals, it is shown that appropriate design and tuning of the PLL can significantly enhance tracking performance, in particular when used for pedestrian applications.

  3. Training children in pedestrian safety: distinguishing gains in knowledge from gains in safe behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwebel, David C; McClure, Leslie A

    2014-06-01

    Pedestrian injuries contribute greatly to child morbidity and mortality. Recent evidence suggests that training within virtual pedestrian environments may improve children's street crossing skills, but may not convey knowledge about safety in street environments. We hypothesized that (a) children will gain pedestrian safety knowledge via videos/software/internet websites, but not when trained by virtual pedestrian environment or other strategies; (b) pedestrian safety knowledge will be associated with safe pedestrian behavior both before and after training; and (c) increases in knowledge will be associated with increases in safe behavior among children trained individually at streetside locations, but not those trained by means of other strategies. We analyzed data from a randomized controlled trial evaluating pedestrian safety training. We randomly assigned 240 children ages 7-8 to one of four training conditions: videos/software/internet, virtual reality (VR), individualized streetside instruction, or a no-contact control. Both virtual and field simulations of street crossing at 2-lane bi-directional mid-block locations assessed pedestrian behavior at baseline, post-training, and 6-month follow-up. Pedestrian knowledge was assessed orally on all three occasions. Children trained by videos/software/internet, and those trained individually, showed increased knowledge following training relative to children in the other groups (ps VR is used for training, tools like videos/internet might effectively supplement training. We discovered few associations between knowledge and behavior, and none between changes in knowledge and behavior. Pedestrian safety knowledge and safe pedestrian behavior may be orthogonal constructs that should be considered independently for research and training purposes.

  4. Magnetic, Acceleration Fields and Gyroscope Quaternion (MAGYQ-Based Attitude Estimation with Smartphone Sensors for Indoor Pedestrian Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Renaudin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The dependence of proposed pedestrian navigation solutions on a dedicated infrastructure is a limiting factor to the deployment of location based services. Consequently self-contained Pedestrian Dead-Reckoning (PDR approaches are gaining interest for autonomous navigation. Even if the quality of low cost inertial sensors and magnetometers has strongly improved, processing noisy sensor signals combined with high hand dynamics remains a challenge. Estimating accurate attitude angles for achieving long term positioning accuracy is targeted in this work. A new Magnetic, Acceleration fields and GYroscope Quaternion (MAGYQ-based attitude angles estimation filter is proposed and demonstrated with handheld sensors. It benefits from a gyroscope signal modelling in the quaternion set and two new opportunistic updates: magnetic angular rate update (MARU and acceleration gradient update (AGU. MAGYQ filter performances are assessed indoors, outdoors, with dynamic and static motion conditions. The heading error, using only the inertial solution, is found to be less than 10° after 1.5 km walking. The performance is also evaluated in the positioning domain with trajectories computed following a PDR strategy.

  5. Magnetic, Acceleration Fields and Gyroscope Quaternion (MAGYQ)-based attitude estimation with smartphone sensors for indoor pedestrian navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaudin, Valérie; Combettes, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The dependence of proposed pedestrian navigation solutions on a dedicated infrastructure is a limiting factor to the deployment of location based services. Consequently self-contained Pedestrian Dead-Reckoning (PDR) approaches are gaining interest for autonomous navigation. Even if the quality of low cost inertial sensors and magnetometers has strongly improved, processing noisy sensor signals combined with high hand dynamics remains a challenge. Estimating accurate attitude angles for achieving long term positioning accuracy is targeted in this work. A new Magnetic, Acceleration fields and GYroscope Quaternion (MAGYQ)-based attitude angles estimation filter is proposed and demonstrated with handheld sensors. It benefits from a gyroscope signal modelling in the quaternion set and two new opportunistic updates: magnetic angular rate update (MARU) and acceleration gradient update (AGU). MAGYQ filter performances are assessed indoors, outdoors, with dynamic and static motion conditions. The heading error, using only the inertial solution, is found to be less than 10° after 1.5 km walking. The performance is also evaluated in the positioning domain with trajectories computed following a PDR strategy.

  6. A stochastic load model for pedestrian-induced lateral forces on footbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingólfsson, Einar Thór; Georgakis, Christos

    2011-01-01

    directly on measured lateral forces from a large group of pedestrians. Thereby, the model is currently the most statistically reliable analytical tool for modelling of pedestrian-induced lateral vibrations. Through simplified numerical simulations, it is shown that the modal response of a footbridge...

  7. Experimental study of pedestrian inflow in a room with a separate entrance and exit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaodong; Song, Weiguo; Fu, Libi; Fang, Zhiming

    2016-01-01

    Pedestrian inflow process frequently occurs in various pedestrian facilities in our daily life. Great importance should be attached to the study of this process. In this paper, we explore the pedestrian inflow process in a room with a separate entrance and exit. Two kinds of experiments are conducted: experiment 1 has no inactive persons and primarily focuses on analyzing the features of the normal pedestrian inflow process and analyzing the representative spatial parameters in the steady state, while experiment 2 involves the influence of the inactive persons. In order to quantitatively discuss the distribution of pedestrians in the steady state, we adopt several analytical methods, such as the Voronoi diagram method, proxemics, and point pattern analysis. Some features of the inflow process are captured. The distribution of pedestrians in the steady state is not uniform. The proxemics and attraction to the exit are both considered to affect pedestrians' distribution in the inflow process. The presence of inactive persons may have an impact on both the inflow and outflow processes. Practical suggestions are provided for the managers of pedestrian facilities.

  8. Driver Behavior in Yielding to Sighted and Blind Pedestrians at Roundabouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geruschat, Duane R.; Hassan, Shirin E.

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated drivers' behavior in yielding the right-of-way to sighted and blind pedestrians who stood at different stopping distances from the crosswalk lines at entry and exit lanes at two different roundabouts. The findings demonstrate that drivers' willingness to yield to pedestrians is affected by whether they are attempting to cross…

  9. Pedestrian Footpath Level of Service (FOOT-LOS Model for Johor Bahru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Basil David

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrian level of service (LOS is an overall measure of walking conditions on a route, path, or facility. This is linked directly to factors that affect mobility, comfort and safety, reflecting pedestrian’s perceptions of the degree to which the facility is pedestrian-friendly. A unique model called FOOT-LOS (short for pedestrian footpath level of service was developed to facilitate the LOS measurement. The factors considered fall into three categories; physical, location and user attributes. Pedestrian conditions can be described through a grading system, i.e. from LOS A (ideal pedestrian condition to LOS F (unsuitable pedestrian condition, based on an assessment of the factors affecting LOS. The assessment includes desktop and on-site assessment of LOS factors. The development of the model involved an iterative process that included testing and refinement. The research undertaken and the LOS model developed provide a sound basis for the measurement of LOS for pedestrian footpaths. The model not only provides a methodology for determining LOS, but also determines which factors predominantly contribute to the LOS of pedestrian footpaths.

  10. Will the pedestrian cross? Probabilistic path prediction based on learned motion features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keller, C.; Hermes, C.; Gavrila, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    Future vehicle systems for active pedestrian safety will not only require a high recognition performance, but also an accurate analysis of the developing traffic situation. In this paper, we present a system for pedestrian action classification (walking vs. stopping) and path prediction at short, su

  11. The two-dimensional Godunov scheme and what it means for macroscopic pedestrian flow models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wageningen-Kessels, F.L.M.; Daamen, W.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.

    2015-01-01

    An efficient simulation method for two-dimensional continuum pedestrian flow models is introduced. It is a two-dimensional and multi-class extension of the Go-dunov scheme for one-dimensional road traffic flow models introduced in the mid 1990’s. The method can be applied to continuum pedestrian flo

  12. Spatial fluctuations of pedestrian velocities in bidirectional streams: Exploring the effects of self-organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saberi, Meead; Aghabayk, Kayvan; Sobhani, Amir

    2015-09-01

    Individual pedestrian velocities vary over time and space depending on the crowd size, location of individuals' within the crowd, and formation of self-organized lanes. We use empirical data to explore the spatial fluctuations of pedestrian velocities in bidirectional streams. We find that, unlike ordinary fluids, the velocity profile in bidirectional pedestrian streams does not necessarily follow a hyperbolic form. Rather, the shape of the velocity profile is highly dependent on the formation of self-organized lanes. We also show that the spatial fluctuations of pedestrian velocities along and transverse to the flow direction are widely distributed and can be modeled by a sum of Gaussian distributions. Results suggest that the effect of self-organization phenomenon is strong enough that for the same crowd size, the velocity distribution does not significantly change when pedestrians are highly mixed compared to when separate lanes are formed.

  13. Effects of vehicle-pedestrian interaction and speed limit on traffic performance of intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Sun, Jian-Qiao

    2016-10-01

    The intersection model consisting of vehicle model, pedestrian model, pedestrian-vehicle interaction model and intersection rules has been presented in this paper. The well-established vehicle and pedestrian movement models in the literature are combined and applied to the intersection system with additional rules. Extensive numerical simulations with different scenarios are carried out. The effects of road speed limit, vehicle arrival rate, pedestrian regularity rate and vehicle rational rate on the intersection performance are quantitatively investigated. Three measures of the traffic performance are studied including transportation efficiency, energy economy and traffic safety. We have found that the energy economy can be achieved with the high transportation efficiency, and that the traffic safety is in conflict with the efficiency. Furthermore, we have found that the pedestrian interference makes the intersection performance worse, resulting in lower transportation efficiency, more energy consumptions and higher safety risk.

  14. Distributed Pedestrian Detection Alerts Based on Data Fusion with Accurate Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo de la Escalera

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Among Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS pedestrian detection is a common issue due to the vulnerability of pedestrians in the event of accidents. In the present work, a novel approach for pedestrian detection based on data fusion is presented. Data fusion helps to overcome the limitations inherent to each detection system (computer vision and laser scanner and provides accurate and trustable tracking of any pedestrian movement. The application is complemented by an efficient communication protocol, able to alert vehicles in the surroundings by a fast and reliable communication. The combination of a powerful location, based on a GPS with inertial measurement, and accurate obstacle localization based on data fusion has allowed locating the detected pedestrians with high accuracy. Tests proved the viability of the detection system and the efficiency of the communication, even at long distances. By the use of the alert communication, dangerous situations such as occlusions or misdetections can be avoided.

  15. Distributed pedestrian detection alerts based on data fusion with accurate localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Fernando; Jiménez, Felipe; Anaya, José Javier; Armingol, José María; Naranjo, José Eugenio; de la Escalera, Arturo

    2013-09-04

    Among Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) pedestrian detection is a common issue due to the vulnerability of pedestrians in the event of accidents. In the present work, a novel approach for pedestrian detection based on data fusion is presented. Data fusion helps to overcome the limitations inherent to each detection system (computer vision and laser scanner) and provides accurate and trustable tracking of any pedestrian movement. The application is complemented by an efficient communication protocol, able to alert vehicles in the surroundings by a fast and reliable communication. The combination of a powerful location, based on a GPS with inertial measurement, and accurate obstacle localization based on data fusion has allowed locating the detected pedestrians with high accuracy. Tests proved the viability of the detection system and the efficiency of the communication, even at long distances. By the use of the alert communication, dangerous situations such as occlusions or misdetections can be avoided.

  16. Pedestrian Zones As Important Urban Strategies in Redeveloping the Community - Case Study: Alba Iulia Borough Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Elena BLAGA

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The pedestrian zone issue is by far an important matter in the context of urban regeneration. Cities which adopted this strategy – the pedestrian zones – have recorded better urban attitudes regarding the urban environment, a continuous growth of the urban quality, an improved urban ecosystem  and continuous attractiveness for investment and  tourism. This article explores the evolution of the pedestrian zones as ideas in utopian urban models in the early 1900 and later as efficient environmental friendly strategies adopted by cities. After identifying the path this concept followed, from a simple idea to an important strategy of urban development, the paper focuses on the major characteristics and benefits of the pedestrian precincts. Next, the article focuses on the newest pedestrian zone in one of the Romanian cities, Alba Iulia and it tries to identify the types of impact this area has so far on the community and entire city.

  17. Heading Estimation for Indoor Pedestrian Navigation Using a Smartphone in the Pocket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-An Deng

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Heading estimation is a central problem for indoor pedestrian navigation using the pervasively available smartphone. For smartphones placed in a pocket, one of the most popular device positions, the essential challenges in heading estimation are the changing device coordinate system and the severe indoor magnetic perturbations. To address these challenges, we propose a novel heading estimation approach based on a rotation matrix and principal component analysis (PCA. Firstly, through a related rotation matrix, we project the acceleration signals into a reference coordinate system (RCS, where a more accurate estimation of the horizontal plane of the acceleration signal is obtained. Then, we utilize PCA over the horizontal plane of acceleration signals for local walking direction extraction. Finally, in order to translate the local walking direction into the global one, we develop a calibration process without requiring noisy compass readings. Besides, a turn detection algorithm is proposed to improve the heading estimation accuracy. Experimental results show that our approach outperforms the traditional uDirect and PCA-based approaches in terms of accuracy and feasibility.

  18. Child pedestrian safety knowledge, behaviour and road injury in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koekemoer, Karin; Van Gesselleen, Megan; Van Niekerk, Ashley; Govender, Rajen; Van As, Arjan Bastiaan

    2017-02-01

    Pedestrian injuries are a leading cause of death among South African children, and young children residing in low-income communities are more at risk, due to various factors such as inadequate road infrastructure, exposure to traffic due to reliance on walking as a means of transport, and lack of supervision. This study used a cross-sectional, non-randomized self-report survey to assess pedestrian safety knowledge, road-crossing behaviour and pedestrian injuries of primary school children in selected low-income settings in Cape Town. The survey focused on three primary schools that had joined the Safe Kids Worldwide Model School Zone Project and was administered to 536 children aged 6-15 years, in their home language of isiXhosa. Descriptive and bivariate analyses as well as multivariate regression analyses were conducted to investigate potential predictor variables for pedestrian collision severity and unsafe road-crossing behaviour. Walking was the sole form of travel for 81% of the children, with a large proportion regularly walking unsupervised. Children who walk to or from school alone were younger and reported riskier road-crossing behaviour, although children who walk accompanied tended to have higher pedestrian collision severity. "Negligent Behaviour" related to road-crossing was significantly associated with higher pedestrian collision severity, with predictors of "Negligent Behaviour" including the lack of pedestrian safety knowledge and greater exposure to traffic in terms of time spent walking. More than half of the reported pedestrian collisions involved a bicycle, and older boys (10-15 years) were most at risk of experiencing a severe pedestrian injury. The findings substantiate emerging evidence that children in low-income settings are at greater risk for child pedestrian injury, and emphasise the need for evidence-based safety promotion and injury prevention interventions in these settings.

  19. Model-based Pedestrian Trajectory Prediction using Environmental Sensor for Mobile Robots Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruka Tonoki

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Safety is the most important to the mobile robots that coexist with human. There are many studies that investigate obstacle detection and collision avoidance by predicting obstacles’ trajectories several seconds into the future using mounted sensors such as cameras and laser range finder (LRF for the safe behavior control of robots. In environments such as crossing roads where blind areas occur because of visual barriers like walls, obstacle detection might be delayed and collisions might be difficult to avoid. Using environmental sensors to detect obstacles is effective in such environments. When crossing roads, there are several passages pedestrian might move and it is difficult to depict going each passage in the same movement model. Therefore, we hypothesize that a more effective way to predict pedestrian movement is by predicting passages pedestrian might move and estimating the trajectories to the passages. We acquire pedestrian trajectory data using an environmental LRF with an extended Kalman filter (EKF and construct pedestrian movement models using vector auto regressive (VAR models, which pedestrian state is consisting of the position, speed and direction. Then, we test the validity of the constructed pedestrian movement models using experimental data. We narrow down the selection of a pedestrian movement model by comparing the prediction error for each path between the estimated pedestrian state using an EKF, and the predicted state using each movement model. We predict the trajectory using the selected movement model. Finally, we confirm that an appropriate path model that a pedestrian can actually move through is selected before the crossing area and that only the appropriate model is selected near the crossing area.

  20. Pedestrian Detection and Tracking from Low-Resolution Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Thermal Imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yalong; Wu, Xinkai; Yu, Guizhen; Xu, Yongzheng; Wang, Yunpeng

    2016-03-26

    Driven by the prominent thermal signature of humans and following the growing availability of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), more and more research efforts have been focusing on the detection and tracking of pedestrians using thermal infrared images recorded from UAVs. However, pedestrian detection and tracking from the thermal images obtained from UAVs pose many challenges due to the low-resolution of imagery, platform motion, image instability and the relatively small size of the objects. This research tackles these challenges by proposing a pedestrian detection and tracking system. A two-stage blob-based approach is first developed for pedestrian detection. This approach first extracts pedestrian blobs using the regional gradient feature and geometric constraints filtering and then classifies the detected blobs by using a linear Support Vector Machine (SVM) with a hybrid descriptor, which sophisticatedly combines Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG) and Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) features in order to achieve accurate detection. This research further proposes an approach for pedestrian tracking. This approach employs the feature tracker with the update of detected pedestrian location to track pedestrian objects from the registered videos and extracts the motion trajectory data. The proposed detection and tracking approaches have been evaluated by multiple different datasets, and the results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods. This research is expected to significantly benefit many transportation applications, such as the multimodal traffic performance measure, pedestrian behavior study and pedestrian-vehicle crash analysis. Future work will focus on using fused thermal and visual images to further improve the detection efficiency and effectiveness.

  1. Pedestrian Detection and Tracking from Low-Resolution Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Thermal Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalong Ma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Driven by the prominent thermal signature of humans and following the growing availability of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs, more and more research efforts have been focusing on the detection and tracking of pedestrians using thermal infrared images recorded from UAVs. However, pedestrian detection and tracking from the thermal images obtained from UAVs pose many challenges due to the low-resolution of imagery, platform motion, image instability and the relatively small size of the objects. This research tackles these challenges by proposing a pedestrian detection and tracking system. A two-stage blob-based approach is first developed for pedestrian detection. This approach first extracts pedestrian blobs using the regional gradient feature and geometric constraints filtering and then classifies the detected blobs by using a linear Support Vector Machine (SVM with a hybrid descriptor, which sophisticatedly combines Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG and Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT features in order to achieve accurate detection. This research further proposes an approach for pedestrian tracking. This approach employs the feature tracker with the update of detected pedestrian location to track pedestrian objects from the registered videos and extracts the motion trajectory data. The proposed detection and tracking approaches have been evaluated by multiple different datasets, and the results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods. This research is expected to significantly benefit many transportation applications, such as the multimodal traffic performance measure, pedestrian behavior study and pedestrian-vehicle crash analysis. Future work will focus on using fused thermal and visual images to further improve the detection efficiency and effectiveness.

  2. Pedestrian Detection and Tracking from Low-Resolution Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Thermal Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yalong; Wu, Xinkai; Yu, Guizhen; Xu, Yongzheng; Wang, Yunpeng

    2016-01-01

    Driven by the prominent thermal signature of humans and following the growing availability of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), more and more research efforts have been focusing on the detection and tracking of pedestrians using thermal infrared images recorded from UAVs. However, pedestrian detection and tracking from the thermal images obtained from UAVs pose many challenges due to the low-resolution of imagery, platform motion, image instability and the relatively small size of the objects. This research tackles these challenges by proposing a pedestrian detection and tracking system. A two-stage blob-based approach is first developed for pedestrian detection. This approach first extracts pedestrian blobs using the regional gradient feature and geometric constraints filtering and then classifies the detected blobs by using a linear Support Vector Machine (SVM) with a hybrid descriptor, which sophisticatedly combines Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG) and Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) features in order to achieve accurate detection. This research further proposes an approach for pedestrian tracking. This approach employs the feature tracker with the update of detected pedestrian location to track pedestrian objects from the registered videos and extracts the motion trajectory data. The proposed detection and tracking approaches have been evaluated by multiple different datasets, and the results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods. This research is expected to significantly benefit many transportation applications, such as the multimodal traffic performance measure, pedestrian behavior study and pedestrian-vehicle crash analysis. Future work will focus on using fused thermal and visual images to further improve the detection efficiency and effectiveness. PMID:27023564

  3. Nonclassical interactions portrait in a macroscopic pedestrian flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosini, Massimiliano D.

    In this paper we describe the main characteristics of the macroscopic model for pedestrian flows introduced in [R.M. Colombo, M.D. Rosini, Pedestrian flows and non-classical shocks, Math. Methods Appl. Sci. 28 (13) (2005) 1553-1567] and recently sperimentally verified in [D. Helbing, A. Johansson, H.Z. Al-Abideen, Dynamics of crowd disasters: An empirical study, Phys. Rev. E (Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics) 75 (4) (2007) 046109]. After a detailed study of all the possible wave interactions, we prove the existence of a weighted total variation that does not increase after any interaction. This is the main ingredient used in [R.M. Colombo, M.D. Rosini, Existence of nonclassical Cauchy problem modeling pedestrian flows, technical report, Brescia Department of Mathematics, 2008] to tackle the Cauchy problem through wave front tracking, see [A. Bressan, Hyperbolic Systems of Conservation Laws. The One-Dimensional Cauchy Problem, Oxford Lecture Ser. Math. Appl., vol. 20, Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, 2000, The one-dimensional Cauchy problem; A. Bressan, The front tracking method for systems of conservation laws, in: C.M. Dafermos, E. Feireisl (Eds.), Handbook of Differential Equations; Evolutionary Equations, vol. 1, Elsevier, 2004, pp. 87-168; R.M. Colombo, Wave front tracking in systems of conservation laws, Appl. Math. 49 (6) (2004) 501-537]. From the mathematical point of view, this model is one of the few examples of conservation laws in which nonclassical solutions have a physical motivation, see [P.G. Lefloch, Hyperbolic Systems of Conservation Laws, Lectures Math. ETH Zürich, Birkhäuser, Basel, 2002, The theory of classical and nonclassical shock waves], and an existence result is available.

  4. The Effects of Hearing Protectors on Speech Communication and the Perception of Warning Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    sensorineural hearing loss (S) . While the...Figure 1. Effect of earmuffs on the audibility of a signal in noise by a subject with normal hearing (N) and one with sensorineural hearing loss (S). Upper...investigated the psychological and social effects of " sudden hearing loss " by occluding the ears of normal- hearing individuals. Subjects wore earplugs

  5. Prévessin site – Pedestrian and cycle entrances

    CERN Document Server

    GS-IS

    2013-01-01

      A second entrance for pedestrians and cyclists on Route du Maroc will be opened and the existing entrance on Chemin du Moulin des Ponts will be re-opened: - for the period 2 April to 31 October 2013, - from 7.00 a.m. to 9.00 a.m. and from 5.00 p.m. to 7.00 p.m. on working days (Monday to Friday). IMPORTANT: all users must show their access cards to the security guard as a matter of course when passing through the gates, both on entering and leaving the site.

  6. Vision-based pedestrian protection systems for intelligent vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Geronimo, David

    2013-01-01

    Pedestrian Protection Systems (PPSs) are on-board systems aimed at detecting and tracking people in the surroundings of a vehicle in order to avoid potentially dangerous situations. These systems, together with other Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) such as lane departure warning or adaptive cruise control, are one of the most promising ways to improve traffic safety. By the use of computer vision, cameras working either in the visible or infra-red spectra have been demonstrated as a reliable sensor to perform this task. Nevertheless, the variability of human's appearance, not only in

  7. Extended Range Telepresence for Evacuation Training in Pedestrian Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Arias, Antonia Perez; Ehrhardt, Peter; Hengst, Stefan; Kretz, Tobias; Vortisch, Peter

    2010-01-01

    In this contribution, we propose a new framework to evaluate pedestrian simula-tions by using Extended Range Telepresence. Telepresence is used as a virtual reality walking simulator, which provides the user with a realistic impression of being present and walking in a virtual environment that is much larger than the real physical environment, in which the user actually walks. The validation of the simulation is performed by comparing motion data of the telepresent user with simulated data at some points of the simulation. The use of haptic feedback from the simulation makes the framework suitable for training in emergency situations.

  8. Behaviour and Perception-based Pedestrian Evacuation Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Kretz, Tobias; Muehlberger, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    This contribution reports on the research project SKRIBT and some of its results. An evacuation simulation based on VISSIM's pedestrian dynamics simulation was developed, that -- with high time resolution -- integrates results from studies on behavior in stress and crisis situations, results from CFD models for e.g. fire dynamics simulations, and considers visibility of signage and -- adding a psychological model -- its cognition. A crucial issue is the cognition of smoke or fire by the occupant and his / her resulting spontaneous or deliberate reaction to this episode.

  9. Prévessin site: Pedestrian and cycle entrance

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The entrance to the Prévessin site for pedestrians and cyclists on Chemin du Moulin des Ponts will be re-opened: from 7 April to 30 October 2015, from 7.00 a.m. to 9.00 a.m. and from 5.00 p.m. to 7.00 p.m. on working days (Monday to Friday).   IMPORTANT: all users must show their access cards to the security guard as a matter of course when passing through the gates, both on entering and leaving the site.

  10. Collision-free speed model for pedestrian dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Tordeux, Antoine; Seyfried, Armin

    2015-01-01

    We propose in this paper a minimal speed-based pedestrian model for which particle dynamics are intrinsically collision-free. The speed model is an optimal velocity function depending on the agent length (i.e.\\ particle diameter), maximum speed and time gap parameters. The direction model is a weighted sum of exponential repulsion from the neighbors, calibrated by the repulsion rate and distance. The model's main features like the reproduction of empirical phenomena are analysed by simulation. We point out that phenomena of self-organisation observable in force-based models and field studies can be reproduced by the collision-free model with low computational effort.

  11. Prévessin site – Pedestrian and cycle entrances

    CERN Multimedia

    GS-DI

    2014-01-01

    Entrances for pedestrians and cyclists on Route du Maroc and on Chemin du Moulin des Ponts, in Prévessin, will be re-opened:   from 7 April to 31 October 2014, from 7.00 a.m. to 9.00 a.m. and from 5.00 p.m. to 7.00 p.m. on working days (Monday to Friday).   IMPORTANT: all users must show their access cards to the security guard as a matter of course when passing through the gates, both on entering and leaving the site.

  12. Pedestrian Navigation Based on a Waist-Worn Inertial Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael C. González

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a waist-worn personal navigation system based on inertial measurement units. The device makes use of the human bipedal pattern to reduce position errors. We describe improved algorithms, based on detailed description of the heel strike biomechanics and its translation to accelerations of the body waist to estimate the periods of zero velocity, the step length, and the heading estimation. The experimental results show that we are able to support pedestrian navigation with the high-resolution positioning required for most applications.

  13. Hyperspectral Imaging and Association Phenomenology of Pedestrians in a Cluttered Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herweg, Jared A.

    Remote hyperspectral imaging (HSI) has shown promise in several applications such as object detection and tracking. Typically research has focused on large objects, such as vehicles, for tracking due to the spatial resolution of current operational HSI systems. This research seeks to extend the utility of applying HSI to human pedestrian detection using the reflective solar spectral range between 400 - 2500 nm. A phenomenological investigation of a novel scheme to differentiate between pedestrians is studied. By applying the basics of detection theory, this research focuses on being able to differentiate between pedestrians, as well as background materials. Specifically, this research explores the likelihood of detecting and differentiating pedestrians based on four defined subregions comprised of the exposed hair, skin, and the fabrics used for shirts and trousers. The scope of this work encompassed detecting a pedestrian of interest outdoors among other pedestrians in an urban environment consisting of a mixture of asphalt, concrete, grass, and trees. Two unique datasets were created during the course of this effort. One dataset was a collection of fully ground-truthed hyperspectral images of pedestrians in an urban environment. A second dataset was a synthetic rendering of the real-world ground truthed pedestrian scene developed using the Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) model. Subregion separability analysis results, using spectral reflectance data, provided strong evidence that combining the observable spectral features of detectable subregions is a viable means of distinguishing between pedestrians. Further analysis using real-world HSI data demonstrated that the detection and classification of the pedestrian subregions when changes in illumination, location, and background occur within the field of view of a hyperspectral sensor is achievable with a greater than 60% accuracy. In addition to the direct detection and association

  14. Statistical characteristic in time-domain of direct current corona-generated audible noise from conductor in corona cage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuebao; Cui, Xiang; Lu, Tiebing; Ma, Wenzuo; Bian, Xingming; Wang, Donglai; Hiziroglu, Huseyin

    2016-03-01

    The corona-generated audible noise (AN) has become one of decisive factors in the design of high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission lines. The AN from transmission lines can be attributed to sound pressure pulses which are generated by the multiple corona sources formed on the conductor, i.e., transmission lines. In this paper, a detailed time-domain characteristics of the sound pressure pulses, which are generated by the DC corona discharges formed over the surfaces of a stranded conductors, are investigated systematically in a laboratory settings using a corona cage structure. The amplitude of sound pressure pulse and its time intervals are extracted by observing a direct correlation between corona current pulses and corona-generated sound pressure pulses. Based on the statistical characteristics, a stochastic model is presented for simulating the sound pressure pulses due to DC corona discharges occurring on conductors. The proposed stochastic model is validated by comparing the calculated and measured A-weighted sound pressure level (SPL). The proposed model is then used to analyze the influence of the pulse amplitudes and pulse rate on the SPL. Furthermore, a mathematical relationship is found between the SPL and conductor diameter, electric field, and radial distance.

  15. Influence Factors of Audible Noise Caused by Corona Discharge on UHVDC Transmission Lines Under High Altitude Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Feng; YU Zhanqing; ZENG Rong; LIU Lei; LI Min; LI Ruihai

    2012-01-01

    Audible noises (AN) generated by corona discharges on ultra high voltage direct current (UHVDC) transmission lines is one of the key issues of UHVDC power projects. Experimental results were obtained synchronously by 10 Briiel & Kjeer outdoor AN instruments under the full-scale test lines in National Laboratory for UHV Technology in Kunming at an altitude of 2 100 m. Long-term statistical measurements of the AN level were performed almost 24 hours a day and 5 ~ 6 days a week in 2 years. Influences of voltage, line configurations, temperature and humidity on the characteristics of AN levels were analysed. The measurement results show that the AN level rises with increasing line voltage, decreasing minimum conductor height and increasing bundle radius. The pole spacing has no significant influence on the peak value of the AN level. The AN level varies about _+ 1 dB in the temperature range of 15~22℃, and no more than ±2 dB within 6.8~24.4 ℃. The results also indicate that in a relative low range of absolute humidity, about 5 ~ 7. 99 g/ma, the AN level fluctuates slightly at different measurement points. However, in a relative high absolute humidity range, about 8 ~ 11. 5 g/ma, the AN level decreases with the increase of absolute humidity.

  16. Pedestrian Flow at Bottlenecks - Validation and Calibration of Vissim's Social Force Model of Pedestrian Traffic and its Empirical Foundations

    CERN Document Server

    Kretz, Tobias; Vortisch, Peter

    2008-01-01

    In this contribution first results of experiments on pedestrian flow through bottlenecks are presented and then compared to simulation results obtained with the Social Force Model in the Vissim simulation framework. Concerning the experiments it is argued that the basic dependence between flow and bottleneck width is not a step function but that it is linear and modified by the effect of a psychological phenomenon. The simulation results as well show a linear dependence and the parameters can be calibrated such that the absolute values for flow and time fit to range of experimental results.

  17. Development of the Effective Underwater Speaker Sound Modulated by Audible Sound Frequency Range of Large Cetaceans for Avoidance with Ship Collision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Yamada

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The underwater speaker (UWS has been installed on high speed vessels; hydrofoils (HF with low-noise during their cruises, to avoid sudden collisions with large cetaceans, while its performance has remained uncertain because of the problem in quality of the produced sound. Thus, we developed a sound source for the UWS by modulating the sound based on the audible range of major large cetaceans so as to increase its utilities. To investigate the audible sound frequency range of cetacean, we tried two procedures, (1 indirect-estimation from relationship between cetaceans audibility and vocalization, and (2 indirect-estimation from measurements on the cochlear basal membrane. We also synthesized the two new sound sources which we can potentially expect an avoidance with large cetaceans. Through several field experiments with deploy the new sounds we reached a tentative conclusion that the new sound was effective in terms of inducing the cetaceans' avoidance reaction and would be also expected to be applied to other low-noise vessels.

  18. The Study on In-City Capacity Affected by Pedestrian Crossing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-jiang Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the urban road traffic congestion is serious and the traffic accident is happening at a high frequency; thus it has not satisfied the travel needs of security and affects the quality of urban trips. In order to effectively relieve the confliction of people and motor vehicle, to make sure of the safety of pedestrians crossing the road, and to improve the capacity of urban roads, this passage focuses on studying the influence of pedestrians crossing the roads on the capacity of urban roads in three pedestrian crossing approaches including freely crossing the street, uncontrolled crossing of the pedestrian crosswalk, and controlled crossing of the pedestrian crosswalk. Firstly, it confirms the general formula of the road capacity when pedestrians are crossing the road based on three preassumptions, combined with the survey data, and then constructs the empirical mathematical model of pedestrian crossing on the capacity impact. Lastly, it takes the step of case calculation and simulation evaluation and calculates errors between them, finding that the error between the model calculation and software simulation is small. The efficiency of the model is validated and improved.

  19. Developing a South African pedestrian environment assessment tool: Tshwane case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Olwoch

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrians, comprising approximately 60% of the population, are among the most vulnerable road users in South Africa. The roadside environment may be an important factor influencing the nature and frequency of pedestrian fatalities. While there are audit tools for assessing the pedestrian environment in other countries, no such tool exists for South Africa. This study evaluated existing audit tools in relation to South African issues and conditions and developed a South African Pedestrian Environment Assessment Tool (PEAT. PEAT was tested at five sites in the Tshwane Metropolitan Area in Gauteng to assess its applicability. PEAT was simple to use and provided valuable information, however, appropriate measures need to be taken to address fieldworker security, especially for night-time assessments when several roadside factors, such as lighting, should be evaluated. Although it was not the focus of our study, based on our results, we suggest that the lack of pavements, pedestrian crossings and pedestrian lighting are factors that, potentially, could increase pedestrian vulnerability.

  20. Pedestrian movement analysis in transfer station corridor: Velocity-based and acceleration-based

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiangfeng; Zhang, Jian; Hu, Yongkai; Ran, Bin

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, pedestrians are classified into aggressive and conservative ones by their temper. Aggressive pedestrians' walking through crowd in transfer station corridor is analyzed. Treating pedestrians as particles, this paper uses the modified social force model (MSFM) as the building block, where forces involve self-driving force, repulsive force and friction force. The proposed model in this paper is a discrete model combining the MSFM and cellular automata (CA) model, where the updating rules of the CA are redefined with MSFM. Due to the continuity of values generated by the MSFM, we use the fuzzy logic to discretize the continuous values into cells pedestrians can move in one step. With the observation that stimulus around pedestrians influences their acceleration directly, an acceleration-based movement model is presented, compared to the generally reviewed velocity-based movement model. In the acceleration-based model, a discretized version of kinematic equation is presented based on the acceleration discretized with fuzzy logic. In real life, some pedestrians would rather keep their desired speed and this is also mimicked in this paper, which is called inertia. Compared to the simple triangular membership function, a trapezoidal membership function and a piecewise linear membership function are used to capture pedestrians' inertia. With the trapezoidal and the piecewise linear membership function, many overlapping scenarios should be carefully handled and Dubois and Prade's four-index method is used to completely describe the relative relationship of fuzzy quantities. Finally, a simulation is constructed to demonstrate the effect of our model.

  1. Pedestrian dynamics in single-file movement of crowd with different age compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shuchao; Zhang, Jun; Salden, Daniel; Ma, Jian; Shi, Chang'an; Zhang, Ruifang

    2016-07-01

    An aging population is bringing new challenges to the management of escape routes and facility design in many countries. This paper investigates pedestrian movement properties of crowd with different age compositions. Three pedestrian groups are considered: young student group, old people group, and mixed group. It is found that traffic jams occur more frequently in mixed group due to the great differences of mobilities and self-adaptive abilities among pedestrians. The jams propagate backward with a velocity 0.4 m /s for global density ρg≈1.75 m-1 and 0.3 m /s for ρg>2.3 m-1 . The fundamental diagrams of the three groups are obviously different from each other and cannot be unified into one diagram by direct nondimensionalization. Unlike previous studies, three linear regimes in mixed group but only two regimes in young student group are observed in the headway-velocity relation, which is also verified in the fundamental diagram. Different ages and mobilities of pedestrians in a crowd cause the heterogeneity of system and influence the properties of pedestrian dynamics significantly. It indicates that the density is not the only factor leading to jams in pedestrian traffic. The composition of crowd has to be considered in understanding pedestrian dynamics and facility design.

  2. Forecasting Beijing Transportation Hub Areas’s Pedestrian Flow Using Modular Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuwei Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with the increasing proportion of urban public transportation trip, pedestrian flow in transportation hub areas increased. For effectively improving the emergency handling ability of related management apartments and preventing the incident of pedestrian congestion, this paper studied the method of pedestrian flow forecast in Beijing transportation hub areas. Firstly, 34 typical sidewalks in Beijing transportation hub areas were surveyed to obtain 2200 valid data. Secondly, correlation analysis was used to analyze the relationship between pedestrian flow and its influential factors. 11 significant influential factors were extracted. Thirdly, forecasting model was established with modular neural network. The surveyed pedestrian flow sample was fuzzy clustered according to the regional land use where the transportation hub existed. Then, membership function based on the distance measure was constructed. Through fuzzy discrimination, online selection for the subnetwork of the information can be achieved. Consequently, the self-adaptation of the neural network on information processing was improved. Finally, this paper tested the pedestrian flow sample of a transportation hub in Beijing. It was concluded that the accuracy of pedestrian flow forecasting model using modular neural network was higher than other neural network models. There was also improvement in the adaptability to environment.

  3. Method to Determine Pedestrian Level of Service for the Overall Unsignalized Midblock Crossings of Road Segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at developing a pedestrian level of service (LOS model for the overall unsignalized midblock crossings of road segments from the perspective of the pedestrian's perception of safety and convenience in Chinese midblock crossing environment. Firstly, the potential primary factors influencing pedestrian LOS at unsignalized midblock crosswalks were summarized from four respects: traffic conflicts, the distance between crosswalks, crossing facilities, and delay. Secondly, 948 participants’ real-time sense of safety and convenience when they were crossing the 30 selected unsignalized midblock crosswalks and the design and operational characteristics of the selected road segments were collected. The selected midblock crosswalks were typical of those prevalent in the medium-sized urban areas of China, and the participants of questionnaire survey covered a broad cross section of Chinese population of pedestrians. Finally, Pearson correlation analysis and stepwise regression analysis were carried out to develop pedestrian LOS model for the overall unsignalized midblock crossings of road segments. The results revealed that the factors significantly influencing pedestrian LOS of the overall unsignalized midblock crossings of road segments included volume of two-way motor vehicle, the distance between marked midblock crosswalks, and the distance between unmarked crosswalks. A reliable, statistically calibrated pedestrian LOS model was developed (R2 = 0.80.

  4. Study on the Weaving Behavior of High Density Bidirectional Pedestrian Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lishan Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Weaving area may be the critical risk place in the subway transfer station. When improving service level of the weaving area, the characteristic of pedestrian weaving behavior should be systemically discussed. This paper described the mechanism of weaving behavior on high density pedestrian which was analyzed by the collection data of controlled experiment. Different weaving behaviors were contrasted due to different volumes in the bidirectional passageway. Video analysis was conducted to extract pedestrian moving behavior and calibrate the movement data with SIMI Motion. Influence of the high density weaving pedestrian was studied based on the statistical results (e.g., velocity, walking distance, and journey time. Furthermore, the quantitative method by speed analysis was announced to discriminate the conflict point. The scopes of weaving area and impact area at different pedestrian volumes were revealed to analyze the pedestrian turning angle. The paper concluded that walking pedestrians are significantly influenced by the weaving conflict and trend to turn the moving direction to avoid the conflict in weaving area; the ratio of stable weaving area and impact area is 2 to 3. The conclusions do provide a method to evaluate the transfer station safety and a facility layout guidance to improve the capacity.

  5. Numerical analysis of a pedestrian to car collision: Effect of variations in walk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špička J.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is focused on the modelling of car to pedestrian crash scenario. Virtual hybrid human body model VIRTHUMAN as well as a simplified model of car chassis is modelled under Virtual Performance Solution software. The main idea of the work is the investigation and sensitivity analysis of various initial conditions of the pedestrian during frontal car crash scenario, such as position of the extremities due to different step phases or turning of the pedestrian around his own axis. The experimental data of human gait measurement are used so that one human step is divided into 9 phases to capture the effect of walk when the pedestrian crosses a road. Consequently, the influence of different initial conditions on the kinematics, dynamics of the collision together with injury prediction of pedestrian is discussed. Moreover, the effect of walk is taken into account within translational velocities of the full human body and rotational velocities of the extremities. The trend of the injury prediction for varying initial conditions is monitored. The configurations with zero and non-zero initial velocities are compared with each other, in order to study the effect of walking speed of the pedestrian. Note that only the average walking speed is considered. On the basis of the achieved results, the importance or redundancy of modelling the walking motion and the consideration of different step phases in the car-pedestrian accident can be examined.

  6. Experimental study of pedestrian flow through a T-junction

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jun; Schadschneider, Andreas; Seyfried, Armin

    2012-01-01

    In this study, series of experiments under laboratory conditions were carried out to investigate pedestrian flow through a T-junction, i.e., two branches merging into the main stream. The whole duration of the experiments was recorded by video cameras and the trajectories of each pedestrian were extracted using the software Petrack from these videos. The Voronoi method is used to resolve the fine structure of the fundamental diagram and spatial dependence of the measured quantities from trajectories. In our study, only the data in the stationary state are used by analyzing the time series of density and velocity. The density, velocity and specific flow profiles are obtained by refining the size of the measurement area (here 10 cm \\times 10 cm are adopted). With such a high resolution, the spatial distribution of density, velocity and specific flow can be obtained separately and the regions with higher value can be observed intuitively. Finally, the fundamental diagrams of T-junction flow is compared in three ...

  7. Deciphering the Crowd: Modeling and Identification of Pedestrian Group Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norihiro Hagita

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Associating attributes to pedestrians in a crowd is relevant for various areas like surveillance, customer profiling and service providing. The attributes of interest greatly depend on the application domain and might involve such social relations as friends or family as well as the hierarchy of the group including the leader or subordinates. Nevertheless, the complex social setting inherently complicates this task. We attack this problem by exploiting the small group structures in the crowd. The relations among individuals and their peers within a social group are reliable indicators of social attributes. To that end, this paper identifies social groups based on explicit motion models integrated through a hypothesis testing scheme. We develop two models relating positional and directional relations. A pair of pedestrians is identified as belonging to the same group or not by utilizing the two models in parallel, which defines a compound hypothesis testing scheme. By testing the proposed approach on three datasets with different environmental properties and group characteristics, it is demonstrated that we achieve an identification accuracy of 87% to 99%. The contribution of this study lies in its definition of positional and directional relation models, its description of compound evaluations, and the resolution of ambiguities with our proposed uncertainty measure based on the local and global indicators of group relation.

  8. Vector Graph Assisted Pedestrian Dead Reckoning Using an Unconstrained Smartphone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuchao Qian

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a hybrid indoor positioning solution based on a pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR approach using built-in sensors on a smartphone. To address the challenges of flexible and complex contexts of carrying a phone while walking, a robust step detection algorithm based on motion-awareness has been proposed. Given the fact that step length is influenced by different motion states, an adaptive step length estimation algorithm based on motion recognition is developed. Heading estimation is carried out by an attitude acquisition algorithm, which contains a two-phase filter to mitigate the distortion of magnetic anomalies. In order to estimate the heading for an unconstrained smartphone, principal component analysis (PCA of acceleration is applied to determine the offset between the orientation of smartphone and the actual heading of a pedestrian. Moreover, a particle filter with vector graph assisted particle weighting is introduced to correct the deviation in step length and heading estimation. Extensive field tests, including four contexts of carrying a phone, have been conducted in an office building to verify the performance of the proposed algorithm. Test results show that the proposed algorithm can achieve sub-meter mean error in all contexts.

  9. Vector graph assisted pedestrian dead reckoning using an unconstrained smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jiuchao; Pei, Ling; Ma, Jiabin; Ying, Rendong; Liu, Peilin

    2015-03-02

    The paper presents a hybrid indoor positioning solution based on a pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR) approach using built-in sensors on a smartphone. To address the challenges of flexible and complex contexts of carrying a phone while walking, a robust step detection algorithm based on motion-awareness has been proposed. Given the fact that step length is influenced by different motion states, an adaptive step length estimation algorithm based on motion recognition is developed. Heading estimation is carried out by an attitude acquisition algorithm, which contains a two-phase filter to mitigate the distortion of magnetic anomalies. In order to estimate the heading for an unconstrained smartphone, principal component analysis (PCA) of acceleration is applied to determine the offset between the orientation of smartphone and the actual heading of a pedestrian. Moreover, a particle filter with vector graph assisted particle weighting is introduced to correct the deviation in step length and heading estimation. Extensive field tests, including four contexts of carrying a phone, have been conducted in an office building to verify the performance of the proposed algorithm. Test results show that the proposed algorithm can achieve sub-meter mean error in all contexts.

  10. Survey of Korean pedestrians' natural preference for walking directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hwa S; Jung, Hyung-Shik

    2013-11-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate the stereotypes of Koreans regarding preferred walking directions when encountering various public walking facilities, and to provide useful information to pedestrians and traffic policy legislators. To this end, this study was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, we conducted observational research on pedestrians' walking directions in ten different situations. In the second phase, six hundred Korean male and female subjects were selected to investigate the various statistics about their preferred walking directions and their employment characteristics in diverse walking facilities. The results showed that 59.3% abided by the Left-side Traffic rule while 40.7% abided by the Right-side rule. On the contrary, 73.7% of respondents showed preferences to the Right-side Traffic rule. Moreover, right-handed people showed strong tendencies to walk on the right side of the road and vice versa, hence suggesting that the direction people naturally prefer in walking should be a crucial determinant when regulating traffic policies.

  11. Modelling framework for dynamic interaction between multiple pedestrians and vertical vibrations of footbridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venuti, Fiammetta; Racic, Vitomir; Corbetta, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    After 15 years of active research on the interaction between moving people and civil engineering structures, there is still a lack of reliable models and adequate design guidelines pertinent to vibration serviceability of footbridges due to multiple pedestrians. There are three key issues that a new generation of models should urgently address: pedestrian "intelligent" interaction with the surrounding people and environment, effect of human bodies on dynamic properties of unoccupied structure and inter-subject and intra-subject variability of pedestrian walking loads. This paper presents a modelling framework of human-structure interaction in the vertical direction which addresses all three issues. The framework comprises two main models: (1) a microscopic model of multiple pedestrian traffic that simulates time varying position and velocity of each individual pedestrian on the footbridge deck, and (2) a coupled dynamic model of a footbridge and multiple walking pedestrians. The footbridge is modelled as a SDOF system having the dynamic properties of the unoccupied structure. Each walking pedestrian in a group or crowd is modelled as a SDOF system with an adjacent stochastic vertical force that moves along the footbridge following the trajectory and the gait pattern simulated by the microscopic model of pedestrian traffic. Performance of the suggested modelling framework is illustrated by a series of simulated vibration responses of a virtual footbridge due to light, medium and dense pedestrian traffic. Moreover, the Weibull distribution is shown to fit well the probability density function of the local peaks in the acceleration response. Considering the inherent randomness of the crowd, this makes it possible to determine the probability of exceeding any given acceleration value of the occupied bridge.

  12. Biomechanically inspired modelling of pedestrian-induced forces on laterally oscillating structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocian, M.; Macdonald, J. H. G.; Burn, J. F.

    2012-07-01

    Despite considerable interest among engineers and scientists, bi-directional interaction between walking pedestrians and lively bridges has still not been well understood. In an attempt to bridge this gap a biomechanically inspired model of the human response to lateral bridge motion is presented and explored. The simple inverted pendulum model captures the key features of pedestrian lateral balance and the resulting forces on the structure. The forces include self-excited components that can be effectively modelled as frequency-dependent added damping and mass to the structure. The results of numerical simulations are in reasonable agreement with recent experimental measurements of humans walking on a laterally oscillating treadmill, and in very good agreement with measurements on full-scale bridges. In contrast to many other models of lateral pedestrian loading, synchronisation with the bridge motion is not involved. A parametric study of the model is conducted, revealing that as pedestrians slow down as a crowd becomes more dense, their resulting lower pacing rates generate larger self-excited forces. For typical pedestrian parameters, the potential to generate negative damping arises for any lateral bridge vibration frequency above 0.43 Hz, depending on the walking frequency. Stability boundaries of the combined pedestrian-structure system are presented in terms of the structural damping ratio and pedestrian-to-bridge mass ratio, revealing complex relations between damping demand and bridge and pedestrian frequencies, due to the added mass effect. Finally it is demonstrated that the model can produce simultaneous self-excited forces on multiple structural modes, and a realistic full simulation of a large number of pedestrians, walking randomly and interacting with a bridge, produces structural behaviour in very good agreement with site observations.

  13. Event-Based Modeling of Driver Yielding Behavior to Pedestrians at Two-Lane Roundabout Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamati, Katayoun; Schroeder, Bastian J; Geruschat, Duane R; Rouphail, Nagui M

    2014-01-01

    Unlike other types of controlled intersections, drivers do not always comply with the "yield to pedestrian" sign at the roundabouts. This paper aims to identify the contributing factors affecting the likelihood of driver yielding to pedestrians at two-lane roundabouts. It further models the likelihood of driver yielding based on these factors using logistic regression. The models have been applied to 1150 controlled pedestrian crossings at entry and exit legs of two-lane approaches of six roundabouts across the country. The logistic regression models developed support prior research that the likelihood of driver yielding at the entry leg of roundabouts is higher than at the exit. Drivers tend to yield to pedestrians carrying a white cane more often than to sighted pedestrians. Drivers traveling in the far lane, relative to pedestrian location, have a lower probability of yielding to a pedestrian. As the speed increases the probability of driver yielding decreases. At the exit leg of the roundabout, drivers turning right from the adjacent lane have a lower propensity of yielding than drivers coming from other directions. The findings of this paper further suggest that although there has been much debate on pedestrian right-of-way laws and distinction between pedestrian waiting positions (in the street versus at the curb), this factor does not have a significant impact on driver yielding rate. The logistic regression models also quantify the effect of each of these factors on propensity of driver yielding. The models include variables which are specific to each study location and explain the impact size of each study location on probability of yielding. The models generated in this research will be useful to transportation professionals and researchers interested in understanding the factors that impact driver yielding at modern roundabouts. The results of the research can be used to isolate factors that may increase yielding (such as lower roundabout approach speeds

  14. Vibration amplitude sonoelastography lesion imaging using low-frequency audible vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lawrence; Parker, Kevin

    2003-04-01

    Sonoelastography or vibration amplitude imaging is an ultrasound imaging technique in which low-amplitude, low-frequency shear waves, less than 0.1-mm displacement and 1-kHz frequency, are propagated deep into tissue, while real time Doppler techniques are used to image the resulting vibration pattern. Finite-element studies and experiments on tissue-mimicking phantoms verify that a discrete hard inhomogeneity present within a larger region of soft tissue will cause a decrease in the vibration field at its location. This forms the basis for tumor detection using sonoelastography. Real time relative imaging of the vibration field is possible because a vibrating particle will phase modulate an ultrasound signal. The particle's amplitude is directly proportional to the spectral spread of the reflected Doppler echo. Real time estimation of the variance of the Doppler power spectrum at each pixel allows the vibration field to be imaged. Results are shown for phantom lesions, thermal lesions, and 3-D in vitro and 2-D in vivo prostate cancer. MRI and whole mount histology is used to validate the system accuracy.

  15. A derives grid-based model for simulation of pedestrian flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min-jie CHEN; Günter B(A)RWOLFF; Hartmut SCHWANDT

    2009-01-01

    We present a derived grid-based model for the simulation of pedestrian flow. Interactions among pedestrians are considered as the result of forces within a certain neighbourhood. Unlike the social force model, the forces here, as in Newtonian physics, are proportional to the inverse of the square of the distance. Despite the notion of neighbourhood and the underlying grid, this model differs from the existing cellular automaton (CA) models in that the pedestrians are treated as individuals. Bresenham's algorithm for line rastering is applied in the step calculation.

  16. INFLUENCE OF PLANNING, ORGANIZATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS AND REGULATION ON ROAD TRAFFIC SAFETY OF PEDESTRIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Kuharenok

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of research on planning, organizational characteristics and regulation modes at  the regulated pedestrian crossings, located out of crossroads in the street and road network of Minsk. Some regularities pertaining to the influence of the investigated characteristics on road traffic safety of pedestrians are revealed in the paper. Practical offers on increase of road traffic safety of pedestrians in the Republic of Belarus have been developed on the basis of the executed investigations and cited in the paper. 

  17. Cyber-Physical Modeling and Control of Crowd of Pedestrians: A Review and New Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Ke-cai; Stuart, Dan; Yue, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in modeling and control of crowds of pedestrians are briefly surveyed in this paper. Possibilities of applying fractional calculus in the modeling of crowd of pedestrians have been shortly reviewed and discussed from different aspects such as descriptions of motion, interactions of long range and effects of memory. Control of the crowd of pedestrians have also been formulated using the framework of Cyber-Physical Systems and been realized using networked Segways with onboard emergency response personnels to regulate the velocity and flux of the crowd. Platform for verification of the theoretical results are also provided in this paper.

  18. A Fractional Micro-Macro Model for Crowds of Pedestrians based on Fractional Mean Field Games

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Ke-cai; Stuart, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Modeling of crowds of pedestrians has been considered in this paper from different aspects. Based on fractional microscopic model that may be much more close to reality, a fractional macroscopic model has been proposed using conservation law of mass. Then in order to characterize the competitive and cooperative interactions among pedestrians, fractional mean field games are utilized in the modeling problem when the number of pedestrians goes to infinity and fractional dynamic model composed of fractional backward and fractional forward equations are constructed in macro scale. Fractional micro-macro model for crowds of pedestrians are obtained in the end. Simulation results are also included to illustrate the proposed fractional microscopic model and fractional macroscopic model respectively.

  19. Generating pedestrian trajectories consistent with the fundamental diagram based on physiological and psychological factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahil Narang

    Full Text Available Pedestrian crowds often have been modeled as many-particle system including microscopic multi-agent simulators. One of the key challenges is to unearth governing principles that can model pedestrian movement, and use them to reproduce paths and behaviors that are frequently observed in human crowds. To that effect, we present a novel crowd simulation algorithm that generates pedestrian trajectories that exhibit the speed-density relationships expressed by the Fundamental Diagram. Our approach is based on biomechanical principles and psychological factors. The overall formulation results in better utilization of free space by the pedestrians and can be easily combined with well-known multi-agent simulation techniques with little computational overhead. We are able to generate human-like dense crowd behaviors in large indoor and outdoor environments and validate the results with captured real-world crowd trajectories.

  20. Impact of variable body size on pedestrian dynamics by heuristics-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ning; Hu, Mao-Bin; Jiang, Rui

    2017-01-01

    In the real world, pedestrians can arch the shoulders or rotate their bodies actively to across the narrow space. The method is helpful to reduce the effective size of the body. In this paper, the impact of variable body size on the direction choice has been investigated by an improved heuristic-based model. In the model, it is assumed that the cost of adjusting body size is a factor in the process to evaluate the optimal direction. In a typical simulation scenario, the pedestrian reluctant to adjust body size will pass by the blocks. On the contrary, the pedestrian caring little about body size will traverse through the exit. There is a direction-choice change behavior between bypass and traverse considering block width and the initial location of the pedestrian.

  1. Rules of conduct for pedestrians and motorists on or near zebra crossings.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraay, J.H.

    1971-01-01

    The different legislations concerning pedestrians on zebra crossings from Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Germany, England, France, Ireland, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the U.S.A. and from the United Nations are summarized.

  2. Research on the Behavior Characteristics of Pedestrian Crowd Weaving Flow in Transport Terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liya Yao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the poor transfer organization in urban public transport terminal, pedestrian crowd are often forced to weaving in their transfer flow lines. Frequent weaving behaviors not only decrease passengers’ transfer comfort, but may also trigger serious crowd disaster such as trampling. In order to get accurate understanding of the weaving features of pedestrian crowd and analyze the relevant evolution law, researches have been conducted on the basis of field investigation. First, the typical weaving phenomenon were defined and classified, and a microscopic parameters system of pedestrian crowd weaving flow was constructed. The detection and quantification methods of multiple indicator parameters were also given. Then, correlation between different behavioral parameters was analyzed based on the survey data of weaving pedestrian crowd on the stairs of DongZhiMen (DZM hub. The basic characteristics and evolution law of the weaving behaviors were then discussed, and conclusions were drawn.

  3. The influence of emotional facial expressions on gaze-following in grouped and solitary pedestrians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallup, Andrew C; Chong, Andrew; Kacelnik, Alex; Krebs, John R; Couzin, Iain D

    2014-07-23

    The mechanisms contributing to collective attention in humans remain unclear. Research indicates that pedestrians utilise the gaze direction of others nearby to acquire environmentally relevant information, but it is not known which, if any, additional social cues influence this transmission. Extending upon previous field studies, we investigated whether gaze cues paired with emotional facial expressions (neutral, happy, suspicious and fearsome) of an oncoming walking confederate modulate gaze-following by pedestrians moving in a natural corridor. We found that pedestrians walking alone were not sensitive to this manipulation, while individuals traveling together in groups did reliably alter their response in relation to emotional cues. In particular, members of a collective were more likely to follow gaze cues indicative of a potential threat (i.e., suspicious or fearful facial expression). This modulation of visual attention dependent on whether pedestrians are in social aggregates may be important to drive adaptive exploitation of social information, and particularly emotional stimuli within natural contexts.

  4. Eulerian vs. Lagrangian analyses of pedestrian dynamics asymmetries in a staircase landing

    CERN Document Server

    Corbetta, Alessandro; Muntean, Adrian; Toschi, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Real-life, out-of-laboratory, measurements of pedestrian movements allow extensive and fully-resolved statistical analyses. However, data acquisition in real-life is subjected to the wide heterogeneity that characterizes crowd flows over time. Disparate flow conditions, such as co-flows and counter-flows at low and at high pedestrian densities, typically follow randomly one another. When analysing the data in order to study the dynamics and behaviour of pedestrians it is crucial to be able disentangle and to properly select (query) data from statistically homogeneous flow conditions in order to avoid spurious statistics and to enable qualitative comparisons. In this paper we extend our previous analysis on the asymmetric pedestrian dynamics on a staircase landing, where we collected a large statistical database of measurements from ad hoc continuous recordings. This contribution has a two-fold aim: first, method-wise, we discuss two possible approaches to query experimental datasets for homogeneous flow condi...

  5. Social Groups and Pedestrian Crowds: Experiment on Dyads in a Counter Flow Scenario

    CERN Document Server

    Gorrini, Andrea; Feliciani, Claudio; Zhao, Pengfei; Nishinari, Katsuhiro; Bandini, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    The calibration and validation of pedestrian simulations require the acquisition of empirical evidences of human behaviour. The current work presents the results of an experiment focused on the potentially combined effect of counter flow and grouping on pedestrian dynamics. In particular, we focused on: (i) four different configurations of flow ratio (the rate between the minor flow and the total flow in bidirectional scenarios); (ii) dyads, as the most frequently observed and basic social groups of crowds. Results showed that the increase of flow ratio negatively impacted the speed of pedestrians. Dyads walked significantly slower than singletons, due to the difficulty in movement coordination among group members (proxemics) in case of counter flow. The collected results represent an useful contribution towards the validation of pedestrian simulations.

  6. Phoneme Compression: processing of the speech signal and effects on speech intelligibility in hearing-Impaired listeners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Goedegebure (Andre)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractHearing-aid users often continue to have problems with poor speech understanding in difficult acoustical conditions. Another generally accounted problem is that certain sounds become too loud whereas other sounds are still not audible. Dynamic range compression is a signal processing tec

  7. Quantitative Verification of a Force-based Model for Pedestrian Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Chraibi, Mohcine; Schadschneider, Andreas; Mackens, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a spatially continuous force-based model for simulating pedestrian dynamics. The main intention of this work is the quantitative description of pedestrian movement through bottlenecks and in corridors. Measurements of flow and density at bottlenecks will be presented and compared with empirical data. Furthermore the fundamental diagram for the movement in a corridor is reproduced. The results of the proposed model show a good agreement with empirical data.

  8. Identification and Prediction of Large Pedestrian Flow in Urban Areas Based on a Hybrid Detection Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kaisheng Zhang; Mei Wang; Bangyang Wei; Daniel (Jian) Sun

    2016-01-01

    Recently, population density has grown quickly with the increasing acceleration of urbanization. At the same time, overcrowded situations are more likely to occur in populous urban areas, increasing the risk of accidents. This paper proposes a synthetic approach to recognize and identify the large pedestrian flow. In particular, a hybrid pedestrian flow detection model was constructed by analyzing real data from major mobile phone operators in China, including information from smartphones and...

  9. Pedestrians and cyclists interaction in urban settings of Pardubice city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Bulíček

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Presented paper is focused on questions of cyclist transport in urban settings, specifically in the city of Pardubice. Emphasis is put on analysis of potentially conflict places, especially in interaction with pedestrians. Direct terrain observation and consequent evaluation of conflict potential are used as method for data collecting. When cycling routes are designed, the requirements of the cyclists should be taken into account in order to ensure that the routes are accepted. In order to make planning user oriented one has to know which criteria are important for cyclists` route choice. Until now not many studies were conducted on this topic in Czech Republic. Theoretical background used states 5 basic requirements for cycle routes. These are: 1. Coherence (the cycling infrastructure forms a coherent unit and links with all departure points and destinations of cyclist, 2. Directness (the cycling infrastructure continually offers the cyclists as direct a route as possible, so detours are kept to a minimum, 3. attractiveness (the cycling infrastructure is designed and fitted to the surroundings in such a way that cycling is attractive, 4. safety (the cycling infrastructure guarantees the road safety of cyclists and other road users, 5. comfort (the cycling infrastructure enables a quick and comfortable flow of bicycle traffic.. Planners need a clear understanding of what influences bicycling behavior to develop effective strategies to increase use of those modes. Transportation practitioners have largely focused on infrastructure and the built environment, although researchers have found that attitudes are also very important. Theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1985 - intentions to perform behaviors of different kinds can be predicted with high accuracy from attitudes toward the behavior, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control; and these intentions, together with perceptions of behavioral control, account for considerable variance in

  10. Performance Evaluation of Pedestrian Locations Based on Contemporary Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Ibrahim Al-Azizi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS unit is embedded in nearly every smartphone. This unit allows a smartphone to detect the user’s location and motion, and it makes functions, such as navigation, tracking, and compass applications, available to the user. Therefore, the GNSS unit has become one of the most important features in modern smartphones. However, because most smartphones incorporate relatively low-cost GNSS chips, their localization accuracy varies depending on the number of accessible GNSS satellites, and it is highly dependent on environmental factors that cause interference such as forests and buildings. This research evaluated the performance of the GNSS units inside two different models of smartphones in determining pedestrian locations in different environments. The results indicate that the overall performances of the two devices were related directly to the environment, type of smartphone/GNSS chipset, and the application used to collect the information.

  11. Kinetic description of collision avoidance in pedestrian crowds by sidestepping

    CERN Document Server

    Festa, Adriano; Wolfram, Marie-Therese

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study a kinetic model for pedestrians, who are assumed to adapt their motion towards a desired direction while avoiding collisions with others by stepping aside. These minimal microscopic interaction rules lead to complex emergent macroscopic phenomena, such as velocity alignment in unidirectional flows and lane or stripe formation in bidirectional flows. We start by discussing collision avoidance mechanisms at the microscopic scale, then we study the corresponding Boltzmann-type kinetic description and its hydrodynamic mean-field approximation in the grazing collision limit. In the spatially homogeneous case we prove directional alignment under specific conditions on the sidestepping rules for both the collisional and the mean-field model. In the spatially inhomogeneous case we illustrate, by means of various numerical experiments, the rich dynamics that the proposed model is able to reproduce.

  12. Effect of authority figures for pedestrian evacuation at metro stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiao; Zhang, Zenghui; Peng, Gongzhuang; Shi, Guoqiang

    2017-01-01

    Most pedestrian evacuation literatures are about routing algorithm, human intelligence and behavior etc. Few works studied how to fully explore the function of authority/security figures, who know more of the environment by simply being there every day. To evaluate the effect of authority figure (AF) in complex buildings, this paper fully investigates the AF related factors that may influence the evacuation effect of crowd, such as the number and locations of AFs, their spread of direction, calming effect and distribution strategies etc. Social force based modeling and simulation results show that these factors of AFs play important roles in evacuation efficiency, which means fewer AFs with right guiding strategy can have good evacuation performance. For our case study, Zhichun Avenue station, the conclusion is that deployment of four AFs is a good choice to achieve relatively high evacuation performance yet save cost.

  13. Low-Cost MEMS-Based Pedestrian Navigation Technique for GPS-Denied Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelrahman Ali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The progress in the micro electro mechanical system (MEMS sensors technology in size, cost, weight, and power consumption allows for new research opportunities in the navigation field. Today, most of smartphones, tablets, and other handheld devices are fully packed with the required sensors for any navigation system such as GPS, gyroscope, accelerometer, magnetometer, and pressure sensors. For seamless navigation, the sensors’ signal quality and the sensors availability are major challenges. Heading estimation is a fundamental challenge in the GPS-denied environments; therefore, targeting accurate attitude estimation is considered significant contribution to the overall navigation error. For that end, this research targets an improved pedestrian navigation by developing sensors fusion technique to exploit the gyroscope, magnetometer, and accelerometer data for device attitude estimation in the different environments based on quaternion mechanization. Results indicate that the improvement in the traveled distance and the heading estimations is capable of reducing the overall position error to be less than 15 m in the harsh environments.

  14. Data Integration from GPS and Inertial Navigation Systems for Pedestrians in Urban Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Bikonis

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The GPS system is widely used in navigation and the GPS receiver can offer long-term stable absolute positioning information. The overall system performance depends largely on the signal environments. The position obtained from GPS is often degraded due to obstruction and multipath effect caused by buildings, city infrastructure and vegetation, whereas, the current performance achieved by inertial navigation systems (INS is still relatively poor due to the large inertial sensor errors. The complementary features of GPS and INS are the main reasons why integrated GPS/INS systems are becoming increasingly popular. GPS/INS systems offer a high data rate, high accuracy position and orientation that can work in all environments, particularly those where satellite availability is restricted. In the paper integration algorithm of GPS and INS systems data for pedestrians in urban area is presented. For data integration an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF algorithm is proposed. Complementary characteristics of GPS and INS with EKF can overcome the problem of huge INS drifts, GPS outages, dense multipath effect and other individual problems associated with these sensors.

  15. Composite material pedestrian bridge for the Port of Bilbao

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorrochategui, I.; Manteca, C.; Yedra, A.; Miguel, R.; del Valle, F. J.

    2012-09-01

    Composite materials in comparison to traditional ones, steel and concrete, present advantages in civil works construction: lower weight, higher corrosion resistance (especially in the marine environment), and ease of installation. On the other hand, fabrication costs are generally higher. This is the reason why this technology is not widely used. This work illustrates the process followed for the design, fabrication and installation of a composite material pedestrian bridge in the Port of Bilbao (Northern Spain). In order to reduce the price of the bridge, the use of low cost materials was considered, therefore polyester resin was selected as the polymeric matrix, and glass fibres as reinforcement. Two material choices were studied. Currently in the market there is high availability of carbon nanoparticles: carbon nanotubes (CNT) and carbon nanofibres (CNF), so it was decided to add this kind of nanoparticles to the reference material with the objective of improving its mechanical properties. The main challenge was to transfer the CNT and CNF excellent properties to the polymeric matrix. This requires dispersing the nanoreinforcements as individual particles in the polymeric matrix to avoid agglomerates. For this reason, an advanced high shear forces dispersion technique (called "three roll mills") was studied and implemented. Also surface functionalization of the nanoreinforcements by chemical treatment was carried out. Herein, a comparison is performed between both materials studied, the explanation of the employment of the reference material (without nanoreinforcement) as the one used in the fabrication of the pedestrian bridge is justified and, finally, the main characteristics of the final design of the structural element are described.

  16. Tracking pedestrians using local spatio-temporal motion patterns in extremely crowded scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratz, Louis; Nishino, Ko

    2012-05-01

    Tracking pedestrians is a vital component of many computer vision applications, including surveillance, scene understanding, and behavior analysis. Videos of crowded scenes present significant challenges to tracking due to the large number of pedestrians and the frequent partial occlusions that they produce. The movement of each pedestrian, however, contributes to the overall crowd motion (i.e., the collective motions of the scene's constituents over the entire video) that exhibits an underlying spatially and temporally varying structured pattern. In this paper, we present a novel Bayesian framework for tracking pedestrians in videos of crowded scenes using a space-time model of the crowd motion. We represent the crowd motion with a collection of hidden Markov models trained on local spatio-temporal motion patterns, i.e., the motion patterns exhibited by pedestrians as they move through local space-time regions of the video. Using this unique representation, we predict the next local spatio-temporal motion pattern a tracked pedestrian will exhibit based on the observed frames of the video. We then use this prediction as a prior for tracking the movement of an individual in videos of extremely crowded scenes. We show that our approach of leveraging the crowd motion enables tracking in videos of complex scenes that present unique difficulty to other approaches.

  17. Pedestrian Injuries and the Relevant Burden in Shanghai, China:Implications for Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yan Hong; ZHANG Hong Wei; WANG Chun Fang; SONG Gui Xiang; PENG Juan Juan; ZHOU De Ding; SU Hui Jia; GAO Ning; YU Yan; ZHONG Wei Jian

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the associations of pedestrian injuries with age, income and educational level in Shanghai and to analyze the relative disease burden. Methods Information on pedestrian-related cases and deaths were collected from 494 hospitals and mortality registry systems from 1992 to 2010, and a multistage cluster sampling survey conducted in 2006. Logistic regression model was used in the analyses. Results The age group of 5-9 had the highest mortality and morbidity among children. Mortality increased obviously among those aged 60 or above. Individuals with an educational level under the primary school and with the lower family average income were more likely to suffer pedestrian-related injuries. Multivariate Logistic analysis demonstrated that lower income and lower educational level increased the risk of pedestrian injuries with the odds ratio of 1.40 (95%CI:1.15-1.71) and 1.70 (95%CI:1.20-2-40), respectively. About 13.54% of the share of GDP for the healthcare, social security and welfare industries in Shanghai was occupied by the burden of pedestrian-related injuries in 2006. Conclusion Pedestrian-related injury has inverse association with victims’ income and educational level. Children of 5-9 years old and adults over 60 with lower educational level and lower monthly income are the target persons to be intervened.

  18. The influence of carrying a backpack on college student pedestrian safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwebel, David C; Pitts, Danielle Dulion; Stavrinos, Despina

    2009-03-01

    University students walk frequently, and individuals ages 18-22 have among the highest rates of pedestrian injury among any age group in the United States. These injuries are caused by a wide range of individual, interpersonal, and environmental factors, but one factor that has not been previously considered carefully is the influence of wearing a heavy backpack on pedestrian safety. Backpacks are known to slow walking speed and disrupt perception of one's environment, so it is reasonable to question whether they might also influence safe pedestrian behavior. Ninety-six college students engaged in 20 street-crossings within a virtual pedestrian environment. Half the crossings were completed while bearing a backpack weighing 12% of their body weight; the other half were completed without any burdens. Results suggest that participants walked more slowly, left less safe time to spare after crossing the virtual street, and experienced more frequent hits or close calls with traffic when crossing while carrying the backpack. They also missed fewer safe opportunities to cross while carrying the backpack. Our tests of several demographic characteristics, pedestrian behaviors, and backpack use, as covariates suggest the finding holds across all subsamples included in our study. Implications for pedestrian safety and future research are discussed.

  19. Diagnostic analysis of the logistic model for pedestrian injury severity in traffic crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, N N; Wong, S C

    2007-11-01

    This study attempts to evaluate the injury risk of pedestrian casualties in traffic crashes and to explore the factors that contribute to mortality and severe injury, using the comprehensive historical crash record that is maintained by the Hong Kong Transport Department. The injury, demographic, crash, environmental, geometric, and traffic characteristics of 73,746 pedestrian casualties that were involved in traffic crashes from 1991 to 2004 are considered. Binary logistic regression is used to determine the associations between the probability of fatality and severe injury and all contributory factors. A consideration of the influence of implicit attributes on the trend of pedestrian injury risk, temporal confounding, and interaction effects is progressively incorporated into the predictive model. To verify the goodness-of-fit of the proposed model, the Hosmer-Lemeshow test and logistic regression diagnostics are conducted. It is revealed that there is a decreasing trend in pedestrian injury risk, controlling for the influences of demographic, road environment, and other risk factors. In addition, the influences of pedestrian behavior, traffic congestion, and junction type on pedestrian injury risk are subject to temporal variation.

  20. Walk This Way: Improving Pedestrian Agent-Based Models through Scene Activity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Crooks

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrian movement is woven into the fabric of urban regions. With more people living in cities than ever before, there is an increased need to understand and model how pedestrians utilize and move through space for a variety of applications, ranging from urban planning and architecture to security. Pedestrian modeling has been traditionally faced with the challenge of collecting data to calibrate and validate such models of pedestrian movement. With the increased availability of mobility datasets from video surveillance and enhanced geolocation capabilities in consumer mobile devices we are now presented with the opportunity to change the way we build pedestrian models. Within this paper we explore the potential that such information offers for the improvement of agent-based pedestrian models. We introduce a Scene- and Activity-Aware Agent-Based Model (SA2-ABM, a method for harvesting scene activity information in the form of spatiotemporal trajectories, and incorporate this information into our models. In order to assess and evaluate the improvement offered by such information, we carry out a range of experiments using real-world datasets. We demonstrate that the use of real scene information allows us to better inform our model and enhance its predictive capabilities.

  1. Effect of Aspiration and Mean Gain on the Emergence of Cooperation in Unidirectional Pedestrian Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zi-Yang; MA Jian; ZHAO Hui; QIN Yong; ZHU Wei; JIA Li-Min

    2013-01-01

    When more than one pedestrian want to move to the same site,conflicts appear and thus the involved pedestrians play a motion game.In order to describe the emergence of cooperation during the conflict resolving process,an evolutionary cellular automation model is established considering the effect of aspiration and mean gain.In each game,pedestrian may be gentle cooperator or aggressive defector.We propose a set of win-stay-lose-shrift (WSLS) like rules for updating pedestrian's strategy.These rules prescribe that if the mean gain of current strategy between some given steps is larger than aspiration the strategy keeps,otherwise the strategy changes.The simulation results show that a high level aspiration will lead to more cooperation.With the increment of the statistic length,pedestrians will be more rational in decision making.It is also found that when the aspiration level is small enough and the statistic length is large enough all the pedestrian will turn to defectors.We use the prisoner's dilemma model to explain it.At last we discuss the effect of aspiration on fundamental diagram.

  2. Simultaneous Detection and Tracking of Pedestrian from Panoramic Laser Scanning Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wen; Vallet, Bruno; Schindler, Konrad; Paparoditis, Nicolas

    2016-06-01

    Pedestrian traffic flow estimation is essential for public place design and construction planning. Traditional data collection by human investigation is tedious, inefficient and expensive. Panoramic laser scanners, e.g. Velodyne HDL-64E, which scan surroundings repetitively at a high frequency, have been increasingly used for 3D object tracking. In this paper, a simultaneous detection and tracking (SDAT) method is proposed for precise and automatic pedestrian trajectory recovery. First, the dynamic environment is detected using two different methods, Nearest-point and Max-distance. Then, all the points on moving objects are transferred into a space-time (x, y, t) coordinate system. The pedestrian detection and tracking amounts to assign the points belonging to pedestrians into continuous trajectories in space-time. We formulate the point assignment task as an energy function which incorporates the point evidence, trajectory number, pedestrian shape and motion. A low energy trajectory will well explain the point observations, and have plausible trajectory trend and length. The method inherently filters out points from other moving objects and false detections. The energy function is solved by a two-step optimization process: tracklet detection in a short temporal window; and global tracklet association through the whole time span. Results demonstrate that the proposed method can automatically recover the pedestrians trajectories with accurate positions and low false detections and mismatches.

  3. 大跨径人行桥人致振动舒适度分析%Analysis for Comfort of Pedestrian-induced Vibration on Large-span Pedestrian Bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅科奇; 胡佐平; 王成树

    2015-01-01

    人行桥的主要荷载源于行人和非机动车,对于大跨径轻柔桥梁结构,在行人激励之下更容易发生大幅振动,引起舒适度问题。依托国内某大跨径人行提篮拱桥,参考国外人行桥设计指南,通过有限元时程分析方法,计算获得不同荷载激励下结构最大加速度响应时程曲线,进行行人振动舒适度评价。另外,针对不同模态设计相应的TMD减振系统,并进行减振效果分析。%Main loads of pedestrian bridges come from pedestrians and non-motor vehicles,and large-span soft bridge structures under motivation of pedestrians are more vulnerable to large vibration to cause comfort problem.Dependent on a domestic large-span pedestrian X-style arch bridge and by reference to foreign guide for design of pedestrian bridges, this paper calculates and obtains the maximum. acceleration response time-history curve of structures under motivation of different loads by means of finite element time -history analysis method to evaluate comfort under pedestrian vibration.in addition,the paper designs corresponding TMD vibration damping systems against different modes and analyzes damping effect.

  4. A High Accuracy Pedestrian Detection System Combining a Cascade AdaBoost Detector and Random Vector Functional-Link Net

    OpenAIRE

    Zhihui Wang; Sook Yoon; Shan Juan Xie; Yu Lu; Dong Sun Park

    2014-01-01

    In pedestrian detection methods, their high accuracy detection rates are always obtained at the cost of a large amount of false pedestrians. In order to overcome this problem, the authors propose an accurate pedestrian detection system based on two machine learning methods: cascade AdaBoost detector and random vector functional-link net. During the offline training phase, the parameters of a cascade AdaBoost detector and random vector functional-link net are trained by standard dataset. These...

  5. Audible radiation monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odell, D.M.C.

    1992-12-31

    This invention consists of a method and apparatus for monitoring ionizing radiation comprising radiation detectors in electrical connection with an isotopic analyzer and a device for producing chords to which each isotope is mapped so that the device produces a unique chord for each isotope. Preferably the chords are pleasing to the ear, except for chords representing unexpected isotopes, and are louder or softer depending on the level of radioactivity produced by each isotope, and musical instrument voices may be simulated in producing the chords as an aid to distinguishing similar-sounding chords. Because of the representation by chords, information regarding the level and composition of the radiation in an area can be conveyed to workers in that area more effectively and yet without distracting them.

  6. Audibility of dispersion error in room acoustic finite-difference time-domain simulation in the presence of absorption of air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarelma, Jukka; Savioja, Lauri

    2016-12-01

    The finite-difference time-domain method has gained increasing interest for room acoustic prediction use. A well-known limitation of the method is a frequency and direction dependent dispersion error. In this study, the audibility of dispersion error in the presence of air absorption is measured. The results indicate that the dispersion error in the worst-case direction of the studied scheme gets masked by the air absorption at a phase velocity error percentage of 0.28% at the frequency of 20 kHz.

  7. An Evaluation of Signal Annoyance for a Head-Mounted Tactile Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    on need. The benefit of transferring information from the visual and auditory sensory channels to the tactile channel is reduced stress on the...frequency signals (45 and 160 Hz) were included and motivated by 2 of our previous studies regarding the audible frequency discrimination of vibrotactile...ratings due to signal frequency, using  = 0.05. Post hoc-paired comparisons were evaluated using Tukey’s HSD (honestly significant difference) test . We

  8. Agent Based Modeling and Simulation of Pedestrian Crowds In Panic Situations

    KAUST Repository

    Alrashed, Mohammed

    2016-11-01

    The increasing occurrence of panic stampedes during mass events has motivated studying the impact of panic on crowd dynamics and the simulation of pedestrian flows in panic situations. The lack of understanding of panic stampedes still causes hundreds of fatalities each year, not to mention the scarce methodical studies of panic behavior capable of envisaging such crowd dynamics. Under those circumstances, there are thousands of fatalities and twice that many of injuries every year caused be crowd stampede worldwide, despite the tremendous efforts of crowd control and massive numbers of safekeeping forces. Pedestrian crowd dynamics are generally predictable in high-density crowds where pedestrians cannot move freely and thus gives rise to self-propelling interactions between pedestrians. Although every pedestrian has personal preferences, the motion dynamics can be modeled as a social force in such crowds. These forces are representations of internal preferences and objectives to perform certain actions or movements. The corresponding forces can be controlled for each individual to represent a different variety of behaviors that can be associated with panic situations such as escaping danger, clustering, and pushing. In this thesis, we use an agent-based model of pedestrian behavior in panic situations to predict the collective human behavior in such crowd dynamics. The proposed simulations suggests a practical way to alleviate fatalities and minimize the evacuation time in panic situations. Moreover, we introduce contagious panic and pushing behavior, resulting in a more realistic crowd dynamics model. The proposed methodology describes the intensity and spread of panic for each individual as a function of distances between pedestrians.

  9. A Macroscopic Approach to the Lane Formation Phenomenon in Pedestrian Counterflow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Tao; ZHANG Peng; WONG S. C.; SHU Chi-Wang; ZHANG Meng-Ping

    2011-01-01

    We simulate pedestrian counterflow by adopting an optimal path-choice strategy and a recently observed speed-density relationship. Although the whole system is symmetric, the simulation demonstrates the segregation and formation of many walking lanes for two groups of pedestrians. The symmetry breaking is most likely triggered by a small numerical viscosity or "noise", and the segregation is associated with the minimization of travel time. The underlying physics can be compared with the "optimal self-organization" mechanism in Helbing's social force model, by which driven entities in an open system tend to minimize their interaction to enable them to reach some ordering state.%We simulate pedestrian counterflow by adopting an optimal path-choice strategy and a recently observed speeddensity relationship.Although the whole system is symmetric,the simulation demonstrates the segregation and formation of many walking lanes for two groups of pedestrians.The symmetry breaking is most likely triggered by a small numerical viscosity or “noise”,and the segregation is associated with the minimization of travel time.The underlying physics can be compared with the “optimal self-organization” mechanism in Helbing's social force model,by which driven entities in an open system tend to minimize their interaction to enable them to reach some ordering state.The phenomenon of lane formation in pedestrian flows has been frequently observed through direct observation or controlled experiments.Helbing et al.[4]presented photographs to show that pedestrians could form uniform walking lanes at sufficiently high densities.Theoretically,the phenomenon was explained through an optimal self-organization mechanism,[3,6]namely,a pedestrian crowd constitutes an open system of driven entities that tends to minimize interaction and dissipation,and thus an optimal state is reached.This differs from a closed system,which is governed by the second law of thermodynamics and thus the entropy

  10. Analysis of pedestrian accident costs in Sudan using the willingness-to-pay method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mofadal, Adam I A; Kanitpong, Kunnawee; Jiwattanakulpaisarn, Piyapong

    2015-05-01

    The willingness-to-pay (WTP) with contingent valuation (CV) method has been proven to be a valid tool for the valuation of non-market goods or socio-economic costs of road traffic accidents among communities in developed and developing countries. Research on accident costing tends to estimate the value of statistical life (VOSL) for all road users by providing a principle for the evaluation of road safety interventions in cost-benefit analysis. As in many other developing countries, the economic loss of traffic accidents in Sudan is noticeable; however, analytical research to estimate the magnitude and impact of that loss is lacking. Reports have shown that pedestrians account for more than 40% of the total number of fatalities. In this study, the WTP-CV approach was used to determine the amount of money that pedestrians in Sudan are willing to pay to reduce the risk of their own death. The impact of the socioeconomic factors, risk levels, and walking behaviors of pedestrians on their WTP for fatality risk reduction was also evaluated. Data were collected from two cities-Khartoum and Nyala-using a survey questionnaire that included 1400 respondents. The WTP-CV Payment Card Questionnaire was designed to ensure that Sudan pedestrians can easily determine the amount of money that would be required to reduce the fatality risk from a pedestrian-related accident. The analysis results show that the estimated VOSL for Sudanese pedestrians ranges from US$0.019 to US$0.101 million. In addition, the willingness-to-pay by Sudanese pedestrians to reduce their fatality risk tends to increase with age, household income, educational level, safety perception, and average time spent on social activities with family and community.

  11. Robust and fast pedestrian detection method for far-infrared automotive driving assistance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiong; Zhuang, Jiajun; Ma, Jun

    2013-09-01

    Despite considerable effort has been contributed to night-time pedestrian detection for automotive driving assistance systems recent years, robust and real-time pedestrian detection is by no means a trivial task and is still underway due to the moving cameras, uncontrolled outdoor environments, wide range of possible pedestrian presentations and the stringent performance criteria for automotive applications. This paper presents an alternative night-time pedestrian detection method using monocular far-infrared (FIR) camera, which includes two modules (regions of interest (ROIs) generation and pedestrian recognition) in a cascade fashion. Pixel-gradient oriented vertical projection is first proposed to estimate the vertical image stripes that might contain pedestrians, and then local thresholding image segmentation is adopted to generate ROIs more accurately within the estimated vertical stripes. A novel descriptor called PEWHOG (pyramid entropy weighted histograms of oriented gradients) is proposed to represent FIR pedestrians in recognition module. Specifically, PEWHOG is used to capture both the local object shape described by the entropy weighted distribution of oriented gradient histograms and its pyramid spatial layout. Then PEWHOG is fed to a three-branch structured classifier using support vector machines (SVM) with histogram intersection kernel (HIK). An off-line training procedure combining both the bootstrapping and early-stopping strategy is introduced to generate a more robust classifier by exploiting hard negative samples iteratively. Finally, multi-frame validation is utilized to suppress some transient false positives. Experimental results on FIR video sequences from various scenarios demonstrate that the presented method is effective and promising.

  12. Pedestrians, two-wheelers and road safety : a statistical comparison of pedestrian, cyclist and moped-rider road-traffic fatalities in The Netherlands from 1968 to 1972.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraay, J.H.

    1976-01-01

    Data were collected on pedestrian, cyclist and moped-rider traffic fatalities from 1968 to 1972. Use is made only of statistics available. The variables that were considered were related to demographic factors (sex and age), locality characteristics, vicinity factors, other circumstances and the se

  13. Comparing objective measures of environmental supports for pedestrian travel in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence is growing that the built environment has the potential to influence walking--both positively and negatively. However, uncertainty remains on the best approaches to representing the pedestrian environment in order to discern associations between walking and the environment. Research into the relationship between environment and walking is complex; challenges include choice of measures (objective and subjective, quality and availability of data, and methods for managing quantitative data through aggregation and weighting. In particular, little research has examined how to aggregate built environment data to best represent the neighborhood environments expected to influence residents' behavior. This study examined associations between walking and local pedestrian supports (as measured with an environmental audit, comparing the results of models using three different methods to aggregate and weight pedestrian features. Methods Using data collected in 2005-2006 for a sample of 251 adult residents of Montgomery County, MD, we examined associations between pedestrian facilities and walking behaviors (pedestrian trips and average daily steps. Adjusted negative binomial and ordinary least-squares regression models were used to compare three different data aggregation techniques (raw averages, length weighting, distance weighting for measures of pedestrian facilities that included presence, condition, width and connectivity of sidewalks, and presence of crossing aids and crosswalks. Results Participants averaged 8.9 walk trips during the week; daily step counts averaged 7042. The three aggregation techniques revealed different associations between walk trips and the various pedestrian facilities. Crossing aids and good sidewalk conditions were associated with walk trips more than were other pedestrian facilities, while sidewalk facilities and features showed associations with steps not observed for crossing aids and

  14. A refined and dynamic cellular automaton model for pedestrian-vehicle mixed traffic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mianfang; Xiong, Shengwu

    2016-12-01

    Mixed traffic flow sharing the “same lane” and having no discipline on road is a common phenomenon in the developing countries. For example, motorized vehicles (m-vehicles) and nonmotorized vehicles (nm-vehicles) may share the m-vehicle lane or nm-vehicle lane and pedestrians may share the nm-vehicle lane. Simulating pedestrian-vehicle mixed traffic flow consisting of three kinds of traffic objects: m-vehicles, nm-vehicles and pedestrians, can be a challenge because there are some erratic drivers or pedestrians who fail to follow the lane disciplines. In the paper, we investigate various moving and interactive behavior associated with mixed traffic flow, such as lateral drift including illegal lane-changing and transverse crossing different lanes, overtaking and forward movement, and propose some new moving and interactive rules for pedestrian-vehicle mixed traffic flow based on a refined and dynamic cellular automaton (CA) model. Simulation results indicate that the proposed model can be used to investigate the traffic flow characteristic in a mixed traffic flow system and corresponding complicated traffic problems, such as, the moving characteristics of different traffic objects, interaction phenomenon between different traffic objects, traffic jam, traffic conflict, etc., which are consistent with the actual mixed traffic system. Therefore, the proposed model provides a solid foundation for the management, planning and evacuation of the mixed traffic flow.

  15. Laser-Based Pedestrian Tracking in Outdoor Environments by Multiple Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masafumi Hashimoto

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an outdoors laser-based pedestrian tracking system using a group of mobile robots located near each other. Each robot detects pedestrians from its own laser scan image using an occupancy-grid-based method, and the robot tracks the detected pedestrians via Kalman filtering and global-nearest-neighbor (GNN-based data association. The tracking data is broadcast to multiple robots through intercommunication and is combined using the covariance intersection (CI method. For pedestrian tracking, each robot identifies its own posture using real-time-kinematic GPS (RTK-GPS and laser scan matching. Using our cooperative tracking method, all the robots share the tracking data with each other; hence, individual robots can always recognize pedestrians that are invisible to any other robot. The simulation and experimental results show that cooperating tracking provides the tracking performance better than conventional individual tracking does. Our tracking system functions in a decentralized manner without any central server, and therefore, this provides a degree of scalability and robustness that cannot be achieved by conventional centralized architectures.

  16. Laser-based pedestrian tracking in outdoor environments by multiple mobile robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Masataka; Kakimuma, Kei; Hashimoto, Masafumi; Takahashi, Kazuhiko

    2012-10-29

    This paper presents an outdoors laser-based pedestrian tracking system using a group of mobile robots located near each other. Each robot detects pedestrians from its own laser scan image using an occupancy-grid-based method, and the robot tracks the detected pedestrians via Kalman filtering and global-nearest-neighbor (GNN)-based data association. The tracking data is broadcast to multiple robots through intercommunication and is combined using the covariance intersection (CI) method. For pedestrian tracking, each robot identifies its own posture using real-time-kinematic GPS (RTK-GPS) and laser scan matching. Using our cooperative tracking method, all the robots share the tracking data with each other; hence, individual robots can always recognize pedestrians that are invisible to any other robot. The simulation and experimental results show that cooperating tracking provides the tracking performance better than conventional individual tracking does. Our tracking system functions in a decentralized manner without any central server, and therefore, this provides a degree of scalability and robustness that cannot be achieved by conventional centralized architectures.

  17. Continuum modelling of pedestrian flows - Part 2: Sensitivity analysis featuring crowd movement phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duives, Dorine C.; Daamen, Winnie; Hoogendoorn, Serge P.

    2016-04-01

    In recent years numerous pedestrian simulation tools have been developed that can support crowd managers and government officials in their tasks. New technologies to monitor pedestrian flows are in dire need of models that allow for rapid state-estimation. Many contemporary pedestrian simulation tools model the movements of pedestrians at a microscopic level, which does not provide an exact solution. Macroscopic models capture the fundamental characteristics of the traffic state at a more aggregate level, and generally have a closed form solution which is necessary for rapid state estimation for traffic management purposes. This contribution presents a next step in the calibration and validation of the macroscopic continuum model detailed in Hoogendoorn et al. (2014). The influence of global and local route choice on the development of crowd movement phenomena, such as dissipation, lane-formation and stripe-formation, is studied. This study shows that most self-organization phenomena and behavioural trends only develop under very specific conditions, and as such can only be simulated using specific parameter sets. Moreover, all crowd movement phenomena can be reproduced by means of the continuum model using one parameter set. This study concludes that the incorporation of local route choice behaviour and the balancing of the aptitude of pedestrians with respect to their own class and other classes are both essential in the correct prediction of crowd movement dynamics.

  18. Issues and challenges for pedestrian active safety systems based on real world accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdane, Hédi; Serre, Thierry; Masson, Catherine; Anderson, Robert

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze real crashes involving pedestrians in order to evaluate the potential effectiveness of autonomous emergency braking systems (AEB) in pedestrian protection. A sample of 100 real accident cases were reconstructed providing a comprehensive set of data describing the interaction between the vehicle, the environment and the pedestrian all along the scenario of the accident. A generic AEB system based on a camera sensor for pedestrian detection was modeled in order to identify the functionality of its different attributes in the timeline of each crash scenario. These attributes were assessed to determine their impact on pedestrian safety. The influence of the detection and the activation of the AEB system were explored by varying the field of view (FOV) of the sensor and the level of deceleration. A FOV of 35° was estimated to be required to detect and react to the majority of crash scenarios. For the reaction of a system (from hazard detection to triggering the brakes), between 0.5 and 1s appears necessary.

  19. Stereo vision-based pedestrian detection using multiple features for automotive application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chung-Hee; Kim, Dongyoung

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a stereo vision-based pedestrian detection using multiple features for automotive application. The disparity map from stereo vision system and multiple features are utilized to enhance the pedestrian detection performance. Because the disparity map offers us 3D information, which enable to detect obstacles easily and reduce the overall detection time by removing unnecessary backgrounds. The road feature is extracted from the v-disparity map calculated by the disparity map. The road feature is a decision criterion to determine the presence or absence of obstacles on the road. The obstacle detection is performed by comparing the road feature with all columns in the disparity. The result of obstacle detection is segmented by the bird's-eye-view mapping to separate the obstacle area which has multiple objects into single obstacle area. The histogram-based clustering is performed in the bird's-eye-view map. Each segmented result is verified by the classifier with the training model. To enhance the pedestrian recognition performance, multiple features such as HOG, CSS, symmetry features are utilized. In particular, the symmetry feature is proper to represent the pedestrian standing or walking. The block-based symmetry feature is utilized to minimize the type of image and the best feature among the three symmetry features of H-S-V image is selected as the symmetry feature in each pixel. ETH database is utilized to verify our pedestrian detection algorithm.

  20. Multigrid Model for Pedestrian Counterflow%双向行人流的多格子模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅玲; 邓敏艺; 孔令江; 刘海英

    2012-01-01

    利用1个行人占据6个格子的多格子模型,研究在周期性边界条件的通道中转身侧行行为对双向行人流的影响.结果表明:行人的转身侧行行为可促使同向行人成行,在行人随机向右偏让时,转身侧行行为能提高相变的临界密度,但在行人有意识地向右偏让时,转身侧行行为不能提高相变的临界密度,增大转身侧行的偏向强度反而使之降低.该模拟结果对行人在双向通道中的紧急疏散有一定的指导意义.%Using the multigrid model in which the pedestrian occupies six grids, the effect of sidling is studied for the pedestrian counter flow under periodic boundary conditions. The results show that: the behavior of sidling may promote the lane formation of pedestrians in the same direction. As the pedestrian turns to right in-consciently, the behavior of sidling can improve the critical density of the phase transition, but as the pedestrian turns to right consciously, the phase transition will be reduced.

  1. Pedestrian preferences with respect to roundabouts -- a video-based stated preference survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdomo, Mario; Rezaei, Ali; Patterson, Zachary; Saunier, Nicolas; Miranda-Moreno, Luis F

    2014-09-01

    Research on user behavior and preferences has been a helpful tool in improving road safety and accident prevention in recent years. At the same time, there remain some important areas of road safety and accident prevention for which user preferences, despite their importance, have not been explored. Most road safety research has not explicitly addressed vulnerable user (pedestrians and cyclists) preferences with respect to roundabouts, despite their increasing construction around the world. The present research stems from the fact that studies related to roundabout safety have generally focused on drivers, while overlooking the importance of safety as it relates to vulnerable users, especially pedestrians. Moreover, it handles this particular issue through an approach that has not been used so far in this context; the Stated Preference (SP) survey. As such, there are two main goals (and contributions) of this work. First, to show how SP surveys can be used to investigate the importance of different design and operational features to pedestrian perceptions of safety in roundabouts. This allows us, for example, to quantify how some features of roundabouts (e.g. high traffic volume) can be compensated for by design features such as pedestrian islands. This is useful in helping to design roundabouts that pedestrians prefer and will hopefully use, to help encourage active transport. Second, to demonstrate how traffic simulation software can be successfully used to include difficult-to-communicate attributes in SP surveys.

  2. Macroscopic modeling of pedestrian and bicycle crashes: A cross-comparison of estimation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoh-Gyimah, Richard; Saberi, Meead; Sarvi, Majid

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents a cross-comparison of different estimation methods to model pedestrian and bicycle crashes. The study contributes to macro level safety studies by providing further methodological and empirical evidence on the various factors that influence the frequency of pedestrian and bicycle crashes at the planning level. Random parameter negative binomial (RPNB) models are estimated to explore the effects of various planning factors associated with total, serious injury and minor injury crashes while accounting for unobserved heterogeneity. Results of the RPNB models were compared with the results of a non-spatial negative binomial (NB) model and a Poisson-Gamma-CAR model. Key findings are, (1) the RPNB model performed best with the lowest mean absolute deviation, mean squared predicted error and Akaiki information criterion measures and (2) signs of estimated parameters are consistent if these variables are significant in models with the same response variables. We found that vehicle kilometers traveled (VKT), population, percentage of commuters cycling or walking to work, and percentage of households without motor vehicles have a significant and positive correlation with the number of pedestrian and bicycle crashes. Mixed land use is also found to have a positive association with the number of pedestrian and bicycle crashes. Results have planning and policy implications aimed at encouraging the use of sustainable modes of transportation while ensuring the safety of pedestrians and cyclist.

  3. Simulating large-scale pedestrian movement using CA and event driven model: Methodology and case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Fu, Siyao; He, Haibo; Jia, Hongfei; Li, Yanzhong; Guo, Yi

    2015-11-01

    Large-scale regional evacuation is an important part of national security emergency response plan. Large commercial shopping area, as the typical service system, its emergency evacuation is one of the hot research topics. A systematic methodology based on Cellular Automata with the Dynamic Floor Field and event driven model has been proposed, and the methodology has been examined within context of a case study involving the evacuation within a commercial shopping mall. Pedestrians walking is based on Cellular Automata and event driven model. In this paper, the event driven model is adopted to simulate the pedestrian movement patterns, the simulation process is divided into normal situation and emergency evacuation. The model is composed of four layers: environment layer, customer layer, clerk layer and trajectory layer. For the simulation of movement route of pedestrians, the model takes into account purchase intention of customers and density of pedestrians. Based on evacuation model of Cellular Automata with Dynamic Floor Field and event driven model, we can reflect behavior characteristics of customers and clerks at the situations of normal and emergency evacuation. The distribution of individual evacuation time as a function of initial positions and the dynamics of the evacuation process is studied. Our results indicate that the evacuation model using the combination of Cellular Automata with Dynamic Floor Field and event driven scheduling can be used to simulate the evacuation of pedestrian flows in indoor areas with complicated surroundings and to investigate the layout of shopping mall.

  4. Error analysis in a stereo vision-based pedestrian detection sensor for collision avoidance applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorca, David F; Sotelo, Miguel A; Parra, Ignacio; Ocaña, Manuel; Bergasa, Luis M

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical study of the depth estimation error of a stereo vision-based pedestrian detection sensor for automotive applications such as pedestrian collision avoidance and/or mitigation. The sensor comprises two synchronized and calibrated low-cost cameras. Pedestrians are detected by combining a 3D clustering method with Support Vector Machine-based (SVM) classification. The influence of the sensor parameters in the stereo quantization errors is analyzed in detail providing a point of reference for choosing the sensor setup according to the application requirements. The sensor is then validated in real experiments. Collision avoidance maneuvers by steering are carried out by manual driving. A real time kinematic differential global positioning system (RTK-DGPS) is used to provide ground truth data corresponding to both the pedestrian and the host vehicle locations. The performed field test provided encouraging results and proved the validity of the proposed sensor for being used in the automotive sector towards applications such as autonomous pedestrian collision avoidance.

  5. Error Analysis in a Stereo Vision-Based Pedestrian Detection Sensor for Collision Avoidance Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F. Llorca

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical study of the depth estimation error of a stereo vision-based pedestrian detection sensor for automotive applications such as pedestrian collision avoidance and/or mitigation. The sensor comprises two synchronized and calibrated low-cost cameras. Pedestrians are detected by combining a 3D clustering method with Support Vector Machine-based (SVM classification. The influence of the sensor parameters in the stereo quantization errors is analyzed in detail providing a point of reference for choosing the sensor setup according to the application requirements. The sensor is then validated in real experiments. Collision avoidance maneuvers by steering are carried out by manual driving. A real time kinematic differential global positioning system (RTK-DGPS is used to provide ground truth data corresponding to both the pedestrian and the host vehicle locations. The performed field test provided encouraging results and proved the validity of the proposed sensor for being used in the automotive sector towards applications such as autonomous pedestrian collision avoidance.

  6. Equation-free detection and continuation of a Hopf bifurcation point in a particle model of pedestrian flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corradi, Olivier; Hjorth, Poul G.; Starke, Jens

    2012-01-01

    an onset of oscillations of the net pedestrian flux through the doorway, described by a Hopf bifurcation. An equation-free continuation of the Hopf point in the two parameters, door width and ratio of the pedestrian velocities of the two crowds, is performed. © 2012 Society for Industrial and Applied...

  7. A cellular automaton simulation model for pedestrian and vehicle interaction behaviors at unsignalized mid-block crosswalks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lili; Ren, Gang; Wang, Wei; Chan, Ching-Yao; Wang, Jian

    2016-10-01

    At unsignalized crosswalks, interactions between pedestrians and vehicles often lead to traffic safety hazards due to absence of traffic control and unclear right-of-ways. To address this safety problem, there is a need to understand the interaction behaviors of pedestrians and vehicles that are complicated by a variety of traffic and roadway attributes. The prime objective of this study is to establish a reliable simulation model to represent the vehicle yielding and pedestrian crossing behaviors at unsignalized crosswalks in a realistic way. The model is calibrated with detailed behavioral data collected and extracted from field observations. The capability of the calibrated model in predicting the pedestrian-interaction events as well as estimating the driver yielding rate and pedestrian delay are also tested and demonstrated. Meanwhile, the traffic dynamics in the vicinity of the crosswalk can be meaningfully represented with simulation results based on the model. Moreover, with the definitions of the vehicle-pedestrian conflicts, the proposed model is capable to evaluate the pedestrian safety. Thereby, the simulation model has the potential to serve as a useful tool for assessing safety performance and traffic operations at existing facilities. Furthermore, the model can enable the evaluation of policy effectiveness and the selection of engineering treatments at unsignalized crosswalks to improve safety and efficiency of pedestrian crossing.

  8. Detection of pedestrians in far-infrared automotive night vision using region-growing and clothing distortion compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Ronan; Jones, Edward; Glavin, Martin

    2010-11-01

    We present a night-time pedestrian detection system based on automotive infrared video processing. Far-infrared or thermal night vision is a technology well suited for automatic detection of pedestrians at night as they generally appear warmer than the background. However, the appearance of a pedestrian in IR video can vary dramatically depending on the physical properties of the clothing they wear, the time spent adjusting to the outside environment, and the ambient temperature. We highlight the difficulties of detection in low temperatures (below 8 °C) when pedestrians typically wear highly insulating clothing, which can lead to distortion of the IR signature of the pedestrian. A pre-processing step is presented, which compensates for this clothing-based distortion using vertically-biased morphological closing. Potential pedestrians (Regions of Interest) are then segmented using feature-based region-growing with high intensity seeds. Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG) features are extracted from candidates and utilised for Support Vector Machine classification. Positively classified targets are tracked between frames using a Kalman filter, adding robustness and increasing performance. The proposed system adapts not just to variations between images or video frames, but to variations in appearance between different pedestrians in the same image or frame. Results indicate improved performance compared to previous HOG-SVM automotive IR pedestrian detection systems, which utilised stereo IR cameras.

  9. Discrete element crowd model for pedestrian evacuation through an exit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lin; Jian, Ma; Siuming, Lo

    2016-03-01

    A series of accidents caused by crowds within the last decades evoked a lot of scientific interest in modeling the movement of pedestrian crowds. Based on the discrete element method, a granular dynamic model, in which the human body is simplified as a self-driven sphere, is proposed to simulate the characteristics of crowd flow through an exit. In this model, the repulsive force among people is considered to have an anisotropic feature, and the physical contact force due to body deformation is quantified by the Hertz contact model. The movement of the human body is simulated by applying the second Newton’s law. The crowd flow through an exit at different desired velocities is studied and simulation results indicated that crowd flow exhibits three distinct states, i.e., smooth state, transition state and phase separation state. In the simulation, the clogging phenomenon occurs more easily when the desired velocity is high and the exit may as a result be totally blocked at a desired velocity of 1.6 m/s or above, leading to faster-to-frozen effect. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 71473207, 51178445, and 71103148), the Research Grant Council, Government of Hong Kong, China (Grant No. CityU119011), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant Nos. 2682014CX103 and 2682014RC05).

  10. Follow the leader: visual control of speed in pedestrian following.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rio, Kevin W; Rhea, Christopher K; Warren, William H

    2014-02-07

    When people walk together in groups or crowds they must coordinate their walking speed and direction with their neighbors. This paper investigates how a pedestrian visually controls speed when following a leader on a straight path (one-dimensional following). To model the behavioral dynamics of following, participants in Experiment 1 walked behind a confederate who randomly increased or decreased his walking speed. The data were used to test six models of speed control that used the leader's speed, distance, or combinations of both to regulate the follower's acceleration. To test the optical information used to control speed, participants in Experiment 2 walked behind a virtual moving pole, whose visual angle and binocular disparity were independently manipulated. The results indicate the followers match the speed of the leader, and do so using a visual control law that primarily nulls the leader's optical expansion (change in visual angle), with little influence of change in disparity. This finding has direct applications to understanding the coordination among neighbors in human crowds.

  11. Influential parameters on particle exposure of pedestrians in urban microenvironments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonanno, G.; Fuoco, F. C.; Stabile, L.

    2011-03-01

    Exposure to particle concentrations in urban areas was evaluated in several studies since airborne particles are considered to bring about adverse health effects. Transportation modes and urban microenvironments account for the highest contributions to the overall daily particle exposure concentration. In the present study an evaluation of the influential parameters affecting particle exposure of pedestrian in urban areas is reported. Street geometry, traffic mode, wind speed and direction effects were analyzed through an experimental campaign performed in different streets of an Italian town. To this purpose a high-resolution time measurement apparatus was used in order to capture the dynamic of the freshly emitted particles. Number, surface area and mass concentrations and distributions were measured continuously along both the sides of street canyons and avenue canyons during 10-minutes walking routes. The combined effect of street geometry and wind direction may contribute strongly to dilute the fresh particles emitted by vehicles. In particular, street canyons are characterized by lower ventilation phenomena which lead to similar concentration values on both the side of the street. Higher wind speed was found to decrease concentrations in the canyon. Traffic mode also seems to influence exposure concentrations. In particular, submicrometer particle mass concentration was higher as the traffic is more congested; otherwise, coarse fraction dominates mass exposure concentration along street characterized by a more fluent traffic, showing a typical resuspension modality.

  12. Discrete Element Crowd Model for Pedestrian Evacuation Through an Exit

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Peng; Lo, Siuming

    2016-01-01

    A series of accidents caused by crowd within the last decades evoked a lot of scientific interest in modeling the movement of pedestrian crowds. Based on discrete element method, a granular dynamic model, in which human body is simplified as self-driven sphere, is proposed to simulate the characteristics of crowd flow through an exit. In this model, the repulsive force among people is considered to have an anisotropic feature, and the physical contact force due to body deformation is quantified by the Hertz contact model. The movement of human body is simulated by applying the second Newton's law. The crowd flow through an exit at different desired velocities is studied and simulation results indicated that crowd flow exhibits three distinct states, i.e., smooth state, transition state and phase separation state. In the simulation, clogging phenomenon occurs more easily when the velocity of desired is high and the exit may as a result be totally blocked at a desired velocity of 1.6m/s or above, leading to fas...

  13. Extrinsic Calibration of Camera Networks Based on Pedestrians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Junzhi; Deboeverie, Francis; Slembrouck, Maarten; Van Haerenborgh, Dirk; Van Cauwelaert, Dimitri; Veelaert, Peter; Philips, Wilfried

    2016-05-09

    In this paper, we propose a novel extrinsic calibration method for camera networks by analyzing tracks of pedestrians. First of all, we extract the center lines of walking persons by detecting their heads and feet in the camera images. We propose an easy and accurate method to estimate the 3D positions of the head and feet w.r.t. a local camera coordinate system from these center lines. We also propose a RANSAC-based orthogonal Procrustes approach to compute relative extrinsic parameters connecting the coordinate systems of cameras in a pairwise fashion. Finally, we refine the extrinsic calibration matrices using a method that minimizes the reprojection error. While existing state-of-the-art calibration methods explore epipolar geometry and use image positions directly, the proposed method first computes 3D positions per camera and then fuses the data. This results in simpler computations and a more flexible and accurate calibration method. Another advantage of our method is that it can also handle the case of persons walking along straight lines, which cannot be handled by most of the existing state-of-the-art calibration methods since all head and feet positions are co-planar. This situation often happens in real life.

  14. A force-based model to reproduce stop-and-go waves in pedestrian dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Chraibi, Mohcine; Schadschneider, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Stop-and-go waves in single-file movement are a phenomenon that is ob- served empirically in pedestrian dynamics. It manifests itself by the co-existence of two phases: moving and stopping pedestrians. We show analytically based on a simplified one-dimensional scenario that under some conditions the system can have instable homogeneous solutions. Hence, oscillations in the trajectories and in- stabilities emerge during simulations. To our knowledge there exists no force-based model which is collision- and oscillation-free and meanwhile can reproduce phase separation. We develop a new force-based model for pedestrian dynamics able to reproduce qualitatively the phenomenon of phase separation. We investigate analytically the stability condition of the model and define regimes of parameter values where phase separation can be observed. We show by means of simulations that the predefined conditions lead in fact to the expected behavior and validate our model with respect to empirical findings.

  15. Self-organized phenomena of pedestrian counter flow in a channel under periodic boundary conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xiang; Duan Xiao-Yin; Dong Li-Yun

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we investigate self-organized phenomena such as lane formation generated by pedestrian counter flow in a channel.The lattice gas model is extended to take the effect of walkers in the opposite direction into account simultaneously when they are in the view field of a walker,i.e.,walkers tend to follow the leaders in the same direction and avoid conflicts with those walking towards them.The improved model is then used to mimic pedestrian counter flow in a channel under periodic boundary conditions.Numerical simulations show that lane formation is well reproduced,and this process is rather rapid which coincides with real pedestrian traffic.The average velocity and critical density are found to increase to some degree with the consideration of view field.

  16. Change in mass and damping on vertically vibrating footbridges due to pedestrians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgakis, Christos T.; Jørgensen, Nina Gall

    2013-01-01

    Pedestrian-induced footbridge vibrations are an issue that bridge designers often have to contend with. A plethora of research in recent years has led to the development of load models and procedures that allow for the determination of footbridge response. Nonetheless, measured footbridge responses...... often deviate from those predicted. One of the main deficiencies of the existing models and guidelines is the exclusion of the effect of changes in the footbridge’s dynamic properties due to the presence of pedestrians. More specifically, any change in mass and/or damping that a pedestrian might...... introduce to a bridge will affect the bridges overall dynamic response. This effect is an element of what is often referred to as human-structure interaction. In this paper, the results of an experimental study to determine the change in mass and damping of a vertically vibrating footbridge due...

  17. Change in mass and damping on vertically vibrating footbridges due to pedestrians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgakis, Christos T.; Jørgensen, Nina G.

    2013-01-01

    Pedestrian-induced footbridge vibrations are an issue that bridge designers often have to contend with. A plethora of research in recent years has led to the development of load models and procedures that allow for the determination of footbridge response. Nonetheless, measured footbridge responses...... often deviate from those predicted. One of the main deficiencies of the existing models and guidelines is the exclusion of the effect of changes in the footbridge's dynamic properties due to the presence of pedestrians. More specifically, any change in mass and/or damping that a pedestrian might...... introduce to a bridge will affect the bridges overall dynamic response. This effect is an element of what is often referred to as human-structure interaction. In this paper, the results of an experimental study to determine the change in mass and damping of a vertically vibrating footbridge due...

  18. Improved social force model based on exit selection for microscopic pedestrian simulation in subway station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑勋; 李海鹰; 孟令云; 许心越; 陈旭

    2015-01-01

    An improved social force model based on exit selection is proposed to simulate pedestrians’ microscopic behaviors in subway station. The modification lies in considering three factors of spatial distance, occupant density and exit width. In addition, the problem of pedestrians selecting exit frequently is solved as follows: not changing to other exits in the affected area of one exit, using the probability of remaining preceding exit and invoking function of exit selection after several simulation steps. Pedestrians in subway station have some special characteristics, such as explicit destinations, different familiarities with subway station. Finally, Beijing Zoo Subway Station is taken as an example and the feasibility of the model results is verified through the comparison of the actual data and simulation data. The simulation results show that the improved model can depict the microscopic behaviors of pedestrians in subway station.

  19. A Hybrid Indoor Localization and Navigation System with Map Matching for Pedestrians Using Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinglin Tian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrian dead reckoning is a common technique applied in indoor inertial navigation systems that is able to provide accurate tracking performance within short distances. Sensor drift is the main bottleneck in extending the system to long-distance and long-term tracking. In this paper, a hybrid system integrating traditional pedestrian dead reckoning based on the use of inertial measurement units, short-range radio frequency systems and particle filter map matching is proposed. The system is a drift-free pedestrian navigation system where position error and sensor drift is regularly corrected and is able to provide long-term accurate and reliable tracking. Moreover, the whole system is implemented on a commercial off-the-shelf smartphone and achieves real-time positioning and tracking performance with satisfactory accuracy.

  20. Calibrating floor field cellular automaton models for pedestrian dynamics by using likelihood function optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovreglio, Ruggiero; Ronchi, Enrico; Nilsson, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    The formulation of pedestrian floor field cellular automaton models is generally based on hypothetical assumptions to represent reality. This paper proposes a novel methodology to calibrate these models using experimental trajectories. The methodology is based on likelihood function optimization and allows verifying whether the parameters defining a model statistically affect pedestrian navigation. Moreover, it allows comparing different model specifications or the parameters of the same model estimated using different data collection techniques, e.g. virtual reality experiment, real data, etc. The methodology is here implemented using navigation data collected in a Virtual Reality tunnel evacuation experiment including 96 participants. A trajectory dataset in the proximity of an emergency exit is used to test and compare different metrics, i.e. Euclidean and modified Euclidean distance, for the static floor field. In the present case study, modified Euclidean metrics provide better fitting with the data. A new formulation using random parameters for pedestrian cellular automaton models is also defined and tested.

  1. Improving Inertial Pedestrian Dead-Reckoning by Detecting Unmodified Switched-on Lamps in Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio R. Jiménez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how inertial Pedestrian Dead-Reckoning (PDR location systems can be improved with the use of a light sensor to measure the illumination gradients created when a person walks under ceiling-mounted unmodified indoor lights. The process of updating the inertial PDR estimates with the information provided by light detections is a new concept that we have named Light-matching (LM. The displacement and orientation change of a person obtained by inertial PDR is used by the LM method to accurately propagate the location hypothesis, and vice versa; the LM approach benefits the PDR approach by obtaining an absolute localization and reducing the PDR-alone drift. Even from an initially unknown location and orientation, whenever the person passes below a switched-on light spot, the location likelihood is iteratively updated until it potentially converges to a unimodal probability density function. The time to converge to a unimodal position hypothesis depends on the number of lights detected and the asymmetries/irregularities of the spatial distribution of lights. The proposed LM method does not require any intensity illumination calibration, just the pre-storage of the position and size of all lights in a building, irrespective of their current on/off state. This paper presents a detailed description of the light-matching concept, the implementation details of the LM-assisted PDR fusion scheme using a particle filter, and several simulated and experimental tests, using a light sensor-equipped Galaxy S3 smartphone and an external foot-mounted inertial sensor. The evaluation includes the LM-assisted PDR approach as well as the fusion with other signals of opportunity (WiFi, RFID, Magnetometers or Map-matching in order to compare their contribution in obtaining high accuracy indoor localization. The integrated solution achieves a localization error lower than 1 m in most of the cases.

  2. Improving inertial Pedestrian Dead-Reckoning by detecting unmodified switched-on lamps in buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Antonio R; Zampella, Francisco; Seco, Fernando

    2014-01-03

    This paper explores how inertial Pedestrian Dead-Reckoning (PDR) location systems can be improved with the use of a light sensor to measure the illumination gradients created when a person walks under ceiling-mounted unmodified indoor lights. The process of updating the inertial PDR estimates with the information provided by light detections is a new concept that we have named Light-matching (LM). The displacement and orientation change of a person obtained by inertial PDR is used by the LM method to accurately propagate the location hypothesis, and vice versa; the LM approach benefits the PDR approach by obtaining an absolute localization and reducing the PDR-alone drift. Even from an initially unknown location and orientation, whenever the person passes below a switched-on light spot, the location likelihood is iteratively updated until it potentially converges to a unimodal probability density function. The time to converge to a unimodal position hypothesis depends on the number of lights detected and the asymmetries/irregularities of the spatial distribution of lights. The proposed LM method does not require any intensity illumination calibration, just the pre-storage of the position and size of all lights in a building, irrespective of their current on/off state. This paper presents a detailed description of the light-matching concept, the implementation details of the LM-assisted PDR fusion scheme using a particle filter, and several simulated and experimental tests, using a light sensor-equipped Galaxy S3 smartphone and an external foot-mounted inertial sensor. The evaluation includes the LM-assisted PDR approach as well as the fusion with other signals of opportunity (WiFi, RFID, Magnetometers or Map-matching) in order to compare their contribution in obtaining high accuracy indoor localization. The integrated solution achieves a localization error lower than 1 m in most of the cases.

  3. Empirical investigation on safety constraints of merging pedestrian crowd through macroscopic and microscopic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaomeng; Ye, Zhirui; Shiwakoti, Nirajan; Tang, Dounan; Wang, Chao; Wang, Wei

    2016-10-01

    A recent crowd stampede during a New Year's Eve celebration in Shanghai, China resulted in 36 fatalities and over 49 serious injuries. Many of such tragic crowd accidents around the world resulted from complex multi-direction crowd movement such as merging behavior. Although there are a few studies on merging crowd behavior, none of them have conducted a systematic analysis considering the impact of both merging angle and flow direction towards the safety of pedestrian crowd movement. In this study, a series of controlled laboratory experiments were conducted to examine the safety constraints of merging pedestrian crowd movements considering merging angle (60°, 90° and 180°) and flow direction under slow running and blocked vision condition. Then, macroscopic and microscopic properties of crowd dynamics are obtained and visualized through the analysis of pedestrian crowd trajectory data derived from video footage. It was found that merging angle had a significant influence on the fluctuations of pedestrian flows, which is important in a critical situation such as emergency evacuation. As the merging angle increased, mean velocity and mean flow at the measuring region in the exit corridors decreased, while mean density increased. A similar trend was observed for the number of weaving and overtaking conflicts, which resulted in the increase of mean headway. Further, flow direction had a significant impact on the outflow of the individuals while blocked vision had an influence on pedestrian crowd interactions and merging process. Finally, this paper discusses safety assessments on crowd merging behaviors along with some recommendations for future research. Findings from this study can assist in the development and validation of pedestrian crowd simulation models as well as organization and control of crowd events.

  4. Empirical Behavioral Models to Support Alternative Tools for the Analysis of Mixed-Priority Pedestrian-Vehicle Interaction in a Highway Capacity Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouphail, Nagui M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents behavioral-based models for describing pedestrian gap acceptance at unsignalized crosswalks in a mixed-priority environment, where some drivers yield and some pedestrians cross in gaps. Logistic regression models are developed to predict the probability of pedestrian crossings as a function of vehicle dynamics, pedestrian assertiveness, and other factors. In combination with prior work on probabilistic yielding models, the results can be incorporated in a simulation environment, where they can more fully describe the interaction of these two modes. The approach is intended to supplement HCM analytical procedure for locations where significant interaction occurs between drivers and pedestrians, including modern roundabouts. PMID:21643488

  5. Mean Field Limit and Propagation of Chaos for a Pedestrian Flow Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Göttlich, Simone; Yin, Qitao

    2016-11-01

    In this paper a rigorous proof of the mean field limit for a pedestrian flow model in two dimensions is given by using a probabilistic method. The model under investigation is an interacting particle system coupled to the eikonal equation on the microscopic scale. For stochastic initial data, it is proved that the solution of the N-particle pedestrian flow system with properly chosen cut-off converges in the probability sense to the solution of the characteristics of the non-cut-off Vlasov equation. Furthermore, the result on propagation of chaos is also deduced in terms of bounded Lipschitz distance.

  6. Hidden Markov Model-based Pedestrian Navigation System using MEMS Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yingjun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a foot-mounted pedestrian navigation system using MEMS inertial sensors is implemented, where the zero-velocity detection is abstracted into a hidden Markov model with 4 states and 15 observations. Moreover, an observations extraction algorithm has been developed to extract observations from sensor outputs; sample sets are used to train and optimize the model parameters by the Baum-Welch algorithm. Finally, a navigation system is developed, and the performance of the pedestrian navigation system is evaluated using indoor and outdoor field tests, and the results show that position error is less than 3% of total distance travelled.

  7. A Zero Velocity Detection Algorithm Using Inertial Sensors for Pedestrian Navigation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Soo Suh

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In pedestrian navigation systems, the position of a pedestrian is computed using an inertial navigation algorithm. In the algorithm, the zero velocity updating plays an important role, where zero velocity intervals are detected and the velocity error is reset. To use the zero velocity updating, it is necessary to detect zero velocity intervals reliably. A new zero detection algorithm is proposed in the paper, where only one gyroscope value is used. A Markov model is constructed using segmentation of gyroscope outputs instead of using gyroscope outputs directly, which makes the zero velocity detection more reliable.

  8. A zero velocity detection algorithm using inertial sensors for pedestrian navigation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Kyeong; Suh, Young Soo

    2010-01-01

    In pedestrian navigation systems, the position of a pedestrian is computed using an inertial navigation algorithm. In the algorithm, the zero velocity updating plays an important role, where zero velocity intervals are detected and the velocity error is reset. To use the zero velocity updating, it is necessary to detect zero velocity intervals reliably. A new zero detection algorithm is proposed in the paper, where only one gyroscope value is used. A Markov model is constructed using segmentation of gyroscope outputs instead of using gyroscope outputs directly, which makes the zero velocity detection more reliable.

  9. Pedestrian evacuation in view and hearing limited condition: The impact of communication and memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Shuqi; Jia, Bin; Jiang, Rui; Shan, Jingjing

    2016-09-01

    This paper studies pedestrian evacuation in view and hearing limited condition based on the social force approach. It is assumed that there are two types of pedestrians: Informed individuals know the exit location whereas uninformed individuals do not. The uninformed individuals can communicate with the informed ones within their perceptual fields, thus learning to know and memorize the exit location. We consider cases with and without communication/memory. The simulations show communication and memory are able to enhance the evacuation efficiency. We also investigate the impact of communication on the efficiency of an emergency exit.

  10. Pedestrian detection in thermal images: An automated scale based region extraction with curvelet space validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, A.; Faheema, A. G. J.; Deodhare, Dipti

    2016-05-01

    Pedestrian detection is a key problem in night vision processing with a dozen of applications that will positively impact the performance of autonomous systems. Despite significant progress, our study shows that performance of state-of-the-art thermal image pedestrian detectors still has much room for improvement. The purpose of this paper is to overcome the challenge faced by the thermal image pedestrian detectors, which employ intensity based Region Of Interest (ROI) extraction followed by feature based validation. The most striking disadvantage faced by the first module, ROI extraction, is the failed detection of cloth insulted parts. To overcome this setback, this paper employs an algorithm and a principle of region growing pursuit tuned to the scale of the pedestrian. The statistics subtended by the pedestrian drastically vary with the scale and deviation from normality approach facilitates scale detection. Further, the paper offers an adaptive mathematical threshold to resolve the problem of subtracting the background while extracting cloth insulated parts as well. The inherent false positives of the ROI extraction module are limited by the choice of good features in pedestrian validation step. One such feature is curvelet feature, which has found its use extensively in optical images, but has as yet no reported results in thermal images. This has been used to arrive at a pedestrian detector with a reduced false positive rate. This work is the first venture made to scrutinize the utility of curvelet for characterizing pedestrians in thermal images. Attempt has also been made to improve the speed of curvelet transform computation. The classification task is realized through the use of the well known methodology of Support Vector Machines (SVMs). The proposed method is substantiated with qualified evaluation methodologies that permits us to carry out probing and informative comparisons across state-of-the-art features, including deep learning methods, with six

  11. Clustering as an EDA Method: The Case of Pedestrian Directional Flow Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Regina E. Estuar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the data of pedestrian trajectories in NTXY format, three clustering methods of K Means, Expectation Maximization (EM and Affinity Propagation were utilized as Exploratory Data Analysis to find the pattern of pedestrian directional flow behavior. The analysis begins without a prior notion regarding the structure of the pattern and it consequentially infers the structure of directional flow pattern. Significant similarities in patterns for both individual and instantaneous walking angles based on EDA method are reported and explained in case studies

  12. Preferences and behaviour of pedestrians and cyclists by age and gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernhoft, Inger Marie; Carstensen, Gitte

    2008-01-01

    significantly more than the younger respondents do. To a larger extent they feel that it is dangerous to cross the road where these facilities are missing. The older pedestrians also find the presence of a pavement very important on their route whereas the younger pedestrians more often focus on a fast passage....... Differences in preferences and behaviour within the group of older respondents can be related to differences in health and physical abilities rather that to differences in age and gender. The older road users seem to be more influenced by the fact that an action is illegal than the younger road users are...

  13. Pedestrian flow statistical system based on infrared detection method%红外光控人流量统计系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴小林

    2013-01-01

    为了实时统计教室、实验室、图书馆等开放教学场所的人数,实现教学管理自动化。系统采用对红外光线的通断检测的方法来统计进出实验室人数,当有人通过时挡住红外光,输出信号与可编程逻辑器件连接,通过红外收发输入信号顺序的判断,主程序对两路信号进行加减计数;经译码、显示、报警等模块的连接实现可逆流量统计功能。实验表明该系统具有测量精度高,抗干扰能力强、功耗低等特点。设计的创新在于红外检测与可编程器件结合了成本,提高了实时可靠性。%To count the pedestrian flow in real time to enter the open teaching places including classroom,laboratory and li-brary,and realize the automation of teaching management,a system that counts the interrupted times of infrared beam to deter-mine the quantity of pedestrian flow is designed. When someone passes by,blocking the infrared beam,the output signal is con-nected with programmable logic device,through the judgment of the infrared transceiving input signal sequence,the main pro-gram carries out the addition and subtraction counting on the two signals. The reversible flow statistics function is realized by connection of decoding,display and alarm module. Experiments show that this system has high precision,strong anti-interfer-ence ability,low power consumption. The design innovation is that the infrared detection and VHDL are combined with the cost. The design improved the real-time reliability of the system.

  14. Train accidents involving pedestrians, motor vehicles, and motorcycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, B A; Mootha, R K; Lindsey, R W

    1998-04-01

    In the United States, train-related accidents account for more than 18,000 injuries and 1,200 fatalities annually, yet there is a paucity of literature pertaining to this unique injury. We reviewed the medical records of 98 of 135 cases of train-related trauma treated at Ben Taub General Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, from 1990 to 1995. There were 50 train-pedestrian accidents, 47 train-automobile accidents, and 1 train-motorcycle accident, with a mean patient age of 30.1 years (range, 2 to 66 years). Eighteen patients (18%) were pronounced dead on arrival or died shortly after admission. Of the other 80 patients, 27 (34%) were discharged from the emergency department after minor medical treatment, while 53 (66%) were hospitalized, of whom 10 (13%) later expired. The mean Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 11.9 (discharged, 1.8; hospitalized, 14.3; expired, 29.2). Forty-five patients (56%) sustained 57 extremity fractures, and 30 patients (38%) required 40 amputations. Mean Mangled Extremity Severity Score (MESS) for all injured extremities was 5.2 (amputation, 7.7; no amputation, 2.8). On average, the hospitalization cost per patient was greater than $18,698, while the reimbursement from the patients was $2,261, leaving the hospital with a net deficit of approximately 2 million dollars. Surprisingly, train accidents do not always result in serious injury. However, when serious injury is sustained, it is often of high morbidity (amputation) and mortality, which appears to correlate well with the initial MESS and ISS. Extrapolating our cost data to include all train-related accident injuries and deaths indicates that the direct costs to society may exceed 300 million dollars annually. Greater public awareness and preventive measures may reduce the tremendous human and financial costs of train-related accidents.

  15. A pedestrian dead-reckoning system that considers the heel-strike and toe-off phases when using a foot-mounted IMU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Hojin; Lee, Min Su; Park, So Young; Song, Jin Woo; Park, Chan Gook

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an advanced pedestrian dead-reckoning (PDR) algorithm that considers the heel-strike and toe-off phases. Generally, PDR systems that use a foot-mounted inertial measurement unit are based on an inertial navigation system with an extended Kalman filter (EKF). To reduce the influence of the bias and white noises in the gyroscope and accelerometer signals, a zero-velocity update is often adopted at the stance phase. However, transient and large acceleration, which cannot be measured by the accelerometer used in pedestrian navigation, occur momentarily in the heel-strike phase. The velocity information from integration of the acceleration is not reliable because the acceleration is not measured in the heel-strike phase. Therefore, the designed EKF does not correctly reflect the actual environment, because conventional algorithms do not take the non-measurable acceleration into consideration. In order to reflect the actual environment, we propose a PDR system that considers the non-measurable acceleration from the heel-strike impact. To improve the PDR system’s performance, the proposed algorithm uses a new velocity measurement obtained using the constraint between the surface and the foot during the toe-off phase. The experimental results show improved filter performance after comparison of the proposed algorithm and a conventional algorithm.

  16. An Analysis of Distance from Collision Site to Pedestrian Residence in Pedestrian versus Automobile Collisions Presenting to a Level 1 Trauma Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Craig L; Dominguez, Kathlynn M; Hoang, Teresa V; Rowther, Armaan Ahmed; Carroll, M Christy; Lotfipour, Shahram; Hoonpongsimanont, Wirachin; Chakravarthy, Bharath

    2012-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that most pedestrian collisions occur near victims' homes. Patients involved in automobile versus pedestrian collisions who presented to the emergency department at a Level I trauma center between January 2000 and December 2009 were included in the study. Patient demographics were obtained from the trauma registry. Home address was determined from hospital records, collision site was determined from the paramedic run sheet, and the shortest walking distance between the collision site and pedestrian residence was determined using Google Maps. We summarized distances for groups with the median and compared groups using the Kruskal-Wallis rank test. We identified 1917 pedestrian injury cases and identified both residence address and collision location for 1213 cases (63%). Forty-eight percent of the collisions were near home (within 1.1 km, 95% CI 45-51%). Median distance from residence to collision site was 1.4 km (interquartile range 0.3-7.4 km). For ages 0-17, the median distance 0.7 km, and 59% (95% CI 54-63%) of collisions occurred near home. For ages 65 and older, the median distance was 0.6 km and 65% (95% CI 55-73%) were injured near home. Distance did not differ by sex, race, ethnicity, or blood alcohol level. More severe injuries (Injury Severity Score ≥ 16) occurred further from home than less severe injuries (median 1.9 km vs. 1.3 km, p=.01). Patients with a hospital stay of 3 days or less were injured closer to home (median 1.3 km) than patients with a hospital stay of 4 days or more (median 1.8 km, p=.001). Twenty-two percent were injured within the same census tract as their home, 22% on the boundary of their home census tract, and 55% in a different census tract.

  17. Personal factors influencing the visual reaction time of pedestrians to detect turn indicators in the presence of Daytime Running Lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-García, Antonio; de Oña, Rocío; García, Pedro Antonio; de Oña, Juan

    2016-12-01

    Daytime running lamps (DRL) on vehicles have proven to be an effective measure to prevent accidents during the daytime, particularly when pedestrians and cyclists are involved. However, there are negative interactions of DRL with other functions in automotive lighting, such as delays in pedestrians' visual reaction time (VRT) when turn indicators are activated in the presence of DRL. These negative interactions need to be reduced. This work analyses the influence of variables inherent to pedestrians, such as height, gender and visual defects, on the VRT using a classification and regression tree as an exploratory analysis and a generalized linear model to validate the results. Some pedestrian characteristics, such as gender, alone or combined with the DRL colour, and visual defects, were found to have a statistically significant influence on VRT and, hence, on traffic safety. These results and conclusions concerning the interaction between pedestrians and vehicles are presented and discussed. Practitioner Summary: Visual interactions of vehicle daytime running lamps (DRL) with other functions in automotive lighting, such as turn indicators, have an important impact on a vehicle's conspicuity for pedestrians. Depending on several factors inherent to pedestrians, the visual reaction time (VRT) can be remarkably delayed, which has implications in traffic safety.

  18. Modeling the desired direction in a force-based model for pedestrian dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Chraibi, Mohcine; Schadschneider, Andreas; Seyfried, Armin

    2012-01-01

    We introduce an enhanced model based on the generalized centrifugal force model. Furthermore, the desired direction of pedestrians is investigated. A new approach leaning on the well-known concept of static and dynamic floor-fields in cellular automata is presented. Numerical results of the model are presented and compared with empirical data.

  19. Time-delayed Follow-the-Leader model for pedestrians walking in line

    CERN Document Server

    Fehrenbach, Jérôme; Hua, Jiale; Lemercier, Samuel; Jelic, Asja; Appert-Rolland, Cécile; Donikian, Stéphane; Pettré, Julien; Degond, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    We use the results of a pedestrian tracking experiment to identify a follow-the-leader model for pedestrians walking-in-line. We demonstrate the existence of a time-delay between a subject's response and the predecessor's corresponding behavior. This time-delay induces an instability which can be damped out by a suitable relaxation. By comparisons with the experimental data, we show that the model reproduces well the emergence of large-scale structures such as congestions waves. The resulting model can be used either for modeling pedestrian queuing behavior or can be incorporated into bi-dimensional models of pedestrian traffic. Acknowledgements: This work has been supported by the french 'Agence Nationale pour la Recherche (ANR)' in the frame of the contract "Pedigree" (ANR-08-SYSC-015-01). JH acknowledges support of the ANR and the Institut de Math{\\'e}matiques de Toulouse, where he conducted this research. AJ acknowledges support of the ANR and of the Laboratoire de physique t A c orique in Orsay where she...

  20. Dynamic route guidance strategy in a two-route pedestrian-vehicle mixed traffic flow system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mianfang; Xiong, Shengwu; Li, Bixiang

    2016-05-01

    With the rapid development of transportation, traffic questions have become the major issue for social, economic and environmental aspects. Especially, during serious emergencies, it is very important to alleviate road traffic congestion and improve the efficiency of evacuation to reduce casualties, and addressing these problems has been a major task for the agencies responsible in recent decades. Advanced road guidance strategies have been developed for homogeneous traffic flows, or to reduce traffic congestion and enhance the road capacity in a symmetric two-route scenario. However, feedback strategies have rarely been considered for pedestrian-vehicle mixed traffic flows with variable velocities and sizes in an asymmetric multi-route traffic system, which is a common phenomenon in many developing countries. In this study, we propose a weighted road occupancy feedback strategy (WROFS) for pedestrian-vehicle mixed traffic flows, which considers the system equilibrium to ease traffic congestion. In order to more realistic simulating the behavior of mixed traffic objects, the paper adopted a refined and dynamic cellular automaton model (RDPV_CA model) as the update mechanism for pedestrian-vehicle mixed traffic flow. Moreover, a bounded rational threshold control was introduced into the feedback strategy to avoid some negative effect of delayed information and reduce. Based on comparisons with the two previously proposed strategies, the simulation results obtained in a pedestrian-vehicle traffic flow scenario demonstrated that the proposed strategy with a bounded rational threshold was more effective and system equilibrium, system stability were reached.

  1. Combining new data gathering technology and city analytics to investigate pedestrian movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palm, H.; Wismans, L.J.J.; Kievit, de E.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about pedestrian movements, densities and presence in city centers, although this knowledge could improve city planning, design of infrastructure and management of traffic flows. New data sources available due to fast developments in information and communication technology offer new

  2. An Anchor-Based Pedestrian Navigation Approach Using Only Inertial Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yang; Song, Qian; Li, Yanghuan; Ma, Ming; Zhou, Zhimin

    2016-03-07

    In inertial-based pedestrian navigation, anchors can effectively compensate the positioning errors originating from deviations of Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs), by putting constraints on pedestrians' motions. However, these anchors often need to be deployed beforehand, which can greatly increase system complexity, rendering it unsuitable for emergency response missions. In this paper, we propose an anchor-based pedestrian navigation approach without any additional sensors. The anchors are defined as the intersection points of perpendicular corridors and are considered characteristics of building structures. In contrast to these real anchors, virtual anchors are extracted from the pedestrian's trajectory and are considered as observations of real anchors, which can accordingly be regarded as inferred building structure characteristics. Then a Rao-Blackwellized particle filter (RBPF) is used to solve the joint estimation of positions (trajectory) and maps (anchors) problem. Compared with other building structure-based methods, our method has two advantages. The assumption on building structure is minimum and valid in most cases. Even if the assumption does not stand, the method will not lead to positioning failure. Several real-scenario experiments are conducted to validate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method.

  3. 76 FR 44663 - Accessibility Guidelines for Pedestrian Facilities in the Public Right-of-Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... constraints include, but are not limited to, underlying terrain, right-of-way availability, underground... flangeway gaps; On-street parking that is marked or metered, and passenger loading zones; Pedestrian signs... parking, and escalators. The requirements for transit stops and transit shelters used by buses and...

  4. Monitoring the Performance of the Pedestrian Transfer Function of Train Stations Using Automatic Fare Collection Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Heuvel, J.P.A.; Hoogenraad, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last years all train stations in The Netherlands have been equipped with automatic fare collection gates and/or validators. All public transport passengers use a smart card to pay their fare. In this paper we present a monitor for the performance of the pedestrian function of train stations

  5. Equation-Free Analysis of Macroscopic Behavior in Traffic and Pedestrian Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marschler, Christian; Sieber, Jan; Hjorth, Poul G.;

    2014-01-01

    . This will facilitate a study of how the model behavior depends on parameter values including an understanding of transitions between different types of qualitative behavior. These methods are introduced and explained for traffic jam formation and emergence of oscillatory pedestrian counter flow in a corridor...

  6. New pedestrian facilities : technique, observations and opinions : the Dutch experiment. DRIVE project V1061 : pussycats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levelt, P.M.B.

    1993-01-01

    This report is the Dutch part of an international (French-British-Dutch) evaluation study of new pedestrian crossing facilities, summarized under the name 'PUSSYCATS' (See also IRRD 859331). 'PUSSYCATS' is a new system, characterized by technical improvements better adapted to the behaviour and need

  7. Identification and Prediction of Large Pedestrian Flow in Urban Areas Based on a Hybrid Detection Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaisheng Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, population density has grown quickly with the increasing acceleration of urbanization. At the same time, overcrowded situations are more likely to occur in populous urban areas, increasing the risk of accidents. This paper proposes a synthetic approach to recognize and identify the large pedestrian flow. In particular, a hybrid pedestrian flow detection model was constructed by analyzing real data from major mobile phone operators in China, including information from smartphones and base stations (BS. With the hybrid model, the Log Distance Path Loss (LDPL model was used to estimate the pedestrian density from raw network data, and retrieve information with the Gaussian Progress (GP through supervised learning. Temporal-spatial prediction of the pedestrian data was carried out with Machine Learning (ML approaches. Finally, a case study of a real Central Business District (CBD scenario in Shanghai, China using records of millions of cell phone users was conducted. The results showed that the new approach significantly increases the utility and capacity of the mobile network. A more reasonable overcrowding detection and alert system can be developed to improve safety in subway lines and other hotspot landmark areas, such as the Bundle, People’s Square or Disneyland, where a large passenger flow generally exists.

  8. Continuous measurements of real-life bidirectional pedestrian flows on a wide walkway

    CERN Document Server

    Corbetta, Alessandro; Lee, Chung-min; Toschi, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Employing partially overlapping overhead \\kinectTMS sensors and automatic pedestrian tracking algorithms we recorded the crowd traffic in a rectilinear section of the main walkway of Eindhoven train station on a 24/7 basis. Beside giving access to the train platforms (it passes underneath the railways), the walkway plays an important connection role in the city. Several crowding scenarios occur during the day, including high- and low-density dynamics in uni- and bi-directional regimes. In this paper we discuss our recording technique and we illustrate preliminary data analyses. Via fundamental diagrams-like representations we report pedestrian velocities and fluxes vs. pedestrian density. Considering the density range $0$ - $1.1\\,$ped/m$^2$, we find that at densities lower than $0.8\\,$ped/m$^2$ pedestrians in unidirectional flows walk faster than in bidirectional regimes. On the opposite, velocities and fluxes for even bidirectional flows are higher above $0.8\\,$ped/m$^2$.

  9. Pedestrian detection and tracking using a mixture of view-based shape-texture models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munder, S.; Schnörr, C.; Gavrila, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a robust multicue approach to the integrated detection and tracking of pedestrians in a cluttered urban environment. A novel spatiotemporal object representation is proposed, which combines a generative shape model and a discriminative texture classifier, both of which are compos

  10. Indoor Pedestrian Navigation Based on Hybrid Route Planning and Location Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schougaard, Kari Rye; Grønbæk, Kaj; Scharling, Tejs

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces methods and services called PerPosNav for development of custom indoor pedestrian navigation applications to be deployed on a variety of platforms. PerPosNav combines symbolic and geometry based modeling of buildings, and in turn combines graph-based and geometric route...

  11. Recognizing pedestrian's unsafe behaviors in far-infrared imagery at night

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Ju; Ko, Byoung Chul; Nam, Jae-Yeal

    2016-05-01

    Pedestrian behavior recognition is important work for early accident prevention in advanced driver assistance system (ADAS). In particular, because most pedestrian-vehicle crashes are occurred from late of night to early of dawn, our study focus on recognizing unsafe behavior of pedestrians using thermal image captured from moving vehicle at night. For recognizing unsafe behavior, this study uses convolutional neural network (CNN) which shows high quality of recognition performance. However, because traditional CNN requires the very expensive training time and memory, we design the light CNN consisted of two convolutional layers and two subsampling layers for real-time processing of vehicle applications. In addition, we combine light CNN with boosted random forest (Boosted RF) classifier so that the output of CNN is not fully connected with the classifier but randomly connected with Boosted random forest. We named this CNN as randomly connected CNN (RC-CNN). The proposed method was successfully applied to the pedestrian unsafe behavior (PUB) dataset captured from far-infrared camera at night and its behavior recognition accuracy is confirmed to be higher than that of some algorithms related to CNNs, with a shorter processing time.

  12. Moving object localization using optical flow for pedestrian detection from a moving vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariyono, Joko; Hoang, Van-Dung; Jo, Kang-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a pedestrian detection method from a moving vehicle using optical flows and histogram of oriented gradients (HOG). A moving object is extracted from the relative motion by segmenting the region representing the same optical flows after compensating the egomotion of the camera. To obtain the optical flow, two consecutive images are divided into grid cells 14 × 14 pixels; then each cell is tracked in the current frame to find corresponding cell in the next frame. Using at least three corresponding cells, affine transformation is performed according to each corresponding cell in the consecutive images, so that conformed optical flows are extracted. The regions of moving object are detected as transformed objects, which are different from the previously registered background. Morphological process is applied to get the candidate human regions. In order to recognize the object, the HOG features are extracted on the candidate region and classified using linear support vector machine (SVM). The HOG feature vectors are used as input of linear SVM to classify the given input into pedestrian/nonpedestrian. The proposed method was tested in a moving vehicle and also confirmed through experiments using pedestrian dataset. It shows a significant improvement compared with original HOG using ETHZ pedestrian dataset.

  13. Indoor Pedestrian Navigation Using Foot-Mounted IMU and Portable Ultrasound Range Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girard, G.; Cote, S.; Zlatanova, S.; Barette, Y.; St-Pierre, J.; Van Oosterom, P.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Many solutions have been proposed for indoor pedestrian navigation. Some rely on pre-installed sensor networks, which offer good accuracy but are limited to areas that have been prepared for that purpose, thus requiring an expensive and possibly time-consuming process. Such methods are therefore ina

  14. Whole-body Response for Pedestrian Impact with a Generic Sedan Buck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Jason L; Joodaki, Hamad; Forghani, Ali; Riley, Patrick O; Bollapragada, Varun; Lessley, David J; Overby, Brian; Heltzel, Sara; Kerrigan, Jason R; Crandall, Jeff R; Yarboro, Seth; Weiss, David B

    2015-11-01

    To serve as tools for assessing injury risk, the biofidelity of whole-body pedestrian impact dummies should be validated against reference data from full-scale pedestrian impact tests. To facilitate such evaluations, a simplified generic vehicle-buck has been recently developed that is designed to have characteristics representative of a generic small sedan. Three 40 km/h pedestrian-impact tests have been performed, wherein Post Mortem Human Surrogates (PMHS) were struck laterally in a mid-gait stance by the buck. Corridors for select trajectory measures derived from these tests have been published previously. The goal of this study is to act as a companion dataset to that study, describing the head velocities, body region accelerations (head, spine, pelvis, lower extremities), angular velocities, and buck interaction forces, and injuries observed during those tests. Scaled, transformed head accelerations exceeded 80 g prior to head contact with the windshield for two of the three tests. Head xaxis angular velocity exceeded 40 rad/s prior to head contact for all three tests. In all cases the peak resultant head velocity relative to the vehicle was greater than the initial impact speed of the vehicle. Corridors of resultant head velocity relative to the vehicle were also developed, bounded by the velocities observed in these tests combined with those predicted to occur if the PMHS necks were perfectly rigid. These results, along with the other kinematic and kinetic data presented, provide a resource for future pedestrian dummy development and evaluation.

  15. Effects of Picture Prompts Delivered by a Video iPod on Pedestrian Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Kelly R.; Test, David W.; Cooke, Nancy L.

    2013-01-01

    Transportation access is a major contributor to independence, productivity, and societal inclusion for individuals with intellectual and development disabilities (IDD). This study examined the effects of pedestrian navigation training using picture prompts displayed through a video iPod on travel route completion with 4 adults and IDD. Results…

  16. THE ONE-DIMENSIONAL HUGHES MODEL FOR PEDESTRIAN FLOW: RIEMANN-TYPE SOLUTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Debora Amadori; M. Di Francesco

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with a coupled system consisting of a scalar conservation law and an eikonal equation,called the Hughes model.Introduced in [24],this model attempts to describe the motion of pedestrians in a densely crowded region,in which they are seen as a 'thinking' (continuum) fluid.The main mathematical difficulty is the discontinuous gradient of the solution to the eikonal equation appearing in the flux of the conservation law.On a one dimensional interval with zero Dirichlet conditions (the two edges of the interval are interpreted as 'targets'),the model can be decoupled in a way to consider two classical conservation laws on two sub-domains separated by a turning point at which the pedestrians change their direction.We shall consider solutions with a possible jump discontinuity around the turning point.For simplicity,we shall assume they are locally constant on both sides of the discontinuity.We provide a detailed description of the localin-time behavior of the solution in terms of a 'global' qualitative property of the pedestrian density (that we call 'relative evacuation rate'),which can be interpreted as the attitude of the pedestrians to direct towards the left or the right target.We complement our result with explicitly computable examples.

  17. Pedestrian dynamics in single-file movement of crowd with different age compositions

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Shuchao; Salden, Daniel; Ma, Jian; Shi, Chang'an; Zhang, Ruifang

    2016-01-01

    An aging population is bringing new challenges to the management of escape routes and facility design in many countries. This paper investigates pedestrian movement properties of crowd with different age compositions. Three pedestrian groups are considered: young student group, old people group and mixed group. It is found that traffic jams occur more frequently in mixed group due to the great differences of mobilities and self-adaptive abilities among pedestrians. The jams propagate backward with a velocity 0.4 m/s for global density around 1.75 m-1 and 0.3 m/s for higher than 2.3 m-1. The fundamental diagrams of the three groups are obviously different from each other and cannot be unified into one diagram by direct non-dimensionalization. Unlike previous studies, three linear regimes in mixed group but only two regimes in young student group are observed in the headway-velocity relation, which is also verified in the fundamental diagram. Different ages and mobilities of pedestrians in a crowd cause the het...

  18. Empirical analysis of the lane formation process in bidirectional pedestrian flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliciani, Claudio; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents an experimental study on pedestrian bidirectional streams and the mechanisms leading to spontaneous lane formation by examining the flow formed by two groups of people walking toward each other in a mock corridor. Flow ratio is changed by changing each group size while maintaining comparable total flow and density. By tracking the trajectories of each pedestrian and analyzing the data obtained, five different phases were recognized as contributing to the transition from unidirectional to bidirectional flow including the spontaneous creation and dissolution of lanes. It has been shown that a statistical treatment is required to understand the fundamental characteristics of pedestrian dynamics and some two-dimensional quantities such as order parameter and rotation range were introduced to allow a more complete analysis. All the quantities observed showed a clear relationship with flow ratio and helped distinguishing between the different characteristic phases of the experiment. Results show that balanced bidirectional flow becomes the most stable configuration after lanes are formed, but the lane creation process requires pedestrians to laterally move to a largest extent compared to low flow-ratio configurations. This finding allows us to understand the reasons why balanced bidirectional flow is efficient at low densities, but quickly leads to deadlock formation at high densities.

  19. Identifying and Tracking Pedestrians Based on Sensor Fusion and Motion Stability Predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo de la Escalera

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The lack of trustworthy sensors makes development of Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS applications a tough task. It is necessary to develop intelligent systems by combining reliable sensors and real-time algorithms to send the proper, accurate messages to the drivers. In this article, an application to detect and predict the movement of pedestrians in order to prevent an imminent collision has been developed and tested under real conditions. The proposed application, first, accurately measures the position of obstacles using a two-sensor hybrid fusion approach: a stereo camera vision system and a laser scanner. Second, it correctly identifies pedestrians using intelligent algorithms based on polylines and pattern recognition related to leg positions (laser subsystem and dense disparity maps and u-v disparity (vision subsystem. Third, it uses statistical validation gates and confidence regions to track the pedestrian within the detection zones of the sensors and predict their position in the upcoming frames. The intelligent sensor application has been experimentally tested with success while tracking pedestrians that cross and move in zigzag fashion in front of a vehicle.

  20. Identifying and tracking pedestrians based on sensor fusion and motion stability predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musleh, Basam; García, Fernando; Otamendi, Javier; Armingol, José Maria; de la Escalera, Arturo

    2010-01-01

    The lack of trustworthy sensors makes development of Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) applications a tough task. It is necessary to develop intelligent systems by combining reliable sensors and real-time algorithms to send the proper, accurate messages to the drivers. In this article, an application to detect and predict the movement of pedestrians in order to prevent an imminent collision has been developed and tested under real conditions. The proposed application, first, accurately measures the position of obstacles using a two-sensor hybrid fusion approach: a stereo camera vision system and a laser scanner. Second, it correctly identifies pedestrians using intelligent algorithms based on polylines and pattern recognition related to leg positions (laser subsystem) and dense disparity maps and u-v disparity (vision subsystem). Third, it uses statistical validation gates and confidence regions to track the pedestrian within the detection zones of the sensors and predict their position in the upcoming frames. The intelligent sensor application has been experimentally tested with success while tracking pedestrians that cross and move in zigzag fashion in front of a vehicle.

  1. Conservation laws with a non-local flow application to pedestrian traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lécureux-Mercier Magali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this note, we introduce some models of pedestrian traffic and prove existence and uniqueness of solutions for these models. On présente ici différents modèles de trafic piéton et on prouve l’existence et l’unicité des solutions pour ces modèles.

  2. Efficient pedestrian detection from aerial vehicles with object proposals and deep convolutional neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnehan, Breton; Savakis, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    As Unmanned Aerial Systems grow in numbers, pedestrian detection from aerial platforms is becoming a topic of increasing importance. By providing greater contextual information and a reduced potential for occlusion, the aerial vantage point provided by Unmanned Aerial Systems is highly advantageous for many surveillance applications, such as target detection, tracking, and action recognition. However, due to the greater distance between the camera and scene, targets of interest in aerial imagery are generally smaller and have less detail. Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN's) have demonstrated excellent object classification performance and in this paper we adopt them to the problem of pedestrian detection from aerial platforms. We train a CNN with five layers consisting of three convolution-pooling layers and two fully connected layers. We also address the computational inefficiencies of the sliding window method for object detection. In the sliding window configuration, a very large number of candidate patches are generated from each frame, while only a small number of them contain pedestrians. We utilize the Edge Box object proposal generation method to screen candidate patches based on an "objectness" criterion, so that only regions that are likely to contain objects are processed. This method significantly reduces the number of image patches processed by the neural network and makes our classification method very efficient. The resulting two-stage system is a good candidate for real-time implementation onboard modern aerial vehicles. Furthermore, testing on three datasets confirmed that our system offers high detection accuracy for terrestrial pedestrian detection in aerial imagery.

  3. Combining new data gathering technology to investigate pedestrian movements in cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palm, H.; Wismans, L.J.J.; Kievit, de E.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about pedestrian movements, densities and presence in city centers, although this knowledge could improve city planning, design of infrastructure and management of traffic flows. New data sources available due to fast developments in information and communication technology offer new

  4. A Novel Kalman Filter with State Constraint Approach for the Integration of Multiple Pedestrian Navigation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyu Lan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Numerous solutions/methods to solve the existing problems of pedestrian navigation/localization have been proposed in the last decade by both industrial and academic researchers. However, to date there are still major challenges for a single pedestrian navigation system (PNS to operate continuously, robustly, and seamlessly in all indoor and outdoor environments. In this paper, a novel method for pedestrian navigation approach to fuse the information from two separate PNSs is proposed. When both systems are used at the same time by a specific user, a nonlinear inequality constraint between the two systems’ navigation estimates always exists. Through exploring this constraint information, a novel filtering technique named Kalman filter with state constraint is used to diminish the positioning errors of both systems. The proposed method was tested by fusing the navigation information from two different PNSs, one is the foot-mounted inertial navigation system (INS mechanization-based system, the other PNS is a navigation device that is mounted on the user’s upper body, and adopting the pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR mechanization for navigation update. Monte Carlo simulations and real field experiments show that the proposed method for the integration of multiple PNSs could improve each PNS’ navigation performance.

  5. Evaluation of a "Smart" Pedestrian Counting System Based on Echo State Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poigné Axel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have designed an inexpensive intelligent pedestrian counting system. The pedestrian counting system consists of several counters that can be connected together in a distributed fashion and communicate over the wireless channel. The motion pattern is recorded using a set of passive infrared (PIR sensors. Each counter has one wireless sensor node that processes the PIR sensor data and transmits it to a base station. Then echo state network, a special kind of recurrent neural network, is used to predict the pedestrian count from the input pattern. The evaluation of the performance of such networks in a novel kind of application is one focus of this work. The counter gave a performance of 80.4% which is better than the commercially available low-priced pedestrian counters. The article reports the experiments we did for analyzing the counterperformance and lists the strengths and limitations of the current implementation. It will also report the preliminary test results obtained by substituting the PIR sensors with low-cost active IR distance sensors which can improve the counter performance further.

  6. Evaluation of a “Smart” Pedestrian Counting System Based on Echo State Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We have designed an inexpensive intelligent pedestrian counting system. The pedestrian counting system consists of several counters that can be connected together in a distributed fashion and communicate over the wireless channel. The motion pattern is recorded using a set of passive infrared (PIR sensors. Each counter has one wireless sensor node that processes the PIR sensor data and transmits it to a base station. Then echo state network, a special kind of recurrent neural network, is used to predict the pedestrian count from the input pattern. The evaluation of the performance of such networks in a novel kind of application is one focus of this work. The counter gave a performance of 80.4% which is better than the commercially available low-priced pedestrian counters. The article reports the experiments we did for analyzing the counterperformance and lists the strengths and limitations of the current implementation. It will also report the preliminary test results obtained by substituting the PIR sensors with low-cost active IR distance sensors which can improve the counter performance further.

  7. Trajectory data analyses for pedestrian space-time activity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Feng; Du, Fei

    2013-01-01

    It is well recognized that human movement in the spatial and temporal dimensions has direct influence on disease transmission(1-3). An infectious disease typically spreads via contact between infected and susceptible individuals in their overlapped activity spaces. Therefore, daily mobility-activity information can be used as an indicator to measure exposures to risk factors of infection. However, a major difficulty and thus the reason for paucity of studies of infectious disease transmission at the micro scale arise from the lack of detailed individual mobility data. Previously in transportation and tourism research detailed space-time activity data often relied on the time-space diary technique, which requires subjects to actively record their activities in time and space. This is highly demanding for the participants and collaboration from the participants greatly affects the quality of data(4). Modern technologies such as GPS and mobile communications have made possible the automatic collection of trajectory data. The data collected, however, is not ideal for modeling human space-time activities, limited by the accuracies of existing devices. There is also no readily available tool for efficient processing of the data for human behavior study. We present here a suite of methods and an integrated ArcGIS desktop-based visual interface for the pre-processing and spatiotemporal analyses of trajectory data. We provide examples of how such processing may be used to model human space-time activities, especially with error-rich pedestrian trajectory data, that could be useful in public health studies such as infectious disease transmission modeling. The procedure presented includes pre-processing, trajectory segmentation, activity space characterization, density estimation and visualization, and a few other exploratory analysis methods. Pre-processing is the cleaning of noisy raw trajectory data. We introduce an interactive visual pre-processing interface as well as an

  8. 路难走还是走路难?%Pedestrians Plight in Urban Jungles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄良会

    2011-01-01

    基于目前步行交通在国内城市面临的困境,首先从步行行为分析、影响因素以及步行速度、步行环境等方面阐述了对步行交通的基本认识.然后从城市规划与交通规划的角度,剖析了步行交通系统严重匮乏的表面症结与深层次问题,指出以往的城市与交通规划理念以及城市土地开发设计,严重破坏了城市原有机理与步行空间.最后强调在以人为本和节约资源的前提下,重新审视步行交通规划与城市结构布局的必要性.%Deeply concerning pedestrians plight in urban jungles in China, this paper first discusses the pedestrian characteristics, impact factors, walking speed, and walking environment. By analyzing the causes of serious problems in lack of pedestrian facilities from urban planning and transportation planning, the paper pointes out that the current urban and transportation planning and land use development segregates urban structure and pedestrian space. Finally, the paper states that there is an urgent need to review the designing specifications of pedestrian facilities and reevaluating urban structure from perspective of sustainable development and planning with human focus.

  9. Mistakes or deliberate violations? A study into the origins of rule breaking at pedestrian train crossings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, James; Rakotonirainy, Andry

    2015-04-01

    Train pedestrian collisions are the most likely to result in severe injuries and fatalities when compared to other types of rail crossing accidents. However, there is currently scant research that has examined the origins of pedestrians' rule breaking at level crossings. As a result, this study examined the origins of pedestrians' rule breaking behaviour at crossings, with particular emphasis directed towards examining the factors associated with making errors versus deliberation violations. A total of 636 individuals volunteered to participate in the study and completed either an online or paper version of the questionnaire. Quantitative analysis of the data revealed that knowledge regarding crossing rules was high, although up to 18% of level crossing users were either unsure or did not know (in some circumstances) when it was legal to cross at a level crossing. Furthermore, 156 participants (24.52%) reported having intentionally violated the rules at level crossings and 3.46% (n=22) of the sample had previously made a mistake at a crossing. In regards to rule violators, males (particularly minors) were more likely to report breaking rules, and the most frequent occurrence was after the train had passed rather than before it arrives. Regression analysis revealed that males who frequently use pedestrian crossings and report higher sensation seeking traits are most likely to break the rules. This research provides evidence that pedestrians are more likely to deliberately violate rules (rather than make errors) at crossings and it illuminates high risk groups. This paper will further outline the study findings in regards to the development of countermeasures as well as provide direction for future research efforts in this area.

  10. Systems-based approach to investigate unsafe pedestrian behaviour at level crossings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanova, Teodora; Burkhardt, Jean-Marie; Filtness, Ashleigh; Wullems, Christian; Rakotonirainy, Andry; Delhomme, Patricia

    2015-08-01

    Crashes at level crossings are a major issue worldwide. In Australia, as well as in other countries, the number of crashes with vehicles has declined in the past years, while the number of crashes involving pedestrians seems to have remained unchanged. A systematic review of research related to pedestrian behaviour highlighted a number of important scientific gaps in current knowledge. The complexity of such intersections imposes particular constraints to the understanding of pedestrians' crossing behaviour. A new systems-based framework, called Pedestrian Unsafe Level Crossing framework (PULC) was developed. The PULC organises contributing factors to crossing behaviour on different system levels as per the hierarchical classification of Jens Rasmussen's Framework for Risk Management. In addition, the framework adapts James Reason's classification to distinguish between different types of unsafe behaviour. The framework was developed as a tool for collection of generalizable data that could be used to predict current or future system failures or to identify aspects of the system that require further safety improvement. To give it an initial support, the PULC was applied to the analysis of qualitative data from focus groups discussions. A total number of 12 pedestrians who regularly crossed the same level crossing were asked about their daily experience and their observations of others' behaviour which allowed the extraction and classification of factors associated with errors and violations. Two case studies using Rasmussen's AcciMap technique are presented as an example of potential application of the framework. A discussion on the identified multiple risk contributing factors and their interactions is provided, in light of the benefits of applying a systems approach to the understanding of the origins of individual's behaviour. Potential actions towards safety improvement are discussed.

  11. LES case study on pedestrian level ventilation in two neighbourhoods in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Oliver Letzel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Hong Kong is one of the most densely built-up and populated cities in the world. An adequate air ventilation at pedestrian level would ease the thermal stress in its humid subtropical climate, but the high-density city severely reduces the natural ventilation. This case study investigates pedestrian level ventilation in two neighbourhoods in Kowloon, downtown Hong Kong using the parallelized large-eddy-simulation (LES model PALM. The LES technique is chosen here for a city quarter scale pedestrian comfort study despite of its high computational cost. The aims of the paper are a to get a comprehensive overview of pedestrian level ventilation and a better understanding of the ventilation processes in downtown Hong Kong, b to test the LES technique on this urban scale compared to the wind tunnel and c to investigate how numerical/physical parameters influence ventilation. This case study is restricted to neutral stratification in order to allow a direct comparison with the wind tunnel. A sensitivity study quantifies the dependence of site-averaged ventilation on numerical and physical parameters and determines an appropriate urban LES set-up for two 1 km2 neighbourhoods in Kowloon (Tsim Sha Tsui, Mong Kok that are investigated for prevailing E and SW wind. The results reveal the critical dependence of ventilation on the urban morphology. Air paths, street orientations, ground coverage, sites fronting the water, inter connectivity of spaces, building podium size and building heights can all affect the pedestrian wind environment. Isolated tall buildings may have a pronounced impact on ventilation both locally and downstream.

  12. Traffic signatures in suspended dust at pedestrian levels in semiarid zones: Implications for human exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza-Figueroa, Diana; González-Grijalva, Belem; Del Río-Salas, Rafael; Coimbra, Rute; Ochoa-Landin, Lucas; Moreno-Rodríguez, Verónica

    2016-08-01

    Deeper knowledge on dust suspension processes along semiarid zones is critical for understanding potential impacts on human health. Hermosillo city, located in the heart of the Sonoran Desert was chosen to evaluate such impacts. A one-year survey of Total Suspended Particulate Matter (TSPM) was conducted at two different heights (pedestrian and rooftop level). The minimum values of TSPM were reported during monsoon season and winter. Maximum values showed a bimodal distribution, with major peaks associated with increase and decrease of temperature, as well as decreasing humidity. Concentrations of TSPM were significantly exceeded at pedestrian level (∼44% of analyzed days) when compared to roof level (∼18% of analyzed days). Metal concentrations of As, Pb, Cu, Sb, Be, Mg, Ni, and Co were higher at pedestrian level than at roof level. Pixel counting and interpretations based on scanning electron microscopy of dust filters showed a higher percentage of fine particulate fractions at pedestrian level. These fractions occur mainly as metal-enriched agglomerates resembling coarser particles. According to worldwide guidelines, particulate matter sampling should be conducted by monitoring particle sizes equal and inferior to PM10. However, this work suggests that such procedures may compromise risk assessment in semiarid environments, where coarse particles act as main carriers for emergent contaminants related to traffic. This effect is especially concerning at pedestrian level, leading to an underestimation of potential impacts of human exposure. This study brings forward novel aspects that are of relevance for those concerned with dust suspension processes across semiarid regions and related impact on human health.

  13. Analysis of Spatio-Temporal Traffic Patterns Based on Pedestrian Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, S.; Schindler, T.; Klinger, T.; Brenner, C.

    2016-06-01

    For driver assistance and autonomous driving systems, it is essential to predict the behaviour of other traffic participants. Usually, standard filter approaches are used to this end, however, in many cases, these are not sufficient. For example, pedestrians are able to change their speed or direction instantly. Also, there may be not enough observation data to determine the state of an object reliably, e.g. in case of occlusions. In those cases, it is very useful if a prior model exists, which suggests certain outcomes. For example, it is useful to know that pedestrians are usually crossing the road at a certain location and at certain times. This information can then be stored in a map which then can be used as a prior in scene analysis, or in practical terms to reduce the speed of a vehicle in advance in order to minimize critical situations. In this paper, we present an approach to derive such a spatio-temporal map automatically from the observed behaviour of traffic participants in everyday traffic situations. In our experiments, we use one stationary camera to observe a complex junction, where cars, public transportation and pedestrians interact. We concentrate on the pedestrians trajectories to map traffic patterns. In the first step, we extract trajectory segments from the video data. These segments are then clustered in order to derive a spatial model of the scene, in terms of a spatially embedded graph. In the second step, we analyse the temporal patterns of pedestrian movement on this graph. We are able to derive traffic light sequences as well as the timetables of nearby public transportation. To evaluate our approach, we used a 4 hour video sequence. We show that we are able to derive traffic light sequences as well as time tables of nearby public transportation.

  14. The Characteristics of the Factors That Govern the Preferred Force in the Social Force Model of Pedestrian Movement

    CERN Document Server

    Shuaib, Mohammed Mahmod; Abu-Sulyman, Ibtesam M

    2010-01-01

    The social force model which belongs to the microscopic pedestrian studies has been considered as the supremacy by many researchers and due to the main feature of reproducing the self-organized phenomena resulted from pedestrian dynamic. The Preferred Force which is a measurement of pedestrian's motivation to adapt his actual velocity to his desired velocity is an essential term on which the model was set up. This Force has gone through stages of development: first of all, Helbing and Molnar (1995) have modeled the original force for the normal situation. Second, Helbing and his co-workers (2000) have incorporated the panic situation into this force by incorporating the panic parameter to account for the panic situations. Third, Lakoba and Kaup (2005) have provided the pedestrians some kind of intelligence by incorporating aspects of the decision-making capability. In this paper, the authors analyze the most important incorporations into the model regarding the preferred force. They make comparisons between t...

  15. The Search of Pedestrian Traffic Information Collection Method%行人交通信息采集方法分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈腾林; 林贵敏; 黄明芳

    2012-01-01

    The article introduces artificial collection method,video acquisition method,GPS acquisition method and wireless location acquisition method of pedestrian traffic information collection method from the pedestrian traffic characteristics;the article introduces detaily the wireless location acquisition method in pedestrian traffic information collection in use;it is very important significance in the study on pedestrian traffic.%从行人的交通特性出发,分别介绍人工采集法、视频采集法、GPS采集法和无线定位采集法等行人交通信息采集方法。详细分析无线定位采集法在行人交通信息采集中的运用,对研究行人交通具有重要意义。

  16. Traffic Analysis Zones, Traffic and pedestrian data located in Transportation database., Published in unknown, City of Roswell, GA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Traffic Analysis Zones dataset as of unknown. It is described as 'Traffic and pedestrian data located in Transportation database.'. Data by this publisher are...

  17. The shortest time and/or the shortest path strategies in a CA FF pedestrian dynamics model

    CERN Document Server

    Kirik, Ekaterina; Krouglov, Dmitriy

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with a mathematical model of a pedestrian movement. A stochastic cellular automata (CA) approach is used here. The Floor Field (FF) model is a basis model. FF models imply that virtual people follow the shortest path strategy. But people are followed by a strategy of the shortest time as well. This paper is focused on how to mathematically formalize and implement to a model these features of the pedestrian movement. Some results of a simulation are presented.

  18. Micrometeorological simulations to predict the impacts of heat mitigation strategies on pedestrian thermal comfort in a Los Angeles neighborhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taleghani, Mohammad; Sailor, David; Ban-Weiss, George A.

    2016-02-01

    The urban heat island impacts the thermal comfort of pedestrians in cities. In this paper, the effects of four heat mitigation strategies on micrometeorology and the thermal comfort of pedestrians were simulated for a neighborhood in eastern Los Angeles County. The strategies investigated include solar reflective ‘cool roofs’, vegetative ‘green roofs’, solar reflective ‘cool pavements’, and increased street-level trees. A series of micrometeorological simulations for an extreme heat day were carried out assuming widespread adoption of each mitigation strategy. Comparing each simulation to the control simulation assuming current land cover for the neighborhood showed that additional street-trees and cool pavements reduced 1.5 m air temperature, while cool and green roofs mostly provided cooling at heights above pedestrian level. However, cool pavements increased reflected sunlight from the ground to pedestrians at a set of unshaded receptor locations. This reflected radiation intensified the mean radiant temperature and consequently increased physiological equivalent temperature (PET) by 2.2 °C during the day, reducing the thermal comfort of pedestrians. At another set of receptor locations that were on average 5 m from roadways and underneath preexisting tree cover, cool pavements caused significant reductions in surface air temperatures and small changes in mean radiant temperature during the day, leading to decreases in PET of 1.1 °C, and consequent improvements in thermal comfort. For improving thermal comfort of pedestrians during the afternoon in unshaded locations, adding street trees was found to be the most effective strategy. However, afternoon thermal comfort improvements in already shaded locations adjacent to streets were most significant for cool pavements. Green and cool roofs showed the lowest impact on the thermal comfort of pedestrians since they modify the energy balance at roof level, above the height of pedestrians.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF A PEDESTRIAN INDOOR NAVIGATION SYSTEM BASED ON MULTI-SENSOR FUSION AND FUZZY LOGIC ESTIMATION ALGORITHMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. C. Lai

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a pedestrian indoor navigation system based on the multi-sensor fusion and fuzzy logic estimation algorithms. The proposed navigation system is a self-contained dead reckoning navigation that means no other outside signal is demanded. In order to achieve the self-contained capability, a portable and wearable inertial measure unit (IMU has been developed. Its adopted sensors are the low-cost inertial sensors, accelerometer and gyroscope, based on the micro electro-mechanical system (MEMS. There are two types of the IMU modules, handheld and waist-mounted. The low-cost MEMS sensors suffer from various errors due to the results of manufacturing imperfections and other effects. Therefore, a sensor calibration procedure based on the scalar calibration and the least squares methods has been induced in this study to improve the accuracy of the inertial sensors. With the calibrated data acquired from the inertial sensors, the step length and strength of the pedestrian are estimated by multi-sensor fusion and fuzzy logic estimation algorithms. The developed multi-sensor fusion algorithm provides the amount of the walking steps and the strength of each steps in real-time. Consequently, the estimated walking amount and strength per step are taken into the proposed fuzzy logic estimation algorithm to estimates the step lengths of the user. Since the walking length and direction are both the required information of the dead reckoning navigation, the walking direction is calculated by integrating the angular rate acquired by the gyroscope of the developed IMU module. Both the walking length and direction are calculated on the IMU module and transmit to a smartphone with Bluetooth to perform the dead reckoning navigation which is run on a self-developed APP. Due to the error accumulating of dead reckoning navigation, a particle filter and a pre-loaded map of indoor environment have been applied to the APP of the proposed navigation system

  20. An extension of the theory of planned behavior to predict pedestrians' violating crossing behavior using structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongmei; Romero, Stephanie Ballon; Qin, Xiao

    2016-10-01

    This paper aimed to examine pedestrians' self-reported violating crossing behavior intentions by applying the theory of planned behavior (TPB). We studied the behavior intentions regarding instrumental attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, the three basic components of TPB, and extended the theory by adding new factors including descriptive norm, perceived risk and conformity tendency to evaluate their respective impacts on pedestrians' behavior intentions. A questionnaire presented with a scenario that pedestrians crossed the road violating the pedestrian lights at an intersection was designed, and the survey was conducted in Dalian, China. Based on the 260 complete and valid responses, reliability and validity of the data for each question was evaluated. The data were then analyzed by using the structural equation modeling (SEM). The results showed that people had a negative attitude toward the behavior of violating road-crossing rules; they perceived social influences from their family and friends; and they believed that this kind of risky behavior would potentially harm them in a traffic accident. The results also showed that instrumental attitude and subjective norm were significant in the basic TPB model. After adding descriptive norm, subjective norm was no more significant. Other models showed that conformity tendency was a strong predictor, indicating that the presence of other pedestrians would influence behavioral intention. The findings could help to design more effective interventions and safety campaigns, such as changing people's attitude toward this violation behavior, correcting the social norms, increasing their safety awareness, etc. in order to reduce pedestrians' road crossing violations.

  1. The effect of road network patterns on pedestrian safety: A zone-based Bayesian spatial modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qiang; Xu, Pengpeng; Pei, Xin; Wong, S C; Yao, Danya

    2017-02-01

    Pedestrian safety is increasingly recognized as a major public health concern. Extensive safety studies have been conducted to examine the influence of multiple variables on the occurrence of pedestrian-vehicle crashes. However, the explicit relationship between pedestrian safety and road network characteristics remains unknown. This study particularly focused on the role of different road network patterns on the occurrence of crashes involving pedestrians. A global integration index via space syntax was introduced to quantify the topological structures of road networks. The Bayesian Poisson-lognormal (PLN) models with conditional autoregressive (CAR) prior were then developed via three different proximity structures: contiguity, geometry-centroid distance, and road network connectivity. The models were also compared with the PLN counterpart without spatial correlation effects. The analysis was based on a comprehensive crash dataset from 131 selected traffic analysis zones in Hong Kong. The results indicated that higher global integration was associated with more pedestrian-vehicle crashes; the irregular pattern network was proved to be safest in terms of pedestrian crash occurrences, whereas the grid pattern was the least safe; the CAR model with a neighborhood structure based on road network connectivity was found to outperform in model goodness-of-fit, implying the importance of accurately accounting for spatial correlation when modeling spatially aggregated crash data.

  2. Impacts of Pedestrians on Capacity and Delay of Major Street Through Traffic at Two-Way Stop-Controlled Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to estimate the impacts of pedestrians on capacity and average control delay for the major street through traffic at two-way stop-controlled (TWSC intersections. A procedure was proposed to estimate the expected delay for major street through vehicles based on the pedestrian arrival time and motorist yielding behavior. Field data were collected to calibrate the crucial parameters in the established models. The proposed models were then validated against field measured data. It was found that the calibrated models provided reasonable delay estimates. Based on the established models, sensitivity analyses were conducted to identify the effects of pedestrian arrival rate and motorist yield rate on the capacity of the major street through lanes at TWSC intersections. The results suggested that the capacity of the through movement would decrease with an increase in the pedestrian arrival rate. It was also found that, with the same pedestrian arrival rate, the capacity would decrease as the motorist yield rate became higher, and the magnitude of the capacity reduction would increase with an increase in the pedestrian arrival rate.

  3. An Autonomous Waist-Mounted Pedestrian Dead Reckoning System by Coupling Low-Cost MEMS Inertial Sensors and GPS Receiver for 3D Urban Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-feng Li

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Global positioning system (GPS offers a perfect solution to the 3-dimension(3D navigation. However, the GPS-only solution can’t provide continuous and accurate position information in the unfavourable environments, such as urban canyons, indoor buildings, dense foliages due to signal blockage, interference, or jamming etc. A pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR system integrating the self-contained inertial sensors with GPS receiver is proposed to provide a seamless outdoor/indoor 3D pedestrian navigation. The MEM sensor module attached to the user’s waist is composed of a 3-axis accelerometer, a 3-axis gyroscope, a 3-axis digital compass and a barometric pressure sensor, which doesn’t rely on any infrastructure. The positioning algorithm implements a loosely coupled GPS/PDR integration. The sensor data are fused via a complementary filter to reduce the integral drift and magnetic disturbance for accurate heading. The four key components of the PDR algorithm: step detection, stride length estimation, heading and position determination are described in detail and implemented by the microcontroller. The step is detected using the accelerometer signals by the combination of three approaches: sliding window, peak detection and zero-crossing. The step length is estimated using a simple linear relationship with the step frequency. By coupling the step length, azimuth and height, 3D navigation is achieved. The performance of the proposed system is carefully verified through several field outdoor and indoor walking tests. The positioning errors are below 3% of the total traveled distance. The main error source comes from the orientation estimation. The results indicate that the proposed system is effective in accurate tracking.

  4. Long-range dependence and time-clustering behavior in pedestrian movement patterns in stampedes: The Love Parade case-study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Liping; Song, Weiguo; Richard, Yuen Kwok Kit; Ma, Jian; Telesca, Luciano

    2017-03-01

    Pedestrian stampede happened more and more often during these years, such as Love Parade disaster in Germany 2010, trampling in Shanghai bund 2014 and crowd stampede in pilgrimages. Love Parade disaster 2010 stands out for well recorded videos, which are HD quality and available for researchers. There were totally seven surveillance cameras capturing the whole festival progress and the video we study is just before the disaster happened. Pedestrian motion was special and a small disturbance would lead the group to an avalanche in this kind of critical situation. Here we focus on the individual movement pattern. The trajectories of each pedestrian involved were extracted by a mean-shift algorithm. We analyzed the space-time patterns of the pedestrians involved in the Love Parade stampede by using the detrended fluctuation analysis and the coefficient of variation. Our results reveal that the pedestrians' movement in crowd-quakes is persistent in space, globally time-clusterized but locally regular or quasi-periodic behavior. Pedestrian movement was treated as stop and go state by point process-based representation. When the threshold increases, this means that the "go" state is longer and pedestrians keep on walking in several consecutive time frames; this is difficult in crowded situations and lead to special time-clustering behavior of the sequence of "go" events. The study reveals pedestrian motion characteristics in critical situations, which will enhance the understanding of pedestrian behaviors and supply early warning features for not only Love Parade Disaster, but also other similar large events.

  5. Towards direct realisation of the SI unit of sound pressure in the audible hearing range based on optical free-field acoustic particle measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koukoulas, Triantafillos, E-mail: triantafillos.koukoulas@npl.co.uk; Piper, Ben [Acoustics Group, National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington, Middlesex TW11 0LW (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-20

    Since the introduction of the International System of Units (the SI system) in 1960, weights, measures, standardised approaches, procedures, and protocols have been introduced, adapted, and extensively used. A major international effort and activity concentrate on the definition and traceability of the seven base SI units in terms of fundamental constants, and consequently those units that are derived from the base units. In airborne acoustical metrology and for the audible range of frequencies up to 20 kHz, the SI unit of sound pressure, the pascal, is realised indirectly and without any knowledge or measurement of the sound field. Though the principle of reciprocity was originally formulated by Lord Rayleigh nearly two centuries ago, it was devised in the 1940s and eventually became a calibration standard in the 1960s; however, it can only accommodate a limited number of acoustic sensors of specific types and dimensions. International standards determine the device sensitivity either through coupler or through free-field reciprocity but rely on the continuous availability of specific acoustical artefacts. Here, we show an optical method based on gated photon correlation spectroscopy that can measure sound pressures directly and absolutely in fully anechoic conditions, remotely, and without disturbing the propagating sound field. It neither relies on the availability or performance of any measurement artefact nor makes any assumptions of the device geometry and sound field characteristics. Most importantly, the required units of sound pressure and microphone sensitivity may now be experimentally realised, thus providing direct traceability to SI base units.

  6. A mobile phone system to find crosswalks for visually impaired pedestrians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Huiying; Chan, Kee-Yip; Coughlan, James; Brabyn, John

    2008-10-22

    Urban intersections are the most dangerous parts of a blind or visually impaired pedestrian's travel. A prerequisite for safely crossing an intersection is entering the crosswalk in the right direction and avoiding the danger of straying outside the crosswalk. This paper presents a proof of concept system that seeks to provide such alignment information. The system consists of a standard mobile phone with built-in camera that uses computer vision algorithms to detect any crosswalk visible in the camera's field of view; audio feedback from the phone then helps the user align him/herself to it. Our prototype implementation on a Nokia mobile phone runs in about one second per image, and is intended for eventual use in a mobile phone system that will aid blind and visually impaired pedestrians in navigating traffic intersections.

  7. Pedestrian dynamics with explicit sharing of exit choice during egress through a long corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Aravinda Ramakrishnan; Karan, Farshad Salimi Naneh; Chakraborty, Subhadeep

    2017-02-01

    The egress literature abounds with studies and models of emergency pedestrian evacuation behavior. Each model tries to incorporate more details and features of the crowd movement dynamics to improve its accuracy. This paper combines a relatively simple pedestrian motion model with a position dependent Voter model to study the effects of opinion sharing on crowd evacuation characteristics. Effect of the presence of leaders on the final outcome of the evacuation is studied in detail. An analytical solution for a simplified version of the egress dynamics with opinion exchange is presented, followed by a set of numerical simulations. Interesting findings about the effect of the strength of interaction between individuals, number and distribution of leaders and initial bias of the evacuees on the final distribution of evacuees over available exits, mean number of steps to evacuate, etc. are presented.

  8. Pedestrians moving in dark: Balancing measures and playing games on lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Muntean, Adrian; Krehel, Oleh; Böhm, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We present two conceptually new modeling approaches aimed at describing the motion of pedestrians in obscured corridors: * a Becker-D\\"{o}ring-type dynamics * a probabilistic cellular automaton model. In both models the group formation is affected by a threshold. The pedestrians are supposed to have very limited knowledge about their current position and their neighborhood; they can form groups up to a certain size and they can leave them. Their main goal is to find the exit of the corridor. Although being of mathematically different character, the discussion of both models shows that it seems to be a disadvantage for the individual to adhere to larger groups. We illustrate this effect numerically by solving both model systems. Finally we list some of our main open questions and conjectures.

  9. Self-propelled pedestrian dynamics model: Application to passenger movement and infection propagation in airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namilae, S.; Srinivasan, A.; Mubayi, A.; Scotch, M.; Pahle, R.

    2017-01-01

    Reducing the number of contacts between passengers on an airplane can potentially curb the spread of infectious diseases. In this paper, a social force based pedestrian movement model is formulated and applied to evaluate the movement and contacts among passengers during boarding and deplaning of an airplane. Within the social force modeling framework, we introduce location dependence on the self-propelling momentum of pedestrian particles. The model parameters are varied over a large design space and the results are compared with experimental observations to validate the model. This model is then used to assess the different approaches to minimize passenger contacts during boarding and deplaning of airplanes. We find that smaller aircrafts are effective in reducing the contacts between passengers. Column wise deplaning and random boarding are found to be two strategies that reduced the number of contacts during passenger movement, and can potentially lower the likelihood of infection spread.

  10. Self-Propelled Pedestrian Dynamics Model: Application to Passenger Movement and Infection Propagation in Airplanes

    CERN Document Server

    Namilae, S; Mubayi, A; Scotch, M; Pahle, R

    2016-01-01

    Reducing the number of contacts between passengers on an airplane can potentially curb the spread of infectious diseases. In this paper, a social force based pedestrian movement model is formulated and applied to evaluate the movement and contacts among passengers during boarding and deplaning of an airplane. Within the social force modeling framework, we introduce location dependence on the self-propelling momentum of pedestrian particles. The model parameters are varied over a large design space and the results are compared with experimental observations to validate the model. This model is then used to assess the different approaches to minimize passenger contacts during boarding and deplaning of airplanes. We find that smaller aircrafts are effective in reducing the contacts between passengers. Column wise deplaning and random boarding are found to be two strategies that reduced the number of contacts during passenger movement, and can potentially lower the likelihood of infection spread.

  11. Conditionality and risk for the pedestrian: modelling with the Bayesian networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaymard, Sandrine; Tiplica, Teodor

    2015-01-01

    The conditional script questionnaire (CSQ) makes possible to study the conditions under which drivers find it legitimate to transgress the Highway Code. In this paper, we propose to analyse conditional respect towards the pedestrian with a new methodology based on Bayesian networks (BN). This methodology is designed to give a useful decision support tool for the analyst. Starting from data encoded in the CSQ, we use structure learning algorithms in order to build a BN. Then, we exploit it for two purposes: to extract new knowledge about the main topics expressed in the CSQ and to make inferences. This methodology helps to better understand the behaviour of drivers interacting with pedestrians and what might be the cause of their decisions of legitimate transgressions. The efficiency of the methodology proposed here is illustrated and a context-dependent 'mapping' of the legitimate transgressions established.

  12. On the Hughes' model for pedestrian flow: The one-dimensional case

    KAUST Repository

    Di Francesco, Marco

    2011-02-01

    In this paper we investigate the mathematical theory of Hughes\\' model for the flow of pedestrians (cf. Hughes (2002) [17]), consisting of a non-linear conservation law for the density of pedestrians coupled with an eikonal equation for a potential modelling the common sense of the task. For such an approximated system we prove existence and uniqueness of entropy solutions (in one space dimension) in the sense of Kružkov (1970) [22], in which the boundary conditions are posed following the approach of Bardos et al. (1979) [7]. We use BV estimates on the density ρ and stability estimates on the potential Π in order to prove uniqueness. Furthermore, we analyze the evolution of characteristics for the original Hughes\\' model in one space dimension and study the behavior of simple solutions, in order to reproduce interesting phenomena related to the formation of shocks and rarefaction waves. The characteristic calculus is supported by numerical simulations. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

  13. AN ANALYTICAL APPROACH TO GENERATE UNIQUE SONG SIGNAL (AUSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uttam Kr. Mondal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Embedding uniqueness in characteristics of song signal and accustoming changes of environment is one of the challenging issues for researchers with maintaining its audible quality. Researchers are modifying or manipulating audio signal properties for generating uniqueness in content such a manner that will not vary so much in changed environment or changes can be easily defined due to unique structure of song signal. In this paper, an approach has been made based on defining a symmetric structure of song signal, followed by some secret code embedding in a specified manner will not alter the trade off ratio of embedding/modifying data but provide uniqueness in properties, even retain the properties in changing environment/ format. Therefore, authentication of song signal is easily achieved with these self manipulated properties. A comparative study has been made with similar existing techniques and experimental results are also supported with mathematical formula based on Microsoft WAVE (".wav" stereo sound file.

  14. Risk factors in road crossing among elderly pedestrians and readiness to adopt safe behavior in socio-economic comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, Tova; Sapir-Lavid, Yael; Perlman, Amotz

    2016-08-01

    This research examines the Health Promotion Behavior (HPB) models regarding elderly pedestrians' behaviors and attitudes. We studied cognitive-psychological variables, such as risk estimation, self-efficacy and demographic variables and compared elderly pedestrians' attitudes and behaviors in a city with higher socio-economic level (Tel Aviv) versus a city with low socio-economic level (Beer Sheva). We expected to find more problematic behaviors among elderly pedestrians in the low socio-economic city compared to the high socio-economic city, and also less feeling of self-efficacy, and lessened awareness of the risks, that leads to lessened willingness to adopt preventive behaviors. The research was conducted in two studies. The first study was based on observations on 2591 pedestrians in six similar crosswalks in both cities. It revealed that pedestrians in the high socio-economic city demonstrated safer road crossing patterns than in the low socio-economic city and that elderly pedestrians reveal safer crossing patterns than younger pedestrians. We found an interaction of location and age due to greater gap of safe behaviors of elderly and young pedestrians in the high socio-economic city than in the low socio-economic city. In Tel Aviv elderly adhere to the crossing rules much more than the young while in Beer Sheva elderly and young people are almost similar in their crossing patterns. The second study used questionnaires that have been completed by 143 elderly in both cities. The questionnaires referred to (a) demographic variables such as gender, age, marital status, education, socio-economic level, (b) variables related to the affiliation to the main culture such as migration, date of migration, knowledge in Hebrew (local language) and connectivity to media and (c) cognitive as well as psychological variables related to the decline to adopt healthy behaviors based on Schwarzer and Fuchs (1995). This part also indicated that elderly in Tel Aviv have higher

  15. A sketch planning methodology for determining interventions for bicycle and pedestrian crashes: an ecological approach

    OpenAIRE

    Thakuriah, P.; Cottrill, C.; Thomas, N.; Vaughn, S.

    2010-01-01

    Bicycle and pedestrian safety planning have recently been gaining increased attention. With this focus, however, comes increased responsibilities for planning agencies and organizations tasked with evaluating and selecting safety interventions, a potentially arduous task given limited staff and resources. This study presents a sketch planning framework based on ecological factors that attempts to provide an efficient and effective method of selecting appropriate intervention measures. A Chica...

  16. Influence of Pedestrian Trajectories on School Children Exposure to PM10

    OpenAIRE

    João Garcia; Rita Cerdeira; Luís Coelho; Prashant Kumar; Maria da Graça Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    Three pedestrian trajectories are considered to study the influence of PM10 concentrations on children exposure, in a high-traffic street canyon. Two types of exposure were calculated: daily exposure for each wind condition and cumulative annual exposure considering all wind conditions. FLUENT was used to simulate the flow, turbulence, and PM10 dispersion in the street canyon. Our results indicate that exposure is influenced by the chosen walking trajectory and wind direction. When considerin...

  17. Pedestrian Validation in Infrared Images by Means of Active Contours and Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    only if there are hot regions inside the bounding box; a useful side effect, then, is an excessive snake contraction when there are not warm blobs ...algorithm flow for the complete pedestrian system. Different approaches have been developed for the initial detection in the two image domains: warm ...typical scenarios in FIR and visible images. Infrared Visible Warm area Edge FIR VIS Tetra vision Stereo M erge Symmetry Head Probabilistic model Fin

  18. Real-world car-to-pedestrian-crash data from an urban centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthes Gerrit

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pedestrians are at a high risk for crash and injury. This study aims at comparing data from real world crashes with data gathered from experimental settings. Methods IMPAIR (In-Depth Medical Pedestrian Accident Investigation and Reconstruction was a prospective, observational study performed in a metropolitan area. Data was collected on-scene, from clinical records, and interviews. Data comprise crash data, details on injury pattern and injury severity. Results Thirty-seven pedestrians (of which 19 males with a mean 37.1 years of age were included in the study. The mean collision speed was 49.5 km/h (SD 13.7, range, 28 - 93. The mean ISS (31.0, SD 25.4 and the 24% fatality rate indicate a substantial trauma load. The most common AIS 4+ injuries were to the head (23 subjects, followed by chest (8, pelvis (4, and abdomen (2. An association of impact side and injury side (right/left was found for abdominal, chest, pelvic, and upper limb injuries. Primary head impacts were documented on the windscreen (19 subjects, hood (10, A-pillar (2, and edge of the car roof (2. With bivariate analysis, a significant increase of MAIS 4+ head injury risk was found for collision speeds of >40 km/h (OR 9.00, 95% CI 1.96-41.36. Conclusion The real-world data from this study is in agreement with previous findings from biomechanical models and other simulations. This data suggest that there may be reason to include further pedestrian regulations in EuroNCAP.

  19. A School-Hospital Partnership Increases Knowledge of Pedestrian and Motor Vehicle Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Shelby L; Arbogast, Helen; Ruiz, Pearl; Farag, Mina; Demeter, Natalie E; Upperman, Jeffrey S; Burke, Rita V

    2015-12-01

    Pedestrian and motor vehicle-related injuries are leading causes of morbidity and mortality in children. Trauma centers have specialized resources to conduct interventions that improve the safety of whole communities. In the present study, we evaluated the effectiveness of a school-hospital partnership in increasing knowledge of pedestrian and motor vehicle safety among students and parents in a large, urban community. Staff from a Level I pediatric trauma center conducted educational interventions in an urban public school district. Elementary school students participated in a pedestrian safety program, middle school students completed a community safety program, and high school students learned about the dangers of drunk and distracted driving. Students completed pre- and post-tests. Parents in the neighboring community received child passenger safety education at two child restraint (CR) inspection events. A total of 2203 students participated at a total of nine schools. Post-test scores were significantly higher than pre-test scores for students in all three age groups and within each grade level. At CR inspection events, 67 CRs were inspected, 49 (73 %) of which were replaced with new age- and weight- appropriate CRs. The most common instance of improper CR use was loose CR fit in vehicle seat (33 %). All 120 observed instances of misuse were corrected by a certified Child Passenger Safety Technician. Educational interventions effectively increased knowledge of pedestrian and motor vehicle safety among students and parents. We have demonstrated the utility of a school-hospital partnership for furthering knowledge of safety in an urban community.

  20. Pedestrian Planning in City Centers: a Study of Guimarães and Braga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Rubayet Rahaman

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available People are walking in cities for different reasons. Some walkers walk for going to work, some are walking for shopping and some are for leisure during day and night hours. Medium sized cities like Braga and Guimarães in Portugal are depending on car for even shorter trips up to 2 kilometers. However, the walkways are allowing people to walk in convenient and safe way including late night environment. The pedestrians feel troublesome to walk on the footpaths because of illegal parking and discontinuation of walkways. Municipality transport plans and master plans do not incorporate pedestrians as a major component. But this egress mode of transportation is very important in medium sized city centers like Guimarães and Braga for the people to enjoy city centers’ activities. This paper focuses on the types of walkers who use the walkways on a regular basis. Usually, people are feeling comfortable to walk when they go to clubs and bars in a group in these small cities especially after work. This paper again tries to focus the varieties of problems on walkways and to present policies that can improve the situation. Municipal master plan and transportation plan have been studied carefully to see the provisions of pedestrian planning options. Field surveys have been conducted both in form of questionnaire and observation during the end of 2009 and results show different patterns of pedestrian behavior as well as evidence that people get different experiences with problems while walking on the walkways in both surveyed towns. Considering the issues of sustainable mobility, this paper also tries to suggest policies to motivate more people to walk especially in the medium-sized cities of Portugal.

  1. Advanced Emergency Braking Controller Design for Pedestrian Protection Oriented Automotive Collision Avoidance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Lie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Automotive collision avoidance system, which aims to enhance the active safety of the vehicle, has become a hot research topic in recent years. However, most of the current systems ignore the active protection of pedestrian and other vulnerable groups in the transportation system. An advanced emergency braking control system is studied by taking into account the pedestrians and the vehicles. Three typical braking scenarios are defined and the safety situations are assessed by comparing the current distance between the host vehicle and the obstacle with the critical braking distance. To reflect the nonlinear time-varying characteristics and control effect of the longitudinal dynamics, the vehicle longitudinal dynamics model is established in CarSim. Then the braking controller with the structure of upper and lower layers is designed based on sliding mode control and the single neuron PID control when confronting deceleration or emergency braking conditions. Cosimulations utilizing CarSim and Simulink are finally carried out on a CarSim intelligent vehicle model to explore the effectiveness of the proposed controller. Results display that the designed controller has a good response in preventing colliding with the front vehicle or pedestrian.

  2. GIS Data Collection for Pedestrian Facilities and Furniture Using Mapinr for Android

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naharudin, N.; Ahamad, M. S. S.; Sadullah, A. F. M.

    2016-09-01

    Mobile GIS is introduced to reduce the time taken in completing the field data collection procedure. With the expansion of technology today, mobile GIS is not far behind. It can be integrated with the high-end innovation tools like smartphones. Spatial data capture which deemed to be the toughest stage of a GIS project is made simple with this method. Many studies had demonstrated the usage of mobile GIS in collecting spatial data and this paper discusses how it can be applied in capturing the GPS location of pedestrian furniture and facilities. Although some of the spatial data are available from local agencies, still a more detailed data is needed to create a better data model for this study. This study uses a free android application, MAPinr, which is available on the Google PlayStore to collect spatial data on site. It adopted the GNSS and cellular network positioning to locate the position of the required data. As the application allows the captured data to be exported to a GIS platform, the geometric error of the data was improved. In the end, an authenticated spatial dataset comprising pedestrian facilities and furniture in point and line form will be produced and later be used in a pedestrian network analysis study.

  3. AN INDOOR SPACE PARTITION METHOD AND ITS FINGERPRINT POSITIONING OPTIMIZATION CONSIDERING PEDESTRIAN ACCESSIBILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Xu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fingerprint positioning method is generally the first choice in indoor navigation system due to its high accuracy and low cost. The accuracy depends on partition density to the indoor space. The accuracy will be higher with higher grid resolution. But the high grid resolution leads to significantly increasing work of the fingerprint data collection, processing and maintenance. This also might decrease the performance, portability and robustness of the navigation system. Meanwhile, traditional fingerprint positioning method use equational grid to partition the indoor space. While used for pedestrian navigation, sometimes a person can be located at the area where he or she cannot access. This paper studied these two issues, proposed a new indoor space partition method considering pedestrian accessibility, which can increase the accuracy of pedestrian position, and decrease the volume of the fingerprint data. Based on this proposed partition method, an optimized algorithm for fingerprint position was also designed. A across linker structure was used for fingerprint point index and matching. Experiment based on the proposed method and algorithm showed that the workload of fingerprint collection and maintenance were effectively decreased, and poisoning efficiency and accuracy was effectively increased

  4. An Indoor Space Partition Method and its Fingerprint Positioning Optimization Considering Pedestrian Accessibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yue; Shi, Yong; Zheng, Xingyu; Long, Yi

    2016-06-01

    Fingerprint positioning method is generally the first choice in indoor navigation system due to its high accuracy and low cost. The accuracy depends on partition density to the indoor space. The accuracy will be higher with higher grid resolution. But the high grid resolution leads to significantly increasing work of the fingerprint data collection, processing and maintenance. This also might decrease the performance, portability and robustness of the navigation system. Meanwhile, traditional fingerprint positioning method use equational grid to partition the indoor space. While used for pedestrian navigation, sometimes a person can be located at the area where he or she cannot access. This paper studied these two issues, proposed a new indoor space partition method considering pedestrian accessibility, which can increase the accuracy of pedestrian position, and decrease the volume of the fingerprint data. Based on this proposed partition method, an optimized algorithm for fingerprint position was also designed. A across linker structure was used for fingerprint point index and matching. Experiment based on the proposed method and algorithm showed that the workload of fingerprint collection and maintenance were effectively decreased, and poisoning efficiency and accuracy was effectively increased

  5. Simulation of Evacuation Characteristics Using a 2-Dimensional Cellular Automata Model for Pedestrian Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiang Ji

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In public places, the high pedestrian density is one of the direct causes leading to crowding and trample disaster, so it is very necessary to investigate the collective and evacuation characteristics for pedestrian movement. In the occupants’ evacuation process, the people-people interaction and the people-environment interaction are sufficiently considered in this paper, which have been divided into the exit attraction, the repulsion force between people, the friction between people, the repulsion force between human and barrier, and the attraction of surrounding people. Through analyzing the existing models, a new occupant evacuation cellular automata (CA model based on the social force model is presented, which overcomes the shortage of the high density crowd simulation and combines the advantages that CA has sample rules and faster calculating speed. The simulating result shows a great applicability for evacuation under the high density crowd condition, and the segregation phenomena have also been found in the bidirectional pedestrian flow. Besides these, setting isolated belt near the exit or entrance of underpass not only remarkably decreases the density and the risk of tramper disaster but also increases the evacuation efficiency, so it provides a new idea for infrastructure design about the exits and entrances.

  6. Pedestrian induced vertical vibrations: Response to running using the Response Spectrum Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matteoni, Giulia; Georgakis, Christos

    2010-01-01

    Footbridges are increasingly prone to vibrations and designers are generally unable to predict pedestrian-induced vertical vibrations. Many aspects of human loading are infact not properly taken into account for in the load models employed by the international codes of practice, such as the rando......Footbridges are increasingly prone to vibrations and designers are generally unable to predict pedestrian-induced vertical vibrations. Many aspects of human loading are infact not properly taken into account for in the load models employed by the international codes of practice......, such as the randomness of crowds travelling across the footbridge. Moreover, the codes, for most of the part, do not deal with pedestrian loading other than walking, even though running and jumping can often produce larger loads and vibration amplitudes. In this paper, an investigation inot the response of footbridges...... into account variations in the structural characteristics, crowd morphology and return period. The correction factors, together with the reference acceleration, are used to determine the final response of the footbridge, for a given probability of load occurrence....

  7. Dynamic Track Management in MHT for Pedestrian Tracking Using Laser Range Finder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hadi Abd Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Real time pedestrian tracking could be one of the important features for autonomous navigation. Laser Range Finder (LRF produces accurate pedestrian data but a problem occurs when a pedestrian is represented by multiple clusters which affect the overall tracking process. Multiple Hypothesis Tracking (MHT is a proven method to solve tracking problem but suffers a large computational cost. In this paper, a multilevel clustering of LRF data is proposed to improve the accuracy of a tracking system by adding another clustering level after the feature extraction process. A Dynamic Track Management (DTM is introduced in MHT with multiple motion models to perform a track creation, association, and deletion. The experimental results from real time implementation prove that the proposed multiclustering is capable of producing a better performance with less computational complexity for a track management process. The proposed Dynamic Track Management is able to solve the tracking problem with lower computation time when dealing with occlusion, crossed track, and track deletion.

  8. A robust system for real-time pedestrian detection and tracking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琦; 邵春福; 赵熠

    2014-01-01

    A real-time pedestrian detection and tracking system using a single video camera was developed to monitor pedestrians. This system contained six modules:video flow capture, pre-processing, movement detection, shadow removal, tracking, and object classification. The Gaussian mixture model was utilized to extract the moving object from an image sequence segmented by the mean-shift technique in the pre-processing module. Shadow removal was used to alleviate the negative impact of the shadow to the detected objects. A model-free method was adopted to identify pedestrians. The maximum and minimum integration methods were developed to integrate multiple cues into the mean-shift algorithm and the initial tracking iteration with the competent integrated probability distribution map for object tracking. A simple but effective algorithm was proposed to handle full occlusion cases. The system was tested using real traffic videos from different sites. The results of the test confirm that the system is reliable and has an overall accuracy of over 85%.

  9. GIS DATA COLLECTION FOR PEDESTRIAN FACILITIES AND FURNITURE USING MAPINR FOR ANDROID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Naharudin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile GIS is introduced to reduce the time taken in completing the field data collection procedure. With the expansion of technology today, mobile GIS is not far behind. It can be integrated with the high-end innovation tools like smartphones. Spatial data capture which deemed to be the toughest stage of a GIS project is made simple with this method. Many studies had demonstrated the usage of mobile GIS in collecting spatial data and this paper discusses how it can be applied in capturing the GPS location of pedestrian furniture and facilities. Although some of the spatial data are available from local agencies, still a more detailed data is needed to create a better data model for this study. This study uses a free android application, MAPinr, which is available on the Google PlayStore to collect spatial data on site. It adopted the GNSS and cellular network positioning to locate the position of the required data. As the application allows the captured data to be exported to a GIS platform, the geometric error of the data was improved. In the end, an authenticated spatial dataset comprising pedestrian facilities and furniture in point and line form will be produced and later be used in a pedestrian network analysis study.

  10. U-Access: a web-based system for routing pedestrians of differing abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobek, Adam D.; Miller, Harvey J.

    2006-09-01

    For most people, traveling through urban and built environments is straightforward. However, for people with physical disabilities, even a short trip can be difficult and perhaps impossible. This paper provides the design and implementation of a web-based system for the routing and prescriptive analysis of pedestrians with different physical abilities within built environments. U-Access, as a routing tool, provides pedestrians with the shortest feasible route with respect to one of three differing ability levels, namely, peripatetic (unaided mobility), aided mobility (mobility with the help of a cane, walker or crutches) and wheelchair users. U-Access is also an analytical tool that can help identify obstacles in built environments that create routing discrepancies among pedestrians with different physical abilities. This paper discusses the system design, including database, algorithm and interface specifications, and technologies for efficiently delivering results through the World Wide Web (WWW). This paper also provides an illustrative example of a routing problem and an analytical evaluation of the existing infrastructure which identifies the obstacles that pose the greatest discrepancies between physical ability levels. U-Access was evaluated by wheelchair users and route experts from the Center for Disability Services at The University of Utah, USA.

  11. The Walking Behaviour of Pedestrian Social Groups and Its Impact on Crowd Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussaïd, Mehdi; Perozo, Niriaska; Garnier, Simon; Helbing, Dirk; Theraulaz, Guy

    2010-01-01

    Human crowd motion is mainly driven by self-organized processes based on local interactions among pedestrians. While most studies of crowd behaviour consider only interactions among isolated individuals, it turns out that up to 70% of people in a crowd are actually moving in groups, such as friends, couples, or families walking together. These groups constitute medium-scale aggregated structures and their impact on crowd dynamics is still largely unknown. In this work, we analyze the motion of approximately 1500 pedestrian groups under natural condition, and show that social interactions among group members generate typical group walking patterns that influence crowd dynamics. At low density, group members tend to walk side by side, forming a line perpendicular to the walking direction. As the density increases, however, the linear walking formation is bent forward, turning it into a V-like pattern. These spatial patterns can be well described by a model based on social communication between group members. We show that the V-like walking pattern facilitates social interactions within the group, but reduces the flow because of its “non-aerodynamic” shape. Therefore, when crowd density increases, the group organization results from a trade-off between walking faster and facilitating social exchange. These insights demonstrate that crowd dynamics is not only determined by physical constraints induced by other pedestrians and the environment, but also significantly by communicative, social interactions among individuals. PMID:20383280

  12. Older Adults' Outdoor Walking: Inequalities in Neighbourhood Safety, Pedestrian Infrastructure and Aesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandieh, Razieh; Martinez, Javier; Flacke, Johannes; Jones, Phil; van Maarseveen, Martin

    2016-11-25

    Older adults living in high-deprivation areas walk less than those living in low-deprivation areas. Previous research has shown that older adults' outdoor walking levels are related to the neighbourhood built environment. This study examines inequalities in perceived built environment attributes (i.e., safety, pedestrian infrastructure and aesthetics) and their possible influences on disparities in older adults' outdoor walking levels in low- and high-deprivation areas of Birmingham, United Kingdom. It applied a mixed-method approach, included 173 participants (65 years and over), used GPS technology to measure outdoor walking levels, used questionnaires (for all participants) and conducted walking interviews (with a sub-sample) to collect data on perceived neighbourhood built environment attributes. The results show inequalities in perceived neighbourhood safety, pedestrian infrastructure and aesthetics in high- versus low-deprivation areas and demonstrate that they may influence disparities in participants' outdoor walking levels. Improvements of perceived neighbourhood safety, pedestrian infrastructure and aesthetic in high-deprivation areas are encouraged.

  13. An extended cost potential field cellular automata model considering behavior variation of pedestrian flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fang; Li, Xingli; Kuang, Hua; Bai, Yang; Zhou, Huaguo

    2016-11-01

    The original cost potential field cellular automata describing normal pedestrian evacuation is extended to study more general evacuation scenarios. Based on the cost potential field function, through considering the psychological characteristics of crowd under emergencies, the quantitative formula of behavior variation is introduced to reflect behavioral changes caused by psychology tension. The numerical simulations are performed to investigate the effects of the magnitude of behavior variation, the different pedestrian proportions with different behavior variation and other factors on the evacuation efficiency and process in a room. The spatiotemporal dynamic characteristic during the evacuation process is also discussed. The results show that compared with the normal evacuation, the behavior variation under an emergency does not necessarily lead to the decrease of the evacuation efficiency. At low density, the increase of the behavior variation can improve the evacuation efficiency, while at high density, the evacuation efficiency drops significantly with the increasing amplitude of the behavior variation. In addition, the larger proportion of pedestrian affected by the behavior variation will prolong the evacuation time.

  14. Older Adults’ Outdoor Walking: Inequalities in Neighbourhood Safety, Pedestrian Infrastructure and Aesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh Zandieh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Older adults living in high-deprivation areas walk less than those living in low-deprivation areas. Previous research has shown that older adults’ outdoor walking levels are related to the neighbourhood built environment. This study examines inequalities in perceived built environment attributes (i.e., safety, pedestrian infrastructure and aesthetics and their possible influences on disparities in older adults’ outdoor walking levels in low- and high-deprivation areas of Birmingham, United Kingdom. It applied a mixed-method approach, included 173 participants (65 years and over, used GPS technology to measure outdoor walking levels, used questionnaires (for all participants and conducted walking interviews (with a sub-sample to collect data on perceived neighbourhood built environment attributes. The results show inequalities in perceived neighbourhood safety, pedestrian infrastructure and aesthetics in high- versus low-deprivation areas and demonstrate that they may influence disparities in participants’ outdoor walking levels. Improvements of perceived neighbourhood safety, pedestrian infrastructure and aesthetic in high-deprivation areas are encouraged.

  15. Quantifying the relationship between visitor satisfaction and perceived accessibility to pedestrian spaces on festival days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andini Radisya Pratiwi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many cities organize cultural festivals to promote their distinctiveness, boost the local economy, and enhance quality of life. However, urban spaces are packed with visitors on festival days, thus affecting accessibility to pedestrian spaces. This research examined visitor satisfaction with accessibility to pedestrian spaces during special events such as festivals. We particularly focused on the Hakata Dontaku festival, which is celebrated in Fukuoka, Japan. We studied three main elements that affect pedestrian satisfaction and perceived accessibility through walking, namely, safety, mobility, and amenities. We first analyzed previous studies and employed analytical hierarchy process to setup indicators for satisfaction measurement. Second, we determined visitor satisfaction through a survey questionnaire, which was conducted during the Hakata Dontaku festival. Third, we assessed the normality of the data set that was obtained from the questionnaire. Finally, we applied structural equation modeling. Results showed that the proposed model was a good fit, as indicated by the goodness of fit test, and the majority of indicators loaded significant values that supported their constructs. Satisfaction with amenities was found to be the most statistically significant variable that influences visitors׳ perceived accessibility during the Hakata Dontaku festival.

  16. The walking behaviour of pedestrian social groups and its impact on crowd dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Moussaïd

    Full Text Available Human crowd motion is mainly driven by self-organized processes based on local interactions among pedestrians. While most studies of crowd behaviour consider only interactions among isolated individuals, it turns out that up to 70% of people in a crowd are actually moving in groups, such as friends, couples, or families walking together. These groups constitute medium-scale aggregated structures and their impact on crowd dynamics is still largely unknown. In this work, we analyze the motion of approximately 1500 pedestrian groups under natural condition, and show that social interactions among group members generate typical group walking patterns that influence crowd dynamics. At low density, group members tend to walk side by side, forming a line perpendicular to the walking direction. As the density increases, however, the linear walking formation is bent forward, turning it into a V-like pattern. These spatial patterns can be well described by a model based on social communication between group members. We show that the V-like walking pattern facilitates social interactions within the group, but reduces the flow because of its "non-aerodynamic" shape. Therefore, when crowd density increases, the group organization results from a trade-off between walking faster and facilitating social exchange. These insights demonstrate that crowd dynamics is not only determined by physical constraints induced by other pedestrians and the environment, but also significantly by communicative, social interactions among individuals.

  17. An unusual pedestrian road trauma: from forensic pathology to forensic veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquila, Isabella; Di Nunzio, Ciro; Paciello, Orlando; Britti, Domenico; Pepe, Francesca; De Luca, Ester; Ricci, Pietrantonio

    2014-01-01

    Traffic accidents have increased in the last decade, pedestrians being the most affected group. At autopsy, it is evident that the most common cause of pedestrian death is central nervous system injury, followed by skull base fractures, internal bleeding, lower limb haemorrhage, skull vault fractures, cervical spinal cord injury and airway compromise. The attribution of accident responsibility can be realised through reconstruction of road accident dynamics, investigation of the scene, survey of the vehicle involved and examination of the victim(s). A case study concerning a car accident where both humans and pets were involved is reported here. Investigation and reconstruction of the crime scene were conducted by a team consisting of forensic pathologists and forensic veterinarians. At the scene investigation, the pedestrian and his dog were recovered on the side of the road. An autopsy and a necropsy were conducted on the man and the dog, respectively. In addition, a complete inspection of the sports utility vehicle (SUV) implicated in the road accident was conducted. The results of the autopsy and necropsy were compared and the information was used to reconstruct the collision. This unusual case was solved through the collaboration between forensic pathology and veterinary forensic medicine, emphasising the importance of this kind of co-operation to solve a crime scene concerning both humans and animals.

  18. Road traffic fatalities among pedestrians, bicyclists and mo-tor vehicle occupants in Sirjan, Kerman, Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ghorbanali Mohammadi

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the crash and injury data in forensic medicine for years of 2004-2007. Methods: A sample of over 567 accident cases (9 pedestrians, 116 bicyclists, and 442 motor vehicle occupants) was considered from the Department of Foren-sic Medicine, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, in-volving drivers of all ages and covering a four-year period.Results: The male fatality rates were significantly higher than female ones. The groups at 15-30 years old and at 30-55 years old had the first and second highest numbers of deaths (40% and 34%, respectively). There were sub-stantial differences in distribution of injuries in motor ve-hicle occupants and pedestrians and bicyclists. Among motor vehicle occupants, there were more head injuries, such as skull fracture, brain contusion, subdural haemorrhage, and epidural haemorrhage. Nearly 77% of fatalities occurred during 08:00-22:00 in Sirjan. Internal bleeding was also higher in motor vehicle occupants. Pedestrians and bicyclists also had head injuries frequently.Conclusions: In spite of reduction of road traffic fatali-ties in Sirjan in 2007, it is still one of the cities with high road traffic fatality in the world. These results underline the im-portance of preventive strategies in transportation, sug-gesting that different methods are necessary to reduce fa-talities of various traffic participants.

  19. Drift Reduction in Pedestrian Navigation System by Exploiting Motion Constraints and Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyas, Muhammad; Cho, Kuk; Baeg, Seung-Ho; Park, Sangdeok

    2016-01-01

    Pedestrian navigation systems (PNS) using foot-mounted MEMS inertial sensors use zero-velocity updates (ZUPTs) to reduce drift in navigation solutions and estimate inertial sensor errors. However, it is well known that ZUPTs cannot reduce all errors, especially as heading error is not observable. Hence, the position estimates tend to drift and even cyclic ZUPTs are applied in updated steps of the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF). This urges the use of other motion constraints for pedestrian gait and any other valuable heading reduction information that is available. In this paper, we exploit two more motion constraints scenarios of pedestrian gait: (1) walking along straight paths; (2) standing still for a long time. It is observed that these motion constraints (called “virtual sensor”), though considerably reducing drift in PNS, still need an absolute heading reference. One common absolute heading estimation sensor is the magnetometer, which senses the Earth’s magnetic field and, hence, the true heading angle can be calculated. However, magnetometers are susceptible to magnetic distortions, especially in indoor environments. In this work, an algorithm, called magnetic anomaly detection (MAD) and compensation is designed by incorporating only healthy magnetometer data in the EKF updating step, to reduce drift in zero-velocity updated INS. Experiments are conducted in GPS-denied and magnetically distorted environments to validate the proposed algorithms. PMID:27618056

  20. An Evaluation of the Pedestrian Classification in a Multi-Domain Multi-Modality Setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Miron

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to study the problem of pedestrian classification across different light spectrum domains (visible and far-infrared (FIR and modalities (intensity, depth and motion. In recent years, there has been a number of approaches for classifying and detecting pedestrians in both FIR and visible images, but the methods are difficult to compare, because either the datasets are not publicly available or they do not offer a comparison between the two domains. Our two primary contributions are the following: (1 we propose a public dataset, named RIFIR , containing both FIR and visible images collected in an urban environment from a moving vehicle during daytime; and (2 we compare the state-of-the-art features in a multi-modality setup: intensity, depth and flow, in far-infrared over visible domains. The experiments show that features families, intensity self-similarity (ISS, local binary patterns (LBP, local gradient patterns (LGP and histogram of oriented gradients (HOG, computed from FIR and visible domains are highly complementary, but their relative performance varies across different modalities. In our experiments, the FIR domain has proven superior to the visible one for the task of pedestrian classification, but the overall best results are obtained by a multi-domain multi-modality multi-feature fusion.

  1. Spatial analysis of urban form and pedestrian exposure to traffic noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Ni; Tang, U Wa

    2011-06-01

    In the Macao Peninsula, the high population density (49,763 inhabitants/km2) and the lack of control over the number of vehicles (460 vehicles/km) have led to an increase in urban pollution. To provide useful information to local government and urban planners, this paper investigates the spatial distribution of traffic noise in the Macao Peninsula. The interactions among urban form, traffic flow and traffic noise are addressed. Considering the spatial nature of urban geometry and traffic, a high-resolution GIS-based traffic noise model system is applied. Results indicate that the Macao Peninsula has fallen into a situation of serious traffic noise pollution. About 60% of traffic noise levels along the major pedestrian sidewalks in the evening peak hour exceed the National Standard of 70 dB(A) in China. In particular, about 21% of traffic noise levels along the pedestrian sidewalks are above the National Standard by 5 dB(A). Noticeably, the high pedestrian exposure to traffic noise in the historical urban area reduces the comfort of tourists walking in the historic centre and is ruining the reputation of the area as a World Cultural Heritage site.

  2. Dynamic programming-based hot spot identification approach for pedestrian crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medury, Aditya; Grembek, Offer

    2016-08-01

    Network screening techniques are widely used by state agencies to identify locations with high collision concentration, also referred to as hot spots. However, most of the research in this regard has focused on identifying highway segments that are of concern to automobile collisions. In comparison, pedestrian hot spot detection has typically focused on analyzing pedestrian crashes in specific locations, such as at/near intersections, mid-blocks, and/or other crossings, as opposed to long stretches of roadway. In this context, the efficiency of the some of the widely used network screening methods has not been tested. Hence, in order to address this issue, a dynamic programming-based hot spot identification approach is proposed which provides efficient hot spot definitions for pedestrian crashes. The proposed approach is compared with the sliding window method and an intersection buffer-based approach. The results reveal that the dynamic programming method generates more hot spots with a higher number of crashes, while providing small hot spot segment lengths. In comparison, the sliding window method is shown to suffer from shortcomings due to a first-come-first-serve approach vis-à-vis hot spot identification and a fixed hot spot window length assumption.

  3. Pedestrian road traffic injuries in urban Peruvian children and adolescents: case control analyses of personal and environmental risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Donroe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Child pedestrian road traffic injuries (RTIs are an important cause of death and disability in poorer nations, however RTI prevention strategies in those countries largely draw upon studies conducted in wealthier countries. This research investigated personal and environmental risk factors for child pedestrian RTIs relevant to an urban, developing world setting. METHODS: This is a case control study of personal and environmental risk factors for child pedestrian RTIs in San Juan de Miraflores, Lima, Perú. The analysis of personal risk factors included 100 cases of serious pedestrian RTIs and 200 age and gender matched controls. Demographic, socioeconomic, and injury data were collected. The environmental risk factor study evaluated vehicle and pedestrian movement and infrastructure at the sites in which 40 of the above case RTIs occurred and 80 control sites. FINDINGS: After adjustment, factors associated with increased risk of child pedestrian RTIs included high vehicle volume (OR 7.88, 95%CI 1.97-31.52, absent lane demarcations (OR 6.59, 95% CI 1.65-26.26, high vehicle speed (OR 5.35, 95%CI 1.55-18.54, high street vendor density (OR 1.25, 95%CI 1.01-1.55, and more children living in the home (OR 1.25, 95%CI 1.00-1.56. Protective factors included more hours/day spent in school (OR 0.52, 95%CI 0.33-0.82 and years of family residence in the same home (OR 0.97, 95%CI 0.95-0.99. CONCLUSION: Reducing traffic volumes and speeds, limiting the number of street vendors on a given stretch of road, and improving lane demarcation should be evaluated as components of child pedestrian RTI interventions in poorer countries.

  4. Audible noise predicting formulas and reduction measures for 1 000 kV UHV AC transmission lines%1000 kV交流输电线路噪声的计算模式和减缓措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗超; 查智明; 姚为方

    2015-01-01

    Several audible corona noise predicting formulas of UHA transmission lines,founded by BPA from the U. S. A. ,ENEL from Italy and EPRI from China etc. ,were introduced. Based on the conductor parameter of Huannan-Shanghai 1 000 kV UHV AC double-circuit transmission line,four formulas were presented for pre-dicting the audible noise of the same type transmission lines exactly. The factors resulting in audible noise of UHV AC transmission line are analyzed,including the structure,design and construction of the transmission line, as wel as the atmosphere and environments. The measures to reduce audible noise of transmission line were summed up,and such engineering solutions to reduce the audible noise as increasing the diameter of bundled conductors,increasing the bundle numbers and changing the interval between bundled conductors are consid-ered applicable. Some preventive suggestions ale provided in the hope of supporting on-site operation data for designs of 1000kV UHVAC transmission lines,operation and maintenance.%介绍了几家国内外研究机构建立的用来计算预测输电线路电晕可听噪声的模式,针对皖电东送淮南至上海1000 kV特高压交流示范工程输电线路的实际参数,建立了相应的计算公式,可以较为准确的预测该类型输电线路可听噪声的大小;交流输电线路电晕产生可听噪声的影响因素众多,根据是否可控将这些因素分为两大类,并分析了单个因素对可听噪声预测值的影响程度,针对输电电路导线参数、杆塔型式和附加材料三个方面的内容,提出了几类切实可行的输电线路可听噪声减缓措施,为后续1000 kV交流输电线路的设计和建设提供参考。

  5. Effect of group walking traffic on dynamic properties of pedestrian structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabpoor, E.; Pavic, A.; Racic, V.; Zivanovic, S.

    2017-01-01

    The increasing number of reported vibration serviceability problems in newly built pedestrian structures, such as footbridges and floors, under walking load has attracted considerable attention in the civil engineering community over the past two decades. The key design challenges are: the inter- and intra-subject variability of walking people, the unknown mechanisms of their interaction with the vibrating walking surfaces and the synchronisation between individuals in a group. Ignoring all or some of these factors makes the current design methods an inconsistent approximation of reality. This often leads to considerable over- or under-estimation of the structural response, yielding an unreliable assessment of vibration performance. Changes to the dynamic properties of an empty structure due to the presence of stationary people have been studied extensively over the past two decades. The understanding of the similar effect of walking people on laterally swaying bridges has improved tremendously in the past decade, due to considerable research prompted by the Millennium Bridge problem. However, there is currently a gap in knowledge about how moving pedestrians affect the dynamic properties of vertically vibrating structures. The key reason for this gap is the scarcity of credible experimental data pertinent to moving pedestrians on vertically vibrating structures, especially for multi-pedestrian traffic. This paper addresses this problem by studying the dynamic properties of the combined human-structure system, i.e. occupied structure damping ratio, natural frequency and modal mass. This was achieved using a comprehensive set of frequency response function records, measured on a full-scale test structure, which was occupied by various numbers of moving pedestrians under different walking scenarios. Contrary to expectations, it was found that the natural frequency of the joint moving human-structure system was higher than that of the empty structure, while it was

  6. The GSI method for studying neutrino mass differences - For Pedestrians

    OpenAIRE

    Lipkin, Harry J.

    2008-01-01

    A new experiment studying the behavior of a radioactive ion before its weak decay by K-capture suggests that neutrino masses and mixing can be investigated without detecting the neutrino. Every weak decay can be observed, thus avoiding the suppression by the low neutrino absorption cross section of the signal in conventional neutrino oscillation experiments. The normally unobservable long wave lengths are made observable by having the radioactive source move a long distance circulating around...

  7. Performance analysis of MEMS based Pedestrian Navigation Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kubrak, Damien; Macabiau, Christophe; Monnerat, Michel

    2005-01-01

    International audience; First driven by the regulation on emergency call, several methods are studied to enable the location of one user whether he is outdoors or indoors. Moreover, location based services take more and more importance, and as a consequence, the ability of providing such a location becomes a great challenge. Assisted satellite navigation solutions are investigated, but they encounter big issues in indoor environment. The main reason is the weak power of the signals to acquire...

  8. A framework for experimental determination of localised vertical pedestrian forces on full-scale structures using wireless attitude and heading reference systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocian, M.; Brownjohn, J. M. W.; Racic, V.; Hester, D.; Quattrone, A.; Monnickendam, R.

    2016-08-01

    A major weakness among loading models for pedestrians walking on flexible structures proposed in recent years is the various uncorroborated assumptions made in their development. This applies to spatio-temporal characteristics of pedestrian loading and the nature of multi-object interactions. To alleviate this problem, a framework for the determination of localised pedestrian forces on full-scale structures is presented using a wireless attitude and heading reference systems (AHRS). An AHRS comprises a triad of tri-axial accelerometers, gyroscopes and magnetometers managed by a dedicated data processing unit, allowing motion in three-dimensional space to be reconstructed. A pedestrian loading model based on a single point inertial measurement from an AHRS is derived and shown to perform well against benchmark data collected on an instrumented treadmill. Unlike other models, the current model does not take any predefined form nor does it require any extrapolations as to the timing and amplitude of pedestrian loading. In order to assess correctly the influence of the moving pedestrian on behaviour of a structure, an algorithm for tracking the point of application of pedestrian force is developed based on data from a single AHRS attached to a foot. A set of controlled walking tests with a single pedestrian is conducted on a real footbridge for validation purposes. A remarkably good match between the measured and simulated bridge response is found, indeed confirming applicability of the proposed framework.

  9. Spatial environmental risk factors for pedestrian injury collisions in Ciudad Juárez, Mexico (2008-2009): implications for urban planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Cesar Mario; Hernandez, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the spatial distribution of pedestrian injury collisions and analyse the environmental (social and physical) risk factors in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. More specifically, this study investigates the influence of land use, density, traffic and socio-economic characteristics. This cross sectional study is based on pedestrian injury collision data that were collected by the Municipal Transit Police during 2008-2009. This research presents an analysis of vehicle-pedestrian collisions and their spatial risk determinants using mixed methods that included (1) spatial/geographical information systems (GIS) analysis of pedestrian collision data and (2) ordinary least squares (OLS) regression analysis to explain the density of pedestrian collisions data. In our model, we found a higher probability for pedestrian collisions in census tracts with population and employment density, large concentration of commercial/retail land uses and older people (65 and more). Interventions to alleviate this situation including transportation planning such as decentralisation of municipal transport system, investment in road infrastructure - density of traffic lights, pedestrian crossing, road design, improves lane demarcation. Besides, land use planning interventions should be implemented in commercial/retail areas, in particular separating pedestrian and vehicular spaces.

  10. Infrasonic Signals from the 29 June 2012 Derecho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslow, N.; Howard, W. B.; Pulli, J. J.; Kofford, A. S.

    2012-12-01

    Common weather events such as pressure fronts, tornados, and hurricanes generate infrasonic signals (sub-audible acoustic signals with an oscillatory frequency below 20 Hz). These signals can provide a distal (>10km) analysis of weather events because: (1) the attenuation of an infrasonic signal with distance is less than that of a similar audible signal, and (2) the propagation velocities of typical weather events are much slower than the speed of sound. The 29 June, 2012 Derecho (a widespread, long-lived, rapidly moving linear band of storms extending more than 240 miles and including wind gusts in excess of 58 mph) that stretched from Chicago, IL to Washington, DC generated infrasonic signals in addition to causing over $100 million in damage to the power systems of Virginia, West Virginia, and Maryland alone. The infrasonic (and seismic) signals from this event were recorded on the NCPA micro barometers along the northeastern edge of the current configuration of the USArray. These instruments, which sample at 40 Hz, exhibit a flat frequency response from around 0.1 Hz to above 20 Hz and show a sensitivity of 1.57 x 104 Volts/Pascal at 0.8 Hz. An analysis of the recordings observed at multiple stations identified several infrasonic signatures from the Derecho. The signal's duration was approximately 40 minutes and exhibited a large peak pressure fluctuation. A characteristic ramp up occurred before the peak pressure fluctuation, and the majority of the infrasonic energy occurred below 1 Hz. These signatures are analyzed within the context of the Derecho as an infrasonic source, and the propagation of infrasound in the atmosphere.

  11. 基于人体下肢运动学机理的行人导航方法%Pedestrian navigation method based on kinematic mechanism of human lower limb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱伟行; 曾庆化; 万骏炜; 熊智

    2015-01-01

    利用人体运动特征实现行人导航是近年来导航技术领域新兴的研究方向之一。针对惯性测量组件足部安装方式在人体较高过载的运动中无法有效实现零速修正的问题,研究了一种惯性测量组件在人体下肢分布式安装,基于人体下肢运动学机理构建虚拟足部惯性测量组件,从而实现人体导航定位的方法。阐述了行人导航系统的结构与虚拟惯性传感组件的构建机理,研制了系统原理样机。实验结果表明所提出的方法在人体较高过载的行进中可有效克服测量信息超量程、冲击等因素对导航解算的影响,定位精度约为行进距离的6%,并通过分析总结了影响该类型行人导航系统性能的各项主要因素,为进一步研究提供了一定的理论与技术基础。%In recent years, using human motion characteristics to realize pedestrian navigation is one of the emerging directions of navigation technology. In view that the inertial measurement units in foot-mounted mode can not effectively achieve zero velocity update (ZUPT) in high overload of human body motion, this paper presents a novel method which adopts distributed IMUs to install in human lower limb. Virtual foot-mounted inertial sensor components are structured based on kinematic structure of human lower limb to realize the pedestrian navigation. The structure of the pedestrian navigation system and the mechanism of virtual inertial sensor components are described, and the system principle prototype is developed. The experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively overcome the influences of measurement information over-range, the impact signals and other factors in high-overload human body traveling. The positioning accuracy of the navigation solution is about 6%of the traveled distance. Finally, the major factors affecting the performance of the pedestrian navigation system is summarized to provide theoretical and

  12. Totally asymmetric simple exclusion process with a time-dependent boundary: interaction between vehicles and pedestrians at intersections

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Hidetaka

    2014-01-01

    Interaction between vehicles and pedestrians is seen in many areas such as crosswalks and intersections. In this paper, we study a totally asymmetric simple exclusion process with a bottleneck at a boundary caused by an interaction. Due to the time-dependent effect originating from the speed of pedestrians, the flow of the model varies even if the average hopping probability at the last site is the same. We analyze the phenomenon by using two types of approximations: (2+1)-cluster approximation and isolated rarefaction wave approximation. The approximate results capture intriguing features of the model. Moreover, we discuss the situation where vehicles turn right at the intersection by adding a traffic light at the boundary condition. The result suggests that pedestrian scrambles are valid to eliminate traffic congestion in the right turn lane.

  13. Correlation dimension of collective versus individual pedestrian movement patterns in crowd-quakes: A case-study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Liping; Song, Weiguo; Ma, Jian; Telesca, Luciano

    2016-06-01

    Video recording right before the Love Parade, Duisburg (Germany) crowd-quake, occurred on 24 July 2010, has been analysed in order to investigate the spatial properties of the crowd (collective case) and those of the single pedestrians in the crowd (individual case). The Grassberger-Procaccia correlation dimension, well known to be able to distinguish patterns in spatial point processes, was used. Our results for this case-study reveal that crowd and single pedestrians are characterized by different spatial behaviour: the whole crowd behaves as a quasi-homogeneous spatial point process through time, with an averaged correlation dimension of about 1.92; while the single pedestrians show a quite large variation of correlation dimensions indicating different spatial patterns, ranging from clustered to quasi-homogeneous.

  14. Image Processing for Capturing Motions of Crowd and Its Application to Pedestrian-Induced Lateral Vibration of a Footbridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junji Yoshida

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An image processing technique to capture motions of crowds is proposed and it is applied to understanding pedestrian-induced lateral vibration in a footbridge. Firstly, an outline of recording sequential images of vibration in the bridge is described and, then an image processing for human-head recognition from a single image of crowd is developed. In this method, conventional template matching techniques with human-head templates are extended by employing some selected templates, an updated search-algorithm and a classifier for clustering. Consequently, more than 50% of human-heads could be identified by the proposed method. Then, motions of detected human-heads, together with the bridge response, are tracked. Finally, interaction between the motions of pedestrians and the vibration of the bridge is discussed, with the emphasis on synchronization between the responses of the pedestrians and the bridge.

  15. Pedestrian Crosswalk Law: A study of traffic and trajectory factors that affect non-compliance and stopping distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figliozzi, Miguel A; Tipagornwong, Chawalit

    2016-11-01

    Walking is encouraged by many transportation agencies as a sustainable mode that contributes to livable downtowns. Since pedestrians are the most vulnerable road users, safe and comfortable crosswalks are essential to ensure that pedestrian travel becomes an appealing alternative. In this context, the goal of this research is to study the traffic and vehicle trajectory factors that affect crosswalk law compliance and stopping distance from the crosswalk. The results of this research provide new insights into the relationships between traffic conditions, vehicle trajectory, and compliance rates. Results indicate that vehicle origin, vehicle type, stopping at upstream traffic lights, and changes in vehicle speed and headways are key factors to predict pedestrian crosswalk law compliance and stopping behavior; changes in vehicle speed and headways have the highest explanatory power.

  16. Comparing the Effectiveness of GPS-Enhanced Voice Guidance for Pedestrians with Metric- and Landmark-Based Instruction Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehrl, Karl; Häusler, Elisabeth; Leitinger, Sven

    This paper reports on a field experiment comparing two different kinds of verbal turn instructions in the context of GPS-based pedestrian navigation. The experiment was conducted in the city of Salzburg with 20 participants. Both instruction sets were based on qualitative turn direction concepts. The first one was enhanced with metric distance information and the second one was enhanced with landmark-anchored directions gathered from participants of a previous field experiment. The results show that in context of GPS-enhanced pedestrian navigation both kinds of instruction sets lead to similar navigation performance. Results also demonstrate that effective voice-only guidance of pedestrians in unfamiliar environments at a minimal error rate and without stopping the walk is feasible. Although both kinds of instructions lead to similar navigation performance, participants clearly preferred landmark-enhanced instructions.

  17. Design of an Active Bumper with a Series Elastic Actuator for Pedestrian Protection of Small Unmanned Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terumasa, Narukawa; Tomoki, Tsuge; Hiroshi, Yamamoto; Takahiro, Suzuki

    2016-09-01

    When autonomous unmanned vehicles are operated on sidewalks, the vehicles must have high safety standards such as avoiding injury when they come in contact with pedestrians. In this study, we established a design for preventing serious injury when such collisions occur. We designed an active bumper with a series elastic actuator, with the goal of avoiding serious injury to a pedestrian in a collision with a small unmanned vehicle. The series elastic actuator comprised an elastic element in series with a table driven by a ball screw and servo motor. The active bumper was used to control the contact force between a vehicle and a pedestrian. The optimal force for minimizing the deflection of the object of the collision was derived, and the actuator controlled to apply this optimal force. Numerical simulations showed that the active bumper was successful in improving the collision safety of small unmanned vehicles.

  18. Influence of selfish and polite behaviours on a pedestrian evacuation through a narrow exit: A quantitative characterisation

    CERN Document Server

    Nicolas, Alexandre; Kuperman, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    We study the influence of selfish vs. polite behaviours on the dynamics of a pedestrian evacuation through a narrow exit. To this end, experiments involving about 80 participants with distinct prescribed behaviours are performed; reinjection of participants into the setup allowed us to improve the statistics. Notwithstanding the fluctuations in the instantaneous flow rate, we find that a stationary regime is almost immediately reached. The average flow rate increases monotonically with the fraction c\\_s of vying (selfish) pedestrians, which corresponds to a "faster-is-faster" effect in our experimental conditions; it is also positively correlated with the average density of pedestrians in front of the door, up to nearly close-packing. At large c\\_s , the flow displays marked intermittency, with bursts of quasi-simultaneous escapes. In addition to these findings, we wonder whether the effect of cooperation is specific to systems of intelligent beings, or whether it can be reproduced by a purely mechanical surr...

  19. Evacuation through a narrow doorway: effect of the pedestrians' behaviours on the global flow and microscopic dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Nicolas, Alexandre; Kuperman, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    We study the dynamics of pedestrian evacuations through a narrow doorway by means of controlled experiments. The influence of the pedestrians' behaviours is investigated by prescribing a selfish attitude to a fraction c\\_s of the participants, while the others behave politely. Thanks to an original setup enabling the re-injection of egressed participants into the room, the analysis is conducted in a (macroscopically) quasi-stationary regime. We find that, as c\\_s is increased, the flow rate J rises, interpolating between published values for egresses in normal conditions and measurements for competitive evacuations. The dependence of several flow properties on the pedestrian density $\\rho$ at the door, independently of c\\_s , suggests that macroscopically the behavioural aspects could be subsumed under the density, at least in our specific settings with limited crowd pressure. In particular, under these conditions, J grows monotonically with $\\rho$ up to "close-packing" ($\\rho$ $\\approx$ 9 pers/m${}^2$). The ...

  20. Simulation of Intersection Rivet at Non-signalized Intersection in Housing Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazmi, Mohd; Takaba, Sadao; Ohno, Sumio; Yusoff, Mohd Nazaruddin

    Accident in the residential area are become serious case in Malaysia. Most of the incidents occur among pedestrians, bicycles, motorcycles and vehicles. Our research purpose is to avoid collision at the non-signalized intersection in the housing scheme. We committed to reduce injuries and increase pedestrians' safety. Our research provides important information that can help driver predict common problems and take steps to prevent collisions. Intersection rivet is proposed for this matter. This type of signal system can prevent any accident in a dangerous non-signalized intersection. Simulation tools and systems are developed to find and solve the problem in order to decrease any fatal incident. Investigation data were used to simulate the situation more precisely. The result will be effective as reference to set the parameter of control system of the intersection rivet.