WorldWideScience

Sample records for audible alarm

  1. PT-SAFE: a software tool for development and annunciation of medical audible alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Christopher L; McNeer, Richard R

    2012-03-01

    Recent reports by The Joint Commission as well as the Anesthesia Patient Safety Foundation have indicated that medical audible alarm effectiveness needs to be improved. Several recent studies have explored various approaches to improving the audible alarms, motivating the authors to develop real-time software capable of comparing such alarms. We sought to devise software that would allow for the development of a variety of audible alarm designs that could also integrate into existing operating room equipment configurations. The software is meant to be used as a tool for alarm researchers to quickly evaluate novel alarm designs. A software tool was developed for the purpose of creating and annunciating audible alarms. The alarms consisted of annunciators that were mapped to vital sign data received from a patient monitor. An object-oriented approach to software design was used to create a tool that is flexible and modular at run-time, can annunciate wave-files from disk, and can be programmed with MATLAB by the user to create custom alarm algorithms. The software was tested in a simulated operating room to measure technical performance and to validate the time-to-annunciation against existing equipment alarms. The software tool showed efficacy in a simulated operating room environment by providing alarm annunciation in response to physiologic and ventilator signals generated by a human patient simulator, on average 6.2 seconds faster than existing equipment alarms. Performance analysis showed that the software was capable of supporting up to 15 audible alarms on a mid-grade laptop computer before audio dropouts occurred. These results suggest that this software tool provides a foundation for rapidly staging multiple audible alarm sets from the laboratory to a simulation environment for the purpose of evaluating novel alarm designs, thus producing valuable findings for medical audible alarm standardization.

  2. Effect of audible and visual reminders on adherence in glaucoma patients using a commercially available dosing aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Y Ho

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Lawrence Y Ho1, Larissa Camejo1, Malik Y Kahook2, Robert Noecker11UMPC Eye Center, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA; 2Rocky Mountain Lions Institute, University of Colorado, CO, USAAbstract: We studied the effects of audible and visual alarms on adherence with a recommended dosing regimen in the management of glaucoma. Forty-two patients were begun on therapy with the Travatan® Dosing Aid (TDA and randomly divided into two observation groups-one with visual and audible alarm functions turned on and the other with alarms off. Dosing information was analyzed for mean rates of adherence, missed days, and dosing at the wrong time. Twenty patients were randomized to the TDA alarm on group and 22 to the alarm off group. The rates of adherence were 87.9% and 79.7% (p = 0.02, rates of missed dosing were 7.6% and 14.4% (p = 0.03, and rates of dosing at the incorrect times were 7.1% and 9.8% (p = 0.19, respectively for alarm on versus alarm off groups. In the alarm on group, the adherence rate was significantly higher and proportion of missed dosing was significantly lower. It is still yet to be determined whether there is a relationship between adherence and progression of glaucoma.Keywords: adherence, glaucoma, Travatan® Dosing Aid, audible alarms, visual alarms

  3. 49 CFR 236.513 - Audible indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Audible indicator. 236.513 Section 236.513..., Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Standards § 236.513 Audible indicator. (a) The automatic cab signal... audible indicator will sound continuously until silenced by manual operation of an acknowledging device...

  4. Alarming atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Marie; Kinch, Sofie

    2014-01-01

    Nurses working in the Neuro-Intensive Care Unit at Aarhus University Hospital lack the tools to prepare children for the alarming atmosphere they will enter when visiting a hospitalised relative. The complex soundscape dominated by alarms and sounds from equipment is mentioned as the main stressor...

  5. Alarm System

    OpenAIRE

    GÖKTAŞ, H.Haldun; DALDAL, Nihat

    2010-01-01

    Remote management of several home and office appliances is a subject of growing interest and in recent years we have seen many systems providing such controls. In this study, we have developed a cellular phone based home/office remote controller equipped with power controllers, an alarm system, a voice memory and a back-up battery unit. In traditional PSTN based remote controllers, the user always has the possibility of line cuts due to fires or professional burglars cutting the wires before ...

  6. An Adaptation Level Theory of tinnitus audibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant eSearchfield

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Models of tinnitus suggest roles for auditory, attention and emotional networks in tinnitus perception. A model of tinnitus audibility based on Helson’s (1964 Adaptation Level Theory (ALT is hypothesized to explain the relationship between tinnitus audibility, personality, memory and attention. This theory attempts to describe how tinnitus audibility or detectability might change with experience and context. The basis of ALT and potential role of Auditory Scene Analysis in tinnitus perception are discussed. The proposed psychoacoustic model lends itself to incorporation into existing neurophysiological models of tinnitus perception. It is hoped that the ALT hypothesis will allow for greater empirical investigation of factors influencing tinnitus perception, such as attention and tinnitus sound therapies.

  7. Remote infrared audible signage (RIAS) pilot program report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The Remote Infrared Audible Sign Model Accessibility Program (RIAS MAP) is a program funded by the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) to evaluate the effectiveness of remote infrared audible sign systems in enabling persons with visual and cognitiv...

  8. Audible thunder characteristic and the relation between peak ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Audible thunder characteristic and the relation between peak frequency and lightning parameters ... In recent summers, some natural lightning optical spectra and audible thunder signals were observed. ... School of Mathematics, Physics and Software Engineering, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou 730 070, China.

  9. Audible Noise Design of ISS Cargo Module "Cygnus"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destefanis, Stefano; Paron, Alberto; Bandini, Flavio

    2014-06-01

    Orbital developed the Cygnus advanced manoeuvring spacecraft to demonstrate cargo delivery services under a NASA Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) Space Act Agreement.In addition to the COTS development and demonstration program, Orbital will utilize Cygnus to perform ISS resupply flights under the Commercial Resupply Service (CRS) contract.Starting in January 2014 Orbital launched its first of eight missions to deliver approximately 20,000 kilograms of cargo to the ISS (International Space Station). Cygnus will carry crew supplies, spares and scientific experiments to the ISS.Cygnus consists of a common service module and a pressurized cargo module. The pressurized cargo module is based on the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM), developed by Thales Alenia Space for NASA. Since Cygnus pressurized cargo module will host astronauts performing daily tasks, it is required to be compliant with NASA guidelines related to acoustic comfort (working areas noise not to exceed NC-50 requirement) and safety (caution and warning alarms audibility).The main source of noise inside Cygnus is the ventilation fan, which happens to be the same model already installed on the ATV (Automated Transfer Vehicle) cargo module: however, the strategy adopted to limit its acoustic disturbance had to be differently tailored.This paper presents the activities (assumptions, design, characterization, testing) that led to define the type of noise control devices used on Cygnus, up to its first successful flight (module labelled "PCM0") to the ISS, where it reached 2nd place in the "quietest visiting modules" ranking.

  10. Optimal Alarm Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An optimal alarm system is simply an optimal level-crossing predictor that can be designed to elicit the fewest false alarms for a fixed detection probability. It...

  11. Making Thinking Audible and Visible via Cooperative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, George M.; Wang, Aili; Li, Xishuang; Xie, Yongye

    2008-01-01

    This chapter begins with a section that describes cooperative learning and explains eight cooperative learning principles. The second section looks briefly at why making thinking audible and visible enriches students' thinking. Making thinking audible means that teachers and students speak out what is going through their minds as they do a task,…

  12. Audible Aliasing Distortion in Digital Audio Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schimmel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with aliasing distortion in digital audio signal synthesis of classic periodic waveforms with infinite Fourier series, for electronic musical instruments. When these waveforms are generated in the digital domain then the aliasing appears due to its unlimited bandwidth. There are several techniques for the synthesis of these signals that have been designed to avoid or reduce the aliasing distortion. However, these techniques have high computing demands. One can say that today's computers have enough computing power to use these methods. However, we have to realize that today’s computer-aided music production requires tens of multi-timbre voices generated simultaneously by software synthesizers and the most of the computing power must be reserved for hard-disc recording subsystem and real-time audio processing of many audio channels with a lot of audio effects. Trivially generated classic analog synthesizer waveforms are therefore still effective for sound synthesis. We cannot avoid the aliasing distortion but spectral components produced by the aliasing can be masked with harmonic components and thus made inaudible if sufficient oversampling ratio is used. This paper deals with the assessment of audible aliasing distortion with the help of a psychoacoustic model of simultaneous masking and compares the computing demands of trivial generation using oversampling with those of other methods.

  13. Smart smoke alarm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A; Frank, Steven Shane

    2015-04-28

    Methods and apparatus for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a smoke detector uses linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to determine whether observed conditions indicate that an alarm is warranted.

  14. Remote Infrared Audible Signage (RIAS) Pilot Program : evaluation report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    This report presents evaluation findings on the Remote Infrared Audible Signage (RIAS) Pilot Program in the Puget Sound Region of Washington. The installation, demonstration and evaluation of RIAS were required by a provision in the Safe, Accountable...

  15. Security Alarm for Motorcycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Ismail

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A security alarm for motorcycle has been developed. This equipment consists of two parts. Part one is as a remote control, where it produces a radio signal with frequency of 37.5 MHz to turn on (activate or to turn off alarm. Part two consists of sensor, receiver to receive signal from part one, and alarm. This part two will be attached to motorcycle while part one will be kept as a key by the owner of motorcycle. This equipment has been tested in the laboratory and it worked well. When part two is activated by pushing the “set button” in part one, then any movement of part two (as a movement of motor cycle by about 20 cm from initial position will cause the alarm sounds continuously. The alarm will be off whenever the “reset button” in part one is pushed. Part one (a remote control can activate part two with a maximum of twelve meter separation apart. This shows that the equipment can be used as a security alarm to prevent the motorcycle to be stolen in the future.

  16. Sequence and batch language programs and alarm-related ``C`` programs for the 242-A MCS. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, J.F.

    1995-03-01

    A Distributive Process Control system was purchased by Project B-534, ``242-A Evaporator/Crystallizer Upgrades``. This control system, called the Monitor and Control System (MCS), was installed in the 242-A Evaporator located in the 200 East Area. The purpose of the MCS is to monitor and control the Evaporator and monitor a number of alarms and other signals from various Tank Farm facilities. Applications software for the MCS was developed by the Waste Treatment Systems Engineering (WTSE) group of Westinghouse. The standard displays and alarm scheme provide for control and monitoring, but do not directly indicate the signal location or depict the overall process. To do this, WTSE developed a second alarm scheme which uses special programs, annunciator keys, and process graphics. The special programs are written in two languages; Sequence and Batch Language (SABL), and ``C`` language. The WTSE-developed alarm scheme works as described below: SABL relates signals and alarms to the annunciator keys, called SKID keys. When an alarm occurs, a SABL program causes a SKID key to flash, and if the alarm is of yellow or white priority then a ``C`` program turns on an audible horn (the D/3 system uses a different audible horn for the red priority alarms). The horn and flashing key draws the attention of the operator.

  17. Patient Safety Implications of Electronic Alerts and Alarms of Maternal - Fetal Status During Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Kathleen Rice; Lyndon, Audrey; Davidson, Leigh Ann

    2016-01-01

    When nurses care for women during labor, they encounter numerous alerts and alarms from electronic fetal monitors and their surveillance systems. Notifications of values of physiologic parameters for a woman and fetus that may be outside preset limits are generated via visual and audible cues. There is no standardization of these alert and alarm parameters among electronic fetal monitoring vendors in the United States, and there are no data supporting their sensitivity and specificity. Agreement among professional organizations about physiologic parameters for alerts and alarms commonly used during labor is lacking. It is unknown if labor nurses view the alerts and alarms as helpful or a nuisance. There is no evidence that they promote or hinder patient safety. This clinical issue warrants our attention as labor nurses. © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  18. SeaQuest/E906 Shift Alarm System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitts, Noah

    2014-09-01

    SeaQuest, Fermilab E906, is a fixed target experiment that measures the Drell-Yan cross-section ratio of proton-proton to proton-deuterium collisions in order to extract the sea anti-quark structure of the proton. SeaQuest will extend the measurements made by E866/NuSea with greater precision at higher Bjorken-x. The continuously running experiment is always being monitored. Those on shift must keep track of all of the detector readouts in order to make sure the experiment is running correctly. As an experiment that is still in its early stages of running, an alarm system for people on shift is being created to provide warnings, such as a plot showing a detector's performance is sufficiently different to need attention. This plan involves python scripts that track live data. When the data shows a problem within the experiment, a corresponding alarm ID is sent to the MySQL database which then sets off an alarm. These alarms, which will alert the person on shift through both an audible and visual response, are important for ensuring that issues do not go unnoticed, and to help make sure the experiment is recording good data.

  19. Sub-Audible Speech Recognition Based upon Electromyographic Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Charles C. (Inventor); Lee, Diana D. (Inventor); Agabon, Shane T. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Method and system for processing and identifying a sub-audible signal formed by a source of sub-audible sounds. Sequences of samples of sub-audible sound patterns ("SASPs") for known words/phrases in a selected database are received for overlapping time intervals, and Signal Processing Transforms ("SPTs") are formed for each sample, as part of a matrix of entry values. The matrix is decomposed into contiguous, non-overlapping two-dimensional cells of entries, and neural net analysis is applied to estimate reference sets of weight coefficients that provide sums with optimal matches to reference sets of values. The reference sets of weight coefficients are used to determine a correspondence between a new (unknown) word/phrase and a word/phrase in the database.

  20. Gynecological cancer alarm symptoms:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balasubramaniam, Kirubakaran; Ravn, Pernille; dePont Christensen, René

    2016-01-01

    AND METHODS: Nationwide population-based prospective cohort study in Denmark, based on a random sample of 51 090 women aged 20 years or older from the general population. A web-based questionnaire regarding gynecological alarm symptoms and lifestyle was distributed to the invited individuals. Data about...... and odds ratios (ORs) for associations between specialist care contact, lifestyle factors and socioeconomic status. RESULTS: The study included 25 866 non-pregnant women; 2957 reported the onset of at least one gynecological cancer alarm symptom, and 683 of these (23.1%) reported symptoms to their general...... practitioner. The proportion of individuals having contact with specialist care ranged from 39.3% (pain during intercourse) to 47.8% (bleeding during intercourse) Individuals with higher educational level had significantly higher odds of contact with a specialist (OR 1.86, CI; 1.17-2.95). CONCLUSIONS...

  1. Control of ELT false alarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, S.; Gershkoff, I.

    1979-01-01

    The statistics of emergency locator transmitter (ELT) alarms are presented. The primary sources of data include ELT Incident Logs, Service Difficulty Reports, and Frequency Interference Reports. The number of reported and unreported alarms is discussed, as are seasonal variations, duration of ELT transmissions, and cost of silencing. Origin, causes, and possible strategies for reducing the impact of alarms on the aviation community are considered.

  2. Insights into the problem of alarm fatigue with physiologic monitor devices: a comprehensive observational study of consecutive intensive care unit patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara J Drew

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Physiologic monitors are plagued with alarms that create a cacophony of sounds and visual alerts causing "alarm fatigue" which creates an unsafe patient environment because a life-threatening event may be missed in this milieu of sensory overload. Using a state-of-the-art technology acquisition infrastructure, all monitor data including 7 ECG leads, all pressure, SpO(2, and respiration waveforms as well as user settings and alarms were stored on 461 adults treated in intensive care units. Using a well-defined alarm annotation protocol, nurse scientists with 95% inter-rater reliability annotated 12,671 arrhythmia alarms. RESULTS: A total of 2,558,760 unique alarms occurred in the 31-day study period: arrhythmia, 1,154,201; parameter, 612,927; technical, 791,632. There were 381,560 audible alarms for an audible alarm burden of 187/bed/day. 88.8% of the 12,671 annotated arrhythmia alarms were false positives. Conditions causing excessive alarms included inappropriate alarm settings, persistent atrial fibrillation, and non-actionable events such as PVC's and brief spikes in ST segments. Low amplitude QRS complexes in some, but not all available ECG leads caused undercounting and false arrhythmia alarms. Wide QRS complexes due to bundle branch block or ventricular pacemaker rhythm caused false alarms. 93% of the 168 true ventricular tachycardia alarms were not sustained long enough to warrant treatment. DISCUSSION: The excessive number of physiologic monitor alarms is a complex interplay of inappropriate user settings, patient conditions, and algorithm deficiencies. Device solutions should focus on use of all available ECG leads to identify non-artifact leads and leads with adequate QRS amplitude. Devices should provide prompts to aide in more appropriate tailoring of alarm settings to individual patients. Atrial fibrillation alarms should be limited to new onset and termination of the arrhythmia and delays for ST-segment and other parameter

  3. Fundamental Principles of Alarm Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Us, Tolga; Jensen, Niels; Lind, Morten

    2011-01-01

    be applied to any engineering system which can be modeled by MFM. The methodology provides a set of alarms which can facilitate event interpretation and operator support for abnormal situation management. The proposed design methodology provides the information content of the alarms, but does not deal...

  4. Audibility of time switching in dynamic binaural synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Pablo Faundez; Møller, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    In binaural synthesis, signals are convolved with head-related transfer functions HRTFs. In dynamic systems, the update is often done by cross-fading between signals that have been filtered in parallel with two HRTFs. An alternative to cross-fading that is attractive in terms of computing power...... is direct switching between HRTFs that are close enough in space to provide an adequate auralization of moving sound. However, direct switching between HRTFs does not only move the sound but may also generate artifacts such as audible clicks. HRTF switching involves switching of spectral characteristics...

  5. Audibility of time switching in dynamic binaural synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Pablo F.F.; Møller, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    In binaural synthesis, signals are convolved with head-related transfer functions (HRTFs). In dynamic systems, the update is often done by cross- fading between signals that have been filtered in parallel with two HRTFs. An alternative to cross-fading that is attractive in terms of computing power...... is direct switching between HRTFs that are close enough in space to provide an adequate auralization of moving sound. However, direct switching between HRTFs does not only move the sound but may also generate artifacts such as audible clicks. HRTF switching involves switching of spectral characteristics...

  6. Identifying Causality from Alarm Observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchhübel, Denis; Zhang, Xinxin; Lind, Morten

    on an abstracted model of the mass and energy flows in the system. The application of MFM for root cause analysis based alarm grouping has been demonstrated and can be extended to reason about the direction of causality considering the entirety of the alarms present in the system for more comprehensive decision...... and consequences. This extended analysis results in causal paths from likely root causes to tentative consequences, providing the operator with a comprehensive tool to not only identify but also rank the criticality of a large number of concurrent alarms in the system....... support. This contribution presents the foundation for combining the cause and consequence propagation of multiple observations from the system based on an MFM model. The proposed logical reasoning matches actually observed alarms to the propagation analysis in MFM to distinguish plausible causes...

  7. Effectiveness of an audible reminder on hand hygiene adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhry, Morkos; Hanna, George B; Anderson, Oliver; Holmes, Alison; Nathwani, Dinesh

    2012-05-01

    Multimodal interventions aim to improve health care workers' adherence to hand hygiene guidelines. Visitors are not primarily targeted, but may spread epidemic infections. Effective interventions that improve the adherence of visitors to hand hygiene guidelines are needed to prevent the transmission of epidemic infections to or from health care environments. An electronic motion sensor-triggered audible hand hygiene reminder was installed at hospital ward entrances. An 8-month preinterventional and postinterventional study was carried out to measure the adherence of hospital visitors and staff to hand hygiene guidelines. Overall hand hygiene adherence increased from 7.6% to 49.9% (P staff increased immediately from 10.6% to 63.7% and from 5.3% to 34.8%, respectively (P staff (P staff (P = .341). The electronic motion sensor-triggered audible reminder immediately and significantly improved and sustained greater adherence of hospital visitors and clinical staff to hand hygiene guidelines. This is an effective addition to multimodal hand hygiene interventions and may help control epidemic infections. Copyright © 2012 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Audible reflection density for different late reflection criteria in rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krueger, Donata; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Brunskog, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    For reasonably accurate but practical auralizations, some simplifications and approximations are needed. The main issue in the present investigation is that the reflection density of a room impulse response, in theory, increases so fast as a quadratic function of the elapsed time, even assuming...... only specular reflections. Therefore in this study, the upper threshold for audible reflection density is investigated for four different transition times of 25, 50, 75, and 100 ms through a headphone listening test. Binaural impulse responses and speech signals simulated in three rooms with different...... characteristics (an empty office, a lecture room, and an auditorium) are used as stimuli. Subjects are asked to increase/decrease the reflection density of a stimulus until they cannot distinguish it from the stimulus that follows the theoretical reflection density for the different transition times in the three...

  9. CERN Alarms Data Management: State And Improvements

    CERN Document Server

    Zaharieva, Z

    2011-01-01

    The CERN Alarms System - LASER is a centralized service ensuring the capturing, storing and notification of anomalies for the whole accelerator chain, including the technical infrastructure at CERN. The underlying database holds the pre-defined configuration data for the alarm definitions, for the Operators alarms consoles as well as the time-stamped, run-time alarm events, propagated through the Alarms Systems. The article will discuss the current state of the Alarms database and recent improvements that have been introduced. It will look into the data management challenges related to the alarms configuration data that is taken from numerous sources. Specially developed Extract-Transform-Load (ETL) processes must be applied to this data in order to transform it into an appropriate format and load it into the Alarms database. The recorded alarms events together with some additional data, necessary for providing events statistics to users, are transferred to the long-term alarms archive.The article will cover...

  10. Research on the correlation between corona current spectrum and audible noise spectrum of HVDC transmission line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingyi; Zhou, Lijuan; Liu, Yuanqing; Yuan, Haiwen; Ji, Liang

    2017-11-01

    Audible noise is closely related to corona current on a high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission line. In this paper, we measured a large amount of audible noise and corona current waveforms simultaneously based on the largest outdoor HVDC corona cage all over the world. By analyzing the experimental data, the related statistical regularities between a corona current spectrum and an audible noise spectrum were obtained. Furthermore, the generation mechanism of audible noise was analyzed theoretically, and the related mathematical expression between the audible noise spectrum and the corona current spectrum, which is suitable for all of these measuring points in the space, has been established based on the electro-acoustic conversion theory. Finally, combined with the obtained mathematical relation, the internal reasons for these statistical regularities appearing in measured corona current and audible noise data were explained. The results of this paper not only present the statistical association regularities between the corona current spectrum and the audible noise spectrum on a HVDC transmission line, but also reveal the inherent reasons of these associated rules.

  11. Dissecting auditory verbal hallucinations into two components: audibility (Gedankenlautwerden) and alienation (thought insertion).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Iris E; Selten, Jean-Paul; Diederen, Kelly M; Blom, Jan Dirk

    2010-01-01

    This study proposes a theoretical framework which dissects auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) into 2 essential components: audibility and alienation. Audibility, the perceptual aspect of AVH, may result from a disinhibition of the auditory cortex in response to self-generated speech. In isolation, this aspect leads to audible thoughts: Gedankenlautwerden. The second component is alienation, which is the failure to recognize the content of AVH as self-generated. This failure may be related to the fact that cerebral activity associated with AVH is predominantly present in the speech production area of the right hemisphere. Since normal inner speech is derived from the left speech area, an aberrant source may lead to confusion about the origin of the language fragments. When alienation is not accompanied by audibility, it will result in the experience of thought insertion. The 2 hypothesized components are illustrated using case vignettes. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. 21 CFR 876.2040 - Enuresis alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enuresis alarm. 876.2040 Section 876.2040 Food and... GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 876.2040 Enuresis alarm. (a) Identification. An enuresis... type of device includes conditioned response enuresis alarms. (b) Classification. Class II (special...

  13. 24 CFR 3285.703 - Smoke alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Smoke alarms. 3285.703 Section 3285... DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Electrical Systems and Equipment § 3285.703 Smoke alarms. Smoke alarms must be functionally tested in accordance with applicable requirements of the smoke...

  14. HYBRID ALARM SYSTEMS: COMBINING SPATIAL ALARMS AND ALARM LISTS FOR OPTIMIZED CONTROL ROOM OPERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring; J.J. Persensky

    2012-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring research, development, and deployment on Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS), in which the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is working closely with nuclear utilities to develop technologies and solutions to help ensure the safe operational life extension of current nuclear power plants. One of the main areas of focus is control room modernization. Within control room modernization, alarm system upgrades present opportunities to meet the broader goals of the LWRS project in demonstrating the use and safety of the advanced instrumentation and control (I&C) technologies and the short-term and longer term objectives of the plant. In this paper, we review approaches for and human factors issues behind upgrading alarms in the main control room of nuclear power plants.

  15. HOME INSECURITY: NO ALARMS, FALSE ALARMS, AND SIGINT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamb, Logan M [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The market share of home security systems has substantially increased as vendors incorporate more desirable features: intrusion detection, automation, wireless, and LCD touch panel controls. Wireless connectivity allows vendors to manufacture cheaper, more featureful products that require little to no home modification to install. Consumer win, since adding devices is easier. The result: an ostensibly more secure, convenient, and connected home for a larger number of citizens. Sadly, this hypothesis is flawed; the idea of covering a home with more security sensors does not translate into a more secure home. Additionally, the number of homes using these vulnerable systems is large, and the growth rate is increasing producing a even larger problem. In this talk, I will demonstrate a generalized approach for compromising three systems: ADT, the largest home security dealer in North America; Honeywell, one of the largest manufacturers of security devices; and Vivint, a top 5 security dealer. We will suppress alarms, create false alarms, and collect artifacts that facilitate tracking the movements of individuals in their homes.

  16. Video systems for alarm assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwoll, D.A.; Matter, J.C. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Ebel, P.E. (BE, Inc., Barnwell, SC (United States))

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing closed-circuit television systems for video alarm assessment. There is a section on each of the major components in a video system: camera, lens, lighting, transmission, synchronization, switcher, monitor, and recorder. Each section includes information on component selection, procurement, installation, test, and maintenance. Considerations for system integration of the components are contained in each section. System emphasis is focused on perimeter intrusion detection and assessment systems. A glossary of video terms is included. 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  17. Alarm management for storage and transportation terminals; Gerenciamento de alarmes para terminais de transferencia e estocagem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, Patricia [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Feldman, Rafael Noac [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Recently, in many industrial segments, it has been taken into account the issues related to the high amount of alarms that are announced in the control rooms, even if the industrial process is under normal conditions. Recent studies and surveys have shown that the three major problems related to it are: alarms that remain active during normal operation; alarms that remain chattering during an operational period; the phenomenon called Alarm flood, that occurs when an extensive amount of alarms is announced and the operator does not have enough time to take effective actions. In order to reduce or to eliminate the two above mentioned causes, alarm analysis and housekeeping, called Alarm Rationalization, have been efficient in major cases, because such facts occur mainly due to inadequate limits definition and/or equipment and instruments out of service or in maintenance. Such alarms are called in the literature as bad-actors or villains, and their occurrences may reach up to 50% of the daily total amount of alarms. This paper aims to present the main results of a project named Alarm Management for Transfer and Storage Terminals. The project development is based on two different terminal surveys, in order not only to identify the most frequent causes of undesirable alarms, but also to generate design standards. The main phases of the project are: alarm rationalization based on bad-actors detection; generate a set of design and operation standards; generate an Alarm Philosophy document for the Terminals. (author)

  18. Identification and Isolation of Human Alarm Pheromones

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mujica-Parodi, Lilianne R; Strey, Helmut

    2006-01-01

    .... Task I, Optimization of Sample Collection, focused on the collection of the putative alarm pheromone via axillary sweat samples obtained during reference (physical exercise) and arousal (skydive) conditions...

  19. Effect of preferred volume setting on speech audibility in different hearing aid circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, P E; Kitch, V J

    2001-09-01

    This study compared preferred volume setting for linear peak clipping, compression limiting, and wide dynamic range compression (WDRC) amplification and quantified speech audibility at the preferred volume setting for each amplification type. Ten listeners with mild-to-moderate hearing loss were fitted monaurally with a behind-the-ear hearing aid programmed sequentially with WDRC, compression limiting, and linear peak clipping amplification. Speech was presented in quiet and in noise at a range of input levels. In each condition, the listener adjusted the volume for maximum clarity. Signal levels were measured using a probe microphone system. There was no significant difference in speech audibility between amplification strategies for any speech level regardless of the presence or absence of background noise. These results imply that the improved audibility advantage of WDRC over linear amplification demonstrated in controlled environments may not be maintained in situations where the hearing aid wearer controls the volume.

  20. Audibility of time differences in adjacent head-related transfer functions (HRTFs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Pablo F.F.; Møller, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Changes in the temporal and spectral characteristics of the sound reaching the two ears are known to be of great importance for the perception of spatial sound. The smallest change that can be reliably perceived provides a measure of how accurate directional hearing is. The present study investig......Changes in the temporal and spectral characteristics of the sound reaching the two ears are known to be of great importance for the perception of spatial sound. The smallest change that can be reliably perceived provides a measure of how accurate directional hearing is. The present study...... investigates audibility of changes in the temporal characteristics of HRTFs. A listening test is conducted to measure the smallest change in the interaural time difference (ITD) that produces an audible difference of any nature. Results show a large inter-individual variation with a range of audibility...

  1. Audible sound treatment of the microalgae Picochlorum oklahomensis for enhancing biomass productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Weiming; Dunford, Nurhan Turgut; Wang, Ning; Zhu, Songming; He, Huinong

    2016-02-01

    It has been reported in the literature that exposure of microalgae cells to audible sound could promote growth. This study examined the effect of sound waves with the frequency of 1100 Hz, 2200 Hz, and 3300 Hz to stimulate the biomass productivity of an Oklahoma native strain, Picochlorum oklahomensis (PO). The effect of the frequency of sound on biomass mass was measured. This study demonstrated that audible sound treatment of the algae cultures at 2200 Hz was the most effective in terms of biomass production and volumetric oil yield. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A Subjective Evaluation of the Minimum Audible Channel Separation in Binaural Reproduction Systems Through Loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacouture Parodi, Yesenia; Rubak, Per

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the performance of crosstalk cancellation systems the channel separation is usually used as parameter.  However, no systematic evaluation of the minimum audible channel separation has been found in the literature known by the authors.  This paper describes a set of subjective experime......To evaluate the performance of crosstalk cancellation systems the channel separation is usually used as parameter.  However, no systematic evaluation of the minimum audible channel separation has been found in the literature known by the authors.  This paper describes a set of subjective...

  3. Cost effectiveness of residential carbon monoxide alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Neil B

    2017-01-01

    While residential carbon monoxide (CO) alarms are now required in a majority of states, the cost effectiveness of the devices is unknown. This analysis was performed to determine the degree of prevention efficacy necessary from home carbon monoxide alarms for their expense to be cost-effective. Data regarding numbers of individuals affected in the United States annually from accidental, non-fire, residential non-fatal and fatal carbon monoxide poisoning were obtained from published literature. Federal governmental estimates of societal costs associated with medical care, lost wages and earnings, value of pain and suffering, and value of a statistical life were applied. The cost of uniform residential carbon monoxide alarm installation was compared to those societal costs in order to calculate what degree of efficiency makes alarms cost-effective. Societal costs for accidental, non-fire, residential CO poisoning are approximately $3.47 billion annually. With an estimated cost of $348 million annually for alarms, prevention of greater than 10% of residential CO poisoning costs must be achieved in order for alarms to be cost-effective. While the true effectiveness of residential carbon monoxide alarms has yet to be determined, current state legislation requiring residential installation of CO alarms is probably cost-effective. .

  4. Display-And-Alarm Circuit For Accelerometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Compact accelerometer assembly consists of commercial accelerometer retrofit with display-and-alarm circuit. Provides simple means for technician attending machine to monitor vibrations. Also simpifies automatic safety shutdown by providing local alarm or shutdown signal when vibration exceeds preset level.

  5. Useful and usable alarm systems : recommended properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veland, Oeystein; Kaarstad, Magnhild; Seim, Lars Aage; Foerdestroemmen, Nils T.

    2001-01-15

    This document describes the result of a study on alarm systems conducted by IFE in Halden. The study was initiated by the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate. The objective was to identify and formulate a set of important properties for useful and usable alarm systems. The study is mainly based on review of the latest international recognised guidelines and standards on alarm systems available at the time of writing, with focus on realistic solutions from research and best practice from different industries. In addition, IFE experiences gathered through specification and design of alarm systems and experimental activities in HAMMLAB and bilateral projects, have been utilized where relevant. The document presents a total of 43 recommendations divided into a number of general recommendations and more detailed recommendations on alarm generation, structuring, prioritisation, presentation and handling. (Author)

  6. Audibility of high Q-factor all-pass components in HRTFs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toledo, Daniela; Møller, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    Head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) can be decomposed into minimum phase, linear phase and all-pass components.  It is known that low Q-factor all-pass sections in HRTFs are audible as lateral shifts when the interaural group delay at low frequencies exceeds 30usec.  The goal of our investiga...

  7. Audible Image Description as an Accommodation in Statewide Assessments for Students with Visual and Print Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, Kay Alicyn; Correa-Torres, Silvia M.; Howell, Jennifer Johnson; Pearson, Robert; Carver, Wendy Morrow; Groll, Amy Spencer; Anthony, Tanni L.; Matthews, Deborah; Gould, Bryan; O'Connell, Trisha; Botsford, Kathryn D,; Dewald, Hong Phangia; Smyth, Catherine A.; Dewald, Aaron John

    2017-01-01

    Introduction:Although image description has been identified as an accommodation for presentations conducted in the classroom, only a few U.S. states have approved it for use in high-stakes assessments. This study examined the use of audible image description as an assessment accommodation for students with visual and print disabilities by…

  8. Recommendations for the LHC safety alarm system

    CERN Document Server

    Laeger, H

    1999-01-01

    A working group was set up to define the LHC safety alarm system, also known as Alarm-of-Level-3-System (AL3S). The mandate asked for recommendations to be elaborated on four items: the overall concept of the AL3S for machine and experiments, the transmission and display of safety alarms, the AL3S during civil engineering construction, and the transition from the present LEP to the final LHC safety alarm system. The members of the working group represented a wide range of interest and experience including the CERN Fire Brigade, safety officers from experiments and machines, and specialists for safety and control systems. The recommendations highlight the need for a clear definition of responsibilities and procedures, well-engineered homogeneous systems across CERN, and they point to several important issues outside the mandate of the working group. These recommendations were presented, discussed and accepted by several CERN and LHC committees.

  9. The alarming increase of incapacity for work

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thibaut, P

    2013-01-01

    The alarming increase of incapacity for work The increase of incapacity for work in Belgium and in Europe is not a new phenomenon but only the transposition of an experience already lived on others continents (Canada--USA...

  10. Applications of sub-audible speech recognition based upon electromyographic signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, C. Charles (Inventor); Betts, Bradley J. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Method and system for generating electromyographic or sub-audible signals (''SAWPs'') and for transmitting and recognizing the SAWPs that represent the original words and/or phrases. The SAWPs may be generated in an environment that interferes excessively with normal speech or that requires stealth communications, and may be transmitted using encoded, enciphered or otherwise transformed signals that are less subject to signal distortion or degradation in the ambient environment.

  11. 46 CFR 169.732 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 169.732 Section 169.732 Shipping... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.732 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED.” ...

  12. 46 CFR 78.47-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 78.47-9 Section 78.47-9 Shipping... and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED.” (b) ...

  13. 46 CFR 97.37-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 97.37-9 Section 97.37-9 Shipping... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING...

  14. 46 CFR 108.627 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 108.627 Section 108.627 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.627 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be identified by marking: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED” next to...

  15. 46 CFR 196.37-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 196.37-9 Section 196.37-9 Shipping... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING...

  16. Silent and a audible stereotypes: The constitution of "ethnic character" in Serbian epic poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đerić Gordana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the explanatory relevance of the concept of stereotype in one of its original meanings - as a "mental image". This meaning of the term is the starting point for further differentiations, such as: between linguistic and behavioral stereotypes (in the sense of nonverbal, expected responses; universal and particular stereotypes; self representative and introspective stereotypes; permanent and contemporary stereotypes; and finally, what is most important for our purposes, the difference between silent and audible stereotypes. These distinctions, along with the functions of stereotype, are discussed in the first part of the paper. In the second part, the relations of silent and audible stereotypes are tested against the introduction of "innovative vocabularies" in popular lore. In other words, the explanatory power of this differentiation is checked through an analysis of unconventional motives in Serbian epic poems. The goal of the argument is to clarify the procedure of self creation of masculinity as a relevant feature of the "national character" through "tactic games" of silent and audible stereotypes. The examination of these "poetic strategies" serves a twofold purpose: to illustrate the process of constructing particular features of the "ethno type", on one hand, and to check hypotheses and models which are taken as frameworks in analyzing stereotypes, on the other.

  17. Exposure to audible and infrasonic noise by modern agricultural tractors operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilski, Bartosz

    2013-03-01

    The wheeled agricultural tractor is one of the most prominent sources of noise in agriculture. This paper presents the assessment of the operator's exposure to audible and infrasonic noise in 32 selected modern wheeled agricultural tractors designed and produced by world-renowned companies in normal working conditions. The tractors have been in use for no longer than 4 years, with rated power of 51 kW to up to 228 kW (as per 97/68 EC). Audible and infrasonic noise level measurements and occupational exposure analysis to noise were performed according to ISO 9612:2009 (strategy 1 - task-based measurements). The measurements were made in different typical work conditions inside and outside of tractors cabs. The results indicated that exposure levels to noise perceived by the operators (L(ex,Te) between 62,3 and 84,7 dB-A) and can make a small risk of potential adversely effects on hearing during tasks performed inside the closed cab. It should be remarked that uncertainty interval is wider and in in some conditions can occur transgression of audible noise occupational exposure limits. The measured audible noise levels can potentially develop the non-auditory effects. Analysed tractors emit considerable infrasonic noise levels that tend to exceed the occupational exposure limits (both inside and outside the driver's cab). The levels of infrasound: 83,8-111,4 dB-G. All tractors introduced for sale should be subjected to tests in terms of infrasonic noise levels. The applicable standards for low frequency noise and its measurement methods for vehicles, including agricultural tractors, should be scientifically revised. In the last years there has been a noticeable technical progress in reduction of audible noise exposure at the tractors operators workplaces with simultaneously lack of important works for limitation of exposure to infrasound. Author discuss possible health and ergonomic consequencies of such exposure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics

  18. System for alarms analysis and optimization in petrochemicals plants; Sistema para analise e otimizacao de alarmes em plantas petroquimicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitao, Gustavo; Pifer, Aderson; Guedes, Luiz Affonso [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Saito, Kaku; Aquino, Leonardo [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    The present work presents a group of algorithms, techniques and functionalities on alarms management which can be used efficiently on the treatment of 'disturbances' caused by the informal management of the alarm systems. Among the disturbances handled by these techniques, there is the recognition of intermittent alarms and false alarms, location of alarm floods and correlation between alarms, aiming the identification of communal root causes. The results will be presented through a case study on petrochemical alarm plants. At last, the results obtained by the utilization of such functionalities will be presented and discussed. (author)

  19. ALARM STRATEGY AND COMPLEXITY: PREDICTIONS OF OPERATOR RESPONSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austin Ragsdale; Roger Lew; Brian Dyre; Ronald Boring; David Gertman

    2012-07-01

    Decision support for operators is not new, and much has been written regarding the potential usefulness of digital support systems and alarm filtering strategies. However, determining the appropriate characteristics of decision support tools is difficult, especially when alarms can vary in the manner which diagnostic information is formulated and displayed and when event scenario types are complex and numerous. When first reviewed, the advantages or disadvantages of a particular alarm approach may not be apparent to the designer or analyst. The present research focuses on the review of two particular alarm strategies, binary alarm type (BAT) and likelihood alarm type (LAT), and reviews their influence upon accuracy, bias, and trust for tasks performed at a computer workstation capable of replicating a series of control-room-like alarms. The findings are discussed in terms of the of the performance advantages of likelihood alarm technology and related research as an aid to the alarm design process.

  20. Stand-alone tsunami alarm equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsumata, Akio; Hayashi, Yutaka; Miyaoka, Kazuki; Tsushima, Hiroaki; Baba, Toshitaka; Catalán, Patricio A.; Zelaya, Cecilia; Riquelme Vasquez, Felipe; Sanchez-Olavarria, Rodrigo; Barrientos, Sergio

    2017-05-01

    One of the quickest means of tsunami evacuation is transfer to higher ground soon after strong and long ground shaking. Ground shaking itself is a good initiator of the evacuation from disastrous tsunami. Longer period seismic waves are considered to be more correlated with the earthquake magnitude. We investigated the possible application of this to tsunami hazard alarm using single-site ground motion observation. Information from the mass media is sometimes unavailable due to power failure soon after a large earthquake. Even when an official alarm is available, multiple information sources of tsunami alert would help people become aware of the coming risk of a tsunami. Thus, a device that indicates risk of a tsunami without requiring other data would be helpful to those who should evacuate. Since the sensitivity of a low-cost MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) accelerometer is sufficient for this purpose, tsunami alarm equipment for home use may be easily realized. Amplitude of long-period (20 s cutoff) displacement was proposed as the threshold for the alarm based on empirical relationships among magnitude, tsunami height, hypocentral distance, and peak ground displacement of seismic waves. Application of this method to recent major earthquakes indicated that such equipment could effectively alert people to the possibility of tsunami.

  1. 46 CFR 63.15-7 - Alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... reset. (c) For steam boilers, operation of the lower low water cutoff must automatically sound an..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING AUTOMATIC AUXILIARY BOILERS General... periodically unattended machinery space, the auxiliary boiler trip alarm required by 46 CFR 62.35-50, Table 62...

  2. Mianserin affects alarm reaction to conspecific chemical alarm cues in Nile tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Rodrigo Egydio

    2017-02-01

    In this study, I show that mianserin, a chemical with serotonin and adrenoceptor antagonist activities, increases fish vulnerability to a potential predator threat, when prey fish must deal with this threat based on conspecific chemical alarm cues. For that, I evaluated whether mianserin, diluted in the water, influences the behavioral responses of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to conspecific skin extract (chemical alarm cues). I found that, while mianserin did not abolished antipredator responses, this drug mitigates some components of this defensive reaction. Thus, a potential decrease in serotonin and adrenergic activities reduces the ability of dealing with predators when perceiving conspecific chemical alarm cues.

  3. Do nuisance alarms decrease functionality of smoke alarms near the kitchen? Findings from a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jingzhen; Jones, Michael P; Cheng, Gang; Ramirez, Marizen; Taylor, Craig; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2011-06-01

    Many home fires begin in the kitchen. Kitchen smoke alarms are more likely to produce nuisance alarms, but few previous studies have examined the role of alarm sensor and battery types on the functionality of smoke alarms located nearest to the kitchen. Data were analysed from a 2×2 factorial randomised controlled trial conducted in rural Iowa homes (n=628). Enrolled households were randomly assigned into one of four smoke alarm/battery combinations: ionisation/zinc, ionisation/lithium, photoelectric/zinc and photoelectric/lithium. Alarm functionality was determined using a smoke test. Alarm type and battery type were compared using an intent-to-treat analysis. Logistic regression was used to identify factors that might impact the functionality of smoke alarms located nearest to the kitchen 42 months after installation. Photoelectric alarms with lithium batteries had the highest rate of functionality (90.2%), whereas ionisation alarms with carbon/zinc batteries had the lowest (76.5%). Forty-two months following installation, 6.4% more of photoelectric alarms were functional than ionisation alarms, and 7.9% more of alarms with lithium batteries were functional than those with carbon/zinc batteries. Logistic regression revealed that when the indicator of nuisance alarms was included, the effect of alarm type became statistically insignificant and ionisation alarms were less likely to be functional at 42 months, partly due to increased nuisance alarms. Alarm type is an important consideration for certain locations. Photoelectric alarms may be more appropriate for installation nearest to the kitchen despite their increased cost. These findings can help guide consumer choices to increase protection against home fire-related injuries and deaths.

  4. Attitude of resident doctors towards intensive care units′ alarm settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Garg

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Intensive care unit (ICU monitors have alarm options to intimate the staff of critical incidents but these alarms needs to be adjusted in every patient. With this objective in mind, this study was done among resident doctors, with the aim of assessing the existing attitude among resident doctors towards ICU alarm settings. This study was conducted among residents working at ICU of a multispeciality centre, with the help of a printed questionnaire. The study involved 80 residents. All residents were in full agreement on routine use of ECG, pulse oximeter, capnograph and NIBP monitoring. 86% residents realised the necessity of monitoring oxygen concentration, apnoea monitoring and expired minute ventilation monitoring. 87% PGs and 70% SRs routinely checked alarm limits for various parameters. 50% PGs and 46.6% SRs set these alarm limits. The initial response to an alarm among all the residents was to disable the alarm temporarily and try to look for a cause. 92% of PGs and 98% of SRs were aware of alarms priority and colour coding. 55% residents believed that the alarm occurred due to patient disturbance, 15% believed that alarm was due to technical problem with monitor/sensor and 30% thought it was truly related to patient′s clinical status. 82% residents set the alarms by themselves, 10% believed that alarms should be adjusted by nurse, 4% believed the technical staff should take responsibility of setting alarm limits and 4% believed that alarm levels should be pre-adjusted by the manufacturer. We conclude that although alarms are an important, indispensable, and lifesaving feature, they can be a nuisance and can compromise quality and safety of care by frequent false positive alarms. We should be familiar of the alarm modes, check and reset the alarm settings at regular interval or after a change in clinical status of the patient.

  5. Health-based audible noise guidelines account for infrasound and low-frequency noise produced by wind turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Robert G; Ashtiani, Payam; Ollson, Christopher A; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa; McCallum, Lindsay C; Leventhall, Geoff; Knopper, Loren D

    2015-01-01

    Setbacks for wind turbines have been established in many jurisdictions to address potential health concerns associated with audible noise. However, in recent years, it has been suggested that infrasound (IS) and low-frequency noise (LFN) could be responsible for the onset of adverse health effects self-reported by some individuals living in proximity to wind turbines, even when audible noise limits are met. The purpose of this paper was to investigate whether current audible noise-based guidelines for wind turbines account for the protection of human health, given the levels of IS and LFN typically produced by wind turbines. New field measurements of indoor IS and outdoor LFN at locations between 400 and 900 m from the nearest turbine, which were previously underrepresented in the scientific literature, are reported and put into context with existing published works. Our analysis showed that indoor IS levels were below auditory threshold levels while LFN levels at distances >500 m were similar to background LFN levels. A clear contribution to LFN due to wind turbine operation (i.e., measured with turbines on in comparison to with turbines off) was noted at a distance of 480 m. However, this corresponded to an increase in overall audible sound measures as reported in dB(A), supporting the hypothesis that controlling audible sound produced by normally operating wind turbines will also control for LFN. Overall, the available data from this and other studies suggest that health-based audible noise wind turbine siting guidelines provide an effective means to evaluate, monitor, and protect potential receptors from audible noise as well as IS and LFN.

  6. Health-based Audible Noise Guidelines Account for Infrasound and Low Frequency Noise Produced by Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G Berger

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Setbacks for wind turbines have been established in many jurisdictions to address potential health concerns associated with audible noise. However, in recent years it has been suggested that infrasound (IS and low frequency noise (LFN could be responsible for the onset of adverse health effects self-reported by some individuals living in proximity to wind turbines, even when audible noise limits are met. The purpose of this paper was to investigate whether current audible noise-based guidelines for wind turbines account for the protection of human health, given the levels of IS and LFN typically produced by wind turbines. New field measurements of indoor IS and outdoor LFN at locations between 400 m and 900 m from the nearest turbine, which were previously underrepresented in the scientific literature, are reported and put into context with existing published works. Our analysis showed that indoor IS levels were below auditory threshold levels while LFN levels at distances >500 m were similar to background LFN levels. A clear contribution to LFN due to wind turbine operation (i.e., measured with turbines on in comparison to with turbines off was noted at a distance of 480 m. However, this corresponded to an increase in overall audible sound measures as reported in dB(A, supporting the hypothesis that controlling audible sound produced by normally operating wind turbines will also control for LFN. Overall, the available data from this and other studies suggest that health-based audible noise wind turbine siting guidelines provide an effective means to evaluate, monitor, and protect potential receptors from audible noise as well as IS and LFN.

  7. The influence of audibility on speech recognition with nonlinear frequency compression for children and adults with hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreery, Ryan W; Alexander, Joshua; Brennan, Marc A; Hoover, Brenda; Kopun, Judy; Stelmachowicz, Patricia G

    2014-01-01

    The primary goal of nonlinear frequency compression (NFC) and other frequency-lowering strategies is to increase the audibility of high-frequency sounds that are not otherwise audible with conventional hearing aid (HA) processing due to the degree of hearing loss, limited HA bandwidth, or a combination of both factors. The aim of the present study was to compare estimates of speech audibility processed by NFC with improvements in speech recognition for a group of children and adults with high-frequency hearing loss. Monosyllabic word recognition was measured in noise for 24 adults and 12 children with mild to severe sensorineural hearing loss. Stimuli were amplified based on each listener's audiogram with conventional processing (CP) with amplitude compression or with NFC and presented under headphones using a software-based HA simulator. A modification of the speech intelligibility index (SII) was used to estimate audibility of information in frequency-lowered bands. The mean improvement in SII was compared with the mean improvement in speech recognition. All but 2 listeners experienced improvements in speech recognition with NFC compared with CP, consistent with the small increase in audibility that was estimated using the modification of the SII. Children and adults had similar improvements in speech recognition with NFC. Word recognition with NFC was higher than CP for children and adults with mild to severe hearing loss. The average improvement in speech recognition with NFC (7%) was consistent with the modified SII, which indicated that listeners experienced an increase in audibility with NFC compared with CP. Further studies are necessary to determine whether changes in audibility with NFC are related to speech recognition with NFC for listeners with greater degrees of hearing loss, with a greater variety of compression settings, and using auditory training.

  8. Health-Based Audible Noise Guidelines Account for Infrasound and Low-Frequency Noise Produced by Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Robert G.; Ashtiani, Payam; Ollson, Christopher A.; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa; McCallum, Lindsay C.; Leventhall, Geoff; Knopper, Loren D.

    2015-01-01

    Setbacks for wind turbines have been established in many jurisdictions to address potential health concerns associated with audible noise. However, in recent years, it has been suggested that infrasound (IS) and low-frequency noise (LFN) could be responsible for the onset of adverse health effects self-reported by some individuals living in proximity to wind turbines, even when audible noise limits are met. The purpose of this paper was to investigate whether current audible noise-based guidelines for wind turbines account for the protection of human health, given the levels of IS and LFN typically produced by wind turbines. New field measurements of indoor IS and outdoor LFN at locations between 400 and 900 m from the nearest turbine, which were previously underrepresented in the scientific literature, are reported and put into context with existing published works. Our analysis showed that indoor IS levels were below auditory threshold levels while LFN levels at distances >500 m were similar to background LFN levels. A clear contribution to LFN due to wind turbine operation (i.e., measured with turbines on in comparison to with turbines off) was noted at a distance of 480 m. However, this corresponded to an increase in overall audible sound measures as reported in dB(A), supporting the hypothesis that controlling audible sound produced by normally operating wind turbines will also control for LFN. Overall, the available data from this and other studies suggest that health-based audible noise wind turbine siting guidelines provide an effective means to evaluate, monitor, and protect potential receptors from audible noise as well as IS and LFN. PMID:25759808

  9. Nuclear power plant alarm systems: Problems and issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.

    1991-01-01

    Despite the incorporation of advanced technology into nuclear power plant alarm systems, human factors problems remain. This paper identifies to be addressed in order to allow advanced technology to be used effectively in the design of nuclear power plant alarm systems. The operator's use and processing of alarm system information will be considered. Based upon a review of alarm system research, issues related to general system design, alarm processing, display and control are discussed. It is concluded that the design of effective alarm systems depends on an understanding of the information processing capabilities and limitations of the operator. 39 refs.

  10. Influence of high-frequency audibility on the perceived distance of sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cubick, Jens; Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    2014-01-01

    When listening in natural environments, normal-hearing (NH) listeners usually perceive sounds out- side their head, i.e., externalized. Sounds perceived inside the head are called internalized. Hearing- impaired (HI) listeners have been reported to externalize sounds less accurately than NH....... The present study aimed at clarifying whether the perceived distance of sounds in HI listeners differs from NH data as well and, if so, whether distance-rating performance improves when reduced audibility is compensated for by amplification. Individual binaural room impulse responses (BRIRs) were mea- sured...

  11. The Effectiveness of Real-Time Feedback with an Audible Pulse: A Preliminary Study in Renal Doppler Ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Hee; Lee, Hae Kyung; Choi, Seo-Youn; Yi, Boem Ha

    The effectiveness of real-time feedback using an audible pulse in renal Doppler ultrasonography was evaluated. This study was approved by the institutional review board of our hospital. Written informed consent was provided by all volunteers at enrollment. The 26 healthy volunteers enrolled in this study underwent Doppler ultrasound of both kidneys using audible and inaudible pulses in randomized order and at 1-week intervals. Doppler waveforms were obtained at the interlobar or arcuate arteries using a 2-mm Doppler gate. Each session was considered complete when reproducible waveforms were obtained for 5 s in three predefined regions of the kidney. The scan times needed to obtain waveforms of the right and left kidneys were recorded separately. Measurements were compared using a paired t-test and a two-sample Wilcoxon rank-sum test. The total recorded Doppler sonography scan time for each kidney ranged from 33 to 146 s. The mean scan time was 56.83 s (right, 58.19 s; left, 55.46 s) in the audible session and 72.58 s (right, 72.08 s; left, 73.08 s) in the inaudible session. The scan times were significantly shorter in the audible than inaudible session (peffect on the total scan time. Real-time feedback using an audible pulse may encourage patient cooperation during breath-holding and can shorten the time needed to perform Doppler ultrasonography.

  12. Criticality accident alarm system at the Fernald Environmental Management Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marble, R.C.; Brown, T.D.; Wooldridge, J.C.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes the staus of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) criticality alarm system. A new radiation detection alarm system was installed in 1990. The anunciation system, calibration and maintenance, and detector placement is described.

  13. Technological Distractions (Part 2): A Summary of Approaches to Manage Clinical Alarms With Intent to Reduce Alarm Fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Bradford D; Cvach, Maria M; Bonafide, Christopher P; Hu, Xiao; Konkani, Avinash; O'Connor, Michael F; Rothschild, Jeffrey M; Selby, Nicholas M; Pelter, Michele M; McLean, Barbara; Kane-Gill, Sandra L

    2018-01-01

    Alarm fatigue is a widely recognized safety and quality problem where exposure to high rates of clinical alarms results in desensitization leading to dismissal of or slowed response to alarms. Nonactionable alarms are thought to be especially problematic. Despite these concerns, the number of clinical alarm signals has been increasing as an everincreasing number of medical technologies are added to the clinical care environment. PubMed, SCOPUS, Embase, and CINAHL. We performed a systematic review of the literature focused on clinical alarms. We asked a primary key question; "what interventions have been attempted and resulted in the success of reducing alarm fatigue?" and 3-secondary key questions; "what are the negative effects on patients/families; what are the balancing outcomes (unintended consequences of interventions); and what human factor approaches apply to making an effective alarm?" Articles relevant to the Key Questions were selected through an iterative review process and relevant data was extracted using a standardized tool. We found 62 articles that had relevant and usable data for at least one key question. We found that no study used/developed a clear definition of "alarm fatigue." For our primary key question 1, the relevant studies focused on three main areas: quality improvement/bundled activities; intervention comparisons; and analysis of algorithm-based false and total alarm suppression. All sought to reduce the number of total alarms and/or false alarms to improve the positive predictive value. Most studies were successful to varying degrees. None measured alarm fatigue directly. There is no agreed upon valid metric(s) for alarm fatigue, and the current methods are mostly indirect. Assuming that reducing the number of alarms and/or improving positive predictive value can reduce alarm fatigue, there are promising avenues to address patient safety and quality problem. Further investment is warranted not only in interventions that may reduce

  14. Panic, Suffocation False Alarms, Separation Anxiety and Endogenous Opioids

    OpenAIRE

    Preter, Maurice; Klein, Donald F.

    2007-01-01

    This review paper presents an amplification of the suffocation false alarm theory (SFA) of spontaneous panic (Klein, 1993). SFA postulates the existence of an evolved physiologic suffocation alarm system that monitors information about potential suffocation. Panic attacks maladaptively occur when the alarm is erroneously triggered. That panic is distinct from Cannon’s emergency fear response and Selye’s General Alarm Syndrome is shown by the prominence of intense air hunger during these attac...

  15. Car Alarm System Engineered In Arduino Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Järvelä, Sakari

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is targeting to develop and engineer a burglar alarm system prototype using the software and hardware environment Arduino, which is originally manufactured by Smart Projects. The system under development provides a versatile theft inhibition hardware configuration for the holder of the system. It also provides vehicle localization enabling features in case of theft. In the final project, the aim is not to reach commercial benefit. The aim is to get familiar with software libra...

  16. Alarm annunciation in a graphical environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, D.G.

    1994-08-01

    Well-designed graphical user interfaces, such as Microsoft Windows{trademark} or UNIX{trademark} -- based X-Windows, provide a capability for enhanced display of security alarm information. Conversely, a poorly designed interface can quickly overwhelm an operator. This paper describes types of graphical information that can be displayed and offers guidance on how to best display that information. Limits are proposed for the complexity of the user interface, and guidelines are suggested for the display of maps and sensors.

  17. Audibility and speech perception of children using wide dynamic range compression hearing AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Lisa S; Skinner, Margaret W

    2006-12-01

    This study examined the relation of audibility for frequency-specific sounds and the Speech Intelligibility Index (SII) to speech perception abilities of children with sensorineural hearing loss using digital signal-processing hearing aids with wide dynamic range compression. Twenty-six children age 5-15 years with pure-tone averages (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 kHz) from 60-98 dB HL participated. Three subgroups were created based on the compression characteristics of each hearing aid. Minimum audibility was determined using aided thresholds for frequency-modulated tones and the SII calculated at 55 and 70 dB SPL using the simulated real-ear output of the hearing aid. The Lexical Neighborhood Test (LNT; K. I. Kirk, D. B. Pisoni, & M. J. Osberger, 1995) was presented at 50 and 70 dB SPL. LNT scores at 70 dB SPL were significantly higher than at 50 dB SPL. Average aided thresholds at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 kHz were negatively correlated with LNT scores at 50 dB SPL, and SIIs at 55 and 70 dB SPL were positively correlated with LNT scores at 50 and 70 dB SPL. Results support using aided thresholds and speech test scores at soft to loud levels as part of the amplification fitting process.

  18. The response of theatre personnel to the pulse oximeter alarm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: False alarms and sounds in the operating theatre (OT) that alert personnel to a crisis can be irritating. This can result in personnel ignoring genuine alarm warnings. This study was carried out to determine how alert OT personnel are in response to the pulse oximeter alarm. Method: For the purposes of the ...

  19. 46 CFR 169.730 - General alarm bell switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm bell switch. 169.730 Section 169.730... Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.730 General alarm bell switch. On vessels of 100 gross tons and over there must be a general alarm bell switch in the pilothouse, clearly...

  20. 46 CFR 108.623 - General alarm bell switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm bell switch. 108.623 Section 108.623... AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.623 General alarm bell switch. Each general alarm bell switch must be marked “GENERAL ALARM” on a plate or other firm noncorrosive backing. ...

  1. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood pressure...

  2. Poison and alarm: the Asian hornet Vespa velutina uses sting venom volatiles as an alarm pheromone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ya-Nan; Wen, Ping; Dong, Shi-Hao; Tan, Ken; Nieh, James C

    2017-02-15

    In colonial organisms, alarm pheromones can provide a key fitness advantage by enhancing colony defence and warning of danger. Learning which species use alarm pheromone and the key compounds involved therefore enhances our understanding of how this important signal has evolved. However, our knowledge of alarm pheromones is more limited in the social wasps and hornets compared with the social bees and ants. Vespa velutina is an economically important and widespread hornet predator that attacks honey bees and humans. This species is native to Asia and has now invaded Europe. Despite growing interest in V. velutina, it was unknown whether it possessed an alarm pheromone. We show that these hornets use sting venom as an alarm pheromone. Sting venom volatiles were strongly attractive to hornet workers and triggered attacks. Two major venom fractions, consisting of monoketones and diketones, also elicited attack. We used gas chromatography coupled to electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) to isolate 13 known and 3 unknown aliphatic ketones and alcohols in venom that elicited conspicuous hornet antennal activity. Two of the unknown compounds may be an undecen-2-one and an undecene-2,10-dinone. Three major compounds (heptan-2-one, nonan-2-one and undecan-2-one) triggered attacks, but only nonan-2-one did so at biologically relevant levels (10 hornet equivalents). Nonan-2-one thus deserves particular attention. However, the key alarm releasers for V. velutina remain to be identified. Such identification will help to illuminate the evolution and function of alarm compounds in hornets. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Comparative study of the effects of occupational exposure to infrasound and low frequency noise with those of audible noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Pawlas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The study aimed to compare effects of occupational exposure to low frequency noise (LFN in comparison with those of audible noise (AN. Material and methods. Three groups of 307 workers (I – exposed to LFN, II – exposed to audible noise – AN, and III- controls were examined. Results. Blood pressure and other biochemical parameters were worse in the group exposed. All parameters of hearing were worse in the AN group in comparison with LFN one in whole range of frequency. The same trends were found in posturography. Conclusions. The results of the study showed that audible noise is more hazardous than LFN. The results did not support thesis on vibroacoustic disease.

  4. Recommendations to alarm systems and lessons learned on alarm system implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerenssen, Aimar; Veland, Oeystein; Farbrot, Jan Erik; Kaarstad, Magnhild; Seim, Lars Aage; Foerdestroemmen, Nils; Bye, Andreas

    2001-11-15

    Alarm systems have been of major concern within complex industrial processes for many years. Within the nuclear community, the TMI accident in 1979 was the first really serious event that showed also the importance of the man-machine aspects of the systems in general, and the alarm system in particular. The OECD Halden Reactor Project has been working with alarm systems since 1974. This report is an attempt to gather some of the knowledge that has been accumulated during the years in Halden, both in research and also in bilateral projects. Bilateral projects within this field have provided a practical basis of knowledge.A major part of this report consists of a set of recommendations, which reflect HRP's current understanding of how an alarm system should work. There are also recommendations on design methods. But also other issues are included, as system development and implementation experience, and experimental knowledge on the performance of alarm systems. Some open issues are also discussed. (Author). 54 refs., 15 figs

  5. Clinical Alarms in intensive care: implications of alarm fatigue for the safety of patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Carla Bridi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to identify the number of electro-medical pieces of equipment in a coronary care unit, characterize their types, and analyze implications for the safety of patients from the perspective of alarm fatigue.METHOD: this quantitative, observational, descriptive, non-participatory study was conducted in a coronary care unit of a cardiology hospital with 170 beds.RESULTS: a total of 426 alarms were recorded in 40 hours of observation: 227 were triggered by multi-parametric monitors and 199 were triggered by other equipment (infusion pumps, dialysis pumps, mechanical ventilators, and intra-aortic balloons; that is an average of 10.6 alarms per hour.CONCLUSION: the results reinforce the importance of properly configuring physiological variables, the volume and parameters of alarms of multi-parametric monitors within the routine of intensive care units. The alarms of equipment intended to protect patients have increased noise within the unit, the level of distraction and interruptions in the workflow, leading to a false sense of security.

  6. Clinical alarm hazards: a "top ten" health technology safety concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, James P

    2012-01-01

    For the past several years ECRI Institute has published a list of Top Ten Health Technology Hazards. This list is based on ECRI's extensive research in health technology safety and on data provided to its problemreporting systems. For every year that the Top Ten list has been published, Alarm Hazards have been at or near the top of the list. Improving alarm safety requires a systematic review of a hospital's alarm-based technologies and analysis of alarm management policies like alarm escalation strategies and staffing patterns. It also requires careful selection of alarm setting criteria for each clinical care area. This article will overview the clinical alarm problems that have been identified through ECRI Institute's research and analysis of various problem reporting databases, including those operated by ECRI Institute. It will also highlight suggestions for improvement, particularly from a technology design and technology management perspective. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Kidkit guides children into alarming atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Marie; Kinch, Sofie

    2013-01-01

    on the development and evaluation of Kidkit, which is interactive furniture designed for young children who are going to visit a hospitalized relative with fatal injuries for the first time. Kidkit empowers the child to engage and be present by shaping Middle Ground Experiences in the hospital ward environment...... that is full of intimidating medical equipment and alarms. The evaluation results indicate collective rewards gained when children succeed in Embodied Habituation. Finally, the paper discusses how Middle Ground Experiences inevitably establish grounds for how we design for spatial experiences within...

  8. Audible Noise Measurement and Analysis of the Main Power Apparatus in UHV GIS Substations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Nian Guang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of audible noise characteristics of the main power apparatus in UHV GIS substations provides essential statistics for the noise prediction and control. Noise pressure level, spectrum and attenuation characteristics of the main transformers and high voltage (HV reactors are measured and analyzed in this paper. The result shows that the main transformer and HV reactor have identical A-weighted equivalent sound pressure level. The medium- and low-frequency noises are the primary components in the spectral. More attention should be paid to the low-frequency bands in the noise control process. The noise of cooling fan has a large influence on that of the main transformer. Without the consideration of corona noise, the average A-weighted sound pressure level shows an overall decreasing trend with the increase of the propagation distance. Obvious interference phenomenon of the noises at 100 and 200Hz exists in the noise propagation process.

  9. Initial psychoacoustic experiments on the human response to transmission line audible noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molino, J.A.; Zerdy, G.A.; Lerner, N.D.; Harwood, D.L.; Tremaine, S.G.

    1978-01-01

    A project is underway to investigate human response to transmission line audible noise. This project is developing a psychoacoustic data-base to determine the extent to which present measurement scales and human response criteria are appropriate for evaluating the environmental impact of transmission line audible noise, and to suggest different scales and criteria if necessary. A realistic listening room was used for psychoacoustic experiments in which a listener was given choices between various acoustic environments, including corona sounds, while reading a book. In another experiment groups of participants rated various sounds for their annoyance level while watching television programs. Results indicate that despite its relatively low sound level, corona noise is equally aversive to certain other environmental sounds that are 8 dB higher in sound pressure level. All of the common frequency weighting scales underestimate the aversiveness of corona noise relative to other environmental sounds. From a limited sample of comparison sounds, corona noise was found to be roughly equal in aversiveness to the noise from a room air conditioner. Knowledge of the source of the noise did not affect the relative aversiveness of corona noise as presented in the laboratory. The high-frequency hissing and crackling components of corona noise are more aversive than the low-frequency humming and buzzing components. There are distinctly different kinds of corona noise which differ both in frequency spectrum and relative aversiveness. Thus, in order to assess environmental impact, long-term sampling of corona noise from different lines may be needed. Similar results were obtained from experiments involving reading and television viewing as participant activities, indicating consistent and generalizable findings. (JGB)

  10. A Design of Alarm System in a Research Reactor Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jaekwan; Jang, Gwisook; Seo, Sangmun; Suh, Yongsuk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The digital alarm system has become an indispensable design to process a large amount of alarms of power plants. Korean research reactor operated for decades maintains a hybrid alarm system with both an analog annunciator and a digital alarm display. In this design, several alarms are indicated on an analog panel and digital display, respectively, and it requires more attention and effort of the operators. As proven in power plants, a centralized alarm system design is necessary for a new research reactor. However, the number of alarms and operators in a research reactor is significantly lesser than power plants. Thus, simplification should be considered as an important factor for the operation efficiency. This paper introduces a simplified alarm system. As advances in information technology, fully digitalized alarm systems have been applied to power plants. In a new research reactor, it will be more useful than an analog or hybrid configuration installed in research reactors decades ago. However, the simplification feature should be considered as an important factor because the number of alarms and number of operators in a research reactor is significantly lesser than in power plants.

  11. Alarm management in gas pipeline plant: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Juliano; Lima, Marcelo; Leitao, Gustavo; Guedes, Luiz Affonso [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Branco, Nicolau; Coelho, Robson; Elias, Gustavo Passos; Nunes, Marcelo [Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil (TBG), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In order to improve the requirements of industrial processes, many decision support systems have been introduced in recent years. In this context, the alarm management systems have great relevance. On the other hand, the informatics revolution allowed a great increase of information concerning the operation of the industrial processes. Currently, process operators handle an excessive number of about 1.500 alarms per day. Thus, this overdose of information implies in the discredit of alarms. Then, in order to improve the operation activities of industrial processes, it is mandatory to incorporate procedures to evaluate and rationalize alarms. Since the EMMUA191 Standard is the reference guide to alarm management, but it does not specify how to execute an alarm management procedure, in this paper, a systematic procedure to evaluate alarms configurations in industrial processes is proposed. This procedure is in line with EMMUA191 and is composed by the following steps: to use statistics analyses to identify problematic alarms, such as occurrence, intermittency, correlation, and flooding calculation; to indicate problematic alarm group; and to propose a set of actions to be implemented. To validate our proposal, we present a case study in a gas pipeline plant using the BR-AlarmExpert software. (author)

  12. Development of net cage acoustic alarm system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Shih-Wei; Wei, Ruey-Chang

    2004-05-01

    In recent years, the fishery production has been drastically decreased in Taiwan, mainly due to overfishing and coast pollution; therefore, fishermen and corporations are encouraged by government to invest in ocean net cage aquaculture. However, the high-price fishes in the net cage are often coveted, so incidences of fish stealing and net cage breaking were found occasionally, which cause great economical loss. Security guards or a visual monitoring system has limited effect, especially in the night when these intrusions occur. This study is based on acoustic measure to build a net cage alarm system, which includes the sonobuoy and monitor station on land. The sonobuoy is a passive sonar that collects the sounds near the net cage and transmits the suspected signal to the monitor station. The signals are analyzed by the control program on the personal computer in the monitor station, and the alarms at different stages could be activated by the sound levels and durations of the analyzed data. To insure long hours of surveillance, a solar panel is applied to charge the battery, and a photodetector is used to activate the system.

  13. The Effectiveness of Real-Time Feedback with an Audible Pulse: A Preliminary Study in Renal Doppler Ultrasonography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Hee Lee

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of real-time feedback using an audible pulse in renal Doppler ultrasonography was evaluated.This study was approved by the institutional review board of our hospital. Written informed consent was provided by all volunteers at enrollment. The 26 healthy volunteers enrolled in this study underwent Doppler ultrasound of both kidneys using audible and inaudible pulses in randomized order and at 1-week intervals. Doppler waveforms were obtained at the interlobar or arcuate arteries using a 2-mm Doppler gate. Each session was considered complete when reproducible waveforms were obtained for 5 s in three predefined regions of the kidney. The scan times needed to obtain waveforms of the right and left kidneys were recorded separately. Measurements were compared using a paired t-test and a two-sample Wilcoxon rank-sum test.The total recorded Doppler sonography scan time for each kidney ranged from 33 to 146 s. The mean scan time was 56.83 s (right, 58.19 s; left, 55.46 s in the audible session and 72.58 s (right, 72.08 s; left, 73.08 s in the inaudible session. The scan times were significantly shorter in the audible than inaudible session (p<0.001, whereas the difference in the scan times between the right and left kidneys was not significant. The order of the sessions had no effect on the total scan time.Real-time feedback using an audible pulse may encourage patient cooperation during breath-holding and can shorten the time needed to perform Doppler ultrasonography.

  14. General methods for alarm reduction; Larmsanering med generella metoder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahnlund, Jonas; Bergquist, Tord; Raaberg, Martin [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Information Technology

    2003-10-01

    The information in the control rooms has increased due to the technological advances in process control. Large industries produce large data quantities, where some information is unnecessary or even incorrect. The operator needs support from an advanced and well-adjusted alarm system to be able to separate a real event from a minor disturbance. The alarms must be of assistance and not a nuisance. An enhanced alarm situation qualifies an increased efficiency with fewer production disturbances and an improved safety. Yet, it is still unusual that actions are taken to improve the situation. An alarm cleanup with general methods can shortly be described as taking advantage of the control systems built-in functions, the possibility to modify or create function blocks and fine-tune the settings in the alarm system. In this project, we make use of an intelligent software, Alarm Cleanup Toolbox, that simulate different signal processing methods and tries to find improved settings on all the signals in the process. This is a fast and cost-efficient way to improve the overall alarm situation, and lays a foundation for more advanced alarm systems. An alarm cleanup has been carried out at Flintraennan district heating plant in Malmoe, where various signal processing methods has been implemented in a parallel alarm system. This made it possible to compare the two systems under the same conditions. The result is very promising, and shows that a lot of improvements can be achieved with very little effort. An analysis of the alarm system at Vattenreningen (the water purification process) at Heleneholmsverket in Malmoe has been carried out. Alarm Cleanup Toolbox has, besides suggesting improved settings, also found logical errors in the alarm system. Here, no implementation was carried out and therefore the results are analytical, but they validate the efficiency of the general methods. The project has shown that an alarm cleanup with general methods is cost-efficient, and that the

  15. Is the Sequence of SuperAlarm Triggers More Predictive Than Sequence of the Currently Utilized Patient Monitor Alarms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yong; Do, Duc; Ding, Quan; Palacios, Jorge Arroyo; Shahriari, Yalda; Pelter, Michele M; Boyle, Noel; Fidler, Richard; Hu, Xiao

    2017-05-01

    Our previous studies have shown that "code blue" events can be predicted by SuperAlarm patterns that are multivariate combinations of monitor alarms and laboratory test results cooccurring frequently preceding the events but rarely among control patients. Deploying these patterns to the monitor data streams can generate SuperAlarm sequences. The objective of this study is to test the hypothesis that SuperAlarm sequences may contain more predictive sequential patterns than monitor alarms sequences. Monitor alarms and laboratory test results are extracted from a total of 254 adult coded and 2213 control patients. The training dataset is composed of subsequences that are sampled from complete sequences and then further represented as fixed-dimensional vectors by the term frequency inverse document frequency method. The information gain technique and weighted support vector machine are adopted to select the most relevant features and train a classifier to differentiate sequences between coded patients and control patients. Performances are assessed based on an independent dataset using three metrics: sensitivity of lead time (Sen L @T), alarm frequency reduction rate (AFRR), and work-up to detection ratio (WDR). The performance of 12-h-long sequences of SuperAlarm can yield a Sen L@2 of 93.33%, an AFRR of 87.28%, and a WDR of 3.01. At an AFRR = 87.28%, Sen L@2 for raw alarm sequences and discretized alarm sequences are 73.33% and 70.19%, respectively. At a WDR = 3.01, Sen L@2 are 49.88% and 43.33%. The results demonstrate that SuperAlarm sequences indeed outperform monitor alarm sequences and suggest that one can focus on sequential patterns from SuperAlarm sequences to develop more precise patient monitoring solutions.

  16. Development of a Simple Sound Activated Burglar Alarm System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genesis Abah AGBO

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the design, construction and testing of a simple sound activated burglar alarm. The principle of operation of this burglar alarm is simple. When the intensity of sound exceeds certain intensity, the alarm is triggered and the siren begins to operate. The speaker beeps and the flasher (light flashes. These actions thus alert the owner of the residence and/or security personnel of the presence of an intruder.

  17. Evaluation of nine different types of enuresis alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, K M; Thomson, R B; Gibb, E M; McAinsh, T F

    1984-01-01

    One hundred enuretic children were treated in closely supervised trial conditions with nine commonly used enuresis alarm systems available commercially in the United Kingdom. Although there was little difference between the systems in terms of their effectiveness in stopping bed wetting, parents preferred the Eastleigh and Urilarm De-Luxe models which had distinct advantages in respect of false alarms, breakdowns, and durability of pads. Enuresis alarms that perform poorly in these respects may lead to loss of enthusiasm and non-compliance. The systems vary widely in price, but a private buyer may find a cheaper alarm just as effective. PMID:6476872

  18. Community social alarm network in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premik, M; Rudel, D

    1996-12-01

    The article deals with a case report on the technology transfer of the Lifeline community social alarm system to Slovenia. The main reason the project was initiated is the ageing of the Slovenian population (11% of the population is 65 or over). With this system we intend to support the public's wish to allow the elderly to remain in their own homes for as long as possible instead of placing them in institutional care. Between 1992 and 1995 the following results were achieved: the acceptability of the system in the social environment was increased; a pilot control centre in Ljubljana was established and has been operational for two-and-a-half years; a national dissemination plan was prepared; the integration of the programme into other information systems has been started. One of the main conclusions is that for the successful transfer of a technology which also affects social values in society, a social innovation must support the process.

  19. Aplikasi Sensor Cahaya Untuk Alarm Anti Pencuri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asita Shoman Muzaki

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Kasus pencurian di rumah kosong yang ditinggal pergi oleh pemiliknya belakangan ini marak terjadi. Berangkat dari pemikiran ini penulis mencoba merancang alarm yang dapat mendeteksi pergerakan seseorang saat rumah dalam kondisi kosong, ditinggalkan oleh pemiliknya. Alat ini mempunyai prinsip kerja yaitu mendeteksi bayangan seseorang yang melewati titik tertentu. Perancangan dan pembuatan perangkat ini menggunakan sensor cahaya berupa LASER dan LDR yang dirangkai dengan transistor sebagai saklar otomatis serta LED dan telepon rumah untuk melakukan panggilan kepada nomor telepon pemilik rumah. Komponen yang dipakai dalam pembuatan perangkat ini antara lain IC LM7805, LASER pointer, resistor, transistor BC108, LED, relay dan telepon rumah. Perancangan dan pembuatan alat menggunakan software multisim 10.1 sebagai simulator rangkaian, dan software eagle 5.1.1 untuk mendesain jalur rangkaian pada papan PCB. Saat cahaya LASER tidak sampai ke LDR karena terhalang oleh sesuatu, maka rangkaian output yang berupa indikator LED dan panggilan dari telepon rumah akan aktif

  20. [The alarming increase of incapacity for work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibaut, P

    2013-09-01

    The alarming increase of incapacity for work The increase of incapacity for work in Belgium and in Europe is not a new phenomenon but only the transposition of an experience already lived on others continents (Canada--USA). The bio-psycho-social model proves to be, on the international level, as the more efficient view for the understanding of the mechanisms production of the disability and therefore of the incapacity for work. Following this approach, the chronic pain is the result of the dynamic interaction between physiological, psychological and social factors. It mentions also an existing link between the pain and the depression itself being a determining factor in the persistence of the incapacity for work. The bio-psycho-social model can only be conceived in the interdisciplinary approach, and will for sure allow to optimize the support and the use of medicines with a painkiller and depressive aim. The socio-economic impact created represents actually a real health problem.

  1. Alarm management for process control a best-practice guide for design, implementation, and use of industrial alarm systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rothenberg, Douglas H

    2014-01-01

    No modern industrial enterprise, particularly in such areas as chemical processing, can operate without a secure, and reliable, network of automated monitors and controls. And those operations need alarm systems to alert engineers and managers the moment anything goes wrong or needs attention. This book, by one of the world's leading experts on industrial alarm systems, will provide A to Z coverage of designing, implementing, and maintaining an effective alarm network.

  2. Effects of audibility and multichannel wide dynamic range compression on consonant recognition for listeners with severe hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies-Venn, Evelyn; Souza, Pamela; Brennan, Marc; Stecker, G Christopher

    2009-10-01

    This study examined the effects of multichannel wide-dynamic range compression (WDRC) amplification and stimulus audibility on consonant recognition and error patterns. Listeners had either severe or mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss. Each listener was monaurally fit with a wearable hearing aid using typical clinical procedures, frequency-gain parameters, and a hybrid of clinically prescribed compression ratios for desired sensation level () and NAL-NL (). Consonant-vowel nonsense syllables were presented in soundfield at multiple input levels (50, 65, 80 dB SPL). Test conditions were four-channel fast-acting WDRC amplification and a control compression limiting (CL) amplification condition. Listeners identified the stimulus heard from choices presented on an on-screen display. A between-subject repeated measures design was used to evaluate consonant recognition and consonant confusion patterns. Fast-acting WDRC provided a considerable audibility advantage at 50 dB SPL, especially for listeners with severe hearing loss. Listeners with mild to moderate hearing loss received less audibility improvement from the fast-acting WDRC amplification, for conversational and high level speech, when compared with listeners with severe hearing loss. Analysis of WDRC benefit scores revealed that listeners had slightly lower scores with fast-acting WDRC amplification (relative to CL) when WDRC provided minimal improvement in audibility. The negative effect was greater for listeners with mild to moderate hearing loss compared with their counterparts with severe hearing loss. All listeners, but particularly the severe loss group, benefited from fast-acting WDRC amplification for low-level speech. For conversational and higher speech levels (i.e., when WDRC does not confer a significant audibility advantage), fast-acting WDRC amplification seems to slightly degrade performance. Listeners' consonant confusion patterns suggest that this negative effect may be partly due to

  3. Characterizing the audibility of sound field with diffusion in architectural spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utami, Sentagi Sesotya

    The significance of diffusion control in room acoustics is that it attempts to avoid echoes by dispersing reflections while removing less valuable sound energy. Some applications place emphasis on the enhancement of late reflections to promote a sense of envelopment, and on methods required to measure the performance of diffusers. What still remains unclear is the impact of diffusion on the audibility quality due to the geometric arrangement of architectural elements. The objective of this research is to characterize the audibility of the sound field with diffusion in architectural space. In order to address this objective, an approach utilizing various methods and new techniques relevant to room acoustics standards was applied. An array of microphones based on beam forming (i.e., an acoustic camera) was utilized for field measurements in a recording studio, classrooms, auditoriums, concert halls and sport arenas. Given the ability to combine a visual image with acoustical data, the impulse responses measured were analyzed to identify the impact of diffusive surfaces on the early, late, and reverberant sound fields. The effects of the room geometry and the proportions of the diffusive and absorptive surfaces were observed by utilizing geometrical room acoustics simulations. The degree of diffuseness in each space was measured by coherences from different measurement positions along with the acoustical conditions predicted by well-known objective parameters such as T30, EDT, C80, and C50. Noticeable differences of the auditory experience were investigated by utilizing computer-based survey techniques, including the use of an immersive virtual environment system, given the current software auralization capabilities. The results based on statistical analysis demonstrate the users' ability to localize the sound and to distinguish the intensity, clarity, and reverberation created within the virtual environment. Impact of architectural elements in diffusion control is

  4. Smoke alarm installation and function in inner London council housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGuiseppi, C.; Roberts, I.; Speirs, N.

    1999-01-01

    AIM—To determine the prevalence of and predictors for installed, functioning smoke alarms in council (public) housing in a low income, multi-ethnic urban area.
DESIGN—Cross sectional study.
SETTING—40 materially deprived electoral wards in two inner London boroughs.
PARTICIPANTS—Occupants of 315 addresses randomly selected from council housing lists, with 75% response rate.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Installation and function of smoke alarms based on inspection and testing.
RESULTS—39% (95% confidence interval (CI) 33% to 46%) of council tenants owned a smoke alarm, 31% (95% CI 25% to 38%) had an installed alarm (of which 54% were correctly installed), and 16% (95% CI 12% to 22%) had at least one installed, functioning alarm. Alarms most commonly failed because they lacked batteries (72%). In multivariate modelling, having an installed, functioning alarm was most strongly associated with living in a house versus a flat (apartment) (odds ratio (OR) 3.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 10.0), having two resident adults versus one (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.2 to 6.5), and recognising stills from a Home Office television smoke alarm campaign (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.1 to 5.5).
CONCLUSIONS—Fires are a leading cause of child injury and death, particularly among those younger than 5 years of age and those in social classes IV and V. Smoke alarms are associated with a significantly reduced risk of death in residential fires, and are more protective in households with young children. Few council properties in a multi-ethnic, materially deprived urban area had any installed, functioning smoke alarms, despite a high risk of residential fires and fire related injuries in such areas. Effective methods to increase the prevalence of installed and functioning alarms must be identified.

 PMID:10519711

  5. Alarm calls of Bronze Mannikins communicate predator size to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These groups were exposed to latex terrestrial snakes and mounted aerial raptors, and their alarm calls and predator response behaviours recorded. The Bronze Mannikins were able to discriminate between predators of different sizes, and increased their calling rate and decreased the end frequency of the alarm call in ...

  6. An integrated alarm display design in digital nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Xiaojun [Department of Industrial Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Li, Zhizhong, E-mail: zzli@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Industrial Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Song, Fei; Sang, Wei [Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research and Design Institute, Shanghai 200233 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • The effect of integrating system information into alarm displays in ACR was explored. • A bar-based integrated alarm display design was validated through a lab experiment. • The bar-based integrated design was preferred in detecting parameter trends. • The bar-based integrated design helped better understanding of the current scenario. - Abstract: In main control rooms of nuclear power plants (NPPs), operators often have to frequently switch their attention between alarm displays and system information displays to incorporate information from different screens. In this study, we proposed the idea of integrating system information into alarm displays. A bar-based integrated design of alarm display was proposed, and it was compared against a tile-based integrated design, and a traditional separate design through a lab experiment. To verify the idea of integration, forty-eight participants were randomly assigned to the three integration conditions to perform basic alarm response tasks, and their situation awareness levels and subjective evaluations were collected. The results indicated that the participants preferred the idea of integrating system information into alarm displays. Besides, the bar-based integrated display supported higher correct rate of answers to situation awareness questions related to the developing scenario than the tile-based integrated design. The idea of integrating system information into alarm displays merits further research and may be applicable to other safety–critical industries.

  7. 46 CFR 28.250 - High water alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false High water alarms. 28.250 Section 28.250 Shipping COAST... Individuals On Board, or for Fish Tender Vessels Engaged in the Aleutian Trade § 28.250 High water alarms. On... operating station to indicate high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (a) A...

  8. Statistical Study of False Alarms of Geomagnetic Storms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leer, Kristoffer; Vennerstrøm, Susanne; Veronig, A.

    alarms is considered as an important factor when forecasting geomagnetic storms. It would therefore be very helpful if there were a signature in the solar data that could indicate that a CME is a false alarm. The strength and position of associated flares have been considered as possible candidates...

  9. 46 CFR 162.050-35 - Bilge alarm: Approval tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., the mixture pressure is reduced to one-half of the alarm's maximum design pressure. If the alarm has a... minutes and then with a mixture of Test Fluid A and water in the following concentrations: 0 ppm, 15 ppm, and the highest oil concentration that can be read on the monitor. A sample of the mixture causing...

  10. Criticality accident alarm system at the Fernald Environmental Management Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marble, R.C.; Brown, T.D.; Wooldridge, J.C.

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to give a description of the Criticality Accident Alarm System (CAAS) presently installed at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) for monitoring areas requiring criticality controls, and some of the concerns associated with the operation of this system. The system at the FEMP is known as the Radiation Detection Alarm (RDA) System.

  11. Successful Use of the Nocturnal Urine Alarm for Diurnal Enuresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friman, Patrick C.; Vollmer, Dennis

    1995-01-01

    A urine alarm, typically used to treat nocturnal enuresis, was effectively used to treat diurnal enuresis in a 15-year-old female with depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and conduct disorder. The study indicated that the alarm eliminated wetting in both treatment phases and that continence was maintained at three-month and…

  12. 46 CFR 131.805 - General alarm bell, switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm bell, switch. 131.805 Section 131.805 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.805 General alarm bell, switch. The switch in the...

  13. 33 CFR 157.440 - Autopilot alarm or indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Autopilot alarm or indicator. 157.440 Section 157.440 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... § 157.440 Autopilot alarm or indicator. (a) A tankship owner or operator shall ensure that each...

  14. A breathing circuit alarm system based on neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, J A; Westenskow, D R

    1994-03-01

    The objectives of our study were (1) to implement intelligent respiratory alarms with a neural network; and (2) to increase alarm specificity and decrease false-alarm rates compared with current alarms. We trained a neural network to recognize 13 faults in an anesthesia breathing circuit. The system extracted 30 breath-to-breath features from the airway CO2, flow, and pressure signals. We created training data for the network by introducing 13 faults repeatedly in 5 dogs (616 total faults). We used the data to train the neural network using the backward error propagation algorithm. In animals, the trained network reported the alarms correctly for 95.0% of the faults when tested during controlled ventilation, and for 86.9% of the faults during spontaneous breathing. When tested in the operating room, the system found and correctly reported 54 of 57 faults that occurred during 43.6 hr of use. The alarm system produced a total of 74 false alarms during 43.6 hr of monitoring. Neural networks may be useful in creating intelligent anesthesia alarm systems.

  15. Acoustic metamaterial panel for both fluid passage and broadband soundproofing in the audible frequency range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae Woong; Kim, Jae Eun; Lee, Jin Woo

    2018-01-01

    We present the design, including an experimental demonstration, of an acoustic metamaterial panel aimed at reducing incoming broadband noise in the audible frequency range while allowing an incoming fluid to pass through the holes formed in the panel. The noise reduction performance of the proposed acoustic metamaterial panel is attributed to an array of annular cavities enclosing the fluid passage holes. The acoustic behavior of the acoustic metamaterial panel is theoretically analyzed by the transfer matrix method, and an equivalent acoustic impedance of each annular cavity is included with its effective length in the derived transfer matrix. The effective bulk modulus for the acoustic metamaterial panel is then extracted from the transmission and reflection coefficients by using the retrieval method. It is shown that the frequency range of the negative effective bulk modulus coincides with the stop band of the acoustic metamaterial panel. The underlying physical mechanism for the negative effective bulk modulus is attributed to the out-of-phase motion of vibrating particles in adjacent annular cavities. A calculated transmission coefficient curve of the acoustic metamaterial panel is shown to be in good agreement with the measured one. The findings presented in this work should be useful in the design of a holey soundproof panel.

  16. Multi-objective optimization of the induction machine with minimization of audible electromagnetic noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Besnerais, J.; Hecquet, M.; Lanfranchi, V.; Brochet, P.

    2007-08-01

    Induction motors optimal design can involve many variables and objectives, and generally requires to make several trade-offs, especially when including the audible electromagnetic noise criterion beyond the usual performance criteria. Multiobjective optimization techniques based on Pareto optimality are useful to help us finding the most interesting solutions and decide which one(s) to adopt. However, it is not always easy to analyse the Pareto-optimal solutions obtained with such methods, especially when treating more than three objectives, and Pareto fronts may contain more data than we might think. This paper briefly describes an analytical model of the variable-speed squirrel-cage induction machine which computes both its performances and sound power level of electromagnetic origin. The model is then coupled to the Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II) in order to perform global optimization with respect to several objectives (e.g. noise level, efficiency and material cost). Finally, an optimization problem is solved and analysed, and some useful visualization tools of the Pareto optimal solutions and their characteristics are presented.

  17. Propagation characteristics of audible noise generated by single corona source under positive DC voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuebao; Cui, Xiang; Lu, Tiebing; Wang, Donglai

    2017-10-01

    The directivity and lateral profile of corona-generated audible noise (AN) from a single corona source are measured through experiments carried out in the semi-anechoic laboratory. The experimental results show that the waveform of corona-generated AN consists of a series of random sound pressure pulses whose pulse amplitudes decrease with the increase of measurement distance. A single corona source can be regarded as a non-directional AN source, and the A-weighted SPL (sound pressure level) decreases 6 dB(A) as doubling the measurement distance. Then, qualitative explanations for the rationality of treating the single corona source as a point source are given on the basis of the Ingard's theory for sound generation in corona discharge. Furthermore, we take into consideration of the ground reflection and the air attenuation to reconstruct the propagation features of AN from the single corona source. The calculated results agree with the measurement well, which validates the propagation model. Finally, the influence of the ground reflection on the SPL is presented in the paper.

  18. Propagation characteristics of audible noise generated by single corona source under positive DC voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuebao Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The directivity and lateral profile of corona-generated audible noise (AN from a single corona source are measured through experiments carried out in the semi-anechoic laboratory. The experimental results show that the waveform of corona-generated AN consists of a series of random sound pressure pulses whose pulse amplitudes decrease with the increase of measurement distance. A single corona source can be regarded as a non-directional AN source, and the A-weighted SPL (sound pressure level decreases 6 dB(A as doubling the measurement distance. Then, qualitative explanations for the rationality of treating the single corona source as a point source are given on the basis of the Ingard’s theory for sound generation in corona discharge. Furthermore, we take into consideration of the ground reflection and the air attenuation to reconstruct the propagation features of AN from the single corona source. The calculated results agree with the measurement well, which validates the propagation model. Finally, the influence of the ground reflection on the SPL is presented in the paper.

  19. Alarm systems a guide to design, management and procurement

    CERN Document Server

    Engineering Equipment and Materials Users' Association. London

    2013-01-01

    Alarm systems form an essential part of the operator interfaces to large modern industrial facilities. They provide vital support to the operators by warning them of situations that need their attention and have an important role in preventing, controlling and mitigating the effects of abnormal situations. Since it was first published in 1999, EEMUA 191 has become the globally accepted and leading guide to good practice for all aspects of alarm systems. The guide, developed by users of alarm systems with input from the GB Health and Safety Executive, gives comprehensive guidance on designing, managing and procuring an effective alarm system. The new Third Edition has been comprehensively updated and includes guidance on implementing the alarm management philosophy in practice; applications in geographically distributed processes; and performance metrics and KPIs.

  20. The effects of audibility and novel word learning ability on vocabulary level in children with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Lisa S; Geers, Ann E; Nicholas, Johanna G

    2014-07-01

    A novel word learning (NWL) paradigm was used to explore underlying phonological and cognitive mechanisms responsible for delayed vocabulary level in children with cochlear implants (CIs). One hundred and one children using CIs, 6-12 years old, were tested along with 47 children with normal hearing (NH). Tests of NWL, receptive vocabulary, and speech perception at 2 loudness levels were administered to children with CIs. Those with NH completed the NWL task and a receptive vocabulary test. CI participants with good audibility (GA) versus poor audibility (PA) were compared on all measures. Analysis of variance was used to compare performance across the children with NH and the two groups of children with CIs. Multiple regression analysis was employed to identify independent predictors of vocabulary outcomes. Children with CIs in the GA group scored higher in receptive vocabulary and NWL than children in the PA group, although they did not reach NH levels. CI-aided pure tone threshold and performance on the NWL task predicted independent variance in vocabulary after accounting for other known predictors. Acquiring spoken vocabulary is facilitated by GA with a CI and phonological learning and memory skills. Children with CIs did not learn novel words at the same rate or achieve the same receptive vocabulary levels as their NH peers. Maximizing audibility for the perception of speech and direct instruction of new vocabulary may be necessary for children with CIs to reach levels seen in peers with NH.

  1. From alarm systems to smart houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaskamp, F J

    1992-01-01

    The percentage of senior citizens in the Netherlands will rise in coming years. The expected percentage for the year 2010 of persons over age 65 in the total population is 15%. More persons over age 65 than ever before will continue to live in their own environment. Emergency response systems (ERS) can support independent living. The most common type of organization distributing ERS is a small, partly subsidized local alarm organization run by a social welfare office for the elderly. Government subsidy has been reduced in recent years which has motivated small organizations to join together into larger regional organizations in order to get a more solid financial base. On the other hand new semi-commercial and commercial organizations have come into being. These developments are part of the growing importance of home care, leading to more medical applications of ERS. User satisfaction with ERS is high. Portable triggers can enhance the effectiveness of the system. However, many users do not wear the portable trigger when feeling well. Future technical developments will result in multifunctionality of ERS-devices. In the long term the hardware of today will be integrated in a multimedia home terminal replacing the telephone. The portable trigger will remain the only specific hardware at home for ERS.

  2. Investigation of Stability Alarming for Retaining Wall Structures with Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To warn of the stability of retaining wall structures with damage, a simplified mechanical model and a finite element model of this retaining wall-soil coupling system are established. Via finite element model updating, a baseline finite element model of the wall-soil system is acquired. A damage alarming index ERSD (Energy Ratio Standard Deviation is proposed via the wavelet packet analysis of a virtual impulse response function of dynamic responses to this baseline finite element model. The internal relationships among the alarming index, earth pressure, and damage stability of the wall are analyzed. Then, a damage stability alarming method for the retaining walls is advanced. To verify the feasibility and validity of this alarming method, vibration tests on the baseline finite element model of a pile plate retaining wall are performed. The ERSD is used as an alarm for the damage stability of the wall. Analysis results show that, with an increase in the ERSD, the stability of the wall changes from a stable state to an unstable one. The wall reaches a critical stable state when the alarming index reaches its threshold value. Thus, the damage stability of this pile plate retaining wall can be alarmed via ERSD.

  3. Acoustic structures in the alarm calls of Gunnison's prairie dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobodchikoff, C N; Placer, J

    2006-05-01

    Acoustic structures of sound in Gunnison's prairie dog alarm calls are described, showing how these acoustic structures may encode information about three different predator species (red-tailed hawk-Buteo jamaicensis; domestic dog-Canis familaris; and coyote-Canis latrans). By dividing each alarm call into 25 equal-sized partitions and using resonant frequencies within each partition, commonly occurring acoustic structures were identified as components of alarm calls for the three predators. Although most of the acoustic structures appeared in alarm calls elicited by all three predator species, the frequency of occurrence of these acoustic structures varied among the alarm calls for the different predators, suggesting that these structures encode identifying information for each of the predators. A classification analysis of alarm calls elicited by each of the three predators showed that acoustic structures could correctly classify 67% of the calls elicited by domestic dogs, 73% of the calls elicited by coyotes, and 99% of the calls elicited by red-tailed hawks. The different distributions of acoustic structures associated with alarm calls for the three predator species suggest a duality of function, one of the design elements of language listed by Hockett [in Animal Sounds and Communication, edited by W. E. Lanyon and W. N. Tavolga (American Institute of Biological Sciences, Washington, DC, 1960), pp. 392-430].

  4. Computational Human Performance Modeling For Alarm System Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques Hugo

    2012-07-01

    The introduction of new technologies like adaptive automation systems and advanced alarms processing and presentation techniques in nuclear power plants is already having an impact on the safety and effectiveness of plant operations and also the role of the control room operator. This impact is expected to escalate dramatically as more and more nuclear power utilities embark on upgrade projects in order to extend the lifetime of their plants. One of the most visible impacts in control rooms will be the need to replace aging alarm systems. Because most of these alarm systems use obsolete technologies, the methods, techniques and tools that were used to design the previous generation of alarm system designs are no longer effective and need to be updated. The same applies to the need to analyze and redefine operators’ alarm handling tasks. In the past, methods for analyzing human tasks and workload have relied on crude, paper-based methods that often lacked traceability. New approaches are needed to allow analysts to model and represent the new concepts of alarm operation and human-system interaction. State-of-the-art task simulation tools are now available that offer a cost-effective and efficient method for examining the effect of operator performance in different conditions and operational scenarios. A discrete event simulation system was used by human factors researchers at the Idaho National Laboratory to develop a generic alarm handling model to examine the effect of operator performance with simulated modern alarm system. It allowed analysts to evaluate alarm generation patterns as well as critical task times and human workload predicted by the system.

  5. New Concept For Alarm Structure And Management In Dcs Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Hegazy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to set new standard for good design and best practice to applied when any DCS ManufacturesSuppliers configure process alarm system in any oil refining oil and gas production gas-handling facilities gasification plant or any chemical processing plant and thereby to optimizeminimize unnecessary alarms from reporting to operator workstations CAD Control Alarm Display. These views based on the experience acquired and implemented during involvement with the commissioning and startup of two DCS projects in Mina Al-Ahmadi Refinery Kuwait.

  6. Nuthatches eavesdrop on variations in heterospecific chickadee mobbing alarm calls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Christopher N.; Greene, Erick

    2007-01-01

    Many animals recognize the alarm calls produced by other species, but the amount of information they glean from these eavesdropped signals is unknown. We previously showed that black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) have a sophisticated alarm call system in which they encode complex information about the size and risk of potential predators in variations of a single type of mobbing alarm call. Here we show experimentally that red-breasted nuthatches (Sitta canadensis) respond appropriately to subtle variations of these heterospecific “chick-a-dee” alarm calls, thereby evidencing that they have gained important information about potential predators in their environment. This study demonstrates a previously unsuspected level of discrimination in intertaxon eavesdropping. PMID:17372225

  7. A weighted dissimilarity index to isolate faults during alarm floods

    CERN Document Server

    Charbonnier, S; Gayet, P

    2015-01-01

    A fault-isolation method based on pattern matching using the alarm lists raised by the SCADA system during an alarm flood is proposed. A training set composed of faults is used to create fault templates. Alarm vectors generated by unknown faults are classified by comparing them with the fault templates using an original weighted dissimilarity index that increases the influence of the few alarms relevant to diagnose the fault. Different decision strategies are proposed to support the operator in his decision making. The performances are evaluated on two sets of data: an artificial set and a set obtained from a highly realistic simulator of the CERN Large Hadron Collider process connected to the real CERN SCADA system.

  8. Patient characteristics associated with false arrhythmia alarms in intensive care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris PR

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Patricia R Harris,1,2 Jessica K Zègre-Hemsey,3,4 Daniel Schindler,5 Yong Bai,6 Michele M Pelter,2,7 Xiao Hu2,8 1Department of Nursing, School of Health and Natural Sciences, Dominican University of California, San Rafael, 2Department of Physiological Nursing, School of Nursing, University of California, San Francisco, CA, 3School of Nursing, 4Department of Emergency Medicine, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC, 5Intensive Care Unit, The Neuroscience Center, Sutter Eden Medical Center, Castro Valley, 6Hu Research Laboratory, Department of Physiological Nursing, School of Nursing, University of California, San Francisco, 7ECG Monitoring Research Lab, Department of Physiological Nursing, School of Nursing, 8Physiological Nursing and Neurological Surgery, Affiliate Faculty of Institute for Computational Health Sciences Core Faculty UCB/UCSF Joint Bio-Engineering Graduate Program, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA Introduction: A high rate of false arrhythmia alarms in the intensive care unit (ICU leads to alarm fatigue, the condition of desensitization and potentially inappropriate silencing of alarms due to frequent invalid and nonactionable alarms, often referred to as false alarms. Objective: The aim of this study was to identify patient characteristics, such as gender, age, body mass index, and diagnosis associated with frequent false arrhythmia alarms in the ICU. Methods: This descriptive, observational study prospectively enrolled patients who were consecutively admitted to one of five adult ICUs (77 beds at an urban medical center over a period of 31 days in 2013. All monitor alarms and continuous waveforms were stored on a secure server. Nurse scientists with expertise in cardiac monitoring used a standardized protocol to annotate six clinically important types of arrhythmia alarms (asystole, pause, ventricular fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia, accelerated ventricular rhythm, and

  9. ARC Code TI: Optimal Alarm System Design and Implementation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An optimal alarm system can robustly predict a level-crossing event that is specified over a fixed prediction horizon. The code contained in this packages provides...

  10. Wireless intelligent alarm technology with pyroelectric infrared sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao

    2009-07-01

    Aiming at the defects of monitoring conducted by man in the conventional practice, we study the passive intelligent automatic alarm technology based on the pyroelectric infrared sensor and wireless communication technology. The designed passive infrared wireless alarm is composed of pyroelectric infrared sensors, infrared special chip BISS0001 and their peripheral circuits. When someone enters into the detecting and monitoring range, the alarm will detect the infrared ray of the human radiation by the contactless form and detect the signals of circuit output. Then it translates them into low frequency signals relative with human sports speed, distance and direction, produce corresponding output signals through amplifying by the back state controller, switch on the work power of the wireless transmitting circuit and make it emit the alarm signals. The system enhances the monitoring level and effects and possesses many advantages such as wide detecting range, long detecting distance and high reliability.

  11. SCADA alarms processing for wind turbine component failure detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, E.; Reder, M.; Melero, J. J.

    2016-09-01

    Wind turbine failure and downtime can often compromise the profitability of a wind farm due to their high impact on the operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. Early detection of failures can facilitate the changeover from corrective maintenance towards a predictive approach. This paper presents a cost-effective methodology to combine various alarm analysis techniques, using data from the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system, in order to detect component failures. The approach categorises the alarms according to a reviewed taxonomy, turning overwhelming data into valuable information to assess component status. Then, different alarms analysis techniques are applied for two purposes: the evaluation of the SCADA alarm system capability to detect failures, and the investigation of the relation between components faults being followed by failure occurrences in others. Various case studies are presented and discussed. The study highlights the relationship between faulty behaviour in different components and between failures and adverse environmental conditions.

  12. Frog Swarms: Earthquake Precursors or False Alarms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel A. Grant

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In short-term earthquake risk forecasting, the avoidance of false alarms is of utmost importance to preclude the possibility of unnecessary panic among populations in seismic hazard areas. Unusual animal behaviour prior to earthquakes has been reported for millennia but has rarely been scientifically documented. Recently large migrations or unusual behaviour of amphibians have been linked to large earthquakes, and media reports of large frog and toad migrations in areas of high seismic risk such as Greece and China have led to fears of a subsequent large earthquake. However, at certain times of year large migrations are part of the normal behavioural repertoire of amphibians. News reports of “frog swarms” from 1850 to the present day were examined for evidence that this behaviour is a precursor to large earthquakes. It was found that only two of 28 reported frog swarms preceded large earthquakes (Sichuan province, China in 2008 and 2010. All of the reported mass migrations of amphibians occurred in late spring, summer and autumn and appeared to relate to small juvenile anurans (frogs and toads. It was concluded that most reported “frog swarms” are actually normal behaviour, probably caused by juvenile animals migrating away from their breeding pond, after a fruitful reproductive season. As amphibian populations undergo large fluctuations in numbers from year to year, this phenomenon will not occur on a yearly basis but will depend on successful reproduction, which is related to numerous climatic and geophysical factors. Hence, most large swarms of amphibians, particularly those involving very small frogs and occurring in late spring or summer, are not unusual and should not be considered earthquake precursors. In addition, it is likely that reports of several mass migration of small toads prior to the Great Sichuan Earthquake in 2008 were not linked to the subsequent M = 7.9 event (some occurred at a great distance from the epicentre

  13. Nurses' Perceptions and Practices Toward Clinical Alarms in a Transplant Cardiac Intensive Care Unit: Exploring Key Issues Leading to Alarm Fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowan, Azizeh Khaled; Tarriela, Albert Fajardo; Gomez, Tiffany Michelle; Reed, Charles Calhoun; Rapp, Kami Marie

    2015-03-16

    Intensive care units (ICUs) are complex work environments where false alarms occur more frequently than on non-critical care units. The Joint Commission National Patient Safety Goal .06.01.01 targeted improving the safety of clinical alarm systems and required health care facilities to establish alarm systems safety as a hospital priority by July 2014. An important initial step toward this requirement is identifying ICU nurses' perceptions and common clinical practices toward clinical alarms, where little information is available. Our aim was to determine perceptions and practices of transplant/cardiac ICU (TCICU) nurses toward clinical alarms and benchmark the results against the 2011 Healthcare Technology Foundation's (HTF) Clinical Alarms Committee Survey. A quality improvement project was conducted on a 20-bed TCICU with 39 full- and part-time nurses. Nurses were surveyed about their perceptions and attitudes toward and practices on clinical alarms using an adapted HTF clinical alarms survey. Results were compared to the 2011 HTF data. Correlations among variables were examined. All TCICU nurses provided usable responses (N=39, 100%). Almost all nurses (95%-98%) believed that false alarms are frequent, disrupt care, and reduce trust in alarm systems, causing nurses to inappropriately disable them. Unlike the 2011 HTF clinical alarms survey results, a significantly higher percentage of our TCICU nurses believed that existing devices are complex, questioned the ability and adequacy of the new monitoring systems to solve alarm management issues, pointed to the lack of prompt response to alarms, and indicated the lack of clinical policy on alarm management (Ppractices related to clinical alarms are key elements for designing contextually sensitive quality initiatives to fight alarm fatigue. Alarm management in ICUs is a multidimensional complex process involving usability of monitoring devices, and unit, clinicians, training, and policy-related factors. This

  14. How Drivers Respond to Alarms Adapted to Their Braking Behaviour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Genya; Itoh, Makoto

    Determining appropriate alarm timing for Forward Collision Warning Systems (FCWS) may play an important role in enhancing system acceptance by drivers. It is not always true that a common alarm trigger logic is suitable for all drivers, because presented alarms may be differently viewed for each driver, i.e., paying attention or requiring appropriate actions. The current study focused on adaptive alarm timing which was adjusted in response to braking behaviour for collision avoidance for the individual. In Experiment I, the braking performance of individual driver was measured repeatedly to assess the variation of each performance. We utilised the following two indices: elapsed time from the deceleration of the lead car to release of the accelerator (accelerator release time) and elapsed time to application of the brakes (braking response time). Two alarm timings were then determined based on these two indices: (i) the median of the accelerator release time of the driver and (ii) the median of the braking response time of the driver. Experiment II compared the two alarm timings for each driver in order to investigate which timing is more appropriate for enhancing driver trust in the driver-adaptive FCWS and the system effectiveness. The results showed that the timing of the accelerator release time increased the trust ratings more than the timing of braking response. The timing of the braking response time induced a longer response time to application of the brakes. Moreover, the degree to which the response time was longer depended on alarm timing preference of the driver. The possible benefit and drawback of driver-adaptive alarm timing are discussed.

  15. [Citalopram, escitalopram and prolonged QT: warning or alarm?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Enric; Vieira, Sara; Garcia-Moll, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    The alerts issued by regulatory agencies on the potential cardiac toxicity of citalopram and escitalopram have caused alarm among clinicians. A review of the data concerning this topic shows that the alarm should be limited to patients with a history of syncope or poisoning. As a precautionary measure, an electrocardiogram should be performed on elderly patients. Copyright © 2013 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  16. Advanced Alarm Systems: Revision of Guidance and Its Technical Basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-11-01

    legend; • Plant system or component involved (e.g., reactor coolant pump A); • Parameter involved (e.g., temperature , pressure, voltage); • Status...and Layout .. 4-31 4.3 Human Performance Issues 4-31 5 DISCUSSION 5-1 6 REFERENCES 6 -1 APPENDDC A Alarm System Characterization A-l APPENDIX...Pressurized Water Reactor (Westinghouse) APWR Advanced Pressurized Water Reactor (Mitsubishi) ARP alarm response procedure CAMLS CANDU Annunciation Message

  17. Sun-glint false alarm mitigation in a maritime scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Alessandro; Riccobono, Aldo; Landini, Stefano

    2014-10-01

    Airborne hyperspectral imaging can be exploited to detect anomalous objects in the maritime scenario. Due to the objects high contrast with respect to the sea surface, detection can be easily accomplished by means of local anomaly detectors, such as the well-known Reed-Xiaoli (RX) algorithm. During the development of a real-time system for the detection of anomalous pixels, it has been noticed that the performance of detection is deeply affected by the presence of sun-glint. The reflection on the sea surface of the solar radiation produces a high density of alarms, that makes challenging the task of detecting the objects of interest. In this paper, it is introduced a strategy aimed at discriminating the sun-glint false alarms from the effective alarms related to targets of potential interest. False alarms due to glint are mitigated performing a local spatio-spectral analysis on each alarm furnished by the anomaly detector. The technique has been tested on hyperspectral images collected during a measurement campaign carried out near Pisa, Italy. The Selex ES SIMGA hyperspectral sensor was mounted on board of an airplane to collect high spectral resolution images in both the VNIR and SWIR spectral channels. Several experiments were carried out, setting up scenarios with small man-made objects deployed on the sea surface, so as to simulate search and rescue operations. The results have highlighted the effectiveness of the proposed solution in terms of mitigation of false alarms due to sun-glints on the maritime scenario.

  18. Panic, suffocation false alarms, separation anxiety and endogenous opioids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preter, Maurice; Klein, Donald F

    2008-04-01

    This review paper presents an amplification of the suffocation false alarm theory (SFA) of spontaneous panic [Klein DF (1993). False suffocation alarms, spontaneous panics, and related conditions. An integrative hypothesis. Arch Gen Psychiatry; 50:306-17.]. SFA postulates the existence of an evolved physiologic suffocation alarm system that monitors information about potential suffocation. Panic attacks maladaptively occur when the alarm is erroneously triggered. That panic is distinct from Cannon's emergency fear response and Selye's General Alarm Syndrome is shown by the prominence of intense air hunger during these attacks. Further, panic sufferers have chronic sighing abnormalities outside of the acute attack. Another basic physiologic distinction between fear and panic is the counter-intuitive lack of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activation in panic. Understanding panic as provoked by indicators of potential suffocation, such as fluctuations in pCO(2) and brain lactate, as well as environmental circumstances fits the observed respiratory abnormalities. However, that sudden loss, bereavement and childhood separation anxiety are also antecedents of "spontaneous" panic requires an integrative explanation. Because of the opioid system's central regulatory role in both disordered breathing and separation distress, we detail the role of opioidergic dysfunction in decreasing the suffocation alarm threshold. We present results from our laboratory where the naloxone-lactate challenge in normals produces supportive evidence for the endorphinergic defect hypothesis in the form of a distress episode of specific tidal volume hyperventilation paralleling challenge-produced and clinical panic.

  19. The moving minimum audible angle is smaller during self motion than during source motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Owen eBrimijoin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We are rarely perfectly still: our heads rotate in three axes and move in three dimensions, constantly varying the spectral and binaural cues at the ear drums. In spite of this motion, static sound sources in the world are typically perceived as stable objects. This argues that the auditory system – in a manner not unlike the vestibulo-ocular reflex – works to compensate for self motion and stabilize our sensory representation of the world. We tested a prediction arising from this postulate: that self motion should be processed more accurately than source motion.We used an infrared motion tracking system to measure head angle, and real-time interpolation of head related impulse responses to create head-stabilized signals that appeared to remain fixed in space as the head turned. After being presented with pairs of simultaneous signals consisting of a man and a woman speaking a snippet of speech, normal and hearing impaired listeners were asked to report whether the female voice was to the left or the right of the male voice. In this way we measured the moving minimum audible angle (MMAA. This measurement was made while listeners were asked to turn their heads back and forth between ± 15° and the signals were stabilized in space. After this self-motion condition we measured MMAA in a second source-motion condition when listeners remained still and the virtual locations of the signals were moved using the trajectories from the first condition.For both normal and hearing impaired listeners, we found that the MMAA for signals moving relative to the head was ~1-2° smaller when the movement was the result of self motion than when it was the result of source motion, even though the motion with respect to the head was identical. These results as well as the results of past experiments suggest that spatial processing involves an ongoing and highly accurate comparison of spatial acoustic cues with self-motion cues.

  20. Improving alarm performance in the medical intensive care unit using delays and clinical context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görges, Matthias; Markewitz, Boaz A; Westenskow, Dwayne R

    2009-05-01

    In an intensive care unit, alarms are used to call attention to a patient, to alert a change in the patient's physiology, or to warn of a failure in a medical device; however, up to 94% of the alarms are false. Our purpose in this study was to identify a means of reducing the number of false alarms. An observer recorded time-stamped information of alarms and the presence of health care team members in the patient room; each alarm response was classified as effective (action taken within 5 min), ineffective (no response to the alarm), and ignored (alarm consciously ignored or actively silenced). During the 200-h study period, 1271 separate entries by an individual to the room being observed were recorded, 1214 alarms occurred and 2344 tasks were performed. On average, alarms occurred 6.07 times per hour and were active for 3.28 min per hour; 23% were effective, 36% were ineffective, and 41% were ignored. The median alarm duration was 17 s. A 14-s delay before alarm presentation would remove 50% of the ignored and ineffective alarms, and a 19-s delay would remove 67%. Suctioning, washing, repositioning, and oral care caused 152 ignored or ineffective ventilator alarms. Introducing a 19-s alarm delay and automatically detecting suctioning, repositioning, oral care, and washing could reduce the number of ineffective and ignored alarms from 934 to 274. More reliable alarms could elicit more timely response, reduce workload, reduce noise pollution, and potentially improve patient safety.

  1. Auditory backup alarms: distance-at-first-detection via in-situ experimentation on alarm design and hearing protection effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alali, Khaled; Casali, John G

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess normal hearing listeners' performance in detecting a stationary backup alarm signal and to quantify the linear distance at detection point. Detection distances for 12 participants with normal hearing were measured while they were fitted with 7 hearing protectors and while they were unoccluded (open ear). A standard (narrowband) backup alarm signal and a broadband (pulsed white noise) backup alarm signal from Brigade[1] were used. The method of limits, with distance as the physical measurement variable and threshold detection as the task, was employed to find at which distance the participant could first detect the backup alarms. A within-subject Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) revealed a significant main effect of the listening conditions on the detection distance in feet. Post hoc analyses indicated that the Bilsom L3HV conventional passive earmuff (at 1132.2 ft detection distance) was significantly poorer compared to all other HPDs and the open ear in detection distance achieved, and that there were no statistically-significant differences between the unoccluded ear (1652.3 ft), EB-15-Lo BlastPLGTM (1546.2 ft), EB-15-Hi BlastPLGTM (1543.4 ft), E-A-R/3M Combat ArmsTM earplug-nonlinear, level-dependent state (1507.8 ft), E-A-R/3M HiFiTM earplug (1497.7 ft), and Bilsom ImpactTM dichotic electronic earmuff (1567.2 ft). In addition, the E-A-R/3M Combat ArmsTM earplug-passive steady state resulted in significantly longer detection distances than only the open ear condition, at 1474.1 ft versus 1652.3 ft for the open ear. ANOVA also revealed a significant main effect of the backup alarm type on detection distance. The means were 1600.9 ft for the standard (narrowband) backup alarm signal, and a significantly closer 1379.4 ft was required for the Brigade broadband backup alarm signal. For on-ground workers, it is crucial to detect backup alarm signals as far away as possible rather than at close distances since this will provide them

  2. Alarm reduction with correlation analysis; Larmsanering genom korrelationsanalys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergquist, Tord; Ahnlund, Jonas; Johansson, Bjoern; Gaardman, Lennart; Raaberg, Martin [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Information Technology

    2004-09-01

    This project's main interest is to improve the overall alarm situation in the control rooms. By doing so, the operators working environment is less overstrained, which simplifies the decision-making. According to a study of the British refinery industry, the operators make wrong decisions in four times out of ten due to badly tuned alarm systems, with heavy expenses as a result. Furthermore, a more efficiently alarm handling is estimated to decrease the production loss with between three and eight percent. This sounds, according to Swedish standards, maybe a bit extreme, but there is no doubt about the benefits of having a well-tuned alarm system. This project can be seen as an extension of 'General Methods for Alarm Reduction' (VARMEFORSK--835), where the process improvements were the result of suggestions tailored for every signal. Here, instead causal dependences in the process are examined. A method for this, specially designed to fit process signals, has been developed. It is called MLPC (Multiple Local Property Correlation) and could be seen as an unprejudiced way of increase the information value in the process. There are a number of ways to make use of the additional process understanding a correlation analysis provides. In the report some are mentioned, foremost aiming to improve the alarm situation for operators. Signals from two heating plants have been analyzed with MLPC. In simulations, with the use of the result from these analyses as a base, a large number of alarms have been successfully suppressed. The results have been studied by personal with process knowledge, and they are very positive to the use of MLPC and they express many benefits by the clarification of process relations. It was established in 'General Methods for Alarm Reduction' that low pass filter are superior to mean value filter and time delay when trying to suppress alarms. As a result, a module for signal processing has been developed. The main purpose is

  3. Cortical Auditory Evoked Potentials Reveal Changes in Audibility with Nonlinear Frequency Compression in Hearing Aids for Children: Clinical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Teresa Y C; Zhang, Vicky W; Hou, Sanna; Van Buynder, Patricia

    2016-02-01

    Hearing loss in children is detected soon after birth via newborn hearing screening. Procedures for early hearing assessment and hearing aid fitting are well established, but methods for evaluating the effectiveness of amplification for young children are limited. One promising approach to validating hearing aid fittings is to measure cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs). This article provides first a brief overview of reports on the use of CAEPs for evaluation of hearing aids. Second, a study that measured CAEPs to evaluate nonlinear frequency compression (NLFC) in hearing aids for 27 children (between 6.1 and 16.8 years old) who have mild to severe hearing loss is reported. There was no significant difference in aided sensation level or the detection of CAEPs for /g/ between NLFC on and off conditions. The activation of NLFC was associated with a significant increase in aided sensation levels for /t/ and /s/. It also was associated with an increase in detection of CAEPs for /t/ and /s/. The findings support the use of CAEPs for checking audibility provided by hearing aids. Based on the current data, a clinical protocol for using CAEPs to validate audibility with amplification is presented.

  4. Dynamic stiffness of chemically and physically ageing rubber vibration isolators in the audible frequency range. Part 1: constitutive equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kari, Leif

    2017-09-01

    The constitutive equations of chemically and physically ageing rubber in the audible frequency range are modelled as a function of ageing temperature, ageing time, actual temperature, time and frequency. The constitutive equations are derived by assuming nearly incompressible material with elastic spherical response and viscoelastic deviatoric response, using Mittag-Leffler relaxation function of fractional derivative type, the main advantage being the minimum material parameters needed to successfully fit experimental data over a broad frequency range. The material is furthermore assumed essentially entropic and thermo-mechanically simple while using a modified William-Landel-Ferry shift function to take into account temperature dependence and physical ageing, with fractional free volume evolution modelled by a nonlinear, fractional differential equation with relaxation time identical to that of the stress response and related to the fractional free volume by Doolittle equation. Physical ageing is a reversible ageing process, including trapping and freeing of polymer chain ends, polymer chain reorganizations and free volume changes. In contrast, chemical ageing is an irreversible process, mainly attributed to oxygen reaction with polymer network either damaging the network by scission or reformation of new polymer links. The chemical ageing is modelled by inner variables that are determined by inner fractional evolution equations. Finally, the model parameters are fitted to measurements results of natural rubber over a broad audible frequency range, and various parameter studies are performed including comparison with results obtained by ordinary, non-fractional ageing evolution differential equations.

  5. Quantitative trait loci influencing honeybee alarm pheromone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, G J; Collins, A M; Rivera, R; Page, R E; Guzmán-Novoa, E

    1999-01-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping procedures were used to identify loci that influence the levels of alarm pheromones found in the stinging apparatus of worker honeybees. An F1 queen was produced from a cross between a queen of European origin and a drone descended from an African subspecies. Haploid drones from the hybrid queen were individually backcrossed to European queens to produce 172 colonies. Samples of stings were taken from backcross workers of these colonies. Alarm pheromone levels were determined by gas chromatography. RAPD markers were scored from the haploid drone fathers of these colonies. The multiple-QTL model (MQM) of MapQTL was used to identify QTLs that influence the levels of four alarm pheromone components. Seven independent, potential QTLs were identified with LOD scores greater than two, and one at LOD 1.88. We identified one QTL for n-decyl acetate, three for n-octanol, four for isopentyl acetate, and one for hexyl acetate. One region of linkage group XI shows a strong influence on body size and the levels of three alarm pheromone components. This locus explained 40% of the variance for the amount of n-decyl acetate (LOD 6.57). In general, the QTLs influencing alarm pheromone levels were independent of previously identified loci that influenced the stinging behavior of these colonies. The only exception was a potential locus influencing levels of n-octanol, which was inversely correlated with stinging behavior.

  6. FAULT DIAGNOSIS WITH MULTI-STATE ALARMS IN A NUCLEAR POWER CONTROL SIMULATOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austin Ragsdale; Roger Lew; Brian P. Dyre; Ronald L. Boring

    2012-10-01

    This research addresses how alarm systems can increase operator performance within nuclear power plant operations. The experiment examined the effect of two types of alarm systems (two-state and three-state alarms) on alarm compliance and diagnosis for two types of faults differing in complexity. We hypothesized three-state alarms would improve performance in alarm recognition and fault diagnoses over that of two-state alarms. We used sensitivity and criterion based on Signal Detection Theory to measure performance. We further hypothesized that operator trust would be highest when using three-state alarms. The findings from this research showed participants performed better and had more trust in three-state alarms compared to two-state alarms. Furthermore, these findings have significant theoretical implications and practical applications as they apply to improving the efficiency and effectiveness of nuclear power plant operations.

  7. Reducing SCADA System Nuisance Alarms in the Water Industry in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, Nigel; Phillips, Debra H; Nicell, Ciaran

    2015-08-01

    The advancement of telemetry control for the water industry has increased the difficulty of managing large volumes of nuisance alarms (i.e., alarms that do not require a response). The aim of this study was to identify and reduce the number of nuisance alarms that occur for Northern Ireland (NI) Water by carrying out alarm duration analysis to determine the appropriate length of persistence (an advanced alarm management tool) that could be applied. All data were extracted from TelemWeb (NI Water's telemetry monitoring system) and analyzed in Excel. Over a 6-week period, an average of 40 000 alarms occurred per week. The alarm duration analysis, which has never been implemented before by NI Water, found that an average of 57% of NI Water alarms had a duration of <5 minutes. Applying 5-minute persistence, therefore, could prevent an average 26 816 nuisance alarms per week. Most of these alarms were from wastewater assets.

  8. Anthropogenic noise alters dwarf mongoose responses to heterospecific alarm calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris-Drake, Amy; Bracken, Anna M; Kern, Julie M; Radford, Andrew N

    2017-04-01

    Anthropogenic noise is an evolutionarily novel and widespread pollutant in both terrestrial and aquatic habitats. Despite increasing evidence that the additional noise generated by human activities can affect vocal communication, the majority of research has focused on the use of conspecific acoustic information, especially sexual signals. Many animals are known to eavesdrop on the alarm calls produced by other species, enhancing their likelihood of avoiding predation, but how this use of heterospecific information is affected by anthropogenic noise has received little empirical attention. Here, we use two field-based playback experiments on a habituated wild population of dwarf mongooses (Helogale parvula) to determine how anthropogenic noise influences the response of foragers to heterospecific alarm calls. We begin by demonstrating that dwarf mongooses respond appropriately to the alarm calls of sympatric chacma baboons (Papio ursinus) and tree squirrels (Paraxerus cepapi); fleeing only to the latter. We then show that mongoose foragers are less likely to exhibit this flee response to tree squirrel alarm calls during road-noise playback compared to ambient-sound playback. One explanation for the change in response is that noise-induced distraction or stress result in maladaptive behaviour. However, further analysis revealed that road-noise playback results in increased vigilance and that mongooses showing the greatest vigilance increase are those that do not subsequently exhibit a flee response to the alarm call. These individuals may therefore be acting appropriately: if the greater gathering of personal information indicates the absence of an actual predator despite an alarm call, the need to undertake costly fleeing behaviour can be avoided. Either way, our study indicates the potential for anthropogenic noise to interfere with the use of acoustic information from other species, and suggests the importance of considering how heterospecific networks are

  9. The Audible Human Project: Modeling Sound Transmission in the Lungs and Torso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zoujun

    Auscultation has been used qualitatively by physicians for hundreds of years to aid in the monitoring and diagnosis of pulmonary diseases. Alterations in the structure and function of the pulmonary system that occur in disease or injury often give rise to measurable changes in lung sound production and transmission. Numerous acoustic measurements have revealed the differences of breath sounds and transmitted sounds in the lung under normal and pathological conditions. Compared to the extensive cataloging of lung sound measurements, the mechanism of sound transmission in the pulmonary system and how it changes with alterations of lung structural and material properties has received less attention. A better understanding of sound transmission and how it is altered by injury and disease might improve interpretation of lung sound measurements, including new lung imaging modalities that are based on an array measurement of the acoustic field on the torso surface via contact sensors or are based on a 3-dimensional measurement of the acoustic field throughout the lungs and torso using magnetic resonance elastography. A long-term goal of the Audible Human Project (AHP ) is to develop a computational acoustic model that would accurately simulate generation, transmission and noninvasive measurement of sound and vibration within the pulmonary system and torso caused by both internal (e.g. respiratory function) and external (e.g. palpation) sources. The goals of this dissertation research, fitting within the scope of the AHP, are to develop specific improved theoretical understandings, computational algorithms and experimental methods aimed at transmission and measurement. The research objectives undertaken in this dissertation are as follows. (1) Improve theoretical modeling and experimental identification of viscoelasticity in soft biological tissues. (2) Develop a poroviscoelastic model for lung tissue vibroacoustics. (3) Improve lung airway acoustics modeling and its

  10. No more moody mornings : Alarm clock anticipates sleepers' emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wensveen, S.; Overbeeke, K.; Van Kasteren, J.

    2002-01-01

    More eloquent alternatives to the harsh tones of the oldfashioned alarm-clock bells abound, including a newsreaders voice summing up last nights disasters, or a tape of your favourite early morning music. Still, getting out of bed has its difficult moments. All this could well change in the near

  11. Context‐dependent chemical communication: Alarm pheromones of thrips larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, P.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Thrips have several advantages that make them particularly suitable for the study of the evolution of alarm signalling. When in danger, thrips larvae defend themselves by the excretion of ‘anal droplets’: a predator touched by such a droplet interrupts the attack and switches to cleaning. These

  12. Development of a blood pressure alarm detector based on seven ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper introduces the development of a blood pressure alarm detector, meant to be incorporated into an electronic blood pressure tracking unit, from which it detects signals for the measured blood pressure (BP), that is, the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). It simultaneously displays the ...

  13. 24 CFR 3280.208 - Smoke alarm requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of 177 candela, except that when the visible notification appliance is wall-mounted or suspended more than 24 inches below the ceiling, a minimum rating of 110 candela is permitted. (3) A visible... candela. (f) Testing and maintenance. (1) Each required smoke alarm installed at the factory must be...

  14. Integrated alarm annunciation and entry control systems -- Survey results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clever, J.J.; Arakaki, L.H.; Monaco, F.M.; Juarros, L.E.; Quintana, G.R.

    1993-10-01

    This report provides the results and analyses of a detailed survey undertaken in Summer 1993 to address integrated intrusion detection alarm annunciation and entry control system issues. This survey was undertaken as a first attempt toward beginning to answer questions about integrated systems and commercial capabilities to meet or partially meet US Department of Energy (DOE) site needs.

  15. Alarm management in TRANSPETRO National Oil Control Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amado, Helio; Costa, Luciano [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    For sure Alarm Management is not a new issue. EEMUA 191 has been around since 1999 and everyone has received visits from consultants in this area. Besides this regulators have requested that operators have a policy for it. However there are few papers showing actual pipeline operator experience in alarm management. In this paper we present the work developed in TRANSPETRO National Oil Control Center since 2006, where we operate 5509 km of crude oil and refined products pipelines. Since the beginning of the centralized operation in 2002, alarm management has been a concern but a systematic approach has been taken since 2006. Initially we will make a brief revision of the literature and show trends for regulations. Then we will show the tools and the approach we have taken. Finally, the further developments we see. The point that we want to discuss is that, it has been very difficult to implement the system in a linear way and we believe that companies that have huge legacy systems, the same probably will occur. Putting in simple words, our main conclusion is: Implementing an Alarm Management policy produces good results however probably sometimes is better not to follow strictly the traditional steps. (author)

  16. 46 CFR 162.050-33 - Bilge alarm: Design specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Pollution Prevention Equipment § 162... the ppm display. Calibrating the bilge alarm must not be necessary once installed on board the vessel... each change in oil content of the mixture it is measuring within 5 seconds after the change occurs. (f...

  17. Solar Energetic Particle Forecasting Algorithms and Associated False Alarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swalwell, B.; Dalla, S.; Walsh, R. W.

    2017-11-01

    Solar energetic particle (SEP) events are known to occur following solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). However, some high-energy solar events do not result in SEPs being detected at Earth, and it is these types of event which may be termed "false alarms". We define two simple SEP forecasting algorithms based upon the occurrence of a magnetically well-connected CME with a speed in excess of 1500 km s^{-1} (a "fast" CME) or a well-connected X-class flare and analyse them with respect to historical datasets. We compare the parameters of those solar events which produced an enhancement of {>} 40 MeV protons at Earth (an "SEP event") and the parameters of false alarms. We find that an SEP forecasting algorithm based solely upon the occurrence of a well-connected fast CME produces fewer false alarms (28.8%) than an algorithm which is based solely upon a well-connected X-class flare (50.6%). Both algorithms fail to forecast a relatively high percentage of SEP events (53.2% and 50.6%, respectively). Our analysis of the historical datasets shows that false-alarm X-class flares were either not associated with any CME, or were associated with a CME slower than 500 km s^{-1}; false-alarm fast CMEs tended to be associated with flare classes lower than M3. A better approach to forecasting would be an algorithm which takes as its base the occurrence of both CMEs and flares. We define a new forecasting algorithm which uses a combination of CME and flare parameters, and we show that the false-alarm ratio is similar to that for the algorithm based upon fast CMEs (29.6%), but the percentage of SEP events not forecast is reduced to 32.4%. Lists of the solar events which gave rise to {>} 40 MeV protons and the false alarms have been derived and are made available to aid further study.

  18. Audibility of American English vowels produced by English-, Chinese-, and Korean-native speakers in long-term speech-shaped noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Jin, Su-Hyun

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether there were significant differences in audibility of American English vowels in noise produced by non-native and native speakers. Detection thresholds for 12 English vowels with equalized durations of 170 ms produced by 10 English-, Chinese- and Korean-native speakers were measured for young normal-hearing English-native listeners in the presence of speech-shaped noise presented at 70 dB SPL. Similar patterns of vowel detection thresholds as a function of the vowel category were found for native and non-native speakers, with the highest thresholds for /u/ and /ʊ/ and lowest thresholds for /i/ and /e/. In addition, vowel detection thresholds for non-native speakers were significantly lower and showed greater speaker variability than those for native speakers. Thresholds for vowel detection predicted from an excitation-pattern model corresponded well to behavioral thresholds, implying that vowel detection was primarily determined by the vowel spectrum regardless of speaker language background. Both behavioral and predicted thresholds showed that vowel audibility was similar or even better for non-native speakers than for native speakers, indicating that vowel audibility did not account for non-native speakers' lower-than-native intelligibility in noise. Effects of non-native speakers' English proficiency level on vowel audibility are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Audible and infrasonic noise levels in the cabins of modern agricultural tractors — Does the risk of adverse, exposure-dependent effects still exist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Bilski

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The agricultural tractor is one of the most commonly used vehicles on farms and one of the most prominent sources of noise. This article presents an exemplary assessment of the audible and infrasonic noise levels in the cabins of selected modern wheeled agricultural tractors. Materials and Methods: Operator-perceived audible and infrasonic noise levels in the cabins were examined for 20 types of modern tractors during typical conditions of work. The tractors had been in use for no longer than 3 years, with rated power between 96 kW and 227 kW, designed and produced by world-renowned companies. Noise level measurements were performed in accordance with PN-EN ISO 9612:2011 (ISO 9612:2009. Results: Audible noise levels (A-weighted ranged from 62.1 to 87.4 dB-A (average: 68.2 to 83.8 dB-A for different work tasks. The factors influencing noise levels include performed tasks, soil, weather conditions and the skills of individual drivers. In spectrum analysis, the highest noise levels occurred at frequencies 250 Hz, 1 and 2 kHz. Infrasound noise levels (G-weighted ranged from 87.3 to 111.3 dB-G. The driver-experienced exposure to infrasound was found to increase significantly when the vehicle was in motion. Conclusions: Average audible noise levels have no potential to adversely affect the hearing organ during tasks performed inside the closed cabins of the analysed modern agricultural tractors. Due to the relatively low audible noise levels inside the cabins of modern agricultural tractors, non-auditory effects are the only adverse symptoms that can develop. Modern agricultural tractors emit considerable infrasonic noise levels. All tractors introduced into the market should be subjected to tests with regard to infrasonic noise levels.

  20. Smoke Alarms for People Who Are Deaf or Hard-of-Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... topic Toggle this sub-menu open or closed Smoke alarms Wildfire Emergency preparedness Fire and life safety ... Education Public Education By topic Expand sub-navigation Smoke alarms Expand sub-navigation Safety messages about smoke ...

  1. Potential Nematode Alarm Pheromone Induces Acute Avoidance in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Loeza-Cabrera, Mario; Liu, Zheng; Aleman-Meza, Boanerges; Nguyen, Julie K; Jung, Sang-Kyu; Choi, Yuna; Shou, Qingyao; Butcher, Rebecca A; Zhong, Weiwei

    2017-07-01

    It is crucial for animal survival to detect dangers such as predators. A good indicator of dangers is injury of conspecifics. Here we show that fluids released from injured conspecifics invoke acute avoidance in both free-living and parasitic nematodes. Caenorhabditis elegans avoids extracts from closely related nematode species but not fruit fly larvae. The worm extracts have no impact on animal lifespan, suggesting that the worm extract may function as an alarm instead of inflicting physical harm. Avoidance of the worm extract requires the function of a cGMP signaling pathway that includes the cGMP-gated channel TAX-2/TAX-4 in the amphid sensory neurons ASI and ASK. Genetic evidence indicates that the avoidance behavior is modulated by the neurotransmitters GABA and serotonin, two common targets of anxiolytic drugs. Together, these data support a model that nematodes use a nematode-specific alarm pheromone to detect conspecific injury. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  2. Propose an alternative method to generate alarm management KPI utilizing IMS in offshore platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Villoria Yepez, Carlos Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Weaknesses regarding alarm management practices have been recognized as partial causes of plant incidents with tragic results, for example the Texas City Oil Refinery explosion in 2005. Necessity in alarm regulation was recognized by industry bodies and norms were created (EEMUA 119, ANSI/ISA 18.2) in order to address this. These norms define a complete alarm management lifecycle, including the definition of an alarm performance monitoring process with the supervision of ala...

  3. Propose an alternative method to generate alarm management KPI utilizing IMS in offshore platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Villoria Yepez, Carlos Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Master's thesis in Offshore technology Weaknesses regarding alarm management practices have been recognized as partial causes of plant incidents with tragic results, for example the Texas City Oil Refinery explosion in 2005. Necessity in alarm regulation was recognized by industry bodies and norms were created (EEMUA 119, ANSI/ISA 18.2) in order to address this. These norms define a complete alarm management lifecycle, including the definition of an alarm performance moni...

  4. User image mismatch in anaesthesia alarms: a cognitive systems analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymer, Karen E; Bergström, Johan

    2013-01-01

    In this study, principles of Cognitive Systems Engineering are used to better understand the human-machine interaction manifesting in the use of anaesthesia alarms. The hypothesis is that the design of the machine incorporates built-in assumptions of the user that are discrepant with the anaesthesiologist's self-assessment, creating 'user image mismatch'. Mismatch was interpreted by focusing on the 'user image' as described from the perspectives of both machine and user. The machine-embedded image was interpreted through document analysis. The user-described image was interpreted through user (anaesthesiologist) interviews. Finally, an analysis was conducted in which the machine-embedded and user-described images were contrasted to identify user image mismatch. It is concluded that analysing user image mismatch expands the focus of attention towards macro-elements in the interaction between man and machine. User image mismatch is interpreted to arise from complexity of algorithm design and incongruity between alarm design and tenets of anaesthesia practice. Cognitive system engineering principles are applied to enhance the understanding of the interaction between anaesthesiologist and alarm. The 'user image' is interpreted and contrasted from the perspectives of machine as well as the user. Apparent machine-user mismatch is explored pertaining to specific design features.

  5. Myocardial infarction false alarm: initial electrocardiogram and cardiac enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Esha Das; Sakthiswary, Rajalingham

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the incidence of a myocardial infarction "false alarm" and evaluate the efficacy of the initial electrocardiogram and cardiac enzymes in diagnosing myocardial infarction in Malaysia. We recruited patients who were admitted with suspected myocardial infarction from June to August 2008. The medical records of these patients were reviewed for the initial electrocardiogram, initial cardiac enzyme levels (creatinine kinase-MB and troponin T), and the final diagnosis upon discharge. The subjects were stratified into 2 groups: true myocardial infarction, and false alarm. 125 patients were enrolled in this study. Following admission and further evaluation, the diagnosis was revised from myocardial infarction to other medical conditions in 48 (38.4%) patients. The sensitivity and specificity of the initial ischemic electrocardiographic changes were 54.5% and 70.8%, respectively. Raised cardiac enzymes had a sensitivity of 44.3% and specificity of 95.8%. A significant proportion of patients in Malaysia are admitted with a false-alarm myocardial infarction. The efficacy of the electrocardiogram in diagnosing myocardial infarction in Malaysia was comparable to the findings of Western studies, but the cardiac enzymes had a much lower sensitivity.

  6. 47 CFR 80.307 - Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm. 80.307 Section 80.307 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL... Safety Watches § 80.307 Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm. The radiotelegraph auto alarm...

  7. 33 CFR 149.135 - What should be marked on the cargo transfer system alarm switch?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What should be marked on the cargo transfer system alarm switch? 149.135 Section 149.135 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... switch? Each switch for activating an alarm, and each audio or visual device for signaling an alarm, must...

  8. 46 CFR 62.25-20 - Instrumentation, alarms, and centralized stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Instrumentation, alarms, and centralized stations. 62.25... Instrumentation, alarms, and centralized stations. (a) General. Minimum instrumentation and alarms required for specific types of automated vital systems are listed in Table 62.35-50. (b) Instrumentation Location. (1...

  9. Masters Thesis- Criticality Alarm System Design Guide with Accompanying Alarm System Development for the Radioisotope Production Laboratory in Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenfield, Bryce A. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2009-12-01

    A detailed instructional manual was created to guide criticality safety engineers through the process of designing a criticality alarm system (CAS) for Department of Energy (DOE) hazard class 1 and 2 facilities. Regulatory and technical requirements were both addressed. A list of design tasks and technical subtasks are thoroughly analyzed to provide concise direction for how to complete the analysis. An example of the application of the design methodology, the Criticality Alarm System developed for the Radioisotope Production Laboratory (RPL) of Richland, Washington is also included. The analysis for RPL utilizes the Monte Carlo code MCNP5 for establishing detector coverage in the facility. Significant improvements to the existing CAS were made that increase the reliability, transparency, and coverage of the system.

  10. The design of infrared alarm system based on ZigBee technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Qiang; Yu, Haiyang; Shao, Xingling; Wang, Zhengyan; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Wendong

    2011-06-01

    In view of the existing shortcomings of the existing infrared system,such as complicated structure, high transmitting power, expensive cost and etc. A infrared alarm system based on ZigBee technology was presented in this paper. The system consists of owner-alarm, the monitoring room in the housing estate and network router. Through the alarm information detected by infrared sensors, it starts the way of local sound alarm or networking alarm. The results of test demonstrate that the system is convenient for use and reliable for performance.

  11. Statistical characteristic in time-domain of direct current corona-generated audible noise from conductor in corona cage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuebao; Cui, Xiang; Lu, Tiebing; Ma, Wenzuo; Bian, Xingming; Wang, Donglai; Hiziroglu, Huseyin

    2016-03-01

    The corona-generated audible noise (AN) has become one of decisive factors in the design of high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission lines. The AN from transmission lines can be attributed to sound pressure pulses which are generated by the multiple corona sources formed on the conductor, i.e., transmission lines. In this paper, a detailed time-domain characteristics of the sound pressure pulses, which are generated by the DC corona discharges formed over the surfaces of a stranded conductors, are investigated systematically in a laboratory settings using a corona cage structure. The amplitude of sound pressure pulse and its time intervals are extracted by observing a direct correlation between corona current pulses and corona-generated sound pressure pulses. Based on the statistical characteristics, a stochastic model is presented for simulating the sound pressure pulses due to DC corona discharges occurring on conductors. The proposed stochastic model is validated by comparing the calculated and measured A-weighted sound pressure level (SPL). The proposed model is then used to analyze the influence of the pulse amplitudes and pulse rate on the SPL. Furthermore, a mathematical relationship is found between the SPL and conductor diameter, electric field, and radial distance.

  12. Ignoring the irrelevant: auditory tolerance of audible but innocuous sounds in the bat-detecting ears of moths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullard, James H.; Ratcliffe, John M.; Jacobs, David S.

    2008-03-01

    Noctuid moths listen for the echolocation calls of hunting bats and respond to these predator cues with evasive flight. The African bollworm moth, Helicoverpa armigera, feeds at flowers near intensely singing cicadas, Platypleura capensis, yet does not avoid them. We determined that the moth can hear the cicada by observing that both of its auditory receptors (A1 and A2 cells) respond to the cicada’s song. The firing response of the A1 cell rapidly adapts to the song and develops spike periods in less than a second that are in excess of those reported to elicit avoidance flight to bats in earlier studies. The possibility also exists that for at least part of the day, sensory input in the form of olfaction or vision overrides the moth’s auditory responses. While auditory tolerance appears to allow H. armigera to exploit a food resource in close proximity to acoustic interference, it may render their hearing defence ineffective and make them vulnerable to predation by bats during the evening when cicadas continue to sing. Our study describes the first field observation of an eared insect ignoring audible but innocuous sounds.

  13. Human factors engineering guidance for the review of advanced alarm systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.; Higgins, J.C.; Stubler, W.F. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-09-01

    This report provides guidance to support the review of the human factors aspects of advanced alarm system designs in nuclear power plants. The report is organized into three major sections. The first section describes the methodology and criteria that were used to develop the design review guidelines. Also included is a description of the scope, organization, and format of the guidelines. The second section provides a systematic review procedure in which important characteristics of the alarm system are identified, described, and evaluated. The third section provides the detailed review guidelines. The review guidelines are organized according to important characteristics of the alarm system including: alarm definition; alarm processing and reduction; alarm prioritization and availability; display; control; automated; dynamic, and modifiable characteristics; reliability, test, maintenance, and failure indication; alarm response procedures; and control-display integration and layout.

  14. An experimental investigation of the effects of alarm processing and display on operator performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Hara, J.; Brown, W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Advanced Technology; Hallbert, B.; Skraaning, G. [Halden Reactor Project (Norway); Wachtel, J.; Persensky, J. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

    1998-03-01

    This paper describes a research program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to address the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of nuclear power plant alarm systems. The overall objective of the program is to develop HFE review guidance for advanced alarm systems. As part of this program, guidance has been developed based on a broad base of technical and research literature. In the course of guidance development, aspects of alarm system design for which the technical basis was insufficient to support complete guidance development were identified. The primary purpose of the research reported in this paper was to evaluate the effects of three of these alarm system design characteristics on operator performance in order to contribute to the understanding of potential safety issues and to provide data to support the development of design review guidance in these areas. Three alarm system design characteristics studied were (1) alarm processing (degree of alarm reduction), (2) alarm availability (dynamic prioritization and suppression), and (3) alarm display (a dedicated tile format, a mixed tile and message list format, and a format in which alarm information is integrated into the process displays). A secondary purpose was to provide confirmatory evidence of selected alarm system guidance developed in an earlier phase of the project. The alarm characteristics were combined into eight separate experimental conditions. Six, two-person crews of professional nuclear power plant operators participated in the study. Following training, each crew completed 16 test trials which consisted of two trials in each of the eight experimental conditions (one with a low-complexity scenario and one with a high-complexity scenario). Measures of process performance, operator task performance, situation awareness, and workload were obtained. In addition, operator opinions and evaluations of the alarm processing and display conditions were collected. No deficient

  15. The ecology and evolution of avian alarm call signaling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Alexis Chandon

    Communication is often set up as a simple dyadic exchange between one sender and one receiver. However, in reality, signaling systems have evolved and are used with many forms and types of information bombarding multiple senders, who in turn send multiple signals of different modalities, through various environmental spaces, finally reaching multiple receivers. In order to understand both the ecology and evolution of a signaling system, we must examine all the facets of the signaling system. My dissertation focused on the alarm call signaling system in birds. Alarm calls are acoustic signals given in response to danger or predators. My first two chapters examine how information about predators alters alarm calls. In chapter one I found that chickadees make distinctions between predators of different hunting strategies and appear to encode information about predators differently if they are heard instead of seen. In my second chapter, I test these findings more robustly in a non-model bird, the Steller's jay. I again found that predator species matters, but that how Steller's jays respond if they saw or heard the predator depends on the predator species. In my third chapter, I tested how habitat has influenced the evolution of mobbing call acoustic structure. I found that habitat is not a major contributor to the variation in acoustic structure seen across species and that other selective pressures such as body size may be more important. In my fourth chapter I present a new framework to understand the evolution of multimodal communication across species. I identify a unique constraint, the need for overlapping sensory systems, thresholds and cognitive abilities between sender and receiver in order for different forms of interspecific communication to evolve. Taken together, these chapters attempt to understand a signaling system from both an ecological and evolutionary perspective by examining each piece of the communication scheme.

  16. Validity and Reliability of Visual Analog Scaling for Assessment of Hypernasality and Audible Nasal Emission in Children With Repaired Cleft Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylis, Adriane; Chapman, Kathy; Whitehill, Tara L; Group, The Americleft Speech

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the validity and reliability of multiple listener judgments of hypernasality and audible nasal emission, in children with repaired cleft palate, using visual analog scaling (VAS) and equal-appearing interval (EAI) scaling. Prospective comparative study of multiple listener ratings of hypernasality and audible nasal emission. Multisite institutional. Five trained and experienced speech-language pathologist listeners from the Americleft Speech Project. Average VAS and EAI ratings of hypernasality and audible nasal emission/turbulence for 12 video-recorded speech samples from the Americleft Speech Project. Intrarater and interrater reliability was computed, as well as linear and polynomial models of best fit. Intrarater and interrater reliability was acceptable for both rating methods; however, reliability was higher for VAS as compared to EAI ratings. When VAS ratings were plotted against EAI ratings, results revealed a stronger curvilinear relationship. The results of this study provide additional evidence that alternate rating methods such as VAS may offer improved validity and reliability over EAI ratings of speech. VAS should be considered a viable method for rating hypernasality and nasal emission in speech in children with repaired cleft palate.

  17. Detecting outliers in multivariate data while controlling false alarm rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Achim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Outlier identification often implies inspecting each z-transformed variable and adding a Mahalanobis D^2. Multiple outliers may mask each other by increasing variance estimates. Caroni and Prescott (1992 proposed a multivariate extension of Rosner’s (1983 technique to circumvent masking, taking sample size into account to keep the false alarm risk below, say, alpha = .05. Simulations studies here compare the single multivariate approach to "multiple-univariate plus multivariate" tests, each at a Bonferroni corrected alpha level, in terms of power at detecting outliers. Results suggest the former is better only up to about 12 variables. Macros in an Excel spreadsheet implement these techniques.

  18. Environmental toxins: alarming impacts of pesticides on male fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Pallav; Banerjee, Rajdeb

    2014-10-01

    This review comprehensively summarizes the effects of more than 15 mostly used pesticides on male reproductive physiology, as recent experimental and epidemiological research have indicated their alarming impact on overall human health. Mechanisms have described that pesticide exposure damages spermatozoa, alter Sertoli or Leydig cell function, both in vitro and in vivo and thus affects semen quality. But, the literature suggests a need for more intricate research in those pesticides that are defined as mutagens or carcinogens and directly affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. This literature review also proposes specific solutions to overcome these health effects. © The Author(s) 2013.

  19. Low Power Wireless Smoke Alarm System in Home Fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Aponte Luis

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel sensing device for fire detection in domestic environments is presented. The fire detector uses a combination of several sensors that not only detect smoke, but discriminate between different types of smoke. This feature avoids false alarms and warns of different situations. Power consumption is optimized both in terms of hardware and software, providing a high degree of autonomy of almost five years. Data gathered from the device are transmitted through a wireless communication to a base station. The low cost and compact design provides wide application prospects.

  20. GESTION D'ALARME À BASE DE CHRONIQUE

    OpenAIRE

    Vásquez Capacho, John William

    2017-01-01

    Thèse en cotutelle avec l'Universidad de los Andes, Colombie; National audience; This thesis work was carried out in the framework of a co-tutelle between INSA, Toulouse, and the University of the Andes, Colombia, with financial support of Colciencias. This work is motivated by the need of the industry to detect abnormal situations in the plant startup and shutdown stages. Industrial plants involve integrated management of all the events that may cause accidents and translate into alarms. Pro...

  1. The heuristics of nurse responsiveness to critical patient monitor and ventilator alarms in a private room neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Rohan; Mortel, Heidi van de; Feijs, Loe; Andriessen, Peter; Pul, Carola van

    2017-01-01

    Alarm fatigue is a well-recognized patient safety concern in intensive care settings. Decreased nurse responsiveness and slow response times to alarms are the potentially dangerous consequences of alarm fatigue. The aim of this study was to determine the factors that modulate nurse responsiveness to critical patient monitor and ventilator alarms in the context of a private room neonatal intensive care setting. The study design comprised of both a questionnaire and video monitoring of nurse-responsiveness to critical alarms. The Likert scale questionnaire, comprising of 50 questions across thematic clusters (critical alarms, yellow alarms, perception, design, nursing action, and context) was administered to 56 nurses (90% response rate). Nearly 6000 critical alarms were recorded from 10 infants in approximately 2400 hours of video monitoring. Logistic regression was used to identify patient and alarm-level factors that modulate nurse-responsiveness to critical alarms, with a response being defined as a nurse entering the patient's room within the 90s of the alarm being generated. Based on the questionnaire, the majority of nurses found critical alarms to be clinically relevant even though the alarms did not always mandate clinical action. Based on video observations, for a median of 34% (IQR, 20-52) of critical alarms, the nurse was already present in the room. For the remaining alarms, the response rate within 90s was 26%. The median response time was 55s (IQR, 37-70s). Desaturation alarms were the most prevalent and accounted for more than 50% of all alarms. The odds of responding to bradycardia alarms, compared to desaturation alarms, were 1.47 (95% CI = 1.21-1.78; heuristics in determining whether or not to respond to the alarm. Amongst other factors, the category and duration of critical alarms along with the clinical status of the patient determine nurse-responsiveness to alarms.

  2. Alarm Pheromone Composition and Behavioral Activity in Fungus-Growing Ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Victoria C; Butterfield, Thomas; Drijfhout, Falko; Tasman, Kiah; Hughes, William O H

    2017-03-01

    Chemical communication is a dominant method of communication throughout the animal kingdom and can be especially important in group-living animals in which communicating threats, either from predation or other dangers, can have large impacts on group survival. Social insects, in particular, have evolved a number of pheromonal compounds specifically to signal alarm. There is predicted to be little selection for interspecific variation in alarm cues because individuals may benefit from recognizing interspecific as well as conspecific cues and, consequently, alarm cues are not normally thought to be used for species or nestmate recognition. Here, we examine the composition of the alarm pheromones of seven species of fungus-growing ants (Attini), including both basal and derived species and examine the behavioral responses to alarm pheromone of Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants, the sister genus to the highly studied Atta leaf-cutting ants. We find surprisingly high interspecific variation in alarm pheromone composition across the attine phylogeny. Interestingly, the active component of the alarm pheromone was different between the two leaf-cutting ant genera. Furthermore, in contrast to previous studies on Atta, we found no differences among morphological castes in their responses to alarm pheromone in Acromyrmex but we did find differences in responses among putative age classes. The results suggest that the evolution of alarm communication and signaling within social insect clades can be unexpectedly complex and that further work is warranted to understand whether the evolution of different alarm pheromone compounds is adaptive.

  3. Development and experimental evaluation of an alarm concept for an integrated surgical workstation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeißig, Eva-Maria; Janß, Armin; Dell'Anna-Pudlik, Jasmin; Ziefle, Martina; Radermacher, Klaus

    2016-04-01

    Alarm conditions of the technical equipment in operating rooms represent a prevalent cause for interruptions of surgeons and scrub nurses, resulting in an increase of workload and potential reduction of patient safety. In this work, an alarm concept for an integrated operating room system based on open communication standards is developed and tested. In a laboratory experiment, the reactions of surgeons were analysed, comparing the displaying of alarms on an integrated workstation and on single devices: disruptive effects of alarm handling on primary task (ratings of perceived distraction, resumption lag, deterioration of speed, accuracy, and prospective memory), efficiency and effectiveness of identification of alarms, as well as perceived workload were included. The identification of the alarm cause is significantly more efficient and effective with the integrated alarm concept. Moreover, a slightly lower deterioration of performance of the primary task due to the interruption of alarm handling was observed. Displaying alarms on an integrated workstation supports alarm handling and consequently reduces disruptive effects on the primary task. The findings show that even small changes can reduce workload in a complex work environment like the operating room, resulting in improved patient safety.

  4. Flights of fear: a mechanical wing whistle sounds the alarm in a flocking bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hingee, Mae; Magrath, Robert D

    2009-12-07

    Animals often form groups to increase collective vigilance and allow early detection of predators, but this benefit of sociality relies on rapid transfer of information. Among birds, alarm calls are not present in all species, while other proposed mechanisms of information transfer are inefficient. We tested whether wing sounds can encode reliable information on danger. Individuals taking off in alarm fly more quickly or ascend more steeply, so may produce different sounds in alarmed than in routine flight, which then act as reliable cues of alarm, or honest 'index' signals in which a signal's meaning is associated with its method of production. We show that crested pigeons, Ocyphaps lophotes, which have modified flight feathers, produce distinct wing 'whistles' in alarmed flight, and that individuals take off in alarm only after playback of alarmed whistles. Furthermore, amplitude-manipulated playbacks showed that response depends on whistle structure, such as tempo, not simply amplitude. We believe this is the first demonstration that flight noise can send information about alarm, and suggest that take-off noise could provide a cue of alarm in many flocking species, with feather modification evolving specifically to signal alarm in some. Similar reliable cues or index signals could occur in other animals.

  5. LBTO Alarm Notification/Management and Error Diagnostic Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Peña, M. D.; Biddick, C.; Summers, K.; Summers, D.

    2015-09-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope Observatory (LBTO) Telescope Control System (TCS) is comprised of fifteen subsystems and accepts commands from the operator, as well as from six pairs of instruments. To the operator the TCS presents as a high-level set of GUIs with each GUI corresponding to one specific subsystem and providing full state information and varying degrees of control. The TCS GUIs not only provide the operators with broad control over all aspects of the telescope, but each individual GUI also reports problems within its domain through the use of color-coded messages and widgets indicating the seriousness of the issue. While there is significant problem reporting available to the operator, until recently there was no centralized and persistent visual indication or “annunciator” display for issues. In order to provide a way to present problems in a centralized and persistent fashion with “on-the-spot guidance” to ease the job of the operator and to have an acknowledge capability, the LBTO project decided to leverage an existing Alarm Handler which is a GUI client application associated with the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS)1. This paper briefly describes the TCS sources of problem reporting information and how the EPICS Alarm Handler supplements the current system.

  6. Orthos, an alarm system for the ALICE DAQ operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapeland, Sylvain; Carena, Franco; Carena, Wisla; Chibante Barroso, Vasco; Costa, Filippo; Denes, Ervin; Divia, Roberto; Fuchs, Ulrich; Grigore, Alexandru; Simonetti, Giuseppe; Soos, Csaba; Telesca, Adriana; Vande Vyvre, Pierre; von Haller, Barthelemy

    2012-12-01

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is the heavy-ion detector studying the physics of strongly interacting matter and the quark-gluon plasma at the CERN LHC (Large Hadron Collider). The DAQ (Data Acquisition System) facilities handle the data flow from the detectors electronics up to the mass storage. The DAQ system is based on a large farm of commodity hardware consisting of more than 600 devices (Linux PCs, storage, network switches), and controls hundreds of distributed hardware and software components interacting together. This paper presents Orthos, the alarm system used to detect, log, report, and follow-up abnormal situations on the DAQ machines at the experimental area. The main objective of this package is to integrate alarm detection and notification mechanisms with a full-featured issues tracker, in order to prioritize, assign, and fix system failures optimally. This tool relies on a database repository with a logic engine, SQL interfaces to inject or query metrics, and dynamic web pages for user interaction. We describe the system architecture, the technologies used for the implementation, and the integration with existing monitoring tools.

  7. Encountering bird alarms in full-stare IRSTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Arie N.; Winkel, Hans; Kemp, Rob A. W.

    2000-12-01

    Birds are a potential source of frequent false alarms in Infrared Search and Track (IRST) systems. One reason is that the signals, generated by birds at short ranges (1-2 km) in IR sensors may be of the same magnitude as the signals generated by real targets (missiles) at long ranges (10-20 km). Another reason is that new generations of IRSTs have more sensitivity which brings more birds within the detection range. Furthermore military operations tend to be held more and more in coastal zones, where the frequency of occurrence of birds is greater than in the open ocean. Finally, the variety in type of birds and their flight characteristics and signature is larger. In the paper attention is spent on the IR signatures of birds in various backgrounds, including rapid variations in signature due to wing motions. Basically, these fluctuations and the flight pattern of a bird provide opportunities to encounter bird alarms in next generation IRSTs, using multiple Focal Plan Array cameras with high frame rates. One has to take into account in this process the difference between signal variations due to wing motions and scintillation for long range targets above the horizon.

  8. FAULT LOCALIZATION AND ALARM CORRELATION IN OPTICAL WDM NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Ramesh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available For several high speed networks, providing resilience against failures is an essential requirement. The main feature for designing next generation optical networks is protecting and restoring high capacity WDM networks from the failures. Quick detection, identification and restoration make networks more strong and consistent even though the failures cannot be avoided. Hence, it is necessary to develop fast, efficient and dependable fault localization or detection mechanisms. In this paper we propose a new fault localization algorithm for WDM networks which can identify the location of a failure on a failed lightpath. Our algorithm detects the failed connection and then attempts to reroute data stream through an alternate path. In addition to this, we develop an algorithm to analyze the information of the alarms generated by the components of an optical network, in the presence of a fault. It uses the alarm correlation in order to reduce the list of suspected components shown to the network operators. By our simulation results, we show that our proposed algorithms achieve less blocking probability and delay while getting higher throughput.

  9. Enhanced Modified Bark Spectral Distortion (EMBSD): An objective speech quality measure based on audible distortion and cognition model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wonho

    The Speech Processing Lab at Temple University developed an objective speech quality measure called the Modified Bark Spectral Distortion (MBSD). The MBSD uses auditory perception models derived from psychoacoustic studies. The MBSD measure extends the Bark Spectral Distortion (BSD) method by incorporating noise making threshold to differentiate audible/inaudible distortions. The performance of the MBSD was comparable to that of the ITU-T Recommendation P.861 for various coding distortions. Based on the experiments with Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) data that contains distortions encountered in real network applications, modifications have been made to the MBSD algorithm. These are: use of the first 15 loudness components, normalization of loudness vectors, deletion of the spreading function in the noise masking threshold calculation, and use of a new cognition model based on postmasking effects. The Enhanced MBSD (EMBSD) shows significant improvement over the MBSD for TDMA data. Also, the performance of the EMBSD is better than that of the ITU-T Recommendation P.861 and Measuring Normalizing Blocks (MNB) measures for TDMA data. The performance of the EMBSD was compared to various other objective speech quality measures with the speech data including a wide range of distortion conditions. The EMBSD showed clear improvement over the MBSD and had the correlation coefficient of 0.89 for the conditions of MNRUs, codecs, tandem cases, bit errors, and frame erasures. Mean Opinion Score (MOS) has been used to evaluate objective speech quality measures. Recognizing the procedural difference between the MOS test and current objective speech quality measures, it is proposed that current objective speech quality measures should be evaluated with Degradation Mean Opinion Score (DMOS). The Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient has been the main performance parameter for evaluation of objective speech quality measures. The Standard Error of the Estimates (SEE

  10. Sensitivity of expressive linguistic domains to surgery age and audibility of speech in preschoolers with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Johanna G; Geers, Ann E

    2018-01-01

    To determine whether relative delays among domains exist in the conversational use of vocabulary, syntax, and morphology by children with cochlear implants (CIs) and whether these were differentially affected by age of implantation (AOI) and the audibility of speech. Participants in this short-term longitudinal study were 126 children with AOI of 6-38 months and a matched group of 30 children without hearing loss. Language samples of the same children at ages 3.5 and 4.5 were analyzed for the breadth of vocabulary and bound morphemes used, and sentence length. At both test ages, expressive language domains were delayed equally. Higher performance across domains was independently associated with younger AOI and better pre-implant-aided thresholds. No domain was affected differently by very early implantation, but bound morpheme breadth was associated with better CI-aided thresholds. Between 63 and 78% of children with AOI of 6-11 months scored close to hearing age-mates by 4.5, a level achieved by fewer than 25% of those with AOI of 19-24 months or later ages. Previous studies indicated greater language delays in the areas of morphology and syntax than those of vocabulary, with the earliest ages of implantation conferring the greatest benefit to those domains. The current design addressed inconsistency across studies in modes of communication used, presence/absence of other disabilities, and differences in language domains chosen as outcome measures. Linguistic domains benefitted equally from early implantation, regardless of the duration of auditory stimulation. Better pre-CI-aided hearing often compensated for later AOI. Bound morpheme use was greater with better CI-aided thresholds.

  11. The effectiveness of nurse education and training for clinical alarm response and management: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Liqing; Plummer, Virginia; Cross, Wendy

    2017-09-01

    To identify the effectiveness of education interventions provided for nurses for clinical alarm response and management. Some education has been undertaken to improve clinical alarm response, but the evidence for evaluating effectiveness for nurse education interventions is limited. Systematic review. A systematic review of experimental studies published in English from 2005-2015 was conducted in four computerised databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and Scopus). After identification, screening and appraisal using Joanna Briggs Institute instruments, quality research papers were selected, data extraction and analysis followed. Five studies met the inclusion criteria for alarm response and no articles were concerned with clinical alarm education for management. All had different types and methods of interventions and statistical pooling was not possible. Response accuracy, response time and perceptions were consistent when different interventions were adopted. A positive effect was identified when learning about general alarms, single alarms, sequential alarms and medium-level alarms for learning as the primary task. Nurses who were musically trained had a faster and more accurate alarm response. Simulation interventions had a positive effect, but the effect of education provided in the care unit was greater. Overall, clinical alarm awareness was improved through education activities. Nurses are the main users of healthcare alarms and work in complex environments with high numbers of alarms, including nuisance alarms and other factors. Alarm-related adverse events are common. The findings of a small number of experimental studies with diverse evidence included consideration of various factors when formulating education strategies. The factors which influence effectiveness of nurse education are nurse demographics, nurse participants with musical training, workload and characteristics of alarms. Education interventions based in clinical practice settings increase

  12. The impact of recent changes in smoke alarm legislation on residential fire injuries and smoke alarm ownership in New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Lara A; Poulos, Roslyn G; Sherker, Shauna

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, New South Wales (NSW) state legislation changed from requiring smoke alarms in new houses only to all houses. We evaluated the impact of this legislative change on residential fire injury and smoke alarm ownership characteristics. Residential fire injuries for 2002 to 2010 were identified from hospitalization data for all hospitals in NSW. Data relating to smoke alarm ownership and demographic factors were obtained from the NSW Population Health Survey. Negative binomial regression analysis was used to analyze trends over time. Prior to the introduction of universal legislation, hospitalization rates were increasing slightly; however, following the introduction of legislation, hospitalization rates decreased by an estimated 36.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 16.7-55.8) annually. Smoke alarm ownership increased from 73.3% (95% CI, 72.5-74.2) prelegislation to 93.6% (95% CI, 93.1-94.2) 18 months postlegislation. Thirty percent of households reported testing their alarms regularly. Speaking a language other than English (relative risks [RRs], 1.82; 95% CI, 1.44-2.99), allowing smoking in the home (RR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.31-2.27), and being part of the most disadvantaged socioeconomic group (RR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.14-1.91) remain major risk factors for nonownership. Broadening the scope of state legislation has had a positive impact on residential fire-related hospitalizations and smoke alarm ownership. However, it is of concern that the legislation has been the least effective in increasing smoke alarm ownership among non-English-speaking households, in households where smoking is allowed, in low socioeconomic households, and that a high proportion of householders do not test their smoke alarms regularly. Targeted campaigns are needed to reach these high-risk groups and to ensure that smoke alarms are functional.

  13. Recent Results on "Approximations to Optimal Alarm Systems for Anomaly Detection"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rodney Alexander

    2009-01-01

    An optimal alarm system and its approximations may use Kalman filtering for univariate linear dynamic systems driven by Gaussian noise to provide a layer of predictive capability. Predicted Kalman filter future process values and a fixed critical threshold can be used to construct a candidate level-crossing event over a predetermined prediction window. An optimal alarm system can be designed to elicit the fewest false alarms for a fixed detection probability in this particular scenario.

  14. Predictive combinations of monitor alarms preceding in-hospital code blue events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao; Sapo, Monica; Nenov, Val; Barry, Tod; Kim, Sunghan; Do, Duc H; Boyle, Noel; Martin, Neil

    2012-10-01

    Bedside monitors are ubiquitous in acute care units of modern healthcare enterprises. However, they have been criticized for generating an excessive number of false positive alarms causing alarm fatigue among care givers and potentially compromising patient safety. We hypothesize that combinations of regular monitor alarms denoted as SuperAlarm set may be more indicative of ongoing patient deteriorations and hence predictive of in-hospital code blue events. The present work develops and assesses an alarm mining approach based on finding frequent combinations of single alarms that are also specific to code blue events to compose a SuperAlarm set. We use 4-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to investigate the influence of four algorithm parameters on the performance of the data mining approach. The results are obtained from millions of monitor alarms from a cohort of 223 adult code blue and 1768 control patients using a multiple 10-fold cross-validation experiment setup. Using the optimal setting of parameters determined in the cross-validation experiment, final SuperAlarm sets are mined from the training data and used on an independent test data set to simulate running a SuperAlarm set against live regular monitor alarms. The ANOVA shows that the content of a SuperAlarm set is influenced by a subset of key algorithm parameters. Simulation of the extracted SuperAlarm set shows that it can predict code blue events one hour ahead with sensitivity between 66.7% and 90.9% while producing false SuperAlarms for control patients that account for between 2.2% and 11.2% of regular monitor alarms depending on user-supplied acceptable false positive rate. We conclude that even though the present work is still preliminary due to the usage of a moderately-sized database to test our hypothesis it represents an effort to develop algorithms to alleviate the alarm fatigue issue in a unique way. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Non-specific alarm calls trigger mobbing behavior in Hainan gibbons (Nomascus hainanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Huaiqing; Gao, Kai; Zhou, Jiang

    2016-09-30

    Alarm calls are important defensive behaviors. Here, we report the acoustic spectrum characteristics of alarm calls produced by Hainan gibbons (Nomascus hainanus) inhabiting Bawangling National Nature Reserve in Hainan, China. Analysis of call data collected from 2002-2014 shows that alarm calls are emitted by all family group members, except infants. Alarm behavior included simple short alarming calls (7-10 min) followed by longer variable-frequency mobbing calls lasting 5-12 min. The duration of individual alarming and mobbing calls was 0.078 ± 0.014 s and 0.154 ± 0.041 s at frequency ranges of 520-1000 Hz and 690-3920 Hz, respectively. Alarming call duration was positively associated with group size. The alarm calls can trigger mobbing behavior in Hainan gibbons; this is a defense way of social animals, and first report among the primates' species. The system of vocal alarm behavior described in this critically endangered species is simple and effective.

  16. Development of Alarm System link Drawing for Operation Support for APR1400 Digital Main Control Room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki-Hwan [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Digitalized MMI(Man-Machine Interface) including Digital Main Control Room(MCR) and digital I and C system was being applied for SKN 3 and 4 Nuclear Power Plant(NPP) and subsequent APR1400 NPP type. But, operators can not easily find instrument for alarm immediately. Therefore, Alarm system is required to easily find instrument for Alarm. For this implementation, we will plan system design considering design feature without affecting network load and CPU load. We have developed Alarm system link drawing for digital MCR. Operators of the digitalized MCR navigates from their consoles to the drawings related to the plant alarms and their instruments or the operation status. Such method gives cognitive load to the operators having to travel to different locations in finding the related information. Screen Sharing System, which is the fundamental technique for Drawing Interconnection Alarm System is close to completion, and it should be functionally tested and verified by the human factor engineering. For the actual application to the operating plants, the drawings to be interconnected to the alarms and the opinions from the operators/maintenance departments for designating alarm number should be surveyed, Also, another function that allows the access to the alarm related drawings not only from the MCR but also from the other offices.

  17. A Human Factors Perspective on Alarm System Research and Development 2000 to 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curt Braun; John Grimes; Eric Shaver; Ronald Boring (Principal Investigator)

    2011-09-01

    By definition, alarms serve to notify human operators of out-of-parameter conditions that could threaten equipment, the environment, product quality and, of course, human life. Given the complexities of industrial systems, human machine interfaces, and the human operator, the understanding of how alarms and humans can best work together to prevent disaster is continually developing. This review examines advances in alarm research and development from 2000 to 2010 and includes the writings of trade professionals, engineering and human factors researchers, and standards organizations with the goal of documenting advances in alarms system design, research, and implementation.

  18. Clinical Trial of an Educational Program to Decrease Monitor Alarms in a Medical Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, Arian; Collins-Brown, Sandra; Kirkland, Jasmine; Knapp, Meghan; Pressley, Jackie; Higgins, Melinda; McMurtry, James P

    2016-07-01

    Clinical research to identify effective interventions for decreasing nonactionable alarms has been limited. The objective of this study was to determine if a staff educational program on customizing alarm settings on bedside monitors decreased alarms in a medical intensive care unit (MICU). A preintervention, postintervention, nonequivalent group design was used to evaluate an educational program on alarm management in a convenience sample of MICU nurses. A 15-minute session was provided in a 1-week period. The outcome variable (number of alarms for low oxygen saturation via pulse oximetry [SpO2]) was determined from monitor log files adjusted by patient census. Data were collected for 15 days before and after the intervention. χ2 analysis was used, with P less than .05 considered significant. After 1 week of education, low SpO2 alarms decreased from 502 to 306 alarms per patient monitored per day, a 39% reduction (P < .001). Instructions for nurses in the medical intensive care unit on individualizing alarm settings to patients' clinical condition decreased common monitor alarms by 39%. ©2016 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  19. A new fire alarm system for electrical installations

    CERN Document Server

    Pietersen, A H

    1978-01-01

    Fires in electrical installations are considered to develop in four phases - initiation, smouldering, flame formation and heat development. Cables are among the more sensitive components, with working temperatures around 50 degrees C and fire detection at 70 degrees C. Conventional alarms include smoke detectors. The new technique described uses microcapsules containing powder forming a gas of the Freon type after diffusion. A typical microcapsule loses 4% per year and has a natural life of 10 years. Fabrication methods are described. Detection is by gas concentration, with a sensitivity of 1 to 10 ppm, or by acoustic methods with microphones to pick up the sound of fractures. Pressure/temperature characteristics of various types of Freon mixtures commercially available are given in graphical form.

  20. A methodology of alarm filtering using dynamic fault tree

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simeu-Abazi, Zineb, E-mail: Zineb.Simeu-Abazi@g-scop.inpg.f [Laboratory G-SCOP (CNRS-INPG-UJF), 46 Avenue Felix Viallet, 38000 Grenoble (France); Lefebvre, Arnaud, E-mail: arnaud.lefebvre@eurocopter.co [EUROCOPTER (France); Derain, Jean-Pierre, E-mail: Jean-pierre.derain@eurocopter.co [EUROCOPTER (France)

    2011-02-15

    This article presents a new approach for filtering the faults, thanks to the defined dynamic fault tree (DFT). The proposed methodology includes the dependencies between fault events in the models. Two problems must thus be solved: they relate to the filtering of false alarms, and the reduction of the size of the ambiguity of fault isolation related to the occurrence of a failure. In response to the expressed need for diagnosis, as well as for the need for filtering and localization of the failures, it is necessary to introduce new dynamic gates, making it possible to translate new dependencies, relationships. Based on previous techniques, the approach presented in this paper is based on four peculiar powerful features. First, the concept of the precedence between events is taken into account in order to resort to an adapted configuration for the fault isolation. Second, another relevant data to establish a diagnosis is to take into account the concepts of redundancies between various sets. The appearance of the same phenomenon on various sets can make it possible to refine the fault isolation. The knowledge of the character of the failures is a third important concept; indeed according to the character of the identified breakdowns, one will be able for example to refine the localization or to filter certain events considered non-representative of the character of the breakdown. Fourth, the time duration of the alarm is a more interesting resource to be exploited. The proposed DFT model can be modularized and each module translated into a High Level Petri Net (HLPN). Translation of DFT modules into HLPN has proved to be very flexible and various kinds of new dependencies can be easily accommodated. In order to exploit this flexibility a new representation, called the event diagram, is introduced.

  1. Prioritizing alarms from sensor-based detection models in livestock production - A review on model performance and alarm reducing methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominiak, Katarina Sylow; Kristensen, Anders Ringgaard

    2017-01-01

    to be improved through the combination of different methods (12 papers) and “Prioritizing models” where the models include a method of ranking or prioritizing alerts in order to reduce the number of false alarms (3 papers). Of the three methods that rank or prioritize alerts; Fuzzy Logic, Naive Bayesian Network...... (NBN) and Hidden phase-type Markov model, the NBN shows the greatest potential for future reduction of alerts from sensor-based detection models in livestock production. The included detection models are evaluated on three criteria; performance, time-window and similarity to determine whether...... monitoring and early warning systems offer an opportunity to observe certain aspects of animal health, welfare, and productivity more closely than traditionally accomplished through human observation, and the opportunities for improving animal welfare should continue to be a driving force throughout...

  2. A note on alarm cues in juvenile African catfish, Clarias gariepinus: Indications for opposing behavioural strategies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwegiessen, van de P.G.; Schrama, J.W.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Following exposure of African catfish to alarm cues, a relationship (rp=0.60, N=10, P=0.07) between feed efficiency (measured as residual feed intake) and the change in percentage of time spent swimming in response to damage-released alarm cues was observed. Feed-efficient animals responded with a

  3. Characteristics of the alarm calls of buff-streaked chat groups and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many animals emit alarm calls in response to a potential predator. These calls may transmit information about predator type and response urgency. This study compared the alarm calls of the social buff-streaked chat, Oenanthe bifasciata, to the asocial African stonechat, Saxicola torquata. Spring traps were used to capture ...

  4. 76 FR 76327 - Installation of Radiation Alarms for Rooms Housing Neutron Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 73 Installation of Radiation Alarms for Rooms Housing Neutron Sources AGENCY: Nuclear... radiation alarms in rooms housing neutron sources. DATES: Submit comments by February 21, 2012. Comments..., Radiation Safety for Research. Mr. Hamawy is concerned about the security of neutron sources. III. Petition...

  5. Analysis of stabilization quality false alarm probability by a radar adaptive detector in order statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Andreev, F. M.; Taranchenko, I. V.

    2007-01-01

    New expressions are derived for estimating the false alarm probability by adaptive threshold detectors, using the method of averaging and method of order statistics, in the presence of nonstationary interference. Potentialities of these devices, from the viewpoint of their stabilization of false alarm probability in the presence of nonstationary interference, are defined, and comparative analysis of the devices is performed.

  6. Alarm of monitoring invasive of blood pressure: are we giving the attention required?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele Kuckartz Pergher

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available O elevado número de alarmes sem relevância nas UTIs podem resultar em um retardo no tempo de reposta a alarmes relevantes. Objetivos: Identificar porque soam os alarmes de pressão arterial invasiva (PAI e o tempo de resposta da equipe, descrever as condutas estabelecidas para saná-los. Métodos: Pesquisa descritiva de abordagem quanti/qualitativa. A observação ocorreu em uma UTI adulto de um hospital militar no Rio de Janeiro. Foi aprovada pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa da Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (CAAE 03284612.4.3001.5250. Considerou-se fatigados alarmes não atendidos em 10 minutos, ou que paravam de soar antes de terem sidos atendidos. Resultados: Registraram-se 76 alarmes de PAI; 21 (28% foram atendidos, em média em 2,45 min. 55 (72% alarmes foram considerados fatigados. Conclusão: O elevado número de alarmes fatigados representam risco. É um desafio responder a todos os alarmes considerando a relação enfermeiro/ paciente imposta pela ANVISA.

  7. 46 CFR 153.438 - Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. 153.438... CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.438 Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. (a...

  8. Use of alarm features in referral of febrile children to the emergency department : an observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ierland, Yvette; Elshout, Gijs; Moll, Henritte A.; Nijman, Ruud G.; Vergouwe, Yvonne; van der Lei, Johan; Berger, Marjolein Y.; Oostenbrink, Rianne

    Background The diagnostic value of alarm features of serious infections in low prevalence settings is unclear. Aim To explore to what extent alarm features play a role in referral to the emergency department (ED) by GPs who face a febrile child during out-of-hours care. Design and setting

  9. Writing short alarm messages : A matter of education, training and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagtman, H.M.

    2013-01-01

    The Netherlands has a new tool to alarm and inform the population in case of crises. NL-Alert can simultaneously draw people’s attention and explain the crisis matter. The use requires determining of both the impact area and the alarm text. This raises questions about required knowledge and

  10. Design for safety : A new service for alarming and informing the population in case of emergency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagtman, H.M.

    2012-01-01

    In case of emergencies the population in danger should be alarmed so individuals can take action to get or remain out of danger. For alarming the population the means available are limited. Many countries have outdoor sirens. They operability however is limited since the siren has only one implicit

  11. Suppression of false arrhythmia alarms in the ICU: a machine learning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Sardar; Belle, Ashwin; Ghanbari, Hamid; Salamango, Mark; Najarian, Kayvan

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for false alarm suppression using machine learning tools. It proposes a multi-modal detection algorithm to find the true beats using the information from all the available waveforms. This method uses a variety of beat detection algorithms, some of which are developed by the authors. The outputs of the beat detection algorithms are combined using a machine learning approach. For the ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation alarms, separate classification models are trained to distinguish between the normal and abnormal beats. This information, along with alarm-specific criteria, is used to decide if the alarm is false. The results indicate that the presented method was effective in suppressing false alarms when it was tested on a hidden validation dataset.

  12. Expert systems and microwave communication systems alarms processing: A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, B.; Goeltz, R.; Purucker, S.

    1987-07-01

    This report presents the results of a feasibility study conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the Bonneville Power Administration concerning the applicability of Artificial Intelligence (AI) technology to process alarms associated with Bonneville's Microwave Communication System (MCS). Specifically, the discussion focuses on the characteristics of a prototype expert system/database management system (DBMS) configuration capable of intelligently processing alarms, efficiently storing alarm-based historical data, and providing analysis and reporting tools. Such a system has the potential to improve response to critical alarms, increase the information content of a large volume of complicated data, free operators from performing routine analysis, and provide alarm information to operators, field personnel, and management through queries and automatically produced reports.

  13. Behavioral responses of Pacific lamprey to alarm cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Laurie L.; Hayes, Michael C.; Jackson, Aaron D.; Burke, Brian J.; Moser, Mary L.; Wagner, R. Steven

    2017-01-01

    Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus), an anadromous ectoparasite, faces several challenges during adult migration to spawning grounds. Developing methods to address these challenges is critical to the success of ongoing conservation efforts. The challenges are diverse, and include anthropogenic alterations to the ecosystem resulting in loss of habitat, impassable barriers such as dams, climate change impacts, and altered predator fields. We conducted a behavioral study to understand how adult migrating Pacific lamprey respond to potential alarm cues: White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus), human saliva, decayed Pacific lamprey, and river otter (Lontra canadensis). Research has shown that some species of lamprey can be guided to a location using odors and similar cues may be useful as a management tool for Pacific lamprey. Experiments were conducted over 2 nights and measured the number of entries (count) and duration of time spent (occupancy) by adult lamprey in each arm of a two-choice maze. During the first night, no odor was added to test for selection bias between arms. During the second night odor was added to one arm of the maze. Contrary to expectations, lamprey were significantly attracted to the river otter odor in both count and occupancy. No significant differences were found in the response of lamprey to the other three odors. Results from this study indicate that Pacific lamprey do respond to some odors; however, additional tests are necessary to better identify the types of odors and concentrations that elicit a repeatable response.

  14. A Pilot Study on Cortical Auditory Evoked Potentials in Children: Aided CAEPs Reflect Improved High-Frequency Audibility with Frequency Compression Hearing Aid Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glista, Danielle; Easwar, Vijayalakshmi; Purcell, David W; Scollie, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Background. This study investigated whether cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs) could reliably be recorded and interpreted using clinical testing equipment, to assess the effects of hearing aid technology on the CAEP. Methods. Fifteen normal hearing (NH) and five hearing impaired (HI) children were included in the study. NH children were tested unaided; HI children were tested while wearing hearing aids. CAEPs were evoked with tone bursts presented at a suprathreshold level. Presence/absence of CAEPs was established based on agreement between two independent raters. Results. Present waveforms were interpreted for most NH listeners and all HI listeners, when stimuli were measured to be at an audible level. The younger NH children were found to have significantly different waveform morphology, compared to the older children, with grand averaged waveforms differing in the later part of the time window (the N2 response). Results suggest that in some children, frequency compression hearing aid processing improved audibility of specific frequencies, leading to increased rates of detectable cortical responses in HI children. Conclusions. These findings provide support for the use of CAEPs in measuring hearing aid benefit. Further research is needed to validate aided results across a larger group of HI participants and with speech-based stimuli.

  15. Short-Term and Working Memory Impairments in Early-Implanted, Long-Term Cochlear Implant Users Are Independent of Audibility and Speech Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AuBuchon, Angela M; Pisoni, David B; Kronenberger, William G

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether early-implanted, long-term cochlear implant (CI) users display delays in verbal short-term and working memory capacity when processes related to audibility and speech production are eliminated. Twenty-three long-term CI users and 23 normal-hearing controls each completed forward and backward digit span tasks under testing conditions that differed in presentation modality (auditory or visual) and response output (spoken recall or manual pointing). Normal-hearing controls reproduced more lists of digits than the CI users, even when the test items were presented visually and the responses were made manually via touchscreen response. Short-term and working memory delays observed in CI users are not due to greater demands from peripheral sensory processes such as audibility or from overt speech-motor planning and response output organization. Instead, CI users are less efficient at encoding and maintaining phonological representations in verbal short-term memory using phonological and linguistic strategies during memory tasks.

  16. Alarm symptoms of upper gastrointestinal cancer and contact to general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Sanne; Larsen, Pia Veldt; Svendsen, Rikke Pilsgaard

    2015-01-01

    between 1.1% ("repeated vomiting") and 3.4% ("difficulty swallowing"). Women had higher odds of experiencing "repeated vomiting" and "persistent and recent-onset abdominal pain", but lower odds of experiencing "upper GI bleeding". The proportion of people contacting their GP with each of the four specific...... alarm symptoms ranged from 24.3% ("upper GI bleeding") to 39.9% ("repeated vomiting"). For each combination of two specific alarm symptoms, at least 52% contacted their GP. CONCLUSION: The specific alarm symptoms of upper GI cancer are not very prevalent in the general population. The proportion of GP...

  17. 40 CFR 267.34 - When must personnel have access to communication equipment or an alarm system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either directly or through visual or voice... communication equipment or an alarm system? 267.34 Section 267.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... have access to communication equipment or an alarm system? (a) Whenever hazardous waste is being poured...

  18. The challenge of localizing vehicle backup alarms: effects of passive and electronic hearing protectors, ambient noise level, and backup alarm spectral content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alali, Khaled A; Casali, John G

    2011-01-01

    A human factors experiment employed a hemi-anechoic sound field in which listeners were required to localize a vehicular backup alarm warning signal (both a standard and a frequency-augmented alarm) in 360-degrees azimuth in pink noise of 60 dBA and 90 dBA. Measures of localization performance included: (1) percentage correct localization, (2) percentage of right--left localization errors, (3) percentage of front-rear localization errors, and (4) localization absolute deviation in degrees from the alarm's actual location. In summary, the data demonstrated that, with some exceptions, normal hearing listeners' ability to localize the backup alarm in 360-degrees azimuth did not improve when wearing augmented hearing protectors (including dichotic sound transmission earmuffs, flat attenuation earplugs, and level-dependent earplugs) as compared to when wearing conventional passive earmuffs or earplugs of the foam or flanged types. Exceptions were that in the 90 dBA pink noise, the flat attenuation earplug yielded significantly better accuracy than the polyurethane foam earplug and both the dichotic and the custom-made diotic electronic sound transmission earmuffs. However, the flat attenuation earplug showed no benefit over the standard pre-molded earplug, the arc earplug, and the passive earmuff. Confusions of front-rear alarm directions were most significant in the 90 dBA noise condition, wherein two types of triple-flanged earplugs exhibited significantly fewer front-rear confusions than either of the electronic muffs. On all measures, the diotic sound transmission earmuff resulted in the poorest localization of any of the protectors due to the fact that its single-microphone design did not enable interaural cues to be heard. Localization was consistently more degraded in the 90 dBA pink noise as compared with the relatively quiet condition of the 60 dBA pink noise. A frequency-augmented backup alarm, which incorporated 400 Hz and 4000 Hz components to exploit the

  19. Real-time Alarm Monitoring System for Detecting Driver Fatigue in Wireless Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongrong Fu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to develop a real-time alarm monitoring system that can detect the fatigue driving state through wireless communication. The drivers’ electroencephalogram (EEG signals were recorded from occipital electrodes. Seven EEG rhythms with different frequency bands as gamma, hbeta, beta, sigma, alpha, theta and delta waves were extracted. They were simultaneously assessed using relative operating characteristic (ROC curves and grey relational analysis to select one as the fatigue feature. The research results showed that the performance of theta wave was the best one. Therefore, theta wave was used as fatigue feature in the following alarm device. The real-time alarm monitoring system based on the result has been developed, once the threshold was settled by using the data of the first ten minutes driving period. The developed system can detect driver fatigue and give alarm to indicate the onset of fatigue automatically.

  20.   Combination treatment of monosymptomatic enuresis nocturna with alarm and desmopressin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamperis, Konstantinos; Hagstrøm, Søren; Rittig, Søren

    2006-01-01

      AIM To retrospectively evaluate the combination treatment with alarm and desmopressin in a population of children with monosymptomatic enuresis nocturna (MNE). MATERIAL AND METHODS 218 children with MNE (age 5-14y) treated in our outpatient clinics were investigated in the present study. All...... children had completed the diagnostic procedures of our center comprising 2-week home recordings, desmopressin titration, uroflowmetry and urinalysis. The latest ICCS standardization was used for characterizations. All children were treated with the enuresis alarm alone or in combination with desmopressin...... complete dryness. We found no differences with regards to age, gender, enuresis frequency, average and maximal voided volumes between children that achieved dryness with alarm or combination of alarm and desmopressin. However, children ending in combination treatment shared significantly higher nocturnal...

  1. Referential alarm calling behaviour in New World primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane CÄSAR, Klaus ZUBERBÜHLER

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available There is relatively good evidence that non-human primates can communicate about objects and events in their environment in ways that allow recipients to draw inferences about the nature of the event experienced by the signaller. In some species, there is also evidence that the basic semantic units are not individual calls, but call sequences and the combinations generated by them. These two findings are relevant to theories pertaining to the origins of human language because of the resemblances of these phenomena with linguistic reference and syntactic organisation. Until recently, however, most research efforts on the primate origins of human language have involved Old World species with comparatively few systematic studies on New World monkeys, which has prevented insights into the deeper phylogenetic roots and evolutionary origins of language-relevant capacities. To address this, we review the older primate literature and very recent evidence for functionally referential communication and call combinations in New World primates. Within the existing literature there is ample evidence in both Callitrichids and Cebids for acoustically distinct call variants given to external disturbances that are accompanied by distinct behavioural responses. A general pattern is that one call type is typically produced in response to a wide range of general disturbances, often on the ground but also including inter-group encounters, while another call type is produced in response to a much narrower range of aerial threats. This pattern is already described for Old World monkeys and Prosimians, suggesting an early evolutionary origin. Second, recent work with black-fronted titi monkeys has produced evidence for different alarm call sequences consisting of acoustically distinct call types. These sequences appear to encode several aspects of the predation event simultaneously, notably predator type and location. Since meaningful call sequences have already been

  2. Cutaneous factitia in elderly patients: alarm signal for psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiriac A

    2014-03-01

    choose the proper therapy is mandatory for all these cases. Dermatologists and all physicians who take care of old patients must recognize the disorder in order to provide optimum care for this chronic condition. We emphasize therefore the importance of psychiatric evaluation and treatment to avoid the major risk of suicide. Skin lesions must be regarded as an alarm signal in critical cases, especially in senior people. Keywords: pathomimia, elderly, psychiatric disorders

  3. Habituation of adult sea lamprey repeatedly exposed to damage-released alarm and predator cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imre, Istvan; Di Rocco, Richard T.; Brown, Grant E.; Johnson, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Predation is an unforgiving selective pressure affecting the life history, morphology and behaviour of prey organisms. Selection should favour organisms that have the ability to correctly assess the information content of alarm cues. This study investigated whether adult sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus habituate to conspecific damage-released alarm cues (fresh and decayed sea lamprey extract), a heterospecific damage-released alarm cue (white sucker Catostomus commersoniiextract), predator cues (Northern water snake Nerodia sipedon washing, human saliva and 2-phenylethylamine hydrochloride (PEA HCl)) and a conspecific damage-released alarm cue and predator cue combination (fresh sea lamprey extract and human saliva) after they were pre-exposed 4 times or 8 times, respectively, to a given stimulus the previous night. Consistent with our prediction, adult sea lamprey maintained an avoidance response to conspecific damage-released alarm cues (fresh and decayed sea lamprey extract), a predator cue presented at high relative concentration (PEA HCl) and a conspecific damage-released alarm cue and predator cue combination (fresh sea lamprey extract plus human saliva), irrespective of previous exposure level. As expected, adult sea lamprey habituated to a sympatric heterospecific damage-released alarm cue (white sucker extract) and a predator cue presented at lower relative concentration (human saliva). Adult sea lamprey did not show any avoidance of the Northern water snake washing and the Amazon sailfin catfish extract (heterospecific control). This study suggests that conspecific damage-released alarm cues and PEA HCl present the best options as natural repellents in an integrated management program aimed at controlling the abundance of sea lamprey in the Laurentian Great Lakes.

  4. False Alarm Reduction in BSN-Based Cardiac Monitoring Using Signal Quality and Activity Type Information

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    Tanatorn Tanantong

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available False alarms in cardiac monitoring affect the quality of medical care, impacting on both patients and healthcare providers. In continuous cardiac monitoring using wireless Body Sensor Networks (BSNs, the quality of ECG signals can be deteriorated owing to several factors, e.g., noises, low battery power, and network transmission problems, often resulting in high false alarm rates. In addition, body movements occurring from activities of daily living (ADLs can also create false alarms. This paper presents a two-phase framework for false arrhythmia alarm reduction in continuous cardiac monitoring, using signals from an ECG sensor and a 3D accelerometer. In the first phase, classification models constructed using machine learning algorithms are used for labeling input signals. ECG signals are labeled with heartbeat types and signal quality levels, while 3D acceleration signals are labeled with ADL types. In the second phase, a rule-based expert system is used for combining classification results in order to determine whether arrhythmia alarms should be accepted or suppressed. The proposed framework was validated on datasets acquired using BSNs and the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. For the BSN dataset, acceleration and ECG signals were collected from 10 young and 10 elderly subjects while they were performing ADLs. The framework reduced the false alarm rate from 9.58% to 1.43% in our experimental study, showing that it can potentially assist physicians in diagnosing a vast amount of data acquired from wireless sensors and enhance the performance of continuous cardiac monitoring.

  5. The challenge of localizing vehicle backup alarms: Effects of passive and electronic hearing protectors, ambient noise level, and backup alarm spectral content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled A Alali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A human factors experiment employed a hemi-anechoic sound field in which listeners were required to localize a vehicular backup alarm warning signal (both a standard and a frequency-augmented alarm in 360-degrees azimuth in pink noise of 60 dBA and 90 dBA. Measures of localization performance included: (1 percentage correct localization, (2 percentage of right--left localization errors, (3 percentage of front-rear localization errors, and (4 localization absolute deviation in degrees from the alarm′s actual location. In summary, the data demonstrated that, with some exceptions, normal hearing listeners′ ability to localize the backup alarm in 360-degrees azimuth did not improve when wearing augmented hearing protectors (including dichotic sound transmission earmuffs, flat attenuation earplugs, and level-dependent earplugs as compared to when wearing conventional passive earmuffs or earplugs of the foam or flanged types. Exceptions were that in the 90 dBA pink noise, the flat attenuation earplug yielded significantly better accuracy than the polyurethane foam earplug and both the dichotic and the custom-made diotic electronic sound transmission earmuffs. However, the flat attenuation earplug showed no benefit over the standard pre-molded earplug, the arc earplug, and the passive earmuff. Confusions of front-rear alarm directions were most significant in the 90 dBA noise condition, wherein two types of triple-flanged earplugs exhibited significantly fewer front-rear confusions than either of the electronic muffs. On all measures, the diotic sound transmission earmuff resulted in the poorest localization of any of the protectors due to the fact that its single-microphone design did not enable interaural cues to be heard. Localization was consistently more degraded in the 90 dBA pink noise as compared with the relatively quiet condition of the 60 dBA pink noise. A frequency-augmented backup alarm, which incorporated 400 Hz and 4000 Hz components

  6. Interspecific semantic alarm call recognition in the solitary Sahamalaza sportive lemur, Lepilemur sahamalazensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Seiler

    Full Text Available As alarm calls indicate the presence of predators, the correct interpretation of alarm calls, including those of other species, is essential for predator avoidance. Conversely, communication calls of other species might indicate the perceived absence of a predator and hence allow a reduction in vigilance. This "eavesdropping" was demonstrated in birds and mammals, including lemur species. Interspecific communication between taxonomic groups has so far been reported in some reptiles and mammals, including three primate species. So far, neither semantic nor interspecific communication has been tested in a solitary and nocturnal lemur species. The aim of this study was to investigate if the nocturnal and solitary Sahamalaza sportive lemur, Lepilemur sahamalazensis, is able to access semantic information of sympatric species. During the day, this species faces the risk of falling prey to aerial and terrestrial predators and therefore shows high levels of vigilance. We presented alarm calls of the crested coua, the Madagascar magpie-robin and aerial, terrestrial and agitation alarm calls of the blue-eyed black lemur to 19 individual Sahamalaza sportive lemurs resting in tree holes. Songs of both bird species' and contact calls of the blue-eyed black lemur were used as a control. After alarm calls of crested coua, Madagascar magpie-robin and aerial alarm of the blue-eyed black lemur, the lemurs scanned up and their vigilance increased significantly. After presentation of terrestrial alarm and agitation calls of the blue-eyed black lemur, the animals did not show significant changes in scanning direction or in the duration of vigilance. Sportive lemur vigilance decreased after playbacks of songs of the bird species and contact calls of blue-eyed black lemurs. Our results indicate that the Sahamalaza sportive lemur is capable of using information on predator presence as well as predator type of different sympatric species, using their referential

  7. [Implementation of an automatic alarms system for early detection of patients with severe sepsis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreras, José María; Judez, Diego; Tirado, Gabriel; Aspiroz, Carmen; Martínez-Álvarez, Rosa; Dorado, Paloma; Ezpeleta, Ana; Marrón, Rafael; Gargallo, Begoña; Herranz, Clara

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the usefulness of a software tool integrated into the medical electronic history at the time of emergency triage. The aim was the early detection of patients with severe sepsis, and the potential impact of this software tool on reducing the mortality rate in patients treated. The study consisted of two comparative samples. Patient selection was performed retrospectively into two groups using ICD-9 codes from the hospital and emergency department discharge reports. The codes were 038.9, 995.9 and 995.92 for sepsis, and 785.52 for severe sepsis and septic shock. The sample called «alarms» consisted of patients studied after implementing the sepsis alarm system in the Emergency Department computer system. There were two types of alarms, a serious one and an alert one depending on the on vital signs defined. The historical sample called «no alarms» consisted of patients seen in the Emergency Department during the year before the introduction of the alarm system. The compliance rate of the sepsis treatment package was higher in the «alarms» sample, compared to the sample without alarms, with blood cultures, 96.3% versus 80.9% (Psepsis allows acting earlier, better compliance with basic measures, and a reduction in hospital stay and mortality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  8. Communication strategies and timeliness of response to life critical telemetry alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonzheim, Kimberly A; Gebara, Rani I; O'Hare, Bridget M; Ellis, R Darin; Brand, Monique A; Balar, Salil D; Stockman, Rita; Sciberras, Annette M; Haines, David E

    2011-05-01

    A centralized electrocardiogram telemetry monitoring system (TMS) facilitates early identification of critical arrhythmias and acute medical decompensation. Timely intervention can only be performed if abnormalities are communicated rapidly to the direct caregiver. The study objectives were to measure effectiveness of bi-directional voice communication badges versus one-way alphanumeric pagers for telemetry alarm response and communication loop closure. A sequential observational pilot study of nursing response to TMS alarms compared communication technologies on four nursing units in a 1,061 bed tertiary care hospital with 264 TMS channels of telemetry over a 2-year period. Subsequently, the communication technologies were compared in a randomized fashion on a 68-bed progressive cardiac care unit. Caregivers were blinded to the protocol. All alarm responses were recorded during two periods using either pagers or voice communication devices. Alarm response time and closure of the communication loop were analyzed in a blinded fashion. The direct communication functionality of the badge significantly shortened the time to first contact, time to completion, and rate of closure of the communication loop in both the pilot and study phases. Median time to first contact with the communication badge was 0.5  min, compared to 1.6  min with pager communication (p Communication loop closure was achieved in 100% of clinical alarms using the badge versus 19% with the pager (p Communication badge technology reduced alarm time to first contact and completion as well as facilitated communication loop closures. Immediate two-way communication significantly impacted practice, alarm management, and resulted in faster bedside care.

  9. Nitric Acid Revamp and Upgrading of the Alarm & Protection Safety System at Petrokemija, Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoško, I.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Every industrial production, particularly chemical processing, demands special attention in conducting the technological process with regard to the security requirements. For this reason, production processes should be continuously monitored by means of control and alarm safety instrumented systems. In the production of nitric acid at Petrokemija d. d., the original alarm safety system was designed as a combination of an electrical relay safety system and transistorized alarm module system. In order to increase safety requirements and modernize the technological process of nitric acid production, revamping and upgrading of the existing alarm safety system was initiated with a new microprocessor system. The newly derived alarm safety system, Simatic PCS 7, links the function of "classically" distributed control (DCS and logical systems in a common hardware and software platform with integrated engineering tools and operator interface to meet the minimum safety standards with safety integrity level 2 (SIL2 up to level 3 (SIL3, according to IEC 61508 and IEC 61511. This professional paper demonstrates the methodology of upgrading the logic of the alarm safety system in the production of nitric acid in the form of a logical diagram, which was the basis for a further step in its design and construction. Based on the mentioned logical diagram and defined security requirements, the project was implemented in three phases: analysis and testing, installation of the safety equipment and system, and commissioning. Developed also was a verification system of all safety conditions, which could be applied to other facilities for production of nitric acid. With the revamped and upgraded interlock alarm safety system, a new and improved safety boundary in the production of nitric acid was set, which created the foundation for further improvement of the production process in terms of improved analysis.

  10. The nature of alarm communication in Constrictotermes cyphergaster (Blattodea: Termitoidea: Termitidae): the integration of chemical and vibroacoustic signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristaldo, Paulo F; Jandák, Vojtĕch; Kutalová, Kateřina; Rodrigues, Vinícius B; Brothánek, Marek; Jiříček, Ondřej; DeSouza, Og; Šobotník, Jan

    2015-11-04

    Alarm signalling is of paramount importance to communication in all social insects. In termites, vibroacoustic and chemical alarm signalling are bound to operate synergistically but have never been studied simultaneously in a single species. Here, we inspected the functional significance of both communication channels in Constrictotermes cyphergaster (Termitidae: Nasutitermitinae), confirming the hypothesis that these are not exclusive, but rather complementary processes. In natural situations, the alarm predominantly attracts soldiers, which actively search for the source of a disturbance. Laboratory testing revealed that the frontal gland of soldiers produces a rich mixture of terpenoid compounds including an alarm pheromone. Extensive testing led to identification of the alarm pheromone being composed of abundant monoterpene hydrocarbons (1S)-α-pinene and myrcene, along with a minor component, (E)-β-ocimene. The vibratory alarm signalling consists of vibratory movements evidenced as bursts; a series of beats produced predominantly by soldiers. Exposing termite groups to various mixtures containing the alarm pheromone (crushed soldier heads, frontal gland extracts, mixture of all monoterpenes, and the alarm pheromone mixture made of standards) resulted in significantly higher activity in the tested groups and also increased intensity of the vibratory alarm communication, with the responses clearly dose-dependent. Lower doses of the pheromone provoked higher numbers of vibratory signals compared to higher doses. Higher doses induced long-term running of all termites without stops necessary to perform vibratory behaviour. Surprisingly, even crushed worker heads led to low (but significant) increases in the alarm responses, suggesting that other unknown compound in the worker's head is perceived and answered by termites. Our results demonstrate the existence of different alarm levels in termites, with lower levels being communicated through vibratory signals, and

  11. The nature of alarm communication in Constrictotermes cyphergaster (Blattodea: Termitoidea: Termitidae: the integration of chemical and vibroacoustic signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo F. Cristaldo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Alarm signalling is of paramount importance to communication in all social insects. In termites, vibroacoustic and chemical alarm signalling are bound to operate synergistically but have never been studied simultaneously in a single species. Here, we inspected the functional significance of both communication channels in Constrictotermes cyphergaster (Termitidae: Nasutitermitinae, confirming the hypothesis that these are not exclusive, but rather complementary processes. In natural situations, the alarm predominantly attracts soldiers, which actively search for the source of a disturbance. Laboratory testing revealed that the frontal gland of soldiers produces a rich mixture of terpenoid compounds including an alarm pheromone. Extensive testing led to identification of the alarm pheromone being composed of abundant monoterpene hydrocarbons (1S-α-pinene and myrcene, along with a minor component, (E-β-ocimene. The vibratory alarm signalling consists of vibratory movements evidenced as bursts; a series of beats produced predominantly by soldiers. Exposing termite groups to various mixtures containing the alarm pheromone (crushed soldier heads, frontal gland extracts, mixture of all monoterpenes, and the alarm pheromone mixture made of standards resulted in significantly higher activity in the tested groups and also increased intensity of the vibratory alarm communication, with the responses clearly dose-dependent. Lower doses of the pheromone provoked higher numbers of vibratory signals compared to higher doses. Higher doses induced long-term running of all termites without stops necessary to perform vibratory behaviour. Surprisingly, even crushed worker heads led to low (but significant increases in the alarm responses, suggesting that other unknown compound in the worker's head is perceived and answered by termites. Our results demonstrate the existence of different alarm levels in termites, with lower levels being communicated through

  12. The nature of alarm communication in Constrictotermes cyphergaster (Blattodea: Termitoidea: Termitidae): the integration of chemical and vibroacoustic signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristaldo, Paulo F.; Jandák, Vojtĕch; Kutalová, Kateřina; Rodrigues, Vinícius B.; Brothánek, Marek; Jiříček, Ondřej; DeSouza, Og; Šobotník, Jan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Alarm signalling is of paramount importance to communication in all social insects. In termites, vibroacoustic and chemical alarm signalling are bound to operate synergistically but have never been studied simultaneously in a single species. Here, we inspected the functional significance of both communication channels in Constrictotermes cyphergaster (Termitidae: Nasutitermitinae), confirming the hypothesis that these are not exclusive, but rather complementary processes. In natural situations, the alarm predominantly attracts soldiers, which actively search for the source of a disturbance. Laboratory testing revealed that the frontal gland of soldiers produces a rich mixture of terpenoid compounds including an alarm pheromone. Extensive testing led to identification of the alarm pheromone being composed of abundant monoterpene hydrocarbons (1S)-α-pinene and myrcene, along with a minor component, (E)-β-ocimene. The vibratory alarm signalling consists of vibratory movements evidenced as bursts; a series of beats produced predominantly by soldiers. Exposing termite groups to various mixtures containing the alarm pheromone (crushed soldier heads, frontal gland extracts, mixture of all monoterpenes, and the alarm pheromone mixture made of standards) resulted in significantly higher activity in the tested groups and also increased intensity of the vibratory alarm communication, with the responses clearly dose-dependent. Lower doses of the pheromone provoked higher numbers of vibratory signals compared to higher doses. Higher doses induced long-term running of all termites without stops necessary to perform vibratory behaviour. Surprisingly, even crushed worker heads led to low (but significant) increases in the alarm responses, suggesting that other unknown compound in the worker's head is perceived and answered by termites. Our results demonstrate the existence of different alarm levels in termites, with lower levels being communicated through vibratory

  13. Levels of alarm thresholds of meningitis outbreaks in Hamadan Province, west of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faryadres, Mohammad; Karami, Manoochehr; Moghimbeigi, Abbas; Esmailnasab, Nader; Pazhouhi, Khabat

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have focused on syndromic data to determine levels of alarm thresholds to detection of meningitis outbreaks. The purpose of this study was to determine threshold levels of meningitis outbreak in Hamadan Province, west of Iran. Data on both confirmed and suspected cases of meningitis (fever and neurological symptom) form 21 March 2010 to 20 March 2012 were used in Hamadan Province, Iran. Alarm threshold levels of meningitis outbreak were determined using four different methods including absolute values or standard method, relative increase, statistical cutoff points and upper control limit of exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) algorithm. Among 723 reported cases, 41 were diagnosed to have meningitis. Standard level of alarm thresholds for meningitis outbreak was determined as incidence of 5/100000 persons. Increasing 1.5 to two times in reported cases of suspected meningitis per week was known as the threshold levels according to relative increase method. An occurrence four cases of suspected meningitis per week that equals to 90th percentile was chosen as alarm thresholds by statistical cut off point method. The corresponding value according to EWMA algorithm was 2.57 i.e. three cases. Policy makers and staff of syndromic surveillance systems are highly recommended to apply the above different methods to determine the levels of alarm threshold.

  14. Alarm pheromone that aggravates stress-induced hyperthermia is soluble in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Kikusui, Takefumi; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

    2005-07-01

    We previously reported that stressed male Wistar rats released alarm pheromone from the perianal region, which aggravated stress-induced hyperthermia and increased Fos expression in the mitral/tufted cell layer of the accessory olfactory bulb in recipient rats. In this study, we attempted to obtain this pheromone in water using these responses as bioassay parameters. Water droplets were collected from the ceiling of a box in which no animal was placed, or from a box in which an anesthetized donor rat was given electrical stimulation to either the neck or perianal regions in order to induce neck odor or alarm pheromone release, respectively. Then we placed one of the three kinds of water-containing filter papers on the wall of a recipient's home cage and observed heart rate, body temperature and behavioral responses, as well as Fos expression in the main and accessory olfactory bulbs of the recipient. The water collected from the box containing the alarm pheromone was found to generate a reproduction of all of the responses seen in the animal that had been directly exposed to alarm pheromone in our previous studies. These results suggest that the alarm pheromone is soluble in water.

  15. Monitoring techniques and alarm procedures for CMS services and sites in WLCG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina-Perez, J. [UC, San Diego; Bonacorsi, D. [Bologna U.; Gutsche, O. [Fermilab; Sciaba, A. [CERN; Flix, J. [Madrid, CIEMAT; Kreuzer, P. [CERN; Fajardo, E. [Andes U., Bogota; Boccali, T. [INFN, Pisa; Klute, M. [MIT; Gomes, D. [Rio de Janeiro State U.; Kaselis, R. [Vilnius U.; Du, R. [Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys.; Magini, N. [CERN; Butenas, I. [Vilnius U.; Wang, W. [Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys.

    2012-01-01

    The CMS offline computing system is composed of roughly 80 sites (including most experienced T3s) and a number of central services to distribute, process and analyze data worldwide. A high level of stability and reliability is required from the underlying infrastructure and services, partially covered by local or automated monitoring and alarming systems such as Lemon and SLS, the former collects metrics from sensors installed on computing nodes and triggers alarms when values are out of range, the latter measures the quality of service and warns managers when service is affected. CMS has established computing shift procedures with personnel operating worldwide from remote Computing Centers, under the supervision of the Computing Run Coordinator at CERN. This dedicated 24/7 computing shift personnel is contributing to detect and react timely on any unexpected error and hence ensure that CMS workflows are carried out efficiently and in a sustained manner. Synergy among all the involved actors is exploited to ensure the 24/7 monitoring, alarming and troubleshooting of the CMS computing sites and services. We review the deployment of the monitoring and alarming procedures, and report on the experience gained throughout the first two years of LHC operation. We describe the efficiency of the communication tools employed, the coherent monitoring framework, the proactive alarming systems and the proficient troubleshooting procedures that helped the CMS Computing facilities and infrastructure to operate at high reliability levels.

  16. SMS Based Car Alarm System Utilizing AT89S52 Microcontroller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balza Achmad

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to design a car alarm system. The system is designed to activating an alarm (danger signal and sends SMS messages to the HP owners of the car when sensors on the car alarm are active. The hardware of car alarm system use AT89S52 microcontroller based on SMS in this research, consists of a series of 4 main parts, namely the minimum system microcontroller circuits, power supply, serial communications, and input/output. In an SMS text sent and received from the cell phone to the SMS Center flows in the form of PDU (Protocol Data Unit. The SMS format is divided into several segments of data that each segment has a specific purpose. Segments are: SMS center number, destination number, bytes SMS settings for this and most important is the content of SMS messages that have been modified in the form of UPE. The instructions AT Command is required to send or upload SMS data to mobile phone and send SMS data. The results showed that the performance of the alarm system designed is work properly.

  17. Supporting attention allocation in multitask environments: effects of likelihood alarm systems on trust, behavior, and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiczorek, Rebecca; Manzey, Dietrich

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate potential benefits of likelihood alarm systems (LASs) over binary alarm systems (BASs) in a multitask environment. Several problems are associated with the use of BASs, because most of them generate high numbers of false alarms. Operators lose trust in the systems and ignore alarms or cross-check all of them when other information is available. The first behavior harms safety, whereas the latter one reduces productivity. LASs represent an alternative, which is supposed to improve operators' attention allocation. We investigated LASs and BASs in a dual-task paradigm with and without the possibility to cross-check alerts with raw data information. Participants' trust in the system, their behavior, and their performance in the alert and the concurrent task were assessed. Reported trust, compliance with alarms, and performance in the alert and the concurrent task were higher for the LAS than for the BAS. The cross-check option led to an increase in alert task performance for both systems and a decrease in concurrent task performance for the BAS, which did not occur in the LAS condition. LASs improve participants' attention allocation between two different tasks and therefore lead to an increase in alert task and concurrent task performance. The performance maximum is achieved when LAS is combined with a cross-check option for validating alerts with additional information. The use of LASs instead of BASs in safety-related multitask environments has the potential to increase safety and productivity likewise.

  18. "Alarm-corrected" ergonomic armrest use could improve learning curves of novices on robotic simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kun; Perez, Manuela; Hossu, Gabriela; Hubert, Nicolas; Perrenot, Cyril; Hubert, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    In robotic surgery, the professional ergonomic habit of using an armrest reduces operator fatigue and increases the precision of motion. We designed and validated a pressure surveillance system (PSS) based on force sensors to investigate armrest use. The objective was to evaluate whether adding an alarm to the PSS system could shorten ergonomic training and improve performance. Twenty robot and simulator-naïve participants were recruited and randomized in two groups (A and B). The PSS was installed on a robotic simulator, the dV-Trainer, to detect contact with the armrest. The Group A members completed three tasks on the dV-Trainer without the alarm, making 15 attempts at each task. The Group B members practiced the first two tasks with the alarm and then completed the final tasks without the alarm. The simulator provided an overall score reflecting the trainees' performance. We used the new concept of an "armrest load" score to describe the ergonomic habit of using the armrest. Group B had a significantly higher performance score (p ergonomic errors and accelerated professional ergonomic habit acquisition. The combination of the PSS and alarm is effective in significantly shortening the learning curve in the robotic training process.

  19. The sound of danger: threat sensitivity to predator vocalizations, alarm calls, and novelty in gulls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A MacLean

    Full Text Available The threat sensitivity hypothesis predicts that organisms will evaluate the relative danger of and respond differentially to varying degrees of predation threat. Doing so allows potential prey to balance the costs and benefits of anti-predator behaviors. Threat sensitivity has undergone limited testing in the auditory modality, and the relative threat level of auditory cues from different sources is difficult to infer across populations when variables such as background risk and experience are not properly controlled. We experimentally exposed a single population of two sympatric gull species to auditory stimuli representing a range of potential threats in order to compare the relative threat of heterospecific alarm calls, conspecific alarms calls, predator vocalizations, and novel auditory cues. Gulls were able to discriminate among a diverse set of threat indicators and respond in a graded manner commensurate with the level of threat. Vocalizations of two potential predators, the human voice and bald eagle call, differed in their threat level compared to each other and to alarm calls. Conspecific alarm calls were more threatening than heterospecfic alarm calls to the larger great black-backed gull, but the smaller herring gull weighed both equally. A novel cue elicited a response intermediate between known threats and a known non-threat in herring gulls, but not great black-backed gulls. Our results show that the relative threat level of auditory cues from different sources is highly species-dependent, and that caution should be exercised when comparing graded and threshold threat sensitive responses.

  20. Capturing Causality for Fault Diagnosis Based on Multi-Valued Alarm Series Using Transfer Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Su

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Transfer entropy (TE is a model-free approach based on information theory to capture causality between variables, which has been used for the modeling and monitoring of, and fault diagnosis in, complex industrial processes. It is able to detect the causality between variables without assuming any underlying model, but it is computationally burdensome. To overcome this limitation, a hybrid method of TE and the modified conditional mutual information (CMI approach is proposed by using generated multi-valued alarm series. In order to obtain a process topology, TE can generate a causal map of all sub-processes and modified CMI can be used to distinguish the direct connectivity from the above-mentioned causal map by using multi-valued alarm series. The effectiveness and accuracy rate of the proposed method are validated by simulated and real industrial cases (the Tennessee-Eastman process to capture process topology by using multi-valued alarm series.

  1. Shadow Probability of Detection and False Alarm for Median-Filtered SAR Imagery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raynal, Ann Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). ISR Analysis and Applications Dept.; Doerry, Armin Walter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). ISR Mission Engineering Dept.; Miller, John A. [General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States). Mission Systems; Bishop, Edward E. [General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States). Mission Systems; Horndt, Volker [General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States). Mission Systems

    2014-06-01

    Median filtering reduces speckle in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery while preserving edges, at the expense of coarsening the resolution, by replacing the center pixel of a sliding window by the median value. For shadow detection, this approach helps distinguish shadows from clutter more easily, while preserving shadow shape delineations. However, the nonlinear operation alters the shadow and clutter distributions and statistics, which must be taken into consideration when computing probability of detection and false alarm metrics. Depending on system parameters, median filtering can improve probability of detection and false alarm by orders of magnitude. Herein, we examine shadow probability of detection and false alarm in a homogeneous, ideal clutter background after median filter post-processing. Some comments on multi-look processing effects with and without median filtering are also made.

  2. Specific and unspecific gynecological alarm symptoms -prevalence estimates in different age groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balasubramaniam, Kirubakaran; Ravn, Pernille; Larsen, Pia V

    2015-01-01

    , and the median number of experienced symptoms was 2 (interquartile range 1-4). The most common symptoms were tiredness (53.0%) and abdominal bloating (36.7%), while postmenopausal bleeding (2.3%) and involuntary weight loss (2.8%) were least frequent. Most of the symptoms were more prevalent among younger women......OBJECTIVE: To determine prevalence estimates of gynecological alarm symptoms in different age groups and to describe common patterns of gynecological symptoms. DESIGN: Web-based cross-sectional survey study. SETTING: Nationwide in Denmark. POPULATION: A random sample of 51 090 women aged 20 years...... guidelines. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence estimates of self-reported experience of gynecological alarm symptoms within the preceding 4 weeks. RESULTS: A total of 26 466 women (54.5%) participated in the study. Some 80.3% had experienced at least one of the alarm symptoms within the preceding 4 weeks...

  3. Use of urine alarms in toilet training children with intellectual and developmental disabilities: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levato, Lynne E; Aponte, Courtney A; Wilkins, Jonathan; Travis, Rebekah; Aiello, Rachel; Zanibbi, Katherine; Loring, Whitney A; Butter, Eric; Smith, Tristram; Mruzek, Daniel W

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to describe and evaluate the existing research on the use of urine alarms in the daytime toilet training of children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). A systematic literature search yielded 12 studies, many of which were published over a decade ago. The findings suggest that interventions that incorporate the use of urine alarms are promising in the treatment of daytime enuresis for children with IDD; however, more carefully controlled research is needed to confirm these findings and elucidate the precise role urine alarms may play in toileting interventions. Methodological strengths and limitations of the body of research are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sequence and batch language programs and alarm related C Programs for the 242-A MCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, J.F.

    1996-04-15

    A Distributive Process Control system was purchased by Project B-534, 242-A Evaporator/Crystallizer Upgrades. This control system, called the Monitor and Control system (MCS), was installed in the 242-A evaporator located in the 200 East Area. The purpose of the MCS is to monitor and control the Evaporator and monitor a number of alarms and other signals from various Tank Farm facilities. Applications software for the MCS was developed by the Waste Treatment Systems Engineering (WTSE) group of Westinghouse. The standard displays and alarm scheme provide for control and monitoring, but do not directly indicate the signal location or depict the overall process. To do this, WTSE developed a second alarm scheme.

  5. Video Analysis of Factors Associated With Response Time to Physiologic Monitor Alarms in a Children's Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonafide, Christopher P; Localio, A Russell; Holmes, John H; Nadkarni, Vinay M; Stemler, Shannon; MacMurchy, Matthew; Zander, Miriam; Roberts, Kathryn E; Lin, Richard; Keren, Ron

    2017-06-01

    Bedside monitor alarms alert nurses to life-threatening physiologic changes among patients, but the response times of nurses are slow. To identify factors associated with physiologic monitor alarm response time. This prospective cohort study used 551 hours of video-recorded care administered by 38 nurses to 100 children in a children's hospital medical unit between July 22, 2014, and November 11, 2015. Patient, nurse, and alarm-level factors hypothesized to predict response time. We used multivariable accelerated failure-time models stratified by each nurse and adjusted for clustering within patients to evaluate associations between exposures and response time to alarms that occurred while the nurse was outside the room. The study participants included 38 nurses, 100% (n = 38) of whom were white and 92% (n = 35) of whom were female, and 100 children, 51% (n = 51) of whom were male. The race/ethnicity of the child participants was 45% (n = 45) black or African American, 33% (n = 33) white, 4% (n = 4) Asian, and 18% (n = 18) other. Of 11 745 alarms among 100 children, 50 (0.5%) were actionable. The adjusted median response time among nurses was 10.4 minutes (95% CI, 5.0-15.8) and varied based on the following variables: if the patient was on complex care service (5.3 minutes [95% CI, 1.4-9.3] vs 11.1 minutes [95% CI, 5.6-16.6] among general pediatrics patients), whether family members were absent from the patient's bedside (6.3 minutes [95% CI, 2.2-10.4] vs 11.7 minutes [95% CI, 5.9-17.4] when family present), whether a nurse had less than 1 year of experience (4.4 minutes [95% CI, 3.4-5.5] vs 8.8 minutes [95% CI, 7.2-10.5] for nurses with 1 or more years of experience), if there was a 1 to 1 nursing assignment (3.5 minutes [95% CI, 1.3-5.7] vs 10.6 minutes [95% CI, 5.3-16.0] for nurses caring for 2 or more patients), if there were prior alarms requiring intervention (5.5 minutes [95% CI, 1.5-9.5] vs 10.7 minutes [5.2-16.2] for patients

  6. Constant false alarm rate algorithm for the dim-small target detection based on the distribution characteristics of target coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Xiao-Liang; Ren, Kan; Qian, Wei-xian; Wang, Peng-cheng

    2015-10-01

    CFAR (Constant False Alarm Rate) is a key technology in Infrared dim-small target detection system. Because the traditional constant false alarm rate detection algorithm gets the probability density distribution which is based on the pixel information of each area in the whole image and calculates the target segmentation threshold of each area by formula of Constant false alarm rate, the problems including the difficulty of probability distribution statistics and large amount of algorithm calculation and long delay time are existing. In order to solve the above problems effectively, a formula of Constant false alarm rate based on target coordinates distribution is presented. Firstly, this paper proposes a new formula of Constant false alarm rate by improving the traditional formula of Constant false alarm rate based on the single grayscale distribution which objective statistical distribution features are introduced. So the control of false alarm according to the target distribution information is implemented more accurately and the problem of high false alarm that is caused of the complex background in local area as the cloud reflection and the ground clutter interference is solved. At the same time, in order to reduce the amount of algorithm calculation and improve the real-time characteristics of algorithm, this paper divides the constant false-alarm statistical area through two-dimensional probability density distribution of target number adaptively which is different from the general identifying methods of constant false-alarm statistical area. Finally, the target segmentation threshold of next frame is calculated by iteration based on the function of target distribution probability density in image sequence which can achieve the purpose of controlling the false alarm until the false alarm is down to the upper limit. The experiment results show that the proposed method can significantly improve the operation time and meet the real-time requirements on

  7. Network-Based Real-time Integrated Fire Detection and Alarm (FDA) System with Building Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, F.; Boby, R. I.; Rashid, M. M.; Alam, M. M.; Shaikh, Z.

    2017-11-01

    Fire alarm systems have become increasingly an important lifesaving technology in many aspects, such as applications to detect, monitor and control any fire hazard. A large sum of money is being spent annually to install and maintain the fire alarm systems in buildings to protect property and lives from the unexpected spread of fire. Several methods are already developed and it is improving on a daily basis to reduce the cost as well as increase quality. An integrated Fire Detection and Alarm (FDA) systems with building automation was studied, to reduce cost and improve their reliability by preventing false alarm. This work proposes an improved framework for FDA system to ensure a robust intelligent network of FDA control panels in real-time. A shortest path algorithmic was chosen for series of buildings connected by fiber optic network. The framework shares information and communicates with each fire alarm panels connected in peer to peer configuration and declare the network state using network address declaration from any building connected in network. The fiber-optic connection was proposed to reduce signal noises, thus increasing large area coverage, real-time communication and long-term safety. Based on this proposed method an experimental setup was designed and a prototype system was developed to validate the performance in practice. Also, the distributed network system was proposed to connect with an optional remote monitoring terminal panel to validate proposed network performance and ensure fire survivability where the information is sequentially transmitted. The proposed FDA system is different from traditional fire alarm and detection system in terms of topology as it manages group of buildings in an optimal and efficient manner.Introduction

  8. Earthquake alarm; operating the seismograph station at the University of California, Berkeley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stump, B.

    1980-01-01

    An alarm bell rings at the seismographic station and at the office of the campus police. It is 3:00 on a foggy San Francisco morning. Somewhere in the world an earthquake has occurred. The police telephone the duty seismologist at home telling him that the alarm has triggered. He makes his way into the seismograph station, bathrobe and all, to locate the earthquake and determine its magnitude. In this way, many seismology graduate students have been initiated into the responsibilities of running a seismographic station. 

  9. NOAEL-dose of a neonicotinoid pesticide, clothianidin, acutely induce anxiety-related behavior with human-audible vocalizations in male mice in a novel environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Tetsushi; Yanai, Shogo; Takada, Tadashi; Yoneda, Naoki; Omotehara, Takuya; Kubota, Naoto; Minami, Kiichi; Yamamoto, Anzu; Mantani, Youhei; Yokoyama, Toshifumi; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Hoshi, Nobuhiko

    2018-01-05

    Neonicotinoids are novel systemic pesticides acting as agonists on the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) of insects. Experimental studies have revealed that neonicotinoids pose potential risks for the nervous systems of non-target species, but the brain regions responsible for their behavioral effects remain incompletely understood. This study aimed to assess the neurobehavioral effects of clothianidin (CTD), a later neonicotinoid developed in 2001 and widely used worldwide, and to explore the target regions of neonicotinoids in the mammalian brain. A single-administration of 5 or 50mg/kg CTD to male C57BL/6N mice at or below the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) induced an acute increase in anxiety during the elevated plus-maze test. In addition, mice in the CTD-administered group spontaneously emitted human-audible vocalizations (4-16kHz), which are behavioral signs of aversive emotions, and showed increased numbers of c-fos immunoreactive cells in the paraventricular thalamic nucleus and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. In conclusion, mice exposed to NOAEL-dose CTD would be rendered vulnerable to a novel environment via the activation of thalamic and hippocampal regions related to stress responses. These findings should provide critical insight into the neurobehavioral effects of neonicotinoids on mammals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Towards direct realisation of the SI unit of sound pressure in the audible hearing range based on optical free-field acoustic particle measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koukoulas, Triantafillos, E-mail: triantafillos.koukoulas@npl.co.uk; Piper, Ben [Acoustics Group, National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington, Middlesex TW11 0LW (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-20

    Since the introduction of the International System of Units (the SI system) in 1960, weights, measures, standardised approaches, procedures, and protocols have been introduced, adapted, and extensively used. A major international effort and activity concentrate on the definition and traceability of the seven base SI units in terms of fundamental constants, and consequently those units that are derived from the base units. In airborne acoustical metrology and for the audible range of frequencies up to 20 kHz, the SI unit of sound pressure, the pascal, is realised indirectly and without any knowledge or measurement of the sound field. Though the principle of reciprocity was originally formulated by Lord Rayleigh nearly two centuries ago, it was devised in the 1940s and eventually became a calibration standard in the 1960s; however, it can only accommodate a limited number of acoustic sensors of specific types and dimensions. International standards determine the device sensitivity either through coupler or through free-field reciprocity but rely on the continuous availability of specific acoustical artefacts. Here, we show an optical method based on gated photon correlation spectroscopy that can measure sound pressures directly and absolutely in fully anechoic conditions, remotely, and without disturbing the propagating sound field. It neither relies on the availability or performance of any measurement artefact nor makes any assumptions of the device geometry and sound field characteristics. Most importantly, the required units of sound pressure and microphone sensitivity may now be experimentally realised, thus providing direct traceability to SI base units.

  11. Design of alarm systems in Swedish nuclear power plants; Utformning av larmsystem i svenska kaernkraftverk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thunberg, Anna; Osvalder, Anna-Lisa (Dept. of Product and Production Development, Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2008-04-15

    Research within the area of improving alarm system design and performance has mainly focused on new alarm systems. However, smaller modernisations of legacy systems are more common in the Swedish nuclear industry than design of totally new systems. This imposes problems when the new system should function together with the old system. This project deals with the special concerns raised by modernisation projects. The objective of the project has been to increase the understanding of the relationship between the operator's performance and the design of the alarm system. Of major concern has been to consider the cognitive abilities of the operator, different operator roles and work situations, and varying need of information. The aim of the project has been to complement existing alarm design guidance and to develop user-centred alarm design concepts. Different case studies have been performed in several industry sectors (nuclear, oil refining, pulp and paper, aviation and medical care) to identify best practice. Several empirical studies have been performed within the nuclear area to investigate the operator's need of information, performance and workload in different operating modes. The aspect of teamwork has also been considered. The analyses show that the operator has different roles in different work situations which affect both the type of information needed and how the information is processed. In full power operation, the interaction between the operator and the alarm system is driven by internal factors and the operator tries to maintain high situation awareness by actively searching for information. The operator wants to optimise the process and need detailed information with possibilities to follow-up and get historical data. In disturbance management, the operator is more dependent on external information presented by the alarm system. The new compilation of alarm guidance is based on the operator's varying needs in different working

  12. Development and Application of a Clinical Microsystem Simulation Methodology for Human Factors-Based Research of Alarm Fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Leo; Gosbee, John W; Merck, Derek L

    2017-07-01

    (1) To develop a clinical microsystem simulation methodology for alarm fatigue research with a human factors engineering (HFE) assessment framework and (2) to explore its application to the comparative examination of different approaches to patient monitoring and provider notification. Problems with the design, implementation, and real-world use of patient monitoring systems result in alarm fatigue. A multidisciplinary team is developing an open-source tool kit to promote bedside informatics research and mitigate alarm fatigue. Simulation, HFE, and computer science experts created a novel simulation methodology to study alarm fatigue. Featuring multiple interconnected simulated patient scenarios with scripted timeline, "distractor" patient care tasks, and triggered true and false alarms, the methodology incorporated objective metrics to assess provider and system performance. Developed materials were implemented during institutional review board-approved study sessions that assessed and compared an experimental multiparametric alerting system with a standard monitor telemetry system for subject response, use characteristics, and end-user feedback. A four-patient simulation setup featuring objective metrics for participant task-related performance and response to alarms was developed along with accompanying structured HFE assessment (questionnaire and interview) for monitor systems use testing. Two pilot and four study sessions with individual nurse subjects elicited true alarm and false alarm responses (including diversion from assigned tasks) as well as nonresponses to true alarms. In-simulation observation and subject questionnaires were used to test the experimental system's approach to suppressing false alarms and alerting providers. A novel investigative methodology applied simulation and HFE techniques to replicate and study alarm fatigue in controlled settings for systems assessment and experimental research purposes.

  13. Differences in the response of a striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) and a harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) to an acoustic alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastelein, R A; Jennings, N; Verboom, W C; de Haan, D; Schooneman, N M

    2006-04-01

    Small cetacean bycatch in gillnet fisheries may be reduced by deterring odontocetes from nets acoustically. However, different odontocete species may respond differently to acoustic signals from alarms. Therefore, in this study a striped dolphin and a harbour porpoise were subjected simultaneously to sounds produced by the XP-10 experimental acoustic alarm. The alarm produced 0.3s tonal signals randomly selected from a set of 16 with fundamental frequencies between 9 and 15kHz, with a constant pulse interval of 4.0s (duty cycle 8%) and a Source Level range of 133-163dB re 1muPa (rms). The effect of the alarm was judged by comparing the animals' respiration rate and position relative to the alarm during test periods with those during baseline periods. As in a previous study on two porpoises with the same alarm, the porpoise in the present study reacted strongly to the alarm by swimming away from it and increasing his respiration rate. The striped dolphin, however, showed no reaction to the active alarm. Based on harbour porpoise audiograms and the specific audiogram of the striped dolphin in the present study, and the low background noise levels during the experiment, both animals must have heard the alarm signals clearly. This study indicates that cetacean species are not equally sensitive to human-made noise disturbance. Therefore, source levels of acoustic alarms should be adapted to the species they are supposed to deter. In addition, alarms should be tested on each odontocete species for which they are intended to reduce bycatch.

  14. Design of the intelligent smoke alarm system based on photoelectric smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jiangfei; Yang, Xiufang; Wang, Peipei

    2017-02-01

    This paper designed a kind of intelligent smoke alarm system based on photoelectric smoke detector and temperature, The system takes AT89C51 MCU as the core of hardware control and Labview as the host computer monitoring center.The sensor system acquires temperature signals and smoke signals, the MCU control A/D by Sampling and converting the output analog signals , and then the two signals will be uploaded to the host computer through the serial communication. To achieve real-time monitoring of smoke and temperature in the environment, LabVIEW monitoring platform need to hold, process, analysis and display these samping signals. The intelligent smoke alarm system is suitable for large scale shopping malls and other public places, which can greatly reduce the false alarm rate of fire, The experimental results show that the system runs well and can alarm when the setting threshold is reached,and the threshold parameters can be adjusted according to the actual conditions of the field. The system is easy to operate, simple in structure, intelligent, low cost, and with strong practical value.

  15. Honey Bees Modulate Their Olfactory Learning in the Presence of Hornet Predators and Alarm Component.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengwei Wang

    Full Text Available In Southeast Asia the native honey bee species Apis cerana is often attacked by hornets (Vespa velutina, mainly in the period from April to November. During the co-evolution of these two species honey bees have developed several strategies to defend themselves such as learning the odors of hornets and releasing alarm components to inform other mates. However, so far little is known about whether and how honey bees modulate their olfactory learning in the presence of the hornet predator and alarm components of honey bee itself. In the present study, we test for associative olfactory learning of A. cerana in the presence of predator odors, the alarm pheromone component isopentyl acetate (IPA, or a floral odor (hexanal as a control. The results show that bees can detect live hornet odors, that there is almost no association between the innately aversive hornet odor and the appetitive stimulus sucrose, and that IPA is less well associated with an appetitive stimulus when compared with a floral odor. In order to imitate natural conditions, e.g. when bees are foraging on flowers and a predator shows up, or alarm pheromone is released by a captured mate, we tested combinations of the hornet odor and floral odor, or IPA and floral odor. Both of these combinations led to reduced learning scores. This study aims to contribute to a better understanding of the prey-predator system between A. cerana and V. velutina.

  16. Alarming plant dieback in the Outeniquas : is this an indication of global warming? Monitoring plant populations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rebelo, T

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available With enhanced global warming predicted to have major impacts on our flora and fauna, environmentalists are on the lookout for any signs of our flora responding to climate change. So it was with alarm that Nick Helme reported mass mortality...

  17. Honey Bees Modulate Their Olfactory Learning in the Presence of Hornet Predators and Alarm Component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengwei; Qu, Yufeng; Dong, Shihao; Wen, Ping; Li, Jianjun; Tan, Ken; Menzel, Randolf

    2016-01-01

    In Southeast Asia the native honey bee species Apis cerana is often attacked by hornets (Vespa velutina), mainly in the period from April to November. During the co-evolution of these two species honey bees have developed several strategies to defend themselves such as learning the odors of hornets and releasing alarm components to inform other mates. However, so far little is known about whether and how honey bees modulate their olfactory learning in the presence of the hornet predator and alarm components of honey bee itself. In the present study, we test for associative olfactory learning of A. cerana in the presence of predator odors, the alarm pheromone component isopentyl acetate (IPA), or a floral odor (hexanal) as a control. The results show that bees can detect live hornet odors, that there is almost no association between the innately aversive hornet odor and the appetitive stimulus sucrose, and that IPA is less well associated with an appetitive stimulus when compared with a floral odor. In order to imitate natural conditions, e.g. when bees are foraging on flowers and a predator shows up, or alarm pheromone is released by a captured mate, we tested combinations of the hornet odor and floral odor, or IPA and floral odor. Both of these combinations led to reduced learning scores. This study aims to contribute to a better understanding of the prey-predator system between A. cerana and V. velutina.

  18. The Role of Social Influence on How Residence Hall Inhabitants Respond to Fire Alarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leytem, Michael; Stark, Emily

    2016-01-01

    College resident halls pose a threat for a catastrophic event in the case of fire, but little research has examined potential influences on students' responses to fire alarms, particularly the role of social influence in affecting their behaviors. In the current study, residence hall inhabitants reported their knowledge about fire safety, their…

  19. Installation of Computerized Procedure System and Advanced Alarm System in the Human Systems Simulation Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Blanc, Katya Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Spielman, Zachary Alexander [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rice, Brandon Charles [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-04-01

    This report describes the installation of two advanced control room technologies, an advanced alarm system and a computerized procedure system, into the Human Systems Simulation Laboratory (HSSL). Installation of these technologies enables future phases of this research by providing a platform to systematically evaluate the effect of these technologies on operator and plant performance.

  20. An alarm pheromone modulates appetitive olfactory learning in the honeybee (Apis mellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Urlacher

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In honeybees, associative learning is embedded in a social context as bees possess a highly complex social organization in which communication among individuals is mediated by dance behavior informing about food sources, and by a high variety of pheromones that maintain the social links between individuals of a hive. Proboscis extension response (PER conditioning is a case of appetitive learning, in which harnessed bees learn to associate odor stimuli with sucrose reward in the laboratory. Despite its recurrent use as a tool for uncovering the behavioral, cellular and molecular bases underlying associative learning, the question of whether social signals (pheromones affect appetitive learning has not been addressed in this experimental framework. This situation contrasts with reports underlining that foraging activity of bees is modulated by alarm pheromones released in the presence of a potential danger. Here, we show that appetitive learning is impaired by the sting alarm pheromone (SAP which, when released by guards, recruits foragers to defend the hive. This effect is mimicked by the main component of SAP, isopentyl acetate (IPA, is dose-dependent and lasts up to 24h. Learning impairment is specific to alarm signal exposure and is independent of the odorant used for conditioning. Our results suggest that learning impairment may be a response to the biological significance of SAP as an alarm signal, which would detract bees from responding to any appetitive stimuli in a situation in which such responses would be of secondary importance.

  1. Alarm communication: a new function for the scent-gland secretion in harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Glauco; Bonato, Vinícius; Oliveira, Paulo

    2002-05-01

    Most harvestmen are nocturnal, nonacoustical, and nonvisual arthropods. They have a pair of exocrine glands on the cephalothorax that produce defensive volatile secretions. We investigated in the field the possible alarm effect of these secretions in the gregarious harvestman Goniosoma aff. proximum. A cotton swab soaked with the species' own exudate (treatment), or with water (control), was held 1-2 cm from the center of harvestmen aggregations. The results showed that the gland secretion elicits an alarm response in Goniosoma: whereas 73.3% of the aggregations dispersed after being stimulated with the gland exudate, only 3.3% responded to the water control. Respondent groups are larger than non-respondent groups, and the time of reaction to the secretion was inversely related to group size. This is the first demonstration of a chemically-mediated alarm effect in harvestmen. The alarm response in gregarious harvestmen has possibly evolved as a by-product of a primarily defensive reaction in the context of predator avoidance. The discovery of this novel function of scent-gland secretion is meaningful in view of the widespread occurrence of gregarious habit among species of the order Opiliones.

  2. Fast estimation of false alarm probabilities of STAP detectors - the AMF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Srinivasan, R.; Rangaswamy, Muralidhar

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an attempt to harness the power of adaptive importance sampling techniques for estimating false alarm probabilities of detectors that use space-time adaptive processing. Fast simulation using these techniques have been notably successful in the study of conventional constant

  3. Correcting the Enuresis of a Hearing-Impaired, Developmentally Disabled Adolescent Using an Auditory Enuresis Alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Ronald H.

    1983-01-01

    The enuresis of a hearing-impaired, developmentally disabled adolescent was corrected through the use of an auditory alarm and specific training procedures. The young man progressed from wetting the bed every night to being consistently dry after five weeks of treatment. He has remaind dry for over two years. (Author/CL)

  4. An alarm pheromone modulates appetitive olfactory learning in the honeybee (apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urlacher, Elodie; Francés, Bernard; Giurfa, Martin; Devaud, Jean-Marc

    2010-01-01

    In honeybees, associative learning is embedded in a social context as bees possess a highly complex social organization in which communication among individuals is mediated by dance behavior informing about food sources, and by a high variety of pheromones that maintain the social links between individuals of a hive. Proboscis extension response conditioning is a case of appetitive learning, in which harnessed bees learn to associate odor stimuli with sucrose reward in the laboratory. Despite its recurrent use as a tool for uncovering the behavioral, cellular, and molecular bases underlying associative learning, the question of whether social signals (pheromones) affect appetitive learning has not been addressed in this experimental framework. This situation contrasts with reports underlining that foraging activity of bees is modulated by alarm pheromones released in the presence of a potential danger. Here, we show that appetitive learning is impaired by the sting alarm pheromone (SAP) which, when released by guards, recruits foragers to defend the hive. This effect is mimicked by the main component of SAP, isopentyl acetate, is dose-dependent and lasts up to 24 h. Learning impairment is specific to alarm signal exposure and is independent of the odorant used for conditioning. Our results suggest that learning impairment may be a response to the biological significance of SAP as an alarm signal, which would detract bees from responding to any appetitive stimuli in a situation in which such responses would be of secondary importance.

  5. Predator guild does not influence orangutan alarm call rates and combinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lameira, A.R.; de Vries, H.; Hardus, M.E.; Hall, C.P.A.; Mitra-Setia, T.; Spruijt, B.M.; Kershenbaum, A.; Sterck, E.H.M.; van Noordwijk, M.; van Schaick, C.; Wich, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    Monkey alarm calls have shown that in the primate clade, combinatorial rules in acoustic communication are not exclusive to humans. A recent hypothesis suggests that the number of different call combinations in monkeys increases with increased number of predator species. However, the existence of

  6. AN APPROACH TO ALLEVIATE THE FALSE ALARM IN BUILDING CHANGE DETECTION FROM URBAN VHR IMAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Building change detection from very-high-resolution (VHR urban remote sensing image frequently encounter the challenge of serious false alarm caused by different illumination or viewing angles in bi-temporal images. An approach to alleviate the false alarm in urban building change detection is proposed in this paper. Firstly, as shadows casted by urban buildings are of distinct spectral and shape feature, it adopts a supervised object-based classification technique to extract them in this paper. Secondly, on the opposite direction of sunlight illumination, a straight line is drawn along the principal orientation of building in every extracted shadow region. Starting from the straight line and moving toward the sunlight direction, a rectangular area is constructed to cover partial shadow and rooftop of each building. Thirdly, an algebra and geometry invariant based method is used to abstract the spatial topological relationship of the potential unchanged buildings from all central points of the rectangular area. Finally, based on an oriented texture curvature descriptor, an index is established to determine the actual false alarm in building change detection result. The experiment results validate that the proposed method can be used as an effective framework to alleviate the false alarm in building change detection from urban VHR image.

  7. Alarm Variables for Dengue Outbreaks: A Multi-Centre Study in Asia and Latin America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh R Bowman

    Full Text Available Worldwide, dengue is an unrelenting economic and health burden. Dengue outbreaks have become increasingly common, which place great strain on health infrastructure and services. Early warning models could allow health systems and vector control programmes to respond more cost-effectively and efficiently.The Shewhart method and Endemic Channel were used to identify alarm variables that may predict dengue outbreaks. Five country datasets were compiled by epidemiological week over the years 2007-2013. These data were split between the years 2007-2011 (historic period and 2012-2013 (evaluation period. Associations between alarm/ outbreak variables were analysed using logistic regression during the historic period while alarm and outbreak signals were captured during the evaluation period. These signals were combined to form alarm/ outbreak periods, where 2 signals were equal to 1 period. Alarm periods were quantified and used to predict subsequent outbreak periods. Across Mexico and Dominican Republic, an increase in probable cases predicted outbreaks of hospitalised cases with sensitivities and positive predictive values (PPV of 93%/ 83% and 97%/ 86% respectively, at a lag of 1-12 weeks. An increase in mean temperature ably predicted outbreaks of hospitalised cases in Mexico and Brazil, with sensitivities and PPVs of 79%/ 73% and 81%/ 46% respectively, also at a lag of 1-12 weeks. Mean age was predictive of hospitalised cases at sensitivities and PPVs of 72%/ 74% and 96%/ 45% in Mexico and Malaysia respectively, at a lag of 4-16 weeks.An increase in probable cases was predictive of outbreaks, while meteorological variables, particularly mean temperature, demonstrated predictive potential in some countries, but not all. While it is difficult to define uniform variables applicable in every country context, the use of probable cases and meteorological variables in tailored early warning systems could be used to highlight the occurrence of dengue

  8. Persons with Mild or Moderate Alzheimer's Disease Learn to Use Urine Alarms and Prompts to Avoid Large Urinary Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Bosco, Andrea; Zonno, Nadia; Badagliacca, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed whether three patients with Alzheimer's disease could learn to use urine alarms and caregivers' prompts to eliminate large urinary accidents. As soon as the patient began to release urine, the alarm system presented auditory and vibratory signals. In relation to those signals, the caregiver would prompt/encourage the patient to…

  9. 46 CFR 31.35-5 - Communications; alarm systems, telephone and voice tube systems, engine telegraph systems, etc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Communications; alarm systems, telephone and voice tube systems, engine telegraph systems, etc.-TB/ALL. 31.35-5 Section 31.35-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Communications; alarm systems, telephone and voice tube systems, engine telegraph systems, etc.—TB/ALL. All tank...

  10. Alarming signs and symptoms in febrile children in primary care: an observational cohort study in The Netherlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gijs Elshout

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Febrile children in primary care have a low risk for serious infection. Although several alarming signs and symptoms are proposed to have predictive value for serious infections, most are based on research in secondary care. The frequency of alarming signs/symptoms has not been established in primary care; however, in this setting differences in occurrence may influence their predictive value for serious infections. OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of alarming signs/symptoms in febrile children in primary care. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. Clinical information was registered in a semi-structured way and manually recoded. SETTING: General practitioners' out-of-hours service. SUBJECTS: Face-to-face patient contacts concerning children (aged ≤16 years with fever were eligible for inclusion. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Frequency of 18 alarming signs and symptoms as reported in the literature. RESULTS: A total of 10,476 patient contacts were included. The frequency of alarming signs/symptoms ranged from n = 1 (ABC instability; 40°C as reported by the parents; 12.9% to 8,647 contacts (parental concern; 82.5%. CONCLUSION: Although the prevalence of specific alarming signs/symptoms is low in primary care, ≥50% of children have one or more alarming signs/symptoms. There is a need to determine the predictive value of alarming signs/symptoms not only for serious infections in primary care, but as well for increased risk of a complicated course of the illness.

  11. Justice and the human alarm system: The impact of exclamation points and flashing lights on the justice judgment process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, K. van den; Ham, J.; Lind, E.A.; Simonis, M.J.; Essen, W.J. van; Rijpkema, M.

    2008-01-01

    Extending theory within the justice domain and work on the human alarm system, the current paper argues that the process by which justice judgments are formed may be influenced reliably by the activation of psychological systems that people use to detect and handle alarming situations. Building on

  12. Associations between health care seeking and socioeconomic and demographic determinants among people reporting alarm symptoms of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Rikke P; Jarbol, Dorte E; Larsen, Pia V

    2013-01-01

    Late diagnosis of cancer may partly be explained by the fact that some patients do not seek health care promptly when experiencing an alarm symptom. Socioeconomic and demographic differences exist concerning knowledge and awareness of cancer alarm symptoms in the general population and socioecono...... and socioeconomic differences are found in cancer incidence and survival. We therefore hypothesise that socioeconomic and demographic differences in health care-seeking behaviour are present among people with alarm symptoms.......Late diagnosis of cancer may partly be explained by the fact that some patients do not seek health care promptly when experiencing an alarm symptom. Socioeconomic and demographic differences exist concerning knowledge and awareness of cancer alarm symptoms in the general population...

  13. Factors influencing when intensive care unit nurses go to the bedside to investigate patient related alarms: A descriptive qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despins, Laurel A

    2017-12-01

    This study examines what prompts the intensive care unit (ICU) nurse to go to the patient's bedside to investigate an alarm and the influences on the nurse's determination regarding how quickly this needs to occur. A qualitative descriptive design guided data collection and analysis. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted. Thematic analysis guided by the Patient Risk Detection Theoretical Framework was applied to the data. Four specialty intensive care units in an academic medical center. ICU nurses go the patient's bedside in response to an alarm to catch patient deterioration and avert harm. Their determination of the immediacy of patient risk and their desire to prioritize their bedside investigations to true alarms influences how quickly they proceed to the bedside. Ready visual access to physiological data and waveform configurations, experience, teamwork, and false alarms are important determinants in the timing of ICU nurses' bedside alarm investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Associations between reporting of cancer alarm symptoms and socioeconomic and demographic determinants: a population-based, cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svendsen Rikke

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reporting of symptoms which may signal cancer is the first step in the diagnostic pathway of cancer diseases. Cancer alarm symptoms are common in the general population. Public awareness and knowledge of cancer symptoms are sparse, however, and many people do not seek medical help when having possible cancer symptoms. As social inequality is associated with cancer knowledge, cancer awareness, and information-seeking, our hypothesis is that social inequality may also exist in the general population with respect to reporting of cancer alarm symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate possible associations between socioeconomic and demographic determinants and reporting of common cancer alarm symptoms. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was performed based on a stratified sample of the Danish general population. A total of 13 777 randomly selected persons aged 20 years and older participated. Our main outcome measures were weighted prevalence estimates of self-reporting one of the following cancer alarm symptoms during the preceding 12 months: a lump in the breast, coughing for more than 6 weeks, seen blood in urine, or seen blood in stool. Logistic regression models were used to calculate unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for the associations between each covariate and reporting of cancer alarm symptoms. Results A total of 2 098 (15.7% of the participants reported one or more cancer alarm symptoms within the preceding 12 months. Women, subjects out of the workforce, and subjects with a cancer diagnosis had statistically significantly higher odds of reporting one or more cancer alarm symptoms. Subjects with older age and subjects living with a partner had lower odds of reporting one or more cancer alarm symptoms. When analysing the four alarm symptoms of cancer separately most tendencies persisted. Conclusions Socioeconomic and demographic determinants are associated with self

  15. Technology-limited and patient-derived versus audibility-derived fittings in bone-anchored hearing aid users: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgetts, William E; Hagler, Paul; Hakansson, Bo E V; Soli, Sigfrid D

    2011-02-01

    Current approaches to fit bone-anchored hearing aid (Baha) rely heavily on patient feedback of "loudness" and "sound quality." Audiologists are limited to this approach for two reasons: (1) the technology in current models of Baha does not allow for much fine-tuning of frequency response or maximum output on an individual basis and (2) there has not been a valid approach to verify the frequency response or maximum output on an individual basis. The objectives of this study are to (1) describe an alternative approach to fit Baha, an "audibility-derived (AD)" fitting, and (2) test whether outcomes improve with this new fitting compared with the current "patient-derived (PD)" fitting. This study used a repeated measures design where each subject experienced both the AD and PD fittings in random order. Subjects were tested on a variety of outcome measures including output levels of aided speech, hearing in noise test (quiet and in noise), consonant recognition in noise, aided loudness, and subjective percentage of words understood. Electromechanical testing revealed significantly higher aided output with the AD fitting, especially in the high frequencies. Subjects performed significantly better in all outcome measures with the AD fitting approach except when testing aided loudness and subjective perception for which the differences were nonsignificant. When the input levels to the Baha were soft, advantages for the AD fitting were emerging on these tests, but they did not reach significance. This study presents a more objective, fitting approach for Baha that leads to better outcomes in the laboratory. The next steps will be to test these fittings in the real world and to make the approach generally available to clinicians fitting Bahas.

  16. Impaired behavioural response to alarm substance in rainbow trout exposed to copper nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovová, Tereza; Boyle, David; Sloman, Katherine A; Vanegas Pérez, Cecilia; Handy, Richard D

    2014-07-01

    To date, studies of the toxicity of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) in fish have not fully considered effects on olfactory-mediated behaviours, despite their ecological importance. In this study the effects of copper NPs (Cu NPs) on the anti-predator behavioural responses of juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to trout alarm substance was investigated. Individual fish were exposed for 12h to a control (no added Cu), 50μgl(-1) of Cu as Cu NPs, or 50μgl(-1) Cu as CuSO4, after which fish behaviours were analyzed in 10min periods before and after the addition of the alarm substance stimulus. The response of control fish to deionised water (negative control, no alarm substance stimulus) was also analyzed. The alarm substance elicited a behavioural response in the control fish characterized by an immediate freeze response and the slower resumption of swimming activity compared to negative controls exposed to the sham deionised water stimuli. In fish exposed to Cu NPs, the behavioural response to alarm substance was eliminated, with no significant difference in behaviours compared to negative controls. In comparison, exposure to 50μgl(-1) Cu as CuSO4 decreased, but did not eliminate the response of fish to alarm substance, which indicated a significantly greater effect of Cu NPs on olfactory mediated behaviours than of the equivalent concentration of Cu as CuSO4. Measurement of total Cu concentrations in the tissues of fish demonstrated no significant accumulation of Cu from any treatment in gill, liver or brain, confirming the effects of Cu NPs, and to a lesser extent CuSO4, on behavioural responses were mostly associated with the interaction of the materials with the external surfaces of the fish. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that Cu as CuSO4 caused a pronounced depletion of ciliated sensory and non-sensory cells in the olfactory rosette surrounding the midline raphe, whereas Cu NPs had no impact on the structure of the rosette. However, exposure to

  17. Approaching Behaviour Monitor and Vibration Indication in Developing a General Moving Object Alarm System (GMOAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiwei Dong

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available People who suffer from hearing impairment caused by illness, age or extremely noisy environments are constantly in danger of being hit or knocked down by fast moving objects behind them when they have no companion or augmented sensory system to warn them. In this paper, we propose the General Moving Object Alarm System (GMOAS, a system focused on aiding the safe mobility of people under these circumstances. The GMOAS is a wearable haptic device that consists of two main subsystems: (i a moving object monitoring subsystem that uses laser range data to detect and track approaching objects, and (ii an alarm subsystem that warns the user of possibly dangerous approaching objects by triggering tactile vibrations on an “alarm necklace”. For moving object monitoring, we propose a simple yet efficient solution to monitor the approaching behavior of objects. Compared with previous work in motion detection and tracking, we are not interested in specific objects but any type of approaching object that might harm the user. To this extent, we define a boundary in the laser range data where the objects are monitored. Within this boundary a fan-shape grid is constructed to obtain an evenly distributed spatial partitioning of the data. These partitions are efficiently clustered into continuous objects which are then tracked through time using an object association algorithm based on updating a deviation matrix that represents angle, distance and size variations of the objects. The speed of the tracked objects is monitored throughout the algorithm. When the speed of an approaching object surpasses the safety threshold, the alarm necklace is triggered indicating the approaching direction of the fast moving object. The alarm necklace is equipped with three motors that can indicate five directions with respect to the user: left, back, right, left-back and right-back. We performed three types of outdoor experiments (object passing, approaching and crossing that

  18. The song remains the same: Juvenile Richardson's ground squirrels do not respond differentially to mother's or colony member's alarm calls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F. HARE, Kurtis J. WARKENTIN

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Alarm calls are emitted by Richardson's ground squirrels Urocitellus richardsonii in response to avian and terrestrial predators. Conspecifics detecting these calls respond with increased vigilance, promoting predator detection and evasion, but in doing so, lose time from foraging. That loss can be minimized if alarm call recipients discriminate among signalers, and weight their response accordingly. For juvenile ground squirrels, we predicted that the trade-off between foraging and vigilance could be optimized via selective response to alarm calls emitted by their own dam, and/or neighboring colony members over calls broadcast by less familiar conspecifics. Alarm calls of adult female Richardson's ground squirrels were elicited in the field using a predator model and recorded on digital audio tape. Free-living focal juveniles were subjected to playbacks of a call of their mother, and on a separate occasion a call from either another adult female from their own colony, or an adult female from another colony. Neither immediate postural responses and escape behavior, nor the duration of vigilance manifested by juveniles differed with exposure to alarm calls of the three adult female signaler types. Thus, juveniles did not respond preferentially to alarm calls emitted by their mothers or colony members, likely reflecting the high cost of ignoring alarm signals where receivers have had limited opportunity to establish past signaler reliability [Current Zoology 58 (5: 773–780, 2012].

  19. Design of DroDeASys (Drowsy Detection and Alarming System)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvale, Hrishikesh B.; Mahajan, Anant S.; Bhagwat, Ashwin A.; Badiger, Vishal T.; Bhutkar, Ganesh D.; Dhabe, Priyadarshan S.; Dhore, Manikrao L.

    The paper discusses the Drowsy Detection & Alarming System that has been developed, using a non-intrusive approach. The system is basically developed to detect drivers dozing at the wheel at night time driving. The system uses a small infra-red night vision camera that points directly towards the driver`s face and monitors the driver`s eyes in order to detect fatigue. In such a case when fatigue is detected, a warning signal is issued to alert the driver. This paper discusses the algorithms that have been used to detect drowsiness. The decision whether the driver is dozing or not is taken depending on whether the eyes are open for a specific number of frames. If the eyes are found to be closed for a certain number of consecutive frames then the driver is alerted with an alarm.

  20. Wolbachia-Free Heteropterans Do Not Produce Defensive Chemicals or Alarm Pheromones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Judith X; Venable, Gabriela X; Saeidi, Vahid

    2015-07-01

    The true bugs, or heteropterans, are known for their widespread production of anti-predator chemicals and alarm pheromones in scent glands, a derived trait that constitutes one of the defining characters of the suborder Heteroptera and a potential novel trait that contributed to their diversification. We investigated whether symbiotic bacteria could be involved in the formation of these chemicals using Thasus neocalifornicus, a coreid bug that produces semiochemicals frequently found in other bugs. Using DNA phylogenetic methodology and experiments using antibiotics coupled with molecular techniques, we identified Wolbachia as the microorganism infecting the scent glands of this bug. Decreasing the level of Wobachia infection using antibiotics was correlated with a diminution of heteropteran production of defensive compounds and alarm pheromones, suggesting that this symbiotic bacterium might be implicated in the formation of chemicals.

  1. Development and evaluation of new coupling system for lower limb prostheses with acoustic alarm system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshraghi, Arezoo; Osman, Noor Azuan Abu; Gholizadeh, Hossein; Ahmadian, Jalil; Rahmati, Bizhan; Abas, Wan Abu Bakar Wan

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with lower limb amputation need a secure suspension system for their prosthetic devices. A new coupling system was developed that is capable of suspending the prosthesis. The system's safety is ensured through an acoustic alarm system. This article explains how the system works and provides an in vivo evaluation of the device with regard to pistoning during walking. The system was designed to be used with silicone liners and is based on the requirements of prosthetic suspension systems. Mechanical testing was performed using a universal testing machine. The pistoning during walking was measured using a motion analysis system. The new coupling device produced significantly less pistoning compared to a common suspension system (pin/lock). The safety alarm system would buzz if the suspension was going to fail. The new coupling system could securely suspend the prostheses in transtibial amputees and produced less vertical movement than the pin/lock system.

  2. Distributed error and alarm processing in the CMS data acquisition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, G.; et al.

    2012-01-01

    The error and alarm system for the data acquisition of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) at CERN was successfully used for the physics runs at Large Hadron Collider (LHC) during first three years of activities. Error and alarm processing entails the notification, collection, storing and visualization of all exceptional conditions occurring in the highly distributed CMS online system using a uniform scheme. Alerts and reports are shown on-line by web application facilities that map them to graphical models of the system as defined by the user. A persistency service keeps a history of all exceptions occurred, allowing subsequent retrieval of user defined time windows of events for later playback or analysis. This paper describes the architecture and the technologies used and deals with operational aspects during the first years of LHC operation. In particular we focus on performance, stability, and integration with the CMS sub-detectors.

  3. Male blue monkeys alarm call in response to danger experienced by others

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papworth, Sarah; Böse, Anne-Sophie; Barker, Jessie

    2008-01-01

    Male blue monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis stuhlmanni) of Budongo Forest, Uganda, produce two acoustically distinct alarm calls: hacks to crowned eagles (Stephanoaetus coronatus) and pyows to leopards (Panthera pardus) and a range of other disturbances. In playback experiments, males responded...... to leopard growls exclusively with a series of pyows and to eagle shrieks predominantly with hacks. Responses to playbacks of these alarm call series matched the responses to the corresponding predators, suggesting that the calls conveyed something about the nature of the threat. When responding to a series...... of hacks, indicating an eagle, males responded predominately with hacks, but produced significantly more calls if their group members were close to the playback stimulus than far away, regardless of their own position. When responding to a series of pyows, indicating a range of disturbances, males...

  4. Distributed error and alarm processing in the CMS data acquisition system

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Gerry; Bowen, Matthew; Branson, James; Bukowiec, Sebastian Czeslaw; Cittolin, Sergio; Coarasa, J A; Deldicque, Christian; Dobson, Marc; Dupont, Aymeric; Erhan, Samim; Flossdorf, Alexander; Gigi, Dominique; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino, R; Hartl, Christian; Hegeman, Jeroen Guido; Holzner, Andre Georg; Hwong, Yi Ling; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Franciscus; Meschi, Emilio; Mommsen, Remigius; O'Dell, Vivian; Orsini, Luciano; Paus, Christoph Maria Ernst; Petrucci, Andrea; Pieri, Marco; Polese, Giovanni; Racz, Attila; Raginel, Olivier; Sakulin, Hannes; Sani, Matteo; Schwick, Christoph; Shpakov, Denis; Simon, M; Spataru, Andrei Cristian; Sumorok, Konstanty

    2012-01-01

    The error and alarm system for the data acquisition of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) at CERN was successfully used for the physics runs at Large Hadron Collider (LHC) during first three years of activities. Error and alarm processing entails the notification, collection, storing and visualization of all exceptional conditions occurring in the highly distributed CMS online system using a uniform scheme. Alerts and reports are shown on\\-line by web application facilities that map them to graphical models of the system as defined by the user. A persistency service keeps a history of all exceptions occurred, allowing subsequent retrieval of user defined time windows of events for later playback or analysis. This paper describes the architecture and the technologies used and deals with operational aspects during the first years of LHC operation. In particular we focus on performance, stability, and integration with the CMS sub\\-detectors.

  5. Smart container UWB sensor system for situational awareness of intrusion alarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Carlos E.; Haugen, Peter C.; Zumstein, James M.; Leach, Jr., Richard R.; Vigars, Mark L.

    2013-06-11

    An in-container monitoring sensor system is based on an UWB radar intrusion detector positioned in a container and having a range gate set to the farthest wall of the container from the detector. Multipath reflections within the container make every point on or in the container appear to be at the range gate, allowing intrusion detection anywhere in the container. The system also includes other sensors to provide false alarm discrimination, and may include other sensors to monitor other parameters, e.g. radiation. The sensor system also includes a control subsystem for controlling system operation. Communications and information extraction capability may also be included. A method of detecting intrusion into a container uses UWB radar, and may also include false alarm discrimination. A secure container has an UWB based monitoring system

  6. The Wireless Environment Monitoring Alarm System Based on Self-organizing Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Huawei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Under complicated conditions, it is necessary for environmental monitoring to design a wireless monitoring alarm system which can replace the wired system or as a supplement. The system discussed here bases on ARM7 microprocessor named LPC1114 and transceiver module named CC2530. With ZigBee, CSM/GPRS, this system uses multiple sensors to self-organized form a data acquisition and monitoring network system with variety of sensors fusion in the region. The system has some characteristics such as quick, convenient and accurate. Combining with the GSM SMS or GPRS alarm, the system can accurately and reliably monitor temperature, humidity and other environmental factors, and realize remote monitoring in large area and the complicated environment. Thus, this system has high practical value.

  7. Triggering radiation alarm at security checks. Patients should be informed even after diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Barbara; Neumann, Irmgard; Havlik, Ernst; Palumbo, Renato; Sinzinger, Helmut

    2009-01-01

    During the last few years an increasing number of nuclear medicine patients in various countries evoked a radiation alarm after therapeutic or diagnostic procedures, and even after passive exposure. A prospective calculation of activity retention in the patient's body is difficult due to extremely high variation of uptake and kinetics. Furthermore, different sensitivities and distances of the detectors make a prospective calculation even more difficult. In this article a number of cases are being reported, related problems are discussed and the surprisingly very limited literature reviewed. In order to minimize problems after eventually triggering alarms, we strongly recommend that each patient receives a certificate providing personal data, tracer, dose, half-life of the radionuclide, type and date of procedure applied as well as the nuclear medicine unit to contact for further information. Furthermore, a closer cooperation and exchange of information between the authorities and local nuclear medicine societies, would be welcome.

  8. Monitoring techniques and alarm procedures for CMS services and sites in WLCG

    CERN Document Server

    Molina-Perez, Jorge Amando

    2012-01-01

    The CMS offline computing system is composed of roughly 80 sites (including most experienced T3s) and a number of central services to distribute, process and analyze data worldwide. A high level of stability and reliability is required from the underlying infrastructure and services, partially covered by local or automated monitoring and alarming systems such as Lemon and SLS; the former collects metrics from sensors installed on computing nodes and triggers alarms when values are out of range, the latter measures the quality of service and warns managers when service is affected. CMS has established computing shift procedures with personnel operating worldwide from remote Computing Centers, under the supervision of the Computing Run Coordinator on duty at CERN. This dedicated 24/7 computing shift personnel is contributing to detect and react timely on any unexpected error and hence ensure that CMS workflows are carried out efficiently and in a sustained manner. Synergy among all the involved actors is explo...

  9. Lifestyle factors and contact to general practice with respiratory alarm symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sele, Lisa Maria Falk; Elnegaard, Sandra; Balasubramaniam, Kirubakaran

    2016-01-01

    , and lifestyle factors (smoking status, alcohol intake, and body mass index) were included. RESULTS: In total 49 706 (52.5 %) individuals answered the questionnaire. Overall 7870 reported at least one respiratory alarm symptom, and of those 39.6 % (3 080) had contacted a GP. Regarding specific symptoms......BACKGROUND: A prerequisite for early lung cancer diagnosis is that individuals with respiratory alarm symptoms (RAS) contact a general practitioner (GP). This study aims to determine the proportion of individuals in the general population who contact a GP with RAS and to analyse the association...... between lifestyle factors and contact to GPs with RAS. METHODS: A web-based survey of 100 000 individuals randomly selected from the Danish Civil Registration System. Items regarding experience of RAS (prolonged coughing, shortness of breath, coughing up blood, and prolonged hoarseness), GP contacts...

  10. Conspecific and heterospecific alarm substances induce behavioral responses in juvenile catfish Rhamdia quelen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Vogel

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The recognition of chemical information indicating the presence of a predator is very important for prey survival. In this study we tested antipredator behavioral response of juvenile silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen against predator odor released by two different potential predators, Hoplias malabaricus and the snake Helicops infrataeniatus, and alarm cues and disturbance cues released by conspecifics and by non-predator species, Megaleporinus obtusidens and Astyanax lacustris. We used juvenile catfish that were naive to predators. The trials consisted of a 10-min prestimulus and a 10-min post-stimulus observation period. The behavioral response displayed by silver catfish exposed to alarm cues comprised a decrease in shelter use and an increase in locomotion, and also a longer latency period before feeding. Our results showed that juvenile silver catfish can perceive chemical cues released by predators, heterospecifics and conspecifics.

  11. Performance of the Species-Typical Alarm Response in Young Workers of the Ant Myrmica sabuleti (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Is Induced by Interactions with Mature Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Cammaerts, Marie-Claire

    2014-01-01

    Young workers of the ant Myrmica sabuleti (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Meinert 1861 perceived nestmate alarm pheromone but did not display normal alarm behavior (orientation toward the source of emission, increased running speed). They changed their initial behavior when in the presence of older nestmates exhibiting normal alarm behavior. Four days later, the young ants exhibited an imperfect version of normal alarm behavior. This change of behavior did not occur in young ants, which were not ex...

  12. Nurses' response to frequency and types of electrocardiography alarms in a non-critical care setting: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazarian, Priscilla K

    2014-02-01

    An important role of the registered nurse is to identify patient deterioration by monitoring the patient condition and vital signs. Increasingly, this is supplemented with continuous electrocardiographic (ECG) monitoring. Continuous monitoring is inefficient in identifying deterioration because of the high number of false and nuisance alarms. Lack of strong evidence or formal guidelines for the care of patients receiving ECG monitoring has led clinicians to rely too heavily on this technology without consideration of its limitations. The nursing workload associated with alarm management remains unexamined. To describe nurses' routine practices related to continuous ECG monitoring, frequency and types of alarms, their associated nursing interventions, and the impact on the patient's plan of care. Design. Prospective, descriptive, observational study. Setting and participants. Between January 2011 and March 2011 we observed nine Registered Nurses providing care for patients receiving continuous ECG monitoring in non-critical care areas. The PI and two research assistants observed each nurse for two 3-h observation periods and recorded data on a researcher designed observation tool. At the end of each observation period, the observers printed the alarm events as recorded by the central monitoring computer. Nurses responded to 46.8% of all alarms. During the observation period, there were no dysrhythmia adverse events. One patient had a change in condition requiring transfer to a higher level of care. A range of nursing interventions occurred in response to alarms. Nurses routine practices related to monitoring continue to reveal gaps in practice related to alarm management. Observations of practice also revealed the difficulties and complexities of managing alarm systems and the range of nursing interventions associated with managing alarms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Alarming Signs and Symptoms in Febrile Children in Primary Care: An Observational Cohort Study in The Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnen, Arthur M.; de Wilde, Marcel; Moll, Henriëtte A.; Oostenbrink, Rianne; Berger, Marjolein Y.

    2014-01-01

    Context Febrile children in primary care have a low risk for serious infection. Although several alarming signs and symptoms are proposed to have predictive value for serious infections, most are based on research in secondary care. The frequency of alarming signs/symptoms has not been established in primary care; however, in this setting differences in occurrence may influence their predictive value for serious infections. Objective To determine the frequency of alarming signs/symptoms in febrile children in primary care. Design Observational cohort study. Clinical information was registered in a semi-structured way and manually recoded. Setting General practitioners' out-of-hours service. Subjects Face-to-face patient contacts concerning children (aged ≤16 years) with fever were eligible for inclusion. Main outcome measures Frequency of 18 alarming signs and symptoms as reported in the literature. Results A total of 10,476 patient contacts were included. The frequency of alarming signs/symptoms ranged from n = 1 (ABC instability; signs and/or symptoms. Several alarming signs/symptoms were poorly registered with the frequency of missing information ranging from 1,347 contacts (temperature >40°C as reported by the parents; 12.9%) to 8,647 contacts (parental concern; 82.5%). Conclusion Although the prevalence of specific alarming signs/symptoms is low in primary care, ≥50% of children have one or more alarming signs/symptoms. There is a need to determine the predictive value of alarming signs/symptoms not only for serious infections in primary care, but as well for increased risk of a complicated course of the illness. PMID:24586305

  14. Safety Bulletin 2013-1: When the alarm rings, you must leave!

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2013-01-01

    The HSE Unit just released the Safety Bulletin 2013-1 entitled “When the alarm rings, you must leave!”. The Bulletin is available on EDMS under the following number: 1307611. Be reminded  that HSE Safety Bulletins are published in English and French and share feedbacks of incidents/near miss/accidents that happened on the CERN site with the aim to improve prevention.

  15. Heart rate variability during "alarm stage" of burnout syndrome in emergency doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotov, A V; Revina, N E

    2012-09-01

    The parameters of heart rate variations were examined in emergency care doctors that demonstrated the initial signs of defensive psychological burnout syndrome related to their professional activity. These parameters were compared within each of two groups with different individual typological features. The differences in the heart rate variability parameters were revealed between the examinees that were at the compensation or alarm stages of the burnout syndrome.

  16. Alarm pheromone habituation in Myzus persicae has fitness consequences and causes extensive gene expression changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Martin; Cheng, Wing Yin; Summers, Holly E; Raguso, Robert A; Jander, Georg

    2010-08-17

    In most aphid species, facultative parthenogenetic reproduction allows rapid growth and formation of large single-genotype colonies. Upon predator attack, individual aphids emit an alarm pheromone to warn the colony of this danger. (E)-beta-farnesene (EBF) is the predominant constituent of the alarm pheromone in Myzus persicae (green peach aphid) and many other aphid species. Continuous exposure to alarm pheromone in aphid colonies raised on transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants that produce EBF leads to habituation within three generations. Whereas naive aphids are repelled by EBF, habituated aphids show no avoidance response. Similarly, individual aphids from the habituated colony can revert back to being EBF-sensitive in three generations, indicating that this behavioral change is not caused by a genetic mutation. Instead, DNA microarray experiments comparing gene expression in naive and habituated aphids treated with EBF demonstrate an almost complete desensitization in the transcriptional response to EBF. Furthermore, EBF-habituated aphids show increased progeny production relative to EBF-responsive aphids, with or without EBF treatment. Although both naive and habituated aphids emit EBF upon damage, EBF-responsive aphids have a higher survival rate in the presence of a coccinellid predator (Hippodamia convergens), and thus outperform habituated aphids that do not show an avoidance response. These results provide evidence that aphid perception of conspecific alarm pheromone aids in predator avoidance and thereby bestows fitness benefits in survivorship and fecundity. Therefore, although habituated M. persicae produce more progeny, EBF-emitting transgenic plants may have practical applications in agriculture as a result of increased predation of habituated aphids.

  17. Recurrent abdominal pain in children: underlying pathologies in the absence of "alarm" symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolone, Carlo; Pellino, Valeria; Piccirillo, Margherita; Letizia, Mariarosaria; Belfiore, Ivano; Tolone, Salvatore

    2017-08-01

    Recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) is a common disorder in childhood. However, it is not clear what the incidence of organic disease is, in the absence of "alarm" symptoms or signs. The aim of this study was to clarify if the performance of diagnostic tests can be useful in revealing underlying organic disorders. The participants were 4- to 16-year-old children, who had been referred to our tertiary care pediatric center. A total of 98 children (48 males, 50 females) with RAP but without any alarm symptoms or signs were selected. In the 98 selected children, the performance of diagnostic tests for suspected organic diseases was recommended. Fourteen children refused diagnostic tests. Forty-eight out of 84 children with RAP without any alarm symptoms and signs received a diagnosis of organic disease. Nineteen (22.6%) patients resulted positive for lactose intolerance. Seventeen patients (20.2%) were affected by celiac disease. Two (2.4%) patients were positive for cow milk allergy. Nine (10.7%) patients resulted positive for ureteral calculosis. One (1.2%) was affected by teniasis. Thirty-three children of the 38 children tested positive for lactose intolerance, celiac disease or cow-milk allergy were completely symptom-free at the 6 months follow-up and the remaining five patients reported a significant lower mean level of pain severity overall. Seven of 9 children with calculosis improved symptomatology. At the next follow-up six children were again suffering from RAP. Children with RAP should be referred to pediatric gastroenterologists if symptoms persist; testing should be performed even in the absence of alarm signs because of the high prevalence of underlying organic pathologies.

  18. Technical aspects of the sigma factor alarm method in alpha CAMs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Justus, Alan Lawrence [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Some test must be applied to the low-level count data from alpha continuous air monitors (CAMs) to determine if the count is statistically significant (i.e., different from background). The test should also automatically account for different levels of background (i.e., ambient radon progeny concentrations). The method should, in other words, be as sensitive as possible, automatically desensitize when required, but in such a manner as to not exceed a previously-chosen acceptable false-alarm rate.

  19. Alarm analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esp, D.G.; Warwick, K.

    1997-12-31

    The electrical power distribution network in the UK is a distributed grid of high power components. The grid is controlled hierarchically with, at the lower level, proximal components being grouped around substations which contain not only protection elements but also sequencing and timing logic. At the next level up the substations feed to a control centre which, for historical reasons, can be viewed in terms of a number of different geographical areas, each area control containing its own regional substations. When a fault occurs on the transmission network, automatic protection and isolation occurs at a number of substations, opening switches to ensure that power is no longer fed to the faulty line, and that the disturbance on the remainder of the grid is effectively minimised. Details on which of the switches have operated are passed on to the control centre which continually polls round the different substations to see what switchgear information each has. No direct information is obtained on what type of fault has occurred and where, but rather information is obtained in the control centre which indicates whch switches and automatic protection devices have operated in response to the fault. (Author)

  20. Antipredator and alarm reaction responses of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen juveniles exposed to waterborne ammonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Weber

    Full Text Available Ammonia has relatively toxic effects on fish and other aquatic organisms. This study examined whether juvenile silver catfish exposed to alarm substances released by conspecifics and predators in water with different ammonia levels modify their behaviour in response to the perceived risk of predation. We used juvenile catfish that were naive to predators. The fish were raised from the larval stage in the laboratory and kept in 40-L aquaria at waterborne NH3 concentrations of 0, 0.05, 0.1, or 0.2 mg L-1 for 10 days. The alarm substances used were predator odour and skin extract from conspecifics. The juveniles were transferred to 2-L aquaria for the antipredator and alarm reaction behavioural tests, which were performed on days 1, 5 and 10 after initial exposure to ammonia. The test aquaria contained a shelter at one end of the tank. The trials consisted of a 10-min prestimulus and a 10-min poststimulus observation period. The results of the study suggest that naive juvenile catfish are able to identify predators and skin extract from conspecifics by odour. In addition, waterborne NH3 levels modify the antipredator response of this species.

  1. A dispersed alarm system for the elderly and its relevance to local general practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhirter, Malcolm

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the use of a dispersed alarm system for the elderly in the Central region of Scotland. Information from referral forms, questionnaires completed by wardens after a call and client registers were used to investigate the population served, sources of referral and the way the service was used. All the general practitioners working in the area covered by the service were sent a questionnaire asking for their views of the service. In May 1984 the alarm system covered 861 clients in private housing and 1259 in sheltered housing. Over 50% of referrals were from the health services and the most common reasons for referral were poor mobility and falls. False alarms accounted for 40% of calls and they were more likely to be from clients in sheltered housing than in private housing. Of genuine calls 71% were due to illness or disability with 25% due to falls. All of the general practitioners responding to the questionnaire were aware of a patient in their practice covered by the service and considered that the service provided useful 24-hour support for the elderly at risk because of frailty and disability PMID:3448211

  2. Aphid alarm pheromone as a cue for ants to locate aphid partners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François J Verheggen

    Full Text Available The mutualistic relationships that occur between myrmecophilous aphids and ants are based on the rich food supply that honeydew represents for ants and on the protection they provide against aphid natural enemies. While aphid predators and parasitoids actively forage for oviposition sites by using aphid semiochemicals, scouts of aphid-tending ant species would also benefit from locating honeydew resources by orienting toward aphid pheromone sources. The present study aims to provide additional information on the use of Aphis fabae alarm pheromone, i.e. (E-β-farnesene (EβF, by ant scouts. The perception and behavioral impact of EβF on Lasius niger were investigated using electroantennography and two bio-assays measuring their attraction and orientation towards aphid semiochemicals. Pronounced electrical depolarizations were observed from L. niger scout antennae to stimulations of A. fabae alarm pheromone, while other sesquiterpenes elicited weak or no responses. L. niger scouts were significantly attracted toward EβF in a four-arm olfactometer, as well as in an two-choice bioassay. These laboratory results suggest for the first time that low amounts of aphid alarm pheromone can be used by L. niger scouts as a cue indicating the presence of aphid colonies and could therefore mediate the aphid-ant partnership in the field.

  3. Neural correlates underlying naloxone-induced amelioration of sexual behavior deterioration due to an alarm pheromone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya eKobayashi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sexual behavior is suppressed by various types of stressors. We previously demonstrated that an alarm pheromone released by stressed male Wistar rats is a stressor to other rats, increases the number of mounts needed for ejaculation, and decreases the hit rate (described as the number of intromissions/sum of the mounts and intromissions. This deterioration in sexual behavior was ameliorated by pretreatment with the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone. However, the neural mechanism underlying this remains to be elucidated. Here, we examined Fos expression in 31 brain regions of pheromone-exposed rats and naloxone-pretreated pheromone-exposed rats 60 min after 10 intromissions. As previously reported, the alarm pheromone increased the number of mounts and decreased the hit rate. In addition, Fos expression was increases in the anterior medial division, anterior lateral division and posterior division of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, parvocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, arcuate nucleus, dorsolateral and ventrolateral periaqueductal gray, and nucleus paragigantocellularis. Fos expression decreased in the magnocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Pretreatment with naloxone blocked the pheromone-induced changes in Fos expression in the magnocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, ventrolateral periaqueductal gray, and nucleus paragigantocellularis. Based on these results, we hypothesize that the alarm pheromone deteriorated sexual behavior by activating the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray-nucleus paragigantocellularis cluster and suppressing the magnocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus via the opioidergic pathway.

  4. A WSN-Based Intrusion Alarm System to Improve Safety in Road Work Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Martin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic accidents are one of the main causes of death and disability worldwide. Workers responsible for maintaining and repairing roadways are especially prone to suffer these events, given their exceptional exposure to traffic. Since these actuations usually coexist with regular traffic, an errant driver can easily intrude the work area and provoke a collision. Some authors have proposed mechanisms aimed at detecting breaches in the work zone perimeter and alerting workers, which are collectively called intrusion alarm systems. However, they have several limitations and have not yet fulfilled the necessities of these scenarios. In this paper, we propose a new intrusion alarm system based on a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN. Our system is comprised of two main elements: vehicle detectors that form a virtual barrier and detect perimeter breaches by means of an ultrasonic beam and individual warning devices that transmit alerts to the workers. All these elements have a wireless communication interface and form a network that covers the whole work area. This network is in charge of transmitting and routing the alarms and coordinates the behavior of the system. We have tested our solution under real conditions with satisfactory results.

  5. Alarm calls evoke a visual search image of a predator in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Toshitaka N

    2018-01-29

    One of the core features of human speech is that words cause listeners to retrieve corresponding visual mental images. However, whether vocalizations similarly evoke mental images in animal communication systems is surprisingly unknown. Japanese tits (Parus minor) produce specific alarm calls when and only when encountering a predatory snake. Here, I show that simply hearing these calls causes tits to become more visually perceptive to objects resembling snakes. During playback of snake-specific alarm calls, tits approach a wooden stick being moved in a snake-like fashion. However, tits do not respond to the same stick when hearing other call types or if the stick's movement is dissimilar to that of a snake. Thus, before detecting a real snake, tits retrieve its visual image from snake-specific alarm calls and use this to search out snakes. This study provides evidence for a call-evoked visual search image in a nonhuman animal, offering a paradigm to explore the cognitive basis for animal vocal communication in the wild.

  6. Estimating Alarm Thresholds for Process Monitoring Data under Different Assumptions about the Data Generating Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Burr

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Process monitoring (PM for nuclear safeguards sometimes requires estimation of thresholds corresponding to small false alarm rates. Threshold estimation dates to the 1920s with the Shewhart control chart; however, because possible new roles for PM are being evaluated in nuclear safeguards, it is timely to consider modern model selection options in the context of threshold estimation. One of the possible new PM roles involves PM residuals, where a residual is defined as residual = data − prediction. This paper reviews alarm threshold estimation, introduces model selection options, and considers a range of assumptions regarding the data-generating mechanism for PM residuals. Two PM examples from nuclear safeguards are included to motivate the need for alarm threshold estimation. The first example involves mixtures of probability distributions that arise in solution monitoring, which is a common type of PM. The second example involves periodic partial cleanout of in-process inventory, leading to challenging structure in the time series of PM residuals.

  7. Human gender differences in the perception of conspecific alarm chemosensory cues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca R Radulescu

    Full Text Available It has previously been established that, in threatening situations, animals use alarm pheromones to communicate danger. There is emerging evidence of analogous chemosensory "stress" cues in humans. For this study, we collected alarm and exercise sweat from "donors," extracted it, pooled it and presented it to 16 unrelated "detector" subjects undergoing fMRI. The fMRI protocol consisted of four stimulus runs, with each combination of stimulus condition and donor gender represented four times. Because olfactory stimuli do not follow the canonical hemodynamic response, we used a model-free approach. We performed minimal preprocessing and worked directly with block-average time series and step-function estimates. We found that, while male stress sweat produced a comparably strong emotional response in both detector genders, female stress sweat produced a markedly stronger arousal in female than in male detectors. Our statistical tests pinpointed this gender-specificity to the right amygdala (strongest in the superficial nuclei. When comparing the olfactory bulb responses to the corresponding stimuli, we found no significant differences between male and female detectors. These imaging results complement existing behavioral evidence, by identifying whether gender differences in response to alarm chemosignals are initiated at the perceptual versus emotional level. Since we found no significant differences in the olfactory bulb (primary processing site for chemosensory signals in mammals, we infer that the specificity in responding to female fear is likely based on processing meaning, rather than strength, of chemosensory cues from each gender.

  8. The Performance of Earthworm Based Earthquake Alarm Reporting System in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ta-Yi; Hsiao, Nai-Chi; Wu, Yih-Min

    2016-04-01

    The Central Weather Bureau of Taiwan has operated an earthquake early warning (EEW) system and issued warnings to schools and government agencies since 2014. Because the real-time seismic data streams are integrated by the Earthworm software, some EEW modules were created under the Earthworm platform. The system is named Earthworm Based Earthquake Alarm Reporting (eBEAR) system, which is currently operating. The eBEAR system consists of new Earthworm modules for managing P-wave phase picking, trigger associations, hypocenter locations, magnitude estimations, and alert filtering prior to broadcasting. Here, we outline the methodology and performance of the eBEAR system. The online performance of the eBEAR system indicated that the average reporting times afforded by the system are approximately 15 and 26 s for inland and offshore earthquakes, respectively. Comparing to the earthquake catalog, the difference of the epicenters are less than 10 km for inland earthquakes; the difference of the magnitude are about 0.3. No false alarms generated by the system, but there were three false alarms issued by human. Due to the wrong operations, the EEW information created by off-line test were sent. However, we have learned from it and improved the standard operation procedure in the EEW system.

  9. Early warning, warning or alarm systems for natural hazards? A generic classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sättele, Martina; Bründl, Michael; Straub, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Early warning, warning and alarm systems have gained popularity in recent years as cost-efficient measures for dangerous natural hazard processes such as floods, storms, rock and snow avalanches, debris flows, rock and ice falls, landslides, flash floods, glacier lake outburst floods, forest fires and even earthquakes. These systems can generate information before an event causes loss of property and life. In this way, they mainly mitigate the overall risk by reducing the presence probability of endangered objects. These systems are typically prototypes tailored to specific project needs. Despite their importance there is no recognised system classification. This contribution classifies warning and alarm systems into three classes: i) threshold systems, ii) expert systems and iii) model-based expert systems. The result is a generic classification, which takes the characteristics of the natural hazard process itself and the related monitoring possibilities into account. The choice of the monitoring parameters directly determines the system's lead time. The classification of 52 active systems moreover revealed typical system characteristics for each system class. i) Threshold systems monitor dynamic process parameters of ongoing events (e.g. water level of a debris flow) and incorporate minor lead times. They have a local geographical coverage and a predefined threshold determines if an alarm is automatically activated to warn endangered objects, authorities and system operators. ii) Expert systems monitor direct changes in the variable disposition (e.g crack opening before a rock avalanche) or trigger events (e.g. heavy rain) at a local scale before the main event starts and thus offer extended lead times. The final alarm decision incorporates human, model and organisational related factors. iii) Model-based expert systems monitor indirect changes in the variable disposition (e.g. snow temperature, height or solar radiation that influence the occurrence probability

  10. Controlling misses and false alarms in a machine learning framework for predicting uniformity of printed pages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh Q.; Allebach, Jan P.

    2015-01-01

    In our previous work1 , we presented a block-based technique to analyze printed page uniformity both visually and metrically. The features learned from the models were then employed in a Support Vector Machine (SVM) framework to classify the pages into one of the two categories of acceptable and unacceptable quality. In this paper, we introduce a set of tools for machine learning in the assessment of printed page uniformity. This work is primarily targeted to the printing industry, specifically the ubiquitous laser, electrophotographic printer. We use features that are well-correlated with the rankings of expert observers to develop a novel machine learning framework that allows one to achieve the minimum "false alarm" rate, subject to a chosen "miss" rate. Surprisingly, most of the research that has been conducted on machine learning does not consider this framework. During the process of developing a new product, test engineers will print hundreds of test pages, which can be scanned and then analyzed by an autonomous algorithm. Among these pages, most may be of acceptable quality. The objective is to find the ones that are not. These will provide critically important information to systems designers, regarding issues that need to be addressed in improving the printer design. A "miss" is defined to be a page that is not of acceptable quality to an expert observer that the prediction algorithm declares to be a "pass". Misses are a serious problem, since they represent problems that will not be seen by the systems designers. On the other hand, "false alarms" correspond to pages that an expert observer would declare to be of acceptable quality, but which are flagged by the prediction algorithm as "fails". In a typical printer testing and development scenario, such pages would be examined by an expert, and found to be of acceptable quality after all. "False alarm" pages result in extra pages to be examined by expert observers, which increases labor cost. But "false

  11. Impaired behavioural response to alarm substance in rainbow trout exposed to copper nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovová, Tereza [Ecotoxicology Research and Innovation Centre, School of Biomedical and Biological Sciences, Plymouth University, Devon (United Kingdom); Department of Environmental Chemistry, Faculty of Environmental Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague (Czech Republic); Boyle, David, E-mail: david.boyle@ualberta.ca [Ecotoxicology Research and Innovation Centre, School of Biomedical and Biological Sciences, Plymouth University, Devon (United Kingdom); Sloman, Katherine A. [School of Science, University of the West of Scotland, Paisley (United Kingdom); Vanegas Pérez, Cecilia [Ecotoxicology Research and Innovation Centre, School of Biomedical and Biological Sciences, Plymouth University, Devon (United Kingdom); Laboratory of Animal Ecophysiology and Aquatic Ecotoxicology, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico); Handy, Richard D. [Ecotoxicology Research and Innovation Centre, School of Biomedical and Biological Sciences, Plymouth University, Devon (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Copper nanoparticles impaired the behavioural response of trout to alarm substance. • This effect appeared to be greater than in trout exposed to copper sulphate. • Toxicity was mediated by interaction of materials at external surfaces of fish. • Copper nanoparticles did not affect the morphology of the olfactory rosette. • Copper nanoparticles caused a change in glutathione status in brains of fish. - Abstract: To date, studies of the toxicity of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) in fish have not fully considered effects on olfactory-mediated behaviours, despite their ecological importance. In this study the effects of copper NPs (Cu NPs) on the anti-predator behavioural responses of juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to trout alarm substance was investigated. Individual fish were exposed for 12 h to a control (no added Cu), 50 μg l⁻¹ of Cu as Cu NPs, or 50 μg l⁻¹ Cu as CuSO₄, after which fish behaviours were analyzed in 10 min periods before and after the addition of the alarm substance stimulus. The response of control fish to deionised water (negative control, no alarm substance stimulus) was also analyzed. The alarm substance elicited a behavioural response in the control fish characterized by an immediate freeze response and the slower resumption of swimming activity compared to negative controls exposed to the sham deionised water stimuli. In fish exposed to Cu NPs, the behavioural response to alarm substance was eliminated, with no significant difference in behaviours compared to negative controls. In comparison, exposure to 50 μg l⁻¹ Cu as CuSO₄ decreased, but did not eliminate the response of fish to alarm substance, which indicated a significantly greater effect of Cu NPs on olfactory mediated behaviours than of the equivalent concentration of Cu as CuSO₄. Measurement of total Cu concentrations in the tissues of fish demonstrated no significant accumulation of Cu from any treatment in gill, liver or brain

  12. GENDER PARTICULAR FEATURES OF PSYCHIC STATE OF ALARMNESS OF ADOPTED CHILDREN FROM NEI «CHILDREN’S VILLAGE-SOS»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С. П. Иванова

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – to discover gender particular features of psy-chic state of alarmness of adopted children from «Childrens’ village-SOS».Methodology – empirical research of gender particular features of psychic state of alarmness of adopted children with the help of testing.Results – girls’ level of psychic state of alarmness has more high level in comparison with boys from «Children’s village-SOS». It reflects their fears of self-manifestation and of problems and interaction with teachers.Practical implications – information for «mothers», tea-chers and governesses, working in Children’s villages-SOS about particular features of psychological state of alarmness of the adopted children; development of correctional programs, helping to adapt under new living conditions.Purchase on Elibrary.ru > Buy now

  13. Reduction of nestlings’ vocalizations in response to parental alarm calls in the Southern House Wren, Troglodytes musculus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Serra, Catalina; Fernández, Gustavo J

    2011-01-01

    .... These functions, however, may not be mutually exclusive. In our study, we assessed if alarm calls uttered by breeding Southern House Wrens, Troglodytes musculus, are made to warn nestlings about risk...

  14. Honey Bee Inhibitory Signaling Is Tuned to Threat Severity and Can Act as a Colony Alarm Signal

    OpenAIRE

    Ken Tan; Shihao Dong; Xinyu Li; Xiwen Liu; Chao Wang; Jianjun Li; Nieh, James C

    2016-01-01

    Alarm communication is a key adaptation that helps social groups resist predation and rally defenses. In Asia, the world's largest hornet, Vespa mandarinia, and the smaller hornet, Vespa velutina, prey upon foragers and nests of the Asian honey bee, Apis cerana. We attacked foragers and colony nest entrances with these predators and provide the first evidence, in social insects, of an alarm signal that encodes graded danger and attack context. We show that, like Apis mellifera, A. cerana poss...

  15. A rule-based approach for the correlation of alarms to support Disaster and Emergency Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloria, M.; Minei, G.; Lersi, V.; Pasquariello, D.; Monti, C.; Saitto, A.

    2009-04-01

    Key words: Simple Event Correlator, Agent Platform, Ontology, Semantic Web, Distributed Systems, Emergency Management The importance of recognition of emergency's typology to control the critical situation for security of citizens has been always recognized. It follows this aspect is very important for proper management of a hazardous event. In this work we present a solution for the recognition of emergency's typology adopted by an Italian research project, called CI6 (Centro Integrato per Servizi di Emergenza Innovativi). In our approach, CI6 receives alarms by citizen or people involved in the work (for example: police, operator of 112, and so on). CI6 represents any alarm by a set of information, including a text that describes it and obtained when the user points out the danger, and a pair of coordinates for its location. The system realizes an analysis of text and automatically infers information on the type of emergencies by means a set of parsing rules and rules of inference applied by a independent module: a correlator of events based on their log and called Simple Event Correlator (SEC). SEC, integrated in CI6's platform, is an open source and platform independent event correlation tool. SEC accepts input both files and text derived from standard input, making it flexible because it can be matched to any application that is able to write its output to a file stream. The SEC configuration is stored in text files as rules, each rule specifying an event matching condition, an action list, and optionally a Boolean expression whose truth value decides whether the rule can be applied at a given moment. SEC can produce output events by executing user-specified shell scripts or programs, by writing messages to files, and by various other means. SEC has been successfully applied in various domains like network management, system monitoring, data security, intrusion detection, log file monitoring and analysis, etc; it has been used or integrated with many

  16. A model of objects based on KKS for the processing of alarms at the Angra 2 nuclear power plant; Um modelo de objetos baseado em KKS para o processamento de alarmes da usina nuclear de Angra 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Paulo Adriano da

    2000-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to present a new model of the alarm annunciation system of the Angra 2 nuclear power plant, using concepts of object based modeling and having as basic the Angra 2 Systems and Components Identification System - KKS. The present structure of the Computerized Alarm System - CAS of Angra 2 does not permit a fast visualization of the incoming alarms in case that a great number of them go off, because the monitors can only show 7 indications at a time. The herein proposed model permits a fast identification of the generated alarms, making possible for the operator to have a general view of the current nuclear power plant status. Its managing tree structure has an hierarchical dependence among its nodes, from where, the presently activated alarms are shown. Its man-machine interface is easy interaction and understand because it is based on structure well known by the Angra 2 operators which is the Angra 2 Systems and Components Identification System - KKS. The project was implemented in the format of an Angra 2 Alarms Supervision System (SSAA), and, for purpose of simulation, 5 system of the Angra 2 Nuclear Power Plant have been chosen. The data used in the project like measurement KKS, measurement limits, unity, setpoints, alarms text and systems flow diagrams, are actual data of the Angra 2 Nuclear Power Plant. The Visual Basic programming Language has been used, with emphasis to the object oriented programming, which and modification, without modifying the program code. Event hough using the Visual Basic for programming, the model has shown, for its purpose, a satisfactory real time execution. (author)

  17. Determining the alarm signal in pulse interferometric fibre sensor by two independent criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Życzkowski, Marek; Karol, Mateusz

    2017-04-01

    The article describes the construction and operation principle of the fibre optic pulse interferometer, which allows detection of mechanical disorders in fibre optic transmission line. Operation of this system is based on the optical pulses interference. Configuration of the system allows stable work of pulse interferometer over distances of several kilometres, with compensation impact of environmental conditions. Unique system detection capabilities obtained by using two independent criteria for alarm signal excitation. The aim of the research was to determine the usefulness of the proposed system to protection of information transmission via fibre-optic transmission networks.

  18. Lifestyle factors and experience of respiratory alarm symptoms in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sele, Lisa Maria Falk; Balasubramaniam, Kirubakaran; Elnegaard, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The first step in the diagnosis of lung cancer is for individuals in the general population to recognise respiratory alarm symptoms (RAS). Knowledge is sparse about RAS and factors associated with experiencing RAS in the general population. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence...... of RAS in the general population, and to analyse possible associations between lifestyle factors and experiencing RAS. METHODS: A web-based survey comprising 100 000 individuals randomly selected from the Danish Civil Registration System. Items regarding experience of RAS (prolonged coughing, shortness...

  19. Performance of the Species-Typical Alarm Response in Young Workers of the Ant Myrmica sabuleti (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Is Induced by Interactions with Mature Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammaerts, Marie-Claire

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Young workers of the ant Myrmica sabuleti (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Meinert 1861 perceived nestmate alarm pheromone but did not display normal alarm behavior (orientation toward the source of emission, increased running speed). They changed their initial behavior when in the presence of older nestmates exhibiting normal alarm behavior. Four days later, the young ants exhibited an imperfect version of normal alarm behavior. This change of behavior did not occur in young ants, which were not exposed to older ants reacting to alarm pheromone. Queen ants perceived the alarm pheromone and, after a few seconds, moved toward its source. Thus, the ants’ ability to sense the alarm pheromone and to identify it as an alarm signal is native, while the adult alarm reaction is acquired over time (= age based polyethism) by young ants. It is possible that the change in behavior observed in young ants could be initiated and/or enhanced (via experience-induced developmental plasticity, learning, and/or other mechanisms) by older ants exhibiting alarm behavior. PMID:25525102

  20. Planning an Automatic Fire Detection, Alarm, and Extinguishing System for Research Laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rostam Golmohamadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Educational and research laboratories in universities have a high risk of fire, because they have a variety of materials and equipment. The aim of this study was to provide a technical plan for safety improvement in educational and research laboratories of a university based on the design of automatic detection, alarm, and extinguishing systems . Methods : In this study, fire risk assessment was performed based on the standard of Military Risk Assessment method (MIL-STD-882. For all laboratories, detection and fire alarm systems and optimal fixed fire extinguishing systems were designed. Results : Maximum and minimum risks of fire were in chemical water and wastewater (81.2% and physical agents (62.5% laboratories, respectively. For studied laboratories, we designed fire detection systems based on heat and smoke detectors. Also in these places, fire-extinguishing systems based on CO2 were designed . Conclusion : Due to high risk of fire in studied laboratories, the best control method for fire prevention and protection based on special features of these laboratories is using automatic detection, warning and fire extinguishing systems using CO2 .

  1. Symmetry breaking on density in escaping ants: experiment and alarm pheromone model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Geng; Huan, Di; Roehner, Bertrand; Xu, Yijuan; Zeng, Ling; Di, Zengru; Han, Zhangang

    2014-01-01

    The symmetry breaking observed in nature is fascinating. This symmetry breaking is observed in both human crowds and ant colonies. In such cases, when escaping from a closed space with two symmetrically located exits, one exit is used more often than the other. Group size and density have been reported as having no significant impact on symmetry breaking, and the alignment rule has been used to model symmetry breaking. Density usually plays important roles in collective behavior. However, density is not well-studied in symmetry breaking, which forms the major basis of this paper. The experiment described in this paper on an ant colony displays an increase then decrease of symmetry breaking versus ant density. This result suggests that a Vicsek-like model with an alignment rule may not be the correct model for escaping ants. Based on biological facts that ants use pheromones to communicate, rather than seeing how other individuals move, we propose a simple yet effective alarm pheromone model. The model results agree well with the experimental outcomes. As a measure, this paper redefines symmetry breaking as the collective asymmetry by deducing the random fluctuations. This research indicates that ants deposit and respond to the alarm pheromone, and the accumulation of this biased information sharing leads to symmetry breaking, which suggests true fundamental rules of collective escape behavior in ants.

  2. Smells like aphids: orchid flowers mimic aphid alarm pheromones to attract hoverflies for pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stökl, Johannes; Brodmann, Jennifer; Dafni, Amots; Ayasse, Manfred; Hansson, Bill S

    2011-04-22

    Most insects are dependent on chemical communication for activities such as mate finding or host location. Several plants, and especially orchids, mimic insect semiochemicals to attract insects for unrewarded pollination. Here, we present a new case of pheromone mimicry found in the terrestrial orchid Epipactis veratrifolia. Flowers are visited and pollinated by several species of aphidophagous hoverflies, the females of which also often lay eggs in the flowers. The oviposition behaviour of these hoverflies is mainly guided by aphid-derived kairomones. We show that the flowers produce α- and β-pinene, β-myrcene and β-phellandrene, and that these compounds attract and induce oviposition behaviour in female hoverflies. This floral odour profile is remarkably similar to the alarm pheromone released by several aphid species, such as Megoura viciae. We therefore suggest that E. veratrifolia mimics aphid alarm pheromones to attract hoverflies for pollination; this is the first time, to our knowledge, that such a case of mimicry has been demonstrated.

  3. Daytime avoidance of chemosensory alarm cues by adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Rocco, Richard; Belanger, Cowan; Imre, István; Brown, Grant; Johnson, Nicholas S.

    2014-01-01

    Sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) avoid damage-released and predator chemosensory cues at night, but their response to these cues during the day is unknown. Here, we explored (i) whether sea lamprey avoid these cues during the day and (ii) the effect of water temperature on the avoidance of chemosensory alarm cues in two diurnal laboratory experiments. We hypothesized that daytime activity would be temperature-dependent and that only sea lamprey vulnerable to predation (i.e., not hiding) would behaviourally respond to chemosensory alarm cues. Ten groups of ten sea lamprey were exposed to one of a variety of potential chemosensory cues. The experiments were conducted over a range of temperatures to quantify the effect of temperature on avoidance behaviour. Consistent with our hypothesis, a higher proportion of animals were active during daytime as water temperature increased. Moving sea lamprey showed an avoidance response to 2-phenylethylamine (a compound found in mammalian urine) and human saliva once water temperatures had risen to mean (±SD) = 13.7 (±1.4) °C. Resting and hiding sea lamprey did not show an avoidance response to any of the experimental stimuli.

  4. Orchid mimics honey bee alarm pheromone in order to attract hornets for pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodmann, Jennifer; Twele, Robert; Francke, Wittko; Yi-bo, Luo; Xi-qiang, Song; Ayasse, Manfred

    2009-08-25

    Approximately one-third of the world's estimated 30,000 orchid species are deceptive and do not reward their pollinators with nectar or pollen. Most of these deceptive orchids imitate the scent of rewarding flowers or potential mates. In this study, we investigated the floral scent involved in pollinator attraction to the rewardless orchid Dendrobium sinense, a species endemic to the Chinese island Hainan that is pollinated by the hornet Vespa bicolor. Via chemical analyses and electrophysiological methods, we demonstrate that the flowers of D. sinense produce (Z)-11-eicosen-1-ol and that the pollinator can smell this compound. This is a major compound in the alarm pheromones of both Asian (Apis cerana) and European (Apis mellifera) honey bees and is also exploited by the European beewolf (Philanthus triangulum) to locate its prey. This is the first time that (Z)-11-eicosen-1-ol has been identified as a floral volatile. In behavioral experiments, we demonstrate that the floral scent of D. sinense and synthetic (Z)-11-eicosen-1-ol are both attractive to hornets. Because hornets frequently capture honey bees to feed to their larvae, we suggest that the flowers of D. sinense mimic the alarm pheromone of honey bees in order to attract prey-hunting hornets for pollination.

  5. Large and Dense Swarms: Simulation of a Shortest Path Alarm Propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Snels

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the transmission of alarm messages in large and dense underwater swarms of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs and describes the verification process of the derived algorithm results by means of two simulation tools realized by the authors. A collision-free communication protocol has been developed, tailored to a case where a single AUV needs to send a message to a specific subset of swarm members regarding a perceived danger. The protocol includes a handshaking procedure that creates a silence region before the transmission of the message obtained through specific acoustic tones out of the normal transmission frequencies or through optical signals. This region will include all members of the swarm involved in the alarm message and their neighbours, preventing collisions between them. The AUV sending messages to a target area computes a delay function on appropriate arcs and runs a Dijkstra-like algorithm obtaining a multicast tree. After an explanation of the whole building of this collision-free multicast tree, a simulation has been carried out assuming different scenarios relevant to swarm density, signal power of the modem and the geometrical configuration of the nodes.

  6. Symmetry breaking on density in escaping ants: experiment and alarm pheromone model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geng Li

    Full Text Available The symmetry breaking observed in nature is fascinating. This symmetry breaking is observed in both human crowds and ant colonies. In such cases, when escaping from a closed space with two symmetrically located exits, one exit is used more often than the other. Group size and density have been reported as having no significant impact on symmetry breaking, and the alignment rule has been used to model symmetry breaking. Density usually plays important roles in collective behavior. However, density is not well-studied in symmetry breaking, which forms the major basis of this paper. The experiment described in this paper on an ant colony displays an increase then decrease of symmetry breaking versus ant density. This result suggests that a Vicsek-like model with an alignment rule may not be the correct model for escaping ants. Based on biological facts that ants use pheromones to communicate, rather than seeing how other individuals move, we propose a simple yet effective alarm pheromone model. The model results agree well with the experimental outcomes. As a measure, this paper redefines symmetry breaking as the collective asymmetry by deducing the random fluctuations. This research indicates that ants deposit and respond to the alarm pheromone, and the accumulation of this biased information sharing leads to symmetry breaking, which suggests true fundamental rules of collective escape behavior in ants.

  7. Impact of Mandatory Carbon Monoxide Alarms: An Investigation of the Effects on Detection and Poisoning Rates in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler-Martin, Katherine; Soghoian, Sari; Prosser, Jane M; Manini, Alex F; Marker, Elizabeth; Stajic, Marina; Prezant, David; Nelson, Lewis S; Hoffman, Robert S

    2015-08-01

    We sought to evaluate the impact of New York City's (NYC's) 2004 carbon monoxide (CO) alarm legislation on CO incident detection and poisoning rates. We compared CO poisoning deaths, hospitalizations, exposures reported to Poison Control, and fire department investigations, before and after the law for 2000 to 2010. Use of CO alarms was assessed in the 2009 NYC Community Health Survey. Investigations that found indoor CO levels greater than 9 parts per million increased nearly 7-fold after the law (P poisoning hospitalization rates (P = .114) and death rates (P = .216). After we controlled for ambient temperature, the law's effect on hospitalizations remained nonsignificantly protective (incidence rate ratio = 0.747; 95% confidence interval = 0.520, 1.074). By 2009, 83% of NYC residents reported having CO alarms; only 54% also recently tested or replaced their batteries. Mandating CO alarms significantly increased the detection of potentially hazardous CO levels in NYC homes. Small numbers and detection bias might have limited the discovery of significant decreases in poisoning outcomes. Investigation of individual poisoning circumstances since the law might elucidate remaining gaps in awareness and proper use of CO alarms.

  8. Behavioural response of adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) to predator and conspecific alarm cues: evidence of additive effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Rocco, Richard T.; Imre, Istvan; Johnson, Nicholas; Brown, Grant B

    2016-01-01

    Sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus, an invasive pest in the Upper Great Lakes, avoid odours that represent danger in their habitat. These odours include conspecific alarm cues and predator cues, like 2-phenylethylamine hydrochloride (PEA HCl), which is found in the urine of mammalian predators. Whether conspecific alarm cues and predator cues function additively or synergistically when mixed together is unknown. The objectives of this experimental study were to determine if the avoidance response of sea lamprey to PEA HCl is proportional to the concentration delivered, and if the avoidance response to the combination of a predator cue (PEA HCl) and sea lamprey alarm cue is additive. To accomplish the first objective, groups of ten sea lampreys were placed in an artificial stream channel and presented with stepwise concentrations of PEA HCl ranging from 5 × 10−8 to 5 × 10−10 M and a deionized water control. Sea lampreys exhibited an increase in their avoidance behaviour in response to increasing concentrations of PEA HCl. To accomplish the second objective, sea lampreys were exposed to PEA HCl, conspecific alarm cue and a combination of the two. Sea lampreys responded to the combination of predator cue and conspecific alarm cue in an additive manner.

  9. Impact of Mandatory Carbon Monoxide Alarms: An Investigation of the Effects on Detection and Poisoning Rates in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler-Martin, Katherine; Soghoian, Sari; Manini, Alex F.; Marker, Elizabeth; Stajic, Marina; Prezant, David; Nelson, Lewis S.; Hoffman, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to evaluate the impact of New York City’s (NYC’s) 2004 carbon monoxide (CO) alarm legislation on CO incident detection and poisoning rates. Methods. We compared CO poisoning deaths, hospitalizations, exposures reported to Poison Control, and fire department investigations, before and after the law for 2000 to 2010. Use of CO alarms was assessed in the 2009 NYC Community Health Survey. Results. Investigations that found indoor CO levels greater than 9 parts per million increased nearly 7-fold after the law (P < .001). There were nonsignificant decreases in unintentional, nonfire-related CO poisoning hospitalization rates (P = .114) and death rates (P = .216). After we controlled for ambient temperature, the law’s effect on hospitalizations remained nonsignificantly protective (incidence rate ratio = 0.747; 95% confidence interval = 0.520, 1.074). By 2009, 83% of NYC residents reported having CO alarms; only 54% also recently tested or replaced their batteries. Conclusions. Mandating CO alarms significantly increased the detection of potentially hazardous CO levels in NYC homes. Small numbers and detection bias might have limited the discovery of significant decreases in poisoning outcomes. Investigation of individual poisoning circumstances since the law might elucidate remaining gaps in awareness and proper use of CO alarms. PMID:26066948

  10. Network meta-analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to increase the uptake of smoke alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Nicola J; Kendrick, Denise; Achana, Felix; Dhiman, Paula; He, Zhimin; Wynn, Persephone; Le Cozannet, Elodie; Saramago, Pedro; Sutton, Alex J

    2012-01-01

    This study is the first known to use network meta-analysis to simultaneously evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to increase the prevalence of functioning smoke alarms in households with children. The authors identified 24 primary studies from a systematic review of reviews and of more recently published primary studies, of which 23 (17 randomized controlled trials and 6 nonrandomized comparative studies) were included in 1 of the following 2 network meta-analyses: 1) possession of a functioning alarm: interventions that were more "intensive" (i.e., included components providing equipment (with or without fitting), home inspection, or both, in addition to education) generally were more effective. The intervention containing all of the aforementioned components was identified as being the most likely to be the most effective (probability (best) = 0.66), with an odds ratio versus usual care of 7.15 (95% credible interval: 2.40, 22.73); 2) type of battery-powered alarms: ionization alarms with lithium batteries were most likely to be the best type for increasing functioning possession (probability (best) = 0.69). Smoke alarm promotion programs should ensure they provide the combination of interventions most likely to be effective.

  11. Multi-Sensor Building Fire Alarm System with Information Fusion Technology Based on D-S Evidence Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Ding

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Multi-sensor and information fusion technology based on Dempster-Shafer evidence theory is applied in the system of a building fire alarm to realize early detecting and alarming. By using a multi-sensor to monitor the parameters of the fire process, such as light, smoke, temperature, gas and moisture, the range of fire monitoring in space and time is expanded compared with a single-sensor system. Then, the D-S evidence theory is applied to fuse the information from the multi-sensor with the specific fire model, and the fire alarm is more accurate and timely. The proposed method can avoid the failure of the monitoring data effectively, deal with the conflicting evidence from the multi-sensor robustly and improve the reliability of fire warning significantly.

  12. A case of shotgun injury which occurred while an unconventional home security alarm system was being checked.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asirdizer, Mahmut; Yavuz, Mehmet Sunay

    2009-11-20

    Installation of devices involving shotguns is rarely encountered in forensic medicine practice. In this case report, authors aimed to present an unusual and rare case of shotgun injury due to a home security alarm system and its legal assessment. An electrical technician was invited to a summer house to check a home security alarm system installed by another firm which he worked for previously. It was an unconventional home security alarm system attached to a shotgun. The technician was injured with 18 buckshot pellets (no: 4) while checking the system. The host was convicted of a possible intent to cause a life-threatening injury to the technician. We think that this verdict will set a precedent for similar cases.

  13. Uninformed sacrifice: Evidence against long-range alarm transmission in foraging ants exposed to localized abduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejera, F.; Reyes, A.; Altshuler, E.

    2016-07-01

    It is well established that danger information can be transmitted by ants through relatively small distances, provoking either a state of alarm when they move away from potentially dangerous stimulus, or charge toward it aggressively. There is almost no knowledge if danger information can be transmitted along large distances. In this paper, we abduct leaf cutting ants of the species Atta insularis while they forage in their natural environment at a certain point of the foraging line, so ants make a "U" turn to escape from the danger zone and go back to the nest. Our results strongly suggest that those ants do not transmit "danger information" to other nestmates marching towards the abduction area. The individualistic behavior of the ants returning from the danger zone results in a depression of the foraging activity due to the systematic sacrifice of non-informed individuals.

  14. Prioritizing alarms from sensor-based detection models in livestock production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominiak, Katarina Nielsen; Kristensen, Anders Ringgaard

    2017-01-01

    to be improved through the combination of different methods (12 papers) and “Prioritizing models” where the models include a method of ranking or prioritizing alerts in order to reduce the number of false alarms (3 papers). Of the three methods that rank or prioritize alerts; Fuzzy Logic, Naive Bayesian Network...... (NBN) and Hidden phase-type Markov model, the NBN shows the greatest potential for future reduction of alerts from sensor-based detection models in livestock production. The included detection models are evaluated on three criteria; performance, time-window and similarity to determine whether...... monitoring and early warning systems offer an opportunity to observe certain aspects of animal health, welfare, and productivity more closely than traditionally accomplished through human observation, and the opportunities for improving animal welfare should continue to be a driving force throughout...

  15. Implementation of the Alarm Distress Baby Scale as a universal screening instrument in primary care:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; Lønfeldt, Nicole Nadine; Væver, Mette Skovgaard

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infant socioemotional development is often held under informal surveillance, but a formal screening program is needed to ensure systematic identification of developmental risk. Even when screening programs exist, they are often ineffective because health care professionals do not adhere...... the health visitors' digital filing system, and qualitative coding of answers to open-ended questions) was undertaken. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Health visitors in three of five districts of the City of Copenhagen, Denmark (N=79). METHODS: We describe and evaluate the implementation process from the date...... the health visitors started the training on how to use the Alarm Distress Baby Scale to one year after they began using the instrument in practice. To monitor screening prevalence rates and adherence to guidelines, we used three data extractions (6, 9, and 12 months post-implementation) from the electronic...

  16. Social norms and efficacy beliefs drive the Alarmed segment’s public-sphere climate actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Kathryn L.; Webler, Thomas N.

    2016-09-01

    Surprisingly few individuals who are highly concerned about climate change take action to influence public policies. To assess social-psychological and cognitive drivers of public-sphere climate actions of Global Warming’s Six Americas `Alarmed’ segment, we developed a behaviour model and tested it using structural equation modelling of survey data from Vermont, USA (N = 702). Our model, which integrates social cognitive theory, social norms research, and value belief norm theory, explains 36-64% of the variance in five behaviours. Here we show descriptive social norms, self-efficacy, personal response efficacy, and collective response efficacy as strong driving forces of: voting, donating, volunteering, contacting government officials, and protesting about climate change. The belief that similar others took action increased behaviour and strengthened efficacy beliefs, which also led to greater action. Our results imply that communication efforts targeting Alarmed individuals and their public actions should include strategies that foster beliefs about positive descriptive social norms and efficacy.

  17. Informational ecology and care workers: Safety alarm systems in Finnish elderly-care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melkas, Helinä

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the use of information and communication technologies including safety alarm technologies and their impacts on elderly-care organizations' informational ecology, or internal information environment. Results are reported from a case study on the use of safety telephones and high-tech well-being wristbands that monitor vital signs in Finnish elderly-care organizations. Data collection involved human impact assessment methodologies including interviews and longer-term assessment processes among 78 care workers at 8 workplaces offering sheltered accommodation. The assessment results were analyzed qualitatively, also with the help of the concept of information quality. Changes in the informational ecology were identified; informational ecology in a care unit is in many ways affected by technology use. The human impact assessment methodologies and the topic of information quality offered useful and novel points of view about daily care work in increasingly technological environments.

  18. Lifestyle factors and experience of respiratory alarm symptoms in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sele, Lisa Maria Falk; Balasubramaniam, Kirubakaran; Elnegaard, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The first step in the diagnosis of lung cancer is for individuals in the general population to recognise respiratory alarm symptoms (RAS). Knowledge is sparse about RAS and factors associated with experiencing RAS in the general population. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence...... of RAS in the general population, and to analyse possible associations between lifestyle factors and experiencing RAS. METHODS: A web-based survey comprising 100 000 individuals randomly selected from the Danish Civil Registration System. Items regarding experience of RAS (prolonged coughing, shortness...... of breath, coughing up blood and prolonged hoarseness) and self-reported lifestyle factors (smoking status, alcohol intake and body mass index) were included in the analysis. RESULTS: A total of 49 706 individuals completed the questionnaire. 16 per cent reported at least one RAS. Prolonged coughing (8...

  19. Observation systems with alarm thresholds and their use in designing underground facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Lars [Geostatistik AB, Tumba (Sweden); Stille, Haakan [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Soil and Rock Mechanics

    2002-08-01

    The decision-based methodology described has wide applications in the building process. It can be applied whenever the exact outcome of the work is not known and where countermeasures might be needed. One such application is in the pre-investigations for the siting of spent nuclear fuel facilities aimed at determining the criteria for abandoning work on a given site. It can be seen that the principles of for designing an observation system and determining the alarm threshold are well understood. Several possible theoretical tools are also known, albeit from other disciplines than civil engineering. However, the choice of tools for a real problem should be investigated so that the advantages and drawbacks are illustrated. Reliable methods for designing observation systems in practice are, however, not known and are therefore not in use. A continuation of this study should therefore be aimed at comparing different theoretical tools and examining their practical application, including Quality Assurance and updating. It is therefore suggested that an observation system with alarm thresholds etc should be designed using the principles described in this report and should include testing and comparison of different models for predicting behaviour. This work could be undertaken for a real or for a hypothetical project. A real project is, of course, more difficult but has all the real-world problems that must be solved. A very brief, and not theoretically fully developed, account of the application of an observation system during the expansion of the interim spent fuel storage facility CLAB is enclosed as Appendix 1. Some comments on proposed changes in the system based on the principles set forth in this report are given in Appendix 2.

  20. The postman always rings twice: two cases of shotgun deaths associated with an unconventional home security alarm system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asirdizer, Mahmut; Turkmen, Nursel; Akan, Okan; Yavuz, Mehmet Sunay

    2014-06-01

    Injury and death cases caused by booby traps are not common in forensic medicine practice. Besides, installation of booby traps including firearms is generally for suicidal and rarely for homicidal purposes. Although few patents were described about home security alarm system that were created by firearms in the United States, 1 sample of injury with a similar unconventional mechanism of home safety system was reported by Asirdizer and Yavuz in 2009. In the published case report, the story of an electrical technician who was invited to a summer house by the homeowner to check the home security alarm system was reported. In the so-called report, he was stated to be injured by the shotgun attached to the unconventional home security alarm system while checking the system. As a result, the homeowner was convicted of a possible intent to cause a life-threatening injury to the technician.The so-called homeowner and his wife died by the same shotgun attached to the same unconventional home security alarm system 4 years on from the first event. In the present case report, we have aimed to present the findings of the crime scene and the autopsies of these unusual 2 deaths and to discuss individual and legal factors in paving the way for the deaths of 2 people.

  1. Utilization of GSM Module (Sim 900 Based Arduino-Uno for Alarm System and Remote Automatic Door Locking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauzi Fauzi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sebuah sistem alarm dan pengunci pintu otomatis jarak jauh untuk keamanan rumah telah dibuat. Otomatisasi kunci pintu rumah ini beroperasi dengan menggunakan perintah yang dikirimkan oleh pemilik rumah melalui pesan singkat melalui handphone sehingga keamanan rumah akan tetap dapat dikendalikan meski dari jarak yang jauh. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membangun otomatisasi rumah pintar yang mampu melakukan dua hal yakni mengunci pintu dan menyalakan alarm dengan menggunakan mikrokontroler Arduino-uno dan modul GSM. Pengontrolan secara otomatis tersebut cukup kompleks dan memerlukan berbagai komponen yang terintegrasi dengan kemampuan pembacaan masukan, pemrosesan data dan pengontrolan keluaran secara bersamaan dan terprogram.  A remote door automatic alarm and door lock system for home security has been designed. This home door lock automation operates using commands sent by homeowners via short messages from handphone so that home security will remain controllable even from a long distance. This study aims to build smart home automation that can do two things: lock the door and turn on the alarm by using Arduino-uno microcontroller and GSM module. The automatic control is quite complex and requires a variety of integrated components with the ability to read input, data processing and control the output simultaneously and programmed.   Keywords: Arduino, GSM, Automatic Doors, SMS Rerefences Depari, G.S. (1985. Belajar Teori dan Keterampilan Elektronika. Bandung: Armico Daryanto, 2005. Pengetahuan Teknik Elektronika. Erlangga. Jakarta. Session, Kendall Webster, 2003. 1001 Rangkaian Elektronika. PT. Elek Media Komputindo Kelompok Gramedia, Jakarta. Sustrisno, 1986, Elektronika Teori dan penerapanya. Penerbit ITB, Bandung

  2. Differences in the response of a striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) and a harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) to an acoustic alarm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kastelein, R.A.; Jennings, N.; Verboom, W.C.; Haan, D.de; Schooneman, N.M.

    2006-01-01

    Small cetacean bycatch in gillnet fisheries may be reduced by deterring odontocetes from nets acoustically. However, different odontocete species may respond differently to acoustic signals from alarms. Therefore, in this study a striped dolphin and a harbour porpoise were subjected simultaneously

  3. A Novel Enuresis Alarm for Toilet Training Students with Intellectual Disability: An Initial Evaluation in a School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mruzek, Daniel W.; McAleavey, Stephen; Engel, Suzanne; Smith, Tristram

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a novel enuresis alarm device using a miniaturized radio frequency module and disposable sensors made with inexpensive conductive ink was used to teach toilet use for urination with three participants with severe intellectual disability (two males and one female; aged 7-15 years) in a private special education school setting. At…

  4. Differences in the response of a striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) and a harbour popoise (Phocoena phocoena) to an acoustic alarm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kastelein, R.A.; Jennings, N.; Verboom, W.C.; Haan, de D.; Schooneman, N.M.

    2006-01-01

    Small cetacean bycatch in gillnet fisheries may be reduced by deterring odontocetes from nets acoustically. However, different odontocete species may respond differently to acoustic signals from alarms. Therefore, in this study a striped dolphin and a harbour porpoise were subjected simultaneously

  5. Responses of urban crows to con- and hetero-specific alarm calls in predator and non-predator zoo enclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bílá, Kateřina; Beránková, Jana; Veselý, Petr; Bugnyar, Thomas; Schwab, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Urban animals and birds in particular are able to cope with diverse novel threats in a city environment such as avoiding novel, unfamiliar predators. Predator avoidance often includes alarm signals that can be used also by hetero-specifics, which is mainly the case in mixed-species flocks. It can also occur when species do not form flocks but co-occur together. In this study we tested whether urban crows use alarm calls of conspecifics and hetero-specifics (jackdaws, Corvus monedula) differently in a predator and a non-predator context with partly novel and unfamiliar zoo animal species. Birds were tested at the Tiergarten Schönbrunn in the city of Vienna by playing back con- and hetero-specific alarm calls and control stimuli (great tit song and no stimuli) at predator (wolf, polar bear) and non-predator (eland antelope and cranes, peccaries) enclosures. We recorded responses of crows as the percentage of birds flying away after hearing the playback (out of those present before the playback) and as the number of vocalizations given by the present birds. A significantly higher percentage of crows flew away after hearing either con- or hetero-specific alarm calls, but it did not significantly differ between the predator and the non-predator context. Crows treated jackdaw calls just as crow calls, indicating that they make proper use of hetero-specific alarm calls. Responding similarly in both contexts may suggest that the crows were uncertain about the threat a particular zoo animal represents and were generally cautious. In the predator context, however, a high percentage of crows also flew away upon hearing the great tit control song which suggests that they may still evaluate those species which occasionally killed crows as more dangerous and respond to any conspicuous sound.

  6. The efficacy of alarm therapy versus desmopressin therapy in the treatment of primary mono-symptomatic nocturnal enuresis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Nina; Sayer, Lynn; While, Alison

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the efficacy of alarm therapy versus desmopressin therapy in treating primary mono-symptomatic nocturnal enuresis (PMNE). PMNE is a common childhood disorder, which if left untreated can have a significant impact on a child's self-esteem and behaviour. Alarm therapy and desmopressin therapy are the two main treatments currently available in UK-based nurse-led enuresis clinics. A systematic review of the literature was undertaken to assess the efficacy of PMNE treatments. Following application of inclusion/exclusion criteria eight randomised controlled/clinical trials were identified involving children aged 5-17 years with PMNE receiving either alarm therapy or desmopressin therapy. Seven studies found no statistical difference in nocturnal continence improvement between the two interventions at the point when treatment was stopped. Four studies had a significantly larger relapse rate of nocturnal enuresis with desmopressin compared with alarm therapy when the treatment was withdrawn. Two papers reported that those participating in the alarm therapy intervention of the trials had a higher attrition rate than the desmopressin intervention. The overall findings from the eight studies showed that long term alarm therapy was more effective in treating nocturnal enuresis than desmopressin therapy. The review found that families and children receiving the alarm therapy intervention require more support from health care professionals to comply with treatment than those receiving the desmopressin therapy. However, if nurse-led clinics can support families to persist with the alarm therapy intervention, they are more likely to experience longer term improvement in continence.

  7. Development of methods and means to improve a performance of microprocessor shock sensors for car alarms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Vasyukov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Existing shock sensors for car protection using the sensitive elements (SE of piezoelectric, microphone and electromagnetic types and the analogue circuitry of signal processing, have a number of essential shortcomings:- piezoelectric sensitive elements have no characteristics repeatability that complicates their use in mass production;- microphone sensors are structurally complicated and demand difficult information signal processing;- sensitive elements of electromagnetic sensors demand individual control (a specified clearance to be set between a magnet and the coil.Use of analogue elements (resistors, capacitors in the amplifier and filter circuits reduces temporary and temperature stability of characteristics. An adjustment of the sensor operating zones via variable resistors on a printed circuit is extremely inconvenient and doesn't allow to change quickly the sensor sensitivity depending on an external situation (for example, to increase quickly an operating zone of the sensor with an alarm system of a key fob when securing a car in the country or in the woods, or to reduce it in the street with heavy traffic streams.An analogue circuit–based sensor design disables its automatic adaptation to such external impacts as a rain, a stream passing by cars, etc.The article considers how to solve some of above problems while designing the two-zone digital shock sensors with a SE of electromagnetic type. It shows the SE design developed by the authors as a module containing the coil and a magnet, secured on the coil axis in a silicone extension. The circuitry solution and algorithms of signals processing allowed authors to realize a remote control of the prevention and alarm zones (with 16 gradation of sensitivity. The algorithm of self-adaptation to the repeating external impacts is proposed. The developed method to form the basic levels of digital comparators for each gradation of sensitivity enables the sensor to have the straight

  8. Ranking ICME's efficiency for geomagnetic and ionospheric storms and risk of false alarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulyaeva, T. L.

    2017-11-01

    A statistical analysis is undertaken on ICME's efficiency in producing the geomagnetic and ionospheric storms. The mutually-consistent thresholds for the intense, moderate and weak space weather storms and quiet conditions are introduced with an analytical model based on relations between the equatorial Dst index and geomagnetic indices AE, aa, ap, ap(τ) and the ionospheric Vσ indices. The ionosphere variability Vσ index is expressed in terms of the total electron content (TEC) deviation from the -15-day sliding median normalized by the standard deviation for the 15 preceding days. The intensity of global positive ionospheric storm, Vσp, and negative storm, Vσn, is represented by the relative density of anomalous ±Vσ index occurrence derived from the global ionospheric maps GIM-TEC for 1999-2016. An impact of total 421 ICME events for 1999-2016 on the geomagnetic and ionospheric storms expressed by AE, Dst, aa, ap, ap(τ), Vσp, Vσn indices and their superposition is analyzed using ICME catalogue by Richardson and Cane (2010) during 24 h after the ICME start time t0. Hierarchy of efficiency of ICME → storm relation is established. The ICMEs have a higher probability (22-25%) to be followed by the intense ionospheric and auroral electrojet storms at global and high latitudes as compared to the intense storms at middle and low latitudes (18-20%) and to moderate and weak storms at high latitudes (5-17%). At the same time ICMEs are more effective in producing the moderate storms (24-28%) at the middle and low latitudes as compared to the intense and weak storms at these latitudes (13-22%) and to moderate storms at high latitudes (8-17%). The remaining cases when quiet conditions are observed after ICMEs present higher chance for a false alarm. The risk factor for a false alarm can vary from 18% if the superposition of all indices is considered, to 51-64% for individual AE, Vσp and Vσn indices. The analysis indicates that the mutually-consistent thresholds

  9. West-Coast Wide Expansion and Testing of the Geodetic Alarm System (G-larmS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, C. J.; Grapenthin, R.; Melgar, D.; Aranha, M. A.; Allen, R. M.

    2016-12-01

    The Geodetic Alarm System (G-larmS) was developed in collaboration between the Berkeley Seismological Laboratory (BSL) and New Mexico Tech for real-time Earthquake Early Warning (EEW). G-larmS has been in continuous operation at the BSL since 2014 using event triggers from the ShakeAlert EEW system and real-time position time series from a fully triangulated network consisting of BARD, PBO and USGS stations across northern California (CA). G-larmS has been extended to include southern CA and Cascadia, providing continuous west-coast wide coverage. G-larmS currently uses high rate (1 Hz), low latency (6.5) in CA and Cascadia built from realistic 3D geometries. Synthetic long-period 1Hz displacement waveforms were obtained from a new stochastic kinematic slip distribution generation method. Waveforms are validated by direct comparison to peak P-wave displacement scaling laws and to PGD GMPEs obtained from high-rate GPS observations of large events worldwide. We run the scenarios on real-time streams to systematically test the recovery of slip and magnitude by G-larmS. In addition to presenting these results, we will discuss new capabilities, such as implementing 2D geometry and the applicability of these results to GPS enhanced tsunami warning systems.

  10. Differential field responses of the little fire ant, Wasmannia auropunctata (Roger), to alarm pheromone enantiomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Jang, Eric B; Siderhurst, Matthew S

    2014-12-01

    The little fire ant, Wasmannia auropunctata (Roger) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), is an invasive ant with negative impacts on both biodiversity and agriculture throughout the tropics and subtropics. Field experiments were conducted in order to elucidate the relative attractiveness of the enantiomers of the alarm pheromones, 2,5-dimethyl-3-(2-methylbutyl)pyrazine and 3-methyl-2-(2-methylbutyl)pyrazine. The enantiomers tested were synthesized from commercially available (S)-2-methylbutan-1-ol or kinetically resolved (R)-2-methylbutan-1-ol, prepared using Pseudomonas cepacia lipase (PCL). Bioassays conducted in a macadamia orchard on the island of Hawaii demonstrated that W. auropunctata were preferentially attracted to the (S)-enantiomers of both alkyl pyrazines over the racemic mixtures in all experiments. To our knowledge, this is the first instance of differential attraction of ants to the enantiomers of chiral pyrazine pheromones despite many examples of these compounds in the literature. In addition, using a chiral column it was determined that (S)-2,5-dimethyl-3-(2-methylbutyl)pyrazine and (S)-3-methyl-2-(2-methylbutyl)pyrazine are the only enantiomers produced by W. auropunctata.

  11. Semantic similarity between old and new items produces false alarms in recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montefinese, Maria; Zannino, Gian Daniele; Ambrosini, Ettore

    2015-09-01

    In everyday life, human beings can report memories of past events that did not occur or that occurred differently from the way they remember them because memory is an imperfect process of reconstruction and is prone to distortion and errors. In this recognition study using word stimuli, we investigated whether a specific operationalization of semantic similarity among concepts can modulate false memories while controlling for the possible effect of associative strength and word co-occurrence in an old-new recognition task. The semantic similarity value of each new concept was calculated as the mean cosine similarity between pairs of vectors representing that new concept and each old concept belonging to the same semantic category. Results showed that, compared with (new) low-similarity concepts, (new) high-similarity concepts had significantly higher probability of being falsely recognized as old, even after partialling out the effect of confounding variables, including associative relatedness and lexical co-occurrence. This finding supports the feature-based view of semantic memory, suggesting that meaning overlap and sharing of semantic features (which are greater when more similar semantic concepts are being processed) have an influence on recognition performance, resulting in more false alarms for new high-similarity concepts. We propose that the associative strength and word co-occurrence among concepts are not sufficient to explain illusory memories but is important to take into account also the effects of feature-based semantic relations, and, in particular, the semantic similarity among concepts.

  12. Increases of Obesity and Overweight in Children: an Alarm for Parents and Policymakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Hasan Khadaee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century. The problem is global and is steadily affecting many low- and middle-income countries, particularly in urban settings. The prevalence has increased at an alarming rate. Globally, in 2013 the number of overweight children under the age of five years old, is estimated to be over 42 million. Close to 31 million of these are living in developing countries. In the WHO African Region alone the number of overweight or obese children increased from 4 to 9 million over the same period. The vast majority of overweight or obese children live in developing countries, where the rate of increase has been more than 30% higher than that of developed countries. If current trends continue the number of overweight or obese infants and young children globally will increase to 70 million by 2025.  Without intervention, obese infants and young children will likely continue to be obese during childhood, adolescence and adulthood. Overweight and obesity are largely preventable. Supportive policies, environments, schools and communities are fundamental in shaping parents’ and children’s choices, making the healthier choice of foods and regular physical activity the easiest choice (accessible, available and affordable, and therefore preventing obesity.

  13. Regularized learning of linear ordered-statistic constant false alarm rate filters (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, Timothy C.; Cummings, Ian; Botts, Jonathan; Summers, Jason E.

    2017-05-01

    The linear ordered statistic (LOS) is a parameterized ordered statistic (OS) that is a weighted average of a rank-ordered sample. LOS operators are useful generalizations of aggregation as they can represent any linear aggregation, from minimum to maximum, including conventional aggregations, such as mean and median. In the fuzzy logic field, these aggregations are called ordered weighted averages (OWAs). Here, we present a method for learning LOS operators from training data, viz., data for which you know the output of the desired LOS. We then extend the learning process with regularization, such that a lower complexity or sparse LOS can be learned. Hence, we discuss what 'lower complexity' means in this context and how to represent that in the optimization procedure. Finally, we apply our learning methods to the well-known constant-false-alarm-rate (CFAR) detection problem, specifically for the case of background levels modeled by long-tailed distributions, such as the K-distribution. These backgrounds arise in several pertinent imaging problems, including the modeling of clutter in synthetic aperture radar and sonar (SAR and SAS) and in wireless communications.

  14. SWOT Analysis of Dental Health Workforce in India: A Dental alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halappa, Mythri; B H, Naveen; Kumar, Santhosh; H, Sreenivasa

    2014-11-01

    India faces an acute shortage of health personnel. Together with inequalities in distribution of health workers, dental health workers also become a part contributing to it impeding the progress towards achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. To assess dental health-workforce distribution, identify inequalities in dental health-workers provision and report the impact of this mal distribution in India. Situational analysis done by using the primary data from the records of Dental Council of India. In India, 0.088% of dental health worker per 1000 population exists. Inequalities in the distribution of dentists exist in India. Certain states are experiencing an acute shortage of dental health personnel whereas certain cities are over fledged with dentists like Karnataka, Maharastra, Tamilnadu being states with high concentration & Jharkhand, Rajasthan, Uttaranchal being the least. Although the production of health workers has expanded greatly in recent years by increase in number of dental colleges the problems of imbalances in their distribution persist. In the race of increasing dentist population ratio in total, inequitable distribution of appropriately trained, motivated and supported dentists gives a mere feel of saturation in jobs making youngsters to not to choose dentistry as a career giving an alarm.

  15. Tele-care and tele-alarms for the elderly: preliminary experiences in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo-Rodríguez, Liliana; Torres-Castro, Sara; Martínez-Ramírez, David; Gutiérrez-Robledo, Luis Miguel; Pérez-Cuevas, Ricardo

    2013-08-01

    To analyze the effect of a pilot program of tele-assistance and tele-alarms on the elderly's self-perception of health status and to identify the satisfaction with and acceptance of the program. Cross-sectional study that included interviews with 378 elderly individuals, 294 caretakers/relatives and 53 health care professionals. The program was run in Mexico City in 2010. The variables were socio-demographic characteristics, self-rated health, satisfaction and acceptance of the program. The information was gathered through a standardized questionnaire. The statistical analysis included descriptive analysis and nonparametric tests. Significant effects on self-perception of health were observed, 6.17 (SD 17.9 p < 0.05) points above the average. The program was well received and accepted by the elderly, family caregivers and health professionals. The program helps to maintain or improve quality of life, allows preventive care and is an ideal means of providing psychosocial support to the elderly.

  16. Alarm Odor Compounds of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug Exhibit Antibacterial Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagun, Steven; Collins, Elliot; Martin, Caleb; Nolan, E Joseph; Horzempa, Joseph

    2016-08-01

    Some insects release scented compounds as a defense against predators that also exhibit antimicrobial activity. Trans-2-octenal and trans-2-decenal are the major alarm aldehydes responsible for the scent of Halyomorpha halys, the brown marmorated stink bug. Previous research has shown these aldehydes are antifungal and produce an antipredatory effect, but have never been tested for antibacterial activity. We hypothesized that these compounds functioned similarly to the analogous multifunctional action of earwig compounds, so we tested whether these aldehydes could inhibit the growth of bacteria. Disk diffusion assays indicated that these aldehydes significantly inhibited the growth of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, in vitro. Moreover, mealworm beetles (Tenebrio molitor) coated in stink bug aldehydes showed a substantial reduction in bacterial colonization compared to vehicle-treated insects. These results suggest that brown marmorated stinkbug aldehydes are indeed antibacterial agents and serve a multifunctional role for this insect. Therefore, stinkbug aldehydes may have potential for use as chemical antimicrobials.

  17. Hawk calls elicit alarm and defensive reactions in captive Geoffroy's marmosets (Callithrix geoffroyi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searcy, Yvonne M; Caine, Nancy G

    2003-01-01

    Most descriptions of callitrichid antipredator behavior have come from observations of visual encounters with predators, but there is also anecdotal evidence suggesting that callitrichids may use auditory cues associated with raptors for the early detection of potential danger. In the present study, Geoffroy's marmosets consistently reacted to the tape-recorded calls of a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) with high-intensity antipredator behaviors. Compared to the taped calls of a raven (Corvus corax) and the taped sound of a power drill, the hawk calls elicited more startle reactions, more alarm calls, longer freeze times, increased use of safe areas of their enclosure and greater disruption in ongoing behavior. Once in a relatively safe location in the enclosure, the marmosets visually monitored the site of origin of the calls for 10 min and minimized locomotion for 30 min, but resumed baseline levels of other activities that had been disrupted by the hawk calls. Marmosets may use the auditory cues associated with predators for early detection, and subsequent avoidance, of a potential predator in the vicinity.

  18. Gray-scale moment invariants for airborne mine detection, discrimination and false alarm mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, Pradeep; Agarwal, Sanjeev; Mitchell, O. Robert

    2002-08-01

    Shape features based on gray-scale moment invariants are presented for airborne mine detection and discrimination. Eleven shape features are obtained by translation, rotation and contrast normalization of the fourth-order gray-scale moments. Mahalanobis distance between an observed and true (average) shape feature vector is used as a shape metric. Covariance matrix corresponding to the average shape feature vector is obtained analytically using an additive and multiplicative noise model for the MWIR image. Effectiveness of gray scale moment invariant shape features for mine discrimination and false alarm mitigation is shown using MWIR imagery collected for LAMD-I program in May 2000. Successful implementation of the features in an airborne detection depends on the consistency of these shape features over time with change in factors such as solar illumination, ageing, clouds and environmental conditions. A study of the variability of gray-scale moment invariant-based shape features with time is conducted using MWIR time-sequenced imagery acquired in June-July 1998 by E-OIR.

  19. [Value of the radionetwork of the transportation company in Besançon for alarm forwarding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flicoteaux, H; Fergane, B; Neidhardt, A; Costes, Y; Bachour, K

    1990-02-01

    The C.B. users offered for a few years a way for putting-out the distress on the highway. There were 2,000 in Besançon and surroundings in 1982. Today they are becoming no existent. Since then a new system of alarm run is born with 150 buses, 178 kilometers of net-travel and a sweep frequency of 10 min from 6h30 a.m., to 8h p.m, and of 30 min until 12h p.m. The 250 "C.T.B." drivers assume a regular surveillance of the urban and suburban highways. A standard message in used between the C.T.B. (Besançon Company of Buses.) regulation and Samu 25, regulation which allows to fix circumstances, place of road accident and inventory of casualties: 27 emergency calls are received in 1987, 50 in 1988. It might be possible to use other private or public radiotelephonic network.

  20. False alarms: How early warning signals falsely predict abrupt sea ice loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Till J. W.; Eisenman, Ian

    2016-04-01

    Uncovering universal early warning signals for critical transitions has become a coveted goal in diverse scientific disciplines, ranging from climate science to financial mathematics. There has been a flurry of recent research proposing such signals, with increasing autocorrelation and increasing variance being among the most widely discussed candidates. A number of studies have suggested that increasing autocorrelation alone may suffice to signal an impending transition, although some others have questioned this. Here we consider variance and autocorrelation in the context of sea ice loss in an idealized model of the global climate system. The model features no bifurcation, nor increased rate of retreat, as the ice disappears. Nonetheless, the autocorrelation of summer sea ice area is found to increase in a global warming scenario. The variance, by contrast, decreases. A simple physical mechanism is proposed to explain the occurrence of increasing autocorrelation but not variance when there is no approaching bifurcation. Additionally, a similar mechanism is shown to allow an increase in both indicators with no physically attainable bifurcation. This implies that relying on autocorrelation and variance as early warning signals can raise false alarms in the climate system, warning of "tipping points" that are not actually there.

  1. Early Warning Signals for Abrupt Change Raise False Alarm During Sea Ice Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, T. J. W.; Eisenman, I.

    2015-12-01

    Uncovering universal early warning signals for critical transitions has become a coveted goal in diverse scientific disciplines, ranging from climate science to financial mathematics. There has been a flurry of recent research proposing such signals, with increasing autocorrelation and increasing variance being among the most widely discussed candidates. A number of studies have suggested that increasing autocorrelation alone may suffice to signal an impending transition, although some others have questioned this. Here, we consider variance and autocorrelation in the context of sea ice loss in an idealized model of the global climate system. The model features no bifurcation, nor increased rate of retreat, as the ice disappears. Nonetheless, the autocorrelation of summer sea ice area is found to increase with diminishing sea ice cover in a global warming scenario. The variance, by contrast, decreases. A simple physical mechanism is proposed to explain the occurrence of increasing autocorrelation but not variance in the model when there is no approaching bifurcation. Additionally, a similar mechanism is shown to allow an increase in both indicators with no physically attainable bifurcation. This implies that relying on autocorrelation and variance as early warning signals can raise false alarms in the climate system, warning of "tipping points" that are not actually there.

  2. Transformation of ground vibration signal for debris-flow monitoring and detection in alarm systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abancó, Clàudia; Hürlimann, Marcel; Fritschi, Bruno; Graf, Christoph; Moya, José

    2012-01-01

    Debris flows are fast mass movements formed by a mix of water and solid materials, which occur in steep torrents, and are a source of high risks for human settlements. Geophones are widely used to detect the ground vibration induced by passing debris flows. However, the recording of geophone signals usually requires storing a huge amount of data, which leads to problems in storage capacity and power consumption. This paper presents a method to transform and simplify the signals measured by geophones. The key input parameter is the ground velocity threshold, which removes the seismic noise that is not related to debris flows. A signal conditioner was developed to implement the transformation and the ground velocity threshold was set by electrical resistors. The signal conditioner was installed at various European monitoring sites to test the method. Results show that data amount and power consumption can be greatly reduced without losing much information on the main features of the debris flows. However, the outcome stresses the importance of choosing a ground vibration threshold, which must be accurately calibrated. The transformation is also suitable to detect other rapid mass movements and to distinguish among different processes, which points to a possible implementation in alarm systems.

  3. A Strategy to Reduce Critical Cardiorespiratory Alarms due to Intermittent Enteral Feeding of Preterm Neonates in Intensive Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Rohan; van Pul, Carola; Sanders, Anouk; Weda, Hans; Bikker, Jan Willem; Feijs, Loe; Andriessen, Peter

    2017-10-20

    Many preterm infants require enteral feeding as they cannot coordinate sucking, swallowing, and breathing. In enteral feeding, milk feeds are delivered through a small feeding tube passed via the nose or mouth into the stomach. Intermittent milk feeds may either be administered using a syringe to gently push milk into the infant's stomach (push feed) or milk can be poured into a syringe attached to the tube and allowed to drip in by gravity (gravity feed). This practice of enteral feeding is common in neonatal intensive care units. There is, however, no evidence in the literature to recommend the use of one method of feeding over the other. The aim of this study was to investigate which of the two methods of feeding is physiologically better tolerated by infants, as measured by the incidence of critical cardiorespiratory alarms during and immediately after feeding. We conducted a prospectively designed observational study with records of all feeding episodes in infants of gestational age less than 30 weeks at birth and with a minimum enteral intake of 100 mL/kg/day. In total, 2140 enteral feeding episodes were noted from 25 infants over 308 infant-days with records for several characteristics of the infants (eg, gestational age), feeding (eg, the position of infants), and of nursing-care events before feeding (eg, diapering). Logistic regression with mixed effects was used to model cardiorespiratory alarms for the push and gravity methods of feeding. After adjustments were made for all confounding variables, the position of infants was found to be statistically significant in changing the outcome of critical alarms for the two methods of feeding (P=.02). For infants in the lateral position, push feeds led to 40% more instances of one or more critical cardiorespiratory alarms in comparison with the gravity method. Both methods of feeding created a statistically comparable number of alarms for infants in the prone position. This study provides objective data that may

  4. Acoustic classification of alarm calls by vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) and humans (Homo sapiens): I. Natural calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owren, M J

    1990-03-01

    A 2-choice, operant-conditioning-based classification procedure was developed in which vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) categorized species-typical snake and eagle alarm calls recorded from individually identified free-ranging animals. After preliminary training with a pair of calls from a single animal, 2 vervets were tested with novel exemplars produced by a variety of callers. Experiment 1 combined testing with continued training in routine classification of 14 new calls. In Experiment 2, the subjects were tested with 48 novel calls in rapid succession. Human (Homo sapiens) control subjects participated in the first study without extended preliminary training. Monkey and human subjects both showed immediate transfer to classification of unfamiliar alarm calls, despite variations both in voice characteristics and reproduction quality.

  5. Specific and unspecific gynecological alarm symptoms--prevalence estimates in different age groups: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, Kirubakaran; Ravn, Pernille; Larsen, Pia V; Søndergaard, Jens; Jarbøl, Dorte E

    2015-02-01

    To determine prevalence estimates of gynecological alarm symptoms in different age groups and to describe common patterns of gynecological symptoms. Web-based cross-sectional survey study. Nationwide in Denmark. A random sample of 51,090 women aged 20 years or above from the general population. An internet-based questionnaire study regarding the prevalence estimates of symptom experiences. A total of 18 symptoms of cervical, endometrial and ovarian cancer were selected through an extensive literature search, which included national and international guidelines. Prevalence estimates of self-reported experience of gynecological alarm symptoms within the preceding 4 weeks. A total of 26,466 women (54.5%) participated in the study. Some 80.3% had experienced at least one of the alarm symptoms within the preceding 4 weeks, and the median number of experienced symptoms was 2 (interquartile range 1-4). The most common symptoms were tiredness (53.0%) and abdominal bloating (36.7%); postmenopausal bleeding (2.3%) and involuntary weight loss (2.8%) were least frequent. Most of the symptoms were more prevalent among younger women, whereas only dyspnea and increased urgency of urination were more frequent among older women. Among younger women, multiple abdominal symptoms often occurred simultaneously and frequently in combination with pelvic pain, whereas older women were more likely to report single symptoms. Gynecological alarm symptoms are frequent in the general population, mostly among younger women. Older women reported fewer symptoms, and these often appeared as single symptoms. © 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  6. A semelparous fish continues upstream migration when exposed to alarm cue, but adjusts movement speed and timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhring, Thomas M; Meckley, Trevor D.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Siefkes, Michael J.; Hume, John B.; Wagner, C. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Animals make trade-offs between predation risk and pursuit of opportunities such as foraging and reproduction. Trade-offs between antipredator behaviours and foraging are well suited to manipulation in laboratory and field settings and have generated a vast compendium of knowledge. However, much less is known about how animals manage trade-offs between predation risk and pursuit of reproductive opportunities in the absence of the confounding effects of foraging. In the present study, we investigated how the nonfeeding migratory life stage of sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, responds to odour from dead conspecifics (a cue that induces avoidance behaviours in laboratory and field studies). We released groups of PIT-tagged sea lamprey 65 m from the shore of Lake Michigan or 287 m upstream in Carp Lake River and used antennas to detect their movements in the river. As the breeding season progressed, sea lamprey initiated upstream movement earlier and were more likely to enter the river. Sea lamprey that began the night in Lake Michigan entered Carp Lake River at higher rates and accelerated upstream when exposed to high concentrations of alarm cue, consistent with animals attempting to minimize time spent in risky areas. Sea lampreys that began the night in the river delayed upstream movement when exposed to alarm cue, consistent with animals sheltering and gathering information about a source of risk. We attribute this context-specific reaction to alarm cue to differences in perceived vulnerability to predation in sheltered positions in the river versus exposed positions in the lake. Once in the river, the vast majority of sea lamprey moved upstream independent of alarm cue or Julian date. Although life-history-induced time and energy budgets place rigid constraints on the direction of migration, sea lamprey attend to predation risk by modifying movement timing and speed.

  7. Honey Bee Inhibitory Signaling Is Tuned to Threat Severity and Can Act as a Colony Alarm Signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ken; Dong, Shihao; Li, Xinyu; Liu, Xiwen; Wang, Chao; Li, Jianjun; Nieh, James C

    2016-03-01

    Alarm communication is a key adaptation that helps social groups resist predation and rally defenses. In Asia, the world's largest hornet, Vespa mandarinia, and the smaller hornet, Vespa velutina, prey upon foragers and nests of the Asian honey bee, Apis cerana. We attacked foragers and colony nest entrances with these predators and provide the first evidence, in social insects, of an alarm signal that encodes graded danger and attack context. We show that, like Apis mellifera, A. cerana possesses a vibrational "stop signal," which can be triggered by predator attacks upon foragers and inhibits waggle dancing. Large hornet attacks were more dangerous and resulted in higher bee mortality. Per attack at the colony level, large hornets elicited more stop signals than small hornets. Unexpectedly, stop signals elicited by large hornets (SS large hornet) had a significantly higher vibrational fundamental frequency than those elicited by small hornets (SS small hornet) and were more effective at inhibiting waggle dancing. Stop signals resulting from attacks upon the nest entrance (SS nest) were produced by foragers and guards and were significantly longer in pulse duration than stop signals elicited by attacks upon foragers (SS forager). Unlike SS forager, SS nest were targeted at dancing and non-dancing foragers and had the common effect, tuned to hornet threat level, of inhibiting bee departures from the safe interior of the nest. Meanwhile, nest defenders were triggered by the bee alarm pheromone and live hornet presence to heat-ball the hornet. In A. cerana, sophisticated recruitment communication that encodes food location, the waggle dance, is therefore matched with an inhibitory/alarm signal that encodes information about the context of danger and its threat level.

  8. Honey Bee Inhibitory Signaling Is Tuned to Threat Severity and Can Act as a Colony Alarm Signal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Tan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Alarm communication is a key adaptation that helps social groups resist predation and rally defenses. In Asia, the world's largest hornet, Vespa mandarinia, and the smaller hornet, Vespa velutina, prey upon foragers and nests of the Asian honey bee, Apis cerana. We attacked foragers and colony nest entrances with these predators and provide the first evidence, in social insects, of an alarm signal that encodes graded danger and attack context. We show that, like Apis mellifera, A. cerana possesses a vibrational "stop signal," which can be triggered by predator attacks upon foragers and inhibits waggle dancing. Large hornet attacks were more dangerous and resulted in higher bee mortality. Per attack at the colony level, large hornets elicited more stop signals than small hornets. Unexpectedly, stop signals elicited by large hornets (SS large hornet had a significantly higher vibrational fundamental frequency than those elicited by small hornets (SS small hornet and were more effective at inhibiting waggle dancing. Stop signals resulting from attacks upon the nest entrance (SS nest were produced by foragers and guards and were significantly longer in pulse duration than stop signals elicited by attacks upon foragers (SS forager. Unlike SS forager, SS nest were targeted at dancing and non-dancing foragers and had the common effect, tuned to hornet threat level, of inhibiting bee departures from the safe interior of the nest. Meanwhile, nest defenders were triggered by the bee alarm pheromone and live hornet presence to heat-ball the hornet. In A. cerana, sophisticated recruitment communication that encodes food location, the waggle dance, is therefore matched with an inhibitory/alarm signal that encodes information about the context of danger and its threat level.

  9. Application of a putative alarm cue hastens the arrival of invasive sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) at a trapping location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, John B.; Meckley, Trevor D.; Johnson, Nicholas; Luhring, Thomas M; Siefkes, Michael J; Wagner, C. Michael

    2015-01-01

    The sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus is an invasive pest in the Laurentian Great Lakes basin, threatening the persistence of important commercial and recreational fisheries. There is substantial interest in developing effective trapping practices via the application of behavior-modifying semiochemicals (odors). Here we report on the effectiveness of utilizing repellent and attractant odors in a push–pull configuration, commonly employed to tackle invertebrate pests, to improve trapping efficacy at permanent barriers to sea lamprey migration. When a half-stream channel was activated by a naturally derived repellent odor (a putative alarm cue), we found that sea lamprey located a trap entrance significantly faster than when no odor was present as a result of their redistribution within the stream. The presence of a partial sex pheromone, acting as an attractant within the trap, was not found to further decrease the time to when sea lamprey located a trap entrance relative to when the alarm cue alone was applied. Neither the application of alarm cue singly nor alarm cue and partial sex pheromone in combination was found to improve the numbers of sea lamprey captured in the trap versus when no odor was present — likely because nominal capture rate during control trials was unusually high during the study period. Behavioural guidance using these odors has the potential to both improve control of invasive non-native sea lamprey in the Great Lakes as well as improving the efficiency of fish passage devices used in the restoration of threatened lamprey species elsewhere.

  10. Health professions' students have an alarming prevalence of depressive symptoms: exploration of the associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlFaris, Eiad; Irfan, Farhana; Qureshi, Riaz; Naeem, Naghma; Alshomrani, Abdulaziz; Ponnamperuma, Gominda; Al Yousufi, Nada; Al Maflehi, Nasr; Al Naami, Mohammad; Jamal, Amr; van der Vleuten, Cees

    2016-10-21

    There is a need to better understand the depression phenomenon and to clarify why some students become depressed and others don't. The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of depressive symptoms among health professions' (HP) students, and to explore the association between socio-demographic factors (e.g. year of study, discipline, gender) and depressive symptoms. In this descriptive-analytic, cross-sectional study, stratified proportionate sampling strategy was used to select the study sample during the academic year 2012-2013. The students from four health professions' schools situated within a large, public university located in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were screened for depressive symptoms using the 21-item Beck Depression Inventory (BDI II). Chi-square test, student t-test and ANOVA were used to compare different categorical variables. The overall response rate was 79.0 %, the highest among dental students 86.1 %, and lowest among nursing (49.7 %). The overall prevalence rate of depressive symptoms was 47.0 %; it was highest among dentistry students (51.6 %), followed by medicine (46.2 %), applied medical sciences (AMS) (45.7 %) and lowest among nursing students (44.2 %). A statistically significant association was found between the presence and severity of depressive symptoms on one hand and the female gender (p = 0.000) and year of study on the other hand. This study seems to indicate an alarming rate of depressive symptoms. Female gender, dentistry, the third year for all schools and fifth year for medicine and dentistry have the highest association with depressive symptoms. Future studies may be needed to explore further the reasons and explanations for the variation in the prevalence of depressive symptoms among these groups. The factors that deserve exploration include curricular variables and personal factors such as the students' study skills.

  11. The behavioural response of adult Petromyzon marinus to damage-released alarm and predator cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imre, István; Di Rocco, Richard; Belanger, Cowan; Brown, Grant; Johnson, Nicholas S.

    2014-01-01

    Using semi-natural enclosures, this study investigated (1) whether adult sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus show avoidance of damage-released conspecific cues, damage-released heterospecific cues and predator cues and (2) whether this is a general response to injured heterospecific fishes or a specific response to injured P. marinus. Ten replicate groups of 10 adult P. marinus, separated by sex, were exposed to one of the following nine stimuli: deionized water (control), extracts prepared from adult P. marinus, decayed adult P. marinus (conspecific stimuli), sympatric white sucker Catostomus commersonii, Amazon sailfin catfish Pterygoplichthys pardalis (heterospecific stimuli), 2-phenylethylamine (PEA HCl) solution, northern water snake Nerodia sipedon washing, human saliva (predator cues) and an adult P. marinus extract and human saliva combination (a damage-released conspecific cue and a predator cue). Adult P. marinus showed a significant avoidance response to the adult P. marinus extract as well as to C. commersonii, human saliva, PEA and the adult P. marinus extract and human saliva combination. For mobile P. marinus, the N. sipedon washing induced behaviour consistent with predator inspection. Exposure to the P. pardalis extract did not induce a significant avoidance response during the stimulus release period. Mobile adult female P. marinus showed a stronger avoidance behaviour than mobile adult male P. marinus in response to the adult P. marinus extract and the adult P. marinus extract and human saliva combination. The findings support the continued investigation of natural damage-released alarm cue and predator-based repellents for the behavioural manipulation of P. marinus populations in the Laurentian Great Lakes.

  12. Applications of Cell-Ratio Constant False-Alarm Rate Method in Coherent Doppler Wind Lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zhu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A cell-ratio constant false-alarm rate (CR-CFAR method for detecting the Doppler frequency shift is proposed to improve the accuracy of velocity measured by coherent Doppler wind lidar (CWL in low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR environments. The method analyzes the spectrum to solve issues of weak signal submergence in noise encountered in the widely used periodogram method. This characteristic is that the signal region slope is larger than the noise region slope in the frequency spectrum. We combined the ratio and CFAR to propose the CR-CFAR method. The peak area is discriminated from the spectrum using this method. By removing background noise, the peak signal is obtained along with the Doppler shift. To verify the CR-CFAR method, a campaign experiment using both CWL and a commercial Doppler lidar was performed in Hami, China (42°32′ N, 94°03′ E during 1–7 June 2016. The results showed that the proposed method significantly improved the reliability of CWL data under low SNR conditions. The height—at which both horizontal wind speed correlativity and horizontal wind direction correlativity exceeded 0.99—increased by 65 m. The relative deviation of the horizontal wind speed at 120 m decreased from 40.37% to 11.04%. We used the CR-CFAR method to analyze continuous data. A greater number of wind field characteristics were obtained during observation compared to those obtained using the common wind field inversion method.

  13. Automatically Identifying and Predicting Unplanned Wind Turbine Stoppages Using SCADA and Alarms System Data: Case Study and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Kevin; Gallagher, Colm; Bruton, Ken; O’Donovan, Peter; O’Sullivan, Dominic T. J.

    2017-11-01

    Using 10-minute wind turbine SCADA data for fault prediction offers an attractive way of gaining additional prognostic capabilities without needing to invest in extra hardware. To use these data-driven methods effectively, the historical SCADA data must be labelled with the periods when the turbine was in faulty operation as well the sub-system the fault was attributed to. Manually identifying faults using maintenance logs can be effective, but is also highly time consuming and tedious due to the disparate nature of these logs across manufacturers, operators and even individual maintenance events. Turbine alarm systems can help to identify these periods, but the sheer volume of alarms and false positives generated makes analysing them on an individual basis ineffective. In this work, we present a new method for automatically identifying historical stoppages on the turbine using SCADA and alarms data. Each stoppage is associated with either a fault in one of the turbine’s sub-systems, a routine maintenance activity, a grid-related event or a number of other categories. This is then checked against maintenance logs for accuracy and the labelled data fed into a classifier for predicting when these stoppages will occur. Results show that the automated labelling process correctly identifies each type of stoppage, and can be effectively used for SCADA-based prediction of turbine faults.

  14. Quantitative Index and Abnormal Alarm Strategy Using Sensor-Dependent Vibration Data for Blade Crack Identification in Centrifugal Booster Fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinglong; Sun, Hailiang; Wang, Shuai; He, Zhengjia

    2016-05-09

    Centrifugal booster fans are important equipment used to recover blast furnace gas (BFG) for generating electricity, but blade crack faults (BCFs) in centrifugal booster fans can lead to unscheduled breakdowns and potentially serious accidents, so in this work quantitative fault identification and an abnormal alarm strategy based on acquired historical sensor-dependent vibration data is proposed for implementing condition-based maintenance for this type of equipment. Firstly, three group dependent sensors are installed to acquire running condition data. Then a discrete spectrum interpolation method and short time Fourier transform (STFT) are applied to preliminarily identify the running data in the sensor-dependent vibration data. As a result a quantitative identification and abnormal alarm strategy based on compound indexes including the largest Lyapunov exponent and relative energy ratio at the second harmonic frequency component is proposed. Then for validation the proposed blade crack quantitative identification and abnormality alarm strategy is applied to analyze acquired experimental data for centrifugal booster fans and it has successfully identified incipient blade crack faults. In addition, the related mathematical modelling work is also introduced to investigate the effects of mistuning and cracks on the vibration features of centrifugal impellers and to explore effective techniques for crack detection.

  15. Smart Radiological Dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosslow, William J.; Bandzuch, Gregory S.

    2004-07-20

    A radiation dosimeter providing an indication of the dose of radiation to which the radiation sensor has been exposed. The dosimeter contains features enabling the monitoring and evaluating of radiological risks so that a user can concentrate on the task at hand. The dosimeter provides an audible alarm indication that a predetermined time period has elapsed, an audible alarm indication reminding the user to check the dosimeter indication periodically, an audible alarm indicating that a predetermined accumulated dose has been prematurely reached, and an audible alarm indication prior or to reaching the 3/4 scale point.

  16. The costs and benefits of smoke alarms in Canadian houses: report for Jacques Rousseau, Project Implementation Division, Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hansen, A. T; Platts, R. E

    1990-01-01

    The study was intended to establish the effectiveness of smoke alarms, evaluate the costs and benefits of extending their use to houses that do not currently have them, and consider ways of improving...

  17. Alarming levels of drug-resistant tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients in metropolitan Mumbai, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petros Isaakidis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB is a looming threat to tuberculosis control in India. However, no countrywide prevalence data are available. The burden of DR-TB in HIV-co-infected patients is likewise unknown. Undiagnosed and untreated DR-TB among HIV-infected patients is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. We aimed to assess the prevalence of DR-TB (defined as resistance to any anti-TB drug in patients attending public antiretroviral treatment (ART centers in greater metropolitan Mumbai, India. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among adults and children ART-center attendees. Smear microscopy, culture and drug-susceptibility-testing (DST against all first and second-line TB-drugs using phenotypic liquid culture (MGIT were conducted on all presumptive tuberculosis patients. Analyses were performed to determine DR-TB prevalence and resistance patterns separately for new and previously treated, culture-positive TB-cases. RESULTS: Between March 2013 and January 2014, ART-center attendees were screened during 14135 visits, of whom 1724 had presumptive TB. Of 1724 attendees, 72 (4% were smear-positive and 202 (12% had a positive culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Overall DR-TB was diagnosed in 68 (34%, 95% CI: 27%-40% TB-patients. The proportions of DR-TB were 25% (29/114 and 44% (39/88 among new and previously treated cases respectively. The patterns of DR-TB were: 21% mono-resistant, 12% poly-resistant, 38% multidrug-resistant (MDR-TB, 21% pre-extensively-drug-resistant (MDR-TB plus resistance to either a fluoroquinolone or second-line injectable, 6% extensively drug-resistant (XDR-TB and 2% extremely drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB plus resistance to any group-IV/V drug. Only previous history of TB was significantly associated with the diagnosis of DR-TB in multivariate models. CONCLUSION: The burden of DR-TB among HIV-infected patients attending public ART-centers in Mumbai was alarmingly high, likely representing

  18. Comparison of long-term efficacy of desmopressin lyophilisate and enuretic alarm for monosymptomatic enuresis and assessment of predictive factors for success: a randomized prospective trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Önol, Fikret Fatih; Guzel, Rasim; Tahra, Ahmet; Kaya, Cevdet; Boylu, Ugur

    2015-02-01

    We compared the long-term success of desmopressin sublingual lyophilisate formulation and enuretic alarm therapy in children with primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis, and determined predictive factors for treatment success. A total of 142 children with primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis were randomized to receive treatment consisting of desmopressin or enuretic alarm for 6 months. Treatment compliance and response were reviewed monthly in each patient using a 30-day bed-wetting diary. Outcomes were assessed according to International Children's Continence Society criteria, and success rates at 6 and 12 months were compared for desmopressin and enuretic alarm. Additional intention to treat analyses were performed, considering cases with missing data as failures. Possible demographic factors predicting success were investigated by logistic regression analysis. Overall 4 children (5.2%) in the desmopressin group and 20 (30.7%) in the enuretic alarm group withdrew after randomization. Based on patients who completed 6 months of treatment, success (more than 90% reduction in wet nights per month) was achieved in 76.8% and 61.8% of children in the desmopressin and enuretic alarm groups, respectively. At 12 months 77.8% of those receiving desmopressin and 75% of those treated with enuretic alarm had success. However, long-term success rate was significantly higher with desmopressin (68.8% vs 46.2%) if intention to treat population was considered. Multivariate analysis revealed treatment group, severity of enuresis and monthly income as independent predictors of cure at 6 months. In compliant patients desmopressin lyophilisate and enuretic alarm provided equivalent success at the end of treatment and after extended followup. Alarm therapy had a high rate of early withdrawal from therapy and consequently lower rates of success on intention to treat analyses. Severe enuresis (more than 5 wet nights weekly) is an important predictive factor for cure after first

  19. Migratory-stage sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus stop responding to conspecific damage-released alarm cues after 4 h of continuous exposure in laboratory conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imre, Istvan; Di Rocco, Richard T.; McClure, Haley; Johnson, Nicholas; Brown, Grant E.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the length of avoidance response of migratory-stage sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus exposed continuously to conspecific damage-released alarm cues for varying lengths of time in laboratory stream channels. Ten replicate groups of P. marinus, separated by sex, were exposed to either deionized water control or to P. marinus extract for 0, 2 or 4 h continuously. Petromyzon marinus maintained their avoidance response to the conspecific damage-released alarm cue after continuous exposure to the alarm cue for 0 and 2 h but not 4 h. Beyond being one of the first studies in regards to sensory–olfactory adaptation–acclimation of fishes to alarm cues of any kind, these results have important implications for use of conspecific alarm cues in P. marinus control. For example, continuous application of conspecific alarm cue during the day, when P. marinus are inactive and hiding, may result in sensory adaptation to the odour by nightfall when they migrate upstream.

  20. Dangerous Pressurization and Inappropriate Alarms during Water Occlusion of the Expiratory Circuit of Commonly Used Infant Ventilators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray Hinder

    Full Text Available Non-invasive continuous positive airways pressure is commonly a primary respiratory therapy delivered via multi-purpose ventilators in premature newborns. Expiratory limb occlusion due to water accumulation or 'rainout' from gas humidification is a frequent issue. A case of expiratory limb occlusion due to rainout causing unexpected and excessive repetitive airway pressurisation in a Draeger VN500 prompted a systematic bench test examination of currently available ventilators.To assess neonatal ventilator response to partial or complete expiratory limb occlusion when set to non-invasive continuous positive airway pressure mode.Seven commercially available neonatal ventilators connected to a test lung using a standard infant humidifier circuit with partial and/or complete expiratory limb occlusion were examined in a bench test study. Each ventilator was set to deliver 6 cmH2O in non-invasive mode and respiratory mechanics data for 75%, 80% and 100% occlusion were collected.Several ventilators responded inappropriately with complete occlusion by cyclical pressurisation/depressurisation to peak pressures of between 19·4 and 64·6 cm H2O at rates varying between 2 to 77 inflations per minute. Tidal volumes varied between 10·1 and 24·3mL. Alarm responses varied from 'specific' (tube occluded to 'ambiguous' (Safety valve open. Carefusion Avea responded by continuing to provide the set distending pressure and displaying an appropriate alarm message. Draeger Babylog 8000 did not alarm with partial occlusions and incorrectly displayed airways pressure at 6·1cmH2O compared to the measured values of 13cmH2O.This study found a potential for significant adverse ventilator response due to complete or near complete expiratory limb occlusion in CPAP mode.

  1. EDUCATIONAL USE OF CLOUD COMPUTING AND AT-MEGA MICROCONTROLLER - A CASE STUDY OF AN ALARM SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Cieplak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article shows a case study of Cloud Computing model combined with AT-Mega microcontrollers for educational purposes. The presented system takes advantage of many aspects of Internet of Things model, thus conjoining Cloud Management system with measurement-execution module based on Arduino platform. One benefit of this solution is a cost-effective way of showcasing machine and device integration with distinct cloud services. This article is based on practical experience with students' projects and an home alarm system with use of a Cloud Computing services will be described.

  2. Reducing False Alarms of Annual Forecast in the Central China North-South Seismic Belt by Reverse Tracing of Precursors (RTP) Using the Pattern Informatics (PI) `Hotspots'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengfeng; Wu, Zhongliang; Jiang, Changsheng

    2017-06-01

    The annual consultation on the likelihood of earthquakes in the next year, the `Annual Consultation Meeting', has been one of the most important forward forecast experiments organized by the China Earthquake Administration (CEA) since the 1970s, in which annual alarm regions are identified by an expert panel considering multi-disciplinary `anomalies'. In such annual forecasts, one of the problems in need of further technical solution is its false alarms. To tackle this problem, the concept of `reverse tracing of precursors (RTP)' is used to the annual consultation, as a temporal continuation and spatial extension of the work of Z hao et al. (Pure Appl Geophys 167:783-800, 2010). The central China north-south seismic belt (in connection to the CSEP testing region) is selected as the testing region of such an approach. Applying the concept of RTP, for an annual alarm region delineated by the Annual Consultation Meeting, the distribution of `hotspots' of the pattern informatics (PI), which targets the 5-year-scale seismic hazard, is considered. The `hit', or successful forecast, of the annual seismic hazard is shown to be related to the sufficient coverage of the `hotspots' within the annual alarm region. The ratio of the areas of the `hotspots' over the whole area of the annual alarm region is thus used to identify the false alarms which have few `hotspots'. The results of the years 2004-2012 show that using a threshold of 17 % can reduce 34 % (13 among 38) of the false alarms without losing the successful hit (being 6 in that period).

  3. Handling Worldwide LHC Computing Grid Critical Service Incidents : The infrastructure and experience behind nearly 5 years of GGUS ALARMs

    CERN Multimedia

    Dimou, M; Dulov, O; Grein, G

    2013-01-01

    In the Wordwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG) project the Tier centres are of paramount importance for storing and accessing experiment data and for running the batch jobs necessary for experiment production activities. Although Tier2 sites provide a significant fraction of the resources a non-availability of resources at the Tier0 or the Tier1s can seriously harm not only WLCG Operations but also the experiments' workflow and the storage of LHC data which are very expensive to reproduce. This is why availability requirements for these sites are high and committed in the WLCG Memorandum of Understanding (MoU). In this talk we describe the workflow of GGUS ALARMs, the only 24/7 mechanism available to LHC experiment experts for reporting to the Tier0 or the Tier1s problems with their Critical Services. Conclusions and experience gained from the detailed drills performed in each such ALARM for the last 4 years are explained and the shift with time of Type of Problems met. The physical infrastructure put in place to ...

  4. Attention Cueing and Activity Equally Reduce False Alarm Rate in Visual-Auditory Associative Learning through Improving Memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Ali Nikouei Mahani

    Full Text Available In our daily life, we continually exploit already learned multisensory associations and form new ones when facing novel situations. Improving our associative learning results in higher cognitive capabilities. We experimentally and computationally studied the learning performance of healthy subjects in a visual-auditory sensory associative learning task across active learning, attention cueing learning, and passive learning modes. According to our results, the learning mode had no significant effect on learning association of congruent pairs. In addition, subjects' performance in learning congruent samples was not correlated with their vigilance score. Nevertheless, vigilance score was significantly correlated with the learning performance of the non-congruent pairs. Moreover, in the last block of the passive learning mode, subjects significantly made more mistakes in taking non-congruent pairs as associated and consciously reported lower confidence. These results indicate that attention and activity equally enhanced visual-auditory associative learning for non-congruent pairs, while false alarm rate in the passive learning mode did not decrease after the second block. We investigated the cause of higher false alarm rate in the passive learning mode by using a computational model, composed of a reinforcement learning module and a memory-decay module. The results suggest that the higher rate of memory decay is the source of making more mistakes and reporting lower confidence in non-congruent pairs in the passive learning mode.

  5. Impact of aphid alarm pheromone release on virus transmission efficiency: When pest control strategy could induce higher virus dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fang-Jing; Bosquée, Emilie; Liu, Ying-Jie; Chen, Ju-Lian; Yong, Liu; Francis, Frédéric

    2016-09-01

    Aphids cause serious damages to crops not only by tacking sap but also by transmitting numerous viruses. To develop biological control, the aphid alarm pheromone, namely E-β-farnesene (EβF), has been demonstrated to be efficient to repel aphids and as attract beneficials, making it a potential tool to control aphid pests. Considering aphids also as virus vectors, changes of their behavior could also interfere with the virus acquisition and transmission process. Here, a combination of two aphid species and two potato virus models were selected to test the influence of EβF release on aphid and virus dispersion under laboratory conditions. EβF release was found to significantly decrease the population of Myzus persicae and Macrosiphum euphorbiae around the infochemical releaser but simultaneously also increasing the dispersal of Potato Virus Y (PVY). At the opposite, no significant difference for Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) transmission efficiency was observed with similar aphid alarm pheromone releases for none of the aphid species. These results provide some support to carefully consider infochemical releasers not only for push-pull strategy and pest control but also to include viral disease in a the plant protection to aphids as they are also efficient virus vectors. Impact of aphid kinds and transmission mechanisms will be discussed according to the large variation found between persistent and non persistent potato viruses and interactions with aphids and related infochemicals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. White sucker Catostomus commersonii respond to conspecific and sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus alarm cues but not potential predator cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordbro, Ethan J.; Di Rocco, Richard T.; Imre, Istvan; Johnson, Nicholas; Brown, Grant E.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies proposed the use of chemosensory alarm cues to control the distribution of invasive sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus populations in the Laurentian Great Lakes and necessitate the evaluation of sea lamprey chemosensory alarm cues on valuable sympatric species such as white sucker. In two laboratory experiments, 10 replicate groups (10 animals each) of migratory white suckers were exposed to deionized water (control), conspecific whole-body extract, heterospecific whole-body extract (sea lamprey) and two potential predator cues (2-phenylethylamine HCl (PEA HCl) and human saliva) during the day, and exposed to the first four of the above cues at night. White suckers avoided the conspecific and the sea lamprey whole-body extract both during the day and at night to the same extent. Human saliva did not induce avoidance during the day. PEA HCl did not induce avoidance at a higher concentration during the day, or at night at the minimum concentration that was previously shown to induce maximum avoidance by sea lamprey under laboratory conditions. Our findings suggest that human saliva and PEA HCl may be potential species-specific predator cues for sea lamprey.

  7. Integrated built-in-test false and missed alarms reduction based on forward infinite impulse response & recurrent finite impulse response dynamic neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yiqian; Shi, Junyou; Wang, Zili

    2017-11-01

    Built-in tests (BITs) are widely used in mechanical systems to perform state identification, whereas the BIT false and missed alarms cause trouble to the operators or beneficiaries to make correct judgments. Artificial neural networks (ANN) are previously used for false and missed alarms identification, which has the features such as self-organizing and self-study. However, these ANN models generally do not incorporate the temporal effect of the bottom-level threshold comparison outputs and the historical temporal features are not fully considered. To improve the situation, this paper proposes a new integrated BIT design methodology by incorporating a novel type of dynamic neural networks (DNN) model. The new DNN model is termed as Forward IIR & Recurrent FIR DNN (FIRF-DNN), where its component neurons, network structures, and input/output relationships are discussed. The condition monitoring false and missed alarms reduction implementation scheme based on FIRF-DNN model is also illustrated, which is composed of three stages including model training, false and missed alarms detection, and false and missed alarms suppression. Finally, the proposed methodology is demonstrated in the application study and the experimental results are analyzed.

  8. Multivariate (alarms) process control for reduced risk for bed agglomeration/defluidisation in FB boilers; Multivariat (alarm) processoevervakning foer minskad risk foer baeddagglomerering/defluidisering i FB-anlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oehman, M. [ETC, Piteaa (Sweden); Hoekfors, C. [Sigma iSoft AB, Piteaa (Sweden); Nordin, A. [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Chemistry; Lundberg, L. [Skellefteaa Kraft AB, Skellefteaa (Sweden); Nordsvahn, L. [ETC, Piteaa (Sweden)

    2002-01-01

    Ash-related operational problems are one of the most common process-related disturbances during biomass combustion. Bed agglomeration (sintering) is especially problematic during fluid bed combustion. In most severe cases, agglomeration and blocking of the return-valves in CFB-plants could result in unplanned plant shut down. It would therefore be of considerable interest to find a method, which could predict initial problems in such a god time before a outset problem so that measure for prevention could be taken before it is to late. With traditional process control systems this has been difficult or impossible. The time from initial agglomeration of the bed material particles to a total defluidisation of the bed could be very short. It is therefore often too late to solve the problem when the operational personals have discovered that something is going on. The aim of the present work was therefore, in a full-scale FB-plant, to illustrate the benefits of multivariate process control and multivariate alarms for reducing the risk for agglomeration in the bed and/or in the return-valves, i.e. unplanned plant shut down. One biomass fired CFB-plant has participated in the project (Skellefteaa Kraft AB). Previous agglomeration experiences in this plant have been located to the cyclone and the return valves. Operational-parameters such as temperatures, pressures and gas-composition etc. were continuously taken out from the traditional process-system for external multivariate treatment by principal component analysis (PCA). Simultaneously, a diary was kept with characterisation of experienced ash related problems by the operational personal. The produced PCA-models have then been used for indicating deviations from 'normal' operation (multivariate alarms) for executed data taken before and in connection with the operational stop, caused by clogging of the cyclone-leg, during December 2000. The results strongly indicated that the produced PCA-model could predict

  9. Audible punctuation: performative pause in Homeric prosody

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankenborg, R.J.J.

    2015-01-01

    The association between physical proximity and relationship formation as a classic finding in psychological science. In the current dissertation, this classic association was examined in an entirely different and surprisingly understudied setting: the school classroom. We examined whether and how

  10. The Audible Life of the Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Wills

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available "Since at least 1980 Godard’s cinema has been explicitly looking for (its music, as if for its outside. In Sauve qui peut (la vie Paul Godard hears, and asks about it, coming through the hotel room wall, and it follows him down to the lobby, but remains “off,” like Marguerite Duras’s voice, in spite of his questions, until the final sequence. At that moment, at the end of the section entitled “Music,” the protagonist is at the same time struck by a car and struck by the entrance of the music into the diegetic present of the film, as the camera pans past an orchestra playing on the sidewalk while Paul fades off under the quizzical gaze of his daughter. By 2004, with Notre musique, it would seem to have taken over the whole text, for the film was announced as being about the collaboration between Godard and German record label ECM. In the context of that film it is difficult to determine both what that music is and who we are, although this discussion will try to advance a hypothesis in that regard. In fact, my main contention will be that music in Godard’s films functions as something like the absent image(s, not those it has lost but rather its cinema to come, what remains to be discovered and live within it, the survival of it. Not a cinema that cannot be seen, rather the image that can perhaps only be heard; and not the romantic or psychedelic dream of a synaesthetic apotheosis either, rather the technological coincidence of sonimage that has also been the precise direction of Godard’s cinematic research for more than thirty years. For the argument I will be making here is inscribed within my own investigation of what I call “technological life,” the means by which, in “prosthetic” symbiosis, or “dorsal” umbrality, a form lives beyond the simplistic opposition of animate and inanimate, or against the reductive presuppositions of autokinetic ipseity..."

  11. The Level of Europium-154 Contaminating Samarium-153-EDTMP Activates the Radiation Alarm System at the US Homeland Security Checkpoints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Najeeb Al Hallak

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available 153Sm-EDTMP is a radiopharmaceutical composed of EDTMP (ethylenediamine-tetramethylenephosphonate and Samarium-153 [1]. 153Sm-EDTMP has an affinity for skeletal tissue and concentrates in areas with increased bone turnover; thus, it is successfully used in relieving pain related to diffuse bone metastases [1]. The manufacturing process of 153Sm-EDTMP leads to contamination with 154Eu (Europium-154 [2]. A previous study only alluded to the retention of 154Eu in the bones after receiving treatment with 153Sm-EDTMP [2]. Activation of the alarm at security checkpoints after 153Sm-EDTMP therapy has not been previously reported. Two out of 15 patients who received 153Sm-EDTMP at Roger Maris Cancer Center (Fargo, N. Dak., USA activated the radiation activity sensors while passing through checkpoints; one at a US airport and the other while crossing theAmerican-Canadian border. We assume that the 154Eu which remained in the patients’ bones activated the sensors. Methods: In order to investigate this hypothesis, we obtained the consent from 3 of our 15 patients who received 153Sm-EDTMP within the previous 4 months to 2 years, including the patient who had activated the radiation alarm at the airport. The patients were scanned with a handheld detector and a gamma camera for energies from 511 keV to 1.3 MeV. Results: All three patients exhibited identical spectral images, and further analysis showed that the observed spectra are the result of 154Eu emissions. Conclusion: Depending on the detection thresholds and windows used by local and federal authorities, the remaining activity of 154Eu retained in patients who received 153Sm-EDTMP could be sufficient enough to increase the count rates above background levels and activate the sensors. At Roger Maris Cancer Center, patients are now informed of the potential consequences of 153Sm-EDTMP therapy prior to initiating treatment. In addition, patients treated with 153Sm-EDTMP at Roger Maris Cancer Center

  12. The Level of Europium-154 Contaminating Samarium-153-EDTMP Activates the Radiation Alarm System at the US Homeland Security Checkpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najeeb Al Hallak, Mohammed; McCurdy, Matt; Zouain, Nicolas; Hayes, Justin

    2009-08-28

    (153)Sm-EDTMP is a radiopharmaceutical composed of EDTMP (ethylenediamine-tetramethylenephosphonate) and Samarium-153 [1]. (153)Sm-EDTMP has an affinity for skeletal tissue and concentrates in areas with increased bone turnover; thus, it is successfully used in relieving pain related to diffuse bone metastases [1]. The manufacturing process of (153)Sm-EDTMP leads to contamination with (154)Eu (Europium-154) [2]. A previous study only alluded to the retention of (154)Eu in the bones after receiving treatment with (153)Sm-EDTMP [2]. Activation of the alarm at security checkpoints after (153)Sm-EDTMP therapy has not been previously reported. Two out of 15 patients who received (153)Sm-EDTMP at Roger Maris Cancer Center (Fargo, N. Dak., USA) activated the radiation activity sensors while passing through checkpoints; one at a US airport and the other while crossing the American-Canadian border. We assume that the (154)Eu which remained in the patients' bones activated the sensors. METHODS: In order to investigate this hypothesis, we obtained the consent from 3 of our 15 patients who received (153)Sm-EDTMP within the previous 4 months to 2 years, including the patient who had activated the radiation alarm at the airport. The patients were scanned with a handheld detector and a gamma camera for energies from 511 keV to 1.3 MeV. RESULTS: All three patients exhibited identical spectral images, and further analysis showed that the observed spectra are the result of (154)Eu emissions. CONCLUSION: Depending on the detection thresholds and windows used by local and federal authorities, the remaining activity of (154)Eu retained in patients who received (153)Sm-EDTMP could be sufficient enough to increase the count rates above background levels and activate the sensors. At Roger Maris Cancer Center, patients are now informed of the potential consequences of (153)Sm-EDTMP therapy prior to initiating treatment. In addition, patients treated with (153)Sm-EDTMP at Roger Maris Cancer

  13. Caution and Warning Alarm Design and Evaluation for NASA CEV Auditory Displays: SHFE Information Presentation Directed Research Project (DRPP) report 12.07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begault, Durand R.; Godfroy, Martine; Sandor, Aniko; Holden, Kritina

    2008-01-01

    The design of caution-warning signals for NASA s Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) and other future spacecraft will be based on both best practices based on current research and evaluation of current alarms. A design approach is presented based upon cross-disciplinary examination of psychoacoustic research, human factors experience, aerospace practices, and acoustical engineering requirements. A listening test with thirteen participants was performed involving ranking and grading of current and newly developed caution-warning stimuli under three conditions: (1) alarm levels adjusted for compliance with ISO 7731, "Danger signals for work places - Auditory Danger Signals", (2) alarm levels adjusted to an overall 15 dBA s/n ratio and (3) simulated codec low-pass filtering. Questionnaire data yielded useful insights regarding cognitive associations with the sounds.

  14. 46 CFR 161.002-10 - Automatic fire detecting system control unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automatic fire detecting system control unit. 161.002-10...-10 Automatic fire detecting system control unit. (a) General. The fire detecting system control unit... control unit to silence the audible fire alarms, but operation of the audible fire alarm device shall...

  15. Unshielded and Shielded Facility Nondestructive Inspection (NDI) Radiation Protection Survey for F.S. Gabreski ANGB, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    chamber (PIC) or electronic personal dosimeter ( EPD ) available 1. Proper central storage location for PIC/ EPDs and control 2...properly 8. EPD audible alarm checked prior to each work day 9. EPD audible alarm set at dose  mR 10...PIC) or electronic personal dosimeter ( EPD ) Available 1. Proper central storage location for PIC/ EPDs and control

  16. C-type allatostatins mimic stress-related effects of alarm pheromone on honey bee learning and memory recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urlacher, Elodie; Devaud, Jean-Marc; Mercer, Alison R

    2017-01-01

    As honey bee populations worldwide are declining there is an urgent need for a deeper understanding of stress reactivity in these important insects. Our data indicate that stress responses in bees (Apis mellifera L.) may be mediated by neuropeptides identified, on the basis of sequence similarities, as allatostatins (ASTA, ASTC and ASTCC). Effects of allatostatin injection are compared with stress-related changes in learning performance induced by the honeybee alarm pheromone, isopentylacetate (IPA). We find that bees can exhibit two markedly different responses to IPA, with opposing effects on learning behaviour and memory generalisation, and that strikingly similar responses can be elicited by allatostatins, in particular ASTCC. These findings lend support to the hypothesis that allatostatins mediate stress reactivity in honey bees and suggest responses to stress in these insects are state dependent.

  17. Technical Basis for the Use of Alarming Personal Criticality Detectors to Augment Permanent Nuclear Incident Monitor (NIM) Systems in Areas Not Normally Occupied

    CERN Document Server

    Yates, K R

    2003-01-01

    The technical basis for the use of alarming personal criticality detectors (APCDs) to augment permanent Nuclear Incident Monitor (NIM) Systems in areas not normally occupied is evaluated. All applicable DOE O 420.1A and ANSI/ANS-8.3-1997 criticality alarm system requirements and recommendations are evaluated for applicability to APCDs. Based on this evaluation, design criteria and administrative requirements are presented for APCDs. Siemens EPD/Mk-2 and EPD-N devices are shown to meet the design criteria. A definition of not normally occupied is also presented.

  18. Multimodal alarm behavior in urban and rural gray squirrels studied by means of observation and a mechanical robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah R. Partan, Andrew G. FULMER, Maya A. M. GOUNARD, Jake E. REDMOND

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization of animal habitats has the potential to affect the natural communication systems of any species able to survive in the changed environment. Urban animals such as squirrels use multiple signal channels to communicate, but it is unknown how urbanization has affected these behaviors. Multimodal communication, involving more than one sensory modality, can be studied by use of biomimetic mechanical animal models that are designed to simulate the multimodal signals and be presented to animal subjects in the field. In this way the responses to the various signal components can be compared and contrasted to determine whether the multimodal signal is made up of redundant or nonredundant components. In this study we presented wild gray squirrels in relatively urban and relatively rural habitats in Western Massachusetts with a biomimetic squirrel model that produced tail flags and alarm barks in a variety of combinations. We found that the squirrels responded to each unimodal component on its own, the bark and tail flag, but they responded most to the complete multimodal signal, containing both the acoustic and the moving visual components, providing evidence that in this context the signal components are redundant and that their combination elicits multimodal enhancement. We expanded on the results of Partan et al. (2009 by providing data on signaling behavior in the presence and absence of conspecifics, suggesting that alarm signaling is more likely if conspecifics are present. We found that the squirrels were more active in the urban habitats and that they responded more to tail flagging in the urban habitats as compared to the rural ones, suggesting the interesting possibility of a multimodal shift from reliance on audio to visual signals in noisier more crowded urban habitats [Current Zoology 56 (3: 313–326, 2010].

  19. Effects of acoustic alarms, designed to reduce small cetacean bycatch in gillnet fisheries, on the behaviour of North Sea fish species in a large tank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kastelein, R.A.; Heul, S. van der; Veen, J. van der; Verboom, W.C.; Jennings, N.; Haan, D. de; Reijnders, P.J.H.

    2007-01-01

    World-wide many cetaceans drown incidentally in fishing nets. To reduce the unwanted bycatch in gillnets, pingers (acoustic alarms) have been developed that are attached to the nets. In the European Union, pingers will be made compulsory in some areas in 2005 and in others in 2007. However, pingers

  20. 46 CFR 113.25-30 - General emergency alarm systems for barges of 300 or more gross tons with sleeping accommodations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... more gross tons with sleeping accommodations for more than six persons. 113.25-30 Section 113.25-30... for barges of 300 or more gross tons with sleeping accommodations for more than six persons. The general emergency alarm system for a barge of 300 or more gross tons with sleeping accommodations for more...

  1. Final Report for the Testing of the Y-12 Criticality Accident Alarm System Detectors at the Godiva IV Burst Reactor (IER-443)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scorby, John C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hickman, David [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hudson, Becka [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Beller, Tim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Goda, Joetta [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Haught, Chris [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Woodrow, Christopher [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ward, Dann [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wilson, Chris [Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), Berkshire (United Kingdom); Clark, Leo [Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), Berkshire (United Kingdom)

    2018-01-05

    This report documents the experimental conditions and final results for the performance testing of the Y-12 Criticality Accident Alarm System (CAAS) detectors at the Godiva IV Burst Reactor at the National Criticality Experimental Research Center (NCERC) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The testing followed a previously issued test plan and was conducted during the week of July 17, 2017, with completion on Thursday July 20. The test subjected CAAS detectors supplied by Y-12 to very intense and short duration mixed neutron and gamma radiation fields to establish compliance to maximum radiation and minimum pulse width requirements. ANSI/ANS- 8.3.1997 states that the “system shall be sufficiently robust as to actuate an alarm signal when exposed to the maximum radiation expected”, which has been defined at Y-12, in Documented Safety Analyses (DSAs), to be a dose rate of 10 Rad/s. ANSI/ANS-8.3.1997 further states that “alarm actuation shall occur as a result of a minimum duration transient” which may be assumed to be 1 msec. The pulse widths and dose rates provided by each burst during the test exceeded those requirements. The CAAS detectors all provided an immediate alarm signal and remained operable after the bursts establishing compliance to the requirements and fitness for re-deployment at Y-12.

  2. Big Five Personality Traits and the General Factor of Personality as Moderators of Stress and Coping Reactions Following an Emergency Alarm on a Swiss University Campus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. Hengartner (Michael P.); D. van der Linden (Dimitri); L. Bohleber (Laura); A. von Wyl (Agnes)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractWe conducted an online survey including 306 participants aged 18-64years to assess the general factor of personality (GFP) and Big Five personality traits in relation to individual stress and coping reactions following a shooting emergency alarm at a Swiss university campus. Although the

  3. Identification of an intraspecific alarm pheromone and two conserved odorant-binding proteins associated with (E)-β-farnesene perception in aphid Rhopalosiphum padi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jia; Xue, Wenxin; Duan, Hongxia; Jiang, Xin; Zhang, Yong; Yu, Wenjuan; Jiang, Shanshan; Sun, Jingrun; Chen, Julian

    2017-08-01

    (E)-β-farnesene (EBF) is the common active component of aphid alarm pheromone. Either or both of two orthologs of ordorant-binding proteins (OBPs), OBP3 and OBP7, recently reported in aphids, may be involved in EBF perception. The aim of this study was to investigate the respondence of the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi to its intraspecific alarm pheromone and which OBP is responsible for that response. We tested the olfactory response of the aphid R. padi to EBF and freshly crushed aphids. Then, we extracted the volatiles from crushed aphids using solid phase microextraction (SPME) for analysis with GC×GC-TOF/MS. We also cloned two OBPs cDNAs in R. padi (RpadOBP3 and RpadOBP7) and expressed them in competent Escherichia coli cells. Both recombinant proteins, RpadOBP3 and RpadOBP7, bound EBF well, with RpadOBP7 having specifically stronger affinity for EBF than for other volatiles. Based on the crystal structure of the OBPs with high identity, we performed homology modeling and analyzed the interactions between RpadOBPs and EBF. In conclusion, R. padi was repelled by both EBF and crushed aphids. EBF was identified as the only volatile that acted as the alarm pheromone. Our results indicated that OBP7 is a potential molecular target to control wheat aphids by disturbing their behaviors to the alarm pheromone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 33 CFR 149.421 - What is the requirement for a previously approved fire detection and alarm system on a deepwater...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... previously approved fire detection and alarm system on a deepwater port? 149.421 Section 149.421 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment Firefighting...

  5. Plaswekker ook succesvol bij 5-7-jarigen met enuresis nocturna [Alarm treatment also successful in children aged 5 to 7 years with nocturnal enuresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwet, J.M.L. van; Wiertz, Y.D.B.M.; Bolk-Bennink, L.F.; Leerdam, F.J.M. van; Hirasing, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    Objective. To determine how many bed-wetting children aged 5-7 years unlearn the habit using the alarm treatment. Design. Descriptive. Setting. TNO Prevention and Health, Leiden, the Netherlands. Methods. The population consisted of all children aged 5 to 7 with nocturnal enuresis (defined as ≤ 2

  6. Limiares de audibilidade em altas freqüências em crianças com história de otite média secretora bilateral Audibility threshold for high frequencies inchildren with medical history of multiples episodes of bilateral secretory otitis media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica de Sá Ferreira

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Existem achados na literatura de limiares elevados em altas freqüências em crianças com história de otite média secretora. OBJETIVO: Caracterizar os limiares de audibilidade nas altas freqüências em crianças normo-ouvintes com história de múltiplos episódios de otite média secretora bilateral. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Constituiu-se uma amostra de 31 crianças de ambos os sexos, sendo 14 com até 3 episódios de otite média secretora bilateral (Grupo 1 e 17 com quatro ou mais episódios (Grupo 2. Foi realizada a audiometria tonal por via aérea para as freqüências de 9.000 a 18.000Hz. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Transversal prospectivo. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença entre os limiares de audibilidade das orelhas direitas e esquerdas dos indivíduos de ambos os grupos para todas as freqüências, porém, houve entre os limiares de audibilidade das orelhas direitas e esquerdas do Grupo 2 em relação ao Grupo 1 para todas as freqüências avaliadas. CONCLUSÕES: 1- Houve uma elevação dos limiares de audibilidade com o aumento das freqüências apresentadas. 2- A audiometria de altas freqüências mostrou-se capaz de separar, em grupos, indivíduos com história de otite média secretora denotando que quatro episódios de otite média já são suficientes para determinar diferenças estatisticamente significantes nos limiares de audibilidade das altas freqüências.Relatively poorer audibility threshold for high frequency was found in children with medical history of multiples episodes of secretory otitis media. AIM: to characterize the audibility threshold for high frequencies in normal-hearing children with medical history of multiples episodes of bilateral secretory otitis media. MATERIALS AND METHODS: a sample of 31 children, from both genders, was divided in two groups: 14 subjects who had not more than 3 episodes of bilateral secretory otitis media (Group 1 and 17 subjects that experienced at least 4 episodes of this condition (Group 2

  7. Spontaneous non-traumatic massive intraabdominal spleen bleeding in young females: Importance of ATLS principles and trauma alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazaryan, Airazat M; Wiborg, Joachim; Hauss, Kristin; Anundsen, Tommy K; Flemmen, Olav J; Holm, Thor Erik; Lauzikas, Giedrius

    2014-01-01

    Female, 28 FINAL DIAGNOSIS: Rupture of the splenic artery aneurysm Symptoms: Hypovolemic shock Medication: - Clinical Procedure: - Specialty: Surgery. Rare disease. ATLS principles have become a standard of care for trauma patients. However, there is poor documentation in regard to spontaneous non-traumatic life-threatening bleedings. Two women, a 21-year-old and a 28-year-old, presented to the admissions department in hemorrhagic shock. The latter woman was in her 26(th) week of pregnancy. The trauma alarm was raised and the patients received prompt, complex diagnostics including ultrasonography verifying massive intraabdominal fluid. Massive infusion therapy was initiated. The first patient was intubated in the emergency room and required cardiopulmonary rescue due to cardiopulmonary arrest. The patients were moved to the surgical theatre for life-saving operations at 30 and 60 minutes, respectively, after arrival in the emergency department. In the first case, we found 4 L of intraabdominal blood and a rupture in the lower pole of the splenic capsule. Splenectomy was performed. The patient developed disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome and was transferred to a first-level trauma centre for further treatment. She survived with slight sequelae in the form of psychosocial maladjustment, and low-grade spasms and myoclonic twitches due to prolonged brain ischemia. She was steadily improving at 17 months of follow-up. Viral mononucleosis was established as the cause of the spontaneous rupture of the spleen. In the second case, we found 2.5 L of intraabdominal blood and persistent bleeding from an aneurism of the splenic artery. A splenectomy was performed. She was transferred to a first-level trauma centre for further treatment. She lost the fetus and underwent autotransplantation of the right kidney after 3 months, due to the finding of an aneurism of the right renal artery on the abdominal CT. We also found an ectasia in the ascending aorta, which will

  8. Desert dust impacts on human health: an alarming worldwide reality and a need for studies in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Longueville, Florence; Ozer, Pierre; Doumbia, Seydou; Henry, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    High desert dust concentrations raise concerns about adverse health effects on human populations. Based on a systematic literature review, this paper aims to learn more about the relationship between desert dust and human health in the world and to analyse the place of West Africa as a study area of interest. Papers focussing on the potential relationship between dust and health and showing quantitative analyses, published between January 1999 and September 2011, were identified using the ISI Web of Knowledge database ( N = 50). A number of adverse health effects, including respiratory, cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary diseases, are associated with dust. This survey highlights obvious dust impacts on human health independently of the study area, health outcomes and method. Moreover, it reveals an imbalance between the areas most exposed to dust and the areas most studied in terms of health effects. None of these studies has been conducted in West Africa, despite the proximity of the Sahara, which produces about half of the yearly global mineral dust. In view of the alarming results in many parts of the world (Asia, Europe, America), this paper concludes by stressing the importance of carrying out impact studies of Saharan dust in West Africa, where dust events are more frequent and intense than anywhere else.

  9. Orco mediates olfactory behaviors and winged morph differentiation induced by alarm pheromone in the grain aphid, Sitobion avenae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jia; Zhang, Yong; Francis, Frédéric; Cheng, Dengfa; Sun, Jingrun; Chen, Julian

    2015-09-01

    Olfaction is crucial for short distance host location and pheromone detection by insects. Complexes of olfactory receptors (ORs) are composed of odor-specific ORs and OR co-receptors (Orco). Orcos are widely co-expressed with odor-specific ORs and are conserved across insect taxa. A number of Orco orthologs have been studied to date, although none has been identified in cereal aphids. In this study, an Orco gene ortholog was cloned from the grain aphid, Sitobion avenae, and named "SaveOrco"; RNA interference (RNAi) reduced the expression of SaveOrco to 34.11% in aphids, resulting in weaker EAG (electroantennogram) responses to plant volatiles (Z-3-hexene-1-ol; methyl salicylate, MeSA) and aphid alarm pheromone (E-β-farnesene, EBF). Aphid wing differentiation induced by EBF was investigated in both RNAi treated and untreated aphids. EBF induced production of winged aphids in both pre-natal and post-natal periods in untreated aphids, but no such induction was observed in the RNAi-treated aphids. We conclude that SaveOrco is crucial for the aphid's response to pheromones and other volatiles, and is involved in wing differentiation triggered by EBF. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Study on Mobile Object Positioning and Alarming System Based on the “Map World” in the Core Area of the Silk Road Economic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Kai

    2017-02-01

    The established “Map World” on the National Geographic Information Public Service Platform offers free access to many geographic information in the Core Area of the Silk Road Economic Belt. Considering the special security situation and severe splittism and anti-splittism struggles in the Core Area of the Silk Road Economic Belt, a set of moving target positioning and alarming platform based on J2EE platform and B/S structure was designed and realized by combining the “Map World” data and global navigation satellite system. This platform solves various problems, such as effective combination of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and “Map World” resources, moving target alarming setting, inquiry of historical routes, system management, etc.

  11. Evaluation of respiratory volume monitoring (RVM) to detect respiratory compromise in advance of pulse oximetry and help minimize false desaturation alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvagno, Samuel M; Duke, Peggy G; Eversole, Daniel S; George, Edward E

    2016-11-01

    Monitoring respiratory function is important. By continuously monitoring respiratory volumes, respiratory depression could be identified before hypoxemia and drive earlier intervention. Here, we evaluate the temporal relationship of respiratory volume monitoring (providing real-time minute ventilation [MV], tidal volume, and respiratory rate in nonintubated patients) to hypoxemic episodes and its potential to help classify true vs false desaturations (related to patient movement/probe dislodgement). Respiratory volume monitoring data, oxygen saturation (SpO2), oxygen supplementation, and opioid use were analyzed in 259 patients following orthopedic surgery. Detection of "low MV" (monitoring can provide advanced warning of impending oxygen desaturation and potentially reduce the number of false SpO2 alarms. Opioid administration increased low MV events correlating with increased LOS. Respiratory volume monitoring can help clinicians individualize patient care, decrease false alarms, adjust opioid dosing, and increase PACU throughput. Similar benefits may translate to the general care floor and prehospital and posthospital environments. Diagnostic study, level II.

  12. Two odorant-binding proteins mediate the behavioural response of aphids to the alarm pheromone (E-ß-farnesene and structural analogues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Feng Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aphids are agricultural pests of great economical interest. Alternatives to insecticides, using semiochemicals, are of difficult applications. In fact, sex pheromones are of little use as aphids reproduce partenogenetically most of the time. Besides, the alarm pheromone, (E-ß-farnesene for a great number of species, is difficult to synthesize and unstable in the environment. The search for novel semiochemicals to be used in population control can be efficiently approached through the study of the olfactory system at the biochemical level. Recently odorant-binding proteins (OBPs have been shown to play a central role in olfactory recognition, thus becoming the target of choice for designing new semiochemicals. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To address the question of how the alarm message is recognised at the level of OBPs, we have tested 29 compounds, including (E-ß-farnesene, in binding assays with 6 recombinant proteins and in behaviour experiments. We have found that good repellents bind OBP3 and/or OBP7, while non repellents present different spectra of binding. These results have been verified with two species of aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum and Myzus persicae, both using (E-ß-farnesene as the alarm pheromone. CONCLUSIONS: Our results represent further support to the idea (so far convincingly demonstrated only in Drosophila that OBPs are involved in decoding the chemical information of odorants and pheromones, and for the first time provide such evidence in other insect species and using wild-type insects. Moreover, the data offer guidelines and protocols for the discovery of potential alarm pheromones, using ligand-binding assays as a preliminary screening before subjecting selected compounds to behaviour tests.

  13. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in children aged 6-13 years-alarming increase in obesity in Cracow, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bac, Aneta; Woźniacka, Renata; Matusik, Stanislaw; Golec, Joanna; Golec, Edward

    2012-02-01

    This study in children aged 6-13 years (n = 1,499) was performed between October 2008 and March 2009. Height and weight measurements were taken to calculate BMI. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was determined by means of IOTF cut-offs with respect to age. Alarming is the fact that the percentage of obese children in Cracow increased dramatically from 1.04% in boys and 0.20% in girls in 1971 to 7% in boys and 3.6% in girls in 2009. In this report, a higher percentage of overweight boys was observed in rural boys (28.14%) than in urban ones (27.31%). Obesity was identified in an almost twice as high percentage of urban boys (7.78%) as in rural ones (3.52%). A higher percentage of overweight girls was registered in rural areas (16.49%) than in urban ones (16.09%). Obesity was prevailing in rural girls (4.12%) relative to their urban counterparts (3.44%). The highest number of overweight urban boys was diagnosed in the group of 12-year-olds (n = 48) and rural boys in the group of 10-year-olds (n = 39), as well as in urban girls aged 11 (n = 17) and rural girls aged 9 (n = 9). The highest number of obesity was observed in rural boys aged 12 (n = 3) and in urban boys aged 9 and 10 (n = 9 in both groups). In the group of girls, obesity prevailed in urban 9-year-olds (n = 5) and in rural 7-year-olds (n = 5). Overweight and obesity affect boys almost twice as frequently as girls. Obesity is twice as frequent in urban boys as in their rural peers.

  14. Size and shape information serve as labels in the alarm calls of Gunnison's prairie dogs Cynomys gunnisoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. N. SLOBODCHIKOFF, William R. BRIGGS, Patricia A DENNIS, Anne-Marie C. HODGE

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Some animals have the capacity to produce different alarm calls for terrestrial and aerial predators. However, it is not clear what cognitive processes are involved in generating these calls. One possibility is the position of the predator: Anything on the ground receives a terrestrial predator call, and anything in the air receives an aerial predator call. Another possibility is that animals are able to recognize the physical features of predators and incorporate those into their calls. As a way of elucidating which of these mechanisms plays a primary role in generating the structure of different calls, we performed two field experiments with Gunnison’s prairie dogs. First, we presented the prairie dogs with a circle, a triangle, and a square, each moving across the colony at the same height and speed. Second, we presented the prairie dogs with two squares of differing sizes. DFA statistics showed that 82.6 percent of calls for the circle and 79.2 percent of the calls for the triangle were correctly classified, and 73.3 percent of the calls for the square were classified as either square or circle. Also, 100 percent of the calls for the larger square and 90 percent of the calls for the smaller square were correctly classified. Because both squares and circles are features of terrestrial predators and triangles are features of aerial predators, our results suggest that prairie dogs might have a cognitive mechanism that labels the abstract shape and size of different predators, rather than the position of the predator [Current Zoology 58 (5: 741-748, 2012].

  15. Habituating alarming atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Marie

    This paper proposes embodied rhythmic sound habituation as a possible resource when designing contextualized technologies in critical atmospheres. The main contribution is collating the concept of rhythm as presented by Henri Lefebvre with the concept of sound habituation to help operationalize...... essential dynamic parameters when designing atmospheres. This research is based on the development of the novel research artefact Kidkit, designed for children, who are going to meet a hospitalized relative with fatal injuries in a Neuro–Intensive Care Unit. Sounds from hospital equipment have important...... functionality for the staff, but are stressful for visitors and patients, as they are designed to demand attention even though they have no direct functional meaning to them. By introducing sounds from the ward, integrated in the furniture as simple sound sample triggers, KidKit invites children to become...

  16. Intensive care alarm system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, J. L.; Herbert, A. L.

    1973-01-01

    Inductive loop has been added to commercially available call system fitted with earphone receiver. System transmits high frequency signals to nurse's receiver to announce patient's need for help without disturbing others.

  17. Neurobiology: Sounding the Alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belin, Pascal; Zatorre, Robert J

    2015-09-21

    Acoustical analysis has revealed a peculiar pattern of energy distribution in human screams; behavioral and neuroimaging data suggest that this pattern is associated with rapid and enhanced processing of sound cues signalling fear. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The ALARM Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, Ira

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted over three recent semesters of an introductory calculus course to test whether it was possible to quantify the effect that difficulty with basic algebraic and arithmetic computation had on individual performance. Points lost during the term were classified as being due to either algebraic and arithmetic mistakes…

  19. Stability of referential signalling across time and locations: testing alarm calls of Australian magpies (Gymnorhina tibicen in urban and rural Australia and in Fiji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Kaplan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In many avian species, vocal repertoire expands and changes throughout life as new syllables are added and sounds adapted to neighbours and circumstances. Referential signals, on the other hand, demand stability and lack of variation so that their meaning can be understood by conspecifics at all times. It is not known how stable such signals may be when the context is changed entirely but the point of reference remains unchanged. We investigated these questions in a rare case of forced translocation of an avian species, the Australian magpie (Gymnorhina tibicen, from Australia to the remote Fijian island of Taveuni decades ago. By using playbacks of vocalisations to 45 magpie groups in Australia, we first established that magpies use functionally referential signals in their alarm call repertoire signalling aerial danger (measured as looking up in response to a specific alarm call even though the speakers were on the ground. With these results in hand, we then used the same playbacks to magpie groups on the island of Taveuni. Our results showed that the meaning of one specific call (eagle alarm call is stable and maintained even in populations that have been isolated from Australian conspecifics over many (at least 10 generations. To our knowledge, this is the first time such a stability of a referential signal has been shown in the natural habitat.

  20. Plan for IER-443 Testing of the Y-12 and AWE Criticality Accident Alarm System Detectors at the Godiva IV Burst Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scorby, J. C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hickman, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hudson, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Garbett, S. [Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), Berkshire (United Kingdom); Auld, G. [Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), Berkshire (United Kingdom); Horrne, A. [Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), Berkshire (United Kingdom); Beller, T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Goda, J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Haught, C. [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Woodrow, C. [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ward, D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-24

    This document provides the scope and details of the “Plan for Testing the Y-12 and AWE Criticality Accident Alarm System Detectors at the Godiva IV Burst Reactor”. Due to the relative simplicity of the testing goals, scope, and methodology, the NCSP Manager approved execution of the test when ready. No preliminary CED-1 or final design CED-2 reports were required or issued. The test will subject Criticality Accident Alarm System (CAAS) detectors supplied by Y- 12 and AWE to very intense and short duration mixed neutron and gamma radiation fields. The goals of the test will be to (1) substantiate functionality, for both existing and newly acquired Y- 12 CAAS detectors, and (2) the ability of the AWE detectors to provide quality temporal dose information after a hypothetical criticality accident. ANSI/ANS-8.3.1997 states that the “system shall be sufficiently robust as to actuate an alarm signal when exposed to the maximum radiation expected”, which has been defined at Y-12, in Documented Safety Analyses (DSAs), to be a dose rate of 10 Rad/s. ANSI/ANS-8.3.1997 further states that “alarm actuation shall occur as a result of a minimum duration transient” which may be assumed to be 1 msec. The pulse widths and dose rates which will be achieved in this test will exceed these requirements. Pulsed radiation fields will be produced by the Godiva IV fast metal burst reactor at the National Criticality Experimental Research Center (NCERC) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The magnitude of the pulses and the relative distances to the detectors will be varied to afford a wide range of radiation fluence and pulse widths. The magnitude of the neutron and gamma fields will be determined by reactor temperature rise to fluence and dose conversions which have been previously established through extensive measurements performed under IER-147. The requirements for CAAS systems to detect and alarm under a “minimum accident of concern” as well as other

  1. Proposal for the award of a blanket purchase contract for the design, supply, installation and maintenance of automatic fire-detection, fire-protection and voice-alarm systems for the Super Proton Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    Proposal for the award of a blanket purchase contract for the design, supply, installation and maintenance of automatic fire-detection, fire-protection and voice-alarm systems for the Super Proton Synchrotron

  2. Preventing deaths and injuries from house fires: a cost-benefit analysis of a community-based smoke alarm installation programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellman, Merissa A; Peterson, Cora; McCoy, Mary A; Stephens-Stidham, Shelli; Caton, Emily; Barnard, Jeffrey J; Padgett, Ted O; Florence, Curtis; Istre, Gregory R

    2018-02-01

    Operation Installation (OI), a community-based smoke alarm installation programme in Dallas, Texas, targets houses in high-risk urban census tracts. Residents of houses that received OI installation (or programme houses) had 68% fewer medically treated house fire injuries (non-fatal and fatal) compared with residents of non-programme houses over an average of 5.2 years of follow-up during an effectiveness evaluation conducted from 2001 to 2011. To estimate the cost-benefit of OI. A mathematical model incorporated programme cost and effectiveness data as directly observed in OI. The estimated cost per smoke alarm installed was based on a retrospective analysis of OI expenditures from administrative records, 2006-2011. Injury incidence assumptions for a population that had the OI programme compared with the same population without the OI programme was based on the previous OI effectiveness study, 2001-2011. Unit costs for medical care and lost productivity associated with fire injuries were from a national public database. From a combined payers' perspective limited to direct programme and medical costs, the estimated incremental cost per fire injury averted through the OI installation programme was $128,800 (2013 US$). When a conservative estimate of lost productivity among victims was included, the incremental cost per fire injury averted was negative, suggesting long-term cost savings from the programme. The OI programme from 2001 to 2011 resulted in an estimated net savings of $3.8 million, or a $3.21 return on investment for every dollar spent on the programme using a societal cost perspective. Community smoke alarm installation programmes could be cost-beneficial in high-fire-risk neighbourhoods. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. Cost-effectiveness of interventions for increasing the possession of functioning smoke alarms in households with pre-school children: a modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saramago, Pedro; Cooper, Nicola J; Sutton, Alex J; Hayes, Mike; Dunn, Ken; Manca, Andrea; Kendrick, Denise

    2014-05-16

    The UK has one of the highest rates for deaths from fire and flames in children aged 0-14 years compared to other high income countries. Evidence shows that smoke alarms can reduce the risk of fire-related injury but little exists on their cost-effectiveness. We aimed to compare the cost effectiveness of different interventions for the uptake of 'functioning' smoke alarms and consequently for the prevention of fire-related injuries in children in the UK. We carried out a decision model-based probabilistic cost-effectiveness analysis. We used a hypothetical population of newborns and evaluated the impact of living in a household with or without a functioning smoke alarm during the first 5 years of their life on overall lifetime costs and quality of life from a public health perspective. We compared seven interventions, ranging from usual care to more complex interventions comprising of education, free/low cost equipment giveaway, equipment fitting and/or home safety inspection. Education and free/low cost equipment was the most cost-effective intervention with an estimated incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of £34,200 per QALY gained compared to usual care. This was reduced to approximately £4,500 per QALY gained when 1.8 children under the age of 5 were assumed per household. Assessing cost-effectiveness, as well as effectiveness, is important in a public sector system operating under a fixed budget restraint. As highlighted in this study, the more effective interventions (in this case the more complex interventions) may not necessarily be the ones considered the most cost-effective.

  4. Reliable and Efficient Access for Alarm-initiated and Regular M2M Traffic in IEEE 802.11ah Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madueño, Germán Corrales; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2016-01-01

    IEEE 802.11ah is a novel WiFi-based protocol, aiming to provide an access solution for the machine-to-machine (M2M) communications. In this paper, we propose an adaptive access mechanism that can be seamlessly incorporated into IEEE 802.11ah protocol operation and that supports all potential M2M...... reporting regimes, which are periodic, on-demand and alarm reporting. The proposed access method is based a periodically re- occurring pool of time slots, whose size is proactively determined on the basis of the reporting activity in the cell. We show that it is possible to both efficiently and reliably...

  5. Preditores da compra de alarme residencial : variáveis de cenário e da história de aprendizagem

    OpenAIRE

    Guadalupe, Marcus Bernardes

    2014-01-01

    A presente pesquisa buscou identificar fatores que aumentam a probabilidade de consumo de alarme como um bem de proteção residencial. Para este fim, uma literatura relacionada a um recorte amplo do fenômeno (incluindo a utilização de outros bens e serviços de proteção residencial) foi então explorada. Constatou-se que o uso de bens e serviços de proteção residencial tem sido investigado enquanto um fenômeno de consumo e, sob essa perspectiva, perseguido primordialmente pelas discipli...

  6. 75 FR 6253 - Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Hyundia-Kia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... immobilizer system and the alarm system in accordance with the EEC, UNECE, Korea standard and Hyundai in-house... device for the new vehicle line. Hyundai will install its passive Smart-key Immobilizer device and alarm... is removed from the smart-key immobilizer control unit. The audible and visual alarm system is...

  7. Smell, learn and live: the role of chemical alarm cues in predator learning during early life history in a marine fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Thomas H; McCormick, Mark I

    2010-03-01

    The speed with which individuals can learn to identify and react appropriately to predation threats when transitioning to new life history stages and habitats will influence their survival. This study investigated the role of chemical alarm cues in both anti-predator responses and predator identification during a transitional period in a newly settled coral reef damselfish, Pomacentrus amboinensis. Individuals were tested for changes in seven behavioural traits in response to conspecific and heterospecific skin extracts. Additionally, we tested whether fish could learn to associate a previously novel chemical cue (i.e. simulated predator scent) with danger, after previously being exposed to a paired cue combining the conspecific skin extract with the novel scent. Fish exposed to conspecific skin extracts were found to significantly decreased their feeding rate whilst those exposed to heterospecific and control cues showed no change. Individuals were also able to associate a previously novel scent with danger after only a single previous exposure to the paired conspecific skin extract/novel scent cue. Our results indicate that chemical alarm cues play a large role in both threat detection and learned predator recognition during the early post-settlement period in coral reef fishes. Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Big Five Personality Traits and the General Factor of Personality as Moderators of Stress and Coping Reactions Following an Emergency Alarm on a Swiss University Campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengartner, Michael P; van der Linden, Dimitri; Bohleber, Laura; von Wyl, Agnes

    2017-02-01

    We conducted an online survey including 306 participants aged 18-64 years to assess the general factor of personality (GFP) and Big Five personality traits in relation to individual stress and coping reactions following a shooting emergency alarm at a Swiss university campus. Although the emergency eventually turned out to be a false alarm, various witnesses showed pronounced distress owing to a vast police operation. The GFP structure was replicated using two alternative modelling approaches. Neuroticism related substantially to acute fear and traumatic distress as well as to more enduring maladaptive coping. Agreeableness was negatively associated with the coping strategy of medication use, whereas both agreeableness and conscientiousness related positively to social activity following the emergency. The GFP related moderately to peri-traumatic distress and showed a substantial negative association with medication use and a strong positive association with social activity. In conclusion, both the GFP and Big Five traits significantly moderate stress responses following a stressful life event. The GFP predominantly relates to socially adaptive coping, whereas in particular neuroticism accounts for acute stress reactions such as fear and traumatic distress. These findings support the notion that personality influences how persons react in the face of adversity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Protective effect of high alkalinity against the deleterious effects of chronic waterborne cadmium exposure on the detection of alarm cues by juvenile silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochhann, Daiani; Benaduce, Ana Paula S; Copatti, Carlos E; Lorenzatto, Karina R; Mesko, Márcia F; Flores, Erico M M; Dressler, Valderi L; Baldisserotto, Bernardo

    2009-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to analyze the effect of chronic cadmium (Cd) exposure at two alkalinity levels (63 and 92 mg l(-1) CaCO(3)) on the antipredatory behavior of juvenile silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) exposed to conspecific skin extract and predator odor. At an alkalinity of 63 mg l(-1) CaCO(3), 30 days of exposure to either 4.5 or 8.0 microg l(-1) Cd impaired the catfish's antipredatory response to alarm cues. However, silver catfish exposed to 4.5 microg l(-1) Cd at an alkalinity of 92 mg l(-1) CaCO(3) responded to skin extract and predator odor. In catfish exposed to 8.0 microg l(-1) Cd at the same alkalinity, only the number of feeding bites decreased, and this occurred only for specimens exposed to predator odor. Our results show that higher alkalinity protected against the deleterious effects of Cd on alarm cue detection but only in the larvae exposed to the lowest waterborne Cd level.

  10. Adherence with ethinylestradiol 20 μg/drospirenone 3 mg in a flexible extended regimen supported by the use of a digital tablet dispenser with or without acoustic alarm: an open-label, randomized, multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegratz, Inka; Elliesen, Jörg; Paoletti, Anna Maria; Walzer, Anja; Kirsch, Bodo

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of a digital dispenser's acoustic alarm function on adherence to ethinylestradiol (EE) 20 μg/drospirenone 3 mg in a flexible extended regimen (EE/drospirenoneFlex) among women in five European countries (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, UK) seeking oral contraception. Randomized, parallel-group open-label study. Women aged 18-35 years received EE/drospirenoneFlex administered in a regimen with cycle lengths of their choice with the aid of a digital pill dispenser over 1 year. In group A (N=250), the dispenser's acoustic alarm was activated (ie, acoustic alarm + visual reminder). In group B (N=249), the acoustic alarm was deactivated (ie, visual reminder only). In addition, the women recorded pill intake daily in diary cards. The primary efficacy variable was the mean delay of daily pill release after the dispenser reminded the woman to take a pill (reference time). Secondary efficacy variables included number of missed pills, contraceptive efficacy, bleeding pattern, tolerability, and user satisfaction. Dispenser data showed a mean (standard deviation [SD]) daily delay in pill release of 88 (126) minutes in group A vs 178 (140) minutes in group B (Pdispenser's activated acoustic alarm improved adherence with daily tablet intake of EE/drospirenoneFlex, reducing missed pills. EE/drospirenoneFlex provided effective contraception and a good tolerability profile.

  11. Faddei Bulgarin ja baltisakslased: enese positsioneerimine äratuskella metafoori kaudu / Faddey Bulgar in and the Baltic Germans. Self-positioning Through the Metaphor of an Alarm Clock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Veizenen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the complicated relations between Russian writer and newspaper editor Faddey Bulgarin (1789–1859 and Baltic Germans, and on the self-positioning tactics he used in the town of Tartu, as expressed in his travel stories, articles and political messages. These texts were written for different reasons and for different readers, but despite their pragmatic characteristics, they give an adequate impression of the dynamics of the author’s ideas in differentiating between his self and the other. The theoretical basis of the article is laid on the imagological opposition between one’s own and the other (auto-image and hetero-image. Among the essential factors distinguishing the two are time and its flow. According to Bulgarin, who had acquired Karlova Manor near Tartu, the lives of Baltic Germans flow in an entirely different tempo – cyclical, insular, and orderly, but still somnolent. In his letters from the 1830s describing Tartu and the way of life of its inhabitants, published in the newspaper Северная пчела, Bulgarin creates a much-idealised and nature-centred romantic image in the spirit of Rousseau. He depicts Tartu as a paradise of virtue, an idealised utopia where the author’s spirit can find peace after St. Petersburg’s colourful life of intrigues. However, the writer sees his role as being an alarm clock, a local awakener. This refers not only to his ambitions to play an important role in the town or enhance the dialogue between the Baltic Germans and Russians, but also to increase the cultural and political influence of the Russians. The latter ambition can clearly be seen in the correspondence written in his role as a secret agent and sent to the Third Department (Tsarist Russia’s secret police. The metaphor of an alarm clock, described in such a context, relates to Bulgarin’s role as a “message-bearing angel”, aimed at informing the local Baltic German nobility of the favourable policy

  12. Constitutive emission of the aphid alarm pheromone, (E)-β-farnesene, from plants does not serve as a direct defense against aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunert, Grit; Reinhold, Carolina; Gershenzon, Jonathan

    2010-11-23

    The sesquiterpene, (E)-β-farnesene (EBF), is the principal component of the alarm pheromone of many aphid species. Released when aphids are attacked by enemies, EBF leads aphids to undertake predator avoidance behaviors and to produce more winged offspring that can leave the plant. Many plants also release EBF as a volatile, and so it has been proposed that this compound could act to defend plants against aphid infestation by 1) deterring aphids from settling, 2) reducing aphid performance due to frequent interruption of feeding and 3) inducing the production of more winged offspring. Here we tested the costs and benefits of EBF as a defense against the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, using transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana lines engineered to continuously emit EBF. No metabolic costs of EBF synthesis could be detected in these plants as they showed no differences in growth or seed production from wild-type controls under two fertilizer regimes. Likewise, no evidence was found for the ability of EBF to directly defend the plant against aphids. EBF emission did not significantly repel winged or wingless morphs from settling on plants. Nor did EBF reduce aphid performance, measured as reproduction, or lead to an increase in the proportion of winged offspring. The lack of any defensive effect of EBF in this study might be due to the fact that natural enemy attack on individual aphids leads to a pulsed emission, but the transgenic lines tested continuously produce EBF to which aphids may become habituated. Thus our results provide no support for the hypothesis that plant emission of the aphid alarm pheromone EBF is a direct defense against aphids. However, there is scattered evidence elsewhere in the literature suggesting that EBF emission might serve as an indirect defense by attracting aphid predators.

  13. Nondestructive Inspection (NDI) Facility Radiation Protection Survey for Homestead AFB, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    chamber (PIC) or electronic personal dosimeter ( EPD ) available 1. Proper central storage location for PIC/ EPDs and control 2...all on-hand current 7. All function properly 8. EPD audible alarm checked prior to each work day 9... EPD audible alarm set at dose  mR? 10. Utilization log available (T.O. 33B-1-1, 6.3.10.2.1) 11. Readings recorded

  14. Una nueva metodología para el análisis de alarmas masivas en sistemas de potencia basada en sistemas cognitivos; A New Congnitive-Based Methodology for Massive alarm management System in Electrical Power Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Aizpurúa P

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta una metodología que integra las técnicas disponibles en la gestión de alarmasmasivas en los centros de control y despacho de energía eléctrica, así como el aporte de cada entidad queestá involucrada en el sistema. Se abordan las técnicas de inteligencia artificial que se pueden utilizar asícomo los recursos de información de que se dispone. El objetivo ulterior se fundamenta en encontrar lacausa raíz de la avalancha de alarmas (árbol de alarmas y reducir la cantidad de ellas utilizando técnicas deasociación o agrupamiento de forma que se cumplan con los estándares establecidos por la norma EEMUA191. Sobre este tema se han desarrollado otros trabajos, sin embargo el problema de la administración dealarmas en la industria sigue siendo un problema sin resolver de forma adecuada. La integración sedesarrolla utilizando la ontología de cada uno de los dominios del sistema, i.e., la ontología de las alarmas,del control, de los eventos, del flujo de energía y la ontología de secuencia de disparo. A la metodología sesuman el uso de los sistemas expertos para el tratamiento de las alarmas en forma de reglas y el uso desistemas neuro-borrosos para tratar la base histórica de datos de alarmas y fallos. This paper presents a methodology that integrates several available techniques to manage the massiveamount of alarm signals in electrical power dispatch control centers, as well as the contribution of eachentity involved in the system. Artificial intelligence techniques that can be used in this problem arereviewed here, based on the information resources available. The final objective is to find the root cause ofavalanches of alarms (Alarm Tree and to reduce their number through grouping or clustering techniquesso that the EEMUA 191 standards are followed. Even though other contributions in this topic have beenmade before, the alarm management problem continues to be practically unsolved for many applicationsin

  15. Using a cluster randomized controlled trial to determine the effects of intervention of battery and hardwired smoke alarms in New South Wales, Australia: Home fire safety checks pilot program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannous, W Kathy; Whybro, Mark; Lewis, Chris; Ollerenshaw, Michael; Watson, Graeme; Broomhall, Susan; Agho, Kingsley E

    2016-02-01

    In 2014, Fire & Rescue New South Wales piloted the delivery of its home fire safety checks program (HFSC) aimed at engaging and educating targeted top "at risk" groups to prevent and prepare for fire. This pilot study aimed to assess the effectiveness of smoke alarms using a cluster randomized controlled trial. Survey questionnaires were distributed to the households that had participated in the HFSC program (intervention group). A separate survey questionnaire was distributed to the control group that was identified with similar characteristics to the intervention group in the same suburb. To adjust for potential clustering effects, generalized estimation equations with a log link were used. Multivariable analyses revealed that battery and hardwired smoking alarm usage increased by 9% and 3% respectively among the intervention group compared to the control group. Females were more likely to install battery smoke alarms than males. Respondents who possessed a certificate or diploma (AOR=1.31, 95% CI 1.00-1.70, P=0.047) and those who were educated up to years 8-12 (AOR=1.32, 95% CI 1.06-1.64, P=0.012) were significantly more likely to install battery smoke alarms than those who completed bachelor degrees. Conversely, holders of a certificate or diploma and people who were educated up to years 8-12 were 31% (AOR=0.69, 95% CI 0.52-0.93, P=0.014) and 24% (AOR=0.76, 95% CI 0.60-0.95, P=0.015) significantly less likely to install a hardwired smoke alarm compared to those who completed bachelor degrees. This pilot study provided evidence of the benefit of the HFSC in New South Wales. Fire safety intervention programs, like HFSC, need to be targeted to male adults with lower level of schooling even when they are aware of their risks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  16. Polymicrobial sepsis impairs bystander recruitment of effector cells to infected skin despite optimal sensing and alarming function of skin resident memory CD8 T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek B Danahy

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is a systemic infection that enhances host vulnerability to secondary infections normally controlled by T cells. Using CLP sepsis model, we observed that sepsis induces apoptosis of circulating memory CD8 T-cells (TCIRCM and diminishes their effector functions, leading to impaired CD8 T-cell mediated protection to systemic pathogen re-infection. In the context of localized re-infections, tissue resident memory CD8 T-cells (TRM provide robust protection in a variety of infectious models. TRM rapidly 'sense' infection in non-lymphoid tissues and 'alarm' the host by enhancing immune cell recruitment to the site of the infection to accelerate pathogen clearance. Here, we show that compared to pathogen-specific TCIRCM, sepsis does not invoke significant numerical decline of Vaccinia virus induced skin-TRM keeping their effector functions (e.g., Ag-dependent IFN-γ production intact. IFN-γ-mediated recruitment of immune cells to the site of localized infection was, however, reduced in CLP hosts despite TRM maintaining their 'sensing and alarming' functions. The capacity of memory CD8 T-cells in the septic environment to respond to inflammatory cues and arrive to the site of secondary infection/antigen exposure remained normal suggesting T-cell-extrinsic factors contributed to the observed lesion. Mechanistically, we showed that IFN-γ produced rapidly during sepsis-induced cytokine storm leads to reduced IFN-γR1 expression on vascular endothelium. As a consequence, decreased expression of adhesion molecules and/or chemokines (VCAM1 and CXCL9 on skin endothelial cells in response to TRM-derived IFN-γ was observed, leading to sub-optimal bystander-recruitment of effector cells and increased susceptibility to pathogen re-encounter. Importantly, as visualized by intravital 2-photon microscopy, exogenous administration of CXCL9/10 was sufficient to correct sepsis-induced impairments in recruitment of effector cells at the localized site of TRM

  17. The role of secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor and elafin (elastase-specific inhibitor/skin-derived antileukoprotease as alarm antiproteinases in inflammatory lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sallenave Jean-Michel

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor and elafin are two low-molecular-mass elastase inhibitors that are mainly synthesized locally at mucosal sites. It is thought that their physicochemical properties allow them to efficiently inhibit target enzymes, such as neutrophil elastase, released into the interstitium. Historically, in the lung, these inhibitors were first purified from secretions of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cystic fibrosis. This suggested that they might be important in controlling excessive neutrophil elastase release in these pathologies. They are upregulated by 'alarm signals' such as bacterial lipopolysaccharides, and cytokines such as interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor and have been shown to be active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, so that they have joined the growing list of antimicrobial 'defensin-like' peptides produced by the lung. Their site of synthesis and presumed functions make them very attractive candidates as potential therapeutic agents under conditions in which the excessive release of elastase by neutrophils might be detrimental. Because of its natural tropism for the lung, the use of adenovirus-mediated gene transfer is extremely promising in such applications.

  18. ABPM Induced Alarm Reaction: A Possible Cause of Overestimation of Daytime Blood Pressure Values Reduced By Treatment with Beta-Blockers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvo, Francesco; Lonati, Chiara; Albano, Monica; Fogliacco, Paolo; Errani, Andrea Riccardo; Vallo, Cinzia; Berardi, Michele; Meinero, Vito; Muzzulini, Carlo Lorenzo; Morganti, Alberto

    2016-09-01

    Alarm reaction to clinical blood pressure (BP) measurement, defined white-coat effect (WCE), can cause overestimation of true BP values. To assess whether ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) can similarly affect BP values during the initial hours of recording. In 420 ABPMs selected for a first systolic BP (SBP) reading at least 10 mmHg higher than the mean daytime SBP, we calculated mean diurnal and 24 h SBP with and without the exclusion of the two first hours of recording defined as the WCE window (WCEw). We also calculated the magnitude and duration of WCE. These analyses were also performed separately in patients off anti-hypertensive treatment (n = 156), and on treatment with and without the inclusion of beta-blockers (respectively n = 113 and 151). Exclusion of WCEw period reduced mean diurnal and 24 h SBP respectively from 135 ± 0.5 to 133 ± 0.5 (p genders but the duration was longer in females (66 ± 2 vs. 56 ± 2 min, p genders but this effect was statistically significant only in males. In some patients ABPM is not free from WCE. WCE may affect the overall estimation of BP profile and is longer but less blunted by beta-blockers in females than in males.

  19. Dynamic compressibility of air in porous structures at audible frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lafarge, Denis; Lemarinier, Pavel; Allard, Jean F.

    1997-01-01

    Measurements of dynamic compressibility of air-filled porous sound-absorbing materials are compared with predictions involving two parametere, the static thermal permeability k'_0 and the thermal characteristic dimension GAMMA'. Emphasis on the notion of dynamic and static thermal permeability...... of the viscous forces. Using both parameters, a simple model is constructed for the dynamic thermal permeability k', which is completely analogous to the Johnson et al. [J. Fluid Mech. vol. 176, 379 (1987)] model of dynamic viscous permeability k. The resultant modeling of dynamic compressibility provides...... predictions which are closer to the experimental results than the previously used simpler model where the compressibility is the same as in identical circular cross-sectional shaped pores, or distributions of slits, related to a given GAMMA'....

  20. Vibration of railway bridges in the audible frequency range

    OpenAIRE

    Herron, David

    2009-01-01

    The noise level associated with a train travelling on a bridge is normally greater than that for a train travelling on plain track. It is sometimes the bridge noise that causes the highest levels of disturbance to people in the vicinity or triggers action underregulations such as the Environmental Noise Directive. Consequently, there is a need to study means of predicting noise levels from proposed bridges, noise controlmeasures for existing structures and principles of low-noise bridge desig...

  1. Audible Computer-Assisted Instruction: Toward the Compleat CAI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzler, Emanuel C.

    1979-01-01

    Presents the technical details of the hardware and software used with two kinds of computers, the Radio Shack TRS-80 and the Apple II, in developing personalized computer-assisted instruction with the addition of the instructor's voice interfaced with the computer. Programing controls for this interface are listed. (RAO)

  2. Spatial filtering of audible sound with acoustic landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuping; Tao, Jiancheng; Qiu, Xiaojun; Cheng, Jianchun

    2017-07-01

    Acoustic metasurfaces manipulate waves with specially designed structures and achieve properties that natural materials cannot offer. Similar surfaces work in audio frequency range as well and lead to marvelous acoustic phenomena that can be perceived by human ears. Being intrigued by the famous Maoshan Bugle phenomenon, we investigate large scale metasurfaces consisting of periodic steps of sizes comparable to the wavelength of audio frequency in both time and space domains. We propose a theoretical method to calculate the scattered sound field and find that periodic corrugated surfaces work as spatial filters and the frequency selective character can only be observed at the same side as the incident wave. The Maoshan Bugle phenomenon can be well explained with the method. Finally, we demonstrate that the proposed method can be used to design acoustical landscapes, which transform impulsive sound into famous trumpet solos or other melodious sound.

  3. Spatial filtering of audible sound with acoustic landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Shuping; Tao, Jiancheng; Qiu, Xiaojun; Cheng, Jianchun

    2017-01-01

    Acoustic metasurfaces manipulate waves with specially designed structures and achieve properties that natural materials cannot offer. Similar surfaces work in audio frequency range as well and lead to marvelous acoustic phenomena that can be perceived by human ears. Being intrigued by the famous Maoshan Bugle phenomenon, we investigate large scale metasurfaces consisting of periodic steps of sizes comparable to the wavelength of audio frequency in both time and space domains. We propose a the...

  4. Audible thunder characteristic and the relation between peak ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and Fourier transform, thunder frequency spectra in observation location have been calculated. Then the .... level-ion partition function and i+1-level-ion par- tition function. The quantity ΔIi is the correct value of the ionization energy by applying Debye. Hüchel's theory. ... high-speed-scanning-digital camcorder with grat-.

  5. No audible wheezing: nuggets and conundrums from mouse asthma models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Joshua A; Austen, K Frank

    2005-06-20

    Mouse models of T helper type 2 (Th2) cell-biased pulmonary inflammation have elucidated mechanisms of sensitization, cell traffic, and induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Nonetheless, most mice lack intrinsic AHR, a central property of human asthma, and disparities persist regarding the contributions of eosinophils and mast cells and the sensitivity to induced AHR in the commonly used mouse strains. We suggest that these discordances, reflecting methodological and genetic differences, may be informative for understanding heterogeneity of human asthma.

  6. The control, monitor, and alarm system for the ICT equipment of the ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianotti, Fulvio; Fioretti, Valentina; Tanci, Claudio; Conforti, Vito; Tacchini, Alessandro; Leto, Giuseppe; Gallozzi, Stefano; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Trifoglio, Massimo; Malaguti, Giuseppe; Zoli, Andrea

    2014-07-01

    ASTRI is an Italian flagship project whose first goal is the realization of an end-to-end telescope prototype, named ASTRI SST-2M, for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The prototype will be installed in Italy during Fall 2014. A second goal will be the realization of the ASTRI/CTA mini-array which will be composed of seven SST-2M telescopes placed at the CTA Southern Site. The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) equipment necessary to drive the infrastructure for the ASTRI SST-2M prototype is being designed as a complete and stand-alone computer center. The design goal is to obtain basic ICT equipment that might be scaled, with a low level of redundancy, for the ASTRI/CTA mini-array, taking into account the necessary control, monitor and alarm system requirements. The ICT equipment envisaged at the Serra La Nave observing station in Italy, where the ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype will operate, includes computers, servers and workstations, network devices, an uninterruptable power supply system, and air conditioning systems. Suitable hardware and software tools will allow the parameters related to the behavior and health of each item of equipment to be controlled and monitored. This paper presents the proposed architecture and technical solutions that integrate the ICT equipment in the framework of the Observatory Control System package of the ASTRI/CTA Mini- Array Software System, MASS, to allow their local and remote control and monitoring. An end-toend test case using an Internet Protocol thermometer is reported in detail.

  7. The main component of an alarm pheromone of kissing bugs plays multiple roles in the cognitive modulation of the escape response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián eMinoli

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Innate responses in animals can be modulated by experience. Disturbed adults of the triatomine bug Triatoma infestans release an alarm pheromone (AP that elicits an escape response in conspecific larvae. The main component of this AP, the isobutyric acid (IsoAc, alone has already shown to generate an escape response in this species. However, not much is known about the modulation of this behavior by non-associative and associative cognitive processes. We present here evidences of the cognitive capacities of T. infestans larvae in an escape context under different conditioning paradigms, including IsoAc in different roles. We show that: 1 the duration of a pre-exposure to IsoAc plays a main role in determining the type of non-associative learning expressed: short time pre-exposures elicit a sensitization while a longer pre-exposure time triggers a switch from repellence to attractiveness; 2 a simple pre-exposure event is enough to modulate the escape response of larvae to the AP and to its main component: IsoAc; 3 IsoAc and the AP are perceived as different chemical entities; 4 an association between IsoAc and an aversive stimulus can be created under a classical conditioning paradigm; 5 an association between IsoAc and a self-action can be generated under an operant conditioning. These results evince that IsoAc can attain multiple and different cognitive roles in the modulation of the escape response of triatomines and show how cognitive processes can modulate a key behavior for surviving, as it is the escaping response in presence of a potential danger in insects.

  8. Evaluation of the concrete shield compositions from the 2010 criticality accident alarm system benchmark experiments at the CEA Valduc SILENE facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Thomas Martin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Celik, Cihangir [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dunn, Michael E [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wagner, John C [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McMahan, Kimberly L [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Authier, Nicolas [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Valduc, Is-sur-Tille (France); Jacquet, Xavier [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Valduc, Is-sur-Tille (France); Rousseau, Guillaume [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Valduc, Is-sur-Tille (France); Wolff, Herve [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Valduc, Is-sur-Tille (France); Savanier, Laurence [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Valduc, Is-sur-Tille (France); Baclet, Nathalie [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Valduc, Is-sur-Tille (France); Lee, Yi-kang [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette (France); Trama, Jean-Christophe [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette (France); Masse, Veronique [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette (France); Gagnier, Emmanuel [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette (France); Naury, Sylvie [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette (France); Blanc-Tranchant, Patrick [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette (France); Hunter, Richard [Babcock International Group (United Kingdom); Kim, Soon [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dulik, George Michael [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reynolds, Kevin H. [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In October 2010, a series of benchmark experiments were conducted at the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA) Valduc SILENE facility. These experiments were a joint effort between the United States Department of Energy Nuclear Criticality Safety Program and the CEA. The purpose of these experiments was to create three benchmarks for the verification and validation of radiation transport codes and evaluated nuclear data used in the analysis of criticality accident alarm systems. This series of experiments consisted of three single-pulsed experiments with the SILENE reactor. For the first experiment, the reactor was bare (unshielded), whereas in the second and third experiments, it was shielded by lead and polyethylene, respectively. The polyethylene shield of the third experiment had a cadmium liner on its internal and external surfaces, which vertically was located near the fuel region of SILENE. During each experiment, several neutron activation foils and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were placed around the reactor. Nearly half of the foils and TLDs had additional high-density magnetite concrete, high-density barite concrete, standard concrete, and/or BoroBond shields. CEA Saclay provided all the concrete, and the US Y-12 National Security Complex provided the BoroBond. Measurement data from the experiments were published at the 2011 International Conference on Nuclear Criticality (ICNC 2011) and the 2013 Nuclear Criticality Safety Division (NCSD 2013) topical meeting. Preliminary computational results for the first experiment were presented in the ICNC 2011 paper, which showed poor agreement between the computational results and the measured values of the foils shielded by concrete. Recently the hydrogen content, boron content, and density of these concrete shields were further investigated within the constraints of the previously available data. New computational results for the first experiment are now available

  9. Functional difference between sustained and transient modulations of cognitive control in the simon task: evidence from false alarm responses on no-go trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Kunihiro; Takahashi, Shin'ya

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive control in response compatibility tasks is modulated by the task context. Two types of contextual modulations have been demonstrated; sustained (block-wise) and transient (trial-by-trial). Recent research suggests that these modulations have different underlying mechanisms. This study presents new evidence supporting this claim by comparing false alarm (FA) responses on no-go trials of the Simon task between the sustained and transient contexts. In Experiment 1, the sustained context was manipulated so that a block included a larger number of incongruent trials. Results showed that participants made more FA responses by the hand opposite to the stimulus location. This suggests a generation of response bias in which the task-irrelevant location information is utilized in a reversed manner (i.e., to respond with the right hand to a stimulus presented on the left side and vice versa). Next, Experiment 2 examined the effect of the transient context and found that overall FA rate was lower when a no-go trial was preceded by an incongruent trial than by a congruent trial, whereas such response bias as that shown in Experiment 1 was not demonstrated. This suggests that the transient conflict context enhances inhibition of the task-irrelevant process but does not make the task-irrelevant information actively usable. Based on these results, we propound two types of cognitive control modulations as adaptive behaviors: response biasing based on utilization of the task-irrelevant information under the sustained conflict context and transient enhancement of inhibition of the task-irrelevant process based on the online conflict monitoring.

  10. Population-specific use of the same tool-assisted alarm call between two wild orangutan populations (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii indicates functional arbitrariness [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano R Lameira

    Full Text Available Arbitrariness is an elementary feature of human language, yet seldom an object of comparative inquiry. While arbitrary signals for the same function are relatively frequent between animal populations across taxa, the same signal with arbitrary functions is rare and it remains unknown whether, in parallel with human speech, it may involve call production in animals. To investigate this question, we examined a particular orangutan alarm call - the kiss-squeak - and two variants - hand and leaf kiss-squeaks. In Tuanan (Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, the acoustic frequency of unaided kiss-squeaks is negatively related to body size. The modified variants are correlated with perceived threat and are hypothesized to increase the perceived body size of the sender, as the use of a hand or leaves lowers the kiss-squeak's acoustic frequency. We examined the use of these variants in the same context in another orangutan population of the same sub-species and with partially similar habitat at Cabang Panti (West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Identical analyses of data from this site provided similar results for unaided kiss-squeaks but dissimilar results for hand and leaf kiss-squeaks. Unaided kiss-squeaks at Cabang Panti were emitted as commonly and showed the same relationship to body size as in Tuanan. However, at Cabang Panti, hand kiss-squeaks were extremely rare, while leaf-use neither conveyed larger body size nor was related to perceived threat. These findings indicate functional discontinuity between the two sites and therefore imply functional arbitrariness of leaf kiss-squeaks. These results show for the first time the existence of animal signals involving call production with arbitrary function. Our findings are consistent with previous studies arguing that these orangutan call variants are socially learned and reconcile the role of gestures and calls within evolutionary theories based on common ancestry for speech and music.

  11. The main component of an alarm pheromone of kissing bugs plays multiple roles in the cognitive modulation of the escape response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minoli, Sebastian; Palottini, Florencia; Manrique, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Innate responses in animals can be modulated by experience. Disturbed adults of the triatomine bug Triatoma infestans release an alarm pheromone (AP) that elicits an escape response in conspecific larvae. The main component of this AP, the isobutyric acid (IsoAc), alone has already shown to generate an escape response in this species. However, not much is known about the modulation of this behavior by non-associative and associative cognitive processes. We present here evidences of the cognitive capacities of T. infestans larvae in an escape context under different conditioning paradigms, including IsoAc in different roles. We show that: (1) the duration of a pre-exposure to IsoAc plays a main role in determining the type of non-associative learning expressed: short time pre-exposures elicit a sensitization while a longer pre-exposure time triggers a switch from repellence to attractiveness; (2) a simple pre-exposure event is enough to modulate the escape response of larvae to the AP and to its main component: IsoAc; (3) IsoAc and the AP are perceived as different chemical entities; (4) an association between IsoAc and an aversive stimulus can be created under a classical conditioning paradigm; (5) an association between IsoAc and a self-action can be generated under an operant conditioning. These results evince that IsoAc can attain multiple and different cognitive roles in the modulation of the escape response of triatomines and show how cognitive processes can modulate a key behavior for surviving, as it is the escaping response in presence of a potential danger in insects.

  12. Population-specific use of the same tool-assisted alarm call between two wild orangutan populations (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii) indicates functional arbitrariness [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lameira, Adriano R; Hardus, Madeleine E; Nouwen, Kim J J M; Topelberg, Eva; Delgado, Roberto A; Spruijt, Berry M; Sterck, Elisabeth H M; Knott, Cheryl D; Wich, Serge A

    2013-01-01

    Arbitrariness is an elementary feature of human language, yet seldom an object of comparative inquiry. While arbitrary signals for the same function are relatively frequent between animal populations across taxa, the same signal with arbitrary functions is rare and it remains unknown whether, in parallel with human speech, it may involve call production in animals. To investigate this question, we examined a particular orangutan alarm call - the kiss-squeak - and two variants - hand and leaf kiss-squeaks. In Tuanan (Central Kalimantan, Indonesia), the acoustic frequency of unaided kiss-squeaks is negatively related to body size. The modified variants are correlated with perceived threat and are hypothesized to increase the perceived body size of the sender, as the use of a hand or leaves lowers the kiss-squeak's acoustic frequency. We examined the use of these variants in the same context in another orangutan population of the same sub-species and with partially similar habitat at Cabang Panti (West Kalimantan, Indonesia). Identical analyses of data from this site provided similar results for unaided kiss-squeaks but dissimilar results for hand and leaf kiss-squeaks. Unaided kiss-squeaks at Cabang Panti were emitted as commonly and showed the same relationship to body size as in Tuanan. However, at Cabang Panti, hand kiss-squeaks were extremely rare, while leaf-use neither conveyed larger body size nor was related to perceived threat. These findings indicate functional discontinuity between the two sites and therefore imply functional arbitrariness of leaf kiss-squeaks. These results show for the first time the existence of animal signals involving call production with arbitrary function. Our findings are consistent with previous studies arguing that these orangutan call variants are socially learned and reconcile the role of gestures and calls within evolutionary theories based on common ancestry for speech and music.

  13. The main component of an alarm pheromone of kissing bugs plays multiple roles in the cognitive modulation of the escape response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minoli, Sebastian; Palottini, Florencia; Manrique, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Innate responses in animals can be modulated by experience. Disturbed adults of the triatomine bug Triatoma infestans release an alarm pheromone (AP) that elicits an escape response in conspecific larvae. The main component of this AP, the isobutyric acid (IsoAc), alone has already shown to generate an escape response in this species. However, not much is known about the modulation of this behavior by non-associative and associative cognitive processes. We present here evidences of the cognitive capacities of T. infestans larvae in an escape context under different conditioning paradigms, including IsoAc in different roles. We show that: (1) the duration of a pre-exposure to IsoAc plays a main role in determining the type of non-associative learning expressed: short time pre-exposures elicit a sensitization while a longer pre-exposure time triggers a switch from repellence to attractiveness; (2) a simple pre-exposure event is enough to modulate the escape response of larvae to the AP and to its main component: IsoAc; (3) IsoAc and the AP are perceived as different chemical entities; (4) an association between IsoAc and an aversive stimulus can be created under a classical conditioning paradigm; (5) an association between IsoAc and a self-action can be generated under an operant conditioning. These results evince that IsoAc can attain multiple and different cognitive roles in the modulation of the escape response of triatomines and show how cognitive processes can modulate a key behavior for surviving, as it is the escaping response in presence of a potential danger in insects. PMID:23847483

  14. STAAR: a randomised controlled trial of electronic adherence monitoring with reminder alarms and feedback to improve clinical outcomes for children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Robert W; Elphick, Heather E; Rigby, Alan S; Daw, William J; King, David A; Smith, Laurie J; Everard, Mark L

    2017-04-01

    Suboptimal adherence to inhaled steroids is common in children with asthma and is associated with poor disease control, reduced quality of life and even death. Previous studies using feedback of electronically monitored adherence data have demonstrated improved adherence, but have not demonstrated a significant impact on clinical outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine whether introduction of this approach into routine practice would result in improved clinical outcomes. Children with asthma aged 6-16 years were randomised to the active intervention consisting of electronic adherence monitoring with daily reminder alarms together with feedback in the clinic regarding their inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) use or to the usual care arm with adherence monitoring alone. All children had poorly controlled asthma at baseline, taking ICS and long-acting β-agonists. Subjects were seen in routine clinics every 3 months for 1 year. The primary outcome was the Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) score. Secondary outcomes included adherence and markers of asthma morbidity. 77 of 90 children completed the study (39 interventions, 38 controls). Adherence in the intervention group was 70% vs 49% in the control group (p≤0.001). There was no significant difference in the change in ACQ, but children in the intervention group required significantly fewer courses of oral steroids (p=0.008) and fewer hospital admissions (p≤0.001). The results indicate that electronic adherence monitoring with feedback is likely to be of significant benefit in the routine management of poorly controlled asthmatic subjects. NCT02451709; pre-result. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Incidence of Cancer: Alarming Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annia Lourdes Iglesias Armenteros

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is an important health problem worldwide. It affects all of the countries, independently of the race, culture, level of economical development and political system. Around 10 million of new cases of cancer are detected every year. At present approximately 50 000 women died because of this disease.

  16. Adherence with ethinylestradiol 20 µg/drospirenone 3 mg in a flexible extended regimen supported by the use of a digital tablet dispenser with or without acoustic alarm: an open-label, randomized, multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiegratz I

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inka Wiegratz,1,2 Jörg Elliesen,3 Anna Maria Paoletti,4 Anja Walzer,3 Bodo Kirsch3 1Kinderwunschpraxis am Goetheplatz, Frankfurt, Germany; 2MVZ Kinderwunschzentrum Wiesbaden GmbH, Wiesbaden, Germany; 3Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals, Berlin, Germany; 4Clinica Ostetrica e Ginecologica, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, ItalyObjective: To evaluate the effect of a digital dispenser's acoustic alarm function on adherence to ethinylestradiol (EE 20 µg/drospirenone 3 mg in a flexible extended regimen (EE/drospirenoneFlex among women in five European countries (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, UK seeking oral contraception.Study design: Randomized, parallel-group open-label study.Methods: Women aged 18–35 years received EE/drospirenoneFlex administered in a regimen with cycle lengths of their choice with the aid of a digital pill dispenser over 1 year. In group A (N=250, the dispenser's acoustic alarm was activated (ie, acoustic alarm + visual reminder. In group B (N=249, the acoustic alarm was deactivated (ie, visual reminder only. In addition, the women recorded pill intake daily in diary cards. The primary efficacy variable was the mean delay of daily pill release after the dispenser reminded the woman to take a pill (reference time. Secondary efficacy variables included number of missed pills, contraceptive efficacy, bleeding pattern, tolerability, and user satisfaction.Results: Dispenser data showed a mean (standard deviation [SD] daily delay in pill release of 88 (126 minutes in group A vs 178 (140 minutes in group B (P<0.0001. Median (lower quartile, Q1; upper quartile, Q3 number of missed pills was 0 (0; 1 in group A vs 4 (1; 9 in group B (P<0.0001. Diary card results revealed similar trends; however, underreporting of missed pills was evident in both groups. No pregnancies were reported during 424 women-years of exposure. Across the two groups, the mean (SD EE/drospirenoneFlex cycle length was 51.0 (31.8 days with strong regional

  17. Neuromonitoring with pulse-train stimulation for implantation of thoracic pedicle screws: a blinded and randomized clinical study. Part 1. Methods and alarm criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calancie, Blair; Donohue, Miriam L; Harris, Colin B; Canute, Gregory W; Singla, Amit; Wilcoxen, Kaitlin G; Moquin, Ross R

    2014-06-01

    Reports of the accuracy of existing neuromonitoring methods for detecting or preventing medial malpositioning of thoracic pedicle screws have varied widely in their claimed effectiveness. The object of this study was to develop, test, and validate a novel neuromonitoring method for preventing medial malpositioning of pedicle screws in the thoracic spine during surgery. This is a prospective, blinded and randomized study using a novel combination of input (4-pulse stimulus trains delivered within the pedicle track) and output (evoked electromyography from leg muscles) to detect pedicle track trajectories that-once implanted with a screw-would cause that screw to breach the pedicle's medial wall and encroach upon the spinal canal. For comparison, the authors also used screw stimulation as an input and evoked electromyogram from intercostal and abdominal muscles as output measures. Intraoperative electrophysiological findings were compared with postoperative CT scans by multiple reviewers blinded to patient identity or intraoperative findings. Data were collected from 71 patients, in whom 802 screws were implanted between the T-1 and L-1 vertebral levels. A total of 32 screws ended up with screw threads encroaching on the spinal canal by at least 2 mm. Pulse-train stimulation within the pedicle track using a ball-tipped probe and electromyography from lower limb muscles correctly predicted all 32 (100%) of these medially malpositioned screws. The combination of pedicle track stimulation and electromyogram response from leg muscles proved to be far more effective in predicting these medially malpositioned screws than was direct screw stimulation and any of the target muscles (intercostal, abdominal, or lower limb muscles) we monitored. Based on receiver operating characteristic analysis, the combination of 10-mA (lower alarm) and 15-mA stimulation intensities proved most effective for detection of pedicle tracks that ultimately gave rise to medially malpositioned

  18. ZONAS OSCURAS EN EL SISTEMA DE ALARMA DE ADVERTENCIA DE TSUNAMI EN CHILE DARK ZONES IN ALARM SYSTEM OF TSUNAMI OF WARNING OF TSUNAMI IN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Alvarez

    2010-12-01

    - ministry of interior (ONEMI and hydrographic and oceanographic service of Chilean navy (SHOA. This article deals with experiences carried out in order to activate the warning systems, generating fictional telluric events and / or historical telluric events capable of triggering tsunami occurrences. It also proposes a working hypothesis that will allow monitoring the response of the state agencies, through the procedures established by law in the Republic of Chile. Our research delivers results that allow us to affirm that there are areas for hypothetical events that could generate tsunamis in which the To carry out this research we have used a software called STLAT based on simplified equations of the propagation of a tsunami wave, which has allowed us to get quick results. We have also carried out tests with official data which have shown that the alarm system was not able to respond appropriately to the 8.4 M Atico event that occurred in Peru in 2001.

  19. Analysis of alarming signals for the progression of atrophic gastritis to dysplasia Análisis de las señales de alarma en la progresión de la gastritis atrófica a displasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Qiang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: atrophic gastritis (AG and dysplasia are precancerous lesions, with which early surveillance of disease progression is particularly important for patients. The present study aimed to explore potential alarming signals for atrophic gastritis progression towards dysplasia. Methods: clinical data for patients with AG in the Digestive Endoscopy Center of Guangzhou Nanfang Hospital between 2001 and 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Survival analysis, dichotomous logistic regression analysis and rank correlation analysis were carried out. Results: in 234 patients with atrophic gastritis, after follow up of 0.5, 1, 2, 5 and 10 years, the occurrence rates of dysplasia were respectively 2.3, 4.4, 9.6, 19.3, and 42.4%. Patients with AG combined with antral ulcer or gastric angle ulcer, had a higher risk for dysplasia than patients with simple AG (OR = 2.427, 95%Cl 1.069 ~ 5.511, p = 0.034; OR = 2.961, 95%Cl 1.336 ~ 6.564, p = 0.008. The constituent ratios of moderate to severe dysplasia were respectively 8.6, 2.7 and 1.2% (p = 0.000 in three patient groups: AG combined with antral ulcer/gastric angle ulcer (n = 255, antral ulcer/gastric angle ulcer alone (n = 1,389, and AG alone (n = 3,106. The Spearman correlation coefficients between a Hp infection; and b atrophy, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia were -0.114 (p = 0.078, -0.169 (p = 0.009 and 0.064 (p > 0.05, respectively. Conclusions: long follow-up interval and gastric ulcer may be alarming signals for the progression of AG to dysplasia. But in patients with atrophy, intestinal metaplasia or dysplasia, Hp infection may not be a risk factor for these lesions aggravated, further studies are required to confirm it.

  20. Fact-finding Survey in Response to the Manipulation of Personal Alarm Dosimeter Collection Efficiency: Lessons Learned About Post-Emergency Radiation Protection from the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi APP Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Shojiro

    2015-01-01

    During emergency work at TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Atomic Power Plant on December 1, 2011 a subcontractor demanded that its contracted workers cover their personal alarm dosimeters (PAD) with 3-cm-thick lead plates to lower dosimeter readings. As a response, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) conducted a fact-finding survey to identify similar cases and devise measures to prevent a recurrence of this incident. To screen the suspected cases, the MHLW extracted: a) cases in which a PAD reading was at least 15% higher than the reading obtained from a radio-photolumine-scence dosimeter (RPD), where the dose was greater than 5 mSv in a month (1813 data points), and b) dose data in which PAD readings were less than 50% of the expected dose, where exposure dose may exceed 1 mSv in a day (56 workers, 17,148 data points). From these screenings, the MHLW identified 50 instances from TEPCO and nine primary contractors, including four general contractors, two plant manufacturers, and three plant maintenance companies as the subjects of the due diligence study of exposure data, including interviews. The results of the survey provide lessons that can also be applied to transition from emergency radiation protection to normal operation, as the application of emergency dose limits had ceased on December 16, 2011, in the affected plant. Based on the results of the survey, the MHLW provided administrative guidance documents to TEPCO and 37 primary contractors. The major points of these documents include: a) identification of recorded dose values by comparison of PAD readings to RPD readings, b) storage and management of RPDs and control badges, c) circulation management of PADs and access control to the affected plant, d) estimation of planned doses and setting of alarm values of PADs, e) actions to be taken by contractors if worker dose limits are reached, and f) physical measures to prevent recurrence of the incident.

  1. (Z)-3-Dodecenoic acid is the main component of full-body n-hexane extracts from two Acacia gall-inducing thrips (Thysanoptera) and may function as an alarm pheromone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Erika A; De Facci, Monica; Anderbrant, Olle; Hedenström, Erik

    2014-01-01

    A major interest in the gall-inducing thrips of Australia began with the discovery that some species have eusocial colonies. The origin of social castes remains one of the outstanding questions in evolutionary biology. The inference of the ancestral stage from study of solitary species is important to understanding the evolutionary history of semiochemicals in social species. Here we investigated two solitary species, Kladothrips nicolsoni and K. rugosus. Whole body extracts revealed that (Z)-3-dodecenoic acid, here reported for the first time in a thrips species, is the main component. (Z)-3-Dodecenoic acid and (E)-3-dodecenoic acid were synthesized in high stereoisomeric purity (> 99.8%) and exposed to K. nicolsoni 2nd-instar larvae in a contact chemoreception bioassay to test for potential bioactivity. Both isomers decreased the average time spent in the treated area per entry suggesting repellence at the tested dose. (Z)-3-Dodecenoic acid may function as alarm pheromone. (E)-3-Dodecenoic acid increased also the absolute change in direction of larvae compared to an n-hexane control and could potentially function as a repellent.

  2. Sounding the Alarm: Health in the Anthropocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Colin D

    2016-06-30

    There is growing scientific and public recognition that human actions, directly and indirectly, have profoundly changed the Earth system, in a still accelerating process, increasingly called the "Anthropocene". Planetary transformation, including of the atmosphere, climate, ecosystems and biodiversity, has enormous implications for human health, many of which are deeply disturbing, especially in low-income settings. A few health consequences of the Anthropocene have been partially recognized, including within environmental epidemiology, but their long-term consequences remain poorly understood and greatly under-rated. For example Syria could be a "sentinel" population, giving a glimpse to a much wider dystopian future. Health-Earth is a research network, co-founded in 2014, which seeks, with other groups, to catalyse a powerful curative response by the wider health community. This paper builds on a symposium presented by Health-Earth members at the 2015 conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology. It reviews and synthesizes parts of the large literature relevant to the interaction between the changing Earth system and human health. It concludes that this topic should be prominent within future environmental epidemiology and public health. Created by our species, these challenges may be soluble, but solutions require far more understanding and resources than are currently being made available.

  3. Sound Power Level of Fire Alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-01

    Properties . 7 2. Reference Source Method. . . . . . . . 9 ii 3. Reverberation Time Method . 114. Measurement Error. . . . . . . . . . . 14 I...73.6 73.4 72.4 69.4 65.5 80.7 78.6 SPL ________________________________________________________I -r 3. Reverberation Time Method The second method...used to evaluate the room response involves ~ I the room reverberation time , T. Brach (10] established the reverberation times for this room in

  4. Alarm!!! A UFO inside the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Biagio; Iacono, Carola; Giugno, Luca; Gaio, Gianpiero; Russo, Maria G

    2012-10-01

    An 8-year-old asymptomatic child was referred for surgical repair of coronary sinus atrial septal defect resulting in significant left-to-right shunt and right chamber volume overload. The septal fenestration was located near to its drainage site into the right atrium. Due to this seemingly favourable anatomy, transcatheter closure of the septal defect was performed using an Amplatzer Septal Occluder device. The echocardiographic postprocedural evaluation imaged the occluding device almost perpendicular to the atrial septum, seemingly floating above the mitral valve orifice, like an alien spaceship inside the heart.

  5. Iranian rocket launch alarms the West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeandron, Michelle

    2008-03-01

    Iran came a step closer to becoming a space-faring nation last month, with the successful test of a rocket capable of carrying a satellite into orbit and the opening of a new space centre. Western commentators, however, have expressed scepticism about whether Iran really does have the technology to successfully launch a satellite, suggesting instead that the country is more interested in developing intercontinental ballistic missiles, which require similarly powerful rockets.

  6. Sounding the alarm. AIDS update no. 403.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-17

    When the first international AIDS conference in Asia opened in Yokohama last week, the world's experts had bleak news. They said 10 million Asians could be carrying the AIDS virus by the end of the century--25%-30% of the global total. Some 250,000 people in the region are suffering from full-blown AIDS, with another 2 million infected by the virus. In Thailand, the sex industry is a key factor, said Prayura Kunasol, an official of the country's Ministry of Public Health. Three-quarters of all Thai cases--8580 AIDS victims and 600,000 infected patients--are linked to sexual activity. Widespread ignorance also fuels the epidemic, especially in China and India, according to participants in a Manila meeting organized by the Asian Development Bank in early August. Though 91% of city folks in China had heard of AIDS, only about a quarter could tell correctly how it was transmitted and a mere 5% knew the symptoms. In India, eight out of ten men say they're aware of the disease. But six of ten housewives had never heard of it. While heterosexual sex is the leading means of transmission, intravenous drug use, transfusions of tainted blood and unsterilized medical equipment also pose problems. In Yokohama, Japanese Prime Minister Murayama Tomiichi told some 11,000 delegates and observers from 120 countries that Tokyo was ready to step up efforts to combat "a global problem confronting all humanity." full text

  7. Sounding the alarm about suicide risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The Joint Commission (TJC) issued a Sentinel Event Alert, noting that in too many instances healthcare providers are not recognizing signs of suicide risk in patients who present for care. While the agency calls on all frontline providers to screen for suicide risk, experts note the issue is of particular importance to EDs because this is one of the most likely places for patients at high risk for suicide to present. Beyond identifying risk, experts note emergency providers and staff must receive training to effectively manage patients at risk for suicide. Further, TJC calls for the development of appropriate referral sources and mechanisms for follow-up contact. TJC reports that between 2010 and 2014, its Sentinel Event Database received 1,089 reports of suicides. The most common root cause was inadequate assessment. According to TJC, in 2014 more than 21% of accredited behavioral health organizations and 5% of accredited hospitals were non-compliant with conducting a risk assessment to identify patient characteristics or environmental factors related to suicide risk. Beyond instances of obvious risk, strong tipoffs that suicide is a concern include signs of hopelessness or evidence that the patient has no sense of the future. Further, experts note the strongest indicator of a future suicide attempt is a past attempt, so evidence in the record of a past suicide attempt, or a family history of suicide, should be taken very seriously. Researchers found that a three-item instrument, dubbed the Patient Safety Screener-3, can double the number of patients identified as at risk for suicide over usual care in a busy emergency setting. Experts recommend asking screening questions during the primary nursing assessment for most patients, and at triage for patients who present with a primary psychiatric complaint. Some experts suggest regionalizing mental health care, much like the country does with trauma care. However, communities must ensure they maintain adequate funding for such endeavors.

  8. The alarming decline of Mediterranean fish stocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilakopoulos, Paraskevas; Maravelias, Christos D; Tserpes, George

    2014-07-21

    In recent years, fisheries management has succeeded in stabilizing and even improving the state of many global fisheries resources [1-5]. This is particularly evident in areas where stocks are exploited in compliance with scientific advice and strong institutional structures are in place [1, 5]. In Europe, the well-managed northeast (NE) Atlantic fish stocks have been recovering in response to decreasing fishing pressure over the past decade [3-6], albeit with a long way to go for a universal stock rebuild [3, 7]. Meanwhile, little is known about the temporal development of the European Mediterranean stocks, whose management relies on input controls that are often poorly enforced. Here, we perform a meta-analysis of 42 European Mediterranean stocks of nine species in 1990-2010, showing that exploitation rate has been steadily increasing, selectivity (proportional exploitation of juveniles) has been deteriorating, and stocks have been shrinking. We implement species-specific simulation models to quantify changes in exploitation rate and selectivity that would maximize long-term yields and halt stock depletion. We show that stocks would be more resilient to fishing and produce higher long-term yields if harvested a few years after maturation because current selectivity is far from optimal, especially for demersal stocks. The European Common Fisheries Policy that has assisted in improving the state of NE Atlantic fish stocks in the past 10 years has failed to deliver similar results for Mediterranean stocks managed under the same policy. Limiting juvenile exploitation, advancing management plans, and strengthening compliance, control, and enforcement could promote fisheries sustainability in the Mediterranean. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Structure fires, smoke production, and smoke alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Michael D

    2011-01-01

    Smoke inhalation injury causes severe morbidity and death. In the United States, the majority of fatalities from fire and burns occur because of inhalation of smoke. Medical treatment is only supportive; there is no known antidote to the damaging effects of smoke toxicants on pulmonary tissue. Without question, minimization of the morbidity and mortality that are caused by smoke inhalation is best accomplished by prevention of the injury. Effective prevention programs depend on a thorough and detailed understanding of the mechanism of damage caused by smoke, as well as of the available options for efficacious prevention. This summary presents details of smoke production from structure fires, the effects of smoke on physiology, and the devices currently in use to prevent damage and death from smoke.

  10. Hierarchies of Alarms for Large Distributed Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Boccioli, M; Martos, V; Holme, O

    2014-01-01

    The control systems of most of the infrastructure at CERN make use of the SCADA package WinCC Open Architecture by ETM*, including successful projects to control large scale systems such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) accelerator and associated experiments.).

  11. Manpower Planning Handbook. Volume III. NavCommSta Receiver Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    ON A-58 TABLE III-1 HONOLULU RECEIVER OPERATIONS (1) Comm. circuit no. (2) Circuit name (3) (41 Equipment Type Tota 151 Circuit...VFCT Trunk to NCS RCVR site 4 Visual/audible alarm chks, microwave Int. MT Camaldoli/ Lago Patria 22 QC after power failure Total

  12. 42 CFR 493.1278 - Standard: Histocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... requirements: (1) An audible alarm system must be used to monitor the storage temperature of specimens (donor... patient specimens must be easily retrievable. (3) Reagent typing sera inventory prepared in-house must... prepared in-house or commercially. (iii) Ensuring that reagents used for typing are adequate to define all...

  13. 75 FR 22174 - Petition To Modify an Exemption of a Previously Approved Antitheft Device; Porsche

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... parking brake. Porsche stated that the central locking system works in conjunction with the audible and... system, an activated parking brake system, central locking and an alarm system. Porsche also stated that... full Porsche Cars North America's (Porsche) petition for an exemption in accordance with Sec. 543.9(c...

  14. 33 CFR 106.275 - Security measures for monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... watches, waterborne patrols, automatic intrusion-detection devices, or surveillance equipment as specified... facility; (3) Ensure that equipment or system failures or malfunctions are identified and corrected; (4) Ensure that any automatic intrusion detection device, sets off an audible or visual alarm, or both, at a...

  15. Ecological Interface Design for Anaesthesia Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Watson

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available The operating theatre is a noisy place with many uninformative and redundant alarms. Using data from a recent observational study, we demonstrate that anaesthetists actively respond to only 3.4% of all audible alarms. We outline a range of possible solutions to the alarm problem. Ecological Interface Design (EID helps to outline the requirements for an information environment for anaesthetists and to indicate the possible benefits of continuous auditory signals. Our observational data are then "reworked" to give an indication of possible benefits of a continuous auditory display. Finally we indicate steps we are taking to test these ideas empirically

  16. What Happens to Bio-degradables in the Ocean? Due to the increasing amount of plastic that ends up in the ocean there is much alarm about it killing sea life from ingestion and changing chemical properties of the ocean. But what really happens t these products in the ocean, and how do they affect the ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, A.

    2016-12-01

    What Happens to Bio-degradables in the Ocean? Due to the increasing amount of plastic that ends up in the ocean there is much alarm about it killing sea life from entanglement and ingestion and changing chemical properties of the ocean. Our society is trying to take action by purchasing and using materials that claim to be biodegradable. But how long do these materials take to degrade in ocean water and do they actually change the water composition? Answering these questions will determine if one should invest in these materials as an alternative to plastic.

  17. Evaluating standard airborne sound insulation measures in terms of annoyance, loudness, and audibility ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H K; Bradley, J S

    2009-07-01

    This paper reports the results of an evaluation of the merits of standard airborne sound insulation measures with respect to subjective ratings of the annoyance and loudness of transmitted sounds. Subjects listened to speech and music sounds modified to represent transmission through 20 different walls with sound transmission class (STC) ratings from 34 to 58. A number of variations in the standard measures were also considered. These included variations in the 8-dB rule for the maximum allowed deficiency in the STC measure as well as variations in the standard 32-dB total allowed deficiency. Several spectrum adaptation terms were considered in combination with weighted sound reduction index (R(w)) values as well as modifications to the range of included frequencies in the standard rating contour. A STC measure without an 8-dB rule and an R(w) rating with a new spectrum adaptation term were better predictors of annoyance and loudness ratings of speech sounds. R(w) ratings with one of two modified C(tr) spectrum adaptation terms were better predictors of annoyance and loudness ratings of transmitted music sounds. Although some measures were much better predictors of responses to one type of sound than were the standard STC and R(w) values, no measure was remarkably improved for predicting annoyance and loudness ratings of both music and speech sounds.

  18. The Prediction of the Acceptability of Auditory Interference Based on Audibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baykaner, K.; Hummersone, C.; Mason, R.

    2017-01-01

    In order to evaluate the ability of sound field control methods to generate independent listening zones within domestic and automotive environments, it is useful to be able to predict, without listening tests, the accept- ability of auditory interference scenarios. It was considered likely...

  19. A measure for predicting audibility discrimination thresholds for spectral envelope distortions in vowel sounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rao, Preeti; van Dinther, R.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Kohlrausch, A.

    2001-01-01

    Both in speech synthesis and in sound coding it is often beneficial to have a measure that predicts whether, and to what extent, two sounds are different. This paper addresses the problem of estimating the perceptual effects of small modifications to the spectral envelope of a harmonic sound. A

  20. Validation of exposure visualization and audible distance emission for navigated temporal bone drilling in phantoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard H J Voormolen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A neuronavigation interface with extended function as compared with current systems was developed to aid during temporal bone surgery. The interface, named EVADE, updates the prior anatomical image and visualizes the bone drilling process virtually in real-time without need for intra-operative imaging. Furthermore, EVADE continuously calculates the distance from the drill tip to segmented temporal bone critical structures (e.g. the sigmoid sinus and facial nerve and produces audiovisual warnings if the surgeon drills in too close vicinity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and surgical utility of EVADE in physical phantoms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed 228 measurements assessing the position accuracy of tracking a navigated drill in the operating theatre. A mean target registration error of 1.33±0.61 mm with a maximum error of 3.04 mm was found. Five neurosurgeons each drilled two temporal bone phantoms, once using EVADE, and once using a standard neuronavigation interface. While using standard neuronavigation the surgeons damaged three modeled temporal bone critical structures. No structure was hit by surgeons utilizing EVADE. Surgeons felt better orientated and thought they had improved tumor exposure with EVADE. Furthermore, we compared the distances between surface meshes of the virtual drill cavities created by EVADE to actual drill cavities: average maximum errors of 2.54±0.49 mm and -2.70±0.48 mm were found. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results demonstrate that EVADE gives accurate feedback which reduces risks of harming modeled critical structures compared to a standard neuronavigation interface during temporal bone phantom drilling.

  1. Acoustic absorption measurement of human hair and skin within the audible frequency range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, B F

    2000-11-01

    Utilizing the two-microphone impedance tube method, the acoustic absorption of human skin and hair is measured in the frequency range 1-6 kHz. Various locations on a number of human subjects are measured to determine if the presence of bone or an air pocket affects the acoustic absorption of human skin. The absorption coefficient of human hair is also measured. Additional techniques are utilized to minimize errors due to sample mounting methods. Techniques are employed to minimize potential errors in sensor and sample locations. The results of these measurements are compared to relevant historical papers on similar investigations. Results for skin measurements compare well with previous work. Measured hair absorption data do not agree with previous work in the area but do coincide with expected trends, which previous works do not.

  2. The Ineluctable Modality of the Audible: Perceptual Determinants of Auditory Verbal Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maidment, David W.; Macken, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Classical cognitive accounts of verbal short-term memory (STM) invoke an abstract, phonological level of representation which, although it may be derived differently via different modalities, is itself amodal. Key evidence for this view is that serial recall of phonologically similar verbal items (e.g., the letter sounds "b",…

  3. Assessment of Law Enforcement Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Personal Protective Equipment Audible Signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    enough room for a volunteer to perform simple movements without being obstructed by the anechoic chamber walls and conformed to the recommended...in detail by Eshbaugh et al. (2010). 4 This test system was designed to comply with MIL-STD-1474D. 5 The system included an anechoic (echo-free...software (National Instruments; Austin, TX), and an intercom to allow communication between the test operator and volunteer. The anechoic chamber was

  4. A Loud yet Hardly Audible Voice : Urban Youth Language in “Street Literature”

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linn, Stella; Sepp, Arvi; Humblé, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Conference abstract: Recent years have seen the appearance of a new use of language in the French postcolonial novel: the French urban youth vernacular or français contemporain des cités (FCC). This linguistic variety allows underprivileged youths from the banlieues to express their rebellion

  5. Combat and training developer's test support package for the Pocket RADIAC, AN/UDR-13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witt, D.D.; Trull, C.L.

    1991-03-01

    The pocket RADIAC (PR) consists of nuclear sensors in a small, compact, lightweight unit that will detect and measure radiation in terms of initial neutron and gamma radiation total dose from a nuclear detonation, total dose and dose rate from neutron induced gamma radiation at and immediately adjacent to ground zero, and total dose and dose rate gamma radiation resulting from nuclear fallout. The data obtained in both the initial radiation and the fallout will be provided on demand in a digital display. A visual and an optional audible alarm will alert the user at a default dose rate level. This alarm can be reset by the operator.

  6. Sound intensity and noise evaluation in a critical care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Nancy; Thompson, Kim; Saunders, Gabrielle; Saiz, Jaya; Richardson, Jeannette; Brown, Deborah; Ince, Naomi; Caldwell, Marc; Pope, Diana

    2010-11-01

    Sound levels in intensive care units can be high. Unfortunately, high levels of sound tend to result in poor sleep quality, which leads to slower healing, poorer immune response, and decreased cognitive function. To measure sound levels to which patients in intensive care units are typically exposed. Peak sound pressure levels of alarms on medical devices set at different output levels were measured. Additionally, ambient sound pressure levels for durations of 10 to 24 hours were measured on 12 occasions in patients' rooms in the intensive care unit. Peak levels of equipment alarms measured inside a patient's room were high, and increased as the setting of the alarm level increased. The levels of these alarms when measured in an adjacent room did not increase with alarm output level. Mean sound levels inside the patient's room were generally less than 45 dB(A), but peak levels were often greater than 85 dB(C). Closing the door of the adjacent room did not decrease these peak levels. Peak and mean levels did not differ systematically during 24 hours of measurement. High-intensity equipment alarms disturb patients' sleep but are critical in a medical emergency. However, nurses should not assume that raising the alarm output level will ensure that the alarm is audible from an adjacent room. Ambient noise measurements indicate high peak levels during both day and night.

  7. Control Engineering Embraces Instrumentation and Alarm Systems Of Navy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Samoilescu

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Control engineering can be applied not only to propelling and auxiliary machinery but also to electrical installations, refrigeration, cargo handling (especially in tankers and deck machinery, e.g. Windlass control. Opinion still vary on such matters as the relative merits of pneumatic versus electronic system and whether the control center should be in the engine room or adjacent to the navigating bridge. Arguments against the exclusion of the engineer officer from close contact with the machinery are countered by the fact that electronic systems are based on changes other than those of human response. Automated ships (UMS operate closer to prescribed standards and therefore operate with greater efficiency. The closer control of machinery operating conditions (cooling water temperatures and pressures, permits machinery to be run at its optimum design conditions, making for fuel economy and reduced maintenance.

  8. Burning questions and false alarms about wildfires at Yellowstone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyne, S.J. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe (USA))

    The fires of 1988 have inspired a barrage of editorials, conferences, review panels, public forums, and just plain second-guessing. While consensus grows that the fires reflected a breakdown in how America copes with fire, it is not clear what exactly broke down - whether there was a failure in policy, in programs, in field operations, or in all three. Any review, moreover, is complicated by the stature of Yellowstone National Park - the epicenter of the 1988 fire season - and its capacity to monopolize public and media attention. It is not clear whether the real issue is national fire policy or the administration of Yellowstone. There is good reason to contend the problem is Yellowstone, that what appears a flaw in fire policy is only a weakness that Yellowstone's colossal size and celebrity status have amplified into grotesque dimensions. Regardless, the fires have brought national wildland fire policy into public debate. The paper discusses why fires exist, how fire behaves, how nations respond, historical aspects of US fire policy, how the system operates, and what needs reform and what doesn't.

  9. 29 CFR 1910.165 - Employee alarm systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... emergency action plan, or for reaction time for safe escape of employees from the workplace or the immediate... light levels by all employees in the affected portions of the workplace. Tactile devices may be used to... in the workplace. For those employers with 10 or fewer employees in a particular workplace, direct...

  10. Influenza A (H1N1) 2009: a pandemic alarm

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    The most recent updates given by WHO confirm a total of 2,67,105 reported cases of .... Diagnosis of the new reassortant virus needs to be updated accordingly. In response to the rise in H1N1 swine flu ..... Biological and epidemiological aspects of influenza virus H5N1 in context of India; Indian J. Exp. Biol. 44 265–278.

  11. False Alarm: A Massaging Numb Values Crisis Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Mary Beth; Long, Nicholas J.

    1999-01-01

    Addresses the problem of students who want to do well but cannot manage the effects of failure or wrong actions. They have a conscience and experience guilt when they err, but rather than using mistakes as opportunities to rectify their behavior, they are overwhelmed by their inadequacy, which leads to self-defeating patterns of behavior.…

  12. Estonia's President Sounds the Alarm / Nikolaus von Twickel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Twickel, Nikolaus von

    2008-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilves rääkis oma telefoniintervjuus Eesti suhetest Venemaaga, eelseisvatest presidendivalimistest Venemaal, Eesti suunatusest Läände, Nõukogude okupatsiooni kuritegudest, arvustas Venemaa sõbralikke suhteid ebademokraatlike riikidega ja Euroopa huvidele vaenulikku välispoliitikat

  13. Alarm over dakloze gezinnen. Reconstructie van een mediahype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia van Doorn

    2011-11-01

    Sociaal wetenschappelijk onderzoekers die hun bevindingen voor het voetlicht brengen via de media, krijgen soms te maken met mediahypes waarin de nuances van de onderzoeksresultaten verloren gaan. Dit artikel belicht de vraag hoe onderzoekers daarmee om kunnen gaan. We verduidelijken dit met een casus van de berichtgeving over ons onderzoek naar het aantal dakloze gezinnen dat een beroep doet op de instellingen voor maatschappelijke opvang. Op basis van dit onderzoek maakten tientallen dagbladen melding van toename van het aantal dakloze gezinnen. Deze berichtgeving strookte niet met de uitkomsten van het onderzoek. Het suggereerde een veel dramatischer beeld dan op basis van de onderzoeksresultaten gerechtvaardigd was. In dit artikel wordt het proces waarin de berichtgeving tot stand kwam gereconstrueerd en geanalyseerd. Eerst wordt Stanley Cohen’s theorie over mediahypes aangestipt en komt Beckers’ onderscheid in drie typen morele entrepreneurs aan bod. Vervolgens wordt de casus uiteengezet en geanalyseerd. Op basis van de analyse voegen we aan de drie typen die Becker onderscheidt, een vierde type morele entrepreneur toe. Tenslotte keren we terug naar de vraag hoe sociaal wetenschappelijk onderzoekers hun bevindingen voor het voetlicht kunnen brengen via de media.

  14. Influenza A (H1N1) 2009: a pandemic alarm

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    At this critical juncture when the world has not yet recovered from the threat of avian influenza, the virus has returned in the disguise of swine influenza, a lesser known illness common in pigs. It has reached pandemic proportions in a short time span with health personnel still devising ways to identify the novel H1N1 virus ...

  15. Are Sensory TRP Channels Biological Alarms for Lipid Peroxidation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-In Choi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress induces numerous biological problems. Lipid oxidation and peroxidation appear to be important steps by which exposure to oxidative stress leads the body to a disease state. For its protection, the body has evolved to respond to and eliminate peroxidation products through the acquisition of binding proteins, reducing and conjugating enzymes, and excretion systems. During the past decade, researchers have identified a group of ion channel molecules that are activated by oxidized lipids: transient receptor potential (TRP channels expressed in sensory neurons. These ion channels are fundamentally detectors and signal converters for body-damaging environments such as heat and cold temperatures, mechanical attacks, and potentially toxic substances. When messages initiated by TRP activation arrive at the brain, we perceive pain, which results in our preparing defensive responses. Excessive activation of the sensory neuronal TRP channels upon prolonged stimulations sometimes deteriorates the inflammatory state of damaged tissues by promoting neuropeptide release from expresser neurons. These same paradigms may also work for pathologic changes in the internal lipid environment upon exposure to oxidative stress. Here, we provide an overview of the role of TRP channels and oxidized lipid connections during abnormally increased oxidative signaling, and consider the sensory mechanism of TRP detection as an alert system.

  16. Neural Network Target Identification System for False Alarm Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, David; Edens, Weston; Lu, Thomas T.; Chao, Tien-Hsin

    2009-01-01

    A multi-stage automated target recognition (ATR) system has been designed to perform computer vision tasks with adequate proficiency in mimicking human vision. The system is able to detect, identify, and track targets of interest. Potential regions of interest (ROIs) are first identified by the detection stage using an Optimum Trade-off Maximum Average Correlation Height (OT-MACH) filter combined with a wavelet transform. False positives are then eliminated by the verification stage using feature extraction methods in conjunction with neural networks. Feature extraction transforms the ROIs using filtering and binning algorithms to create feature vectors. A feed forward back propagation neural network (NN) is then trained to classify each feature vector and remove false positives. This paper discusses the test of the system performance and parameter optimizations process which adapts the system to various targets and datasets. The test results show that the system was successful in substantially reducing the false positive rate when tested on a sonar image dataset.

  17. Optimized Vibration Chamber for Landslide Sensory and Alarm System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Eliza Sabira Binti; Hadi Habaebi, Mohamed; Daoud, Jamal I.; Rafiqul Islam, Md

    2017-11-01

    Landslide is one of natural hazard that is not unfamiliar disaster in Malaysia. Malaysia has experienced this disaster many times since 1969. This natural hazard has become a major research concern for Malaysian government when many people were injured badly and even had been killed. Many previous research works published in the open literature aimed at designing a system that could detect landslide in early stage before the landslide becomes catastrophic. This paper presents the early works on a major work-in-progress landslide early warning system for Malaysian environment. The aim of this system is to develop the most efficiently reliable cost-effective system in which slight earth movements are monitored continuously. The challenge this work aims at is to work with a low budget system that produces efficient performance. Hence, the material used is off-the-shelf. Early design optimization results of the vibration sensor used is quite promising detecting the slightest faint tremors, which are amplified using the best vibration chamber available. It is shown that the choice of proper pipe length and diameter dimensions in combination to a gravel to exaggerate the produced higher sensitivity level noise of 5 dB.

  18. Bee Threat Elicits Alarm Call in African Elephants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Savage, Anne; Vollrath, Fritz

    2010-01-01

    Unlike the smaller and more vulnerable mammals, African elephants have relatively few predators that threaten their survival. The sound of disturbed African honeybees Apis meliffera scutellata causes African elephants Loxodonta africana to retreat and produce warning vocalizations that lead other elephants to join the flight. In our first experiment, audio playbacks of bee sounds induced elephants to retreat and elicited more head-shaking and dusting, reactive behaviors that may prevent bee stings, compared to white noise control playbacks. Most importantly, elephants produced distinctive “rumble” vocalizations in response to bee sounds. These rumbles exhibited an upward shift in the second formant location, which implies active vocal tract modulation, compared to rumbles made in response to white noise playbacks. In a second experiment, audio playbacks of these rumbles produced in response to bees elicited increased headshaking, and further and faster retreat behavior in other elephants, compared to control rumble playbacks with lower second formant frequencies. These responses to the bee rumble stimuli occurred in the absence of any bees or bee sounds. This suggests that these elephant rumbles may function as referential signals, in which a formant frequency shift alerts nearby elephants about an external threat, in this case, the threat of bees. PMID:20436682

  19. Alarms Sounded as Federal-Aid Ax Heaves into View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Alyson

    2012-01-01

    Education advocates and the Obama administration are anxiously eyeing a series of across-the-board cuts set to hit a broad swath of federal domestic and military spending programs early next year, unless a sharply divided Congress can agree on a long-term plan to put the nation's fiscal house in order. Most education lobbyists expect such a deal…

  20. Lead poisoning: an alarming public health problem in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Amal K; Haque, Akhlaque; Islam, Manirul; Bashar, S A M K

    2009-01-01

    To assess the risk of lead poisoning among preschool and school-aged children in Bangladesh, 345 children were screened for blood lead levels (BLLs) from one rural and two urban areas in Bangladesh from September 2007 through January 2008. An urban industrial area at Tongi was identified as a disaster area, where 99% (104/105) of those tested had BLLs >or= 10 microg/dL. Industrial emissions and use of leaded gasoline by two-stroke engine vehicles were identified as possible sources of lead in that area. A rural nonindustrial area at Chirirbandar, Dinajpur was identified as another high-risk area, where 14% of the children screened had BLLs >or= 10 microg/dL. BLLs at the urban industrial area were significantly higher than those at the rural and urban nonindustrial areas (24.58 +/- 10.32, 7.24 +/- 6.31, and 2.47 +/- 3.32 microg/dL, respectively; p lead causes health problems. In conclusion, the problem of lead poisoning in children was found to be high in both urban and rural Bangladesh. A universal lead screening for preschool and school-aged children and a lead education program for parents are recommended for implementation in Bangladesh.