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Sample records for auc cortisol stress

  1. Cortisol and ghrelin concentrations following a cold pressor stress test in overweight individuals with and without night eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geliebter, A; Carnell, S; Gluck, M E

    2013-08-01

    To explore appetite-related hormones following stress in overweight individuals, and their relationship with night eating (NE) status. We measured plasma cortisol and ghrelin concentrations, and recorded ratings of stress and hunger in response to a physiological laboratory stressor (cold pressor test, CPT), in overweight women with (n=11; NE) and without (n=17; non-NE) NE. Following the CPT, cortisol (Plevels increased, as did stress and hunger ratings (all Pcortisol (Plevels than non-NE. NE also had greater cortisol area under the curve (AUC) than non-NE (P=0.019), but not when controlling for baseline cortisol levels. Ghrelin baseline and AUC did not differ between groups. NE showed higher AUC stress (Pcortisol, ghrelin, stress and hunger following a laboratory stressor, and there was some evidence for greater increases in cortisol and subjective stress among NE. The greater AUC cortisol level in NE was due to higher baseline levels, but the group difference in stress was in direct response to the stressor. Our results support a role for cortisol and stress in NE.

  2. Cortisol stress response is positively correlated with central obesity in obese women with binge eating disorder (BED) before and after cognitive-behavioral treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluck, Marci E; Geliebter, Allan; Lorence, Margarita

    2004-12-01

    Stress is the most commonly reported trigger of binge eating, and high cortisol levels are positively related to both central body fat and food intake after laboratory stress. We therefore examined waist circumference (WHR) and cortisol stress responsivity after a cold pressor stress test (CPT) in 22 obese (BMI > 27) women (11 BED, 11 non-BED). BMI and WHR did not differ between groups. The BED group had higher morning basal cortisol than the non-BED group (P = .03) and greater AUC cortisol after CPT, after controlling for AUC insulin (P = .04). In the BED group, WHR was related to AUC cortisol (P = .002) and peak cortisol stress responsivity (P = .003). Twenty (10 non-BED, 10 BED) were randomized to a 6-week treatment program (CBT + Diet) or Wait-List (WL) control group. There were no BED group or treatment-group differences in WHR, morning basal cortisol, or AUC cortisol after CPT. The relationship between WHR and both AUC cortisol (P = .002) and peak cortisol stress responsivity after CPT (P = .008) remained significant in the BED group. In BED, there is a hyperactive HPA axis related to abdominal obesity that persists even after treatment, suggesting that cortisol might be a primary factor in the disorder.

  3. Posttraumatic stress symptoms related to community violence and children's diurnal cortisol response in an urban community-dwelling sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suglia, Shakira Franco; Staudenmayer, John; Cohen, Sheldon; Wright, Rosalind J

    2010-03-01

    While community violence has been linked to psychological morbidity in urban youth, data on the physiological correlates of violence and associated posttraumatic stress symptoms are sparse. We examined the influence of child posttraumatic stress symptoms reported in relationship to community violence exposure on diurnal salivary cortisol response in a population based sample of 28 girls and 15 boys ages 7-13, 54% self-identified as white and 46% as Hispanic. Mothers' reported on the child's exposure to community violence using the Survey of Children's Exposure to Community Violence and completed the Checklist of Children's Distress Symptoms (CCDS) which captures factors related to posttraumatic stress; children who were eight years of age or greater reported on their own community violence exposure. Saliva samples were obtained from the children four times a day (after awakening, lunch, dinner and bedtime) over three days. Mixed models were used to assess the influence of posttraumatic stress symptoms on cortisol expression, examined as diurnal slope and area under the curve (AUC), calculated across the day, adjusting for socio-demographics. In adjusted analyses, higher scores on total traumatic stress symptoms (CCDS) were associated with both greater cortisol AUC and with a flatter cortisol waking to bedtime rhythm. The associations were primarily attributable to differences on the intrusion, arousal and avoidance CCDS subscales. Posttraumatic stress symptomatology reported in response to community violence exposure was associated with diurnal cortisol disruption in these community-dwelling urban children.

  4. Stress, cortisol, and B lymphocytes: a novel approach to understanding academic stress and immune function.

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    McGregor, Bonnie A; Murphy, Karly M; Albano, Denise L; Ceballos, Rachel M

    2016-01-01

    Animal and human in vitro models suggest that stress-related B lymphocyte decrements are due to high levels of glucocorticoids which cause apoptosis of pre-B-cells as they emerge from the bone marrow. The present study sought to explore the relationships among distress, salivary cortisol, and human B lymphocytes in vivo. Distress (perceived stress, negative affect, depressive symptoms), lymphocyte phenotype, and salivary cortisol were assessed among first-year graduate students (n = 22) and a community control sample (n = 30) at the start of classes in the fall and the week immediately before spring preliminary exams. Compared to controls, students reported greater distress on all measures at each time point except baseline perceived stress. Hierarchical linear regression with necessary control variables was used to assess the effect of student status on the three measures of distress, the four measures of lymphocyte phenotype, and cortisol AUC and CAR over time (T1-T2). Student status was associated with a significant decrease in CD19 + B lymphocytes and flattened cortisol awakening response (CAR). Change in CAR was associated with the decrease in CD19 + B lymphocytes. Results indicated that there are significant associations among student status, flattening of CAR, and decrements in CD19 + lymphocytes.

  5. Associations between circadian and stress response cortisol in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Sterre S H; Cillessen, Antonius H N; de Weerth, Carolina

    2017-01-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning is characterized by the baseline production of cortisol following a circadian rhythm, as well as by the superimposed production of cortisol in response to a stressor. However, it is relatively unknown whether the basal cortisol circadian rhythm is associated with the cortisol stress response in children. Since alterations in cortisol stress responses have been associated with mental and physical health, this study investigated whether the cortisol circadian rhythm is associated with cortisol stress responses in 6-year-old children. To this end, 149 normally developing children (M age  = 6.09 years; 70 girls) participated in an innovative social evaluative stress test that effectively provoked increases in cortisol. To determine the cortisol stress response, six cortisol saliva samples were collected and two cortisol stress response indices were calculated: total stress cortisol and cortisol stress reactivity. To determine children's cortisol circadian rhythm eight cortisol circadian samples were collected during two days. Total diurnal cortisol and diurnal cortisol decline scores were calculated as indices of the cortisol circadian rhythm. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that higher total diurnal cortisol as well as a smaller diurnal cortisol decline, were both uniquely associated with higher total stress cortisol. No associations were found between the cortisol circadian rhythm indices and cortisol stress reactivity. Possible explanations for the patterns found are links with children's self-regulatory capacities and parenting quality.

  6. Maternal stress-associated cortisol stimulation may protect embryos from cortisol excess in zebrafish

    OpenAIRE

    Faught, Erin; Best, Carol; Vijayan, Mathilakath M.

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal embryo cortisol level causes developmental defects and poor survival in zebrafish (Danio rerio). However, no study has demonstrated that maternal stress leads to higher embryo cortisol content in zebrafish. We tested the hypothesis that maternal stress-associated elevation in cortisol levels increases embryo cortisol content in this asynchronous breeder. Zebrafish mothers were fed cortisol-spiked food for 5 days, to mimic maternal stress, followed by daily breeding for 10 days to mon...

  7. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism interacts with gender to influence cortisol responses to mental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rong; Babyak, Michael A; Brummett, Beverly H; Siegler, Ilene C; Kuhn, Cynthia M; Williams, Redford B

    2017-05-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism has been associated with cortisol responses to stress with gender differences reported, although the findings are not entirely consistent. To evaluate the role of Val66Met genotype and gender on cortisol responses to stress, we conducted a 45-min mental stress protocol including four tasks and four rest periods. Blood cortisol was collected for assay immediately before and after each task and rest period. A significant two-way interaction of Val66Met genotype×gender (P=0.022) was observed on the total area under the curve (AUC), a total cortisol response over time, such that the Val/Val genotype was associated with a larger cortisol response to stress as compared to the Met group in women but not in men. Further contrast analyses between the Val/Val and Met group for each stress task showed a similar increased cortisol pattern among women Val/Val genotype but not among men. The present findings indicate the gender differences in the effect of Val66Met genotype on the cortisol responses to stress protocol, and extend the evidence for the importance of gender and the role of Val66Met in the modulation of stress reactivity and subsequent depression prevalence. Further studies and the underlying mechanism need to be investigated, which may provide an insight for prevention, intervention, and treatment strategies that target those at high risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Consequences of 'tiger' parenting: a cross-cultural study of maternal psychological control and children's cortisol stress response.

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    Doan, Stacey N; Tardif, Twila; Miller, Alison; Olson, Sheryl; Kessler, Daniel; Felt, Barbara; Wang, Li

    2017-05-01

    Parenting strategies involving psychological control are associated with increased adjustment problems in children. However, no research has examined the extent to which culture and psychological control predict children's stress physiology. We examine cultural differences in maternal psychological control and its associations with children's cortisol. Chinese (N = 59) and American (N = 45) mother-child dyads participated in the study. Mothers reported on psychological control. Children's cortisol was collected during a stressor and two indices of Area Under the Curve (AUC) were computed: AUCg which accounts for total output, and AUCi, which captures reactivity. Results indicate that Chinese mothers reported higher levels of psychological control and Chinese children had higher levels of AUCg than their American counterparts. Across both cultures, psychological control was significantly associated with increased cortisol levels as indexed by AUCg. There were no associations for AUCi. Finally, mediation analyses demonstrated that psychological control fully explained cultural differences in children's cortisol stress response as indexed by AUCg. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Relationship between the cortisol awakening response and other features of the diurnal cortisol rhythm: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

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    Golden, Sherita Hill; Sánchez, Brisa N; Wu, Meihua; Champaneri, Shivam; Diez Roux, Ana V; Seeman, Teresa; Wand, Gary S

    2013-11-01

    Cumulative cortisol burden is known to influence neuropsychiatric and metabolic disorders. To better understand the relationship between daily cortisol exposure and measures of the diurnal circadian cortisol rhythm, we examined the cross-sectional association of the cortisol awakening response (CAR) with wake-up cortisol, bedtime cortisol, diurnal slope, and total cortisol area under the curve (AUC). Up to 18 salivary cortisol samples were collected over 3 days from 935 White, Hispanic, and Black individuals (mean age 65 ± 9.8 years) in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Outcome measures included awakening cortisol, CAR (awakening to 30 min post-awakening), early decline (30 min to 2h post-awakening), late decline (2h post-awakening to bedtime), and the corresponding AUCs. Total cortisol AUC was a summary measure of cumulative cortisol exposure. Higher CAR was associated with significantly lower wake-up cortisol (β=-0.56; 95% CI: -0.59 to -0.53) and a higher early decline AUC (β=0.38; 95% CI: 0.34-0.42) but was not associated with total cortisol AUC (β=0.04; 95% CI: -0.01 to 0.09), or other diurnal cortisol curve components following multivariable adjustment. Total cortisol AUC was significantly and positively associated with wake-up cortisol (β=0.36; 95% CI: 0.32-0.40), bedtime cortisol (β=0.61; 95% CI: 0.58-0.64), and other AUC measures, following multivariable adjustment. Associations were similar by sex, race/ethnicity, and age categories. We conclude that bedtime cortisol showed the strongest correlation with total cortisol AUC, suggesting it may be a marker of daily cortisol exposure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Stress-related cortisol responsivity modulates prospective memory.

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    Glienke, K; Piefke, M

    2017-12-01

    It is known that there is inter-individual variation in behavioural and physiological stress reactions to the same stressor. The present study aimed to examine the impact of cortisol responsivity on performance in a complex real life-like prospective memory (PM) paradigm by a re-analysis of data published previously, with a focus on the taxonomy of cognitive dimensions of PM. Twenty-one male subjects were stressed with the Socially Evaluated Cold Pressor Test (SECPT) before the planning of intentions. Another group of 20 males underwent a control procedure. Salivary cortisol was measured to assess the intensity of the biological stress response. Additionally, participants rated the subjective experience of stress on a 5-point rating scale. Stressed participants were post-hoc differentiated in high (n = 11) and low cortisol responders (n = 10). Cortisol niveau differed significantly between the two groups, whereas subjective stress ratings did not. PM performance of low cortisol responders was stable across time and the PM performance of controls declined. High cortisol responders showed a nominally weaker PM retrieval across the early trails and significantly improved only on the last trial. The data demonstrate for the first time that participants with a low cortisol responsivity may benefit from stress exposure before the planning phase of PM. PM performance of high cortisol responders shows a more inconsistent pattern, which may be interpreted in the sense of a recency effect in PM retrieval. Alternatively, high cortisol responses may have a deteriorating effect on PM retrieval, which disappeared on the last trials of the task as a result of the decrease of cortisol levels across time. Importantly, the data also demonstrate that the intensity of cortisol responses does not necessarily correspond to the intensity of the mental experience of stress. © 2017 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  11. Stress, breakfast cereal consumption and cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A P

    2002-04-01

    Recent research has shown that regular consumption of breakfast cereal is associated with lower stress levels and reports of better physical and mental health. The present study examined this issue using an objective indicator of stress, salivary cortisol. The results showed that stress was associated with higher cortisol levels and daily consumption of breakfast cereal was associated with lower cortisol levels. Although it was not possible to rule out all the alternative explanations of the association between breakfast cereal consumption and cortisol, analyses did show that the effect could not be accounted for by general health or nutritional status. The effects of breakfast cereal consumption and stress were also independent, which shows that the effects of breakfast found here cannot be due to stress buffering. Further research manipulating the nutrient content of the breakfast cereal is now required to provide further information about the mechanisms underlying this effect.

  12. Good stress, bad stress and oxidative stress: insights from anticipatory cortisol reactivity.

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    Aschbacher, Kirstin; O'Donovan, Aoife; Wolkowitz, Owen M; Dhabhar, Firdaus S; Su, Yali; Epel, Elissa

    2013-09-01

    Chronic psychological stress appears to accelerate biological aging, and oxidative damage is an important potential mediator of this process. However, the mechanisms by which psychological stress promotes oxidative damage are poorly understood. This study investigates the theory that cortisol increases in response to an acutely stressful event have the potential to either enhance or undermine psychobiological resilience to oxidative damage, depending on the body's prior exposure to chronic psychological stress. In order to achieve a range of chronic stress exposure, forty-eight post-menopausal women were recruited in a case-control design that matched women caring for spouses with dementia (a chronic stress model) with similarly aged control women whose spouses were healthy. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing perceived stress over the previous month and provided fasting blood. Three markers of oxidative damage were assessed: 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2α) (IsoP), lipid peroxidation, 8-hydroxyguanosine (8-oxoG) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), reflecting oxidative damage to RNA/DNA respectively. Within approximately one week, participants completed a standardized acute laboratory stress task while salivary cortisol responses were measured. The increase from 0 to 30 min was defined as "peak" cortisol reactivity, while the increase from 0 to 15 min was defined as "anticipatory" cortisol reactivity, representing a cortisol response that began while preparing for the stress task. Women under chronic stress had higher 8-oxoG, oxidative damage to RNA (pstress and elevated oxidative stress damage, but only among women under chronic stress. Consistent with this model, bootstrapped path analysis found significant indirect paths from perceived stress to 8-oxoG and IsoP (but not 8-OHdG) via anticipatory cortisol reactivity, showing the expected relations among chronically stressed participants (p≤.01) Intriguingly, among those with low chronic stress

  13. SKA2 Methylation is Involved in Cortisol Stress Reactivity and Predicts the Development of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) After Military Deployment.

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    Boks, Marco P; Rutten, Bart P F; Geuze, Elbert; Houtepen, Lotte C; Vermetten, Eric; Kaminsky, Zachary; Vinkers, Christiaan H

    2016-04-01

    Genomic variation in the SKA2 gene has recently been identified as a promising suicide biomarker. In light of its role in glucocorticoid receptor transactivation, we investigated whether SKA2 DNA methylation influences cortisol stress reactivity and is involved in the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Increased SKA2 methylation was significantly associated with lower cortisol stress reactivity in 85 healthy individuals exposed to the Trier Social Stress Test (B=-173.40, t=-2.324, p-value=0.023). Next, we observed that longitudinal decreases in SKA2 methylation after deployment were associated with the emergence of post-deployment PTSD symptoms in a Dutch military cohort (N=93; B=-0.054, t=-3.706, p-value=3.66 × 10(-4)). In contrast, exposure to traumatic stress during deployment by itself resulted in longitudinal increases in SKA2 methylation (B=0.037, t=4.173, p-value=6.98 × 10(-5)). Using pre-deployment SKA2 methylation levels and childhood trauma exposure, we found that the previously published suicide prediction rule significantly predicted post-deployment PTSD symptoms (AUC=0.66, 95% CI: 0.53-0.79) with an optimal sensitivity of 0.81 and specificity of 0.91. Permutation analysis using random methylation loci supported these findings. Together, these data establish the importance of SKA2 for cortisol stress responsivity and the development of PTSD and provide further evidence that SKA2 is a promising biomarker for stress-related disorders including PTSD.

  14. Associations between circadian and stress response cortisol in children

    OpenAIRE

    Simons, S.S.H.; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Weerth, C. de

    2017-01-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning is characterized by the baseline production of cortisol following a circadian rhythm, as well as by the superimposed production of cortisol in response to a stressor. However, it is relatively unknown whether the basal cortisol circadian rhythm is associated with the cortisol stress response in children. Since alterations in cortisol stress responses have been associated with mental and physical health, this study investigated whether the ...

  15. Bullying as a Stressor in Mid-Adolescent Girls and Boys-Associations with Perceived Stress, Recurrent Pain, and Salivary Cortisol.

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    Östberg, Viveca; Låftman, Sara B; Modin, Bitte; Lindfors, Petra

    2018-02-20

    Bullying involves repeated exposure to negative actions while also invoking a power asymmetry between the involved parties. From a stress perspective, being bullied can be seen as a severe and chronic stressor, and an everyday social-evaluative threat, coupled with a shortage of effective social resources for dealing with this particular stressor. The aim of this study was to investigate whether exposure to bullying among mid-adolescent girls and boys is associated with subjective and objective stress-related outcomes in terms of perceived stress, recurrent pain, and salivary cortisol. The data came from the School Stress and Support Study (TriSSS) including students in grades 8-9 in two schools in Stockholm, Sweden, in 2010 (study sample n = 392; cortisol subsample n = 198). Bullying was self-reported and measured by multiple items. The statistical analyses included binary logistic and linear (OLS) regression. Being bullied was associated with greater perceived stress and an increased risk of recurrent pain, among both boys and girls. Also, bullied students had lower cortisol output (AUC G ) and lower cortisol awakening response (CAR G ) as compared to those who were not bullied. Gender-stratified analyses demonstrated that these associations were statistically significant for boys but not for girls. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that being bullied was related to both subjective and objective stress markers among mid-adolescent girls and boys, pointing to the necessity of continuously working against bullying.

  16. Hair cortisol concentrations exhibit a positive association with salivary cortisol profiles and are increased in obese prepubertal girls.

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    Papafotiou, Chrysanthe; Christaki, Eirini; van den Akker, Erica L T; Wester, Vincent L; Apostolakou, Filia; Papassotiriou, Ioannis; Chrousos, George P; Pervanidou, Panagiota

    2017-03-01

    Cortisol, a key mediator of the stress response, has been associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome manifestations as early as in childhood. Scalp hair cortisol has been proposed as a reliable index of long-term circulating cortisol. We aimed to investigate whether obese prepubertal girls have higher scalp hair cortisol than normal-weight controls and whether hair cortisol levels are correlated with salivary cortisol concentrations in these groups. In this cross-sectional study, 25 obese girls and 25 normal-weighted, age-matched girls were enrolled. Anthropometric evaluation, blood chemistry and salivary cortisol measurements were performed, and body mass index (BMI) and areas under the curve with respect to ground (AUCg) were calculated. Hair cortisol determination was performed with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Both hair cortisol concentrations and salivary cortisol AUCs were higher in the obese than the normal-weight girls (p cortisol and BMI Z-score was found (rho = .327, p = .025), while hair cortisol correlated positively with salivary cortisol AUCg (rho = .3, p = .048). We conclude that obese prepubertal girls have higher hair and salivary cortisol concentrations than their age-matched lean counterparts. Hair cortisol assessment seems to be a sensitive method of evaluating systemic cortisol exposure, which is supported by our finding that hair cortisol is associated with salivary concentrations of the hormone. Lay Summary: Cortisol is the key hormone of the stress response. Childhood obesity has been associated with cortisol production dysregulation. Our findings suggest a positive association between obesity in prepubertal girls and elevated cortisol concentrations, measured in saliva and hair.

  17. The relationship between cortisol responses to laboratory stress and cortisol profiles in daily life

    OpenAIRE

    Kidd, Tara; Carvalho, Livia A.; Steptoe, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Relationships between cortisol responses to laboratory stress and cortisol output over the day have not been studied extensively. We tested associations between cortisol responses to a set of laboratory challenges (colour/word interference and mirror tracing) and three aspects of cortisol output over the day, namely total area under the curve (AUCday), the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and the slope of cortisol decline over the day. Participants were 466 men and women aged 54–76 years. We...

  18. Biological Markers and Salivary Cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Gunnarsson, Lars-Gunnar; Harris, Anette

    2011-01-01

    This chapter focuses on salivary cortisol in relation to biological markers. Specifically, associations with conventional cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic abnormalities (body mass index, waist circumference, waist/hip ratio, lipid status, glucose, blood pressure, heart rate and heart rate...... variations and pharmacological interventions were also excluded. After meeting all exclusion criteria, 42 papers remained. In total, 273 associations between salivary cortisol and any of the markers mentioned were studied, comprising 241 associations on metabolic abnormalities, 30 on inflammation, and 2...... on stress hormones. Of the salivary cortisol measures reported for evaluations of all markers tested were 136 (49%) single time points, 100 (37%) deviations, 36 (13%) AUC, and 1 (1%) dexamethasone test. Of these, 72 (26%) were statistically significant, and 201 (74%) indicated non-significant findings...

  19. Resetting the Abnormal Circadian Cortisol Rhythm in Adrenal Incidentaloma Patients With Mild Autonomous Cortisol Secretion.

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    Debono, Miguel; Harrison, Robert F; Chadarevian, Rita; Gueroult, Carole; Abitbol, Jean-Louis; Newell-Price, John

    2017-09-01

    Adrenal incidentalomas (AIs) are found commonly on axial imaging. Around 30% exhibit autonomous cortisol secretion (ACS) associated with increased cardiovascular events and death. We hypothesized that AI/ACS patients have an abnormal cortisol rhythm that could be reversed by use of carefully timed short-acting cortisol synthesis blockade, with improvement in cardiovascular disease markers. In a phase 1/2a, prospective study (Eudract no. 2012-002586-35), we recruited six patients with AI/ACS and two control groups of six sex-, age-, and body mass index-matched individuals: (1) patients with AI and no ACS (AI/NoACS) and (2) healthy volunteers with no AI [healthy controls (HC)]. Twenty-four-hour circadian cortisol analysis was performed to determine any differences between groups and timing of intervention for cortisol lowering using the 11β-hydroxylase inhibitor metyrapone. Circadian profiles of serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) were assessed. Serum cortisol levels in group AI/ACS were significantly higher than both group AI/NoACS and group HC from 6 pm to 10 pm [area under the curve (AUC) difference: 0.81 nmol/L/h; P = 0.01] and from 10 pm to 2 am (AUC difference: 0.86 nmol/L/h; P cortisol rhythms were reassessed. Postintervention evening serum cortisol was lowered, similar to controls [6 pm to 10 pm (AUC difference: -0.06 nmol/L/h; P = 0.85); 10 pm to 2 am (AUC difference: 0.10 nmol/L/h; P = 0.76)]. Salivary cortisone showed analogous changes. IL-6 levels were elevated before treatment [10 pm to 2 pm (AUC difference: 0.42 pg/mL/h; P = 0.01)] and normalized post treatment. In AI/ACS, the evening and nocturnal cortisol exposure is increased. Use of timed evening doses of metyrapone resets the cortisol rhythm to normal. This unique treatment paradigm is associated with a reduction in the cardiovascular risk marker IL-6. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  20. The role of anxiety in cortisol stress response and cortisol recovery in boys with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoorl, Jantiene; Rijn, Sophie van; Wied, Minet de; van Goozen, Stephanie; Swaab, Hanna

    2016-11-01

    Children with antisocial and aggressive behaviors have been found to show abnormal neurobiological responses to stress, specifically impaired cortisol stress reactivity. The role of individual characteristics, such as comorbid anxiety, in the stress response is far less studied. Furthermore, this study extended previous studies in that not only baseline and reactivity to a psychosocial stressor were examined, but also recovery from a stressor. These three phases of cortisol could be impacted differentially in boys with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) with (+ANX) and without anxiety (-ANX). The results revealed that cortisol patterns in response to psychosocial stress were different for boys with ODD/CD+ANX (n=32), ODD/CD-ANX (n=22) and non-clinical controls (NC) (n=34), with age range of 7.8-12.9 years. The ODD/CD-ANX group showed lower overall cortisol levels than the NC group. When considering the three phases of cortisol separately, the ODD/CD-ANX group had lower baseline cortisol levels relative to the other groups, whereas the ODD/CD+ANX showed an impaired cortisol recovery response. Within those with ODD/CD, callous-unemotional traits were predictive of high baseline cortisol levels. Also, anxiety predicted high baseline and recovery cortisol levels, whereas a high number of CD symptoms predicted reduced cortisol stress reactivity. These results clearly indicate that comorbid anxiety is an important factor in explaining differences in stress response profiles in boys with ODD/CD; although boys with CD/ODD are generally characterized by an impaired cortisol stress response, we found that those with comorbid anxiety showed impaired cortisol recovery, whereas those without anxiety showed reduced baseline cortisol levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The relationship between the menstrual cycle and cortisol secretion: Daily and stress-invoked cortisol patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-López, Eva; Santos-Ruiz, Ana; García-Ríos, M Carmen; Rodríguez-Blázquez, Manuel; Rogers, Heather L; Peralta-Ramírez, María Isabel

    2018-03-29

    The menstrual cycle involves significant changes in hormone levels, causing physical and psychological changes in women that are further influenced by stress. The aim of this study was to understand the relationship between menstrual cycle phase and salivary cortisol patterns during the day as well as the salivary cortisol response to the Virtual Reality Version of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST-VR). Forty two women not taking oral contraceptives (24 in follicular phase and 18 in luteal phase) participated in the study. Five samples of salivary cortisol collected during the day and another five samples of cortisol during the TSST-VR were analyzed. Psychological stress measures and psychopathological symptomatology were also evaluated. A 2 × 4 mixed ANCOVA showed an interaction between the two groups on the TSST-RV invoked cortisol response to the [F(3,42) = 3.681; p = 0.023) where women in luteal phase showed higher cortisol post exposure levels (5.96 ± 3.76 nmol/L) than women in follicular phase (4.31 ± 2.23 nmol/L). No other significant differences were found. Our findings provide evidence that menstrual cycle phase tended to influence cortisol response to laboratory-induced mental stress, with more reactivity observed in the luteal phase. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Stress, cortisol, and obesity: a role for cortisol responsiveness in identifying individuals prone to obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewagalamulage, S D; Lee, T K; Clarke, I J; Henry, B A

    2016-07-01

    There is a strong inter-relationship between activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and energy homeostasis. Patients with abdominal obesity have elevated cortisol levels. Furthermore, stress and glucocorticoids act to control both food intake and energy expenditure. In particular, glucocorticoids are known to increase the consumption of foods enriched in fat and sugar. It is well-known that, in all species, the cortisol response to stress or adrenocorticotropin is highly variable. It has now emerged that cortisol responsiveness is an important determinant in the metabolic sequelae to stress. Sheep that are characterized as high-cortisol responders (HRs) have greater propensity to weight gain and obesity than low-cortisol responders (LRs). This difference in susceptibility to become obese is associated with a distinct metabolic, neuroendocrine, and behavioral phenotype. In women and ewes, HR individuals eat more in response to stress than LR. Furthermore, HR sheep have impaired melanocortin signaling and reduced skeletal muscle thermogenesis. High-cortisol responder sheep exhibit reactive coping strategies, whereas LRs exhibit proactive coping strategies. This complex set of traits leads to increased food intake and reduced energy expenditure in HR and thus, predisposition to obesity. We predict that cortisol responsiveness may be used as a marker to identify individuals who are at risk of weight gain and subsequent obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. MDMA, cortisol, and heightened stress in recreational ecstasy users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Andrew C; Montgomery, Cathy; Wetherell, Mark A; Downey, Luke A; Stough, Con; Scholey, Andrew B

    2014-09-01

    Stress develops when an organism requires additional metabolic resources to cope with demanding situations. This review will debate how recreational 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') can increase some aspects of acute and chronic stress in humans. Laboratory studies on the acute effects of MDMA on cortisol release and neurohormone levels in drug-free regular ecstasy/MDMA users have been reviewed, and the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in chronic changes in anxiety, stress, and cognitive coping is debated. In the laboratory, acute ecstasy/MDMA use can increase cortisol levels by 100-200%, whereas ecstasy/MDMA-using dance clubbers experience an 800% increase in cortisol levels, because of the combined effects of the stimulant drug and dancing. Three-month hair samples of abstinent users revealed cortisol levels 400% higher than those in controls. Chronic users show heightened cortisol release in stressful environments and deficits in complex neurocognitive tasks. Event-related evoked response potential studies show altered patterns of brain activation, suggestive of increased mental effort, during basic information processing. Chronic mood deficits include more daily stress and higher depression in susceptible individuals. We conclude that ecstasy/MDMA increases cortisol levels acutely and subchronically and that changes in the HPA axis may explain why recreational ecstasy/MDMA users show various aspects of neuropsychobiological stress.

  4. Cortisol Response to Stress in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corominas-Roso, Margarida; Palomar, Gloria; Ferrer, Roser; Real, Alberto; Nogueira, Mariana; Corrales, Montserrat; Casas, Miguel; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni

    2015-03-17

    Differences in the cortisol response have been reported between children exhibiting the inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive subtypes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, there is no such information about adults. The aim of the present study was to determine the possible differences between the combined and inattentive subtypes in the cortisol response to stress. Ninety-six adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 38 inattentive and 58 combined, without any medical or psychiatric comorbidities and 25 healthy controls were included. The Trier Social Stress Test was used to assess physiological stress responses. Clinical data and subjective stress levels, including the Perceived Stress Scale, were also recorded. No significant differences in the cortisol response to the Trier Social Stress Test were found between patients and controls. However, albeit there were no basal differences, lower cortisol levels at 15 (P=.015), 30 (P=.015), and 45 minutes (P=.045) were observed in the combined compared with the inattentive subtype after the stress induction; these differences disappeared 60 minutes after the stress. In contrast, the subjective stress responses showed significant differences between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patients and controls (Pattention deficit hyperactivity disorder subtypes. In turn, subjective stress measures, such as the Perceived Stress Scale, positively correlated with the whole cortisol stress response (Pattention deficit hyperactivity disorder adults exhibited a normal cortisol response to stress when challenged. Nevertheless, the inattentive patients displayed a higher level of cortisol after stress compared with the combined patients. Despite the differences in the cortisol response, adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder reported high levels of subjective stress in their every-day life. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  5. Interindividual differences in stress sensitivity: basal and stress-induced cortisol levels differentially predict neural vigilance processing under stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henckens, Marloes J A G; Klumpers, Floris; Everaerd, Daphne; Kooijman, Sabine C; van Wingen, Guido A; Fernández, Guillén

    2016-04-01

    Stress exposure is known to precipitate psychological disorders. However, large differences exist in how individuals respond to stressful situations. A major marker for stress sensitivity is hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis function. Here, we studied how interindividual variance in both basal cortisol levels and stress-induced cortisol responses predicts differences in neural vigilance processing during stress exposure. Implementing a randomized, counterbalanced, crossover design, 120 healthy male participants were exposed to a stress-induction and control procedure, followed by an emotional perception task (viewing fearful and happy faces) during fMRI scanning. Stress sensitivity was assessed using physiological (salivary cortisol levels) and psychological measures (trait questionnaires). High stress-induced cortisol responses were associated with increased stress sensitivity as assessed by psychological questionnaires, a stronger stress-induced increase in medial temporal activity and greater differential amygdala responses to fearful as opposed to happy faces under control conditions. In contrast, high basal cortisol levels were related to relative stress resilience as reflected by higher extraversion scores, a lower stress-induced increase in amygdala activity and enhanced differential processing of fearful compared with happy faces under stress. These findings seem to reflect a critical role for HPA-axis signaling in stress coping; higher basal levels indicate stress resilience, whereas higher cortisol responsivity to stress might facilitate recovery in those individuals prone to react sensitively to stress. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Whole-body cortisol response of zebrafish to acute net handling stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, J.M.; Feist, G.W.; Varga, Z.M.; Westerfield, M.; Kent, M.L.; Schreck, C.B.

    2009-01-01

    Zebrafish, Danio rerio, are frequently handled during husbandry and experimental procedures in the laboratory, yet little is known about the physiological responses to such stressors. We measured the whole-body cortisol levels of adult zebrafish subjected to net stress and air exposure at intervals over a 24 h period; cortisol recovered to near control levels by about 1 h post-net-stress (PNS). We then measured cortisol at frequent intervals over a 1 h period. Cortisol levels were more than 2-fold higher in net stressed fish at 3 min PNS and continued to increase peaking at 15 min PNS, when cortisol levels were 6-fold greater than the control cortisol. Mean cortisol declined from 15 to 60 min PNS, and at 60 min, net-stressed cortisol was similar to control cortisol. Because the age of fish differed between studies, we examined resting cortisol levels of fish of different ages (3, 7, 13, and 19 months). The resting cortisol values among tanks with the same age fish differed significantly but there was no clear effect of age. Our study is the first to report the response and recovery of cortisol after net handling for laboratory-reared zebrafish. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Basal or stress-induced cortisol and asthma development : the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, Nienke M; Boezen, Hendrika; Postma, Dirkje S; Rosmalen, Judith G M

    We examined the association between: 1) cortisol levels and asthma or asthma development; 2) cortisol levels upon stress and asthma. In addition, we performed a post hoc meta-analysis on results from the literature. Cortisol, cortisol upon stress, asthma (doctor diagnosis of asthma and/or symptoms

  8. Reduced Cortisol Output during Public Speaking Stress in Ostracized Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weik, Ulrike; Ruhweza, Jennifer; Deinzer, Renate

    2017-01-01

    Ostracism (being excluded or ignored) is experienced as unpleasant and distressing. In previous studies, an immediate pre-stress experience of ostracism induced by Cyberball, a virtual ball-tossing game, was found to inhibit cortisol reactivity to public speaking stress in female students. The present study examines whether the effect will persist when a 15-min time gap between the Cyberball experience and subsequent psychological stress is introduced. N = 84 women were randomly assigned to Cyberball ostracism vs. inclusion. 15 min after playing Cyberball, all women were subjected to public speaking stress. Salivary cortisol and mood were repeatedly assessed during the course of the experiment. These are the main findings of the study: Repeated measures ANCOVA revealed that public speaking stress resulted in a significant increase of cortisol in both groups (inclusion vs. ostracism). However, cortisol levels were significantly lower in the ostracism group. In earlier studies when Cyberball was played immediately before public speaking stress, the cortisol response to public speaking was completely suppressed in ostracized women. By introducing a waiting period between Cyberball and public speaking stress in the present study, the main effect of an ostracism induced reduction of cortisol remained, although both groups showed an increase of cortisol as a response to public speaking. These results again suggest that the experience of ostracism might inhibit hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, thereby confirming previous results. The formerly observed total suppression of HPA axis responsiveness to public speaking, however, seems to be a rather short-term effect.

  9. Differentiating anticipatory from reactive cortisol responses to psychosocial stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engert, V.; Efanov, S.I.; Duchesne, A.; Vogel, S.; Corbo, V.; Pruessner, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Most psychosocial stress studies assess the overall cortisol response without further identifying the temporal dynamics within hormone levels. It has been shown, however, that the amplitude of anticipatory cortisol stress levels has a unique predictive value for psychological health. So far, no

  10. Sex differences in salivary cortisol reactivity to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST): A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jenny J W; Ein, Natalie; Peck, Katlyn; Huang, Vivian; Pruessner, Jens C; Vickers, Kristin

    2017-08-01

    Some, but not all studies using the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) have demonstrated evidence in support of sex differences in salivary cortisol. The aim of the current meta-analysis is to examine sex differences in salivary cortisol following exposure to the TSST. We further explored the effects of modifications to the TSST protocol and procedural variations as potential moderators. We searched articles published from January, 1993 to February, 2016 in MedLine, PsychINFO, and ProQuest Theses and Dissertations. This meta-analysis is based on 34 studies, with a total sample size of 1350 individuals (640 women and 710 men). Using a random effects model, we found significant heterogeneity in salivary cortisol output across sexes, such that men were observed to have higher cortisol values at peak and recovery following the TSST compared to women. Modifications to the sampling trajectory of cortisol (i.e., duration of acclimation, peak sampling time, and duration of recovery) significantly moderated the heterogeneity across both sexes. Further, there are observed sex differences at various time points of the reactive cortisol following the TSST. Lastly, current results suggest that these sex differences can be, at least in part, attributed to variations in methodological considerations across studies. Future research could advance this line of inquiry by using other methods of analyses (e.g., area under the curve; AUC), in order to better understand the effects of methodological variations and their implications for research design. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Occupational role stress is associated with higher cortisol reactivity to acute stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Petra H; Ehlert, Ulrike; Kottwitz, Maria U; La Marca, Roberto; Semmer, Norbert K

    2013-04-01

    We investigated whether occupational role stress is associated with differential levels of the stress hormone cortisol in response to acute psychosocial stress. Forty-three medication-free nonsmoking men aged between 22 and 65 years (mean ± SEM: 44.5 ± 2) underwent an acute standardized psychosocial stress task combining public speaking and mental arithmetic in front of an audience. We assessed occupational role stress in terms of role conflict and role ambiguity (combined into a measure of role uncertainty) as well as further work characteristics and psychological control variables including time pressure, overcommitment, perfectionism, and stress appraisal. Moreover, we repeatedly measured salivary cortisol and blood pressure levels before and after stress exposure, and several times up to 60 min thereafter. Higher role uncertainty was associated with a more pronounced cortisol stress reactivity (p = .016), even when controlling for the full set of potential confounders (p stress reactivity was not associated with role uncertainty. Our findings suggest that occupational role stress in terms of role uncertainty acts as a background stressor that is associated with increased HPA-axis reactivity to acute stress. This finding may represent a potential mechanism regarding how occupational role stress may precipitate adverse health outcomes.

  12. Hair cortisol concentrations and cortisol stress reactivity predict PTSD symptom increase after trauma exposure during military deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Stalder, Tobias; Schönfeld, Sabine; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Trautmann, Sebastian; Alexander, Nina; Miller, Robert; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2015-09-01

    Previous evidence on endocrine risk markers for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been inconclusive. Here, we report results of the first prospective study to investigate whether long-term hair cortisol levels and experimentally-induced cortisol stress reactivity are predictive of the development of PTSD symptomatology in response to trauma during military deployment. Male soldiers were examined before deployment to Afghanistan and at a 12-month post-deployment follow-up using dimensional measures for psychopathological symptoms. The predictive value of baseline (i) hair cortisol concentrations (HCC, N=90) and (ii) salivary cortisol stress reactivity (measured by the Trier Social Stress Test, N=80) for the development of PTSD symptomatology after being exposed to new-onset traumatic events was analyzed. Baseline cortisol activity significantly predicted PTSD symptom change from baseline to follow-up upon trauma exposure. Specifically, our results consistently revealed that lower HCC and lower cortisol stress reactivity were predictive of a greater increase in PTSD symptomatology in soldiers who had experienced new-onset traumatic events (explaining 5% and 10.3% of variance, respectively). Longitudinal analyses revealed an increase in HCC from baseline to follow-up and a trend for a negative relationship between HCC changes and the number of new-onset traumatic events. Additional pre-deployment analyses revealed that trauma history was reflected in lower HCC (at trend level) and that HCC were negatively related to stressful load. Our data indicate that attenuated cortisol secretion is a risk marker for subsequent development of PTSD symptomatology upon trauma exposure. Future studies are needed to confirm our findings in other samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cortisol responses to naturalistic and laboratory stress in student teachers: comparison with a non-stress control day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfram, Maren; Bellingrath, Silja; Feuerhahn, Nicolas; Kudielka, Brigitte M

    2013-04-01

    Ambulatory assessments of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis responses to acute natural stressors yield evidence on stress regulation with high ecological validity. Sampling of salivary cortisol is a standard technique in this field. In 21 healthy student teachers, we assessed cortisol responses to a demonstration lesson. On a control day, sampling was repeated at analogous times. Additionally, the cortisol awakening response (CAR) was assessed on both days. Participants were also exposed to a laboratory stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test, and rated their individual levels of chronic work stress. In pre-to-post-stress assessment, cortisol levels declined after the lesson. However, post-stress cortisol levels were significantly higher compared with those on the control day. Also, the Trier Social Stress Test yielded higher cortisol responses when using the control day as reference baseline. Associations between the CAR and chronic stress measures were observed solely on the control day. There were no significant associations between cortisol responses to the natural and laboratory stressors. Our results indicate that a control day might be an important complement in laboratory but especially in ambulatory stress research. Furthermore, associations between chronic stress measures and the CAR might be obscured by acute stress exposure. Finally, responses to the laboratory stressor do not seem to mirror natural stress responses. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Stress and cortisol responses in men: differences according to facial symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borráz-León, Javier I; Cerda-Molina, Ana Lilia; Mayagoitia-Novales, Lilian

    2017-11-01

    Stress response is associated with increased activity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. Chronic stress-induced elevation in cortisol may alter its own negative regulation with multiple long-term consequences for physical and psychological health. One of the most reliable physical traits associated with mental, apparent physical health, and competitiveness is the degree of facial fluctuating asymmetry. However, to our knowledge there are no studies regarding the relationship between cortisol levels, facial symmetry and male competitiveness, and how cortisol changes after a stressful test depending on these traits. Here, a group of 100 college men were photographed to obtain their facial asymmetry levels. They then, answered the perceived stress scale and the intrasexual competition test and donated two saliva samples (pre-and post-test sample) to measure the change in their cortisol levels after a stressful test. We found that basal cortisol levels were positively correlated with both perceived stress and competitiveness, but not with facial fluctuating asymmetry. Cortisol levels increased in most symmetrical men after a short stressful test, but it decreased in most asymmetrical men. The results suggest differences in endocrine responses according to facial fluctuating asymmetry in men and how these responses could be related to the maintenance of social status.

  15. Chronic stress, cortisol dysfunction, and pain: a psychoneuroendocrine rationale for stress management in pain rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannibal, Kara E; Bishop, Mark D

    2014-12-01

    Pain is a primary symptom driving patients to seek physical therapy, and its attenuation commonly defines a successful outcome. A large body of evidence is dedicated to elucidating the relationship between chronic stress and pain; however, stress is rarely addressed in pain rehabilitation. A physiologic stress response may be evoked by fear or perceived threat to safety, status, or well-being and elicits the secretion of sympathetic catecholamines (epinephrine and norepinepherine) and neuroendocrine hormones (cortisol) to promote survival and motivate success. Cortisol is a potent anti-inflammatory that functions to mobilize glucose reserves for energy and modulate inflammation. Cortisol also may facilitate the consolidation of fear-based memories for future survival and avoidance of danger. Although short-term stress may be adaptive, maladaptive responses (eg, magnification, rumination, helplessness) to pain or non-pain-related stressors may intensify cortisol secretion and condition a sensitized physiologic stress response that is readily recruited. Ultimately, a prolonged or exaggerated stress response may perpetuate cortisol dysfunction, widespread inflammation, and pain. Stress may be unavoidable in life, and challenges are inherent to success; however, humans have the capability to modify what they perceive as stressful and how they respond to it. Exaggerated psychological responses (eg, catastrophizing) following maladaptive cognitive appraisals of potential stressors as threatening may exacerbate cortisol secretion and facilitate the consolidation of fear-based memories of pain or non-pain-related stressors; however, coping, cognitive reappraisal, or confrontation of stressors may minimize cortisol secretion and prevent chronic, recurrent pain. Given the parallel mechanisms underlying the physiologic effects of a maladaptive response to pain and non-pain-related stressors, physical therapists should consider screening for non-pain-related stress to

  16. Cortisol stress response in post-traumatic stress disorder, panic disorder, and major depressive disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, Susann; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Böhme, Carsten; Petrowski, Katja

    2017-09-01

    Previous research has focussed extensively on the distinction of HPA-axis functioning between patient groups and healthy volunteers, with relatively little emphasis on a direct comparison of patient groups. The current study's aim was to analyse differences in the cortisol stress response as a function of primary diagnosis of panic disorder (PD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and major depressive disorder (MDD). A total of n=30 PD (mean age±SD: 36.07±12.56), n=23 PTSD (41.22±10.17), n=18 MDD patients (39.00±14.93) and n=47 healthy control (HC) individuals (35.51±13.15) participated in this study. All the study participants were female. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was used for reliable laboratory stress induction. Blood sampling accompanied the TSST for cortisol and ACTH assessment. Panic-related, PTSD-specific questionnaires and the Beck Depression Inventory II were handed out for the characterisation of the study groups. Repeated measure ANCOVAs were conducted to test for main effects of time or group and for interaction effects. Regression analyses were conducted to take comorbid depression into account. 26.7% of the PD patients, 43.5% of the PTSD patients, 72.2% of the MDD patients and 80.6% of the HC participants showed a cortisol stress response upon the TSST. ANCOVA revealed a cortisol hypo-responsiveness both in PD and PTSD patients, while no significant group differences were seen in the ACTH concentrations. Additional analyses showed no impact of comorbid depressiveness on the cortisol stress response. MDD patients did not differ in the hormonal stress response neither compared to the HC participants nor to the PD and PTSD patients. Our main findings provide evidence of a dissociation between the cortisol and ACTH concentrations in response to the TSST in PTSD and in PD patients, independent of comorbid depression. Our results further support overall research findings of a cortisol hypo-responsiveness in PD patients. A hypo

  17. Development of the cortisol circadian rhythm in the light of stress early in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Sterre S H; Beijers, Roseriet; Cillessen, Antonius H N; de Weerth, Carolina

    2015-12-01

    The secretion of the stress hormone cortisol follows a diurnal circadian rhythm. There are indications that this rhythm is affected by stress early in life. This paper addresses the development of the cortisol circadian rhythm between 1 and 6 years of age, and the role of maternal stress and anxiety early in the child's life on this (developing) rhythm. Participants were 193 healthy mother-child dyads from a community sample. Self-reported maternal stress and anxiety and physiological stress (saliva cortisol), were assessed prenatally (gestational week 37). Postnatally, self-reported maternal stress and anxiety were measured at 3, 6, 12, 30, and 72 months. Saliva cortisol samples from the children were collected on two days (four times each day) at 12, 30, and 72 months of age. The total amount of cortisol during the day and the cortisol decline over the day were determined to indicate children's cortisol circadian rhythm. Multilevel analyses showed that the total amount of cortisol decreased between 1 and 6 years. Furthermore, more maternal pregnancy-specific stress was related to higher total amounts of cortisol in the child. Higher levels of early postnatal maternal anxiety were associated with flatter cortisol declines in children. Higher levels of early postnatal maternal daily hassles were associated with steeper child cortisol declines over the day. These results indicated developmental change in children's cortisol secretion from 1 to 6 years and associations between maternal stress and anxiety early in children's lives and children's cortisol circadian rhythm in early childhood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Child anxiety symptoms related to longitudinal cortisol trajectories and acute stress responses: evidence of developmental stress sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Heidemarie K; Gilliam, Kathryn S; Wright, Dorianne B; Fisher, Philip A

    2015-02-01

    Cross-sectional research suggests that individuals at risk for internalizing disorders show differential activation levels and/or dynamics of stress-sensitive physiological systems, possibly reflecting a process of stress sensitization. However, there is little longitudinal research to clarify how the development of these systems over time relates to activation during acute stress, and how aspects of such activation map onto internalizing symptoms. We investigated children's (n = 107) diurnal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity via salivary cortisol (morning and evening levels) across 29 assessments spanning 6+ years, and related longitudinal patterns to acute stress responses at the end of this period (age 9-10). Associations with child psychiatric symptoms at age 10 were also examined to determine internalizing risk profiles. Increasing morning cortisol levels across assessments predicted less of a cortisol decline following interpersonal stress at age 9, and higher cortisol levels during performance stress at age 10. These same profiles of high and/or sustained cortisol elevation during psychosocial stress were associated with child anxiety symptoms. Results suggest developmental sensitization to stress-reflected in rising morning cortisol and eventual hyperactivation during acute stress exposure-may distinguish children at risk for internalizing disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. The role of stress hormones in the relationship between resting blood pressure and coagulation activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Petra H; Ehlert, Ulrike; Emini, Luljeta; Rüdisüli, Katharina; Groessbauer, Sara; Mausbach, Brent T; von Känel, Roland

    2006-12-01

    Systemic hypertension confers a hypercoagulable state. We hypothesized that resting mean blood pressure (MBP) interacts with stress hormones in predicting coagulation activity at rest and with acute mental stress. We measured plasma clotting factor VII activity (FVII:C), FVIII:C, fibrinogen, D-dimer, epinephrine and norepinephrine, and saliva cortisol in 42 otherwise healthy normotensive and hypertensive medication-free men (mean age 43 +/- 14 years) at rest, immediately after stress, and twice during 60 min of recovery from stress. At rest, the MBP-by-epinephrine interaction predicted FVII:C (beta = -0.33, P AUC) predicted D-dimer AUC (beta = 0.34, P = 0.04) independent of MBP. The MBP-by-epinephrine AUC interaction predicted FVII:C AUC (beta = 0.28) and fibrinogen AUC (beta = -0.30), and the MBP-by-norepinephrine AUC interaction predicted FVIII:C AUC (beta = -0.28), all with borderline significance (Ps < 0.09) and independent of age and BMI. MBP significantly altered the association between stress hormones and coagulation activity at rest and, with borderline significance, across the entire stress and recovery interval. Independent of MBP, catecholamines were associated with procoagulant effects and cortisol reactivity dampened the acute procoagulant stress response.

  20. Gender differences in acculturation, stress, and salivary cortisol response among former Soviet immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Lisa M; Miller, Arlene Michaels; Schwertz, Dorie; Sorokin, Olga

    2013-06-01

    Post-immigration adaptation is characterized by chronic and acute acculturative stressors. Salivary cortisol is a commonly used hormonal marker of stress, but few studies have investigated its use as an indicator of acculturative stress and adjustment in immigrants. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among predictors of adjustment (environmental and language mastery), self-reported stress outcomes (depressive symptoms, perceived stress, alienation), and salivary cortisol response in immigrants from the former Soviet Union. The sample included 137 married men and women aged 42-80 who lived in the U.S. for 1-13 years. Results indicated that while men and women had similar values for cortisol response, relationships among adjustment measures, stress outcomes, and cortisol differed by gender. Among men, environmental mastery significantly reduced depressive symptoms, perceived stress, and cortisol response. Among women, environmental mastery also reduced depressive symptoms, perceived stress, and alienation, but language mastery increased cortisol response and decreased alienation.

  1. Effect of childhood physical abuse on cortisol stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Linda L; Shattuck, Thaddeus T; Tyrka, Audrey R; Geracioti, Thomas D; Price, Lawrence H

    2011-03-01

    Abuse and neglect are highly prevalent in children and have enduring neurobiological effects. Stressful early life environments perturb the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which in turn may predispose to psychiatric disorders in adulthood. However, studies of childhood maltreatment and adult HPA function have not yet rigorously investigated the differential effects of maltreatment subtypes, including physical abuse. In this study, we sought to replicate our previous finding that childhood maltreatment was associated with attenuated cortisol responses to stress and determine whether the type of maltreatment was a determinant of the stress response. Salivary cortisol response to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was examined in a non-clinical sample of women (n = 110). Subjects had no acute medical problems and were not seeking psychiatric treatment. Effects of five maltreatment types, as measured by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, on cortisol response to the TSST were investigated. To further examine the significant (p < 0.005) effect of one maltreatment type, women with childhood physical abuse (PA) (n = 20) were compared to those without past PA (n = 90). Women reporting childhood PA displayed a significantly blunted cortisol response to the TSST compared with subjects without PA, after controlling for estrogen use, age, other forms of maltreatment, and other potential confounds. There were no differences between PA and control groups with regard to physiological arousal during the stress challenge. In a non-clinical sample of women with minimal or no current psychopathology, physical abuse is associated with a blunted cortisol response to a psychosocial stress task.

  2. Cortisol reactivity and emotional memory after psychosocial stress in oral contraceptive users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordecai, Kristen L; Rubin, Leah H; Eatough, Erin; Sundermann, Erin; Drogos, Lauren; Savarese, Antonia; Maki, Pauline M

    2017-01-02

    Oral contraceptive (OC) users typically show a blunted or no cortisol response to psychosocial stress. Although most OC regimens include both an inactive (dummy) and active pill phase, studies have not systematically investigated cortisol responses during these pill phases. Further, high levels of cortisol following a stressor diminish retrieval of emotional material, but the effects of stress on memory among OC users are poorly understood. We examined the effects of a psychosocial stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test, vs. a control condition on cortisol responsivity and emotional memory retrieval in women tested either during their active (n = 18) or inactive pill phase (n = 21). In secondary analyses, we quantitatively compared OC users with normally cycling women and showed a significant lack of cortisol response during both active and inactive pill phase. Emotional recall did not differ between active and inactive pill phases. Stress differentially diminished recall of negative words compared with positive or neutral words, but cortisol levels were unrelated to memory performance. These findings indicate that OC users have distinct cortisol and memory responses to stress that are similar between the active and inactive pill phases. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Cognitive control moderates parenting stress effects on children's diurnal cortisol

    OpenAIRE

    Raffington, Laurel; Schmiedek, Florian; Heim, Christine; Shing, Yee Lee

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated associations between parenting stress in parents and self-reported stress in children with children's diurnal cortisol secretion and whether these associations are moderated by known stress-regulating capacities, namely child cognitive control. Salivary cortisol concentrations were assessed from awakening to evening on two weekend days from 53 6-to-7-year-old children. Children completed a cognitive control task and a self-report stress questionnaire with an experiment...

  4. Stress in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood, and cortisol levels in older age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Mathew A; Cox, Simon R; Brett, Caroline E; Deary, Ian J; MacLullich, Alasdair M J

    2017-03-01

    The glucocorticoid hypothesis suggests that overexposure to stress may cause permanent upregulation of cortisol. Stress in youth may therefore influence cortisol levels even in older age. Using data from the 6-Day Sample, we investigated the effects of high stress in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood - as well as individual variables contributing to these measures; parental loss, social deprivation, school and home moves, illness, divorce and job instability - upon cortisol levels at age 77 years. Waking, waking +45 min (peak) and evening salivary cortisol samples were collected from 159 participants, and the 150 who were not using steroid medications were included in this study. After correcting for multiple comparisons, the only significant association was between early-adulthood job instability and later-life peak cortisol levels. After excluding participants with dementia or possible mild cognitive impairment, early-adulthood high stress showed significant associations with lower evening and mean cortisol levels, suggesting downregulation by stress, but these results did not survive correction for multiple comparisons. Overall, our results do not provide strong evidence of a relationship between stress in youth and later-life cortisol levels, but do suggest that some more long-term stressors, such as job instability, may indeed produce lasting upregulation of cortisol, persisting into the mid-to-late seventies.

  5. Differential effects of stress-induced cortisol responses on recollection and familiarity-based recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Andrew M; Ritchey, Maureen; Ranganath, Charan; Yonelinas, Andrew

    2015-09-01

    Stress-induced changes in cortisol can impact memory in various ways. However, the precise relationship between cortisol and recognition memory is still poorly understood. For instance, there is reason to believe that stress could differentially affect recollection-based memory, which depends on the hippocampus, and familiarity-based recognition, which can be supported by neocortical areas alone. Accordingly, in the current study we examined the effects of stress-related changes in cortisol on the processes underlying recognition memory. Stress was induced with a cold-pressor test after incidental encoding of emotional and neutral pictures, and recollection and familiarity-based recognition memory were measured one day later. The relationship between stress-induced cortisol responses and recollection was non-monotonic, such that subjects with moderate stress-related increases in cortisol had the highest levels of recollection. In contrast, stress-related cortisol responses were linearly related to increases in familiarity. In addition, measures of cortisol taken at the onset of the experiment showed that individuals with higher levels of pre-learning cortisol had lower levels of both recollection and familiarity. The results are consistent with the proposition that hippocampal-dependent memory processes such as recollection function optimally under moderate levels of stress, whereas more cortically-based processes such as familiarity are enhanced even with higher levels of stress. These results indicate that whether post-encoding stress improves or disrupts recognition memory depends on the specific memory process examined as well as the magnitude of the stress-induced cortisol response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cortisol Stress Response Variability in Early Adolescence Attachment, Affect and Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Catherine Ann; McKay, Stacey; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine; Wright, Joan M.; Weinberg, Joanne

    2017-01-01

    Attachment, affect, and sex shape responsivity to psychosocial stress. Concurrent social contexts influence cortisol secretion, a stress hormone and biological marker of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis activity. Patterns of attachment, emotion status, and sex were hypothesized to relate to bifurcated, that is, accentuated and attenuated, cortisol reactivity. The theoretical framework for this study posits that multiple individual differences mediate a cortisol stress response. The effects of two psychosocial stress interventions, a modified Trier Social Stress Test for Teens and the Frustration Social Stressor for Adolescents were developed and investigated with early adolescents. Both of these protocols induced a significant stress reaction and evoked predicted bifurcation in cortisol responses; an increase or decrease from baseline to reactivity. In Study I, 120 predominantly middle-class, Euro-Canadian early adolescents with a mean age of 13.43 years were studied. The girls' attenuated cortisol reactivity to the public performance stressor related significantly to their self-reported lower maternal-attachment and higher trait-anger. In Study II, a community sample of 146 predominantly Euro-Canadian middle-class youth, with an average age of 14.5 years participated. Their self-reports of higher trait-anger and trait-anxiety, and lower parental attachment by both sexes related differentially to accentuated and attenuated cortisol reactivity to the frustration stressor. Thus, attachment, affect, sex, and the stressor contextual factors were associated with the adrenal-cortical responses of these adolescents through complex interactions. Further studies of individual differences in physiological responses to stress are called for in order to clarify the identities of concurrent protective and risk factors in the psychosocial stress and physiological stress responses of early adolescents. PMID:27468997

  7. Cortisol Stress Response Variability in Early Adolescence: Attachment, Affect and Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Catherine Ann; McKay, Stacey; Susman, Elizabeth J; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine; Wright, Joan M; Weinberg, Joanne

    2017-01-01

    Attachment, affect, and sex shape responsivity to psychosocial stress. Concurrent social contexts influence cortisol secretion, a stress hormone and biological marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Patterns of attachment, emotion status, and sex were hypothesized to relate to bifurcated, that is, accentuated and attenuated, cortisol reactivity. The theoretical framework for this study posits that multiple individual differences mediate a cortisol stress response. The effects of two psychosocial stress interventions, a modified Trier Social Stress Test for Teens and the Frustration Social Stressor for Adolescents were developed and investigated with early adolescents. Both of these protocols induced a significant stress reaction and evoked predicted bifurcation in cortisol responses; an increase or decrease from baseline to reactivity. In Study I, 120 predominantly middle-class, Euro-Canadian early adolescents with a mean age of 13.43 years were studied. The girls' attenuated cortisol reactivity to the public performance stressor related significantly to their self-reported lower maternal-attachment and higher trait-anger. In Study II, a community sample of 146 predominantly Euro-Canadian middle-class youth, with an average age of 14.5 years participated. Their self-reports of higher trait-anger and trait-anxiety, and lower parental attachment by both sexes related differentially to accentuated and attenuated cortisol reactivity to the frustration stressor. Thus, attachment, affect, sex, and the stressor contextual factors were associated with the adrenal-cortical responses of these adolescents through complex interactions. Further studies of individual differences in physiological responses to stress are called for in order to clarify the identities of concurrent protective and risk factors in the psychosocial stress and physiological stress responses of early adolescents.

  8. Cortisol and melatonin in the cutaneous stress response system of fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulczykowska, Ewa; Kalamarz-Kubiak, Hanna; Gozdowska, Magdalena; Sokołowska, Ewa

    2018-04-01

    The stress hormone cortisol, together with antioxidants, melatonin (Mel) and its biologically active metabolites, 5-methoxykynuramines, including AFMK, set up a local stress response system in mammalian skin. Our in vitro study of the European flounder (Platichthys flesus) was designed to examine whether Mel and AFMK would respond to cortisol while a glucocorticoid is added to the incubation medium. The concentrations of cortisol in the incubation medium mimic plasma cortisol levels seen in fish exposed to different types of stresses such as handling, confinement, high density, food-deprivation or air-exposure. We measured Mel and AFMK in skin explants and culture media using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. We also analysed melanosome response (dispersion/aggregation) in the explants subjected to the different treatments. Cortisol stimulated the release of Mel and AFMK from skin explants in a dose-dependent manner. Melanosome dispersion and a darkening of the skin explants were observed after incubation with cortisol. This study is the first to demonstrate the interrelationship between cortisol and Mel/AFMK in fish skin. Our data strongly suggest that the cutaneous stress response system (CSRS) is present in fish. The question remains whether Mel, AFMK or cortisol are synthetized locally in fish skin and/or transported by the bloodstream. The presence of the CSRS should be taken into account during elaboration of new indicators of fish welfare both in aquaculture and in the wild. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Usefulness of Time-Point Serum Cortisol and ACTH Measurements for the Adjustment of Glucocorticoid Replacement in Adrenal Insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Elise; Joubert, Michael; Trzepla, Géraldine; Parienti, Jean Jacques; Freret, Thomas; Vanthygem, Marie Christine; Desailloud, Rachel; Lefebvre, Hervé; Coquerel, Antoine; Reznik, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Adjustment of daily hydrocortisone dose on clinical criteria lacks sensitivity for fine tuning. Long term hydrocortisone (HC) over-replacement may lead to increased morbidity and mortality in patients with adrenal insufficiency (AI). Biochemical criteria may help detecting over- or under-replacement but have been poorly evaluated. Multicenter, institutional, pharmacokinetic study on ACTH and cortisol plasma profiles during HC replacement in 27 AI patients compared to 29 matched controls. All AI patients were administered HC thrice daily at doses of 6, 10 and 14 mg/m2/d. Blood samples were drawn hourly from 0800h to 1900h. The main outcome measures were: i) plasma peak cortisol and cortisol area under the curve (AUC) in AI patients compared to controls, ii) correlations between cortisol AUC vs single-point cortisol or ACTH decrease from baseline (ΔACTH) and iii) the predictive value of the two latters for obtaining AI patients' cortisol AUC in the control range. Cortisol peaks were observed 1h after each HC intake and a dose response was demonstrated for cortisol peak and cortisol AUC. The comparison of AI patients' cortisol AUC to controls showed that 81.5% AI patients receiving 6mg/m2/d were adequately replaced, whereas most patients receiving higher doses were over-replaced. The correlation coefficient between 1000h/1400h cortisol concentrations and 0800-1900h cortisol AUC were 0.93/0.88 respectively, whereas the 0800-1200h ΔACTH fairly correlated with 0800-1900h cortisol AUC (R = 0.57). ROC curve analysis indicated that the 1000h and 1400h cortisol concentrations best predicted over-replacement. Patients receiving a 6mg/m2 hydrocortisone daily dose exhibited the most physiological daytime cortisol profile. Single point plasma cortisol correlated with daytime cortisol AUC in AI patients. Although hydrocortisone dose should be currently determined on clinical grounds, our data suggest that single point plasma cortisol may be an adjunct for further hydrocortisone

  10. Relationship between the cortisol awakening response and other features of the diurnal cortisol rhythm: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Golden, Sherita Hill; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Wu, Meihua; Champaneri, Shivam; Diez Roux, Ana V.; Seeman, Teresa; Wand, Gary S.

    2013-01-01

    Cumulative cortisol burden is known to influence neuropsychiatric and metabolic disorders. To better understand the relationship between daily cortisol exposure and measures of the diurnal circadian cortisol rhythm, we examined the cross-sectional association of the cortisol awakening response (CAR) with wake-up cortisol, bedtime cortisol, diurnal slope, and total cortisol area under the curve (AUC). Up to 18 salivary cortisol samples were collected over 3 days from 935 White, Hispanic, and B...

  11. Cross-country differences in basal and stress-induced cortisol secretion in older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana N Souza-Talarico

    Full Text Available Several studies have emphasized the association between socioeconomic status (SES and inadequate response of the biological stress system. However, other factors related to SES are rarely considered, such as cultural values, social norms, organization, language and communication skills, which raises the need to investigate cross-country differences in stress response. Although some studies have shown differences in cortisol levels between immigrants and natives, there is no cross-country evidence regarding cortisol levels in country-native elders. This is particularly important given the high prevalence of stress-related disorders across nations during aging. The current study examined basal diurnal and reactive cortisol levels in healthy older adults living in two different countries.Salivary cortisol of 260 older adults from Canada and Brazil were analyzed. Diurnal cortisol was measured in saliva samples collected at home throughout two working days at awakening, 30 min after waking, 1400 h, 1600 h and before bedtime. Cortisol reactivity was assessed in response to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST in both populations.Our results showed that even under similar health status, psychological and cognitive characteristics, Brazilian elders exhibited higher basal and stress-induced cortisol secretion compared to the Canadian participants.These findings suggest that country context may modulate cortisol secretion and could impact the population health.

  12. Cross-country differences in basal and stress-induced cortisol secretion in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza-Talarico, Juliana N; Plusquellec, Pierrich; Lupien, Sonia J; Fiocco, Alexandra; Suchecki, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have emphasized the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and inadequate response of the biological stress system. However, other factors related to SES are rarely considered, such as cultural values, social norms, organization, language and communication skills, which raises the need to investigate cross-country differences in stress response. Although some studies have shown differences in cortisol levels between immigrants and natives, there is no cross-country evidence regarding cortisol levels in country-native elders. This is particularly important given the high prevalence of stress-related disorders across nations during aging. The current study examined basal diurnal and reactive cortisol levels in healthy older adults living in two different countries. Salivary cortisol of 260 older adults from Canada and Brazil were analyzed. Diurnal cortisol was measured in saliva samples collected at home throughout two working days at awakening, 30 min after waking, 1400 h, 1600 h and before bedtime. Cortisol reactivity was assessed in response to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in both populations. Our results showed that even under similar health status, psychological and cognitive characteristics, Brazilian elders exhibited higher basal and stress-induced cortisol secretion compared to the Canadian participants. These findings suggest that country context may modulate cortisol secretion and could impact the population health.

  13. Relationship between cyberbullying roles, cortisol secretion and psychological stress

    OpenAIRE

    González-Cabrera, Joaquín (UNIR); Calvete, Esther; León-Mejía, Ana (UNIR); Pérez-Sancho, Carlota; Peinado, José M.

    2017-01-01

    Although cyberbullying is associated with different psychological problems, the role of biological markers of stress in cyberbullying has been relatively neglected. The aims of this study were: 1) to analyze the profile of cortisol secretion along the day in subjects involved in cyberbullying and 2) to investigate whether the predictive relationship between cyberbullying victimization and subjective symptoms of stress and anxiety are accounted for by cortisol reactivity. A longitudinal study ...

  14. Salivary cortisol and α-amylase: subclinical indicators of stress as cardiometabolic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozma, S; Dima-Cozma, L C; Ghiciuc, C M; Pasquali, V; Saponaro, A; Patacchioli, F R

    2017-02-06

    Currently, the potential for cardiovascular (CV) stress-induced risk is primarily based on the theoretical (obvious) side effects of stress on the CV system. Salivary cortisol and α-amylase, produced respectively by the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic-adrenomedullary (SAM) system during stress response, are still not included in the routine evaluation of CV risk and require additional and definitive validation. Therefore, this article overviews studies published between 2010 and 2015, in which salivary cortisol and α-amylase were measured as stress biomarkers to examine their associations with CV/CMR (cardiometabolic risk) clinical and subclinical indicators. A comprehensive search of PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus electronic databases was performed, and 54 key articles related to the use of salivary cortisol and α-amylase as subclinical indicators of stress and CV/CMR factors, including studies that emphasized methodological biases that could influence the accuracy of study outcomes, were ultimately identified. Overall, the biological impact of stress measured by salivary cortisol and α-amylase was associated with CV/CMR factors. Results supported the use of salivary cortisol and α-amylase as potential diagnostic tools for detecting stress-induced cardiac diseases and especially to describe the mechanisms by which stress potentially contributes to the pathogenesis and outcomes of CV diseases.

  15. Child temperament and parental depression predict cortisol reactivity to stress in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackrell, Sarah V M; Sheikh, Haroon I; Kotelnikova, Yuliya; Kryski, Katie R; Jordan, Patricia L; Singh, Shiva M; Hayden, Elizabeth P

    2014-02-01

    Children's cortisol reactivity to stress is an important mediator of depression risk, making the search for predictors of such reactivity an important goal for psychopathologists. Multiple studies have linked maternal depression and childhood behavioral inhibition (BI) independently to child cortisol reactivity, yet few have tested multivariate models of these risks. Further, paternal depression and other child temperament traits, such as positive emotionality (PE), have been largely ignored despite their potential relevance. We therefore examined longitudinal associations between child fear/BI and PE and parental depression, and children's cortisol stress reactivity, in 205 7-year-olds. Paternal depression and child fear/BI predicted greater cortisol stress reactivity at a follow-up of 164 9-year-olds, and maternal depression and child PE interacted to predict children's cortisol reactivity, such that higher child PE predicted lower cortisol reactivity in the context of maternal depression. Results highlight the importance of both parents' depression, as well as multiple facets of child temperament, in developing more comprehensive models of childhood cortisol reactivity to stress. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Cortisol responses to mental stress, exercise, and meals following caffeine intake in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovallo, William R; Farag, Noha H; Vincent, Andrea S; Thomas, Terrie L; Wilson, Michael F

    2006-03-01

    Caffeine elevates cortisol secretion, and caffeine is often consumed in conjunction with exercise or mental stress. The interactions of caffeine and stress on cortisol secretion have not been explored adequately in women. We measured cortisol levels at eight times on days when healthy men and women consumed caffeine (250 mg x 3) and underwent either mental stress or dynamic exercise protocols, followed by a midday meal, in a double blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design. Men and women had similar cortisol levels at the predrug baselines, but they responded differently to mental stress and exercise. The cortisol response to mental stress was smaller in women than in men (p=.003). Caffeine acted in concert with mental stress to further increase cortisol levels (p=.011), the effect was similar in men and women. Exercise alone did not increase cortisol, but caffeine taken before exercise elevated cortisol in both men and women (psrelease in response to stress and caffeine therefore appears to be a function of the type of stressor and the sex of the subject. However, repeated caffeine doses increased cortisol levels across the test day without regard to the sex of the subject or type of stressor employed (p<.00001). Caffeine may elevate cortisol by stimulating the central nervous system in men but may interact with peripheral metabolic mechanisms in women.

  17. Stress-related cortisol response and laboratory eating behavior in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorig, Fabian; Kießl, Gundula Rebecca Raphaela; Laessle, Reinhold Gustav

    2016-06-01

    Stress-related cortisol secretion has been linked to increased appetite and subsequent food intake in overweight individuals. The present study addresses this relationship in a repeated-measures randomized controlled laboratory experiment. Nineteen obese women were compared to 36 normal weight controls with respect to stress-induced salivary cortisol and laboratory eating behavior, measured by a universal eating monitor. The trier social stress test served as stressor. Stress-induced cortisol levels were significantly higher in the obese compared to the normal weight controls. Unexpectedly, a corresponding increase in laboratory food intake was not detected. The results are interpreted and discussed with regard to restrained eating, which was found to be present to a significant degree in the obese women.

  18. Hair cortisol as a biomarker of stress in the 2011 Libyan war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etwel, Fatma; Russell, Evan; Rieder, Michael J; Van Uum, Stan H; Koren, Gideon

    2014-12-01

    There is a substantial body of research that utilizes saliva cortisol levels to examine wartime stress; however, there is a paucity of literature that utilizes hair cortisol levels, which allows for long-term assessment of chronic stress, to investigate the stress of war. The present study aimed to evaluate changes in hair cortisol concentrations before, during, and after the 2011 Libyan war. This study examined hair cortisol concentrations of young adult women who were living in Tripoli, Libya during the 2011 war. The participants were recruited at the campus of Tripoli University. Participants needed to have at least 24 cm of hair and to have resided in Tripoli before, during and after the 2011 Libyan war. Hair was sectioned to reflect 3 month windows of cortisol exposure corresponding to periods before, during and after the war. Hair cortisol concentrations were quantified using a modified salivary ELISA test. The women were also asked to complete the Perceived Stress Scale pertaining to the post-war period. Median hair cortisol concentrations in the post-war period (226.11 ng/g; range 122.95-519.85 ng/g) were significantly higher than both the pre-war (180.07 ng/g; 47.13-937.85 ng/g) and wartime (186.65 ng/g; 62.97-771.79 ng/g) periods (Pwar period appears to have been more stressful than the war itself. This is consistent with the fact that during the war the civilian participants were not directly involved with warfare, nor were they targeted by the international coalition fighting Gaddafi. In contrast, the post-war period was characterized by chaos and total lack of authority, with the participants exposed to injury, lack of food and destruction. This study documents the utility of hair cortisol levels to retrospectively assess stress before, during, and after an armed conflict.

  19. 0268 Is perceived stress related to an increase in salivary cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, Samuel; Peter Bonde, Jens; Agergaard Vammen, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Perceived Stress is a suspected cause of many psychological and physical illnesses. However it remains to be discovered what physiological measures are involved. While it is widely known that acute stress leads to an increase in cortisol levels, the findings in prolonged stress research...... have not been consistent. This study explores the association between Perceived Stress and salivary cortisol levels using the largest population ever used in this field. METHOD: 4467 public employees in the PRISME cohort in 2007. 3217 of those did a similar follow up study in 2009. A 4-item Danish...... version of the PSS-scale was used to measure perceived stress and operationalized as the average score. Salivary cortisol samples were taken at 30 min post awakening and at 8 pm. A mean value of cortisol was calculated. In our analysis we applied logarithmic transformation to the concentrations. RESULTS...

  20. Depersonalization experiences in undergraduates are related to heightened stress cortisol responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesbrecht, Timo; Smeets, Tom; Merckelbach, Harald; Jelicic, Marko

    2007-04-01

    The relationship between dissociative tendencies, as measured with the Dissociative Experiences Scale and its amnesia, absorption/imaginative involvement, and depersonalization/derealization subscales, and HPA axis functioning was studied in 2 samples of undergraduate students (N = 58 and 67). Acute stress was induced by means of the Trier Social Stress Test. Subjective and physiological stress (i.e., cortisol) responses were measured. Individuals high on the depersonalization/derealization subscale of the Dissociative Experiences Scale exhibited more pronounced cortisol responses, while individuals high on the absorption subscale showed attenuated responses. Interestingly, subjective stress experiences, as indicated by the Tension-Anxiety subscale of the Profile of Mood States, were positively related to trait dissociation. The present findings illustrate how various types of dissociation (i.e., depersonalization/derealization, absorption) are differentially related to cortisol stress responses.

  1. Relation between salivary cortisol as stress biomarker and dietary pattern in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Nathalie; Sioen, Isabelle; Braet, Caroline; Huybrechts, Inge; Vanaelst, Barbara; Wolters, Maike; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2013-09-01

    Psychological stress has been suggested to result in hormonal effects (e.g. changes in cortisol pattern) that may change food selection in unhealthy ways. This study examines whether children's dietary pattern is indeed related to salivary cortisol levels. In 323 children (5-10 years old) participating in the Belgian ChiBS study, salivary cortisol samples, a biomarker for stress, was sampled when waking up, 30 and 60 min after wake up and in the evening on two consecutive weekdays. Data on the children's dietary pattern (frequency of sweet foods, fatty foods, snacks, fruit and vegetables) was collected with a food frequency questionnaire. Multilevel time modelling was used with adjustments for sex, age, body mass index, parental education and wake up time. Higher overall cortisol levels and a large cortisol awakening response (CAR) were associated with more frequent consumption of sweet foods. A steeper diurnal cortisol decline was associated with a higher sweet, fatty and snack food consumption frequency. No associations with fruit and vegetables consumption were found. High cortisol levels were linked to an unhealthier dietary pattern (more fatty food, snacks and especially sweet food). This supports the theory of cortisol-induced comfort food preference and strengthens the stress-diet relation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Investigating Cortisol Production and Pattern as Mediators in the Relationship Between Shift Work and Cardiometabolic Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritonja, Jennifer; Aronson, Kristan J; Day, Andrew G; Korsiak, Jill; Tranmer, Joan

    2018-05-01

    Shift work is a risk factor for many diseases, including cardiovascular disease. Although the biological pathways are still unclear, it is hypothesized that cortisol disruption during night work is an intermediate. The objective of this study is to determine whether total cortisol production and cortisol pattern mediate the relationship between current shift work and cardiometabolic risk (CMR) among female hospital employees. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 326 female employees (166 rotating shift workers, 160 day workers), recruited from a hospital in Southeastern Ontario, Canada, during 2011 to 2014. Participants completed a baseline interview, questionnaire, and clinical exam. Urine samples were collected over two 24-hour periods and used to analyze creatinine-adjusted cortisol, which was then used to calculate total cortisol production (AUC G ), and pattern (AUC I ). Mediation analysis was performed to test the mediating effect of cortisol in the relationship between shift work and a continuous CMR score. Current shift work is associated with a 0.52 higher CMR score (95% CI: 0.15, 0.89), a lower cortisol output (AUC G ), and a flatter pattern (AUC I ) over a 2-day period. AUC G is a partial mediator in the relationship between shift work and CMR, whereas AUC I is not. AUC G is also associated with CMR while controlling for shift work, suggesting that lower total cortisol production is also linked to CMR in non-shift workers. Total cortisol production is a partial mediator in the relationship between rotating shift work and CMR among female hospital employees, whereas cortisol pattern is not a mediator. Copyright © 2018 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Enhanced Cortisol Response to Stress in Children in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratt, Eve G.; Nicholas, Joyce S.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Carpenter, Laura A.; Hatcher, Charles R.; Meekins, Kirk A.; Furlanetto, Richard W.; Charles, Jane M.

    2012-01-01

    Children with Autism often show difficulties in adapting to change. Previous studies of cortisol, a neurobiologic stress hormone reflecting hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, in children with autism have demonstrated variable results. This study measured cortisol levels in children with and without Autism: (1) at rest; (2) in a…

  4. Facebook behaviors associated with diurnal cortisol in adolescents: Is befriending stressful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin-Major, Julie Katia; Marin, Marie-France; Durand, Nadia; Wan, Nathalie; Juster, Robert-Paul; Lupien, Sonia J

    2016-01-01

    Facebook(©) is changing the way people interact and socialize. Despite great interest in psychology and sociology, little is known about Facebook behaviors in relation to physiological markers of stress. Given that the brain undergoes important development during adolescence and that glucocorticoids--a major class of stress hormones-are known to modulate its development, it is important to study psychosocial factors that may influence secretion of stress hormones during adolescence. The goal of the present study was to explore the associations between Facebook behaviors (use frequency, network size, self-presentation and peer-interaction) and basal levels of cortisol among adolescent boys and girls. Eighty-eight adolescents (41 boys, 47 girls) aged between 12 and 17 (14.5 ± 1.8) were recruited. Participants provided four cortisol samples per day for two non-consecutive weekdays. Facebook behaviors were assessed in accordance with the existing literature. Well-validated measures of perceived stress, perceived social support, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms were also included. A hierarchical regression showed that after controlling for sex, age, time of awakening, perceived stress, and perceived social support, cortisol systemic output (area under the curve with respect to ground) was positively associated with the number of Facebook friends and negatively associated with Facebook peer-interaction. No associations were found among depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and cortisol. These results provide preliminary evidence that Facebook behaviors are associated with diurnal cortisol concentrations in adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cortisol response to the Trier Social Stress test among Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jiling; Weng, Tingting; Tao, Fangbiao

    2012-01-01

    To compare obese and non-obese adolescents in terms of their salivary cortisol response to the Trier Socia l Stress Test ( TSST). This is a cross - sectional study involving 41 healthy adolescents aged 12-14 years in the city of Shenyang, China. The TSST response was determined using salivary cortisol measurements, and measurements were repeated after the test period. Repeated-measures ANOVA was performed to compare salivary cortisol levels between groups. The male group comprised of 16 individuals (10 obese and 6 non-obese), and the female group comprised 25 individuals ( 13 obese and 12 non-obese). ANOVA with repeated measures demonstrated that weight status (obese or non-obese) had a significant main effect on the measures of salivary cortisol levels during the TSST among females but not males. The finding suggested that weight status is associated with cortisol response to psychological stress among Chinese adolescent girls.

  6. Cortisol Variability and Self-reports in the Measurement of Work-related Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, Björn; Eek, Frida; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2011-01-01

    We examined whether a high cortisol awakening response (CAR) and low cortisol decline over the day (CDD) are related to self-reported work stress and well-being, and whether there are gender differences in these relationships. Three hundred eighty-three working men and women responded to a survey...... measuring job stress factors, mastery at work, symptoms and well-being. Salivary cortisol was sampled at awakening, after 45 min and at 21:00, from which the variables CAR and CDD were defi ned. A high CAR was associated with lower perceived job control and work mastery, and poorer well-being. Low CDD...... men, a similar comparison showed those with low CDD to have poorer scores on job stress factors and symptom load. We conclude that individuals displaying high CAR or low CDD differ from those not displaying these cortisol profi les in self-report of work stress and well-being, and that gender...

  7. Acute stress-induced cortisol elevations mediate reward system activity during subconscious processing of sexual stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oei, Nicole Y L; Both, Stephanie; van Heemst, Diana; van der Grond, Jeroen

    2014-01-01

    Stress is thought to alter motivational processes by increasing dopamine (DA) secretion in the brain's "reward system", and its key region, the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). However, stress studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), mainly found evidence for stress-induced decreases in NAcc responsiveness toward reward cues. Results from both animal and human PET studies indicate that the stress hormone cortisol may be crucial in the interaction between stress and dopaminergic actions. In the present study we therefore investigated whether cortisol mediated the effect of stress on DA-related responses to -subliminal-presentation of reward cues using the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), which is known to reliably enhance cortisol levels. Young healthy males (n = 37) were randomly assigned to the TSST or control condition. After stress induction, brain activation was assessed using fMRI during a backward-masking paradigm in which potentially rewarding (sexual), emotionally negative and neutral stimuli were presented subliminally, masked by pictures of inanimate objects. A region of interest analysis showed that stress decreased activation in the NAcc in response to masked sexual cues (voxel-corrected, pcortisol levels were related to stronger NAcc activation, showing that cortisol acted as a suppressor variable in the negative relation between stress and NAcc activation. The present findings indicate that cortisol is crucially involved in the relation between stress and the responsiveness of the reward system. Although generally stress decreases activation in the NAcc in response to rewarding stimuli, high stress-induced cortisol levels suppress this relation, and are associated with stronger NAcc activation. Individuals with a high cortisol response to stress might on one hand be protected against reductions in reward sensitivity, which has been linked to anhedonia and depression, but they may ultimately be more vulnerable to increased reward

  8. Differential sensitization of parenting on early adolescent cortisol: Moderation by profiles of maternal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christina Gamache; Kim, Hyoun K; Fisher, Philip A

    2016-05-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a critical component of the body's stress-response neurobiological system, and its development and functioning are shaped by the social environment. Much of our understanding of the effects of the caregiving environment on the HPA axis is based on (a) parenting in young children and (b) individual maternal stressors, such as depression. Yet, less is known about how parenting behaviors and maternal stressors interact to influence child cortisol regulation, particularly in older children. With an ethnically diverse sample of 199 mothers and their early adolescent children (M=11.00years; 54% female), a profile analytic approach was used to investigate how multiple phenotypes of maternal stress co-occur and moderate the relation between parenting behaviors and youths' diurnal cortisol rhythms. Latent profile analysis yielded 4 profiles: current parenting stress, concurrent parenting and childhood stress, childhood stress, and low stress. For mothers with the concurrent parenting and childhood stress profile, inconsistent discipline, poor parental supervision, and harsh caregiving behaviors each were related to flattened diurnal cortisol rhythms in their adolescents. For mothers with the current parenting stress and childhood stress profiles, their use of inconsistent discipline was associated with flattened diurnal cortisol rhythms in their adolescents. For mothers with the low stress profile, none of the parenting behaviors was related to their adolescents' cortisol regulation. Findings suggest that based on mothers' stress profile, parenting behaviors are differentially related to youths' diurnal cortisol rhythms. Implications for parenting interventions are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Oxytocin and prolactin suppress cortisol responses to acute stress in both lactating and non-lactating sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, C J

    1997-08-01

    Cortisol response to stress appears to differ between lactating and non-lactating animals. Lactating (14 d post partum) and non-lactating sheep were fitted with probes so that drugs and hormones could be infused directly into the posterior pituitary and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. The animals were also fitted with instruments to allow monitoring of heart rate, body temperature and blood cortisol levels. Their reactions to a source of acute stress (a barking dog) were then followed, with or without drug and hormone manipulation. Results in both lactating and non-lactating animals indicated shortcomings in the use of cortisol as a stress indicator. Infusing prolactin and oxytocin into either the posterior pituitary or the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus suppressed cortisol responsiveness to stress in both lactating and non-lactating animals (the latter to a greater extent). In the absence of drugs, lactating animals had a slightly higher basal level of cortisol and a lower cortisol response to stress than their non-lactating counterparts. Despite suppression of cortisol responses, with or without drugs, other indicators of stress still changed with the presence of a barking dog, suggesting the complexity of control involved in stress responses.

  10. Stress among nurses: an examination of salivary cortisol levels on work and day off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecilia Pires da Rocha

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the use of salivary cortisol concentration as a physiological index of the stress level among nurses on their work day and day off and correlates it with the questionnaire used to measure occupational stress in nurses (Inventário de Estresse em Enfermeiros - IEE. This is a comparative, cross-sectional descriptive study in which sociodemographic data, IEE results and salivary cortisol levels were used. Fifty-seven nurses participated in the study (80.7% females and a mean age of 37.1 years old. The IEE average score was 124.5. The average cortisol level was 564.1 ng/m on work day and 354.1 ng/mL on day off. Nurses who had double workdays presented high values of salivary cortisol during the work day (638.1 ng/mL. In conclusion, salivary cortisol identified the nurses’ stress level, and differences were found between a work day and day off. On the nurses’ day off, their salivary cortisol levels and stress scores were lower.

  11. Association between changes in heart rate variability during the anticipation of a stressful situation and the stress-induced cortisol response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulopulos, Matias M; Vanderhasselt, Marie-Anne; De Raedt, Rudi

    2018-08-01

    Vagal activity - reflecting the activation of stress regulatory mechanisms and prefrontal cortex activation - is thought to play an inhibitory role in the regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. However, most studies investigating the association between stress-induced changes in heart rate variability (HRV, an index of cardiac vagal tone) and cortisol have shown a non-significant relationship. It has been proposed that physiological changes observed during anticipation of a stressor allow individuals to make behavioral, cognitive, and physiological adjustments that are necessary to deal with the upcoming actual stressor. In this study, in a large sample of 171 healthy adults (96 men and 75 women; mean age = 29.98, SD = 11.07), we investigated whether the cortisol response to a laboratory-based stress task was related to anticipation-induced or stress task-induced changes in HRV. As expected, regression analyses showed that a larger decrease in HRV during the anticipation of a stress task was related to higher stress task-induced cortisol increase, but not cortisol recovery. In line with prior research, the stress task-induced change in HRV was not significantly related to cortisol increase or recovery. Our results show for the first time that anticipatory HRV (reflecting differences in stress regulation and prefrontal activity before the encounter with the stressor) is important to understand the stress-induced cortisol increase. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Yawning, fatigue and cortisol: expanding the Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Yawning and its involvement in neurological disorders has become the new scientific conundrum. Cortisol levels are known to rise during stress and fatigue; yawning may occur when we are under stress or tired. However, the link between yawning, fatigue, and cortisol has not been fully understood. Expansion of the Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis proposes that the stress hormone, cortisol, is responsible for yawning and fatigue especially in people with incomplete innervation such as multiple sclero...

  13. Two meals with different carbohydrate, fat and protein contents render equivalent postprandial plasma levels of calprotectin, cortisol, triglycerides and zonulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Bodil; Darwiche, Gassan; Roth, Bodil; Höglund, Peter

    2016-11-01

    The aim was to compare postprandial plasma levels of calprotectin, cortisol, triglycerides and zonulin between a control breakfast and a moderately low-carbohydrate test breakfast, given randomly after 10-h fast. Blood samples were collected before and repeatedly after the meal. Plasma calprotectin, cortisol, triglycerides and zonulin were analyzed. The total area under the curve (tAUC) and change in AUC from baseline (dAUC) were calculated. Ratios between the test and control values were calculated to investigate equivalence. Healthy volunteers (8 men and 12 women; 46.0 ± 14.5 years) were included. tAUCs of cortisol and triglycerides did not differ between the breakfasts (p = 0.158 versus p = 0.579). Cortisol dAUCs were decreased and triglyceride dAUCs were increased after both breakfasts, with no differences between the breakfasts (p = 0.933 versus p = 0.277). Calprotectin and zonulin levels were unaffected. The meals were bioequivalent for cortisol, triglycerides and zonulin, but not for calprotectin.

  14. Childhood stress and birth timing among African American women: Cortisol as biological mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Shannon L; Christian, Lisa M; Alston, Angela D; Salsberry, Pamela J

    2017-10-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) occurs among 1:11U.S. white women and 1:7.5 African American women and is a significant driver of racial disparities in infant mortality. Maternal stress is the most common clinical phenotype underlying spontaneous PTB. Specific patterns of stress and biological mediators driving PTB remain unclear. We examined the effect of childhood stress on birth timing among African American women and evaluated maternal cortisol elevation as a biological mediator. A prospective observational design was employed, with a single study visit at 28-32 weeks gestation and medical record review. The Stress and Adversity Inventory was administered, which provides a comprehensive estimate of childhood stress, stress in adulthood, and five core characteristic subscales (interpersonal loss, physical danger, humiliation, entrapment, role disruption). Venipuncture was performed between 11:00am and 4:00pm and plasma cortisol quantified by ELISA. Analyses controlled for stress in adulthood. Among a final sample of 89, cumulative childhood stress predicted birth timing (p=0.01). The association was driven by stress related to interpersonal loss and physical danger, with support for maternal cortisol as a biological mediator (ab=0.02, 95% CI [0.001, 0.045]; ab=0.02, 95% CI [0.001, 0.043], respectively). Results were similar, overall, in sub-group analyses among spontaneously laboring women (n=53); however, role disruption arose as an additional predictor, as mediated by cortisol elevations (ab=0.03, 95% CI [0.005, 0.074]). Of note, cortisol was no longer supported as a mediator linking physical danger to birth timing after adjusting for sleep quality and hours awake prior to venipuncture (ab=0.02, 95% CI [-0.0001, 0.046]). We provide preliminary evidence that, independent of stress in adulthood, childhood stress of specific core characteristics may shape birth timing, with cortisol elevation as a biological mediator. Further investigation is warranted and may bolster the

  15. Ontogeny of the cortisol stress response in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortisol is a glucocorticoid hormone which is an endocrine signaling molecule in all vertebrates and acts through intracellular glucocorticoid receptors (GR). Cortisol affects many biological functions including immunity, stress, growth, ion homeostasis, and reproduction. The objective of this stu...

  16. Relationship between psychosocial stress dimensions and salivary cortisol in military police officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Petri Tavares

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: to analyze the relationship between psychosocial stress dimensions and salivary cortisol in military police officers. Method: cross-sectional and analytical study with 134 military police officers. The Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI Model scale has been used to assess psychosocial stress. Salivary cortisol was collected in three samples. The following tests were used: Student's t-test, Mann-Whitney, ANOVA, Bonferroni, Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn. Pearson and Spearman correlation methods were used, as well as multiple linear regression. Cortisol at night showed an ascending statistical association with the psychosocial reward (p=0.004 and a descending association with the effort-impairment scores (p=0.017. Being part of the Special Tactical Operations Group (GATE and the diastolic blood pressure explained 13.5% of the variation in cortisol levels on waking up. The sectors GATE, Special Patrol of the Elite Squad of the Military Police and Motorcyclists explained 21.9% of the variation in cortisol levels 30-minute after awakening. The variables GATE sector and Effort Dimension explained 27.7% of the variation in cortisol levels at night. Conclusion: it was evidenced that salivary cortisol variation was influenced by individual, labor and psychosocial variables.

  17. Relationship between psychosocial stress dimensions and salivary cortisol in military police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Juliana Petri; Lautert, Liana; Magnago, Tânia Solange Bosi de Souza; Consiglio, Angélica Rosat; Pai, Daiane Dal

    2017-04-20

    to analyze the relationship between psychosocial stress dimensions and salivary cortisol in military police officers. cross-sectional and analytical study with 134 military police officers. The Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) Model scale has been used to assess psychosocial stress. Salivary cortisol was collected in three samples. The following tests were used: Student's t-test, Mann-Whitney, ANOVA, Bonferroni, Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn. Pearson and Spearman correlation methods were used, as well as multiple linear regression. Cortisol at night showed an ascending statistical association with the psychosocial reward (p=0.004) and a descending association with the effort-impairment scores (p=0.017). Being part of the Special Tactical Operations Group (GATE) and the diastolic blood pressure explained 13.5% of the variation in cortisol levels on waking up. The sectors GATE, Special Patrol of the Elite Squad of the Military Police and Motorcyclists explained 21.9% of the variation in cortisol levels 30-minute after awakening. The variables GATE sector and Effort Dimension explained 27.7% of the variation in cortisol levels at night. it was evidenced that salivary cortisol variation was influenced by individual, labor and psychosocial variables.

  18. Correlates of cortisol in human hair: implications for epidemiologic studies on health effects of chronic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosu, Adaeze C; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur; Shields, Alexandra E; Williams, David R; Williams, Michelle A

    2013-12-01

    Assessment of cortisol concentrations in hair is one of the latest innovations for measuring long-term cortisol exposure. We performed a systematic review of correlates of cortisol in human hair to inform the design, analysis, and interpretation of future epidemiologic studies. Relevant publications were identified through electronic searches on PubMed, WorldCat, and Web of Science using keywords, "cortisol," "hair," "confounders," "chronic," "stress," and "correlates." Thirty-nine studies were included in this review. Notwithstanding scarce data and some inconsistencies, investigators have found hair cortisol concentrations to be associated with stress-related psychiatric symptoms and disorders (e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder), medical conditions indicating chronic activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (e.g., Cushing's syndrome), and other life situations associated with elevated risk of chronic stress (e.g., shiftwork). Results from some studies suggest that physical activity, adiposity, and substance abuse may be correlates of hair cortisol concentrations. In contrast to measures of short-term cortisol release (saliva, blood, and urine), cigarette smoking and use of oral contraceptives appear not to be associated with hair cortisol concentrations. Studies of pregnant women indicate increased hair cortisol concentrations across successive trimesters. The study of hair cortisol presents a unique opportunity to assess chronic alterations in cortisol concentrations in epidemiologic studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cortisol dysregulation: the bidirectional link between stress, depression, and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Joshua J; Golden, Sherita H

    2017-03-01

    Controversy exists over the role of stress and depression in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Depression has been shown to increase the risk for progressive insulin resistance and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus in multiple studies, whereas the association of stress with diabetes is less clear, owing to differences in study designs and in forms and ascertainment of stress. The biological systems involved in adaptation that mediate the link between stress and physiological functions include the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the autonomic nervous and immune systems. The HPA axis is a tightly regulated system that represents one of the body's mechanisms for responding to acute and chronic stress. Depression is associated with cross-sectional and longitudinal alterations in the diurnal cortisol curve, including a blunted cortisol awakening response and flattening of the diurnal cortisol curve. Flattening of the diurnal cortisol curve is also associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this article, we review and summarize the evidence supporting HPA axis dysregulation as an important biological link between stress, depression, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  20. Cortisol and 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine: Neurohormonal Aspects of Bioenergetic Stress in Ecstasy Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Aims 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) can affect both neurotransmitter and neurohormonal activity. This review will debate the role of the metabolic activation hormone cortisol for the psychobiological effects of ecstasy/MDMA. Methods The empirical literature on cortisol release following acute MDMA administration and cortisol functioning in drug-free recreational ecstasy/MDMA users will be reviewed. This will be followed by an overview of cortisol as a bioenergetic stress neurohormone, and a debate on how it could be modulating the acute and chronic psychobiological effects of MDMA. Results Cortisol release is increased by stimulatory factors, including physical activity, thermal stress and stimulant drugs. In laboratory studies MDMA leads to an acute cortisol increase of around 150% in sedentary humans. In MDMA-using dance clubbers, the cortisol levels are increased by around 800%, possibly due to the combined factors of stimulant drug, physical exertion and psychosocial stimulation. Regular ecstasy/MDMA users also demonstrate changes in baseline cortisol levels and cortisol reactivity, with compromised hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity. Nonpharmacological research has shown how cortisol is important for psychological aspects such as memory, cognition, sleep, impulsivity, depression and neuronal damage. These same functions are often impaired in recreational ecstasy/MDMA users, and cortisol may be an important modulatory co-factor. Conclusions The energizing hormone cortisol is involved in the psychobiology of MDMA, probably via its effects on energy metabolism. Acute cortisol release may potentiate the stimulating effects of MDMA in dance clubbers. Chronically, cortisol may contribute to the variance in functional and structural consequences of repeated ecstasy usage. PMID:19893332

  1. Relationship between oxygen free radicals, cytokines, cortisol and stress complications in patients with acute cerebrovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yingbin; Wang Bingjie; Li Yunchao

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between oxygen free radicals, cytokines, cortisol and stress complications in patients with acute cerebrovascular disease (ACVD). Methods: Serum levels of superoxide dismutases (SOD), malonaldehyde (MDA) (with biochemistry) interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and cortisol (with RIA) were measured in 32 patients with acute cerebrovascular disease (ACVD) plus stress complications and 48 patients without stress complications as well as 36 controls. Results: Serum SOD contents in non-stressed group were higher than those in stressed group (P<0.05) but lower than those of the controls (P<0.05). However the levels of MDA, IL-6, TNF-α and cortisol were highest in the stressed group and lowest in the controls (all P<0.05). Conclusion: Oxygen free radicals, IL-6, TNF-α and cortisol were involved in stress complications in patients with ACVD. Monitoring the levels of serum SOD, MDA, IL-6, TNF-α and cortisol could be useful for predicting stress complications and evaluating the therapeutic effect. (authors)

  2. Psychosocial stress impairs working memory at high loads: An association with cortisol levels and memory retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oei, N.Y.L.; Everaerd, W.T.A.M.; Elzinga, B.M.; van Well, S.; Bermond, B.

    2006-01-01

    Stress and cortisol are known to impair memory retrieval of well-consolidated declarative material. The effects of cortisol on memory retrieval may in particular be due to glucocorticoid (GC) receptors in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Therefore, effects of stress and cortisol should

  3. Depression and anxiety predict sex-specific cortisol responses to interpersonal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Sally I; Laurent, Heidemarie K; Gunlicks-Stoessel, Meredith; Balaban, Susan; Bent, Eileen

    2016-07-01

    Clinical theories posit interpersonal stress as an important factor in the emergence and exacerbation of depression and anxiety, while neuroendocrine research confirms the association of these syndromes with dysregulation in a major stress response system, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. However, the proposal that depression and anxiety symptoms and diagnoses are associated with problematic HPA responses to close relationship stress has not been directly tested. We examined 196 heterosexual dating couples' depression and anxiety symptoms and diagnoses, assessed with questionnaires and diagnostic interviews, in relation to cortisol responses to discussion of an unresolved relationship conflict. Participants provided seven salivary samples in anticipation of and directly following the discussion, and throughout an hour-long recovery period, which were assayed for cortisol. Multilevel models of the HPA response predicted by symptoms or diagnoses showed that women's depressive symptoms predicted attenuated cortisol levels, with a flatter response curve. In contrast, men's depression symptoms and women's anxiety symptoms and diagnoses predicted higher cortisol levels. These findings highlight the importance of examining sex differences in responses to interpersonal stressors for understanding HPA dysregulation in internalizing psychopathology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Unconscious fearful priming followed by a psychosocial stress test results in higher cortisol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänsel, Alexander; von Känel, Roland

    2013-10-01

    Human perception of stress includes an automatic pathway that processes subliminal presented stimuli below the threshold of conscious awareness. Subliminal stimuli can therefore activate the physiologic stress system. Unconscious emotional signals were shown to significantly moderate reactions and responses to subsequent stimuli, an effect called 'priming'. We hypothesized that subliminal presentation of a fearful signal during the Stroop task compared with an emotionally neutral one will prime stress reactivity in a subsequently applied psychosocial stress task, thereby yielding a significant increase in salivary cortisol. Half of 36 participants were repeatedly presented either a fearful face or a neutral one. After this, all underwent a psychosocial stress task. The fearful group showed a significant increase in cortisol levels (p = 0.022). This change was not affected by sex, age and body mass index, and it also did not change when taking resting cortisol levels into account. Post-hoc analyses showed that the increase in cortisol in the fearful group started immediately after the psychosocial stress test. Hence, subliminal exposure to a fearful signal in combination with the Stroop and followed by a psychosocial stress test leads to an increase in stress reactivity. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Cortisol Reactivity to Stress and Its Association With White Matter Integrity in Adults With Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Katie L; Chiappelli, Joshua; Sampath, Hemalatha; Rowland, Laura M; Thangavelu, Kavita; Davis, Beshaun; Du, Xiaoming; Muellerklein, Florian; Daughters, Stacey; Kochunov, Peter; Hong, L Elliot

    2015-09-01

    Although acute hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to stress is often adaptive, prolonged responses may have detrimental effects. Many components of white matter structures are sensitive to prolonged cortisol exposure. We aimed to identify a behavioral laboratory assay for cortisol response related to brain pathophysiology in schizophrenia. We hypothesized that an abnormally prolonged cortisol response to stress may be linked to abnormal white matter integrity in patients with schizophrenia. Acute and prolonged salivary cortisol response was measured outside the scanner at pretest and then at 0, 20, and 40 minutes after a psychological stress task in patients with schizophrenia (n = 45) and controls (n = 53). Tract-averaged white matter was measured by 64-direction diffusion tensor imaging in a subset of patients (n = 30) and controls (n = 33). Patients who did not tolerate the psychological stress task and quit had greater acute (t = 2.52 [p = .016] and t = 3.51 [p = .001] at 0 and 20 minutes) and prolonged (t = 3.62 [p = .001] at 40 minutes) cortisol reactivity compared with patients who finished the task. Abnormally prolonged cortisol reactivity in patients was significantly associated with reduced white matter integrity (r = -0.468, p = .009). Regardless of task completion status, acute cortisol response was not related to the white matter measures in patients or controls. This paradigm was successful at identifying a subset of patients whose cortisol response was associated with brain pathophysiology. Abnormal cortisol response may adversely affect white matter integrity, partly explaining this pathology observed in schizophrenia. Prolonged stress responses may be targeted for intervention to test for protective effects against white matter damages.

  6. Economic Stress and Cortisol Among Postpartum Low-Income Mexican American Women: Buffering Influence of Family Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, Shannon L; Luecken, Linda J; Gress-Smith, Jenna; Crnic, Keith A; Gonzales, Nancy A

    2015-01-01

    Low-income Mexican American women experience significant health disparities during the postpartum period. Contextual stressors, such as economic stress, are theorized to affect health via dysregulated cortisol output. However, cultural protective factors including strong family support may buffer the impact of stress. In a sample of 322 low-income Mexican American women (mother age 18-42; 82% Spanish-speaking; modal family income $10,000-$15,000), we examined the interactive influence of economic stress and family support at 6 weeks postpartum on maternal cortisol output (AUCg) during a mildly challenging mother-infant interaction task at 12 weeks postpartum, controlling for 6-week maternal cortisol and depressive symptoms. The interaction significantly predicted cortisol output such that higher economic stress predicted higher cortisol only among women reporting low family support. These results suggest that family support is an important protective resource for postpartum Mexican American women experiencing elevated economic stress.

  7. Diurnal Salivary Cortisol is Associated With Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champaneri, Shivam; Xu, Xiaoqiang; Carnethon, Mercedes R.; Bertoni, Alain G.; Seeman, Teresa; DeSantis, Amy S.; Roux, Ana Diez; Shrager, Sandi; Golden, Sherita Hill

    2012-01-01

    Neuroendocrine abnormalities, such as activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, are associated with obesity; however, few large-scale population-based studies have examined HPA axis and markers of obesity. We examined the cross-sectional association of the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and diurnal salivary cortisol curve with obesity. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) Stress Study includes 1,002 White, Hispanic, and Black men and women (mean age 65±9.8 years) who collected up to 18 salivary cortisol samples over 3 days. Cortisol profiles were modeled using regression spline models that incorporated random parameters for subject-specific effects. Cortisol curve measures included awakening cortisol, CAR (awakening to 30 minutes post-awakening), early decline (30 minutes to 2 hours post-awakening), late decline (2 hours post-awakening to bedtime), and the corresponding areas under the curve (AUC). Body-mass-index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were used to estimate adiposity. For the entire cohort, both BMI and WC were negatively correlated with awakening cortisol (p<0.05), AUC during awakening rise and early decline and positively correlated to the early decline slope (p<0.05) after adjustments for age, race/ethnicity, gender, diabetes status, socioeconomic status, beta blockers, steroids, hormone replacement therapy and smoking status. No heterogeneities of effects were observed by gender, age, and race/ethnicity. Higher BMI and WC are associated with neuroendocrine dysregulation, which is present in a large population sample, and only partially explained by other covariates. PMID:23404865

  8. Hair cortisol and self-reported stress in healthy, working adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidlow, Christopher J; Randall, Jason; Gillman, Jamie; Silk, Steven; Jones, Marc V

    2016-01-01

    Chronic stress can be important in the pathology of chronic disease. Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) are proposed to reflect long term cortisol secretion from exposure to stress. To date, inconsistencies in the relationship between HCC and self-reported stress have been attributed to variation and limitations of perceived stress measurement. We report data from employees of two large public sector worksites (n=132). Socio-demographic, health, lifestyle, perceived stress scale (PSS), and work-related effort reward imbalance (ERI) were collected at baseline. Participants were asked to respond to mobile text messages every two days, asking them to report current stress levels (Ecological momentary assessment, EMA), and mean stress was determined overall, during work hours, and out of work hours. At 12 weeks, the appraisal of stressful life events scale (ALES) was completed and 3 cm scalp hair samples were taken, from which HCC was determined (to reflect cortisol secretion over the past 12 weeks). Mean response rate to EMA was 81.9 ± 14.9%. Associations between HCC and the various self-reported stress measures (adjusted for use of hair dye) were weak (allwork hours (ρ=.196, p=.013) and ALES Loss subscale (ρ=.241, p=.003), and two individual items from ERI (relating to future work situation). In regression analysis adjusting for other possible confounders, only the HCC-ALES Loss association remained significant (p=.011). Overall, our study confirms that EMA provides a useful measurement tool that can gather perceived stress measures in real-time. But, there was no relationship between self-reported stress collected in this way, and HCC. The modest association between HCC and stress appraisal does however, provide some evidence for the role of cognitive processes in chronic stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Perception of academic examination stress: effects on serum leptin, cortisol, appetite and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inam, Qurrat-ul-Aen; Shireen, Erum; Haider, Saida; Haleem, Darakhshan Jabeen

    2011-01-01

    Examination stress is a psychological stress that activate hypothalamic-pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) axis to increase circulating levels of glucocorticoids. The fat derived hormone leptin is also released in response to stress-inducing condition. To workout the role of leptin and cortisol in response to perceived levels of examination stress and their effects on academic performance. The present study was designed to monitor the relationship of self reported perceived levels of examination stress on serum levels of cortisol and leptin in female students going to appear in university examination. Fifty-six female undergraduate students participated in the study. Examination stress, appetite levels were assessed by a questionnaire and blood samples were collected one hour before appearing in the examination. Performance was evaluated from the marks obtained in that particular examination. Serum cortisol levels increased with an increase in the intensity of perceived examination stress. Serum leptin levels increased only in the group under moderate stress while increases in mild and severe stress group were not significant. Mild to moderate stress enhanced performance but severe stress decreased it. The present study shows an inverted U-shaped relationship between self reported different levels of perceived examination stress and academic performance.

  10. Associations of weight stigma with cortisol and oxidative stress independent of adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyama, A Janet; Epel, Elissa S; McClatchey, Trissa M; Poelke, Gina; Kemeny, Margaret E; McCoy, Shannon K; Daubenmier, Jennifer

    2014-08-01

    Weight discrimination is associated with increased risk of obesity. The mechanism of this relationship is unknown, but being overweight is a highly stigmatized condition and may be a source of chronic stress that contributes to the development and pathophysiology of obesity. The objective of this study was to test whether weight stigma is associated with physiological risk factors linked to stress and obesity, including hypercortisolism and oxidative stress, independent of adiposity. We examined the frequency of experiencing situations involving weight stigma and consciousness of weight stigma in relation to hypothalamic--pituitary--adrenal axis activity and oxidative stress (F₂-isoprostanes) in 45 healthy overweight to obese women. Independent of abdominal fat, weight stigma was significantly related to measures of cortisol (including salivary measures of cortisol awakening response and serum morning levels) as well as higher levels of oxidative stress. Perceived stress mediated the relationship between weight stigma consciousness and the cortisol awakening response. These preliminary findings show that weight stigma is associated with greater biochemical stress, independent of level of adiposity. It is possible that weight stigma may contribute to poor health underlying some forms of obesity.

  11. The role of anxiety in cortisol stress response and cortisol recovery in boys with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoorl, Jantiene; van Rijn, S.; de Wied, M.; van Goozen, S.H.M.; Swaab, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Children with antisocial and aggressive behaviors have been found to show abnormal neurobiological responses to stress, specifically impaired cortisol stress reactivity. The role of individual characteristics, such as comorbid anxiety, in the stress response is far less studied. Furthermore, this

  12. Hormonal modulation of the heat shock response: insights from fish with divergent cortisol stress responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LeBlanc, Sacha; Höglund, Erik; Gilmour, Kathleen M.

    2012-01-01

    shock response, we capitalized on two lines of rainbow trout specifically bred for their high (HR) and low (LR) cortisol response to stress. We predicted that LR fish, with a low cortisol but high catecholamine response to stress, would induce higher levels of HSPs after acute heat stress than HR trout....... We found that HR fish have significantly higher increases in both catecholamines and cortisol compared with LR fish, and LR fish had no appreciable stress hormone response to heat shock. This unexpected finding prevented further interpretation of the hormonal modulation of the heat shock response...

  13. A low cortisol response to acute stress is related to worse basal memory performance in older people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes eAlmela

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Age-related memory decline has been associated with a faulty regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the magnitude of the stress-induced cortisol increase is related to memory performance when memory is measured in non-stressful conditions. To do so, declarative and working memory performance were measured in 31 men and 35 women between 55 and 77 years of age. On a different day, the magnitude of their cortisol response to acute psychosocial stress was measured. The relationship between the cortisol response and memory performance was U shaped: a low cortisol response to stress was related to poorer declarative and working memory performance, whereas those who did not increase their cortisol levels and those who had the largest cortisol increase had better declarative and working memory capabilities. Sex did not moderate these relationships. These results suggest that a low cortisol response to stress could reflect a defective HPA-axis response to stressors that is accompanied by poorer memory performance. Conversely, a high cortisol response seems to reflect a correct functioning of the HPA-axis and may protect against memory deficits in the later stages of human life.

  14. The changes of β-endorphin, thyroid hormone and cortisol in military stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Cuihua; Liu Qing; Qi Bing; Zhang Jing; Zhao Junwu

    2002-01-01

    The change of irritable hormones was studied when new soldiers were in military stress. The stressor was the test of real shooting. Forty and two new soldiers were selected, and their vein blood were extracted when they were in stress and in rest. The content of blood β-endorphin (β-EP), thyroid hormone and cortisol was analysed by RIA. Results showed that the content of β-EP and cortisol was greater in stress than in rest (P 3 was significantly lesser in stress than in rest (P 4 was raised in stress, but it was not significant (P>0.05). Military stress led to the changes of the soldiers stress. Detection of stress hormone will be very worthy in the matter of raising military stress's ability and insuring fighter's health of body and mind

  15. Stress, depression, quality of life and salivary cortisol levels in community health agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Berenice Scaletzky; Cocco, Rafaela Abreu; Radtke, Vinicius Augusto; Medeiros, João Ricardo Carvalho; Oses, Jean Pierre; Wiener, Carolina David; Jansen, Karen

    2016-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of and factors associated with depression and stress with perceived quality of life and the salivary cortisol levels in Community Health Agent (CHA). Materials and Methods Cross-sectional descriptive study of CHAs in Pelotas-RS, Brazil. Data collection, including sociodemographic information and factors related to work and health. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) II was used to assess depressive symptoms, Inventory of Stress Symptoms Lipp (ISSL) was used for the analysis of stress and the WHOQOL-BREF was used to investigate quality of life. Salivary cortisol was quantified via ELISA test. The assessments showed that 71.0% are in a state of stress resistance, 30.5% were in the alert state of stress and 32.8% were in the stress state of exhaustion. Depressive episodes (BDI≥12) were observed in 28.2%. The environmental domain had the lowest score for quality of life. We observed significantly higher salivary cortisol levels in CHAs with less than 1 year of service and with the lowest quality of life scores in the environmental subsection. A high prevalence of stress and depression was observed in this sample of CHAs. In addition, the worst levels of quality of life were identified in the environmental subsection. Cortisol levels corroborate these findings regarding quality of life within the environmental domain and began working less than a year previously.

  16. Is gill cortisol concentration a good acute stress indicator in fish? A study in rainbow trout and zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesto, Manuel; Hernández, Juan; López-Patiño, Marcos A; Soengas, José L; Míguez, Jesús M

    2015-10-01

    Cortisol is the main biomarker of physiological stress in fish. It is usually measured in plasma, which requires blood collection. Though cortisol is produced in the anterior kidney, it can diffuse easily through cell membranes due to its lipophilic nature. Taking advantage of that, some non-invasive techniques have been developed to measure cortisol directly in the water from fish-holding tanks, in skin mucus or in scales. In this study, we explored the possibility to analyze fish cortisol from gill filaments as a reliable acute stress marker. Our results show that gill cortisol levels correlate well with plasma cortisol levels in both rainbow trout and zebrafish exposed or not to an acute stress protocol. Measuring cortisol in gill filaments increases the available possibilities for stress assessment in fish. Although this approach should yet be tested for its use with other stressors, it has several advantages: In relatively large fish (i.e. above 30 g) gill cortisol levels could be measured in vivo. Sampling of gill biopsies is very fast and easy, and the procedure does not induce stress if properly performed, making it an ideal option for in vivo stress assessment. In small fish, the use of gill tissue to measure cortisol has important technical advantages with respect to the current methods using whole-body homogenates. Gill homogenates could be used directly for ELISA cortisol analysis, avoiding the need of tedious and expensive cortisol extraction protocols, and, since no organic solvent is required, contributing for a more environmentally friendly analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Stress, cortisol and well-being of caregivers and children in home-based child care: a case for differential susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeneveld, M G; Vermeer, H J; van IJzendoorn, M H; Linting, M

    2012-03-01

    We examined whether children cared for by stressed caregivers show lower socio-emotional well-being and more stress, compared with children cared for by less stressed caregivers. Perceived stress and cortisol levels of professional caregivers (n = 44), and associations with children's (n = 44) well-being and cortisol levels in home-based child care were examined. Caregiver perceived stress and cortisol levels were related to children's well-being but not to children's cortisol levels. Children's social fearfulness acted as a moderator between caregivers' mean ratio of diurnal change in cortisol and children's well-being. When caregiver cortisol levels decreased, more fearful children were reported higher on well-being than less fearful peers. In contrast, when caregiver cortisol levels increased, more fearful children were reported lower on well-being. The findings point to differential susceptibility. Child care organizations and parents need to notice that a non-stressful child care environment is in particular important for children with a difficult temperament. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Circulating angiogenic cell function is inhibited by cortisol in vitro and associated with psychological stress and cortisol in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschbacher, Kirstin; Derakhshandeh, Ronak; Flores, Abdiel J; Narayan, Shilpa; Mendes, Wendy Berry; Springer, Matthew L

    2016-05-01

    Psychological stress and glucocorticoids are associated with heightened cardiovascular disease risk. We investigated whether stress or cortisol would be associated with reduced circulating angiogenic cell (CAC) function, an index of impaired vascular repair. We hypothesized that minority-race individuals who experience threat in interracial interactions would exhibit reduced CAC function, and that this link might be explained by cortisol. To test this experimentally, we recruited 106 African American participants for a laboratory interracial interaction task, in which they received socially evaluative feedback from Caucasian confederates. On a separate day, a subset of 32 participants (mean age=26years, 47% female) enrolled in a separate biological substudy and provided blood samples for CAC isolation and salivary samples to quantify the morning peak in cortisol (the cortisol awakening response, CAR). CAC function was quantified using cell culture assays of migration to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and secretion of VEGF into the culture medium. Heightened threat in response to an interracial interaction and trait anxiety in vivo were both associated with poorer CAC migratory function in vitro. Further, threat and poorer sustained attention during the interracial interaction were associated with a higher CAR, which in turn, was related to lower CAC sensitivity to glucocorticoids. In vitro, higher doses of cortisol impaired CAC migratory function and VEGF protein secretion. The glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU486 reversed this functional impairment. These data identify a novel, neuroendocrine pathway by which psychological stress may reduce CAC function, with potential implications for cardiovascular health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Circulating Angiogenic Cell Function is Inhibited by Cortisol in Vitro and Associated with Psychological Stress and Cortisol in Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschbacher, Kirstin; Derakhshandeh, Ronak; Flores, Abdiel J.; Narayan, Shilpa; Mendes, Wendy Berry; Springer, Matthew L.

    2016-01-01

    Psychological stress and glucocorticoids are associated with heightened cardiovascular disease risk. We investigated whether stress or cortisol would be associated with reduced circulating angiogenic cell (CAC) function, an index of impaired vascular repair. We hypothesized that minority-race individuals who experience threat in interracial interactions would exhibit reduced CAC function, and that this link might be explained by cortisol. To test this experimentally, we recruited 106 African American participants for a laboratory interracial interaction task, in which they received socially evaluative feedback from Caucasian confederates. On a separate day, a subset of 32 participants (mean age = 26 years, 47% female) enrolled in a separate biological substudy and provided blood samples for CAC isolation and salivary samples to quantify the morning peak in cortisol (the cortisol awakening response, CAR). CAC function was quantified using cell culture assays of migration to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and secretion of VEGF into the culture medium. Heightened threat in response to an interracial interaction and trait anxiety in vivo were both associated with poorer CAC migratory function in vitro. Further, threat and poorer sustained attention during the interracial interaction were associated with a higher CAR, which in turn, was related to lower CAC sensitivity to glucocorticoids. In vitro, higher doses of cortisol impaired CAC migratory function and VEGF protein secretion. The glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU486 reversed this functional impairment. These data identify a novel, neuroendocrine pathway by which psychological stress may reduce CAC function, with potential implications for cardiovascular health. PMID:26925833

  20. Cortisol levels in former preterm children at school age are predicted by neonatal procedural pain-related stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummelte, Susanne; Chau, Cecil M Y; Cepeda, Ivan L; Degenhardt, Amanda; Weinberg, Joanne; Synnes, Anne R; Grunau, Ruth E

    2015-01-01

    Early life stress can alter hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis function. Differences in cortisol levels have been found in preterm infants exposed to substantial procedural stress during neonatal intensive care, compared to infants born full-term, but only a few studies investigated whether altered programming of the HPA axis persists past toddler age. Further, there is a dearth of knowledge of what may contribute to these changes in cortisol. This prospective cohort study examined the cortisol profiles in response to the stress of cognitive assessment, as well as the diurnal rhythm of cortisol, in children (n=129) born at varying levels of prematurity (24-32 weeks gestation) and at full-term (38-41 weeks gestation), at age 7 years. Further, we investigated the relationships among cortisol levels and neonatal procedural pain-related stress (controlling for multiple medical confounders), concurrent maternal factors (parenting stress, depressive and anxiety symptoms) and children's behavioral problems. For each aim we investigate acute cortisol response profiles to a cognitive challenge as well as diurnal cortisol patterns at home. We hypothesized that children born very preterm will differ in their pattern of cortisol secretion from children born full-term, possibly depended on concurrent child and maternal factors, and that exposure to neonatal pain-related stress would be associated with altered cortisol secretion in children born very preterm, possibly in a sex-dependent way. Saliva samples were collected from 7-year old children three times during a laboratory visit for assessment of cognitive and executive functions (pretest, mid-test, end-study day acute stress profile) and at four times over two consecutive non-school days at home (i.e. morning, mid-morning, afternoon and bedtime-diurnal rhythm profile). We found that cortisol profiles were similar in preterm and full-term children, albeit preterms had slightly higher cortisol at bedtime compared to

  1. The impact of cortisol reactivity to acute stress on memory: sex differences in middle-aged people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almela, Mercedes; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Villada, Carolina; Espín, Laura; Gómez-Amor, Jesús; Salvador, Alicia

    2011-03-01

    Stress has been identified as a main factor involved in the cognitive changes that occur during the aging process. This study investigated sex differences in the relationship between the magnitude of the acute stress-induced salivary cortisol response and memory performance among middle-aged people. To this end, 16 men and 16 women (aged 54-72 years) were exposed to the Trier Social Stress Test and a control condition in a crossover design. Afterwards their memory performance was measured using a standardized memory test (Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test). Only among women, there was an acute impact of stress on memory performance and a significant relationship between a higher cortisol response to the stressor and poorer memory performance in both the stress and control conditions. Additionally, a poorer memory performance was related to earlier timing of sexual maturation (age at menarche), which was also marginally related to higher cortisol reactivity to stress. These results confirm that sex is a critical factor in the relationship between cortisol and poor memory performance. Furthermore, the findings emphasize a strong link between the individual cortisol response to stress and memory functioning among postmenopausal women.

  2. Cortisol-dependent stress effects on cell distribution in healthy individuals and individuals suffering from chronic adrenal insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Ashley M; Pitts, Kenneth P; Feldkamp, Joachim; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Wolf, Jutta M

    2015-11-01

    Chronic adrenal insufficiency (CAI) is characterized by a lack of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid production due to destroyed adrenal cortex cells. However, elevated cortisol secretion is thought to be a central part in a well-orchestrated immune response to stress. This raises the question to what extent lack of cortisol in CAI affects stress-related changes in immune processes. To address this question, 28 CAI patients (20 females) and 18 healthy individuals (11 females) (age: 44.3 ± 8.4 years) were exposed to a psychosocial stress test (Trier Social Stress Test: TSST). Half the patients received a 0.03 mg/kg body weight injection of hydrocortisone (HC) post-TSST to mimic a healthy cortisol stress response. Catecholamines and immune cell composition were assessed in peripheral blood and free cortisol measured in saliva collected before and repeatedly after TSST. CAI patients showed norepinephrine (NE) stress responses similar to healthy participants, however, epinephrine (E) as well as cortisol levels were significantly lower. HC treatment post-TSST resulted in cortisol increases comparable to those observed in healthy participants (interaction effects--NE: F=1.05, p=.41; E: F=2.56, p=.045; cortisol: F=13.28, pcortisol's central involvement in post-stress lymphocyte migration from blood into immune-relevant body compartments. As such, future studies should investigate whether psychosocial stress exposure may put CAI patients at an increased health risk due to attenuated immune responses to pathogens. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Refining the multisystem view of the stress response: Coordination among cortisol, alpha-amylase, and subjective stress in response to relationship conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Sally I.; Granger, Douglas A.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated associations among young adults' hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, autonomic nervous system activity, and subjective stress in response to interpersonal conflict to better characterize coordination across stress systems. Seven saliva samples were collected from 199 young adult opposite-sex couples before, during, and after they discussed an unresolved relationship conflict. Samples were later assayed for cortisol and alpha-amylase (sAA). Couples rated anticipatory stress prior to the conflict and perceived stress immediately following the task. Growth curve modeling was used to examine two possible levels of within-person coordination across physiological systems: alignment between cortisol and sAA responses throughout the sampling period (“matched phase coordination”), and association between overall levels of cortisol and sAA in response to conflict (“average level coordination”). Whereas both partners showed the former type of coordination, only women showed the latter type. Positive anticipation of the stressor predicted stronger cortisol-sAA matched phase coordination for women. Pre-task ratings related to women's sAA, and post-task ratings related to both partners' cortisol responses. Implications for a multisystem interpretation of normal and pathological responses to daily stress are discussed. PMID:23684904

  4. Refining the multisystem view of the stress response: coordination among cortisol, alpha-amylase, and subjective stress in response to relationship conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Heidemarie K; Powers, Sally I; Granger, Douglas A

    2013-07-02

    This study investigated associations among young adults' hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, autonomic nervous system activity, and subjective stress in response to interpersonal conflict to better characterize coordination across stress systems. Seven saliva samples were collected from 199 young adult opposite-sex couples before, during, and after they discussed an unresolved relationship conflict. Samples were later assayed for cortisol and alpha-amylase (sAA). Couples rated anticipatory stress prior to the conflict and perceived stress immediately following the task. Growth curve modeling was used to examine two possible levels of within-person coordination across physiological systems: alignment between cortisol and sAA responses throughout the sampling period ("matched phase coordination"), and association between overall levels of cortisol and sAA in response to conflict ("average level coordination"). Whereas both partners showed the former type of coordination, only women showed the latter type. Positive anticipation of the stressor predicted stronger cortisol-sAA matched phase coordination for women. Pre-task ratings related to women's sAA, and post-task ratings related to both partners' cortisol responses. Implications for a multisystem interpretation of normal and pathological responses to daily stress are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. High self-perceived stress and many stressors, but normal diurnal cortisol rhythm, in adults with ADHD (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirvikoski, Tatja; Lindholm, Torun; Nordenström, Anna; Nordström, Anna-Lena; Lajic, Svetlana

    2009-03-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults is associated with significant impairment in many life activities and may thus increase the risk of chronic stress in everyday life. We compared adults with a DSM-IV ADHD diagnosis (n=28) with healthy controls (n=28) regarding subjective stress and amounts of stressors in everyday life, diurnal salivary cortisol in the everyday environment and salivary cortisol before and after cognitive stress in a laboratory setting. The association between cortisol concentrations and impulsivity was also investigated. Consistent with assumptions, individuals with ADHD reported significantly more self-perceived stress than controls, and subjective stress correlated with the amount of stressors in everyday life. The two groups were comparable with respect to overall diurnal cortisol levels and rhythm, as well as in pre- and post-stress cortisol concentrations. Post-stress cortisol (but not baseline cortisol) concentration was positively correlated with impulsivity. The group with high post-stress cortisol also reported more symptoms of depression and anxiety, as well as self-perceived stress and stressors in every-day life. The diagnosis of ADHD significantly increased the risk of belonging to the group with high post-stress cortisol levels. The results in this study warrant a focus not only on the primary diagnosis of ADHD, but also calls for a broader assessment of stressors and subjective stress in everyday life, as well as support comprising stress management and coping skills.

  6. Patterns of cortisol and alpha-amylase reactivity to psychosocial stress in maltreated women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielock, Alyssa S; Morris, Matthew C; Rao, Uma

    2017-02-01

    Childhood maltreatment can trigger enduring changes in major stress response systems, particularly in the context of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the relative impact of maltreatment versus MDD on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and sympathetic-adrenal-medullary system stress reactivity is not well understood. This study examined salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in 26 maltreated (15 with current MDD) and 26 non-maltreated (17 with current MDD) women. Maltreated women showed greater anticipatory cortisol reactivity during the TSST protocol compared to non-maltreated women. Maltreated women also showed rapid deceleration in cortisol levels. Whereas non-maltreated women showed initial declines in alpha-amylase levels but rapidly increasing alpha-amylase levels during the TSST protocol, maltreated women did not exhibit changes in alpha-amylase levels during the TSST protocol. Contrary to expectation, MDD did not impact cortisol or alpha-amylase responses. The present study is limited by retrospective report of childhood maltreatment, cross-sectional design, and modest sample sizes. These findings suggest that childhood maltreatment plays a greater role driving alterations in cortisol and alpha-amylase stress reactivity than MDD. Understanding the biological embedding of maltreatment is critical for elucidating mechanisms linking these experiences to risk for negative mental and physical health outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Hair cortisol and work stress : Importance of workload and stress model (JDCS or ERI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meij, L.; Gubbels, N.; Schaveling, J.; Almela, M.; van Vugt, M.

    2018-01-01

    Hair cortisol concentrations (HCCs) are a potential physiological indicator of work related stress. However, studies that tested the relationship between HCC and self-reported stress in a work setting show mixed findings. This may be because few studies used worker samples that experience prolonged

  8. Morning Cortisol Levels and Perceived Stress in Irregular Shift Workers Compared with Regular Daytime Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harri Lindholm

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The 24/7 work environment and irregular shifts may markedly enhance the psychological pressure of media work. Changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reflect adaptation to stress. We analysed the correlation between subjective stress, sleep, salivary cortisol, and melatonin hormones among Finnish media workers with regular daytime work (RDW and with irregular shift work (ISW while controlling confounders. From 874 employees with regular daytime work or with irregular shift work, 70 employees from both groups were randomly selected. The final number of employees with a complete salivary cortisol profile was 66 in the RDW group and 65 in the ISW group. Five saliva samples were gathered from each subject before and during a working day. The salivary cortisol level of the sample taken 60 minutes after awakening (T1 was compared to the salivary cortisol level taken immediately after awakening (T0, T1/T0 ratio. The ratio was higher in the ISW group than in RDW group. Irregular shift work (P<0.001, severe stress (P<0.05, and less sleep (P<0.05 were independently associated with an augmented cortisol response after awakening. A stressful work environment and irregular shift work enhance cortisol excretion after waking. In the long run, this may become detrimental to health.

  9. Cortisol and finfish welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, T.; Yildiz, H.Y.; López-Olmeda, J.; Spedicato, M.T.; Tort, L.; Overli, O.; Martins, C.I.

    2012-01-01

    Previous reviews of stress, and the stress hormone cortisol, in fish have focussed on physiology, due to interest in impacts on aquaculture production. Here, we discuss cortisol in relation to fish welfare. Cortisol is a readily measured component of the primary (neuroendocrine) stress response and

  10. How does stress affect human being—a molecular dynamic simulation study on cortisol and its glucocorticoid receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Stress can be either positive or negative to human beings. Under stressful conditions, the mental and physical conditions of human can be affected. There exists certain relation between stress and illness. The cortisol and other glucocorticoids bind to the same receptor, which is called glucocorticoid receptor. Some evidences indicated that cortisol molecule binding to its glucocorticoid receptor was necessary for the stress response. Up to now, the structure–function relationships between cortisol molecule and its glucocorticoid receptor have not been deliberated from the atomic-level. In order to get a detailed understanding of the structure–function relationships between the cortisol molecule and glucocorticoids receptor, we have carried out molecular dynamic (MD simulations on glucocorticoid receptor (Apo system and cortisol with its glucocorticoid receptor complex (HCY system. On the basis of molecular dynamic simulations, a couple of key residues were identified, which were crucial for the binding of cortisol molecule. The results of binding free energy calculations are in good agreement with the experiment data. Our research gives clear insights from atomic-level into the structural–functional aspects of cortisol molecule and its glucocorticoid receptor, and also provides valuable information for the design of drug which can treat stress related illnesses.

  11. Sleep quality but not sleep quantity effects on cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Sarah M; Lupis, Sarah B; Gianferante, Danielle; Rohleder, Nicolas; Wolf, Jutta M

    2015-01-01

    Given the well-documented deleterious health effects, poor sleep has become a serious public health concern and increasing efforts are directed toward understanding underlying pathways. One potential mechanism may be stress and its biological correlates; however, studies investigating the effects of poor sleep on a body's capacity to deal with challenges are lacking. The current study thus aimed at testing the effects of sleep quality and quantity on cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress. A total of 73 college-aged adults (44 females) were investigated. Self-reported sleep behavior was assessed via the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and salivary cortisol responses to the Trier Social Stress Test were measured. In terms of sleep quality, we found a significant three-way interaction, such that relative to bad sleep quality, men who reported fairly good or very good sleep quality showed blunted or exaggerated cortisol responses, respectively, while women's stress responses were less dependent on their self-reported sleep quality. Contrarily, average sleep duration did not appear to impact cortisol stress responses. Lastly, participants who reported daytime dysfunctions (i.e. having trouble staying awake or keeping up enthusiasm) also showed a trend to blunted cortisol stress responses compared to participants who did not experience these types of daytime dysfunctions. Overall, the current study suggests gender-specific stress reactivity dysfunctions as one mechanism linking poor sleep with detrimental physical health outcomes. Furthermore, the observed differential sleep effects may indicate that while the body may be unable to maintain normal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal functioning in an acute psychosocial stress situation after falling prey to low sleep quality, it may retain capacities to deal with challenges during extended times of sleep deprivation.

  12. The Interactive Effects of Stressful Family Life Events and Cortisol Reactivity on Adolescent Externalizing and Internalizing Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeger, Christine M.; Cook, Emily C.; Connell, Christian M.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the associations between stressful family life events and adolescent externalizing and internalizing behaviors, and the interactive effects of family life events and cortisol reactivity on problem behaviors. In a sample of 100 mothers and their adolescents (M age = 15.09; SD age = 0.98; 68% girls), adolescent cortisol reactivity was measured in response to a mother-adolescent conflict interaction task designed to elicit a stress response. Mothers reported on measures of family life events and adolescent problem behaviors. Results indicated that a heightened adolescent cortisol response moderated the relations between stressful family life events and both externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Results support context-dependent theoretical models, suggesting that for adolescents with higher cortisol reactivity (compared to those with lower cortisol reactivity), higher levels of stressful family life events were associated with greater problem behaviors, whereas lower levels of stressful family life events were related to fewer problem behaviors. PMID:26961703

  13. Perceived stress, recurrent pain, and aggregate salivary cortisol measures in mid-adolescent girls and boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindfors, Petra; Folkesson Hellstadius, Lisa; Östberg, Viveca

    2017-02-01

    Measures of perceived stress have been criticized for theoretical inconsistency. However, the validated pressure activation stress scale has been suggested as a theoretically sound alternative. But it is unclear how pressure and activation stress relate to objective and subjective measures including commonly used aggregate cortisol measures and health complaints respectively. Specifically, this study aimed at investigating how pressure and activation stress were related to aggregate salivary cortisol measures and recurrent pain in mid-adolescent girls and boys. Mid-adolescents (119 girls and 56 boys) provided self-reports in questionnaires on activation and pressure stress and recurrent pain (headache, stomach ache, neck/shoulder and back pain). Additionally, adolescents sampled saliva during an ordinary school day: (1) immediately at awakening; (2) 30 minutes after waking up; (3) 60 minutes after waking up, and (4) at 8 p.m. These samples were analyzed for cortisol. Hierarchical regressions showed no statistically significant associations between activation and pressure stress and cortisol, neither for girls nor for boys. However, activation and pressure stress were significantly associated with recurrent pain but only for girls. The findings may relate to subjective and objective measures reflecting distinct aspects of stress-related functioning. However, the study participants included mid-adolescents whose bodily systems are flexible and still relatively unaffected by the strain of their daily stress perceptions. To conclude, the non-significant relationships between activation and pressure stress and commonly used aggregate measures of cortisol adds to the understanding of how perceived stress may relate to physiological functioning in the daily life of adolescents when using such aggregate measures. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Salivary Cortisol and Cortisone do not Appear to be Useful Biomarkers for Monitoring Hydrocortisone Replacement in Addison's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, I L; Lacerda, M; Pillay, T S; Blom, D J; Johannsson, G; Dave, J A; Levitt, N S; Haarburger, D; van der Walt, J-S

    2016-12-01

    Salivary cortisol has been used to monitor hydrocortisone replacement in patients with Addison's disease (AD). Since salivary cortisol is metabolised to salivary cortisone, it may be an adjunctive analyte to assess adequacy of hydrocortisone replacement in patients with AD. We aimed to characterise the exposure of salivary cortisol and cortisone in patients and healthy controls. We measured salivary cortisol and cortisone by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and constructed a day curve (08:00 until 24:00 h) with 16 time points in 25 AD patients taking their usual hydrocortisone dose and in 26 healthy controls. The median (interquartile range) area under the curve (AUC) for cortisol was not different for patients, compared with controls [55.63 (32.91-151.07) nmol*min*l -1 vs. 37.49 (27.41-52.00) nmol*min*l -1 ; p=0.098, respectively], whereas the peak cortisol C max was higher in patients [32.61 (5.75-146.19) nmol/l vs. 8.96 (6.96-12.23) nmol/l; p=0.013], compared with controls. The AUC for cortisone [23.65 (6.10-54.76) nmol*min*l -1 vs. 227.73 (200.10-280.52) nmol*min*l -1 ; p≤ 0.001, respectively], and peak cortisone C max was lower in patients than in controls [11.11 (2.91-35.85) nmol/l vs. 33.12 (25.97-39.95) nmol/l; p=0.002]. The AUC for salivary cortisol and salivary cortisone were not correlated with any measures of hydrocortisone dose. The time-course and AUC of salivary cortisol were similar between Addison's patients and healthy controls. Patients had substantially lower salivary cortisone AUC, compared to healthy controls. Salivary cortisol AUC and pharmacokinetics were not related to hydrocortisone dose and thus are not likely useful markers for the adequacy of hydrocortisone replacement. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Differential relations between youth internalizing/externalizing problems and cortisol responses to performance vs. interpersonal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Heidemarie; Vergara-Lopez, Chrystal; Stroud, Laura R

    2016-09-01

    Efforts to define hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis profiles conferring risk for psychopathology have yielded inconclusive results, perhaps in part due to limited assessment of the stress response. In particular, research has typically focused on HPA responses to performance tasks, while neglecting the interpersonal stressors that become salient during adolescence. In this study we investigated links between psychosocial adjustment - youth internalizing and externalizing problems, as well as competence - and HPA responses to both performance and interpersonal stressors in a normative sample of children and adolescents. Participants (n = 59) completed a set of performance (public speaking, mental arithmetic, mirror tracing) and/or interpersonal (peer rejection) tasks and gave nine saliva samples, which were assayed for cortisol. Hierarchical linear models of cortisol response trajectories in relation to child behavior checklist (CBCL) scores revealed stressor- and sex-specific associations. Whereas internalizing problems related to earlier peaking, less dynamic cortisol responses to interpersonal stress (across males and females), externalizing problems related to lower, earlier peaking and less dynamic cortisol responses to performance stress for males only, and competence-related to later peaking cortisol responses to interpersonal stress for females only. Implications for understanding contextual stress profiles underlying different forms of psychopathology are discussed.

  16. Sexual orientation and diurnal cortisol patterns in a cohort of U.S. young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, S Bryn; Rosario, Margaret; McLaughlin, Katie A; Roberts, Andrea L; Gordon, Allegra R; Sarda, Vishnudas; Missmer, Stacey; Anatale-Tardiff, Laura; Scherer, Emily A

    2016-07-01

    Sexual minorities in the United States are at elevated risk of bullying, discrimination, and violence victimization, all stressors that have been linked to psychological and behavioral stress responses including depressive and anxious symptoms and substance use. Acute and chronic stressors may also elicit physiologic stress responses, including changes in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis. Few studies, however, have examined the relationship between minority sexual orientation and diurnal cortisol patterns. The present study included 1670 young adults ages 18-32 years (69% female, 31% male) from the Growing Up Today Study, a prospective cohort of U.S. youth. Participants provided five saliva samples over one day to estimate diurnal cortisol patterns. Sexual orientation groups included: completely heterosexual with no same-sex partners (referent), completely heterosexual with same-sex partners/mostly heterosexual, and gay/lesbian/bisexual. Covariates included perceived stress and stressful life events in the past month. Sex-stratified multilevel models of log-transformed cortisol values were used to model diurnal cortisol patterns, and generalized estimating equations were used to model area under the curve (AUC), both with respect to ground (AUCg) and increase (AUCi). Among females, sexual minorities reported significantly more stressful life events in the past month than their heterosexual counterparts. In adjusted multilevel models, sexual orientation was not significantly associated with diurnal cortisol patterns or with AUCg or AUCi in either females or males. There were no significant interactions between sexual orientation and stressful life events. Time-varying negative mood was significantly associated with higher cortisol levels across the day for both female and male participants, after adjusting for all covariates. This study from a large cohort of U.S. young adults did not detect a relationship between sexual

  17. Cortisol response to the Trier Social Stress Test in obese and reduced obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therrien, Fanny; Drapeau, Vicky; Lalonde, Josée; Lupien, Sonia J; Beaulieu, Serge; Doré, Jean; Tremblay, Angelo; Richard, Denis

    2010-05-01

    Impact of body weight loss, body fat distribution and the nutritional status on the cortisol response to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was investigated in this study. Fifty-one men (17 non-obese, 20 abdominally obese and 14 reduced obese) and 28 women (12 non-obese, 10 peripherally obese and 6 reduced obese) were subjected to the TSST in fed and fasted states. The TSST response was determined using salivary cortisol measurements. The nutritional status (being fed or fasted) had no effect on the cortisol levels during and following the TSST. Reduced obese men exhibited lower cortisol levels than non-obese men. Cortisol levels in obese men were not different from those of non-obese and reduced obese subjects. In women, there was no significant difference between groups. These finding suggest that weight status in men influences cortisol reactivity to a psychological stress and the different responses seen among genders could be linked to the different fat distributions that characterize men and women. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of pre-learning stress on memory for neutral, positive and negative words: Different roles of cortisol and autonomic arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, Lars; Bohringer, Andreas; Chatterjee, Monischa; Schachinger, Hartmut

    2008-07-01

    Stress can have enhancing or impairing effects on memory. Here, we addressed the effect of pre-learning stress on subsequent memory and asked whether neutral and emotionally valent information are differentially affected by specific stress components, autonomic arousal and stress-induced cortisol. Ninety-six healthy men and women underwent either a stressor (modified cold pressor test) or a control warm water exposure. During stress, participants showed comparable autonomic arousal (heart rate, blood pressure), while 60 percent showed an increase of cortisol (responders vs. 40 percent non-responders). Ten minutes after the cold pressor test neutral, positive and negative words were presented. Free recall was tested 1 and 24h later. Overall, positive and negative words were better recalled than neutral words. Stress enhanced the recall of neutral words independently of cortisol response. In contrast, the free recall of negative words was enhanced in cortisol responders in the 1-h but not 24-h test which might suggest different effects of cortisol on consolidation and reconsolidation processes. Recall for positive words was unaffected by stress-induced cortisol. To summarize, (i) pre-learning stress can enhance memory for neutral words independently of cortisol and (ii) stress effects on memory for negative words appear to rely on stress-induced cortisol elevations, the absence of this effect for positive words might be at least partly due to differences in arousal evoked by positive vs. negative words.

  19. Psychological distress, cortisol stress response and subclinical coronary calcification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seldenrijk, A.; Hamer, M.; Lahiri, A.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Steptoe, A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Poor mental health has been associated with coronary heart disease (CHD). One hypothesized underlying mechanism is hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis dysfunction. We examined the associations between psychological distress, cortisol response to laboratory-induced mental stress and

  20. The stress hormone cortisol: a (co)regulator of biofilm formation in Flavobacterum columnare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previously, we demonstrated a direct effect of cortisol on Flavobacterium columnare, a notorious fish pathogenic bacterium, engendering a new perspective to bacteria-host communication in aquaculture. As stressed fish harbour increased cortisol levels in the skin and gill mucus, highly virulent F. c...

  1. Stress Hormone Cortisol Enhances Bcl2 Like-12 Expression to Inhibit p53 in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weizhong; Liu, Sanguang; Liang, Yunfei; Zhou, Zegao; Bian, Wei; Liu, Xueqing

    2017-12-01

    The pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HC) is unclear. It is suggested that psychological stress associates with the pathogenesis of liver cancer. Bcl2-like protein 12 (Bcl2L12) suppresses p53 protein. This study tests a hypothesis that the major stress hormone, cortisol, inhibits the expression of p53 in HC cells (HCC) via up regulating the expression of Bcl2L12. Peripheral blood samples were collected from patients with HC to be analyzed for the levels of cortisol. HCC were cultured to assess the role of cortisol in the regulation of the expression of Bcl2L12 and p53 in HCC. We observed that the serum cortisol levels were higher in HC patients. Expression of Bcl2L12 in HCC was correlated with serum cortisol. Cortisol enhanced the Bcl2L12 expression in HCC. Bcl2L12 binding to the TP53 promoter was correlated with p53 expression in HCC. Cortisol increased the Bcl2L12 expression in HCC to inhibit p53 expression. Stress hormone cortisol suppresses p53 in HCC via enhancing Bcl2L12 expression in HCC. The results suggest that cortisol may be a therapeutic target for the treatment of HC.

  2. Distinct Trajectories of Cortisol Response to Prolonged Acute Stress Are Linked to Affective Responses and Hippocampal Gray Matter Volume in Healthy Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admon, Roee; Treadway, Michael T; Valeri, Linda; Mehta, Malavika; Douglas, Samuel; Pizzagalli, Diego A

    2017-08-16

    The development of robust laboratory procedures for acute stress induction over the last decades has greatly advanced our understanding of stress responses in humans and their underlying neurobiological mechanisms. Nevertheless, attempts to uncover linear relationships among endocrine, neural, and affective responses to stress have generally yielded inconsistent results. Here, 79 healthy females completed a well established laboratory procedure of acute stress induction that was modified to prolong its effect. Endocrinological and subjective affect assessments revealed stress-induced increases in cortisol release and negative affect that persisted 65 and 100 min after stress onset, respectively, confirming a relatively prolonged acute stress induction. Applying latent class linear mixed modeling on individuals' patterns of cortisol responses identified three distinct trajectories of cortisol response: the hyper-response ( n = 10), moderate-response ( n = 21), and mild-response ( n = 48) groups. Notably, whereas all three groups exhibited a significant stress-induced increase in cortisol release and negative affect, the hyper-response and mild-response groups both reported more negative affect relative to the moderate-response group. Structural MRI revealed no group differences in hippocampal and amygdala volumes, yet a continuous measure of cortisol response (area under the curve) showed that high and low levels of stress-induced cortisol release were associated with less hippocampal gray matter volume compared with moderate cortisol release. Together, these results suggest that distinct trajectories of cortisol response to prolonged acute stress among healthy females may not be captured by conventional linear analyses; instead, quadratic relations may better describe links between cortisol response to stress and affective responses, as well as hippocampal structural variability. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Despite substantial research, it is unclear whether and how

  3. Plasma, salivary and urinary cortisol levels following physiological and stress doses of hydrocortisone in normal volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Caroline; Greco, Santo; Nguyen, Hanh H T; Ho, Jui T; Lewis, John G; Torpy, David J; Inder, Warrick J

    2014-11-26

    Glucocorticoid replacement is essential in patients with primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency, but many patients remain on higher than recommended dose regimens. There is no uniformly accepted method to monitor the dose in individual patients. We have compared cortisol concentrations in plasma, saliva and urine achieved following "physiological" and "stress" doses of hydrocortisone as potential methods for monitoring glucocorticoid replacement. Cortisol profiles were measured in plasma, saliva and urine following "physiological" (20 mg oral) or "stress" (50 mg intravenous) doses of hydrocortisone in dexamethasone-suppressed healthy subjects (8 in each group), compared to endogenous cortisol levels (12 subjects). Total plasma cortisol was measured half-hourly, and salivary cortisol and urinary cortisol:creatinine ratio were measured hourly from time 0 (between 0830 and 0900) to 5 h. Endogenous plasma corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) levels were measured at time 0 and 5 h, and hourly from time 0 to 5 h following administration of oral or intravenous hydrocortisone. Plasma free cortisol was calculated using Coolens' equation. Plasma, salivary and urine cortisol at 2 h after oral hydrocortisone gave a good indication of peak cortisol concentrations, which were uniformly supraphysiological. Intravenous hydrocortisone administration achieved very high 30 minute cortisol concentrations. Total plasma cortisol correlated significantly with both saliva and urine cortisol after oral and intravenous hydrocortisone (P cortisol and urinary cortisol:creatinine ratio may provide useful alternatives to plasma cortisol measurements to monitor replacement doses in hypoadrenal patients.

  4. A family history of Type 1 alcoholism differentiates alcohol consumption in high cortisol responders to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brkic, Sejla; Söderpalm, Bo; Söderpalm Gordh, Anna

    2015-03-01

    The differentiation between high and low cortisol responders to stress is of interest in determining the risk factors which may, along with genetic vulnerability, influence alcohol intake. Thirty-two healthy volunteers, family history positive to alcoholism (FHP, n = 16) and family history negative (FHN, n = 16) attended two laboratory sessions during which alcohol or placebo was offered. There were no differences in consumption of alcohol or placebo between FHP and FHN subjects. STUDY 2: Fifty-eight healthy social drinkers, FHP (n = 27) and FHN (n = 31) attended two laboratory sessions. They were administered either alcohol or placebo in both sessions they attended. All subjects underwent either a stress task (the Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) or a stress-free period, at two separate occasions, before being offered beverage. After the salivary cortisol analysis, subjects in each group were divided into high (HCR) or low (LCR) cortisol responders. After stress, subjects who were FHP-HCR consumed more alcohol than FHN-HCR. There were no differences in the placebo intake between FHP and FHN subjects regardless of their cortisol response. This result indicates that stress promotes alcohol consumption only in subjects with a family history of Type 1 alcoholism who show an increase in cortisol response to stress. This behaviour is similar to that previously observed in alcohol dependent individuals after stress and thus could represent an endophenotype posing a risk for future development of alcohol use disorders. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Cortisol responsiveness to stress in channel catfish influences susceptibility to Edwardsiella ictaluri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stress is unavoidable in aquaculture and hence strains of fish that are resilient and adaptable to stress need to be developed. Past studies have demonstrated that fish subjected to handling stress or poor water quality had reduced ability to resist pathogens. Cortisol is the primary stress hormone...

  6. Emotional non-acceptance links early life stress and blunted cortisol reactivity to social threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cărnuţă, Mihai; Crişan, Liviu G; Vulturar, Romana; Opre, Adrian; Miu, Andrei C

    2015-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) has been recently associated with blunted cortisol reactivity and emotion dysregulation, but no study until now examined whether these characteristics are related. The main goal of this study was to examine the potential mediator role of emotion dysregulation in the relation between ELS and cortisol reactivity to social threat. Only women who were free of psychiatric and endocrine disorders, had regular menstrual cycle and did not use oral contraceptives were selected for this study (N=62). After filling in ELS and multidimensional emotion dysregulation measures, participants underwent the Trier Social Stress Test during which cortisol and autonomic responses were assessed. Most participants (85.5%) reported one or more major stressful events (i.e., physical abuse, sexual abuse, major parental conflicts, death of a family or close friend, severe illness) experienced before age 17. ELS was negatively associated with cortisol reactivity and positively associated with skin conductance level (SCL) reactivity, but it did not influence heart rate and respiratory sinus arrhythmia. In addition, ELS was positively related to emotional non-acceptance (i.e., a tendency to develop secondary emotional responses to one's negative emotions), and the latter was negatively related to cortisol responses and positively related to SCL responses. Bootstrapping analyses indicated that emotional non-acceptance was a significant mediator in the relationships between ELS and both cortisol and SCL responses. Emotional non-acceptance is thus one of the psychological mechanisms underlying blunted cortisol and increased sympathetic reactivity in young healthy volunteers with a history of ELS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cortisol responses to mental stress and the progression of coronary artery calcification in healthy men and women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Hamer

    Full Text Available Psychosocial stress is a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD. The mechanisms are incompletely understood, although dysfunction of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA axis might be involved. We examined the association between cortisol responses to laboratory-induced mental stress and the progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC.Participants were 466 healthy men and women (mean age = 62.7±5.6 yrs, without history or objective signs of CHD, drawn from the Whitehall II epidemiological cohort. At the baseline assessment salivary cortisol was measured in response to mental stressors, consisting of a 5-min Stroop task and a 5-min mirror tracing task. CAC was measured at baseline and at 3 years follow up using electron beam computed tomography. CAC progression was defined as an increase >10 Agatston units between baseline and follow up. 38.2% of the sample demonstrated CAC progression over the 3 years follow up. There was considerable variation in the cortisol stress response, with approximately 40% of the sample responding to the stress tasks with an increase in cortisol of at least 1 mmol/l. There was an association between cortisol stress reactivity (per SD and CAC progression (odds ratio = 1.27, 95% CI, 1.02-1.60 after adjustments for age, sex, pre-stress cortisol, employment grade, smoking, resting systolic BP, fibrinogen, body mass index, and use of statins. There was no association between systolic blood pressure reactivity and CAC progression (odds ratio per SD increase = 1.03, 95% CI, 0.85-1.24. Other independent predictors of CAC progression included age, male sex, smoking, resting systolic blood pressure, and fibrinogen.Results demonstrate an association between heightened cortisol reactivity to stress and CAC progression. These data support the notion that cortisol reactivity, an index of HPA function, is one of the possible mechanisms through which psychosocial stress may influence the risk of CHD.

  8. Interrelationships among cortisol, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and androstenendione exposures in the management of children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafoglou, Kyriakie; Zimmerman, Cheryl L; Gonzalez-Bolanos, Maria T; Willis, Brian A; Brundage, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Hydrocortisone is the standard replacement therapy for children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Relationships between cortisol exposures and pharmacodynamic responses of 17-hydroxyprogesterone and androstenedione exposures have not been systematically evaluated. (1) Assess individual oral hydrocortisone pharmacokinetics; (2) relate the observed cortisol exposure in each subject to the observed exposures of 17-hydroxyprogesterone and androstenedione; (3) determine potential individualized treatment regimens based on each subject's pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters. Thirty-four patients (18 boys, 16 girls, aged 1.4 to 18.1 years) with CAH underwent 6-hour pharmacokinetic studies. Results were analyzed by noncompartmental methods to obtain the area under the curve (AUC) for cortisol, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and androstenedione; maximum concentration and time-to-maximum concentration for cortisol; and minimum and time-to-minimum concentration for 17-hydroxyprogesterone and androstenedione. Mean (SD) cortisol half-life and Cmax were 1.01 (0.20) hours and 24.4 (5.4) μg/dL, respectively. The AUCs for cortisol, 17-hydroxyprogesterone and androstenedione were 40.8 (14.5) μg hour/dL, 29,490 (23,539) ng hour/dL, and 680 (795) ng hour/dL, respectively. No significant relationships existed between cortisol AUCs and the AUCs of either 17-hydroxyprogesterone (P=0.32) or androstenedione (P=0.99); nor were there differences between the change-from-baseline concentrations for cortisol with either 17-hydroxyprogesterone (P=0.80) or androstenedione (P=0.40). Cortisol simulations indicated that although four daily doses decreased 24-hour hypercortisolemia and hypocortisolemia, substantial periods of each remained. Concentration profiles of cortisol, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and androstenedione are highly variable in children with CAH, and knowledge of them can assist in personalizing the therapy of CAH patients. Hydrocortisone's rapid half-life and the lack of

  9. Measuring Stress in Young Children Using Hair Cortisol: The State of the Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Randi; Salsberry, Pamela; Ford, Jodi

    2017-10-01

    Extensive literature suggests that adverse experiences in early childhood may deleteriously impact later health. These effects are thought to be related to the impact of persistent or chronic stress on various biological processes, mediated by dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and ultimately irregularities in cortisol levels. Ameliorating persistent stress in young children requires accurately measuring the chronicity of physiologic stress, which is difficult in young children because of unreliable self-report and the burden and inaccuracy associated with using invasive acute-stress biomeasures. A better way to approximate persistent stress in young children is measuring hair cortisol concentration (HCC), as it only requires one noninvasive collection to measure months of HPA-axis activity or experienced stress. However, few studies measure HCC in young children despite wide use in adult stress research. This article reviews and synthesizes research that uses HCC to approximate persistent stress in healthy children, 12-60 months of age. Reviewed studies indicate that HCC is elevated in young children who are experiencing forms of persistent stress such as low socioeconomic status and maternal distress. Hair cortisol is thus a promising measure of early childhood persistent stress, but due to the limited use of HCC in this population, much research is still needed. Specifically, nurse researchers may need to measure several factors associated with early childhood persistent stress and HCC to identify which children are at risk for stress-related disease.

  10. Diurnal Salivary Cortisol, Glycemia and Insulin Resistance: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Joshua J.; Wang, Xu; Spanakis, Elias; Seeman, Teresa; Wand, Gary; Needham, Belinda; Golden, Sherita Hill

    2015-01-01

    Summary Hypercortisolism is associated with insulin resistance (IR) and diabetes mellitus (DM); however, to our knowledge prior studies have not examined the association of diurnal cortisol curve features with measures of glycemia or IR in a population-based setting. Using log-transformed salivary cortisol data on 850 ethnically diverse men and women from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, we investigated the cross-sectional association of cortisol curve features with (1) glycemia in those with and without DM and (2) IR, in non-diabetic subjects. The log-transformed salivary cortisol curve features included wake-up cortisol, cortisol awakening response (CAR), early decline slope (30 minutes to 2 hours post-awakening), late decline slope (2 hours post-awakening to bedtime), overall decline slope (0 minutes to bedtime, excluding 30 minute cortisol), bedtime cortisol and total area under the curve (AUC). Overall, following multivariable adjustment, among those with diabetes mellitus (DM), early decline slope, overall decline slope, bedtime cortisol, and AUC were significantly and positively associated with a 5.4% (95% CI: 1.3, 9.7), 54.7% (95% CI: 12.4, 112.9), 4.0% (95% CI: 1.6, 6.4), and 6.8% (95% CI: 3.3, 10.4) higher HbA1c per 1 unit increase in log cortisol feature, respectively. Cortisol curve features were not associated with HbA1c among non-diabetic participants; however, wake-up cortisol and AUC were associated with a 8.2% lower (95% CI: −13.3, −2.7) and 7.9% lower (95% CI: −14.6, −0.6) log HOMA-IR, respectively. This was attenuated by adjustment for waist circumference. Among participants with DM, cortisol curve parameters suggestive of higher hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and dysfunction were associated with higher HbA1c. In non-diabetic participants, greater HPA activity was paradoxically associated with lower insulin resistance. PMID:26356041

  11. Dissecting the impact of sleep and stress on the cortisol awakening response in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Ivan; Lopez-Duran, Nestor

    2014-02-01

    Cortisol rises precipitously upon awakening, in what has been called the cortisol awakening response (CAR). Atypical CARs have been linked to a number of negative health outcomes. Yet, our understanding of the possible mechanisms creating these associations remains unclear. Both stress and sleep can influence CAR, and may potentially explain its links to health. However, these factors also impact each other, and their influence on CAR has rarely been studied simultaneously. In order to differentiate their effects, this study examined the impact of daily life hassles, anticipatory stress, and subjectively reported sleep on CAR among 58 college students. Self-reported stress and sleep, as well as salivary cortisol (collected during the first hour after awakening) were obtained across two consecutive days. Total sleep time predicted CAR magnitude, but daily hassles and anticipatory stress did not after accounting for the effect of sleep. Lower total sleep time was associated with lower awakening cortisol and greater CAR. These results provide further evidence for the impact of sleep insufficiency on CAR, and suggest future efforts to use CAR as a stress biomarker should take the impact of sleep into consideration. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Chronic Stress and Adolescents' Mental Health: Modifying Effects of Basal Cortisol and Parental Psychiatric History. The TRAILS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandstra, Anna Roos E; Hartman, Catharina A; Nederhof, Esther; van den Heuvel, Edwin R; Dietrich, Andrea; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Ormel, Johan

    2015-08-01

    Large individual differences in adolescent mental health following chronic psychosocial stress suggest moderating factors. We examined two established moderators, basal cortisol and parental psychiatric history, simultaneously. We hypothesized that individuals with high basal cortisol, assumed to indicate high context sensitivity, would show relatively high problem levels following chronic stress, especially in the presence of parental psychiatric history. With Linear Mixed Models, we investigated the hypotheses in 1917 Dutch adolescents (53.2% boys), assessed at ages 11, 13.5, and 16. Low basal cortisol combined with the absence of a parental psychiatric history increased the risk of externalizing but not internalizing problems following chronic stress. Conversely, low basal cortisol combined with a substantial parental psychiatric history increased the risk of internalizing but not externalizing problems following chronic stress. Thus, parental psychiatric history moderated stress- cortisol interactions in predicting psychopathology, but in a different direction than hypothesized. We conclude that the premise that basal cortisol indicates context sensitivity may be too crude. Context sensitivity may not be a general trait but may depend on the nature of the context (e.g., type or duration of stress exposure) and on the outcome of interest (e.g., internalizing vs. externalizing problems). Although consistent across informants, our findings need replication.

  13. Hair plucking, stress, and urinary cortisol among captive bonobos (Pan paniscus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Colin M; Boose, Klaree J; Squires, Erica C; Marchant, Linda F; White, Frances J; Meinelt, Audra; Snodgrass, J Josh

    2016-09-01

    Hair plucking has been observed in many captive primate species, including the great apes; however, the etiology of this behavioral pattern is poorly understood. While this behavior has not been reported in wild apes, an ethologically identical behavior in humans, known as trichotillomania, is linked to chronic psychosocial stress and is a predominantly female disorder. This study examines hair plucking (defined here as a rapid jerking away of the hair shaft and follicle by the hand or mouth, often accompanied by inspection and consumption of the hair shaft and follicle) in a captive group of bonobos (N = 13) at the Columbus Zoo and Aquarium in Columbus, Ohio. Plucking data were collected using behavior and all-occurrence sampling; 1,450 social and self-directed grooming bouts were recorded during 128 hr of observation. Twenty-one percent of all grooming bouts involved at least one instance of plucking. Urine samples (N = 55) were collected and analyzed for the stress hormone cortisol. Analyses of urinary cortisol levels showed a significant positive correlation between mean cortisol and self-directed plucking for females (r = 0.88, P association between relative self-directed hair plucking and cortisol among female bonobos. This is the first study to investigate the relationship between hair plucking and cortisol among apes. Overall, these data add to our knowledge of a contemporary issue in captive ape management. Zoo Biol. 35:415-422, 2016. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. SKA2 Methylation is Involved in Cortisol Stress Reactivity and Predicts the Development of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) After Military Deployment

    OpenAIRE

    Boks, Marco P; Rutten, Bart P F; Geuze, Elbert; Houtepen, Lotte C; Vermetten, Eric; Kaminsky, Zachary; Vinkers, Christiaan H

    2015-01-01

    Genomic variation in the SKA2 gene has recently been identified as a promising suicide biomarker. In light of its role in glucocorticoid receptor transactivation, we investigated whether SKA2 DNA methylation influences cortisol stress reactivity and is involved in the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Increased SKA2 methylation was significantly associated with lower cortisol stress reactivity in 85 healthy individuals exposed to the Trier Social Stress Test (B=?173.40, t=...

  15. Effects of interpersonal violence-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on mother and child diurnal cortisol rhythm and cortisol reactivity to a laboratory stressor involving separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, Maria I; Moser, Dominik A; Manini, Aurelia; Suardi, Francesca; Sancho-Rossignol, Ana; Torrisi, Raffaella; Rossier, Michel F; Ansermet, François; Dayer, Alexandre G; Rusconi-Serpa, Sandra; Schechter, Daniel S

    2017-04-01

    Women who have experienced interpersonal violence (IPV) are at a higher risk to develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), with dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and impaired social behavior. Previously, we had reported impaired maternal sensitivity and increased difficulty in identifying emotions (i.e. alexithymia) among IPV-PTSD mothers. One of the aims of the present study was to examine maternal IPV-PTSD salivary cortisol levels diurnally and reactive to their child's distress in relation to maternal alexithymia. Given that mother-child interaction during infancy and early childhood has important long-term consequences on the stress response system, toddlers' cortisol levels were assessed during the day and in response to a laboratory stressor. Mothers collected their own and their 12-48month-old toddlers' salivary samples at home three times: 30min after waking up, between 2-3pm and at bedtime. Moreover, mother-child dyads participated in a 120-min laboratory session, consisting of 3 phases: baseline, stress situation (involving mother-child separation and exposure to novelty) and a 60-min regulation phase. Compared to non-PTSD controls, IPV-PTSD mothers - but not their toddlers, had lower morning cortisol and higher bedtime cortisol levels. As expected, IPV-PTSD mothers and their children showed blunted cortisol reactivity to the laboratory stressor. Maternal cortisol levels were negatively correlated to difficulty in identifying emotions. Our data highlights PTSD-IPV-related alterations in the HPA system and its relevance to maternal behavior. Toddlers of IPV-PTSD mothers also showed an altered pattern of cortisol reactivity to stress that potentially may predispose them to later psychological disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Negative cognitive style and cortisol recovery accentuate the relationship between life stress and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Meghan E; Grant, Kathryn E; Adam, Emma K

    2018-03-01

    When exposed to stressful life events, a significant number of adolescents will experience depressive symptoms. One model of depression suggests that individuals with a negative cognitive style are most vulnerable to depression following life stress. Alternatively, altered activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis may explain vulnerability to depression following life stress. Each of these models plausibly explains the emergence of depressive symptoms during adolescence and have been investigated largely independently. The current study recruited a sample of urban adolescents (N = 179) to evaluate whether cortisol response to a laboratory stress induction and negative cognitive style are related and whether they independently interact with exposure to stressful life events to predict symptoms of depression. Negative cognitive style was not associated with cortisol response to the laboratory stressor. Rather, negative cognitive style and cortisol recovery independently interacted with stressful life events to predict current symptoms of depression. Results support a heterogeneous etiology of depression.

  17. Maternal history of child abuse moderates the association between daily stress and diurnal cortisol in pregnancy: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bublitz, Margaret H; Stroud, Laura R

    2013-11-01

    Previous research on the association between maternal daily stress and cortisol in pregnancy has yielded inconsistent findings. However, past studies have not considered whether stressful experiences in childhood impact maternal cortisol regulation in pregnancy. In this pilot study, we aimed to examine whether the association between maternal daily stress and cortisol differed according to maternal history of child abuse. Forty-one women provided salivary cortisol samples at wake-up, 30 min after wake-up, and bedtime for 3 days at three times over second and third trimesters of pregnancy. On each day of cortisol collection women reported their daily stress. Women reported child abuse experiences prior to age 18 years by completing 15 items from the Adverse Childhood Experiences Scale. Twenty-one percent (N = 9) of women reported a history of child sexual abuse (CSA), 44% (N = 18) reported a history of non-sexual child abuse and 34% (N = 14) reported no history of child abuse. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) analyses revealed that stress in the day prior was associated with increases in morning cortisol in women with CSA histories compared to women with non-sexual abuse histories or no history of child abuse. Increases in evening cortisol were associated with increases in daily stress in women with CSA histories compared to women with non-sexual abuse histories or no history of child abuse. Results reveal a dynamic association between daily stress and cortisol in pregnancy and suggest that patterns differ according to maternal child abuse history.

  18. The relations of age and pubertal development with cortisol and daily stress in youth at clinical risk for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskow, Danielle M; Addington, Jean; Bearden, Carrie E; Cadenhead, Kristin S; Cornblatt, Barbara A; Heinssen, Robert; Mathalon, Daniel H; McGlashan, Thomas H; Perkins, Diana O; Seidman, Larry J; Tsuang, Ming T; Cannon, Tyrone D; Woods, Scott W; Walker, Elaine F

    2016-04-01

    Prodromal syndromes often begin in adolescence - a period of neurodevelopmental changes and heightened stress sensitivity. Research has shown elevated stress and cortisol in individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis. This cross-sectional study examined relations of age and pubertal status with cortisol and self-reported stress in healthy controls (HCs) and CHR adolescents. It was hypothesized that the relations of age and pubertal stage with cortisol and stress would be more pronounced in CHR youth. Participants were 93 HCs and 348 CHR adolescents from the North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study (NAPLS). At baseline, measures of stress (Daily Stress Inventory - DSI), Tanner stage (TS), and salivary cortisol were obtained. ANCOVA revealed increased DSI scores with age for both groups, and higher DSI scores in CHR adolescents than HCs, with a more pronounced difference for females. Contrary to prediction, with age controlled, HCs showed greater TS-related DSI increases. Analysis of cortisol showed no significant interactions, but a main effect of age and a trend toward higher cortisol in the CHR group. Correlations of cortisol with TS were higher in HC than CHR group. Stress measures increased with age in HC and CHR adolescents, and DSI scores also increased with TS in HCs. The results do not support a more pronounced age or TS increase in stress measures in CHR adolescents, but instead suggest that stress indices tend to be elevated earlier in adolescence in the CHR group. Potential determinants of findings and future directions are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Poor habitual sleep efficiency is associated with increased cardiovascular and cortisol stress reactivity in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massar, Stijn A A; Liu, Jean C J; Mohammad, Nabilah B; Chee, Michael W L

    2017-07-01

    Inadequate sleep and psychological stress can both elevate physiological stress markers, such as cortisol. Prior studies that have applied induced psychosocial stress after a night of experimental sleep deprivation have found these effects to be compounded. We examined whether the relationship between stress reactivity and poor sleep also extends to habitual sleep patterns. Fifty-nine adult male participants were recruited. Habitual sleep patterns were monitored with actigraphy for a week. Participants subsequently underwent the Trier Social Stress Test. Cardiovascular responses and salivary cortisol were measured at baseline, during stress, and during recovery. Subjects who showed poor habitual sleep efficiency during the week before stress induction responded with higher stress-related elevations of blood pressure and cortisol levels as compared to subjects with high sleep efficiency. This relationship between poor sleep efficiency and elevated blood pressure persisted during the post-stress recovery period. Similar associations between total sleep time in the week prior to the stress induction and physiological reactivity did not reach significance. Our findings indicate that habitual low sleep efficiency exaggerates cardiovascular and neuroendocrine effects of psychosocial stress, in a male population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Stress and parental care in a wild Teleost fish: insights from exogenous supraphysiological cortisol implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Constance M; Gilmour, Kathleen M; Arlinghaus, Robert; Van Der Kraak, Glen; Cooke, Steven J

    2009-01-01

    Male largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) provide sole parental care over a 4-6-wk period to a single brood, fanning the eggs to keep them oxygenated and free of silt and defending the brood until the offspring develop antipredator tactics. During this period, fish are highly active and have few opportunities for feeding, so this activity is energetically costly. To understand some of the consequences of stress during this challenging period, we injected fish with cortisol suspended in coconut oil to experimentally raise circulating cortisol in parental males for the first week of the parental care period. We compared parental care behavior between cortisol-treated, sham-treated (injected only with coconut oil), and control parental males. We further compared physiological parameters associated with metabolism and reproductive function between cortisol-treated and control males. The cortisol injections resulted in supraphysiological levels of circulating plasma cortisol, giving us insight into potential maximal effects of stress during parental care. At these supraphysiological levels, the cortisol-treated fish displayed higher concentrations of circulating glucose and cholesterol and lower concentrations of circulating triglycerides when compared with control fish, with no change in plasma concentrations of total protein. Plasma concentrations of androgen were similarly unaffected by cortisol treatment. In the short term (initial 1-2 wk), parental care of eggs and egg-sac fry was maintained by all groups, with no differences observed in behavior (e.g., tending, vigilance, defense) among the groups. However, the cortisol-treated fish abandoned their offspring at a higher rate than in the control or sham groups. The fish treated with cortisol also tended to develop external Saprolegnian infections, indicative of compromised immune function. These data demonstrate that exogenous cortisol elevation during parental care results in changes in energy use and a

  1. Diurnal salivary cortisol in relation to perceived stress at home and at work in healthy men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjörs, Anna; Ljung, Thomas; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the association between diurnal salivary cortisol profile and perceived stress at work and at home. Healthy participants (N=180, 52% women) collected saliva cortisol samples immediately after waking up, 15 min later, 30 min later, and at 9:00, 12:00, 15:00, 18:00 and 21:00. The area under the cortisol awakening curve with respect to ground (AUCgCAR) and increase (AUCiCAR), and diurnal slope between 9:00 and 21:00 were analyzed. Perceived stress at work and at home was measured with the Stress-Energy Questionnaire. Participants reporting stress at home had significantly lower AUCgCAR and a flatter diurnal slope. When performing separate analyses for men and women, this association was only significant among women. Perceived stress at work was not associated with any cortisol measure. This study highlights the importance of stress outside the workplace. The sex differences may indicate an increased vulnerability to non-work stress in women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Blunted cortisol response to stress in patients with eating disorders: Its association to bulimic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz-Leal, Francisco J; Ramos-Fuentes, María I; Rodríguez-Santos, Laura; Chimpén-López, Carlos; Fernández-Sánchez, Nieves; Zamora-Rodríguez, Francisco J; Beato-Fernández, Luis; Rojo-Moreno, Luis; Guisado-Macías, Juan A

    2018-05-01

    Clinical research on cortisol response to stress in patients with eating disorders has provided controversial and even contradictory results. As this might be the consequence of the inclusion in the studies of heterogeneous clinical populations, 3 highly selected samples were studied. Dexamethasone suppression test was performed on 15 restricting anorexia nervosa patients without history of bulimia nervosa (BN), 17 BN patients with normal weight and no history of anorexia nervosa, and 22 healthy controls. Three days later, the Trier Social Stress Test was applied, and 8 saliva samples were collected along the trial for cortisol assessment. When the patients were considered as a single group, a slightly blunted cortisol response to stress was observed, but when the 3 groups were considered separately, the blunted response was observed only in the BN patients. The results support the association between blunted cortisol response and bulimic features. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  3. Neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation, perceived neighborhood factors, and cortisol responses to induced stress among healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrington, Wendy E; Stafford, Mai; Hamer, Mark; Beresford, Shirley A A; Koepsell, Thomas; Steptoe, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    Associations between measures of neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and health have been identified, yet work is needed to uncover explanatory mechanisms. One hypothesized pathway is through stress, yet the few studies that have evaluated associations between characteristics of deprived neighborhoods and biomarkers of stress are mixed. This study evaluated whether objectively measured neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and individual perceived neighborhood characteristics (i.e. social control and fear of crime) impacted cortisol responses to an induced stressor among older healthy adults. Data from Heart Scan, a sub-study of the Whitehall II cohort, were used to generate multilevel piecewise growth-curve models of cortisol trajectories after a laboratory stressor accounting for neighborhood and demographic characteristics. Neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation was significantly associated with individual perceptions of social control and fear of crime in the neighborhood while an association with blunted cortisol reactivity was only evidence among women. Social control was significantly associated with greater cortisol reactivity and mediation between neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and cortisol reactivity was suggested among women. These findings support a gender-dependent role of neighborhood in stress process models of health. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Effects of maternal cortisol treatment on offspring size, responses to stress, and anxiety-related behavior in wild largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfern, Julia C; Cooke, Steven J; Lennox, Robert J; Nannini, Michael A; Wahl, David H; Gilmour, Kathleen M

    2017-10-15

    Cortisol, the main glucocorticoid stress hormone in teleost fish, is of interest as a mediator of maternal stress on offspring characteristics because it plays an organizational role during early development. The present study tested the hypothesis that maternal exposure to cortisol treatment prior to spawn affects offspring phenotype using wild largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Baseline and stress-induced cortisol concentrations, body size (i.e. length and mass), and behavior (i.e. anxiety, exploration, boldness, and aggression) were assessed at different offspring life-stages and compared between offspring of control and cortisol-treated females. Cortisol administration did not affect spawning success or timing, nor were whole-body cortisol concentrations different between embryos from cortisol-treated and control females. However, maternal cortisol treatment had significant effects on offspring stress responsiveness, mass, and behavior. Compared to offspring of control females, offspring of cortisol-treated females exhibited larger mass right after hatch, and young-of-the-year mounted an attenuated cortisol response to an acute stressor, and exhibited less thigmotaxic anxiety, exploratory behavior, boldness and aggression. Thus, offspring phenotype was affected by elevated maternal cortisol levels despite the absence of a significant increase in embryo cortisol concentrations, suggesting that a mechanism other than the direct deposition of cortisol into eggs mediates effects on offspring. The results of the present raise questions about the mechanisms through which maternal stress influences offspring behavior and physiology, as well as the impacts of such phenotypic changes on offspring fitness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Stress contagion in the classroom? The link between classroom teacher burnout and morning cortisol in elementary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Eva; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the link between classroom teachers' burnout levels and students' physiological stress response. Drawing from a stress-contagion framework, we expected higher levels of teacher burnout to be related to elevated cortisol levels in elementary school students (N = 406, 50% female, Mean age = 11.26, SD = .89). Classroom teacher burnout was assessed with the Maslach Burnout Inventory modified for teachers. Salivary cortisol was collected as an indicator of students' hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) functioning. We collected salivary cortisol in children at 9 a.m., 11:30 a.m., and 2 p.m. in the classroom setting. Using Multilevel Modeling, we found that children's morning cortisol levels significantly varied between classrooms (10% variability). Higher levels of classroom teacher burnout significantly predicted the variability in morning cortisol. Teacher burnout reduced the unexplained variability in cortisol at the classroom level to 4.6%. This is the first study to show that teachers' occupational stress is linked to students' physiological stress regulation. We discuss the present findings in the context of potential stress contagion in the classroom, considering empirical and practical relevance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Hair cortisol levels, perceived stress and body mass index in women and children living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods: the READI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olstad, Dana Lee; Ball, Kylie; Wright, Craig; Abbott, Gavin; Brown, Erin; Turner, Anne Isabella

    2016-01-01

    Disadvantaged communities provide adverse psychosocial exposures that have been linked to high levels of stress, and this may provide one explanatory pathway linking socioeconomic disadvantage to obesity. This study used hair cortisol analysis to quantify associations between stress and body mass index (BMI), and between hair cortisol and perceived psychological stress levels, in women and children living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods. Participants were a volunteer sample of 70 women from the Resilience for Eating and Activity Despite Inequality study, including 30 maternal-child pairs. Women self-reported body weight, height and perceived psychological stress using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and provided hair samples for themselves and their child. Children's body weight and height were measured. Following extraction, hair cortisol levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Multiple linear regression models examined associations between stress and BMI, and between hair cortisol and perceived stress levels in women and children. Women's hair cortisol levels were not associated with their BMI or PSS scores. Women's PSS scores were positively associated with their BMI (p = 0.015). Within maternal-child pairs, mothers and children's hair cortisol levels were strongly positively associated (p = 0.006). Maternal hair cortisol levels and PSS scores were unrelated to their child's zBMI. Children's hair cortisol levels were not associated with their zBMI or with their mother's PSS score. Findings suggest that cortisol-based and perceived psychological measures of stress may be distinct among women and children living in disadvantaged neighborhoods. Perceived psychological measures may be more important predictors of weight-related risk.

  7. Cortisol responses to psychosocial stress predict depression trajectories: social-evaluative threat and prior depressive episodes as moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Matthew C; Rao, Uma; Garber, Judy

    2012-12-20

    Alterations of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function are well-established in adults with current depression. HPA alterations may persist into remission and confer increased risk for recurrence. A modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was administered at baseline to 32 young adults with remitted major depressive disorder and 36 never-depressed controls. Participants were randomly assigned to either a 'high-stress' condition involving social evaluation or a 'low-stress' control condition. Cortisol concentrations were measured in saliva samples throughout the TSST. Participants were assessed again after 6 months for the occurrence of stressful life events and depressive symptoms/disorders during the follow-up period. Participants who exhibited enhanced cortisol reactivity in the low-stress condition showed increases in depressive symptoms over follow-up, after controlling for stressful life events during the follow-up period. Anticipatory stress cortisol and cortisol reactivity each interacted with history of depressive episodes to predict depression trajectories. The single TSST administration limits conclusions about whether alterations of cortisol reactivity represent trait-like vulnerability factors or consequences ("scars') of past depression. These results extend previous findings on stress sensitivity in depression and suggest that altered HPA function during remission could reflect an endophenotype for vulnerability to depression recurrence. Findings support interactive models of risk for depression recurrence implicating HPA function, depression history, and sensitivity to minor stressors. Results may have implications for interventions that match treatment approaches to profiles of HPA function. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Estradiol Therapy After Menopause Mitigates Effects of Stress on Cortisol and Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Alexandra Ycaza; Hodis, Howard N; Mack, Wendy J; Mather, Mara

    2017-12-01

    Postmenopausal estradiol therapy (ET) can reduce the stress response. However, it remains unclear whether such reductions can mitigate effects of stress on cognition. Investigate effects of ET on cortisol response to a physical stressor, cold pressor test (CPT), and whether ET attenuates stress effects on working memory. Women completed the CPT or control condition across two sessions and subsequently completed a sentence span task. General community: Participants were recruited from the Early vs Late Intervention Trial with Estradiol (ELITE). ELITE participants (mean age = 66, standard deviation age = 6.8) in this study did not suffer from any major chronic illness or use medications known to affect the stress response or cognition. Participants had received a median of randomized 4.7 years of estradiol (n = 21) or placebo (n = 21) treatment at time of participation in this study. Salivary cortisol and sentence span task performance. Women assigned to estradiol exhibited blunted cortisol responses to CPT compared with placebo (P = 0.017) and lesser negative effects of stress on working memory (P = 0.048). We present evidence suggesting ET may protect certain types of cognition in the presence of stress. Such estrogenic protection against stress hormone exposure may prove beneficial to both cognition and the neural circuitry that maintains and propagates cognitive faculties. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  9. Reward anticipation modulates the effect of stress-related increases in cortisol on episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quent, Jörn A; McCullough, Andrew M; Sazma, Matt; Wolf, Oliver T; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2018-01-01

    When acute stress is experienced shortly after an event is encoded into memory, this can slow the forgetting of the study event, which is thought to reflect the effect of cortisol on consolidation. In addition, when events are encoded under conditions of high reward they tend to be remembered better than those encoded under non-rewarding conditions, and these effects are thought to reflect the operation of the dopaminergic reward system. Although both modulatory systems are believed to impact the medial temporal lobe regions critical for episodic memory, the manner, and even the extent, to which these two systems interact is currently unknown. To address this question in the current study, participants encoded words under reward or non-reward conditions, then one half of the participants were stressed using the social evaluation cold pressor task and the other half completed a non-stress control task. After a two-hour delay, all participants received a free recall and recognition memory test. There were no significant effects of stress or reward on overall memory performance. However, for the non-reward items, increases in stress-related cortisol in stressed participants were related to increases in recall and increases in recollection-based recognition responses. In contrast, for the reward items, increases in stress-related cortisol were not related to increases in memory performance. The results indicate that the stress and the reward systems interact in the way they impact episodic memory. The results are consistent with tag and capture models in the sense that cortisol reactivity can only affect non-reward items because plasticity-related products are already provided by reward anticipation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cortisol and secretory immunoglobulin A response to stress in German shepherd dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivona Svobodová

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine whether cortisol and secretory Immunoglobulin A (sIgA could be used as an indicator of acute stress in both young and adult dogs. Seventeen German shepherd puppies were exposed to the Puppy test (challenge test at the age of seven weeks. This test has been routinely used to assess the future working ability of potential police dogs. In addition, ten adult females were subjected to 4 minutes of defense training under stressful conditions. Saliva was collected from the puppies and adult females before testing and 20 minutes after the start of testing, using a cotton swab held for 1-2 minutes in each dog's mouth. Cortisol concentrations increased after the test compared to the control sample both in puppies and the adult females. However adult females showed a significant decrease in sIgA after defense training while puppies showed a tendency of increase in sIgA. We propose that salivary cortisol could be used as an indicator of stress in puppies during early ontogeny. It is not yet clear whether sIgA could be used as a useful indicator of short-term stress in dogs.

  11. Lifetime Exposure to Traumatic and Other Stressful Life Events and Hair Cortisol in a Multi-Racial/Ethnic Sample of Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Hannah M. C.; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Ritz, Thomas; Coull, Brent A.; Gennings, Chris; Wright, Robert O.; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2016-01-01

    We examined whether lifetime exposure to stressful and traumatic events alters hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning, as indexed by hair cortisol, regardless of associated psychopathology, among pregnant women of different racial/ethnic backgrounds. 180 women provided hair samples for measurement of integrated cortisol levels throughout pregnancy and information regarding their lifetime exposure to stressful and traumatic life events. Results indicate that increased lifetime exposure to traumatic events was associated with significantly greater hair cortisol over the course of pregnancy. Similarly, greater lifetime exposure to stressful and traumatic events weighted by reported negative impact (over the previous 12 months) was associated with significantly greater hair cortisol during pregnancy. All analyses controlled for maternal age, education, body mass index (BMI), use of inhaled corticosteroids, race/ethnicity, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depressive symptoms. Following stratification by race/ethnicity, associations between stressful and traumatic life events and hair cortisol were found among Black women only. This is the first study to consider associations between lifetime stress exposures and hair cortisol in a sociodemographically diverse sample of pregnant women. Increased exposure to stressful and traumatic events, independent of PTSD and depressive symptoms, was associated with higher cortisol production, particularly in Black women. Future research should investigate the influence of such increased cortisol exposure on developmental outcomes among offspring. PMID:26551892

  12. Correlates of Cortisol in Human Hair: Implications for Epidemiologic Studies on Health Effects of Chronic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosu, Adaeze C.; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur; Shields, Alexandra E.; Williams, David R.; Williams, Michelle A.

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of cortisol concentrations in hair is one of the latest innovations for measuring long-term cortisol exposure. We performed a systematic review of correlates of cortisol in human hair to inform the design, analysis and interpretation of future epidemiologic studies. Relevant publications were identified through electronic searches on PubMed, WorldCat, and Web of Science using keywords, “cortisol” “hair” “confounders” “chronic” “stress” and “correlates.” Thirty-nine studies were included in this review. Notwithstanding scarce data and some inconsistencies, investigators have found hair cortisol concentrations to be associated with stress-related psychiatric symptoms and disorders (e.g., PTSD), medical conditions indicating chronic activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (e.g., Cushing´s syndrome) and other life situations associated with elevated risk of chronic stress (e.g., shiftwork). Results from some studies suggest that physical activity, adiposity, and substance abuse may be correlates of hair cortisol concentrations. In contrast to measures of short-term cortisol release (saliva, blood, and urine), cigarette smoking and use of oral contraceptives appear to not be associated with hair cortisol concentrations. Studies of pregnant women indicate increased hair cortisol concentrations across successive trimesters. The study of hair cortisol presents a unique opportunity to assess chronic alterations in cortisol concentrations in epidemiologic studies. PMID:24184029

  13. Burnout and Hypocortisolism - A Matter of Severity? A Study on ACTH and Cortisol Responses to Acute Psychosocial Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennartsson, Anna-Karin; Sjörs, Anna; Währborg, Peter; Ljung, Thomas; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H

    2015-01-01

    Common consequences of long-term psychosocial stress are fatigue and burnout. It has been suggested that burnout could be associated with hypocortisolism, thus, inability to produce sufficient amounts of cortisol. This study aimed to investigate whether patients with clinical burnout exhibit aberrant ACTH and cortisol responses under acute psychosocial stress compared with healthy individuals. Nineteen patients (9 men and 10 women) and 37 healthy subjects (20 men and 17 women), underwent the Trier Social Stress Test. Blood samples and saliva samples were collected before, after, and during the stress test for measurements of plasma ACTH, serum cortisol, and salivary cortisol. Several statistical analyses were conducted to compare the responses between patients and controls. In addition, in order to investigate the possibility that burnout patients with more severe symptoms would respond differently, sub-groups of patients reporting higher and lower burnout scores were compared. In both patients and healthy controls, we observed elevated levels of ACTH and cortisol after exposure to the stressor. There were no differences in responses of ACTH, serum cortisol, or salivary cortisol between patients and controls. Patients reporting higher burnout scores had lower salivary cortisol responses than controls, indicating that patients with more severe burnout symptoms may be suffering from hypocortisolism. In addition, patients with more severe burnout symptoms tended to have smaller ACTH responses than the other patients. However, there was no corresponding difference in serum cortisol. This study indicates that hypocortisolism is not present in a clinical burnout patient group as a whole but may be present in the patients with more severe burnout symptoms.

  14. Blunted neuroactive steroid and HPA axis responses to stress are associated with reduced sleep quality and negative affect in pregnancy: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Shannon K; O'Buckley, Todd K; Schiller, Crystal E; Stuebe, Alison; Morrow, A Leslie; Girdler, Susan S

    2016-04-01

    Anxiety during pregnancy has been linked to adverse maternal health outcomes, including postpartum depression (PPD). However, there has been limited study of biological mechanisms underlying behavioral predictors of PPD during pregnancy. Considering the shared etiology of chronic stress amongst antenatal behavioral predictors, the primary goal of this pilot study was to examine associations among stress-related physiological factors (including GABA-ergic neurosteroids) and stress-related behavioral indices of anxiety during pregnancy. Fourteen nulliparous women in their second trimester of a singleton pregnancy underwent speech and mental arithmetic stress, following a 2-week subjective and objective recording of sleep-wake behavior. Lower cortisol, progesterone, and a combined measure of ALLO + pregnanolone throughout the entire stressor protocol (area under the curve, AUC) were associated with greater negative emotional responses to stress, and lower cortisol AUC was associated with worse sleep quality. Lower adrenocorticotropic hormone was associated with greater anxious and depressive symptoms. Stress produced paradoxical reductions in cortisol, progesterone, and a combined measure of allopregnanolone + pregnanolone, while tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone levels were elevated. These data suggest that cortisol, progesterone, and ALLO + pregnanolone levels in the second trimester of pregnancy are inversely related to negative emotional symptoms, and the negative impact of acute stress challenge appears to exert its effects by reducing these steroids to further promote negative emotional responses.

  15. Detection of endogenous cortisol in equine tears and blood at rest and after simulated stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Caroline S; Hart, Kelsey A; Berghaus, Roy D; Norton, Natalie A; Moore, Phillip A; Myrna, Kathern E

    2014-07-01

    To determine whether cortisol is present in equine tears at rest and during simulated stress and compare tear cortisol to serum free and total cortisol. Fourteen healthy adult horses were included. Paired tear total cortisol and serum total and free cortisol concentrations were measured with ELISA, chemiluminescent immunoassay, and ultrafiltration methodology, respectively, in 10 horses at rest once daily for five consecutive days. In an additional four horses, paired tear and serum samples were collected for cortisol measurement before and after adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation (cosyntropin, 1 μg/kg IV). Cortisol was detectable in equine tears at rest. Following ACTH stimulation, tear cortisol increased significantly from baseline at 60-120 min (P ≤ 0.001). Serum total and free cortisol also increased significantly at 30-180 min after ACTH stimulation (P ≤ 0.001). Both serum and tear cortisol returned to baseline concentrations by 360 min. Changes in tear cortisol were similarly associated with changes in serum total and free cortisol, although high tear cortisol concentrations suggest a portion of tear cortisol may be protein-bound. Cortisol is present in equine tears and increases in concert with serum cortisol following ACTH stimulation. Further study is needed to determine whether endogenous cortisol in tears contributes to ocular pathology. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  16. Relation between salivary amylase and cortisol respnses to different stress tasks: Impact of sex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Stegeren, A.H.; Wolf, O.T.; Kindt, M.

    2008-01-01

    Neuro-endocrine markers such as salivary alpha amylase (sAA) and cortisol (CORT) play an important role in establishing human responses to stressful events. Whereas sAA levels reflect sympathetic system activity, salivary cortisol appears to be a valid measure for HPA axis activity. Although many

  17. Acute psychosocial stress and everyday moral decision-making in young healthy men: The impact of cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Nina; Sommer, Monika; Döhnel, Katrin; Zänkert, Sandra; Wüst, Stefan; Kudielka, Brigitte M

    2017-07-01

    In everyday life, moral decisions must frequently be made under acute stress. Although there is increasing evidence that both stress and cortisol affect moral judgment and behavior as well as decision-making in various domains unrelated to morality, surprisingly few attempts have been made to explore the effects of stress on everyday moral decision-making. Therefore, in the present study, we exposed 50 young healthy men to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) or its non-stressful placebo version (PTSST). We investigated the impact of acute stress exposure and stress-related cortisol levels on decision-making, decision certainty, and emotions in 28 everyday moral conflict situations with altruistic versus egoistic response alternatives. Results showed that the TSST-exposed group made more altruistic decisions than the non-stress control group, while groups did not differ in decision certainty and emotion ratings. Moreover, in correlational as well as regression analyses, additionally controlling for confounding variables, we observed significant positive associations between cortisol levels and altruistic decision-making. Further analyses revealed that altruistic decisions came along with significantly higher decision certainty and significantly more positive emotion ratings than egoistic decisions. Notably, our data also raise the idea that the personality trait agreeableness plays an important role in everyday moral decision-making. In sum, our findings provide initial evidence that both acute stress exposure and cortisol levels have prosocial effects on everyday moral decision-making in young healthy men. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Perceived early-life maternal care and the cortisol response to repeated psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engert, Veronika; Efanov, Simona I; Dedovic, Katarina; Duchesne, Annie; Dagher, Alain; Pruessner, Jens C

    2010-11-01

    In the past decade, a body of animal and human research has revealed a profound influence of early-life experiences, ranging from variations in parenting behaviour to severe adversity, on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis regulation in adulthood. In our own previous studies, we have shown how variations in early-life parental care influence the development of the hippocampus and modify the cortisol awakening response. In the present study, we investigated the influence of early-life maternal care on cortisol, heart rate and subjective psychological responses to the repeated administration of a psychosocial laboratory stressor in a population of 63 healthy young adults. Low, medium and high early-life maternal care groups were identified using the Parental Bonding Instrument. Controlling for the effect of sex, we found an inverted u-shaped relation between increasing levels of maternal care and cortisol stress responsivity. Specifically, overall and stress-induced cortisol levels went from below normal in the low maternal care, to normal in the medium care, back to below normal in the high maternal care groups. We found no group differences with respect to heart rate and subjective psychological stress measures. Whereas low and high maternal care groups exhibited similarly low endocrine stress responses, their psychological profiles were opposed with increased levels of depression and anxiety and decreased self-esteem in the low care group. Sex was unequally distributed among maternal care groups, whereby the number of men with low maternal care was too small to allow introducing sex as a second between-group variable. We discuss the potential significance of this dissociation between endocrine and psychological parameters with respect to stress vulnerability and resistance for each maternal care group.

  19. Cortisol levels at baseline and under stress in adolescent males with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, with or without comorbid conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northover, Clare; Thapar, Anita; Langley, Kate; Fairchild, Graeme; van Goozen, Stephanie H M

    2016-08-30

    Reported findings on cortisol reactivity to stress in young people with ADHD are very variable. This inconsistency may be explained by high rates of comorbidity with Conduct Disorder (CD). The present study examined cortisol responses to a psychosocial stressor in a large sample of adolescent males with ADHD (n=202), with or without a comorbid diagnosis of Conduct Disorder (CD). Associations between stress reactivity and callous-unemotional traits and internalizing symptoms were also assessed. The ADHD only (n=95) and ADHD+CD (n=107) groups did not differ in baseline cortisol, but the ADHD+CD group showed significantly reduced cortisol stress reactivity relative to the ADHD only group. Regression analyses indicated that ADHD symptom severity predicted reduced baseline cortisol, whereas CD symptom severity predicted increased baseline cortisol (ADHD β=-0.24, CD β=0.16, R=0.26) and reduced cortisol stress reactivity (β=-0.17, R=0.17). Callous-unemotional traits and internalizing symptoms were not significantly related to baseline or stress-induced cortisol. Impaired cortisol reactivity is hypothesised to reflect fearlessness and is associated with deficient emotion regulation and inhibition of aggressive and antisocial behaviour. Consequently, it may partly explain the greater severity of problems seen in those with comorbid ADHD and CD. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Cortisol response and desire to binge following psychological stress: comparison between obese subjects with and without binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Noa; Bloch, Miki; Ben Avi, Irit; Rouach, Vanessa; Schreiber, Shaul; Stern, Naftali; Greenman, Yona

    2013-07-30

    While stress and negative affect are known to precede "emotional eating", this relationship is not fully understood. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between induced psychological stress, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, and eating behavior in binge eating disorder (BED). The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was applied in obese participants with (n=8) and without BED (n=8), and normal weight controls (n=8). Psychological characteristics, eating-related symptoms, and cortisol secretion were assessed. Baseline stress, anxiety and cortisol measures were similar in all groups. At baseline desire to binge was significantly higher among the BED group. While the TSST induced an increase in cortisol levels, a blunted cortisol response was observed in the BED group. In the BED group, a positive correlation was found between cortisol (area under the curve) levels during the TSST and the change in VAS scores for desire to binge. Post-TSST desire to binge and sweet craving were significantly higher in the BED group and correlated positively with stress, anxiety, and cortisol response in the BED group only. These results suggest chronic down-regulation of the HPA axis in participants with BED, and a relationship between psychological stress, the acute activation of the HPA axis, and food craving. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Child Maltreatment Trauma, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Cortisol Levels in Women: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Seng, Julia S

    Studies of the relationship between cortisol and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have had inconsistent results. Gender, trauma type, and age at trauma exposure may explain the inconsistencies. The objective of the review was to examine cortisol levels in relation to PTSD in women with a history of child maltreatment trauma. A review of literature found 13 articles eligible for inclusion. Despite limiting focus to the relatively homogeneous population, the patterns of associations between PTSD and cortisol levels were still inconsistent. The reasons for the inconsistencies likely include highly varied methods across studies, small convenience samples, and unmeasured neuroendocrine hormones that may be stronger predictors of PTSD. The review does not point to a clear bio-behavioral target for psychiatric nursing intervention. It is important to continue to address the developmental and clinical stress response aspects of child maltreatment trauma-related PTSD without assuming that these stress responses are hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis driven.

  2. Socioeconomic status in children is associated with hair cortisol levels as a biological measure of chronic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vliegenthart, J; Noppe, G; van Rossum, E F C; Koper, J W; Raat, H; van den Akker, E L T

    2016-03-01

    Low socioeconomic status (SES) may be associated with a high risk of lifestyle-related diseases such as cardiovascular diseases. There is a strong association between parental SES, stress and indicators of child health and adult health outcome. The exact mechanisms underlying this association have not yet been fully clarified. Low SES may be associated with chronic stress, which may lead to activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis, resulting in a higher circulating level of the stress hormone cortisol. Therefore, chronic stress may mediate the association between low SES and elevated cortisol levels and its adverse outcomes. We investigated whether SES was associated with a chronic measure of cortisol exposure in a child population. Cortisol and cortisone were measured in scalp hair in 270 children and adolescents, aged 4-18 years, enrolled through school visits. Neighborhood level SES was based on a score developed by the Netherlands Institute for Social Research using postal codes, and this includes neighborhood measures of income education and unemployment. Maternal and paternal education level were used as indicators of family SES. Neighborhood level socioeconomic status score was significantly associated with hair cortisol (β=-0.103, p=0.007, 95%CI [-0.179, -0.028]) and hair cortisone (β=-0.091, p=0.023, 95%CI [-0.167, -0.015]), adjusted for age and sex. Additionally, hair cortisol was significantly correlated with maternal education level and hair cortisone was significantly correlated with paternal education level. The results of our study suggest that the widely shown association between low family SES and adverse child health outcomes may be mediated by chronic stress, given the chronically higher levels of cortisol in children and adolescents in families with low SES. It is especially notable that the association between SES and cortisol was already found in children of young age as this can have major consequences, such as increased

  3. Effects of prolonged stress on salivary cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone: a study of a two-week teaching practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izawa, Shuhei; Saito, Keisuke; Shirotsuki, Kentaro; Sugaya, Nagisa; Nomura, Shinobu

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated variations in salivary levels of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in a prolonged stressful situation (a two-week teaching practice). Thirty-three women for whom a two-week teaching practice at a kindergarten was scheduled were asked to collect saliva samples at awakening, 30 min after awakening, and bedtime at four time points: two weeks before the practice, the first week of the practice, the second week of the practice, and a few days after the practice. In addition, they completed questionnaires for assessing perceived stress and subjective moods on each day. A linear mixed model indicated that cortisol levels significantly increased during the first and second week of the practice compared with those before and after the practice period, and that DHEA levels significantly decreased after the practice period compared with those at the other time points. Further, cortisol awakening response after the practice period significantly reduced compared with that at the other time points. Scores of perceived stress and negative moods were also higher during the practice period. This study showed that prolonged stress affected cortisol and DHEA secretion during as well as after the stress period. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Work family balance, stress, and salivary cortisol in men and women academic physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, B; Ahmad, F; Stewart, D E

    2008-01-01

    The stress of medical practice has been recurrently studied, but work- and family-related determinants of health by gender remain under researched. To test the hypothesis that cortisol excretion would be affected by the perceived severity of total workload imbalance. By hierarchical regression analysis, the associations between work-family balance and diurnal salivary cortisol levels by sex in academic physicians (n = 40) were investigated. Men physicians reported more paid work hours per week than women physicians and women more time in childcare, but their total working hours were similar. Controlling for sex and age, the mean of the diurnal cortisol release was associated with a combined effect of sex and responsibility at home. When morning cortisol, sex, and children at home were held constant, cortisol levels in the evening were associated with responsibility at home without significant gender interaction. With increasing responsibility at home, women and men reacted differently with regard to cortisol responses over the day. However, in the evening, controlling for the morning cortisol, these gender differences were not as obvious. These findings highlight traditional gender patterns among both women and men physicians in the challenge of finding a balance between work and family.

  5. Stress-induced cortisol facilitates threat-related decision making among police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinola, Modupe; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2012-02-01

    Previous research suggests that cortisol can affect cognitive functions such as memory, decision making, and attentiveness to threat-related cues. Here, we examine whether increases in cortisol, brought on by an acute social stressor, influence threat-related decision making. Eighty-one police officers completed a standardized laboratory stressor and then immediately completed a computer simulated decision-making task designed to examine decisions to accurately shoot or not shoot armed and unarmed Black and White targets. Results indicated that police officers who had larger cortisol increases to the social-stress task subsequently made fewer errors when deciding to shoot armed Black targets relative to armed White targets, suggesting that hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) activation may exacerbate vigilance for threat cues. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of threat-initiated decision making.

  6. Basal blood DHEA-S/cortisol levels predicts EMDR treatment response in adolescents with PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usta, Mirac Baris; Gumus, Yusuf Yasin; Say, Gokce Nur; Bozkurt, Abdullah; Şahin, Berkan; Karabekiroğlu, Koray

    2018-04-01

    In literature, recent evidence has shown that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis can be dysregulated in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and HPA axis hormones may predict the psychotherapy treatment response in patients with PTSD. In this study, it was aimed to investigate changing cortisol and DHEA-S levels post-eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy and the relationship between treatment response and basal cortisol, and DHEA-S levels before treatment. The study group comprised 40 adolescents (age, 12-18 years) with PTSD. The PTSD symptoms were assessed using the Child Depression Inventory (CDI) and Child Post-traumatic Stress Reaction Index (CPSRI) and the blood cortisol and DHEA-S were measured with the chemiluminescence method before and after treatment. A maximum of six sessions of EMDR therapy were conducted by an EMDR level-1 trained child psychiatry resident. Treatment response was measured by the pre- to post-treatment decrease in self-reported and clinical PTSD severity. Pre- and post-treatment DHEA-S and cortisol levels did not show any statistically significant difference. Pre-treatment CDI scores were negatively correlated with pre-treatment DHEA-S levels (r: -0.39). ROC analysis demonstrated that the DHEA-S/cortisol ratio predicts treatment response at a medium level (AUC: 0.703, p: .030, sensitivity: 0.65, specificity: 0.86). The results of this study suggested that the DHEA-S/cortisol ratio may predict treatment response in adolescents with PTSD receiving EMDR therapy. The biochemical parameter of HPA-axis activity appears to be an important predictor of positive clinical response in adolescent PTSD patients, and could be used in clinical practice to predict PTSD treatment in the future.

  7. Salivary cortisol: a possible biomarker in evaluating stress and effects of interventions in young foster children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Andel, Hans W H; Jansen, Lucres M C; Grietens, Hans; Knorth, Erik J; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan

    2014-01-01

    Young foster children undergo an early separation from their caregiver(s) and often experience severe stress before placement. However, a considerable part of the children do not show apparent signs of distress, making it difficult for the foster carer to be aware of the amount of stress in their foster child. Potential evidence for using salivary cortisol levels as a dimension to evaluate the amount of stress in young foster children is reviewed. Moreover, the applicability of salivary cortisol in the evaluation of stress-reducing interventions for young foster children is discussed. A systematic review was performed using the databases Medline, Psychinfo, Embase, Ebscohost, and Academic Search Premier. Nine studies were traced in which salivary cortisol was used to measure stress in children placed in family foster care or in adoptive families. Stress in general but also neglect, early loss of a caregiver, a younger age at first placement, and a higher number of placements were associated with an altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function in foster children. Moreover, four studies on the effect of stress-reducing interventions on HPA-axis functioning of young foster children were found. These studies suggest that caregiver-based interventions can actually help to normalize the HPA-axis function in foster children, and that such changes co-occur with improved behavioral functioning. Although the results from the papers discussed in this review suggest that diurnal cortisol with a wake up and a bedtime measurement may be a relevant tool to evaluate stress in young foster children, this cannot yet be concluded from the present studies, because statistical data from the studies on foster care and adoption in this review were not robust and researchers used different methods to collect the salivary cortisol. Still, it is noteworthy that all studies did find the same pattern of reduced levels in relation to chronic stress (caused by maltreatment and

  8. Burnout and hypocortisolism – a matter of severity? A study on ACTH and cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Karin eLennartsson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Common consequences of long-term psychosocial stress are fatigue and burnout. It has been suggested that burnout could be associated with hypocortisolism, thus, inability to produce sufficient amounts of cortisol. This study aimed to investigate whether patients with clinical burnout exhibit aberrant ACTH and cortisol responses under acute psychosocial stress compared with healthy individuals. Methods: Nineteen patients (9 men and 10 women and 37 healthy subjects (20 men and 17 women, underwent the Trier Social Stress Test. Blood samples and saliva samples were collected before, after and during the stress test for measurements of plasma ACTH, serum cortisol and salivary cortisol. Several statistical analyses were conducted to compare the responses between patients and controls. In addition, in order to investigate the possibility that burnout patients with more severe symptoms would respond differently, sub-groups of patients reporting higher and lower burnout scores were compared. Results: In both patients and healthy controls, we observed elevated levels of ACTH and cortisol after exposure to the stressor. There were no differences in responses of ACTH, serum cortisol or salivary cortisol between patients and controls. Patients reporting higher burnout scores had lower salivary cortisol responses than controls, indicating that patients with more severe burnout symptoms may be suffering from hypocortisolism. In addition patients with more severe burnout symptoms tended to have smaller ACTH responses than the other patients. There was no corresponding difference in serum cortisol however. Conclusion: This study indicates that hypocortisolism is not present in a clinical burnout patient group as a whole but may be present in the patients with more severe burnout symptoms.

  9. Influences of the Menstrual Phase on Cortisol Response to Stress in Nicotine Dependent Women: A Preliminary Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Motohiro; Allen, Sharon; al'Absi, Mustafa

    2018-04-10

    Evidence indicates that menstrual cycle phase plays a role in smoking withdrawal symptoms and craving. Stress increases these symptoms. Whether the stress regulatory mechanism is associated with menstrual phase and withdrawal symptoms is not well understood. Thirty-seven female smokers and 16 female nonsmokers were asked to complete a laboratory session. In each group, approximately half of the participants were tested when they were in the follicular phase and the other half was tested in the luteal phase. The session included resting baseline, stress, and recovery periods. Saliva samples for the measurement of cortisol and subjective measures of craving and withdrawal symptoms were collected at the end of each period. A series of repeated measures ANCOVAs found a significant smoking group x menstrual phase x sampling time interaction in cortisol levels (p < .05). Follow-up analyses indicated a reduced cortisol stress response in the luteal group relative to the follicular group in smokers (p < .02). This difference was not found in nonsmokers. Menstrual cycle phase is related to hormonal stress response and smoking withdrawal symptomatology. We show influences of the menstrual cycle phase on stress response among smokers. This is demonstrated by a reduced cortisol response to stress in the luteal group relative to the follicular group among smokers. This menstrual phase difference was not found in nonsmokers.

  10. Associations among daily stressors and salivary cortisol: findings from the National Study of Daily Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawski, Robert S; Cichy, Kelly E; Piazza, Jennifer R; Almeida, David M

    2013-11-01

    While much research has focused on linking stressful experiences to emotional and biological reactions in laboratory settings, there is an emerging interest in extending these examinations to field studies of daily life. The current study examined day-to-day associations among naturally occurring daily stressors and salivary cortisol in a national sample of adults from the second wave of the National Study of Daily Experiences (NSDE). A sample of 1694 adults (age=57, range=33-84; 44% male) completed telephone interviews detailing their stressors and emotions on eight consecutive evenings. Participants also provided saliva samples upon waking, 30min post-waking, before lunch and before bed, on four consecutive interview days resulting in 5995 days of interview/cortisol data. Analyses revealed three main findings. First, cortisol AUC was significantly higher on stressor days compared to stressor-free days, particularly for arguments and overloads at home, suggesting that daily stressors are associated with increased cortisol output, but that not all daily stressors have such an influence. Second, individuals reporting a greater frequency of stressor days also exhibited a steeper diurnal cortisol slope. Finally, daily stressor-cortisol associations were unaltered after adjustment for daily negative affect and physical symptoms. Our discussion focuses on the influence of naturally occurring daily stressors on daily cortisol and the role of daily diary approaches for studying healthy cortisol responses to psychosocial stressors outside of traditional laboratory settings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Associations among Daily Stressors and Salivary Cortisol: Findings from the National Study of Daily Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawski, Robert S.; Cichy, Kelly E.; Piazza, Jennifer R.; Almeida, David M.

    2013-01-01

    While much research has focused on linking stressful experiences to emotional and biological reactions in laboratory settings, there is an emerging interest in extending these examinations to field studies of daily life. The current study examined day-to-day associations among naturally-occurring daily stressors and salivary cortisol in a national sample of adults from the second wave of the National Study of Daily Experiences (NSDE). A sample of 1,694 adults (Age=57, Range=33–84; 44% male) completed telephone interviews detailing their stressors and emotions on eight consecutive evenings. Participants also provided saliva samples upon waking, 30 minutes post-waking, before lunch and before bed, on four consecutive interview days resulting in 5,995 days of interview/cortisol data. Analyses revealed three main findings. First, cortisol AUC was significantly higher on stressor days compared to stressor-free days, particularly for arguments and overloads at home, suggesting that daily stressors are associated with increased cortisol output, but that not all daily stressors have such an influence. Second, individuals reporting a greater frequency of stressor days also exhibited a steeper diurnal cortisol slope. Finally, daily stressor-cortisol associations were unaltered after adjustment for daily negative affect and physical symptoms. Our discussion focuses on the influence of naturally-occurring daily stressors on daily cortisol and the role of daily diary approaches for studying healthy cortisol responses to psychosocial stressors outside of traditional laboratory settings. PMID:23856186

  12. Physical activity, job demand-control, perceived stress-energy, and salivary cortisol in white-collar workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Blangsted, Anne Katrine; Hansen, Ernst Albin

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to examine the association between physical activity and perceived job demand, job control, perceived stress and energy, and physiological arousal reflected by morning and evening concentrations of cortisol in saliva among white-collar workers.......The aim of the present study is to examine the association between physical activity and perceived job demand, job control, perceived stress and energy, and physiological arousal reflected by morning and evening concentrations of cortisol in saliva among white-collar workers....

  13. A matter of perception: Perceived socio-economic status and cortisol on the island of Utila, Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Angela R; Gurven, Michael; Blackwell, Aaron D

    2017-09-10

    Numerous studies link low objective and subjective socioeconomic status (SES) to chronic activation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis. Here, we examine associations between objective and subjective SES and diurnal salivary cortisol, a primary HPA component, as well as demographic and ecological predictors associated with SES perceptions and changes in diurnal cortisol. Participants were residents (age 18-79, n = 61) of Utila, a Honduran island where economic disparities are overt and geographically contained. Objective SES was measured as a composite of income, education, and occupation. Subjective SES was measured with a MacArthur ladder and a perceived lifestyle discrepancy (PLD) scale. Salivary cortisol was collected three times per day for two days. Questions addressing demographic, social, and household characteristics were assessed as predictors of PLD. Assessed independently, objective SES (P = .06) and PLD (P = .003) were associated with the steepness of diurnal cortisol changes, while PLD was also associated with higher cortisol area under the curve (AUC) (P = .036). Modeled together, only PLD predicted diurnal slope and AUC. PLD was associated with household sanitation, immigration status, food scarcity, objective SES, and owing money. Only access to sanitation and owing money had direct associations with cortisol that were not mediated by PLD. For adults on Utila, perceptions of unmet need outweigh other social and economic status factors in predicting cortisol AUC and slope. In addition, the unmediated effects of access to sanitation and owing money on cortisol suggest that these distinct aspects of inequality are important to consider when seeking to understand how inequality can impact HPA function. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Communication and social interaction anxiety enhance interleukin-1 beta and cortisol reactivity during high-stakes public speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Brandon J; Calvi, Jessica L; Jordan, Nicolas M; Schrader, David; Byrd-Craven, Jennifer

    2018-08-01

    Worry or fear related to speaking in front of others, or more broadly, communicating and interacting with others, is common. At elevated levels, however, it may contribute to heightened stress reactivity during acute speaking challenges. The purpose of this study was to examine multi-system physiological stress reactivity in the context of high-stakes public speaking while considering the impact of hypothesized individual difference risk factors. University student participants (n = 95) delivering speeches as a heavily-weighted component of their final grade had saliva samples collected immediately prior to speaking, immediately after, and 20 min after speech completion. Saliva samples were assayed for alpha amylase (sAA), cortisol, and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β). Self-reported communication anxiety, social interaction anxiety, rejection sensitivity, and sex were assessed as risk factors for heightened stress reactivity. Salivary sAA, cortisol, and IL-1β significantly changed following speech delivery. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that elevated levels of self-reported communication anxiety and social interaction anxiety were independently associated with increased cortisol and IL-1β responses and combined to enhance HPA axis and inflammatory cytokine activity further (i.e., cortisol and IL-1β AUC I ). Sex and rejection sensitivity were unrelated to physiological stress reactivity. These findings suggest that individuals with elevated communication and interaction fears may be at increased risk of heightened neuroendocrine and inflammatory responses following exposure to acute social stressors. Both types of anxiety may combine to increase physiological reactivity further, with unknown, though likely insalubrious, health consequences over time. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Short-term and long-term effects of transient exogenous cortisol manipulation on oxidative stress in juvenile brown trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnie-Gauvin, Kim; Peiman, Kathryn S; Larsen, Martin H; Aarestrup, Kim; Willmore, William G; Cooke, Steven J

    2017-05-01

    In the wild, animals are exposed to a growing number of stressors with increasing frequency and intensity, as a result of human activities and human-induced environmental change. To fully understand how wild organisms are affected by stressors, it is crucial to understand the physiology that underlies an organism's response to a stressor. Prolonged levels of elevated glucocorticoids are associated with a state of chronic stress and decreased fitness. Exogenous glucocorticoid manipulation reduces an individual's ability to forage, avoid predators and grow, thereby limiting the resources available for physiological functions like defence against oxidative stress. Using brown trout ( Salmo trutta ), we evaluated the short-term (2 weeks) and long-term (4 months over winter) effects of exogenous cortisol manipulations (versus relevant shams and controls) on the oxidative status of wild juveniles. Cortisol caused an increase in glutathione over a 2 week period and appeared to reduce glutathione over winter. Cortisol treatment did not affect oxidative stress levels or low molecular weight antioxidants. Cortisol caused a significant decrease in growth rates but did not affect predation risk. Over-winter survival in the stream was associated with low levels of oxidative stress and glutathione. Thus, oxidative stress may be a mechanism by which elevated cortisol causes negative physiological effects. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Plasma cortisol stress response in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus influences susceptibility to Edwardeseilla ictaluri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortisol is a primary stress hormone in fish as its plasma variations correlate with the occurrence of various stressful situations. Past studies have demonstrated that fish subjected to handling stress or poor water quality had a reduced ability to resist pathogens. Channel catfish fingerlings th...

  17. The anticipatory stress response to sport competition; a systematic review with meta-analysis of cortisol reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Paridon, Kjell N; Timmis, Matthew A; Nevison, Charlotte M; Bristow, Matt

    2017-01-01

    Athletes anticipating sport competition regularly experience distinct emotional and physiological responses as a result of the expected psychosocial and physical stress. Specifically, cortisol, an indicator of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation, prepares the athlete for the psychological and physiological demands of competition. The objective of this meta-analysis is to analyse the magnitude of the anticipatory cortisol response in athletes preparing to participate in sport competition and to examine the influence of gender, level of competition and data collection time. Systematic review with meta-analysis. Four electronic databases were searched to March 2017: PubMed, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus and Scopus. (1) Athletes participating in real sport competition;(2) salivary cortisol concentration collected before competition in addition to baseline sample(s);(3) original research article published in English language. Data from 25 studies provided 27 effect sizes. A significant anticipatory cortisol response of g=0.85, pstress response. There were no significant differences between level of competition, type of sport or time of competition. Meta-regression indicated that the anticipatory cortisol response is greater when assessed closer to the start of competition (Q=6.85, p=0.009). The anticipatory cortisol response before sport competition reflects moderate cortisol reactivity that prepares athletes optimally for the demands of sport competition via the influence on cognitive processes and attentional control. However, both female athletes and international competitors did not demonstrate a significant anticipatory cortisol response, possibly due to differences in appraisal of the stress of sport competition.

  18. Assessment of the changes in the stress-related salivary cortisol levels to the various dental procedures in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmila J Patil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fear and pain are the factors producing stress and there is evidence that dental fear acquired in childhood may persist to influence adult behavior. Dental treatment is often considered as anxiety producing and stressful. Aim: To assess the levels of stress displayed by the healthy children undergoing routine dental procedures like oral examination, restoration, and extraction by analyzing salivary levels of cortisol before, during, and after the procedures. Materials and Methods: Twenty healthy children aged between 4 and 8 years having their first dental visit and requiring at least one restoration and one extraction were selected. In each patient, three procedures were carried out: (i Routine dental examination, (ii restoration, and (iii extraction. Unstimulated salivary samples were collected 10 min before, during the procedure, and 30 min after each procedure at three different visits for comparison of cortisol production in response to anxiety and stress over time. Total 180 samples were collected to determine salivary cortisol levels using UBI-MAGIWEL TM kit and the readings were noted. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS software with paired t-test, two independent sample t-tests, and analysis of variance (ANOVA were used to analyze the findings. Results: A correlation between salivary cortisol and stress in dental procedure was noticed. Cavity preparation is more stressful procedure in children, so alternative methods can be used in anxious children. Stress associated with extraction persists to a postoperative period. No correlation exists in between Corah′s anxiety scale and salivary cortisol.

  19. StressPhone: smartphone based platform for measurement of cortisol for stress detection (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Aadhar; Rey, Elizabeth; Lee, Seoho; O'Dell, Dakota; Erickson, David

    2016-03-01

    Anxiety disorders are estimated to be the most common mental illness in US affecting around 40 million people and related job stress is estimated to cost US industry up to $300 billion due to lower productivity and absenteeism. A personal diagnostic device which could help identify stressed individuals would therefore be a huge boost for workforce productivity. We are therefore developing a point of care diagnostic device that can be integrated with smartphones or tablets for the measurement of cortisol - a stress related salivary biomarker, which is known to be strongly involved in body's fight-or-flight response to a stressor (physical or mental). The device is based around a competitive lateral flow assay whose results can then be read and quantified through an accessory compatible with the smartphone. In this presentation, we report the development and results of such an assay and the integrated device. We then present the results of a study relating the diurnal patterns of cortisol levels and the alertness of an individual based on the circadian rhythm and sleep patterns of the individual. We hope to use the insight provided by combining the information provided by levels of stress related to chemical biomarkers of the individual with the physical biomarkers to lead to a better informed and optimized activity schedule for maximized work output.

  20. Green exercise as a workplace intervention to reduce job stress. Results from a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calogiuri, Giovanna; Evensen, Katinka; Weydahl, Andi; Andersson, Kim; Patil, Grete; Ihlebæk, Camilla; Raanaas, Ruth K

    2015-01-01

    Stress and mental fatigue are major health threats to employees in office-based occupations. Physical activity is widely used as a stress-management intervention for employees. Moreover, experiences in contact with nature have been shown to provide stress-reduction and restoration from mental fatigue. In a pilot study designed as a randomized controlled trial we investigated the impact of a green-exercise intervention on psychological and physiological indicators of stress in municipality employees. Fourteen employees (7 females and 7 males, 49±8 yrs) volunteered in an exercise-based intervention in workplace either outdoors in a green/nature area or in an indoor exercise-setting. The intervention consisted of an information meeting and two exercise sessions, each including a biking bout and a circuit-strength sequence using elastic rubber bands (45-minutes, at about 55% of HR reserve, overall). Main outcomes were perceived environmental potential for restoration, affective state, blood pressure (BP) and cortisol awakening response (CAR AUC(G) and CAR AUC(I)) and cortisol levels in serum. Measurements were taken at baseline and in concomitance with the exercise sessions. Furthermore, affective state and self-reported physical activity levels were measured over a 10-weeks follow-up period. Compared with the indoor group, the nature group reported higher environmental potential for restoration (p <  0.001) and Positive Affect (p <  0.01), along with improved CAR AUC(I) (p = 0.04) and, marginally, diastolic BP (p = 0.05). The nature group also reported higher ratings of Positive Affect at follow-up (p = 0.02). Differences at post-exercise were not found for any of the other components of affective state, systolic BP, CAR AUC(G) and cortisol levels measured in serum. Green-exercise at the workplace could be a profitable way to manage stress and induce restoration among employees. Further studies on larger samples are needed in order to improve the

  1. Anger, anxiety, and depressive affect as predictors of stress-induced cortisol production in khat and tobacco users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Andrine M; Nakajima, Motohiro; Saif-Ali, Riyadh; Al-Habori, Molham; Dokam, Anisa; al'Absi, Mustafa

    2018-07-01

    Glucocorticoid activity is disrupted in substance users including khat chewers who also use tobacco. Anger, dysphoria, and anxiety can mediate this relationship. The aim of this study was to contrast emotion dysregulation and substance use variables as predictors of post-stress cortisol output. Comparable numbers of males (n = 90) and females (n = 85) including controls, khat only, and concurrent khat and tobacco users participated in a stress study. Depressive affect, anxiety, anger, substance use patterns, and saliva samples were collected following a standardized laboratory stress manipulation. Regression analysis showed that high depression and low anxiety was associated with high post-stress cortisol, but only in co-users of tobacco and khat. Males, but not females, showed a significant association between co-use of khat and tobacco and cortisol, which appears to be mediated by frequency of use. The link between anxiety and post-stress cortisol in the co-users remained significant after controlling for nicotine dependence and substance use frequency. Anxiety predicted the neuroendocrine consequences of concurrent use of tobacco and khat above and beyond sex, nicotine dependence, anger, and substance use frequency. Sex differences, however, are related to differences in nicotine dependence. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. The biologic effects of grounding the human body during sleep as measured by cortisol levels and subjective reporting of sleep, pain, and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaly, Maurice; Teplitz, Dale

    2004-10-01

    Diurnal cortisol secretion levels were measured and circadian cortisol profiles were evaluated in a pilot study conducted to test the hypothesis that grounding the human body to earth during sleep will result in quantifiable changes in cortisol. It was also hypothesized that grounding the human body would result in changes in sleep, pain, and stress (anxiety, depression, irritability), as measured by subjective reporting. Twelve (12) subjects with complaints of sleep dysfunction, pain, and stress were grounded to earth during sleep for 8 weeks in their own beds using a conductive mattress pad. Saliva tests were administered to establish pregrounding baseline cortisol levels. Levels were obtained at 4-hour intervals for a 24-hour period to determine the circadian cortisol profile. Cortisol testing was repeated at week 6. Subjective symptoms of sleep dysfunction, pain, and stress were reported daily throughout the 8-week test period. Measurable improvements in diurnal cortisol profiles were observed, with cortisol levels significantly reduced during night-time sleep. Subjects' 24-hour circadian cortisol profiles showed a trend toward normalization. Subjectively reported symptoms, including sleep dysfunction, pain, and stress, were reduced or eliminated in nearly all subjects. Results indicate that grounding the human body to earth ("earthing") during sleep reduces night-time levels of cortisol and resynchronizes cortisol hormone secretion more in alignment with the natural 24-hour circadian rhythm profile. Changes were most apparent in females. Furthermore, subjective reporting indicates that grounding the human body to earth during sleep improves sleep and reduces pain and stress.

  3. Hair cortisol levels as a retrospective marker of hypothalamic-pituitary axis activity throughout pregnancy: Comparison to salivary cortisol

    OpenAIRE

    D’Anna-Hernandez, Kimberly L.; Ross, Randal G.; Natvig, Crystal L.; Laudenslager, Mark L.

    2011-01-01

    Maternal stress during pregnancy is associated with negative maternal/child outcomes. One potential biomarker of the maternal stress response is cortisol, a product of activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. This study evaluated cortisol levels in hair throughout pregnancy as a marker of total cortisol release. Cortisol levels in hair have been shown to be easily quantifiable and may be representative of total cortisol release more than single saliva or serum measures. Hair corti...

  4. Psychosocial factors associated with indices of cortisol production in women with breast cancer and controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vedhara, K.; Tuinstra, J.; Miles, J.N.V.; Sanderman, R.; Ranchor, A.V.

    The present study was designed to (i) explore which psychosocial factors were associated with indices representing the early morning peak, diurnal cortisol rhythm and area under the curve (AUC); (ii) examine whether the relationships between psychosocial functioning and these cortisol indices were

  5. Links between white matter microstructure and cortisol reactivity to stress in early childhood: Evidence for moderation by parenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroon I. Sheikh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Activity of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (measured via cortisol reactivity may be a biological marker of risk for depression and anxiety, possibly even early in development. However, the structural neural correlates of early cortisol reactivity are not well known, although these would potentially inform broader models of mechanisms of risk, especially if the early environment further shapes these relationships. Therefore, we examined links between white matter architecture and young girls' cortisol reactivity and whether early caregiving moderated these links. We recruited 45 6-year-old girls based on whether they had previously shown high or low cortisol reactivity to a stress task at age 3. White matter integrity was assessed by calculating fractional anisotropy (FA of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans. Parenting styles were measured via a standardized parent–child interaction task. Significant associations were found between FA in white matter regions adjacent to the left thalamus, the right anterior cingulate cortex, and the right superior frontal gyrus (all ps < .001. Further, positive early caregiving moderated the effect of high cortisol reactivity on white matter FA (all ps ≤ .05, with high stress reactive girls who received greater parent positive affect showing white matter structure more similar to that of low stress reactive girls. Results show associations between white matter integrity of various limbic regions of the brain and early cortisol reactivity to stress and provide preliminary support for the notion that parenting may moderate associations.

  6. Stress level in wild harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) during satellite tagging measured by respiration, heart rate and cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskesen, Ida Grønborg; Teilmann, J.; Geertsen, B. M.

    2009-01-01

    During satellite tagging of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena), heart rate, respiration rate and cortisol value were measured to evaluate stress effects during handling and tagging. Respiration rates were obtained using video recordings, heart rates were recorded and serum cortisol levels were...... between cortisol and month of year, sex and body length. As high individual variations occurred in response to tagging of harbour porpoises, it is not possible to give general advice based oil the factors investigated, on how to reduce stress during handling. However, pouring water over the animal...

  7. Preliminary evidence that exercise dependence is associated with blunted cardiac and cortisol reactions to acute psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Jennifer L J; Ginty, Annie T; Carroll, Douglas; Phillips, Anna C

    2011-02-01

    Low or blunted cardiovascular and cortisol reactions to acute psychological stress have been shown to characterise those with a tobacco or alcohol dependency. The present study tested the hypothesis that exercise dependency would be similarly associated with blunted reactivity. Young female exercisers (N=219) were screened by questionnaire for exercise dependence. Ten women with probable exercise dependence and 10 non dependent controls were selected for laboratory stress testing. Cardiovascular activity and salivary cortisol were measured at rest and in response to a 10-min mental arithmetic stress task. The exercise dependent women showed blunted cardiac reactions to the stress task and blunted cortisol at 10, 20, and 30 minute post stress exposure. These effects could not be accounted for in terms of group differences in stress task performance, nor could the cardiac effects be attributed to group differences in cardio-respiratory fitness. It would seem that low stress reactivity is characteristic of a wide range of dependencies, and is not confined to substance dependence. Our results offer further support for the hypothesis that blunted stress reactivity may be a peripheral marker of a central motivational dysregulation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of association between psychological stress and serum cortisol levels in patients with chronic periodontitis - Estimation of relationship between psychological stress and periodontal status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshni Jaiswal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stress classically describes a destructive notion that can have a bearing on one's physical and mental health. It may also add to an increased propensity to periodontal disease. Aim: To investigate the association between psychological stress and serum cortisol levels in patients with chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: Forty subjects were recruited from the outpatient department at the Department of Periodontics, from a college in Mangalore, divided into two groups, i.e., twenty as healthy controls and twenty were stressed subjects with chronic periodontitis. The clinical examination included the assessment of probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level and oral hygiene index-simplified. Serum cortisol levels were estimated biochemically using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method and the estimation of psychological stress was done by a questionnaire. Results: Descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation was used to review the collected data. Independent sample t-test was used for comparison and correlation was evaluation using Pearson's correlation test. As per our observation, high serum cortisol levels and psychological stress are positively linked with chronic periodontitis establishing a risk profile showing a significant correlation (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Routine serum cortisol assessment may be a reasonable and a valuable investigative indicator to rule out stress in periodontitis patients as it should be considered as an imperative risk factor for periodontal disease.

  9. Heritability of cortisol response to confinement stress in European sea bass dicentrarchus labrax

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volckaert, F.A.M.; Hellemans, B.; Batargias, C.; Louro, B.; Massault, C.; Houdt, Van J.K.J.; Haley, C.; Koning, de D.J.; Canario, A.V.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In fish, the most studied production traits in terms of heritability are body weight or growth, stress or disease resistance, while heritability of cortisol levels, widely used as a measure of response to stress, is less studied. In this study, we have estimated heritabilities of two

  10. Lower stress-reactive cortisol in female veterans associated with military status but not PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Meghan E; Pritchard, Laurel M

    2016-09-01

    Female veterans are a growing yet understudied population. Currently, 14.6% of all troops deployed to Afghanistan and Iraq are female. Military service is associated with an increased risk for trauma exposure and subsequent development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is frequently associated with PTSD. Few studies have examined females diagnosed with PTSD and only one study, to our knowledge, has examined HPA-axis dysregulation in female veterans. This study examined salivary cortisol in 52 female veterans and civilians both with and without PTSD. We collected saliva samples at bedtime and awakening, as well as in response to the Trier social stress test (TSST). We found that female veterans had blunted cortisol concentrations at all time points during the TSST compared to female civilians, regardless of PTSD status. Even though all groups showed the expected diurnal decline in cortisol, the difference between awakening and bedtime samples were significant only in civilians without PTSD. The results of our study suggest that stressors specific to the military may lead to lower than normal cortisol, which may not be associated with the expressions of PTSD.

  11. Cardiorespiratory fitness does not alter plasma pentraxin 3 and cortisol reactivity to acute psychological stress and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Jung; Webb, Heather E; Beasley, Kathleen N; McAlpine, David A; Tangsilsat, Supatchara E; Acevedo, Edmund O

    2014-03-01

    Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) has been recently identified as a biomarker of vascular inflammation in predicting cardiovascular events. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of cardiorespiratory fitness on plasma PTX3 and cortisol responses to stress, utilizing a dual-stress model. Fourteen male subjects were classified into high-fit (HF) and low-fit (LF) groups and completed 2 counterbalanced experimental conditions. The exercise-alone condition (EAC) consisted of cycling at 60% maximal oxygen uptake for 37 min, while the dual-stress condition (DSC) included 20 min of a mental stress while cycling for 37 min. Plasma PTX3 revealed significant increases over time with a significant elevation at 37 min in both HF and LF groups in response to EAC and DSC. No difference in plasma PTX3 levels was observed between EAC and DSC. In addition, plasma cortisol revealed a significant condition by time interaction with greater levels during DSC at 37 min, whereas cardiorespiratory fitness level did not reveal different plasma cortisol responses in either the EAC or DSC. Aerobic exercise induces plasma PTX3 release, while additional acute mental stress, in a dual-stress condition, does not exacerbate or further modulate the PTX3 response. Furthermore, cardiorespiratory fitness may not affect the stress reactivity of plasma PTX3 to physical and combined physical and psychological stressors. Finally, the exacerbated cortisol responses to combined stress may provide the potential link to biological pathways that explain changes in physiological homeostasis that may be associated with an increase in the risk of cardiovascular disease.

  12. Effects of cortisol and lipopolysaccharide on expression of select growth-, stress- and immune-related genes in rainbow trout liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many studies have shown that stress-induced cortisol levels negatively influence growth and immunity in finfish. Despite this knowledge, few studies have assessed the direct effects of cortisol on liver immune function in finfish. Using real-time PCR, the expression of three cortisol-responsive ge...

  13. Links between early baseline cortisol, attachment classification, and problem behaviors: A test of differential susceptibility versus diathesis-stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Michelle C; Measelle, Jeffrey; Conradt, Elisabeth; Ablow, Jennifer C

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of the current study was to predict concurrent levels of problem behaviors from young children's baseline cortisol and attachment classification, a proxy for the quality of caregiving experienced. In a sample of 58 children living at or below the federal poverty threshold, children's baseline cortisol levels, attachment classification, and problem behaviors were assessed at 17 months of age. We hypothesized that an interaction between baseline cortisol and attachment classification would predict problem behaviors above and beyond any main effects of baseline cortisol and attachment. However, based on limited prior research, we did not predict whether or not this interaction would be more consistent with diathesis-stress or differential susceptibility models. Consistent with diathesis-stress theory, the results indicated no significant differences in problem behavior levels among children with high baseline cortisol. In contrast, children with low baseline cortisol had the highest level of problem behaviors in the context of a disorganized attachment relationship. However, in the context of a secure attachment relationship, children with low baseline cortisol looked no different, with respect to problem behavior levels, then children with high cortisol levels. These findings have substantive implications for the socioemotional development of children reared in poverty. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Effects of Multivitamin Supplementation on Diurnal Cortisol Secretion and Perceived Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Con Stough

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that dietary intake of vitamins, in particular the B-vitamins including B6, B9 and B12 may have a number of positive effects on mood and stress. Given the effects of stress on a range of biological mechanisms including the endocrine system, it could be reasonably expected that multivitamin supplementation may also affect markers of these mechanisms such as diurnal cortisol secretion. In the current double-blind placebo-controlled study 138 adults (aged 20 to 50 years were administered a multivitamin containing B-vitamins versus placebo over a 16-week period. Salivary cortisol measurements were taken at waking, 15-min, 30-min and at bedtime, at baseline, 8-weeks and 16-weeks. Perceived Stress (PSS was measured at baseline, 8-weeks and 16-weeks, while blood serum measures of B6, B12 and homocysteine (HCy as well as red cell folate (B9 were also collected at these time points. A significant interaction was found between treatment group and study visit for the Cortisol Awakening Response (CAR. Compared to placebo, at 16-weeks multivitamin supplementation was found to be associated with a near-significant trend towards an increased CAR. No significant differences in PSS were found between groups, with PSS increasing in both groups across the course of the study. Red cell folate was found to be significantly correlated with the CAR response at 16-weeks while HCy levels were not found to be associated with the CAR response, although HCy significantly correlated with waking cortisol levels at 8-weeks. A possible interpretation of the elevation in CAR associated with multivitamin supplementation is that this represents an adaptive response to everyday demands in healthy participants.

  15. Comparing Dental Stress in New Child Patients and Returning Patients Using Salivary Cortisol, Immunoglobulin-A and Alpha- Amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaki, Sumer M; Safi, Ayman; Ouda, Soliman; Nadhreen, Alaa

    this study was aimed at comparing dental stress in children having their first dental visit to those returning for dental treatment using salivary biomarkers of stress including salivary cortisol (s-cortisol), Immunoglobulin-A (s-IgA) and alpha-amylase (s-α-amylase). Additionally, the study was aimed at monitoring the change in stress in new patients as they progressed from the waiting to the clinical areas. salivary samples were collected from 40 children who had not been to a dentist before and similar samples were collected from 40 children who were returning for completion of dental treatment. Salivary cortisol, s-IgA and s-α-amylase concentrations were obtained by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). salivary cortisol levels were higher for new patients at the waiting area compared to that at the dental chair (p=0.05). Salivary alpha-amylase significantly increased in new patients while being seated in the dental chair. Returning patients had higher s-α-amylase (p=0.001) and s-IgA (p=0.016) compared to new patients. Returning patients had the lowest level of s-cortisol when providers were faculty pediatric dentists than with students and interns (p=0.035). children coming in for their first dental visit may experience dental stress at the waiting area before being seated for dental examination. Returning children may experience higher levels of stress compared to new child patients possibly due to previous dental exposure.

  16. Memory function after stress : the effects of acute stress and cortisol on memory and the inhibition of emotional distraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oei, Nicole Yü Lan

    2010-01-01

    The present thesis contains five experimental studies into the effects of stress on memory I healthy males. Hydrocortisone (and propranolol) administration or the induction of social stress are used to heighten cortisol levels, and consequently to study its effects on working memory performance and

  17. Cortisol responses to chronic stress in adult macaques: moderation by a polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Dongdong; Rizak, Joshua; Feng, Xiaoli; Yang, Shangchuan; Yang, Lichuan; Fan, Xiaona; Lü, Longbao; Chen, Lin; Hu, Xintian

    2015-02-01

    Accumulating evidence has shown that a polymorphism in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) moderates the association between stress and depressive symptoms. However, the exact etiologies underlying this moderation are not well understood. Here it is reported that among adult female rhesus macaques, an orthologous polymorphism (rh5-HTTLPR) exerted an influence on cortisol responses to chronic stress. It was found that females with two copies of the short allele were associated with increased cortisol responses to chronic stress in comparison to their counterparts who have one or two copies of the long allele. In the absence of stress, no differences related to genotype were observed in these females. This genetic moderation was found without a genetic influence on exposure to stressful situations. Rather it was found to be a genetic modulation of cortisol responses to chronic stress. These findings indicate that the rh5-HTTLPR polymorphism is closely related to hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity, which may increase susceptibility to depression in females with low serotonin transporter efficiency and a history of stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Relationship between coping ways with stress and levels of IL-1β and cortisol in coronary heart disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Agha Yousefi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Coping ways with stress in coronary heart disease patients can lead to significant changes in the levels of biomarkers IL- 1 β and cortisol. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between coping ways with stress and level of IL- 1 β and cortisol in coronary heart disease patients.   Materials and Methods: The statistical population covered all patients with CHD who referred to Tehran Shahid Rajaie Heart Hospital. 44 patients with CHD admitted to different wards of the hospital were selected as eligible cases.In the present, Lazarus and Folkman questionnaires and Human IL- 1 β kits manufactured by Austrian Bender Med System Manufacturing Co and cortisol kits ( made by IBL Manufacturing Co., Germany,employing ELISA method of measurement ,were used.   Results: It was found that there was a significant positive correlation between emotional focused coping ways with biomarkers IL - 1 β and cortisol .But, a significant negative correlation was observed between problem focused coping ways and biomarkers IL-1 β and cortisol .Moreover, between 8 ways of coping with stress only predictive positive re-evaluation had a significant relationship with IL-1 β and Cortisol.   Conclusion: An increase in the use of problem focused coping ways including positive re-evaluation way can reduce levels of IL- 1 β and cortisol.

  19. When we test, do we stress? Impact of the testing environment on cortisol secretion and memory performance in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindi, Shireen; Fiocco, Alexandra J; Juster, Robert-Paul; Pruessner, Jens; Lupien, Sonia J

    2013-08-01

    The majority of studies find that older adults have worse memory performance than young adults. However, contextual features in the testing environment may be perceived as stressful by older adults, increasing their stress hormone levels. Given the evidence that older adults are highly sensitive to the effects of stress hormones (cortisol) on memory performance, it is postulated that a stressful testing environment in older adults can lead to an acute stress response and to memory impairments. The current study compared salivary cortisol levels and memory performance in young and older adults tested in environments manipulated to be stressful (unfavourable condition) or not stressful (favourable condition) for each age group. 28 young adults and 32 older adults were tested in two testing conditions: (1) a condition favouring young adults (constructed to be less stressful for young adults), and (2) a condition favouring older adults (constructed to be less stressful for older adults). The main outcome measure was salivary cortisol levels. Additionally, immediate and delayed memory performances were assessed during each condition. In older adults only, we found significantly high cortisol levels and low memory performance in the condition favouring young adults. In contrast, cortisol levels were lower and memory performance was better when older adults were tested in conditions favouring them. There was no effect of testing condition in young adults. The results demonstrate that older adults' memory performance is highly sensitive to the testing environment. These findings have important implications for both research and clinical settings in which older adults are tested for memory performance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Relations between plasma oxytocin and cortisol: The stress buffering role of social support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn J. McQuaid

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Stress responses in humans can be attenuated by exogenous oxytocin administration, and these stress-buffering properties may be moderated by social factors. Yet, the influence of acute stressors on circulating endogenous oxytocin levels have been inconsistent, and limited information is available concerning the influence of social support in moderating this relationship. In the current investigation, undergraduate women (N = 67 were assessed in the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST with either social support available from a close female friend or no social support being available. An additional set of women served as controls. The TSST elicited marked elevations of state anxiety and negative emotions, which were largely attenuated among women who received social support. Furthermore, baseline oxytocin levels were inversely related to women's general feelings of distrust, as well as basal plasma cortisol levels. Despite these associations, oxytocin levels were unaffected by the TSST, and this was the case irrespective of oral contraceptive use or estrogen levels. In contrast, plasma cortisol elevations were elicited by the psychosocial stressor, but only in women using oral contraceptives, an effect that was prevented when social support was available. Taken together, these data provisionally suggest that changes in plasma oxytocin might not accompany the stress attenuating effects of social support on cortisol levels. Moreover, as plasma oxytocin might not reliably reflect brain oxytocin levels, the linkage between oxytocin and prosocial behaviors remains tenuous.

  1. Stress exacerbates pain in the everyday lives of women with fibromyalgia syndrome--The role of cortisol and alpha-amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Susanne; Doerr, Johanna M; Strahler, Jana; Mewes, Ricarda; Thieme, Kati; Nater, Urs M

    2016-01-01

    Although fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a chronic condition, its cardinal symptom pain is known to fluctuate over the day. Stress has often been claimed to exacerbate pain; however, there is barely any evidence on whether or not this is true on a day-to-day basis (and, alternatively, on whether pain leads to increased stress levels). Using an ecologically valid measurement design, we tested whether and how stress and pain are intertwined in participants with FMS. We additionally examined the role of the two major stress-responsive systems, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the autonomic nervous system, as potential mediators of this relationship. An ambulatory assessment study was conducted over the course of 14 days. On each day, 32 females with FMS provided six diary entries on momentary stress and pain levels. Saliva samples were collected at the same time points to determine cortisol and alpha-amylase as indicators of stress-responsive systems. Higher stress at a given measurement time point was associated with higher reported pain levels at the subsequent time point (UC=1.47, pstress-pain relationship was neither mediated by momentary cortisol nor by alpha-amylase; however, momentary cortisol was independently associated with momentary pain (UC=0.27, p=0.009). Stress seems to be a powerful exacerbating factor for pain as experienced by patients with FMS in their everyday lives. Cortisol may be involved in the diurnal fluctuation of pain levels in patients with FMS. Future studies should identify relevant daily stressors in persons with FMS and scrutinize the mechanisms underlying the cortisol-pain relationship. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Stress and sex: does cortisol mediate sex change in fish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goikoetxea, Alexander; Todd, Erica V; Gemmell, Neil J

    2017-12-01

    Cortisol is the main glucocorticoid (GC) in fish and the hormone most directly associated with stress. Recent research suggests that this hormone may act as a key factor linking social environmental stimuli and the onset of sex change by initiating a shift in steroidogenesis from estrogens to androgens. For many teleost fish, sex change occurs as a usual part of the life cycle. Changing sex is known to enhance the lifetime reproductive success of these fish and the modifications involved (behavioral, gonadal and morphological) are well studied. However, the exact mechanism behind the transduction of the environmental signals into the molecular cascade that underlies this singular process remains largely unknown. We here synthesize current knowledge regarding the role of cortisol in teleost sex change with a focus on two well-described transformations: temperature-induced masculinization and socially regulated sex change. Three non-mutually exclusive pathways are considered when describing the potential role of cortisol in mediating teleost sex change: cross-talk between GC and androgen pathways, inhibition of aromatase expression and upregulation of amh (the gene encoding anti-Müllerian hormone). We anticipate that understanding the role of cortisol in the initial stages of sex change will further improve our understanding of sex determination and differentiation across vertebrates, and may lead to new tools to control fish sex ratios in aquaculture. © 2017 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  3. The serotonin transporter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) and cortisol stress responsiveness: preliminary evidence for a modulating role for sleep quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dalfsen, Jens H; Markus, C Rob

    2018-05-23

    The short (S) allele of a functional polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) within the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) is found to predispose the risk for stress-related affective disorders relative to the long (L) allele. Evidence suggests that elevated stress reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis might underlie this association although there is little understanding about the origin of inconsistent findings. Since inadequate sleep is commonly known to promote HPA stress reactivity, it might well play an important modulating role. The present study tested this hypothesis by investigating whether sleep quality moderates the relationship between 5-HTTLPR and cortisol stress responsiveness. From a large 5-HTTLPR database (n = 771), a sample of healthy male and female participants homozygous for either the 5-HTTLPR S-allele (n = 25) or L-allele (n = 25) were assessed for sleep quality and salivary cortisol secretion during acute laboratory stress. Diminished sleep quality was found to exclusively potentiate cortisol stress reactivity in the homozygous L-allele genotype. Accounting for this 5-HTTLPR-dependent influence enhanced the predictive value of 5-HTTLPR on cortisol stress responsiveness, revealing greater HPA reactivity in S-allele relative to L-allele carriers. Current findings suggest that variations in sleep quality may serve as a confounding factor in the search for genetic differences in stress sensitivity and related affective disorders.

  4. Effects of food on cortisol and mood in vulnerable subjects under controllable and uncontrollable stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markus, R.; Panhuysen, G.; Tuiten, A.; Koppeschaar, H.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether in stress-prone subjects, carbohydrate-rich, protein-poor food (CR/PP) diminished depressive mood and a cortisol response under controllable as well as uncontrollable laboratory stress. Twenty-two subjects with high stress proneness (HS) and 23

  5. Daily Work Stress and Awakening Cortisol in Mothers of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders or Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jen D.; Mailick, Marsha R.; Greenberg, Jan S.; Hong, Jinkuk; Coe, Christopher L.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of daily work stress on the next morning’s awakening cortisol level was determined in a sample of 124 mothers (M age = 49.89, SD= 6.33) of adolescents and adults with developmental disabilities and compared to 115 mothers (M age = 46.19, SD = 7.08) of individuals without disabilities. Mothers participated in 8 days of diary telephone interviews and provided saliva samples. Multilevel models revealed that mothers of individuals with developmental disabilities had lower awakening cortisol levels than comparison mothers. Work stress interacted with parental status to predict the awakening cortisol level on the following morning. When mothers of individuals with developmental disabilities experienced a work stressor, their awakening cortisol level was significantly higher on the subsequent morning, but for comparison mothers, work stressors were not significantly associated with cortisol level. Findings extend understanding of the differential impacts of specific types of stressors on physiological functioning of mothers of individuals with and without developmental disabilities. PMID:25313265

  6. Daily Work Stress and Awakening Cortisol in Mothers of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders or Fragile X Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jen D; Mailick, Marsha R; Greenberg, Jan S; Hong, Jinkuk; Coe, Christopher L

    2014-02-01

    The effect of daily work stress on the next morning's awakening cortisol level was determined in a sample of 124 mothers (M age = 49.89, SD= 6.33) of adolescents and adults with developmental disabilities and compared to 115 mothers (M age = 46.19, SD = 7.08) of individuals without disabilities. Mothers participated in 8 days of diary telephone interviews and provided saliva samples. Multilevel models revealed that mothers of individuals with developmental disabilities had lower awakening cortisol levels than comparison mothers. Work stress interacted with parental status to predict the awakening cortisol level on the following morning. When mothers of individuals with developmental disabilities experienced a work stressor, their awakening cortisol level was significantly higher on the subsequent morning, but for comparison mothers, work stressors were not significantly associated with cortisol level. Findings extend understanding of the differential impacts of specific types of stressors on physiological functioning of mothers of individuals with and without developmental disabilities.

  7. Perceived weight discrimination and chronic biochemical stress: A population‐based study using cortisol in scalp hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschbaum, Clemens; Steptoe, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Objective There is increasing evidence for weight‐based discrimination against persons with obesity. This study aimed to examine the physiological impact of perceived weight discrimination on cortisol in hair, an indicator of chronic stress exposure. Methods Data were from 563 nonsmoking individuals with obesity (body mass index, BMI ≥30 kg/m2) participating in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Experiences of discrimination were reported via questionnaire, and hair cortisol concentrations were determined from the scalp‐nearest 2‐cm hair segment. Height and weight were objectively measured. ANCOVAs tested associations between perceived weight discrimination and hair cortisol concentration overall and by degree of obesity. All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and BMI. Results Mean hair cortisol concentrations were 33% higher in those who had experienced weight discrimination than those who had not (mean log pg/mg 1.241 vs. 0.933, F = 12.01, P = 0.001). The association between weight discrimination and hair cortisol was particularly pronounced in individuals with severe (class II/III) obesity (1.402 vs. 0.972, F = 11.58, P = 0.001). Conclusions Weight discrimination is associated with the experience of stress at a biological level. Chronic exposure to elevated levels of cortisol may play a role in generating a vicious circle of weight gain and discrimination and contribute to obesity‐associated health conditions. PMID:27740706

  8. Quantifying Stress in Marine Mammals: Measuring Biologically Active Cortisol in Cetaceans and Pinnipeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    boonstra/ LONG-TERM GOALS This research will improve our ability to measure stress in marine mammals. Stress hormones ( glucocorticoids ...either cortisol or corticosterone) are easily measured in blood and are an important measure of stress. However, a large proportion of glucocorticoids ...are best estimated by measuring “free glucocorticoid ” levels (i.e. that hormone not bound by CBG). This project will improve the capacity of marine

  9. The role of stress in absenteeism: cortisol responsiveness among patients on long-term sick leave.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik B Jacobsen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to (1 See whether increased or decreased variation relate to subjective reports of common somatic and psychological symptoms for a population on long-term sick leave; and (2 See if this pattern in variation is correlated with autonomic activation and psychological appraisal. METHODS: Our participants (n = 87 were referred to a 3.5-week return-to-work rehabilitation program, and had been on paid sick leave >8 weeks due to musculoskeletal pain, fatigue and/or common mental disorders. An extensive survey was completed, addressing socio-demographics, somatic and psychological complaints. In addition, a physician and a psychologist examined the participants, determining baseline heart rate, medication use and SCID-I diagnoses. During the 3.5-week program, the participants completed the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups. Participants wore heart rate monitors and filled out Visual Analogue Scales during the TSST-G. RESULTS: Our participants presented a low cortisol variation, with mixed model analyses showing a maximal increase in free saliva cortisol of 26% (95% CI, 0.21-0.32. Simultaneously, the increase in heart rate and Visual Analogue Scales was substantial, indicating autonomic and psychological activation consistent with intense stress from the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups. CONCLUSIONS: The current findings are the first description of a blunted cortisol response in a heterogeneous group of patients on long-term sick leave. The results suggest lack of cortisol reactivity as a possible biological link involved in the pathway between stress, sustained activation and long-term sick leave.

  10. Exhaustion-related changes in cardiovascular and cortisol reactivity to acute psychosocial stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Peter; Österberg, Kai; Wallergård, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    -pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activations in both V-TSST sessions, together with habituation of cortisol and heart rate in the second session, but without any significant group differences. However, the former ED patients showed considerable variation in self-reported signs...... cortisol samples were collected. In addition, high frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV), heart rate (HR), t-wave amplitude (TWA), and α-amylase were assessed to examine stress reactivity and habituation in the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The initial analyses showed clear hypothalamic...... of exhaustion (SMBQ). This led us to assign former ED patients with lower ratings into the low SMBQ group (LOWS) and those with higher ratings to the high SMBQ group (HIGHS). When repeating the analyses a different picture emerged; the HIGHS showed a lower cortisol response to the V-TSST than did the LOWS. Both...

  11. Higher cortisol is associated with poorer executive functioning in preschool children: The role of parenting stress, parent coping and quality of daycare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Shannon L.; Cepeda, Ivan; Krieger, Dena; Maggi, Stefania; D’Angiulli, Amedeo; Weinberg, Joanne; Grunau, Ruth E.

    2016-01-01

    Child executive functions (cognitive flexibility, inhibitory control, working memory) are key to success in school. Cortisol, the primary stress hormone, is known to affect cognition; however, there is limited information about how child cortisol levels, parenting factors and child care context relate to executive functions in young children. The aim of this study was to examine relationships between child cortisol, parenting stress, parent coping, and daycare quality in relation to executive functions in children aged 3–5 years. We hypothesized that (1) poorer executive functioning would be related to higher child cortisol and higher parenting stress, and (2) positive daycare quality and positive parent coping style would buffer the effects of child cortisol and parenting stress on executive functions. A total of 101 children (53 girls, 48 boys, mean age 4.24 years ±0.74) with complete data on all measures were included. Three saliva samples to measure cortisol were collected at the child’s daycare/preschool in one morning. Parents completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function – Preschool Version (BRIEF-P), Parenting Stress Index (PSI), and Ways of Coping Questionnaire (WCQ). The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale – Revised (ECERS-R) was used to measure the quality of daycare. It was found that children with poorer executive functioning had higher levels of salivary cortisol, and their parents reported higher parenting stress. However, parent coping style and quality of daycare did not modulate these relationships. Identifying ways to promote child executive functioning is an important direction for improving school readiness. PMID:26335047

  12. Effects of balneotherapy and spa therapy on levels of cortisol as a stress biomarker: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, Michele; Donelli, Davide

    2018-02-01

    Balneotherapy and spa therapy are well-known practices, even though limited evidence has been produced about their biological effects. This systematic review primarily aims at assessing if balneotherapy, mud/peloid therapy, and spa therapy may influence cortisol levels. Secondarily, it aims at understanding if these interventions may improve stress resilience. PubMed/Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Library were searched for relevant articles in English or Italian about studies involving healthy and sub-healthy subjects or patients with a diagnosed disease about effects of balneotherapy, mud/peloid therapy, and spa therapy on serum and salivary cortisol levels. Fifteen studies involving 684 subjects were included. Five studies investigated biological effects of balneotherapy alone. Two of them reported significant changes of cortisol levels in healthy participants. The other three studies reported no significant variations in patients with rheumatic conditions. No studies investigated biological effects of mud/peloid therapy alone. Ten studies investigated biological effects of spa therapy with or without included mud/peloid therapy, and in all but two studies, significant variations of cortisol levels were reported. Our main findings suggest that balneotherapy may have the potential to influence cortisol levels in healthy subjects, in such a way as to improve stress resilience. Spa therapy with or without included mud/peloid therapy demonstrated the same potential to influence cortisol levels also in sub-healthy subjects and in patients with a diagnosed disease. Therefore, balneotherapy and spa therapy may be considered as useful interventions for the management of stress conditions. Further investigation is needed because of limited available data.

  13. Chronic Stress and Adolescents' Mental Health : Modifying Effects of Basal Cortisol and Parental Psychiatric History. The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandstra, Anna Roos E.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Nederhof, Esther; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.; Dietrich, Andrea; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Ormel, Johan

    Large individual differences in adolescent mental health following chronic psychosocial stress suggest moderating factors. We examined two established moderators, basal cortisol and parental psychiatric history, simultaneously. We hypothesized that individuals with high basal cortisol, assumed to

  14. Pain-related stress in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and salivary cortisol reactivity to socio-emotional stress in 3-month-old very preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzi, Livio; Giusti, Lorenzo; Fumagalli, Monica; Tasca, Hilarj; Ciceri, Francesca; Menozzi, Giorgia; Mosca, Fabio; Morandi, Francesco; Borgatti, Renato; Montirosso, Rosario

    2016-10-01

    Very preterm (VPT) infants are hospitalized in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) and exposed to varying levels of skin-breaking procedures (pain-related stress), even in absence of severe clinical conditions. Repeated and prolonged pain exposure may alter hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity in VPT infants. During the post-discharge period, altered HPA axis reactivity has been documented in response to non-social stressors, using salivary cortisol as a biomarker. However, little is known about the effects of NICU pain-related stress on subsequent HPA axis reactivity to socio-emotional stress in infants. We examined the relationship between pain-related stress in NICU and HPA axis reactivity (i.e., salivary cortisol reactivity) to an age-appropriate socio-emotional condition in 37 healthy VPT infants compared to 53 full-term (FT) controls. The number of skin-breaking procedures was obtained across NICU stay for VPT infants. At 3 months (corrected age for prematurity), all infants participated in the maternal Face-to-Face Still-Face (FFSF) procedure, in order to assess HPA axis reactivity to socio-emotional stress (i.e., maternal unresponsiveness). VPT infants exhibited a blunted salivary cortisol reactivity, which was associated with the amount of skin-breaking procedures during NICU: greater pain-related stress predicted lower salivary cortisol reactivity, adjusting for neonatal confounders. These findings further advance our knowledge of how early exposure to pain-related stress in NICU contributes to the programming of an altered HPA axis reactivity to socio-emotional stress in 3-month-old VPT infants, even in the absence of major perinatal complications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Parenting stress and salivary cortisol in parents of children with autism spectrum disorder: Longitudinal variations in the context of a service dog's presence in the family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecteau, Stéphanie-M; Boivin, Louise; Trudel, Marcel; Corbett, Blythe A; Harrell, Frank E; Viau, Robert; Champagne, Noël; Picard, Frédéric

    2017-02-01

    A significant portion of parents of children with autism spectrum disorder report high levels of stress related to parenting responsibilities, which have been linked to abnormal cortisol patterns. This study seeks to better understand the parents' adaptation to caregiving demands and use of a service dog, by taking into account longitudinal variations in salivary cortisol and perception of parental stress. Salivary cortisol was collected one day per week for 15 weeks by 98 primary caregivers of children with ASD. Overall, parents perceived high levels of stress at baseline. Mean morning cortisol increase was below expected levels for healthy adults, and perception of stress predicted morning cortisol activity. Hypocorticolism related to chronic stress may be present in parents of children with ASD. Longitudinal analysis revealed that the presence of a service dog in the family had an effect on parenting stress, wakening and morning cortisol levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Dexamethasone-suppressed cortisol awakening response predicts treatment outcome in posttraumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijdam, M. J.; van Amsterdam, J. G. C.; Gersons, B. P. R.; Olff, M.

    2015-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with several alterations in the neuroendocrine system, including enhanced cortisol suppression in response to the dexamethasone suppression test. The aim of this study was to examine whether specific biomarkers of PTSD predict treatment

  17. Daily positive events and diurnal cortisol rhythms: Examination of between-person differences and within-person variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Nancy L; Ong, Anthony D; Stawski, Robert S; Almeida, David M

    2017-09-01

    Growing evidence from field studies has linked daily stressors to dysregulated patterns of diurnal cortisol. Less is known about whether naturally-occurring positive events in everyday life are associated with diurnal cortisol. The objectives of this study were to evaluate daily positive events as predictors of between-person differences and within-person (day-to-day) variations in diurnal cortisol parameters, in addition to daily positive events as buffers against the associations between daily stressors and cortisol. In the National Study of Daily Experiences, 1657 adults ages 33-84 (57% female) reported daily experiences during telephone interviews on 8 consecutive evenings. Saliva samples were collected 4 times per day on 4 interview days and assayed for cortisol. Multilevel models were used to estimate associations of daily positive events with cortisol awakening response (CAR), diurnal cortisol slope, and area under the curve (AUC). At the between-person level, people who experienced more frequent positive events exhibited a steeper diurnal cortisol slope, controlling for daily stressors, daily affect, and other covariates. At the within-person level, positive events in the morning (but not prior-night or afternoon/evening events) predicted steeper decline in cortisol across that day; positive events were also marginally associated with lower same-day AUC. Associations were not mediated by daily positive affect, and positive events did not buffer against stressor-related cortisol alterations. These findings indicate that individual differences and day-to-day variations in daily positive events are associated with diurnal cortisol patterns, independent of stressors and affect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Links between white matter microstructure and cortisol reactivity to stress in early childhood: evidence for moderation by parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Haroon I; Joanisse, Marc F; Mackrell, Sarah M; Kryski, Katie R; Smith, Heather J; Singh, Shiva M; Hayden, Elizabeth P

    2014-01-01

    Activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (measured via cortisol reactivity) may be a biological marker of risk for depression and anxiety, possibly even early in development. However, the structural neural correlates of early cortisol reactivity are not well known, although these would potentially inform broader models of mechanisms of risk, especially if the early environment further shapes these relationships. Therefore, we examined links between white matter architecture and young girls' cortisol reactivity and whether early caregiving moderated these links. We recruited 45 6-year-old girls based on whether they had previously shown high or low cortisol reactivity to a stress task at age 3. White matter integrity was assessed by calculating fractional anisotropy (FA) of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans. Parenting styles were measured via a standardized parent-child interaction task. Significant associations were found between FA in white matter regions adjacent to the left thalamus, the right anterior cingulate cortex, and the right superior frontal gyrus (all ps parent positive affect showing white matter structure more similar to that of low stress reactive girls. Results show associations between white matter integrity of various limbic regions of the brain and early cortisol reactivity to stress and provide preliminary support for the notion that parenting may moderate associations.

  19. Anxiety, depression, stress, and cortisol levels in mothers of children undergoing maintenance therapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neu, Madalynn; Matthews, Ellyn; King, Nancy A; Cook, Paul F; Laudenslager, Mark L

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare anxiety, depression, and stress between mothers of children during maintenance treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and matched controls. Twenty-six mothers were recruited from the hematology unit at a children's hospital, and 26 mothers were recruited from the community. Participants were matched to their child's age and gender. Mothers completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Perceived Stress Sale, and collected salivary cortisol 4 times a day for 3 consecutive days. Compared with mothers of healthy children, anxiety scores did not differ (P=.10), but depression scores were higher (P=.003) in mothers of children with ALL. More mothers in the ALL group scored above the cutoff of 7 indicating clinical anxiety (46%) and depressive symptoms (27%). A trend toward increased stress was found in mothers in the ALL group. No difference was found in overall daily cortisol (area under the curve), daily decrease in cortisol (slope), and cortisol awakening response. Mothers of children with ALL experienced emotional symptoms many months after the initial diagnosis.

  20. The effect of a primary sexual reward manipulation on cortisol responses to psychosocial stress in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, J David; Pacilio, Laura E; Denson, Thomas F; Satyshur, Maureen

    2013-05-01

    Although previous research provides evidence for the role of rewarding activities in reducing hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responses to stress, no studies have tested whether rewards can buffer cortisol responses in humans undergoing social stressors. This study experimentally investigated whether viewing appetitive rewarding pictures reduces cortisol responses to an acute stress challenge. Fifty-four heterosexual men were randomly assigned to view either mildly erotic (reward) or neutral images (control) of mixed-sex couples before completing the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Participants in the reward condition had significantly lower area-under-the-curve cortisol reactivity to the TSST (mean [M] = 363.46) in comparison with participants in the control group (M = 807.06; F(1,46) = 4.84, p = .033, η(2) = 0.095). Reward participants also had improved cognitive performance on the math portion of the TSST (M = 20.74) in comparison with control participants (M = 13.82; F(44) = 5.44, p = .024, η(2) = 0.11). The stress-buffering effects of reward were specific to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity: the reward and control groups did not differ on psychological perceptions of anticipatory or poststress perceptions, heart rate, or blood pressure responses. This research provides the first evidence linking the experience of reward with reduced stress reactivity in humans and suggests a potential novel reward pathway for coping under stress.

  1. Perceived weight discrimination and chronic biochemical stress: A population-based study using cortisol in scalp hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Sarah E; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Steptoe, Andrew

    2016-12-01

    There is increasing evidence for weight-based discrimination against persons with obesity. This study aimed to examine the physiological impact of perceived weight discrimination on cortisol in hair, an indicator of chronic stress exposure. Data were from 563 nonsmoking individuals with obesity (body mass index, BMI ≥30 kg/m 2 ) participating in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Experiences of discrimination were reported via questionnaire, and hair cortisol concentrations were determined from the scalp-nearest 2-cm hair segment. Height and weight were objectively measured. ANCOVAs tested associations between perceived weight discrimination and hair cortisol concentration overall and by degree of obesity. All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and BMI. Mean hair cortisol concentrations were 33% higher in those who had experienced weight discrimination than those who had not (mean log pg/mg 1.241 vs. 0.933, F = 12.01, P = 0.001). The association between weight discrimination and hair cortisol was particularly pronounced in individuals with severe (class II/III) obesity (1.402 vs. 0.972, F = 11.58, P = 0.001). Weight discrimination is associated with the experience of stress at a biological level. Chronic exposure to elevated levels of cortisol may play a role in generating a vicious circle of weight gain and discrimination and contribute to obesity-associated health conditions. © 2016 The Authors. Obesity published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Obesity Society (TOS).

  2. Stress, cortisol, and other appetite-related hormones: Prospective prediction of 6-month changes in food cravings and weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ariana M.; Jastreboff, Ania M.; White, Marney A.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Sinha, Rajita

    2017-01-01

    Objective To examine whether baseline chronic stress, morning cortisol, and other appetite-related hormones (leptin, ghrelin, and insulin) predict future weight gain and food cravings in a naturalistic longitudinal 6-month follow-up study. Methods A prospective community cohort of three hundred and thirty-nine adults (age=29.1± 9.0 years; BMI=26.7±5.4 kg/m2; 56.9% female; 70.2% White) completed assessments at baseline and 6-month follow-up. Fasting blood draws were used to assess cortisol and other appetite-related hormones levels at baseline. At baseline and follow-up, body weight was measured and the Cumulative Adversity Interview and Food Craving Inventory were administered. Data were analyzed using linear mixed models adjusting for demographic and clinical covariates. Results Over the 6-month period, 49.9% of the sample gained weight. Food cravings and chronic stress decreased over 6 months (psfood cravings at 6 months (p=0.04). Furthermore, higher cortisol, insulin, and chronic stress were each predictive of greater future weight gain (psfood cravings and reward-driven eating behaviors. Studies are needed that examine the utility of stress reduction methods for normalizing disrupted cortisol responses and preventing future weight gain. PMID:28349668

  3. Effort reward imbalance, and salivary cortisol in the morning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eller, Nanna Hurwitz; Nielsen, Søren Feodor; Blønd, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Effort reward imbalance (ERI) is suggested to increase risk for stress and is hypothesized to increase cortisol levels, especially the awakening cortisol response, ACR.......Effort reward imbalance (ERI) is suggested to increase risk for stress and is hypothesized to increase cortisol levels, especially the awakening cortisol response, ACR....

  4. Evaluation and correlation of stress scores with blood pressure, endogenous cortisol levels, and homocysteine levels in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy and comparison with age-matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Abhishek; Garg, Monika; Dixit, Nikhil; Godara, Rohini

    2016-11-01

    Stress had been associated with the development of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). The study was designed to evaluate the effect of stress on other risk factors of CSC such as serum cortisol levels, serum homocysteine levels, and blood pressure (BP) in CSC patients. To compare stress scores, serum cortisol and serum homocysteine levels, and BP of CSC patients with that of control population and to correlate stress scores of CSC patients with BP, serum cortisol levels, and serum homocysteine levels. Stress scores, serum morning and evening cortisol levels, serum homocysteine levels, systolic and diastolic BP of 54 CSC patients were measured and compared with that of 54 age- and sex-related controls using Student's t-test. Stress scores of CSC patients were correlated with systolic and diastolic BP, serum morning and evening cortisol levels and serum homocysteine levels and Pearson correlation coefficient (r) were calculated. Stress scores, serum homocysteine levels, serum morning and evening cortisol levels, and systolic and diastolic BP were all elevated in CSC patients as compared with age- and sex-related controls (P Stress scores of CSC patients were found to correlate strongly with serum homocysteine levels, serum morning and evening cortisol levels, and systolic and diastolic BP, with r values 0.82, 0.8, 0.8, 0.8, and 0.81, respectively (P Stress scores were elevated in CSC patients and were strongly correlated with serum homocysteine and cortisol levels and BP.

  5. Morning and afternoon appetite and gut hormone responses to meal and stress challenges in obese individuals with and without binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnell, S; Grillot, C; Ungredda, T; Ellis, S; Mehta, N; Holst, J; Geliebter, A

    2017-12-13

    Eating late in the day is common, and stress can induce eating. Little is understood about how time of day and stress interact to affect appetite and thereby body weight. These may be particularly important influences in binge eaters, who tend to binge in the evening, and in response to stress. Obese participants with (n=16) and without (n=16) Binge Eating Disorder (BED) participated in two identical test protocols beginning either in the morning or the afternoon (AM condition/PM condition), each following an 8 h fast. For each protocol they first received a standardized liquid meal (9:00am/4:00pm), then a stress test (Socially-Evaluated Cold Pressor Test, 11:10am/6:1pm), then a multi-item ad libitum buffet meal (11:40am/6:40pm), while rating appetite and stress and having blood drawn for hormone measures. Appetite at baseline was greater in the PM than AM condition (higher hunger, lower fullness). Following the liquid meal, AUC values for hunger and ghrelin were greater, and AUC values for PYY lower, in the PM than AM condition. Only those with BED showed lower fullness AUC in the PM condition, as well as a pattern of higher initial PM and lower initial AM ghrelin. Following the stress test, cortisol and ghrelin increased in both the AM and PM conditions, but higher ghrelin AUC and lower cortisol AUC were observed in the PM condition. Again, only participants with BED showed lower fullness AUC in the PM condition. Buffet meal intake was similar across groups and conditions, but those with BED reported greater loss of control and binge resemblance than those without. Afternoon/evening may be a high-risk period for overeating, particularly when paired with stress exposure, and for those with binge eating.International Journal of Obesity accepted article preview online, 13 December 2017. doi:10.1038/ijo.2017.307.

  6. Poor sleep as a pathophysiological pathway underlying the association between stressful experiences and the diurnal cortisol profile among children and adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Jinshia; McGrath, Jennifer J.; Gouin, Jean-Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Summary Recent evidence suggests that poor sleep is a potential pathway underlying the association between stressful experiences and the diurnal cortisol profile. However, existing findings are largely limited to adults. The present study examines whether poor sleep (duration, quality) mediates the relation between stressful experiences and the diurnal cortisol profile in children and adolescents. Children and adolescents (N = 220, Mage = 12.62) provided six saliva samples over two days to derive cortisol indices (bedtime, AUCAG, AUCTG, slopeMAX). Perceived stress, stressful life events, self-reported sleep duration, and sleep quality were measured. Using bootstrapping analyses, sleep quality mediated the relation between perceived stress and AUCTG (R2 = 0.10, F(7, 212) = 3.55, p = .001; 95% BCI[0.09, 1.15]), as well as the relation between stressful life events and AUCTG (R2 = 0.11, F(7, 212) = 3.69, p = .001; 95% BCI[0.40, 3.82]). These mediation models remained significant after adjusting for sleep duration, suggesting that poor sleep quality underlies the association between stressful experiences and the diurnal cortisol profile in children and adolescents. Longitudinal data combined with objectively-measured sleep is essential to further disentangle the complex association between sleep and stress. PMID:25889840

  7. Familial social support predicts a reduced cortisol response to stress in sexual minority young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, C L; Bonanno, G A; Hatzenbuehler, M L

    2014-09-01

    Social support has been repeatedly associated with mental and physical health outcomes, with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity posited as a potential mechanism. The influence of social bonds appears particularly important in the face of stigma-related stress; however, there is a dearth of research examining social support and HPA axis response among members of a stigmatized group. To address this gap in the literature, we tested in a sample of 70 lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) young adults whether family support or peer support differentially predict cortisol reactivity in response to a laboratory stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test. While greater levels of family support were associated with reduced cortisol reactivity, neither peer support nor overall support satisfaction was associated with cortisol response. These findings suggest that the association between social support and neuroendocrine functioning differs according to the source of support among members of one stigmatized group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of association between psychological stress and serum cortisol levels in patients with chronic periodontitis - Estimation of relationship between psychological stress and periodontal status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Roshni; Shenoy, Nina; Thomas, Biju

    2016-01-01

    Stress classically describes a destructive notion that can have a bearing on one's physical and mental health. It may also add to an increased propensity to periodontal disease. To investigate the association between psychological stress and serum cortisol levels in patients with chronic periodontitis. Forty subjects were recruited from the outpatient department at the Department of Periodontics, from a college in Mangalore, divided into two groups, i.e., twenty as healthy controls and twenty were stressed subjects with chronic periodontitis. The clinical examination included the assessment of probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level and oral hygiene index-simplified. Serum cortisol levels were estimated biochemically using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method and the estimation of psychological stress was done by a questionnaire. Descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation was used to review the collected data. Independent sample t -test was used for comparison and correlation was evaluation using Pearson's correlation test. As per our observation, high serum cortisol levels and psychological stress are positively linked with chronic periodontitis establishing a risk profile showing a significant correlation ( P periodontitis patients as it should be considered as an imperative risk factor for periodontal disease.

  9. The relationship between Type D personality and physical health complaints is mediated by perceived stress and anxiety but not diurnal cortisol secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael A; Riccalton, Victoria C; Kelly-Hughes, Denise H; Craw, Olivia A; Allen, Sarah F; O'Connor, Daryl B; Wetherell, Mark A

    2018-05-01

    Type D personality has been associated with minor health complaints in the general population and dysregulation of basal cortisol secretion in coronary patients. The aims of the present study were to investigate (i) whether there is an association between Type D personality and basal cortisol secretion in the general population, and (ii) whether subjective measures of stress and anxiety, as well as indices of basal cortisol secretion, mediate the relationship between Type D personality and self-reported physical symptoms in this group. Self-report measures of stress, trait anxiety and physical symptoms were provided by 101 individuals aged 18-45 years. Saliva samples were also provided over two consecutive "typical" days, to enable indices of the cortisol awakening response and diurnal cortisol profile to be determined. There was a significant relationship between Type D personality and self-reported physical symptoms, which was fully mediated by subjective stress and anxiety. However, there were no significant relationships between Type D personality and the basal cortisol indices. These findings suggest that the association between Type D personality and minor health complaints in the general population can be explained by feelings of stress and anxiety, but a precise biological mechanism for this link is yet to be elucidated.

  10. Rumination, distraction and mindful self-focus: effects on mood, dysfunctional attitudes and cortisol stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehner, C; Huffziger, S; Liebsch, K

    2009-02-01

    Although aggravating effects of rumination on dysfunctional cognitions and endocrine stress responses have been proposed, experimental studies testing these assumptions are lacking. In parallel, mindfulness theory suggests beneficial effects of mindfulness on dysfunctional cognitions. This study aimed to investigate the effects of induced rumination, distraction and mindful self-focus on mood and dysfunctional attitudes and to assess the possible impact of induced rumination on participants' cortisol responses. Sixty university students were subjected to negative mood induction and subsequently randomly assigned to a rumination, distraction or mindful self-focus condition. The latter included statements focusing on self-acceptance and awareness of the breath. Four saliva cortisol samples were selected during the session. Compared to induced rumination, distraction showed a clear beneficial effect on the course of dysphoric mood, whereas a mindful self-focus did not. In contrast to distraction and mindful self-focus, participants induced to ruminate showed significant increases in dysfunctional attitudes from baseline to post-induction. Although rumination was not itself linked to higher cortisol responses, participants scoring high on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)-II who were induced to ruminate showed a smaller decrease in cortisol levels than those scoring low on the BDI-II. This study indicates that rumination as a dysfunctional mode of cognitive processing is able to maintain depression-linked dysfunctional thought content. Furthermore, our study revealed preliminary indications for a link between induced rumination and the cortisol stress response in vulnerable individuals.

  11. Association between burnout and cortisol secretion, perceived stress, and psychopathology in palliative care unit health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Sánchez, José Carlos; Pérez-Mármol, José Manuel; Blásquez, Antonia; Santos-Ruiz, Ana María; Peralta-Ramírez, María Isabel

    2018-06-01

    ABSTRACTObjective:A high incidence of burnout has been reported in health professionals working in palliative care units. Our present study aims to determine whether there are differences in the secretion of salivary cortisol between palliative care unit health professionals with and without burnout, and to elucidate whether there is a relationship between burnout syndrome and perceived stress and psychopathological status in this population. A total of 69 health professionals who met the inclusion criteria participated in our study, including physicians, nurses, and nursing assistants. Some 58 were women (M = 29.65 years, SD = 8.64) and 11 men (M = 35.67 years, SD = 11.90). The level of daily cortisol was registered in six measurements taken over the course of a workday. Burnout syndrome was evaluated with the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS), the level of perceived stress was measured using the Perceived Stress Scale, and psychopathological status was gauged using the SCL-90-R Symptoms Inventory. There were statistically significant differences in secretion of cortisol in professionals with high scores on a single subscale of the MBI-HSS [F(3.5) = 2.48, p burnout showed higher scores on the psychopathology and stress subscales than professionals without it. A higher score in any dimension of the burnout syndrome in palliative care unit health professionals seems to be related to several physiological and psychological parameters. These findings may be relevant for further development of our understanding of the relationship between levels of burnout and cortisol secretion in the health workers in these units.

  12. Coat and hair color: hair cortisol and serotonin levels in lactating Holstein cows under heat stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassemi Nejad, Jalil; Kim, Byong-Wan; Lee, Bae-Hun; Sung, Kyung-Il

    2017-01-01

    The deleterious effects of heat stress on animal health are being increasingly recognized. This study aimed to determine hair cortisol (HC) and serotonin levels in lactating Holstein cows under heat stress conditions with different coat and hair-cut color. Forty-five multiparous lactating Holstein cows (days in milk = 130 ± 47, body weight = 753 ± 85 kg) were divided to two main groups of over 80% black coat color (BC) and over 85% white coat color (WC) visually observed based on registry certificates and subdividing to black hair sample (BH) and white hair samples (WH) in 2 × 2 factorial arrangements. Hair samples were taken from the forehead of the individuals. Higher HC levels were observed in BC than WC cows (P  0.05). Serotonin levels showed no difference between BC and WC (P > 0.05). Interaction between coat color and hair color was not significant (P > 0.05). The cortisol levels in hair are not affected by pigmentation. However, pigmentation within the coat alters cortisol levels. In conclusion, white coat color retains less cortisol than the black coat. Therefore, white coats are preferable for dairy cows under heat stress conditions. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  13. Cortisol response mediates the effect of post-reactivation stress exposure on contextualization of emotional memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Marieke G N; Jacobs van Goethem, Tessa H; Beckers, Tom; Kindt, Merel

    2014-12-01

    Retrieval of traumatic experiences is often accompanied by strong feelings of distress. Here, we examined in healthy participants whether post-reactivation stress experience affects the context-dependency of emotional memory. First, participants studied words from two distinctive emotional categories (i.e., war and disease) presented against a category-related background picture. One day later, participants returned to the lab and received a reminder of the words of one emotional category followed by exposure to a stress task (Stress group, n=22) or a control task (Control group, n=24). Six days later, memory contextualization was tested using a word stem completion task. Half of the word stems were presented against the encoding context (i.e., congruent context) and the other half of the word stems were presented against the other context (i.e., incongruent context). The results showed that participants recalled more words in the congruent context than in the incongruent context. Interestingly, cortisol mediated the effect of stress exposure on memory contextualization. The stronger the post-reactivation cortisol response, the more memory performance relied on the contextual embedding of the words. Taken together, the current findings suggest that a moderate cortisol response after memory reactivation might serve an adaptive function in preventing generalization of emotional memories over contexts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Boosting recovery rather than buffering reactivity: Higher stress-induced oxytocin secretion is associated with increased cortisol reactivity and faster vagal recovery after acute psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engert, Veronika; Koester, Anna M; Riepenhausen, Antje; Singer, Tania

    2016-12-01

    Animal models and human studies using paradigms designed to stimulate endogenous oxytocin release suggest a stress-buffering role of oxytocin. We here examined the involvement of stress-induced peripheral oxytocin secretion in reactivity and recovery phases of the human psychosocial stress response. Healthy male and female participants (N=114) were subjected to a standardized laboratory stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test. In addition to plasma oxytocin, cortisol was assessed as a marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA-) axis activity, alpha-amylase and heart rate as markers of sympathetic activity, high frequency heart rate variability as a marker of vagal tone and self-rated anxiety as an indicator of subjective stress experience. On average, oxytocin levels increased by 51% following psychosocial stress. The stress-induced oxytocin secretion, however, did not reduce stress reactivity. To the contrary, higher oxytocin secretion was associated with greater cortisol reactivity and peak cortisol levels in both sexes. In the second phase of the stress response the opposite pattern was observed, with higher oxytocin secretion associated with faster vagal recovery. We suggest that after an early stage of oxytocin and HPA-axis co-activation, the stress-reducing action of oxytocin unfolds. Due to the time lag it manifests as a recovery-boosting rather than a reactivity-buffering effect. By reinforcing parasympathetic autonomic activity, specifically during stress recovery, oxytocin may provide an important protective function against the health-compromising effects of sustained stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Delayed memory effects after intense stress in Special Forces candidates: exploring path processes between cortisol secretion and memory recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverniers, John; Taylor, Marcus K; Smeets, Tom

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold. First, it explores delayed effects of high endogenously evoked cortisol concentrations on visuo-spatial declarative memory. Subsequently, it applies multiple mediation (MM) analyses to reveal path processes between stress and cognitive performance in a sample of 24 male Special Forces (SF) candidates (mean age = 27.0 years, SD = 4.1). The SF candidates were randomly assigned to a control (n = 12) or an intense stress group (n = 12), and cortisol secretion for the intense stress condition was triggered by a brusque 60 min prisoner of war exercise. Stress exposure provoked robust increases in cortisol concentrations and a significant decline in immediate recall performance, measured with the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF). The relative retrieval differences in regard to the ROCF persisted even after a recovery period of 24 h, as both groups showed similar levels of memory decline over 24 h. Next, the study applied a MM design that involved distribution-independent asymptotic and resampling strategies to extend traditional bivariate analyses. MM results showed that ROCF performance was mediated by increases in cortisol concentrations. Considering the studied variables, the current analysis was the first to provide statistical support for the generally accepted thesis that cortisol secretion in itself, rather than subjective strain or the experimental treatment, affects cognitive performance. The revelation of such path processes is important because it establishes process identification and may refine existing paradigms.

  16. Having your cake and eating it too: a habit of comfort food may link chronic social stress exposure and acute stress-induced cortisol hyporesponsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryon, M S; DeCant, Rashel; Laugero, K D

    2013-04-10

    Stress has been tied to changes in eating behavior and food choice. Previous studies in rodents have shown that chronic stress increases palatable food intake which, in turn, increases visceral fat and inhibits acute stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. The effect of chronic stress on eating behavior in humans is less understood, but it may be linked to HPA responsivity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of chronic social stress and acute stress reactivity on food choice and food intake. Forty-one women (BMI=25.9±5.1 kg/m(2), age range=41 to 52 years) were subjected to the Trier Social Stress Test or a control task (nature movie) to examine HPA responses to an acute laboratory stressor and then invited to eat from a buffet containing low- and high-calorie snacks. Women were also categorized as high chronic stress or low chronic stress based on Wheaton Chronic Stress Inventory scores. Women reporting higher chronic stress and exhibiting low cortisol reactivity to the acute stress task consumed significantly more calories from chocolate cake on both stress and control visits. Chronic stress in the low cortisol reactor group was also positively related to total fat mass, body fat percentage, and stress-induced negative mood. Further, women reporting high chronic stress consumed significantly less vegetables, but only in those aged 45 years and older. Chronic stress in women within the higher age category was positively related to total calories consumed at the buffet, stress-induced negative mood and food craving. Our results suggest an increased risk for stress eating in persons with a specific chronic stress signature and imply that a habit of comfort food may link chronic social stress and acute stress-induced cortisol hyporesponsiveness. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. The effect of escitalopram versus placebo on perceived stress and salivary cortisol in healthy first-degree relatives of patients with depression-A randomised trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knorr, Ulla; Vinberg, Maj; Gether, Ulrik

    2012-01-01

    The effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) on healthy individuals remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that escitalopram decreases perceived stress and salivary cortisol. The trial has a randomised, blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel-group design. After informed consent 80...... intervals for the next hour, and at 12:00, 18:00 and 23:00. The salivary cortisol awakening response, all day salivary cortisol, and scale scores on sleep, pain, aggression, quality of life, and perceived stress assessed at entry were compared to values following 4 weeks of intervention. Statistically...... significant decreases were found in awakening salivary cortisol (P=0.04) and in all day salivary cortisol (P=0.02) in the escitalopram group compared with the placebo group. There were no statistically significant differences in perceived stress between the intervention groups. These findings from...

  18. Is gill cortisol concentration a good acute stress indicator in fish? A study in rainbow trout and zebrafish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gesto, Manuel; Hernandez, Juan; Lopez-Patino, Marcos A.

    2015-01-01

    Cortisol is the main biomarker of physiological stress in fish. It is usually measured in plasma, which requires blood collection. Though cortisol is produced in the anterior kidney, it can diffuse easily through cell membranes due to its lipophilic nature. Taking advantage of that, some non-inva...

  19. Salivary Cortisol as a Biomarker to Explore the Role of Maternal Stress in Early Childhood Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharat Chandra Pani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare salivary cortisol levels of children with ECC and their mothers with those of caries free children from a similar sociodemographic cohort. Design. Sixty-four college-educated, working mothers from middle income families with no history of anxiety disorders and their first born children aged between 48 and 71 months were included in the study. Salivary cortisol levels were analyzed using electrochemiluminescence (ECL immunoassay. Statistical Analyses. Significance of difference between the cortisol levels of children with ECC and control children and of their mothers was analyzed using the Student’s t- test. The intraclass correlation coefficient was used to measure the significance of correlation of cortisol levels between the mother and the child with logistic regression to explore possible associations. Results. Mothers of children with ECC had significantly higher levels of salivary cortisol ( than mothers of caries free children. The salivary cortisol levels of children with ECC were significantly higher than caries free children (. A significant correlation existed between the salivary cortisol level of the mother and that of the child (. Conclusion. While salivary cortisol levels of the child seem to have a direct impact on the incidence of ECC, maternal stress seems to have an indirect effect.

  20. Bullying as a Stressor in Mid-Adolescent Girls and Boys–Associations with Perceived Stress, Recurrent Pain, and Salivary Cortisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viveca Östberg

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Bullying involves repeated exposure to negative actions while also invoking a power asymmetry between the involved parties. From a stress perspective, being bullied can be seen as a severe and chronic stressor, and an everyday social-evaluative threat, coupled with a shortage of effective social resources for dealing with this particular stressor. The aim of this study was to investigate whether exposure to bullying among mid-adolescent girls and boys is associated with subjective and objective stress-related outcomes in terms of perceived stress, recurrent pain, and salivary cortisol. The data came from the School Stress and Support Study (TriSSS including students in grades 8–9 in two schools in Stockholm, Sweden, in 2010 (study sample n = 392; cortisol subsample n = 198. Bullying was self-reported and measured by multiple items. The statistical analyses included binary logistic and linear (OLS regression. Being bullied was associated with greater perceived stress and an increased risk of recurrent pain, among both boys and girls. Also, bullied students had lower cortisol output (AUCG and lower cortisol awakening response (CARG as compared to those who were not bullied. Gender-stratified analyses demonstrated that these associations were statistically significant for boys but not for girls. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that being bullied was related to both subjective and objective stress markers among mid-adolescent girls and boys, pointing to the necessity of continuously working against bullying.

  1. Prenatal Stress and the Cortisol Awakening Response in African-American and Caucasian Women in the Third Trimester of Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Clarissa D; Adam, Emma K; Holl, Jane L; Wolfe, Kaitlin A; Grobman, William A; Borders, Ann E B

    2016-10-01

    Objectives Prior studies have shown significant racial disparities in psychosocial stressors for pregnant women. One physiological mechanism by which prenatal stress is expressed is via the stress-sensitive hormone cortisol, which itself differs by race. In this study, we examine differences in cortisol awakening response (CAR) for African-American and Caucasian pregnant women during late pregnancy, particularly whether racial disparities are evident after accounting for measures of psychosocial stress. Methods During their third trimester of pregnancy (32-40 weeks of gestation), we asked women to self-collect salivary samples at home over 2 days. We then measured salivary cortisol across the day for 30 pregnant women (18 Caucasian; 12 African-American) to examine the CAR by race and by multiple measures of self-reported psychosocial stress, including perceived discrimination. Results Although the women in our sample showed normative cortisol diurnal rhythms (high on waking, peak 30 min post-waking, lowest at bedtime), we found that African-American women had blunted (smaller) awakening responses compared to Caucasian women (p accounting for covariates in a multivariate equation. However, when we added measures of psychosocial stress to the multivariate equation, higher levels of stress were significantly associated with a smaller CAR (p < 0.05), and the association between maternal race and CAR was no longer significant. Conclusions Our results add to a growing body of evidence that racial differences in the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis are associated with psychosocial stress during pregnancy.

  2. The Cortisol Paradox of Trauma-Related Disorders: Lower Phasic Responses but Higher Tonic Levels of Cortisol Are Associated with Sexual Abuse in Childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Schalinski

    Full Text Available Inconsistent findings exist for the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis in patients with stress related disorders. Recent studies point towards early life stress as a potential modulator.We investigated the impact of childhood sexual abuse on phasic (saliva cortisol reactivity and tonic (hair cortisol regulation. Furthermore, we assessed predictors on cortisol accumulation in hair. Women (N = 43 with stress-related disorders underwent a standardized assessment of idiographic adverse and traumatic experiences and psychopathology, while measuring salivary cortisol and, heart rate and blood pressure.Comparing women with and without childhood sexual abuse revealed lower rates of responders and distinct levels of salivary cortisol to the interview in conjunction with a lower heart rate for the abused group. Childhood adversities, traumatic experiences, and depression contributed to higher hair cortisol levels.Our finding of lower response rate and distinct salivary cortisol pattern in individuals with childhood sexual abuse compared to individuals without early sexual abuse supports the role of environmental programming for the HPA axis. Both, childhood adversities and traumatic stress emerge as crucial factors for long-term cortisol secretion. Lower or suppressed phasic cortisol responses to trauma-related stimuli may therefore be associated with higher tonic values. Thus, early exposure to adversities may result in a biological distinct phenotype in adult patients with stress-related disorders.

  3. The Cortisol Paradox of Trauma-Related Disorders: Lower Phasic Responses but Higher Tonic Levels of Cortisol Are Associated with Sexual Abuse in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalinski, Inga; Elbert, Thomas; Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    Inconsistent findings exist for the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in patients with stress related disorders. Recent studies point towards early life stress as a potential modulator. We investigated the impact of childhood sexual abuse on phasic (saliva cortisol reactivity) and tonic (hair cortisol) regulation. Furthermore, we assessed predictors on cortisol accumulation in hair. Women (N = 43) with stress-related disorders underwent a standardized assessment of idiographic adverse and traumatic experiences and psychopathology, while measuring salivary cortisol and, heart rate and blood pressure. Comparing women with and without childhood sexual abuse revealed lower rates of responders and distinct levels of salivary cortisol to the interview in conjunction with a lower heart rate for the abused group. Childhood adversities, traumatic experiences, and depression contributed to higher hair cortisol levels. Our finding of lower response rate and distinct salivary cortisol pattern in individuals with childhood sexual abuse compared to individuals without early sexual abuse supports the role of environmental programming for the HPA axis. Both, childhood adversities and traumatic stress emerge as crucial factors for long-term cortisol secretion. Lower or suppressed phasic cortisol responses to trauma-related stimuli may therefore be associated with higher tonic values. Thus, early exposure to adversities may result in a biological distinct phenotype in adult patients with stress-related disorders.

  4. Noise Induce Stress Assessment via Salivary Cortisol Measuring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-02-01

    Result: On the rest day and work day, between morning salivary cortisol was no significant difference in two groups. Comparing evening cortisol concentrations in work day with rest day a significant difference was observed, in worker group, but it was not significant in the other group. The evening cortisol in the working day in was significantly higher among workers than officers. .Conclusion: This study revealed that industrial noise exposure with levels higher than 80 dBA has a significant effect on salivary cortisol elevation.

  5. Familial Risk for Insomnia Is Associated With Abnormal Cortisol Response to Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Christopher L; Cheng, Philip; Almeida, David M; Roth, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    Abnormalities in the stress system have been implicated in insomnia. However, studies examining physiological stress regulation in insomnia have not consistently detected differences in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis response to stress. One explanation may be that deficits in the stress system are associated specifically with a biological vulnerability to insomnia rather than the phenotypic expression of insomnia. To examine stress response as a function of vulnerability to insomnia, this study tested response to the Trier Social Stress Test in a sample of healthy sleepers with varying familial risks for insomnia. Thirty-five healthy individuals with and without familial risk for insomnia were recruited to complete a laboratory stressor. Participants with one or both biological parents with insomnia were categorized as positive for familial risk, whereas those without biological parents with insomnia were categorized as negative for familial risk. Participants completed the Trier Social Stress Test in the laboratory, and psychological and physiological (autonomic and HPA-axis) responses were compared. Despite self-reported increases in anxiety, those positive for familial risk exhibited a blunted cortisol response relative to those without familial risk for insomnia. Individuals with blunted cortisol also reported heightened reactivity to personal life stressors, including increased sleep disturbances, elevated cognitive intrusions, and more behavioral avoidance. Findings from this study provide initial evidence that abnormal stress regulation may be a biological predisposing factor conferred via familial risk for insomnia. This deficit may also predict negative consequences over time, including insomnia and the associated psychiatric comorbidities. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. The Effects of Acute Stress on Core Executive Functions: A Meta-Analysis and Comparison with Cortisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Grant S.; Sazma, Matthew A.; Yonelinas, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    Core executive functions such as working memory, inhibition, and cognitive flexibility are integral to daily life. A growing body of research has suggested that acute stress may impair core executive functions. However, there are a number of inconsistencies in the literature, leading to uncertainty about how or even if acute stress influences core executive functions. We addressed this by conducting a meta-analysis of acute stress effects on working memory, inhibition, and cognitive flexibility. We found that stress impaired working memory and cognitive flexibility, whereas it had nuanced effects on inhibition. Many of these effects were moderated by other variables, such as sex. In addition, we compared effects of acute stress on core executive functions to effects of cortisol administration and found some striking differences. Our findings indicate that stress works through mechanisms aside from or in addition to cortisol to produce a state characterized by more reactive processing of salient stimuli but greater control over actions. We conclude by highlighting some important future directions for stress and executive function research. PMID:27371161

  7. The Cortisol Awakening Response Mediates the Relationship Between Acculturative Stress and Self-Reported Health in Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Antonio F; Wilborn, Kristin; Mangold, Deborah L

    2017-12-01

    The assessment of acculturative stress as synonymous with acculturation level overlooks the dynamic, interactive, and developmental nature of the acculturation process. An individual's unique perception and response to a range of stressors at each stage of the dynamic process of acculturation may be associated with stress-induced alterations in important biological response systems that mediate health outcomes. Evidence suggests the cortisol awakening response (CAR) is a promising pre-clinical biomarker of stress exposure that may link acculturative stress to self-reported health in Mexican Americans. The aim of the current study was to examine whether alterations in the CAR mediate the relationship between acculturative stress and self-reported health in Mexican Americans. Salivary cortisol samples were collected at awakening, 30, 45, and 60 min thereafter, on two consecutive weekdays from a sample of adult Mexican Americans. Acculturative stress and self-reported health were assessed. Data were aggregated and analyzed (n = 89) using a mixed effects regression model and path analysis. Poorer self-reported health was associated with attenuated CAR profiles (primarily due to a diminished post-awakening rise in cortisol) predicted by both moderate and high levels of exposure to acculturative stress. Stress-induced alterations in the CAR mediated the relationship between exposure to acculturative stressors and self-reported health. Findings demonstrate that different levels of acculturative stress are associated with distinct CAR profiles and suggest the CAR is one possible biological pathway through which exposure to culturally unique stressors may be linked to health disparities.

  8. Altered Pituitary Gland Structure and Function in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Odelia; Bonert, Vivien; Moser, Franklin; Mirocha, James; Melmed, Shlomo

    2017-06-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to stressors, but links to neurophysiological and neuroanatomical changes are unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine whether stress-induced cortisol alters negative feedback on pituitary corticotroph function and pituitary volume. Prospective controlled study in an outpatient clinic. Subjects with PTSD and matched control subjects underwent pituitary volume measurement on magnetic resonance imaging, with pituitary function assessed by 24-hour urine free cortisol (UFC), 8:00 am cortisol, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels, and ACTH levels after 2-day dexamethasone/corticotropin-releasing hormone test. Primary outcome was pituitary volume; secondary outcomes were ACTH area under the curve (AUC) and 24-hour UFC. Thirty-nine subjects were screened and 10 subjects with PTSD were matched with 10 healthy control subjects by sex and age. Mean pituitary volume was 729.7 mm 3 [standard deviation (SD), 227.3 mm 3 ] in PTSD subjects vs 835.2 mm 3 (SD, 302.8 mm 3 ) in control subjects. ACTH AUC was 262.5 pg/mL (SD, 133.3 pg/mL) L in PTSD vs 244.0 pg/mL (SD, 158.3 pg/mL) in control subjects ( P = 0.80). In PTSD subjects, UFC levels and pituitary volume inversely correlated with PTSD duration; pituitary volume correlated with ACTH AUC in control subjects (Pearson correlation coefficient, 0.88, P = 0.0009) but not in PTSD subjects. The HPA axis may be downregulated and dysregulated in people with PTSD, as demonstrated by discordant pituitary corticotroph function and pituitary volume vs intact HPA feedback and correlation of pituitary volume with ACTH levels in healthy control subjects. The results suggest a link between pituitary structure and function in PTSD, which may point to endocrine targeted therapeutic approaches.

  9. Altered Pituitary Gland Structure and Function in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonert, Vivien; Moser, Franklin; Mirocha, James; Melmed, Shlomo

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to stressors, but links to neurophysiological and neuroanatomical changes are unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine whether stress-induced cortisol alters negative feedback on pituitary corticotroph function and pituitary volume. Design: Prospective controlled study in an outpatient clinic. Methods: Subjects with PTSD and matched control subjects underwent pituitary volume measurement on magnetic resonance imaging, with pituitary function assessed by 24-hour urine free cortisol (UFC), 8:00 am cortisol, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels, and ACTH levels after 2-day dexamethasone/corticotropin-releasing hormone test. Primary outcome was pituitary volume; secondary outcomes were ACTH area under the curve (AUC) and 24-hour UFC. Results: Thirty-nine subjects were screened and 10 subjects with PTSD were matched with 10 healthy control subjects by sex and age. Mean pituitary volume was 729.7 mm3 [standard deviation (SD), 227.3 mm3] in PTSD subjects vs 835.2 mm3 (SD, 302.8 mm3) in control subjects. ACTH AUC was 262.5 pg/mL (SD, 133.3 pg/mL) L in PTSD vs 244.0 pg/mL (SD, 158.3 pg/mL) in control subjects (P = 0.80). In PTSD subjects, UFC levels and pituitary volume inversely correlated with PTSD duration; pituitary volume correlated with ACTH AUC in control subjects (Pearson correlation coefficient, 0.88, P = 0.0009) but not in PTSD subjects. Conclusions: The HPA axis may be downregulated and dysregulated in people with PTSD, as demonstrated by discordant pituitary corticotroph function and pituitary volume vs intact HPA feedback and correlation of pituitary volume with ACTH levels in healthy control subjects. The results suggest a link between pituitary structure and function in PTSD, which may point to endocrine targeted therapeutic approaches. PMID:29264511

  10. New approach for monitoring fish stress: A novel enzyme-functionalized label-free immunosensor system for detecting cortisol levels in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiyun; Ohnuki, Hitoshi; Ota, Shirei; Murata, Masataka; Yoshiura, Yasutoshi; Endo, Hideaki

    2017-07-15

    Fishes display a wide variation in their physiological responses to stress, which is clearly evident in the plasma corticosteroid changes, chiefly cortisol levels in fish. As a well-known indicator of fish stress, a simple and rapid method for detecting cortisol changes especially sudden increases is desired. In this study, we describe an enzyme-functionalized label-free immunosensor system for detecting fish cortisol levels. Detection of cortisol using amperometry was achieved by immobilizing both anti-cortisol antibody (selective detection of cortisol) and glucose oxidase (signal amplification and non-toxic measurement) on an Au electrode surface with a self-assembled monolayer. This system is based on the maximum glucose oxidation output current change induced by the generation of a non-conductive antigen-antibody complex, which depends on the levels of cortisol in the sample. The immunosensor responded to cortisol levels with a linear decrease in the current in the range of 1.25-200ngml -1 (R=0.964). Since the dynamic range of the sensor can cover the normal range of plasma cortisol in fish, the samples obtained from the fish did not need to be diluted. Further, electrochemical measurement of one sample required only ~30min. The sensor system was applied to determine the cortisol levels in plasma sampled from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), which were then compared with levels of the same samples determined using the conventional method (ELISA). Values determined using both methods were well correlated. These findings suggest that the proposed label-free immunosensor could be useful for rapid and convenient analysis of cortisol levels in fish without sample dilution. We also believe that the proposed system could be integrated in a miniaturized potentiostat for point-of-care cortisol detection and useful as a portable diagnostic in fish farms in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Blubber cortisol: a potential tool for assessing stress response in free-ranging dolphins without effects due to sampling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas M Kellar

    Full Text Available When paired with dart biopsying, quantifying cortisol in blubber tissue may provide an index of relative stress levels (i.e., activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in free-ranging cetacean populations while minimizing the effects of the act of sampling. To validate this approach, cortisol was extracted from blubber samples collected from beach-stranded and bycaught short-beaked common dolphins using a modified blubber steroid isolation technique and measured via commercially available enzyme immunoassays. The measurements exhibited appropriate quality characteristics when analyzed via a bootstraped stepwise parallelism analysis (observed/expected = 1.03, 95%CI: 99.6 - 1.08 and showed no evidence of matrix interference with increasing sample size across typical biopsy tissue masses (75-150 mg; r(2 = 0.012, p = 0.78, slope = 0.022 ng(cortisol deviation/ul(tissue extract added. The relationships between blubber cortisol and eight potential cofactors namely, 1 fatality type (e.g., stranded or bycaught, 2 specimen condition (state of decomposition, 3 total body length, 4 sex, 5 sexual maturity state, 6 pregnancy status, 7 lactation state, and 8 adrenal mass, were assessed using a Bayesian generalized linear model averaging technique. Fatality type was the only factor correlated with blubber cortisol, and the magnitude of the effect size was substantial: beach-stranded individuals had on average 6.1-fold higher cortisol levels than those of bycaught individuals. Because of the difference in conditions surrounding these two fatality types, we interpret this relationship as evidence that blubber cortisol is indicative of stress response. We found no evidence of seasonal variation or a relationship between cortisol and the remaining cofactors.

  12. Sex determines cortisol and alpha-amylase responses to acute physical and psychosocial stress in patients with avoidant personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Ishitobi, Yoshinobu; Inoue, Ayako; Oshita, Harumi; Okamoto, Kana; Kawashima, Chiwa; Nakanishi, Mari; Aizawa, Saeko; Masuda, Koji; Maruyama, Yoshihiro; Higuma, Haruka; Kanehisa, Masayuki; Ninomiya, Taiga; Akiyoshi, Jotaro

    2016-08-01

    Avoidant personality disorder (AVPD) has excessive and pervasive anxiety and discomfort in social situations. The aims of this study were to explore the relationship between AVPD and physical and psychological stress and psychological tests. We evaluated 93 AVPD patients and 355 nonpatient controls by salivary amylase and cortisol responses during exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and electrical stimulation stress. Spielberger state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI), Profile of Mood State (POMS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Depression and Anxiety Cognition Scale (DACS), and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) were administered. Following electrical stimulation, salivary cortisol levels in female AVPD decreased significantly less than that in female's controls, but salivary cortisol levels did not show a difference between male AVPD patients and controls. Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) levels did not show a difference between females or male AVPD patients and controls. Following TSST exposure, sAA levels did not show a difference between females or male AVPD patients and controls. Salivary cortisol levels did not show a difference between females or male AVPD patients and controls. In the AVPD patients, POMS scores were significantly higher compared with the controls. STAI, BDI, DACS scores, and CTQ significantly increased in the AVPD patients compared with the controls. LF in heart rate variability in AVPD significantly increased more compared with controls. These results suggest that heightened sympathetic reactivity in female AVPD co-occurs with attenuated salivary cortisol responses to electric stimulation stress and there is a significant difference between AVPD and controls in mood, anxiety, social cognition, and automatic nerve systems.

  13. Perceived weight discrimination and chronic biochemical stress: A population?based study using cortisol in scalp hair

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Sarah E.; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Steptoe, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Objective There is increasing evidence for weight?based discrimination against persons with obesity. This study aimed to examine the physiological impact of perceived weight discrimination on cortisol in hair, an indicator of chronic stress exposure. Methods Data were from 563 nonsmoking individuals with obesity (body mass index, BMI ?30 kg/m2) participating in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Experiences of discrimination were reported via questionnaire, and hair cortisol concentrat...

  14. Salivary Cortisol as a Biomarker of Stress in Mothers and their Low Birth Weight Infants and Sample Collecting Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janevski Milica Ranković

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Salivary cortisol measurement is a non-invasive method suitable for use in neonatal research. Mother-infant separation after birth represents stress and skin-to-skin contact (SSC has numerous benefits. The aim of the study was to measure salivary cortisol in mothers and newborns before and after SSC in order to assess the effect of SSC on mothers’ and infants’ stress and to estimate the efficacy of collecting small saliva samples in newborns.

  15. [Formula: see text]Higher cortisol is associated with poorer executive functioning in preschool children: The role of parenting stress, parent coping and quality of daycare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Shannon L; Cepeda, Ivan; Krieger, Dena; Maggi, Stefania; D'Angiulli, Amedeo; Weinberg, Joanne; Grunau, Ruth E

    2016-01-01

    Child executive functions (cognitive flexibility, inhibitory control, working memory) are key to success in school. Cortisol, the primary stress hormone, is known to affect cognition; however, there is limited information about how child cortisol levels, parenting factors and child care context relate to executive functions in young children. The aim of this study was to examine relationships between child cortisol, parenting stress, parent coping, and daycare quality in relation to executive functions in children aged 3-5 years. We hypothesized that (1) poorer executive functioning would be related to higher child cortisol and higher parenting stress, and (2) positive daycare quality and positive parent coping style would buffer the effects of child cortisol and parenting stress on executive functions. A total of 101 children (53 girls, 48 boys, mean age 4.24 years ±0.74) with complete data on all measures were included. Three saliva samples to measure cortisol were collected at the child's daycare/preschool in one morning. Parents completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Preschool Version (BRIEF-P), Parenting Stress Index (PSI), and Ways of Coping Questionnaire (WCQ). The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale - Revised (ECERS-R) was used to measure the quality of daycare. It was found that children with poorer executive functioning had higher levels of salivary cortisol, and their parents reported higher parenting stress. However, parent coping style and quality of daycare did not modulate these relationships. Identifying ways to promote child executive functioning is an important direction for improving school readiness.

  16. Marked lability in urinary cortisol levels in subgroups of combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder during an intensive exposure treatment program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, John W; Wang, Sheila; Yehuda, Rachel; Lubin, Hadar; Johnson, David; Bremner, J Douglas; Charney, Dennis; Southwick, Steven

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain longitudinal data on lability of cortisol levels in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) because previous studies have largely been based on sampling at a single time point and have yielded varying results. This study measured urinary cortisol levels at admission, midcourse, and discharge during a 90-day hospitalization period in male Vietnam combat veterans with PTSD (N = 51). Although there were no significant differences in the mean +/- SEM urinary cortisol levels between the admission (59.4 +/- 3.0 microg/d), midcourse (55.6 +/- 3.9 microg/d), and discharge (53.4 +/- 3.4 microg/d) values, marked lability of cortisol levels in individual patients was observed over time, with changes ranging from +93 to -58 microg/d from admission to midcourse. In addition, this hormonal lability defined discrete subgroups of patients on the basis of the longitudinal pattern of cortisol change during exposure treatment, and there were significant psychometric differences in the level of social functioning between these subgroups. The findings do not support the concept of either a static "hypocortisolism" or "hypercortisolism" in PTSD, but rather suggest a psychogenic basis for cortisol alterations in PTSD in relation to psychosocial stress and indicate a central regulatory dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis characterized by a dynamic tendency to overreact in both upward and downward directions. The longitudinal findings fit with recent observations that cortisol elevations occur when acutely superimposed stressful conditions emotionally engage patients and overwhelm the usually dominating disengaging coping mechanisms associated with suppression of cortisol levels in PTSD. The findings emphasize the importance of longitudinal data in studies of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in PTSD.

  17. Acute stress-induced cortisol elevations mediate reward system activity during subconscious processing of sexual stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Oei, Nicole Y. L.; Both, Stephanie; van Heemst, Diana; van der Grond, Jeroen

    2014-01-01

    Summary Stress is thought to alter motivational processes by increasing dopamine (DA) secretion in the brain’s ‘‘reward system’’, and its key region, the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). However, stress studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), mainly found evidence for stress-induced decreases in NAcc responsiveness toward reward cues. Results from both animal and human PETstudies indicate that the stress hormone cortisol may be crucial in the interaction between st...

  18. The effects of social stress and cortisol responses on the preconscious selective attention to social threat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, K.; Bakvis, P.; Hermans, E.J.; Pelt, J. van; Honk, E.J. van

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of social stress and stress-induced cortisol on the preconscious selective attention to social threat. Twenty healthy participants were administered a masked emotional Stroop task (comparing color-naming latencies for angry, neutral and

  19. The effects of social stress and cortisol responses on the preconscious selective attention to social threat.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, K.; Bakvis, P.; Hermans, E.J.; Pelt, J. van; Honk, E.J. van

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of social stress and stress-induced cortisol on the preconscious selective attention to social threat. Twenty healthy participants were administered a masked emotional Stroop task (comparing color-naming latencies for angry, neutral and

  20. Stress, cortisol, and other appetite-related hormones: Prospective prediction of 6-month changes in food cravings and weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ariana M; Jastreboff, Ania M; White, Marney A; Grilo, Carlos M; Sinha, Rajita

    2017-04-01

    To examine whether baseline chronic stress, morning cortisol, and other appetite-related hormones (leptin, ghrelin, and insulin) predict future weight gain and food cravings in a naturalistic, longitudinal, 6-month follow-up study. A prospective community cohort of 339 adults (age 29.1 ± 9.0 years; BMI = 26.7 ± 5.4 kg/m 2 ; 56.9% female; 70.2% white) completed assessments at baseline and 6-month follow-up. Fasting blood draws were used to assess cortisol and other appetite-related hormone levels at baseline. At baseline and follow-up, body weight was measured, and the Cumulative Adversity Interview and Food Craving Inventory were administered. Data were analyzed using linear mixed models adjusting for demographic and clinical covariates. Over the 6-month period, 49.9% of the sample gained weight. Food cravings and chronic stress decreased over 6 months (Ps < 0.05). However, after adjusting for covariates, individuals with higher baseline total ghrelin had significantly higher food cravings at 6 months (P = 0.04). Furthermore, higher cortisol, insulin, and chronic stress were each predictive of greater future weight gain (Ps < 0.05). These results suggest that ghrelin plays a role in increased food cravings and reward-driven eating behaviors. Studies are needed that examine the utility of stress reduction methods for normalizing disrupted cortisol responses and preventing future weight gain. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  1. Heated hatha yoga to target cortisol reactivity to stress and affective eating in women at risk for obesity-related illnesses: A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopkins, L.B.; Medina, J.L.; Baird, S.O.; Rosenfield, D.; Powers, M.B.; Smits, J.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Cortisol reactivity to stress is associated with affective eating, an important behavioral risk factor for obesity and related metabolic diseases. Yoga practice is related to decreases in stress and cortisol levels, thus emerging as a potential targeted complementary intervention for

  2. Effect of cortisol infusion patterns and castration on metabolic and immunological indices of stress response in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, S T L; Earley, B; Crowe, M A

    2004-05-01

    This study tested the hypotheses that: (1) either acute stress induced by Burdizzo castration, or cortisol infusion would modulate plasma glucose, insulin and growth hormone (GH) concentrations; and (2) immune modulation induced by cortisol would be dependent on the pattern, intensity and duration of circulating cortisol concentrations. Fifty 9.2-month-old Holstein x Friesian bulls (232 +/- 2.0 kg) were blocked by weight and randomly assigned to one of five treatments (n = 10 per treatment): (1) sham handled control; (2) Burdizzo castration; (3) hydrocortisone infusion to mimic the castration-induced secretion pattern of cortisol; (4) hourly pulse infusion of hydrocortisone; and (5) sustained infusion of hydrocortisone for 8h. Blood samples were collected intensively on day 0, and weekly from days 1 to 35. Castration acutely increased plasma cortisol, GH and haptoglobin concentrations, suppressed lymphocyte in vitro interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production, but had no effect on plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. Cortisol infusion to simulate the castration-induced secretion pattern of cortisol, and pulse infusion of cortisol did not suppress the IFN-gamma production. A sustained infusion of cortisol resulted in the transient suppression of IFN-gamma production. Moreover, the sustained cortisol infusion resulted in increased plasma glucose, insulin and GH concentrations. The overall 14-day feed intakes and 35-day growth rates were not affected by treatments. In conclusion, cortisol infusion to induce immune suppression in vivo occurred only at pharmacological doses. Within physiological ranges, cortisol was not associated with the suppression of immune function, indicating that during castration cortisol per se is not responsible for the suppression of in vitro IFN-gamma production.

  3. Relationship between cortisol reactivity to psychosocial stress and declarative memory decline during aging: Impact of age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Aline Talita; Leyendecker, Dayse Maria D; Costa, Ana Lucia Siqueira; de Souza-Talarico, Juliana Nery

    2018-01-01

    To analyze the relationship between memory performance and the neuroendocrine and cardiovascular response to acute psychosocial stress in healthy older people, and the sex and age impact in this relationship. We randomly selected 100 literate older adults, without cognitive or functional impairment. The neuroendocrine stress response was evaluated by measuring the concentration of salivary cortisol, whereas cardiovascular reactions were determined based on blood pressure and heart rate measures taken before, during and after participant exposure to an acute psychosocial stressor (the Trier social stress test [TSST]). Memory performance was evaluated by applying the word pairs test before and after the TSST. A significant reduction in the word pair test scores was observed after the TSST, and a negative correlation between cortisol concentration and immediate and delayed recall of the word pair. Cortisol concentration associated with age, sex and education explained memory performance variability before and after the TSST. The results showed that the influence of acute stress on memory performance during aging might vary according to age and sex, highlighting potential differences in the vulnerability of older individuals to the neurotoxic effects of stress exposure on memory and consequently on the development of cognitive disorders. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; 18: 169-176. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  4. Longitudinal and Immediate Effect of Kundalini Yoga on Salivary Levels of Cortisol and Activity of Alpha-Amylase and Its Effect on Perceived Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sesnich, Jocelyn N; Flores, Mauricio Garrido; Ríos, Marcela Hernández; Aravena, Jorge Gamonal

    2017-01-01

    Stress is defined as an alteration of an organism's balance in response to a demand perceived from the environment. Diverse methods exist to evaluate physiological response. A noninvasive method is salivary measurement of cortisol and alpha-amylase. A growing body of evidence suggests that the regular practice of Yoga would be an effective treatment for stress. To determine the Kundalini Yoga (KY) effect, immediate and after 3 months of regular practice, on the perception of psychological stress and the salivary levels of cortisol and alpha-amylase activity. To determine the psychological perceived stress, levels of cortisol and alpha-amylase activity in saliva, and compare between the participants to KY classes performed for 3 months and a group that does not practice any type of yoga. The total sample consisted of 26 people between 18 and 45-year-old; 13 taking part in KY classes given at the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Chile and 13 controls. Salivary samples were collected, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to quantify cortisol and kinetic reaction test was made to determine alpha-amylase activity. Perceived Stress Scale was applied at the beginning and at the end of the intervention. Statistical analysis was applied using Stata v11.1 software. Shapiro-Wilk test was used to determine data distribution. The paired analysis was fulfilled by t -test or Wilcoxon signed-rank test. T -test or Mann-Whitney's test was applied to compare longitudinal data. A statistical significance was considered when P < 0.05. KY practice had an immediate effect on salivary cortisol. The activity of alpha-amylase did not show significant changes. A significant decrease of perceived stress in the study group was found. KY practice shows an immediate effect on salivary cortisol levels and on perceived stress after 3 months of practice.

  5. Stress, Cortisol, and Externalizing Behavior in Adolescent Males: An Examination in the Context of Multisystemic Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechter, Julia C.; Brennan, Patricia A.; Cunningham, Phillippe B.; Foster, Sharon L.; Whitmore, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Stress and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation have been associated with externalizing behavior in adolescence, but few studies have examined these factors in a treatment context. This study investigated the relationship between stress, cortisol, and externalizing behavior among 120 adolescent males (mean age = 15) receiving…

  6. Adolescents' cortisol responses to awakening and social stress; Effects of gender, menstrual phase and oral contraceptives. The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Esther M. C.; Riese, Harriette; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    Studies on the influence of sex hormones on cortisol responses to awakening and stress have mainly been conducted in adults, while reports on adolescents are scarce. We studied the effects of gender, menstrual cycle phase and oral contraceptive (OC) use on cortisol responses in a large sample of

  7. Determinants of cortisol during pregnancy - The ABCD cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleker, Laura S; Roseboom, Tessa J; Vrijkotte, Tanja G; Reynolds, Rebecca M; de Rooij, Susanne R

    2017-09-01

    Psychosocial stress during pregnancy has been proposed as a major contributor of glucocorticoid-mediated programming of the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis, with later adverse health consequences. However, evidence linking maternal stress to maternal cortisol values during pregnancy is inconclusive. A possible explanation for this is that other maternal factors overshadow any potential effects of stress on cortisol levels. We studied a large cohort of pregnant women with extensive data on pregnancy characteristics to determine the respective contributions of biological, environmental and psychosocial stress factors to cortisol levels in pregnancy. We used data from 3039 women from the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development-study cohort. Serum cortisol was measured in blood, collected at the first prenatal visit, at different gestational ages (median=91days, range=40-256days), and at various time points during the day (median=11:45h, range=08:00-18:30h). We assessed associations between maternal serum cortisol in pregnancy and biological factors, lifestyle factors and stress factors, including depression, anxiety, pregnancy-related anxiety, work stress, parenting stress and fatigue. In multivariable analysis, variables that were associated with higher cortisol levels in pregnancy were lower maternal age [1.5nmol/l, 95%CI (0.6-2.4)], being nulliparous [21.5 nmol/l (15.9-27.1)], lower pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) [1.3nmol/l (0.3-2.4)], higher C-reactive protein (CRP) [1.0nmol/l (0.4-1.5)], carrying a female fetus [9.2nmol/l (1.8-16.5)], non-smoking [14.2nmol/l (0.6-27.7)], sufficient sleep [8.5nmol/l (0.9-16.1)], and being unemployed [12.7nmol/l (2.2-23.2)]. None of the psychosocial stressors was significantly associated with serum cortisol levels in pregnancy. A total of 32% of all variance in cortisol was explained by gestational age, maternal age, time of day, parity, pre-pregnancy BMI, CRP, fetal sex, smoking behavior, self

  8. Psychobiology of cumulative trauma: hair cortisol as a risk marker for stress exposure in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Matthew C; Abelson, James L; Mielock, Alyssa S; Rao, Uma

    2017-07-01

    Childhood trauma (CT) is associated with long-lasting alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and elevated risk for stress exposure in adulthood. Although HPA alterations are present in the early aftermath of trauma, it remains unclear how initial HPA activity is associated with subsequent stress exposure and whether CT exposure influences the strength and direction of this association. The present study examined prospective associations between hair cortisol content (HCC) and stress exposure from baseline to 3-month follow-up in young adult women with recent (i.e. past 3 months) exposure to interpersonal violence (IPV; i.e. physical or sexual assault) and non-traumatized controls. History of significant CT abuse or neglect was determined based on clinical cutoffs for a self-report CT measure: 12 women had abuse or neglect and recent IPV exposure (CT + IPV); 7 women had abuse or neglect but no IPV exposure (CT); 15 women had no history of trauma (NTC). HCC was computed for 3 cm sections reflecting cortisol secretion during the 3 months preceding the baseline assessment. The interaction of cumulative trauma and HCC predicted stress exposure over 3-month follow-up, controlling for baseline stress exposure and depressive symptoms. Simple slopes analyses revealed that lower baseline HCC predicted greater stress exposure in the CT + IPV group compared to the CT group; HCC was not associated with stress exposure in the NTC group. The present findings highlight the potential utility of HCC as a predictor of stress exposure for women with a history of childhood abuse or neglect, particularly in the context of recent IPV. Lay summary Adults with a history of CT show long-lasting alterations in major stress response systems, including the HPA axis. They are also more likely to experience stressful life events in adulthood. However, it is not clear how altered HPA activity influences risk for stress exposure and whether CT affects their

  9. Relationship among Periodontal Disease, Insulin Resistance, Salivary Cortisol, and Stress Levels during Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seraphim, Ana Paula Castilho Garcia; Chiba, Fernando Yamamoto; Pereira, Renato Felipe; Mattera, Maria Sara de Lima Coutinho; Moimaz, Suzely Adas Saliba; Sumida, Doris Hissako

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy is a period involving important metabolic changes that enable the maintenance of the mother's health and development of the fetus. This study aimed to assess the relationship among periodontal disease, insulin resistance, salivary cortisol concentration and level of perceived stress in pregnant women. This was a cross-sectional study. The sample comprised 96 pregnant women between the fifth and seventh month of pregnancy registered at the Basic Health Units of the Unified Health System (SUS). The periodontal condition was assessed after obtainment free and informed consent from the participants. Participants were divided into three groups: control subjects with a healthy periodontal condition (CN; n=46), patients with gingivitis (GI; n=26), and patients with periodontitis (PI; n=24). Saliva and blood samples were collected for evaluation of salivary cortisol concentration, glycemia, insulinemia and Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance index. A validated survey for the assessment of perceived stress levels was also performed. PI group showed significantly higher (pperiodontal disease during pregnancy. This study emphasizes the importance of preventing periodontitis in order to avoid insulin resistance and stress during pregnancy since these can cause systemic complications for the mother and the fetus.

  10. The Cortisol Paradox of Trauma-Related Disorders: Lower Phasic Responses but Higher Tonic Levels of Cortisol Are Associated with Sexual Abuse in Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Schalinski, Inga; Elbert, Thomas; Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    ObjectivesInconsistent findings exist for the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in patients with stress related disorders. Recent studies point towards early life stress as a potential modulator.MethodsWe investigated the impact of childhood sexual abuse on phasic (saliva cortisol reactivity) and tonic (hair cortisol) regulation. Furthermore, we assessed predictors on cortisol accumulation in hair. Women (N = 43) with stress-related disorders underwent a standardized a...

  11. Night work, long working hours, psychosocial work stress and cortisol secretion in mid-life: evidence from a British birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, C; Hertzman, C; Power, C

    2009-12-01

    To examine the relationships between exposure to workplace factors (night work, extended working hours, psychosocial work stress) and cortisol secretion, and to test whether workplace factors interact, resulting in combined effects. Multiple linear and logistic regression was used to test relationships between workplace factors and cortisol secretion in the 1958 British birth cohort at 45 years. Salivary cortisol was measured twice on the same day to capture the post-waking decline, facilitating the analysis of different cortisol patterns: (1) time 1 (T1, 45 minutes post-waking); (2) time 2 (T2, 3 h after T1); (3) average 3 h exposure from T1 to T2 cortisol; and (4) T1 to T2 change. To identify altered diurnal cortisol patterns we calculated: (1) flat T1-T2 change in cortisol; (2) top 5% T1; (3) bottom 5% T1; and (4) T1 hypo-secretion or hyper-secretion. Models were adjusted for socioeconomic position at birth and in adulthood, qualifications, marital status, dependent children, and smoking status. 25% of men and 8% of women were exposed to >1 workplace factor (night work, extended work hours, job strain). Night work was associated with a 4.28% (95% CI 1.21 to 7.45) increase in average 3 h cortisol secretion independently of job strain or work hours. Night workers not exposed to job strain had elevated T1 cortisol (5.81%, 95% CI 1.61 to 10.19), although for T2 cortisol it was night workers exposed to low job control who had elevated levels (11.72%, 95% CI 4.40 to 19.55). Men (but not women) working >48 h/week had lower average 3 h cortisol secretion (4.55%, 95% CI -8.43 to -0.50). There were no main effects for psychosocial work stress. All associations for T2 and average 3 h cortisol secretion weakened slightly after adjustment for confounding factors, but associations for T1 cortisol were unaffected by adjustment. Our study suggests that night work in particular is associated with elevated cortisol secretion and that cortisol dysregulation may exist in subgroups

  12. Heated hatha yoga to target cortisol reactivity to stress and affective eating in women at risk for obesity-related illnesses: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Lindsey B; Medina, Johnna L; Baird, Scarlett O; Rosenfield, David; Powers, Mark B; Smits, Jasper A J

    2016-06-01

    Cortisol reactivity to stress is associated with affective eating, an important behavioral risk factor for obesity and related metabolic diseases. Yoga practice is related to decreases in stress and cortisol levels, thus emerging as a potential targeted complementary intervention for affective eating. This randomized controlled trial examined the efficacy of a heated, hatha yoga intervention for reducing cortisol reactivity to stress and affective eating. Females (N = 52; ages 25-46 years; 75% White) at risk for obesity and related illnesses were randomly assigned to 8 weeks of Bikram Yoga practice or to waitlist control. Cortisol reactivity to a laboratory stress induction were measured at Weeks 0 (pretreatment) and 9 (posttreatment). Self-reported binge eating frequency and coping motives for eating were assessed at Weeks 0, 3, 6, and 9. Among participants with elevated cortisol reactivity at pretreatment ("high reactors"), those randomized to the yoga condition evidenced greater pre- to posttreatment reductions in cortisol reactivity (p = .042, d = .85), but there were not significant condition differences for the "low reactors" (p = .178, d = .53). Yoga participants reported greater decreases in binge eating frequency (p = .040, d = .62) and eating to cope with negative affect (p = .038, d = .54). This study provides preliminary support for the efficacy of heated hatha yoga for treating physiological stress reactivity and affective eating among women at risk for obesity-related illnesses. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. High environmental ammonia exposure has developmental-stage specific and long-term consequences on the cortisol stress response in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Tegan A; Bonham, Luke A; Bernier, Nicholas J

    2017-12-01

    The capacity for early life environmental stressors to induce programming effects on the endocrine stress response in fish is largely unknown. In this study we determined the effects of high environmental ammonia (HEA) exposure on the stress response in larval zebrafish, assessed the tolerance of embryonic and larval stages to HEA, and evaluated whether early life HEA exposure has long-term consequences on the cortisol response to a novel stressor. Exposure to 500-2000μM NH 4 Cl for 16h did not affect the gene expression of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system components in 1day post-fertilization (dpf) embryos, but differentially increased crfa, crfb and CRF binding protein (crfbp) expression and stimulated both dose- and time-dependent increases in the whole body cortisol of 5dpf larvae. Pre-acclimation to HEA at 1dpf did not affect the cortisol response to a subsequent NH 4 Cl exposure at 5dpf. In contrast, pre-acclimation to HEA at 5dpf caused a small but significant reduction in the cortisol response to a second NH 4 Cl exposure at 10dpf. While continuous exposure to 500-2000μM NH 4 Cl between 0 and 5dpf had a modest effect on mean survival time, exposure to 400-1000μM NH 4 Cl between 10 and 14dpf decreased mean survival time in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, pre-acclimation to HEA at 5dpf significantly decreased the risk of mortality to continuous NH 4 Cl exposure between 10 and 14dpf. Finally, while HEA at 1dpf did not affect the cortisol stress response to a novel vortex stressor at 5dpf, the same HEA treatment at 5dpf abolished vortex stressor-induced increases in whole body cortisol at 10 and 60dpf. Together these results show that the impact of HEA on the cortisol stress response during development is life-stage specific and closely linked to ammonia tolerance. Further, we demonstrate that HEA exposure at the larval stage can have persistent effects on the capacity to respond to stressors in later life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All

  14. Mothers' parenting stress is associated with salivary cortisol profiles in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpa, Terpsichori; Pervanidou, Panagiota; Angeli, Eleni; Apostolakou, Filia; Papanikolaou, Katerina; Papassotiriou, Ioannis; Chrousos, George P; Kolaitis, Gerasimos

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relation between mothers' parenting stress and the functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA), as expressed by daily salivary cortisol concentrations, in their children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Seventy-five children aged 6-11 years diagnosed with ADHD predominant hyperactive-impulsive/combined (ADHD-HI/C, N = 49) and inattentive symptoms (ADHD-I, N = 26) and 45 healthy peers and their mothers participated in the study. Μothers completed measures assessing their children's ADHD status, perceived parenting stress (Parenting Stress Index - Short Form, PSI-SF), mothers' symptoms of psychopathology, social support and socioeconomic status. Children's salivary cortisol samples were collected at six different time points on a single day. Mothers of children with ADHD-HI/C reported higher levels of parenting stress than mothers of children with ADHD-I and controls. All PSI-SF subscales showed significant associations with children's cortisol awakening response (CAR) in both ADHD groups, with the exception of the parental distress subscale in the ADHD-I group. In both ADHD groups, the parent-child dysfunctional interaction subscale, the difficult child subscale and the PSI total score were significantly associated with children's CAR. An interrelation is revealed between mothers' high levels of parenting stress and HPAA functioning in children with ADHD. In this population, CAR has been identified as a sensitive peripheral measure of HPAA functioning in children. Lay summaryThis study showed that in families of children diagnosed with ADHD, there is a complex relation between the mothers' high levels of parenting stress and children's atypical hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning.

  15. The moderating role of meaning in life in the relationship between perceived stress and diurnal cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulopulos, Matias M; Kozusznik, Malgorzata W

    2018-05-01

    Previous studies have suggested that meaning in life may buffer the negative effects of stress. This study is the first to investigate the moderating role of meaning in life in the relationship between the perception of stress and diurnal cortisol in two independent samples of healthy adults. In study 1 (n = 172, men = 82, women = 90, age range = 21-55 years, mean age = 37.58 years), the results of moderated regression analyses revealed that there was a significant positive relationship between overall perceived stress in the past month and both diurnal cortisol levels (area-under-the-curve with respect to the ground; AUCg) and the diurnal cortisol slope (DCS) only in individuals with low levels of meaning in life conceptualized as the degree to which one engages in activities that are personally valued and important. In study 2 (n = 259, men = 125, women = 134, age range = 18-54 years, mean age = 29.06 years), we found a non-significant interaction term between meaning in life conceptualized as having goals and a sense of excitement regarding one's future and perception of stress in a model of both adjusted AUCg and DCS. The results were independent of age, sex, body mass index, education, and race. The results shed light on the importance and the complexity of the construct of meaning in life and offer a possible explanation for why some people who face stressors may be more vulnerable than others to developing stress-related health problems.

  16. Ghrelin-reactive immunoglobulins and anxiety, depression and stress-induced cortisol response in adolescents. The TRAILS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Marie; Schaefer, Johanna M; Bole-Feysot, Christine; Déchelotte, Pierre; Verhulst, Frank C; Fetissov, Sergueï O

    2015-06-03

    Ghrelin, a hunger hormone, has been implicated in the regulation of stress-response, anxiety and depression. Ghrelin-reactive immunoglobulins (Ig) were recently identified in healthy and obese humans showing abilities to increase ghrelin's stability and orexigenic effects. Here we studied if ghrelin-reactive Ig are associated with anxiety and depression and with the stress-induced cortisol response in a general population of adolescents. Furthermore, to test the possible infectious origin of ghrelin-reactive Ig, their levels were compared with serum IgG against common viruses. We measured ghrelin-reactive IgM, IgG and IgA in serum samples of 1199 adolescents from the Dutch TRAILS study and tested their associations with 1) anxiety and depression symptoms assessed with the Youth Self-Report, 2) stress-induced salivary cortisol levels and 3) IgG against human herpesvirus 1, 2, 4 and 6 and Influenza A and B viruses. Ghrelin-reactive IgM and IgG correlated positively with levels of antibodies against Influenza A virus. Ghrelin-reactive IgM correlated negatively with antibodies against Influenza B virus. Ghrelin-reactive IgM correlated positively with anxiety scores in girls and ghrelin-reactive IgG correlated with stress-induced cortisol secretion, but these associations were weak and not significant after correction for multiple testing. These data indicate that production of ghrelin-reactive autoantibodies could be influenced by viral infections. Serum levels of ghrelin-reactive autoantibodies probably do not play a role in regulating anxiety, depression and the stress-response in adolescents from the general population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol responsiveness following electrical stimulation stress in major depressive disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Ishitobi, Yoshinobu; Maruyama, Yoshihiro; Kawano, Aimi; Ando, Tomoko; Okamoto, Shizuko; Kanehisa, Masayuki; Higuma, Haruka; Ninomiya, Taiga; Tsuru, Jusen; Hanada, Hiroaki; Kodama, Kensuke; Isogawa, Koichi; Akiyoshi, Jotaro

    2012-03-30

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is often associated with dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis by chronic stress. In comparison, psychosocial stress-induced activation of salivary α-amylase (sAA) functions as a marker of sympathoadrenal medullary system (SAM) activity. However, in contrast to salivary cortisol, sAA has been less extensively studied in MDD patients. The present study measured sAA and salivary cortisol levels in patients with MDD. The authors determined Profile of Mood State (POMS) and State-Trait anxiety Inventory (STAI) scores, Heart Rate Variability (HRV), and sAA and salivary cortisol levels in 88 patients with MDD and 41 healthy volunteers following the application of electrical stimulation stress. Patients with major depressive disorder were 8 points or more on Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D) scores. Tension-Anxiety, Depression-Dejection, Anger-Hostility, Fatigue, and Confusion scores in patients with major depressive disorder were significantly increased compared to healthy controls. In contrast, Vigor scores in patients with MDD were significantly decreased compared with healthy controls. There was no difference in heart rate variability measures between MDD patients and healthy controls. The threshold of electrical stimulation applied in MDD patients was lower than that in healthy controls. SAA levels in female MDD patients were significantly elevated relative to controls both before and after electrical stimulation. Finally, there were no differences in salivary cortisol levels between major depressive patients and controls. In the present study only three time points were explored. Furthermore, the increased secretion of sAA before and after stimulation could allude to an increased responsiveness of novel and uncontrollable situations in patients with MDD. These preliminary results suggest that sAA might be a useful biological marker of MDD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Associations between circadian and stress response cortisol in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, S.S.H.; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Weerth, C. de

    2017-01-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning is characterized by the baseline production of cortisol following a circadian rhythm, as well as by the superimposed production of cortisol in response to a stressor. However, it is relatively unknown whether the basal cortisol circadian rhythm

  19. Serum leptin and cortisol, related to acutely perceived academic examination stress and performance in female university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haleem, Darakhshan J; Inam, Qurrat-Ul-Aen; Haider, Saida; Perveen, Tahira; Haleem, Muhammad Abdul

    2015-12-01

    Leptin, identified as an antiobesity hormone, also has important role in responses to stress and processing of memory. This study was designed to determine effects of academic examination stress-induced changes in serum leptin and its impact on academic performance. Eighty five healthy female students (age 19-21 years; BMI 21.9 ± 1.6) were recruited for the study. Serum leptin and cortisol were monitored at base line (beginning of academic session) and on the day of examination; using a standardized ELISA kit. Acute perception of academic examination stress was determined with the help of a questionnaire derived from Hamilton Anxiety Scale and self report of stress perception. Academic performance was evaluated by the percentage of marks obtained in the examination. Serum cortisol levels were positively correlated (p academic performance. There was an inverted U-shape relationship between level of stress and academic performance. Leptin increased in all stress groups and correlated (p academic performance. There was an inverted U-shape relationship between level of stress and circulating leptin. The findings suggest the peptide hormone, leptin, is a biomarker of stress perception and a mediator of facilitating effects of stress on cognition.

  20. Multiple Salivary Cortisol Measurements Are a Useful Tool to Optimize Metyrapone Treatment in Patients with Cushing's Syndromes Treatment: Case Presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kenichi; Fukuoka, Hidenori; Odake, Yukiko; Nakajima, Shinsuke; Tachibana, Mariko; Ito, Jun; Hosokawa, Yusei; Yamada, Tomoko; Miura, Hiroshi; Suematsu, Natsu; Matsumoto, Ryusaku; Bando, Hironori; Suda, Kentaro; Nishizawa, Hitoshi; Iguchi, Genzo; Ogawa, Wataru; Takahashi, Yutaka

    2017-01-01

    Measuring salivary cortisol is both convenient and non-invasive for patients; however, its usefulness as a marker for monitoring medical therapy has not yet been established. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of multiple salivary cortisol measurements in patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS) during medical therapy. Six patients with CS (three with cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenoma and three with ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma) were recruited. Samples for morning serum cortisol, urinary free cortisol (UFC), and multiple salivary cortisol levels were collected before and during metyrapone treatment. The area under the curve (AUC) and mean value (MV) of daily salivary cortisol levels were calculated. In five out of six patients, UFC were normalized; however, multiple salivary cortisol measurements revealed an impaired diurnal cortisol rhythm in these patients. To verify the usefulness of multiple salivary cortisol measurements, we performed a prospective case study of a patient in whom the excess secretion of cortisol was not controlled (UFC 211 μg/day) with 2,250 mg/day in four divided doses of metyrapone. Multiple measurements of salivary cortisol revealed that cortisol levels elevated before the next administration. Accordingly, we shortened the interval by increasing the number of administration from four to five times per day, with a slight increment of daily dose of 2,500 mg. These optimizations resulted in a drastic improvement of diurnal pattern as well as UFC level (101 μg/day). Changes in both the MV and AUC of salivary cortisol levels were more correlated with those in UFC levels (Correlation coefficient 0.75, p  = 0.007, and 0.70, p  = 0.017) than those in the morning serum cortisol levels (0.42, p  = 0.200), indicating that multiple salivary cortisol measurements reflect more precisely the excess secretion of cortisol. Our preliminary data suggest that multiple salivary cortisol measurements can be a useful

  1. BDNF and cortisol levels in children with or without post-traumatic stress disorder after sustaining sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Seref; Uysal, Cem; Kaplan, Ibrahim; Yuksel, Tugba; Aktas, Huseyin

    2015-06-01

    There are studies reporting that cortisol and brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) play a role in the pathophysiology of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, up-to-date no study evaluated the relationship between PTSD and the levels of cortisol and BDNF in children and adolescents who have sustained trauma. The aim of this study was to investigate whether BDNF, cortisol and adrenocorticotropine (ACTH) levels differ between individuals who developed PTSD or not following a sexual trauma. The study included 55 children aged between 6 and 17 years who sustained sexual assault (M/F: 13/42). The patients were divided into two groups, with or without PTSD based on the results of a structured psychiatric interview (K-SADS-PL and CAPS-CA). Of the participants, 49% (n=27) were diagnosed with PTSD. Cortisol, ACTH, and BDNF levels were evaluated using the ELISA method. There were no significant differences between patients with or without PTSD in terms of cortisol, ACTH, BDNF levels. There were no correlations between CAPS-CA scores and cortisol, ACTH, and BDNF levels in patients with or without PTSD. In patients with PTSD, decreased cortisol levels were found with increasing time after trauma, and no significant correlation was found with the cortisol levels in patients without PTSD. Although no significant association was found between biochemical parameters and the presence or severity of PTSD; decreasing cortisol levels with increasing time after trauma in patients with PTSD suggest that cortisol might have played a role in the pathophysiology of this disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Does cortisol influence core executive functions? A meta-analysis of acute cortisol administration effects on working memory, inhibition, and set-shifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Grant S; Bonner, Joseph C; Moons, Wesley G

    2015-08-01

    The hormone cortisol is often believed to play a pivotal role in the effects of stress on human cognition. This meta-analysis is an attempt to determine the effects of acute cortisol administration on core executive functions. Drawing on both rodent and stress literatures, we hypothesized that acute cortisol administration would impair working memory and set-shifting but enhance inhibition. Additionally, because cortisol is thought to exert different nongenomic (rapid) and genomic (slow) effects, we further hypothesized that the effects of cortisol would differ as a function of the delay between cortisol administration and cognitive testing. Although the overall analyses were nonsignificant, after separating the rapid, nongenomic effects of cortisol from the slower, genomic effects of cortisol, the rapid effects of cortisol enhanced response inhibition, g+ = 0.113, p=.016, but impaired working memory, g+ = -0.315, p=.008, although these effects reversed over time. Contrary to our hypotheses, there was no effect of cortisol administration on set-shifting. Thus, although we did not find support for the idea that increases in cortisol influence set-shifting, we found that acute increases in cortisol exert differential effects on working memory and inhibition over time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Stress in School. Some Empirical Hints on the Circadian Cortisol Rhythm of Children in Outdoor and Indoor Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettweiler, Ulrich; Becker, Christoph; Auestad, Bjørn H; Simon, Perikles; Kirsch, Peter

    2017-04-30

    This prospective longitudinal survey compared the stress levels of students taught using an outdoor curriculum in a forest, with children in a normal school setting. We were especially interested in the effect outdoor teaching might have on the children's normal diurnal cortisol rhythm. 48 children (mean age = 11.23; standard deviation (SD) = 0.46) were enrolled, with 37 in the intervention group (IG), and 11 in the control group (CG). The intervention consisted of one full school day per week in the forest over the school year. Stress levels were measured in cortisol with three samples of saliva per day. Furthermore, the data allowed for statistical control of physical activity (PA) values. For data analysis, we used a linear mixed-effects model (LMM) with random intercept and general correlation matrix for the within-unit residuals. The LMM yields that IG have expected greater decline of cortisol compared to CG; rate 0.069 µg/L vs. 0.0102 µg/L (log-units/2 h), p = 0.009. PA does not show a statistically significant interaction with cortisol ( p = 0.857), despite being higher in the intervention group ( p child's diurnal rhythm, with a significant decline of cortisol from morning to noon. This effect is constant over the school year. The CG does not show this decline during either measurement day. Further research is needed to fully explain this interesting phenomenon.

  4. Effects of cortisol administration on craving in heroin addicts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walter, M.; Bentz, D.; Schicktanz, N.; Milnik, A.; Aerni, A.; Gerhards, C.; Schwegler, K.; Vogel, M.; Blum, J.; Schmid, O.; Roozendaal, B.; Lang, U.E.; Borgwardt, S.; Quervain, D. de

    2015-01-01

    Heroin dependence is a severe and chronically relapsing substance use disorder with limited treatment options. Stress is known to increase craving and drug-taking behavior, but it is not known whether the stress hormone cortisol mediates these stress effects or whether cortisol may rather reduce

  5. Pre-treatment cortisol awakening response predicts symptom reduction in posttraumatic stress disorder after treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rapcencu, A.E.; Gorter, R.; Kennis, Mitzy; van Rooij, S.J.H.; Geuze, E.

    2017-01-01

    Dysfunction of the HPA-axis has frequently been found in the aftermath of trauma exposure with or without PTSD. Decreasing HPA-axis reactivity to different stress cues has been reported during PTSD treatment. The cortisol awakening response (CARi) is a well-validated, standardized measure of

  6. Pre-treatment cortisol awakening response predicts symptom reduction in posttraumatic stress disorder after treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rapcencu, A E; Gorter, R; Kennis, M; van Rooij, S J H; Geuze, E

    Dysfunction of the HPA-axis has frequently been found in the aftermath of trauma exposure with or without PTSD. Decreasing HPA-axis reactivity to different stress cues has been reported during PTSD treatment. The cortisol awakening response (CARi) is a well-validated, standardized measure of

  7. Diurnal cortisol rhythms among Latino immigrants in Oregon, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Squires Erica C

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract One of the most commonly used stress biomarkers is cortisol, a glucocorticoid hormone released by the adrenal glands that is central to the physiological stress response. Free cortisol can be measured in saliva and has been the biomarker of choice in stress studies measuring the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Chronic psychosocial stress can lead to dysregulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function and results in an abnormal diurnal cortisol profile. Little is known about objectively measured stress and health in Latino populations in the United States, yet this is likely an important factor in understanding health disparities that exist between Latinos and whites. The present study was designed to measure cortisol profiles among Latino immigrant farmworkers in Oregon (USA, and to compare quantitative and qualitative measures of stress in this population. Our results indicate that there were no sex differences in average cortisol AUCg (area under the curve with respect to the ground over two days (AvgAUCg; males = 1.38, females = 1.60; P = 0.415. AUCg1 (Day 1 AUCg and AvgAUCg were significantly negatively associated with age in men (PPPP

  8. Stressful Life Events and Daily Stressors Affect Awakening Cortisol Level in Midlife Mothers of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jen D.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.; Hong, Jinkuk; Almeida, David M.; Coe, Christopher L.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The current study examines the awakening cortisol level in midlife mothers (M=51.4 years old, SD=8.4) of individuals (M=22.1 years old, SD=7.1) with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) under stressful conditions that are not specific to the son or daughter's ASD symptoms. Methods In addition to completing a set of questionnaires and in-home interviews, 82 mothers from the Adolescents and Adults with Autism Study (AAA) participated in a Daily Diary Study. Results Findings from the multilevel models indicated that mothers who previously were exposed to no negative life events in the previous period had an increased awakening cortisol level on days following a greater number and more severe stressors, a normative stress response. In contrast, we observed a flatter cortisol level of daily stressors in mothers who experienced a greater number of negative life events in the previous period. Conclusion These findings highlight the sustained toll that global and everyday stressors have on awakening cortisol level of midlife and aging mothers of individuals with ASD. PMID:22640177

  9. Acute Stress and Anxiety in Medical Residents on the Emergency Department Duty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín M. González-Cabrera

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this longitudinal study were to compare salivary cortisol release patterns in medical residents and their self-perceived anxiety levels between a regular working day and a day when on call in the emergency department (ED-duty day and to determine any differences in cortisol release pattern as a function of years of residency or sex. The study included 35 residents (physicians-in-training of the Granada University Hospital, Granada, Spain. Acute stress was measured on a regular working day and an ED-duty day, evaluating anxiety-state with the Spanish version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Physiological stress assessment was based on salivary cortisol levels. Cortisol release concentrations were higher on an ED-duty day than on a regular working day, with a significantly increased area under the curve (AUC (p < 0.006. This difference slightly attenuated with longer residency experience. No gender difference in anxiety levels was observed (p < 0.001. According to these findings, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and anxiety levels of medical residents are higher on an ED-duty day than on a regular working day.

  10. Social Media under the Skin: Facebook Use after Acute Stress Impairs Cortisol Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rus, Holly M; Tiemensma, Jitske

    2017-01-01

    Social media's influence on stress remains largely unknown. Conflicting research suggests that Facebook use may both enhance and undermine psychosocial constructs related to well-being. Using novel experimental methods, this study examined the impact of social media use on stress recovery. Facebook users ( n = 92, 49 males, mean age 19.55 SD = 1.63) were randomly assigned to use their own Facebook profile or quietly read after experiencing an acute social stressor. All participants showed significant changes in subjective and physiological stress markers during recovery. Participants who used Facebook experienced greater sustained cortisol concentration ( p Facebook use may negatively impact well-being.

  11. Work stress and hair cortisol levels among workers in a Bangladeshi ready-made garment factory - results from a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinisch, M.; Yusuf, R.; Li, J.; Stalder, T.; Bosch, J.A.; Rahman, O.; Strümpell, C.; Ashraf, H.; Fischer, J.E.; Loerbroks, A.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence on the association of work stress with cortisol levels is inconsistent and mostly stems from Western countries, with limited generalizability to other regions of the world. These inconsistencies may partly be due to methodological limitations associated with the measurement of cortisol

  12. Surplus dietary tryptophan reduces plasma cortisol and noradrenaline concentrations and enhances recovery after social stress in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmans, Sietse Jan; Ruis, Marko; Dekker, Ruud; van Diepen, Hans; Korte, Mechiel; Mroz, Zdzislaw

    2005-07-21

    Social stress occurs in intensive pig farming due to aggressive behavior. This stress may be reduced at elevated dietary levels of tryptophan (TRP). In this study, we compared the effects of high (13.2%) vs. normal (3.4%) dietary TRP to large neutral amino acid (LNAA) ratios on behavior and stress hormones in catheterized pigs ( approximately 50 kg BW), which were exposed to social stress by placing them twice into the territory of a dominant pig ( approximately 60 kg) for 15 min. Pre-stress plasma TRP concentrations were 156+/-15 vs. 53+/-6 micromol/l (psocial confrontations, pigs on the high vs. normal TRP diets show a tendency towards reduced active avoidance behavior (3.2+/-1.1 vs. 6.7+/-1.2 min, psocial confrontations, the post-stress plasma cortisol, noradrenaline and adrenaline concentrations and/or curves (from +5 min to 2 h) were lower/steeper (psurplus TRP in diets for pigs (1) does not significantly affect behavior when exposed to social stress, (2) reduces basal plasma cortisol and noradrenaline concentrations, (3) does not affect the immediate hormonal response to stress, and (4) reduces the long-term hormonal response to stress. In general, pigs receiving high dietary TRP were found to be less affected by stress.

  13. Multiple Salivary Cortisol Measurements Are a Useful Tool to Optimize Metyrapone Treatment in Patients with Cushing’s Syndromes Treatment: Case Presentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Yoshida

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Measuring salivary cortisol is both convenient and non-invasive for patients; however, its usefulness as a marker for monitoring medical therapy has not yet been established. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of multiple salivary cortisol measurements in patients with Cushing’s syndrome (CS during medical therapy. Six patients with CS (three with cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenoma and three with ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma were recruited. Samples for morning serum cortisol, urinary free cortisol (UFC, and multiple salivary cortisol levels were collected before and during metyrapone treatment. The area under the curve (AUC and mean value (MV of daily salivary cortisol levels were calculated. In five out of six patients, UFC were normalized; however, multiple salivary cortisol measurements revealed an impaired diurnal cortisol rhythm in these patients. To verify the usefulness of multiple salivary cortisol measurements, we performed a prospective case study of a patient in whom the excess secretion of cortisol was not controlled (UFC 211 μg/day with 2,250 mg/day in four divided doses of metyrapone. Multiple measurements of salivary cortisol revealed that cortisol levels elevated before the next administration. Accordingly, we shortened the interval by increasing the number of administration from four to five times per day, with a slight increment of daily dose of 2,500 mg. These optimizations resulted in a drastic improvement of diurnal pattern as well as UFC level (101 μg/day. Changes in both the MV and AUC of salivary cortisol levels were more correlated with those in UFC levels (Correlation coefficient 0.75, p = 0.007, and 0.70, p = 0.017 than those in the morning serum cortisol levels (0.42, p = 0.200, indicating that multiple salivary cortisol measurements reflect more precisely the excess secretion of cortisol. Our preliminary data suggest that multiple salivary cortisol measurements can be a

  14. Longitudinal and immediate effect of Kundalini Yoga on salivary levels of cortisol and activity of alpha-amylase and its effect on perceived stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyn N García-Sesnich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Stress is defined as an alteration of an organism's balance in response to a demand perceived from the environment. Diverse methods exist to evaluate physiological response. A noninvasive method is salivary measurement of cortisol and alpha-amylase. A growing body of evidence suggests that the regular practice of Yoga would be an effective treatment for stress. Aims: To determine the Kundalini Yoga (KY effect, immediate and after 3 months of regular practice, on the perception of psychological stress and the salivary levels of cortisol and alpha-amylase activity. Settings and Design: To determine the psychological perceived stress, levels of cortisol and alpha-amylase activity in saliva, and compare between the participants to KY classes performed for 3 months and a group that does not practice any type of yoga. Subjects and Methods: The total sample consisted of 26 people between 18 and 45-year-old; 13 taking part in KY classes given at the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Chile and 13 controls. Salivary samples were collected, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to quantify cortisol and kinetic reaction test was made to determine alpha-amylase activity. Perceived Stress Scale was applied at the beginning and at the end of the intervention. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was applied using Stata v11.1 software. Shapiro–Wilk test was used to determine data distribution. The paired analysis was fulfilled by t-test or Wilcoxon signed-rank test. T-test or Mann–Whitney's test was applied to compare longitudinal data. A statistical significance was considered when P< 0.05. Results: KY practice had an immediate effect on salivary cortisol. The activity of alpha-amylase did not show significant changes. A significant decrease of perceived stress in the study group was found. Conclusions: KY practice shows an immediate effect on salivary cortisol levels and on perceived stress after 3 months of practice.

  15. The relationship between serum cortisol, adrenaline, blood glucose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Stress is an extremely adaptive phenomenon in human beings and cortisol is a known stress hormone. Examination has been described as a naturalistic stressor capable of affecting human health. Objectives: To estimate the relationship between serum cortisol, adrenaline, fasting blood glucose (FBG) and ...

  16. Measuring environmental stress in East Greenland polar bears, 1892-1927 and 1988-2009: what does hair cortisol tell us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechshøft, T Ø; Rigét, F F; Sonne, C; Letcher, R J; Muir, D C G; Novak, M A; Henchey, E; Meyer, J S; Eulaers, I; Jaspers, V L B; Eens, M; Covaci, A; Dietz, R

    2012-09-15

    Hair sampled from 96 East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus) over the periods 1892-1927 and 1988-2009 was analyzed for cortisol as a proxy to investigate temporal patterns of environmental stress. Cortisol concentration was independent of sex and age, and was found at significantly higher (ppolar bear hair appears to be a relatively poor indicator of the animal's general POP load in adipose tissue. However, further investigations are warranted to explore the reasons for the temporal decrease found in the bears' hair cortisol levels. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sex and stress: Men and women show different cortisol responses to psychological stress induced by the Trier social stress test and the Iowa singing social stress test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke-Hernández, Alaine E; Okerstrom, Katrina L; Bowles Edwards, Angela; Tranel, Daniel

    2017-01-02

    Acute psychological stress affects each of us in our daily lives and is increasingly a topic of discussion for its role in mental illness, aging, cognition, and overall health. A better understanding of how such stress affects the body and mind could contribute to the development of more effective clinical interventions and prevention practices. Over the past 3 decades, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) has been widely used to induce acute stress in a laboratory setting based on the principles of social evaluative threat, namely, a judged speech-making task. A comparable alternative task may expand options for examining acute stress in a controlled laboratory setting. This study uses a within-subjects design to examine healthy adult participants' (n = 20 men, n = 20 women) subjective stress and salivary cortisol responses to the standard TSST (involving public speaking and math) and the newly created Iowa Singing Social Stress Test (I-SSST). The I-SSST is similar to the TSST but with a new twist: public singing. Results indicated that men and women reported similarly high levels of subjective stress in response to both tasks. However, men and women demonstrated different cortisol responses; men showed a robust response to both tasks, and women displayed a lesser response. These findings are in line with previous literature and further underscore the importance of examining possible sex differences throughout various phases of research, including design, analysis, and interpretation of results. Furthermore, this nascent examination of the I-SSST suggests a possible alternative for inducing stress in the laboratory. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. High-intensity stress elicits robust cortisol increases, and impairs working memory and visuo-spatial declarative memory in Special Forces candidates: A field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverniers, John; Van Ruysseveldt, Joris; Smeets, Tom; von Grumbkow, Jasper

    2010-07-01

    While running a selection procedure, 27 male Belgian Special Forces candidates, with a mean age of 27.4 years (SD = 5.1), were randomly assigned to a no-stress control (n = 14) or a high-intensity stress group (n = 13). Participants in the latter group were exposed to an extremely strenuous mock prisoner of war (POW) exercise. Immediately after stress or control treatment, working memory and visuo-spatial declarative memory performances were measured by the digit span (DS) test and the Rey-Osterrieth complex figure (ROCF), respectively. Concurrently, stress levels were assessed by obtaining salivary cortisol measurements and subjectively by the NASA Task Load Index (TLX). As expected, exposure to high-intensity stress led to both robust cortisol increases and significant differences in TLX scores. Stress induction also significantly impaired DS and ROCF performances. Moreover, delta cortisol increases and ROCF performance in the POW stress group showed a significant negative correlation, while DS performances followed the same tendency. Summarizing, the current findings complement and extend previous work on hormonal stress effects, and the subsequent performance deterioration on two memory tests in a unique high-intensity stress environment.

  19. Automated-immunosensor with centrifugal fluid valves for salivary cortisol measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Yamaguchi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Point-of-care measurement of the stress hormone cortisol will greatly facilitate the timely diagnosis and management of stress-related disorders. We describe an automated salivary cortisol immunosensor, incorporating centrifugal fluid valves and a disposable disc-chip that allows for truncated reporting of cortisol levels (<15 min. The performance characteristics of the immunosensor are optimized through select blocking agents to prevent the non-specific adsorption of proteins; immunoglobulin G (IgG polymer for the pad and milk protein for the reservoirs and the flow channels. Incorporated centrifugal fluid valves allow for rapid and repeat washings to remove impurities from the saliva samples. An optical reader and laptop computer automate the immunoassay processes and provide easily accessible digital readouts of salivary cortisol measurements. Linear regression analysis of the calibration curve for the cortisol immunosensor showed 0.92 of coefficient of multiple determination, R2, and 38.7% of coefficient of variation, CV, for a range of salivary cortisol concentrations between 0.4 and 11.3 ng/mL. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis of human saliva samples indicate potential utility for discriminating stress disorders and underscore potential application of the biosensor in stress disorders. The performance of our salivary cortisol immunosensor approaches laboratory based tests and allows noninvasive, quantitative, and automated analysis of human salivary cortisol levels with reporting times compatible with point-of-care applications. Keywords: Immunosensor, Centrifugal fluid valve, Automation, Cortisol, Saliva

  20. Attenuation of the cortisol response to stress in female rainbow trout chronically exposed to dietary selenomethionine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiseman, Steve; Thomas, Jith K.; McPhee, Landon; Hursky, Olesya; Raine, Jason C.; Pietrock, Michael; Giesy, John P.; Hecker, Markus; Janz, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: Trout exposed to Se-Met had greater concentration of cortisol compared to controls. Transcript abundance of mc2r was greater in trout exposed to Se-Met. Trout exposed to Se-Met had a reduced cortisol response to a handling stressor. Cortisone concentration was greater in Se-Met exposed trout post-handling stressor. - Abstract: Selenomethionine (Se-Met) is the major dietary form of selenium (Se). While Se is a required nutrient, it can also influence the physiological stress response because it stimulates greater concentrations of cortisol in blood plasma of exposed fish. However, little is known about the effects of exposure to Se on the ability to cope with a secondary stressor. In the current study, female rainbow trout were exposed to an environmentally relevant dietary concentration (8.47 mg Se/kg dry mass (dm)) of Se-Met for 126 d, after which time fish were subjected to a 3-min handling stressor and sampled at 2 h and 24 h post-stressor exposure. Concentrations of cortisol, cortisone, glucose, and lactate in blood plasma and concentrations of glycogen and triglycerides in liver and muscle were determined. Abundances of transcripts of proteins involved in corticosteroidogenesis were determined using quantitative RT-PCR. Concentrations of cortisol were significantly greater in blood plasma of trout exposed to Se-Met, relative to control trout sampled prior to the handling stressor. A typical response of cortisol to the handling stressor was observed in the control trout. However, trout exposed to Se-Met were unable to mount a cortisol response to the handling stressor. Concentrations of cortisone, the inactive metabolite of cortisol, were significantly greater following the handling stressor in trout exposed to Se-Met. In trout exposed to Se-Met, transcript abundance of melanocortin 2 receptor (mc2r) and peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (pbr) were greater, which is consistent with the conclusion that synthesis of cortisol was greater. However

  1. Attenuation of the cortisol response to stress in female rainbow trout chronically exposed to dietary selenomethionine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiseman, Steve, E-mail: steve.wiseman@usask.ca [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Thomas, Jith K.; McPhee, Landon; Hursky, Olesya; Raine, Jason C. [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Pietrock, Michael [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Giesy, John P. [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); School of Biological Sciences, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Department of Zoology, Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse and School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing (China); Hecker, Markus [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); School of Environment and Sustainability, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5CB (Canada); Janz, David M. [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: Trout exposed to Se-Met had greater concentration of cortisol compared to controls. Transcript abundance of mc2r was greater in trout exposed to Se-Met. Trout exposed to Se-Met had a reduced cortisol response to a handling stressor. Cortisone concentration was greater in Se-Met exposed trout post-handling stressor. - Abstract: Selenomethionine (Se-Met) is the major dietary form of selenium (Se). While Se is a required nutrient, it can also influence the physiological stress response because it stimulates greater concentrations of cortisol in blood plasma of exposed fish. However, little is known about the effects of exposure to Se on the ability to cope with a secondary stressor. In the current study, female rainbow trout were exposed to an environmentally relevant dietary concentration (8.47 mg Se/kg dry mass (dm)) of Se-Met for 126 d, after which time fish were subjected to a 3-min handling stressor and sampled at 2 h and 24 h post-stressor exposure. Concentrations of cortisol, cortisone, glucose, and lactate in blood plasma and concentrations of glycogen and triglycerides in liver and muscle were determined. Abundances of transcripts of proteins involved in corticosteroidogenesis were determined using quantitative RT-PCR. Concentrations of cortisol were significantly greater in blood plasma of trout exposed to Se-Met, relative to control trout sampled prior to the handling stressor. A typical response of cortisol to the handling stressor was observed in the control trout. However, trout exposed to Se-Met were unable to mount a cortisol response to the handling stressor. Concentrations of cortisone, the inactive metabolite of cortisol, were significantly greater following the handling stressor in trout exposed to Se-Met. In trout exposed to Se-Met, transcript abundance of melanocortin 2 receptor (mc2r) and peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (pbr) were greater, which is consistent with the conclusion that synthesis of cortisol was greater. However

  2. Utilization of machine learning for prediction of post-traumatic stress: a re-examination of cortisol in the prediction and pathways to non-remitting PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galatzer-Levy, I R; Ma, S; Statnikov, A; Yehuda, R; Shalev, A Y

    2017-01-01

    To date, studies of biological risk factors have revealed inconsistent relationships with subsequent post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The inconsistent signal may reflect the use of data analytic tools that are ill equipped for modeling the complex interactions between biological and environmental factors that underlay post-traumatic psychopathology. Further, using symptom-based diagnostic status as the group outcome overlooks the inherent heterogeneity of PTSD, potentially contributing to failures to replicate. To examine the potential yield of novel analytic tools, we reanalyzed data from a large longitudinal study of individuals identified following trauma in the general emergency room (ER) that failed to find a linear association between cortisol response to traumatic events and subsequent PTSD. First, latent growth mixture modeling empirically identified trajectories of post-traumatic symptoms, which then were used as the study outcome. Next, support vector machines with feature selection identified sets of features with stable predictive accuracy and built robust classifiers of trajectory membership (area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC)=0.82 (95% confidence interval (CI)=0.80–0.85)) that combined clinical, neuroendocrine, psychophysiological and demographic information. Finally, graph induction algorithms revealed a unique path from childhood trauma via lower cortisol during ER admission, to non-remitting PTSD. Traditional general linear modeling methods then confirmed the newly revealed association, thereby delineating a specific target population for early endocrine interventions. Advanced computational approaches offer innovative ways for uncovering clinically significant, non-shared biological signals in heterogeneous samples. PMID:28323285

  3. Physical activity does not attenuate the relationship between daily cortisol and metabolic syndrome in obese youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guseman, Emily Hill; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Carlson, Joseph J; Stansbury, Kathy; Eisenmann, Joey C

    2016-01-01

    We examined the associations among daily cortisol, physical activity (MVPA) and continuous metabolic syndrome score (cMetS) in obese youth. Fifty adolescents (mean age 14.8 ± 1.9 years) were recruited from medical clinics. Daily MVPA (min/day) was assessed by accelerometry. Saliva was sampled at prescribed times: immediately upon waking; 30 min after waking; and 3, 6 and 9 h after waking. Fasting lipids, glucose, waist circumference and blood pressure were used to calculate a continuous metabolic syndrome score (cMetS). Multiple linear regression analysis was used to examine associations among variables. The mean cMetS score was 4.16 ± 4.30 and did not differ by clinic or sex. No significant relationship was found between cortisol area under the curve (cAUC) and cMetS, nor did the interaction of MVPA with cAUC significantly predict cMetS. Physical activity, cortisol, and metabolic risk were not associated in this sample of obese adolescents. Future research should examine the role of insulin sensitivity in these relationships.

  4. Social Media under the Skin: Facebook Use after Acute Stress Impairs Cortisol Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rus, Holly M.; Tiemensma, Jitske

    2017-01-01

    Social media's influence on stress remains largely unknown. Conflicting research suggests that Facebook use may both enhance and undermine psychosocial constructs related to well-being. Using novel experimental methods, this study examined the impact of social media use on stress recovery. Facebook users (n = 92, 49 males, mean age 19.55 SD = 1.63) were randomly assigned to use their own Facebook profile or quietly read after experiencing an acute social stressor. All participants showed significant changes in subjective and physiological stress markers during recovery. Participants who used Facebook experienced greater sustained cortisol concentration (p Facebook use may negatively impact well-being. PMID:28974938

  5. Global life satisfaction predicts ambulatory affect, stress, and cortisol in daily life in working adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Joshua M; Zawadzki, Matthew J; Juth, Vanessa; Sciamanna, Christopher N

    2017-04-01

    Global life satisfaction has been linked with long-term health advantages, yet how life satisfaction impacts the trajectory of long-term health is unclear. This paper examines one such possible mechanism-that greater life satisfaction confers momentary benefits in daily life that accumulate over time. A community sample of working adults (n = 115) completed a measure of life satisfaction and then three subsequent days of ecological momentary assessment surveys (6 times/day) measuring affect (i.e., emotional valence, arousal), and perceived stress, and also provided salivary cortisol samples. Multilevel models indicated that people with higher (vs. lower) levels of life satisfaction reported better momentary affect, less stress, marginally lower momentary levels and significantly altered diurnal slopes of cortisol. Findings suggest individuals with high global life satisfaction have advantageous daily experiences, providing initial evidence for potential mechanisms through which global life satisfaction may help explain long-term health benefits.

  6. A longitudinal study of the effects of child-reported maternal warmth on cortisol stress response 15 years after parental divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luecken, Linda J.; Hagan, Melissa J.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Sandler, Irwin N.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Objective Childhood parental divorce is associated with an increased risk of behavioral and physical health problems. Alterations in adrenocortical activity may be a mechanism in this relation. Parent-child relationships have been linked to cortisol regulation in children exposed to adversity, but prospective research is lacking. We examined maternal warmth in adolescence as a predictor of young adults’ cortisol stress response 15 years after parental divorce. Methods Participants included 240 youth from recently divorced families. Mother and child reports of maternal warmth were assessed at 6 time points across childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood. Offspring salivary cortisol was measured in young adulthood before and after a social stress task. Structural equation modeling was used to predict cortisol response from maternal warmth across early and late adolescence. Results Higher child-reported maternal warmth in early adolescence predicted higher child-reported maternal warmth in late adolescence (std. regression = .45, SE = .065, p children from divorced families, a warm mother-child relationship post-divorce and across development, as perceived by the child, may promote efficient biological regulation later in life. PMID:26465217

  7. A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of Child-Reported Maternal Warmth on Cortisol Stress Response 15 Years After Parental Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luecken, Linda J; Hagan, Melissa J; Wolchik, Sharlene A; Sandler, Irwin N; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2016-01-01

    The experience of parental divorce during childhood is associated with an increased risk of behavioral and physical health problems. Alterations in adrenocortical activity may be a mechanism in this relation. Parent-child relationships have been linked to cortisol regulation in children exposed to adversity, but prospective research is lacking. We examined maternal warmth in adolescence as a predictor of young adults' cortisol stress response 15 years after parental divorce. Participants included 240 youth from recently divorced families. Mother and child reports of maternal warmth were assessed at 6 time points across childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood. Offspring salivary cortisol was measured in young adulthood before and after a social stress task. Structural equation modeling was used to predict cortisol response from maternal warmth across early and late adolescence. Higher child-reported maternal warmth in early adolescence predicted higher child-reported maternal warmth in late adolescence (standardized regression = 0.45, standard error = 0.065, p < .01), which predicted lower cortisol response to a challenging interpersonal task in young adulthood (standardized regression = -0.20, standard error = 0.094, p = .031). Neither mother-reported warmth in early adolescence nor late adolescence was significantly related to offspring cortisol response in young adulthood. Results suggest that for children from divorced families, a warm mother-child relationship after divorce and across development, as perceived by the child, may promote efficient biological regulation later in life. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01407120.

  8. Relationship between effort-reward imbalance and hair cortisol concentration in female kindergarten teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xingliang; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Yapeng; Ji, Shuang; Chen, Zheng; Sluiter, Judith K; Deng, Huihua

    2014-04-01

    The present study aims to investigate the relationship between effort-reward imbalance and hair cortisol concentration among teachers to examine whether hair cortisol can be a biomarker of chronic work stress. Hair samples were collected from 39 female teachers from three kindergartens. Cortisol was extracted from the hair samples with methanol, and cortisol concentrations were measured with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Work stress was measured using the effort-reward imbalance scale. The ratio of effort to reward showed significantly positive association with hair cortisol concentration. The cortisol concentration in the system increases with the effort-reward imbalance. Measurement of hair cortisol can become a useful biomarker of chronic work stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of serum cortisol levels by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy for diagnosis of stress in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Campos Lemes

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy is a technique with great potential for body fluids analyses. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of session training on cortisol concentrations in rugby players by means of infrared analysis of serum. Methods Blood collections were performed pre, post and 24 hours after of rugby training sessions. Serum cortisol was analyzed by FT-IR spectroscopy and chemiluminescent immunoassay. Results There was a significant difference between the integrated area, in the region of 1180-1102 cm-1, of the spectra for pre, post and post 24 h serums. The cortisol concentration obtained by chemiluminescent immunoassay showed no significant difference between pre, post and post 24 h. Positive correlations were obtained between the techniques (r = 0.75, post (r = 0.83 and post 24 h (r = 0.73. Conclusion The results showed no increase in cortisol levels of the players after the training sessions, as well as positive correlations indicating that FT-IR spectroscopy have produced promising results for the analysis of serum for diagnosis of stress.

  10. Adolescent internalizing symptoms and negative life events: the sensitizing effects of earlier life stress and cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttle, Paula L; Armstrong, Jeffrey M; Klein, Marjorie H; Essex, Marilyn J

    2014-11-01

    Although adolescence is marked by increased negative life events and internalizing problems, few studies investigate this association as an ongoing longitudinal process. Moreover, while there are considerable individual differences in the degree to which these phenomena are linked, little is known about the origins of these differences. The present study examines early life stress (ELS) exposure and early-adolescent longitudinal afternoon cortisol level as predictors of the covariation between internalizing symptoms and negative life events across high school. ELS was assessed by maternal report during infancy, and the measure of cortisol was derived from assessments at ages 11, 13, and 15 years. Life events and internalizing symptoms were assessed at ages 15, 17, and 18 years. A two-level hierarchical linear model revealed that ELS and cortisol were independent predictors of the covariation of internalizing symptoms and negative life events. Compared to those with lower levels of ELS, ELS-exposed adolescents displayed tighter covariation between internalizing symptoms and negative life events. Adolescents with lower longitudinal afternoon cortisol displayed tighter covariation between negative life events and internalizing symptoms, while those with higher cortisol demonstrated weaker covariation, partially due to increased levels of internalizing symptoms when faced with fewer negative life events.

  11. The behavioural, cognitive, and neural corollaries of blunted cardiovascular and cortisol reactions to acute psychological stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carroll, Douglas; Ginty, Annie T; Whittaker, Anna C; Lovallo, William R; de Rooij, Susanne R

    Recent research shows that blunted cardiovascular and cortisol reactions to acute psychological stress are associated with adverse behavioural and health outcomes: depression, obesity, bulimia, and addictions. These outcomes may reflect suboptimal functioning of the brain's fronto-limbic systems

  12. Clinical applications of cortisol measurements in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, Vincent L; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C

    2015-10-01

    Cortisol measurements in blood, saliva and urine are frequently used to examine the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in clinical practice and in research. However, cortisol levels are subject to variations due to acute stress, the diurnal rhythm and pulsatile secretion. Cortisol measurements in body fluids are not always a reflection of long-term cortisol exposure. The analysis of cortisol in scalp hair is a relatively novel method to measure cumulative cortisol exposure over months up to years. Over the past years, hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) have been examined in association with a large number of somatic and mental health conditions. HCC can be used to evaluate disturbances of the HPA axis, including Cushing's syndrome, and to evaluate hydrocortisone treatment. Using HCC, retrospective timelines of cortisol exposure can be created which can be of value in diagnosing cyclic hypercortisolism. HCC have also been shown to increase with psychological stressors, including major life events, as well as physical stressors, such as endurance exercise and shift work. Initial studies show that HCC may be increased in depression, but decreased in general anxiety disorder. In posttraumatic stress disorder, changes in HCC seem to be dependent on the type of traumatic experience and the time since traumatization. Increased hair cortisol is consistently linked to obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Potentially, HCC could form a future marker for cardiovascular risk stratification, as well as serve as a treatment target. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  13. The low single nucleotide polymorphism heritability of plasma and saliva cortisol levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumann, Alexander; Direk, Nese; Crawford, Andrew A; Mirza, Saira; Adams, Hieab; Bolton, Jennifer; Hayward, Caroline; Strachan, David P; Payne, Erin K; Smith, Jennifer A; Milaneschi, Yuri; Penninx, Brenda; Hottenga, Jouke J; de Geus, Eco; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; van der Most, Peter J; de Rijke, Yolanda; Walker, Brian R; Tiemeier, Henning

    Cortisol is an important stress hormone affected by a variety of biological and environmental factors, such as the circadian rhythm, exercise and psychological stress. Cortisol is mostly measured using blood or saliva samples. A number of genetic variants have been found to contribute to cortisol

  14. The low single nucleotide polymorphism heritability of plasma and saliva cortisol levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumann, Alexander; Direk, Nese; Crawford, Andrew A; Mirza, Saira; Adams, Hieab H H; Bolton, Jennifer; Hayward, Caroline; Strachan, David P; Payne, Erin K; Smith, Jennifer A; Milaneschi, Yuri; Penninx, Brenda; Hottenga, Jouke J; de Geus, Eco; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; van der Most, Peter J; de Rijke, Yolanda; Walker, Brian R; Tiemeier, Henning

    2017-01-01

    Cortisol is an important stress hormone affected by a variety of biological and environmental factors, such as the circadian rhythm, exercise and psychological stress. Cortisol is mostly measured using blood or saliva samples. A number of genetic variants have been found to contribute to cortisol

  15. Hair cortisol levels, psychological stress and psychopathological symptoms as predictors of postpartum depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caparros-Gonzalez, Rafael A; Romero-Gonzalez, Borja; Strivens-Vilchez, Helen; Gonzalez-Perez, Raquel; Martinez-Augustin, Olga; Peralta-Ramirez, Maria Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Postpartum depression affects a huge number of women and has detrimental consequences. Knowing the factors associated with postpartum depression during pregnancy can help its prevention. Although there is evidence surrounding behavioral or psychological predictors of postpartum depression, there is a lack of evidence of biological forecasters. The aim of this study was to analyze the sociodemographic, obstetric, and psychological variables along with hair cortisol levels during the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy that could predict postpartum depression symptoms. A sample of 44 pregnant women was assessed during 3 trimesters of pregnancy and the postpartum period using psychological questionnaires and hair cortisol levels. Participants were divided into 2 groups: a group with postpartum depression symptoms and a group with no postpartum depression symptoms. Results showed significant positive differences between groups in the first trimester regarding the Somatization subscale of the SCL-90-R (p Depression, Anxiety, and GSI subscales (p postpartum depression symptoms. In conclusion, our study provided evidence that psychopathological symptoms, pregnancy-specific stress, and hair cortisol levels can predict postpartum depression symptoms at different time-points during pregnancy. These findings can be applied in future studies and improve maternal care in clinical settings.

  16. Caregivers' hair cortisol: a possible biomarker of chronic stress is associated with obesity measures among children with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoli; Gelaye, Bizu; Velez, Juan Carlos; Barbosa, Clarita; Pepper, Micah; Andrade, Asterio; Gao, Wei; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Williams, Michelle A

    2015-02-15

    The stress of caring for a loved one with chronic illness has been associated with childhood obesity. Hair cortisol has been proposed as a novel biomarker of chronic psychological stress. This study aimed to evaluate the associations between caregivers' chronic stress evaluated by hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) and obesity measures among children with disabilities such as autism. Eighty-five dyads of children with disabilities and their primary caregivers participated in the study between April and July 2013 in the Patagonia Region, Chile. Trained research staff conducted anthropometric measurements of children and caregivers. Cortisol concentrations, extracted from hair samples with methanol, were quantified using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Pearson's correlation coefficients and linear regression models were used to examine the associations between caregiver HCC (log-transformed) and child obesity measures with adjustment for covariates. Caregiver HCC were positively and significantly correlated with child weight (child age- and sex-adjusted r =0.23, P = 0.036), body mass index (BMI) (r = 0.23, P = 0.035), circumferences of neck (r = 0.30, P = 0.006), waist (r = 0.27, P = 0.014), and hip (r = 0.22, P = 0.044). After adjustment for children's age and sex, caregiver HCC were significantly related to child weight (kg) (beta = 4.47, standard error (SE) = 2.09), BMI (kg/m(2)) (beta = 1.52, SE = 0.71), neck circumference (cm) (beta = 1.20, SE = 0.43), waist circumference (cm) (beta = 3.75, SE = 1.50), and hip circumference (cm) (beta = 3.02, SE = 1.48). Caregiver HCC were also positively but not statistically significantly associated with child waist-to-hip ratio (beta = 0.01, SE = 0.01; P = 0.191) or body fat percentage (%) (beta = 2.11, SE = 1.28; P = 0.104). Further adjustment for other covariates including child disability diagnosis and caregiver age, sex, education, current smoking, perceived stress, and caregiver BMI did not change the

  17. Putting a finger on the problem: Finger stick blood draw and immunization at the well-child exam elicit a cortisol response to stress among one-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertes, Darlene A; Kamin, Hayley S; Liu, Jingwen; Bhatt, Samarth S; Kelly, Maria

    2018-07-01

    Research examining stress reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis in young children has historically been hampered by a lack of reliable methods to invoke a cortisol stress response. This report details an effective method of eliciting a cortisol rise in one-year-old children (N = 83) by modifying and combining two naturalistic stressors previously used with infants and children. Salivary cortisol levels were collected from children before and after a finger stick blood draw and immunizations performed during their one year well-child checkup at their pediatrician's office. Results indicated that the stressor was successful at eliciting a significant cortisol response. An extensive set of potential demographic and clinical confounds were also assessed in order to identify methodological considerations important in studies of infant cortisol. The stress paradigm presented here provides a promising alternative for studies of infant HPA activity to enable investigators to more effectively evaluate early functioning of the biological stress system during this developmentally important life stage. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Short communication: Is hair cortisol a potential indicator for stress caused by chronic lameness in dairy cows?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer-Tenhagen, C; Ladwig-Wiegard, M; Heuwieser, W; Thöne-Reineke, C

    2018-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate hair cortisol concentration as an indicator for stress caused by chronic lameness in dairy cows. Sixty-eight cows were scored for lameness for 4 consecutive weeks. The hair of the tail switch was clipped at the beginning of the study and regrown hair was clipped after 4 wk. Hair samples were analyzed for cortisol concentration. Animals with 2 consecutive locomotion scores ≥3 or with an overall mean score >1.5 were classified as lame. After pair matching lame and nonlame cows, considering days in milk, lactation number, and milk yield, and excluding cows with less than 20 mg hair sample for analysis, 21 lame and 21 nonlame cows were included in the analysis. The mean hair cortisol concentration in this study was 2.32 ± 0.35 pg/mg (mean ± standard deviation). Cortisol concentration from hair regrown in the study period was 2.38 ± 0.95 and 2.26 ± 1.35 pg/mg for lame and nonlame cows (n = 21), respectively; we found no difference in mean cortisol level of primiparous and multiparous cows. Based on these data, hair cortisol concentration was not a useful indicator to differentiate cows with chronic lameness and healthy cows. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Gestational and Postnatal Cortisol Profiles of Women With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and the Dissociative Subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Julia S; Li, Yang; Yang, James J; King, Anthony P; Kane Low, Lisa M; Sperlich, Mickey; Rowe, Heather; Lee, Hyunhwa; Muzik, Maria; Ford, Julian D; Liberzon, Israel

    2018-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that women with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have greater salivary cortisol levels across the diurnal curve and throughout gestation, birth, and the postpartum period than women who do not have PTSD. Prospective, longitudinal, biobehavioral cohort study. Prenatal clinics at academic health centers in the Midwest region of the United States. Women expecting their first infants who fit with one of four cohorts: a nonexposed control group, a trauma-exposed control group, a group with PTSD, and a group with the dissociative subtype of PTSD. In the first half of pregnancy, 395 women provided three salivary cortisol specimens on a single day for diurnal data. A subsample of 111 women provided three salivary cortisol specimens per day, 12 times, from early pregnancy to 6 weeks postpartum for longitudinal data. Trauma history, PTSD, and dissociative symptoms were measured via standardized telephone diagnostic interviews with the use of validated epidemiologic measures. Generalized estimating equations were used to determine group differences. Generalized estimating equations showed that women with the dissociative subtype of PTSD had the highest and flattest gestational cortisol level curves. The difference was greatest in early pregnancy, when participants in the dissociative subtype group had cortisol levels 8 times greater in the afternoon and 10 times greater at bedtime than those in the nonexposed control group. Women with the dissociative subtype of PTSD, a complex form associated with a history of childhood maltreatment, may have toxic levels of cortisol that contribute to intergenerational patterns of adverse health outcomes. Copyright © 2018 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Estimation of AUC or Partial AUC under Test-Result-Dependent Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofei; Ma, Junling; George, Stephen; Zhou, Haibo

    2012-01-01

    The area under the ROC curve (AUC) and partial area under the ROC curve (pAUC) are summary measures used to assess the accuracy of a biomarker in discriminating true disease status. The standard sampling approach used in biomarker validation studies is often inefficient and costly, especially when ascertaining the true disease status is costly and invasive. To improve efficiency and reduce the cost of biomarker validation studies, we consider a test-result-dependent sampling (TDS) scheme, in which subject selection for determining the disease state is dependent on the result of a biomarker assay. We first estimate the test-result distribution using data arising from the TDS design. With the estimated empirical test-result distribution, we propose consistent nonparametric estimators for AUC and pAUC and establish the asymptotic properties of the proposed estimators. Simulation studies show that the proposed estimators have good finite sample properties and that the TDS design yields more efficient AUC and pAUC estimates than a simple random sampling (SRS) design. A data example based on an ongoing cancer clinical trial is provided to illustrate the TDS design and the proposed estimators. This work can find broad applications in design and analysis of biomarker validation studies.

  1. Salivary cortisol levels: the importance of clown doctors to reduce stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia G. Saliba

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to correlate entertainment of clown-doctors (CD activities on hospitalized children and aphysiological biomarker. For this purpose we collected saliva samples and verified children satisfaction with these activities by using a visual analog scale (VAS. Children from 6 to 7 years-old, with diagnosis of any acute pathology, interned in the Pediatric Ward of the Botucatu Medical School Hospital (São Paulo, Brazil were interviewed. Two groups were taken into consideration: lunchCD and dinnerCD. The following protocol was applied in each group (lunch and dinner: collection of the first saliva sample and presentation of VAS prior to CD activities, followed by collection of a second saliva sample and another VAS assessment after CD activities. The salivary cortisol was reduced in both groups comparing the first saliva sample. The satisfaction of the intervention was evident for lunchCD. The CD intervention is effective in decreasing an important physiological biomarker of stress factor, cortisol, in hospitalized children, been effective for the healing process.

  2. Cortisol and DHEA in development and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamin, Hayley S; Kertes, Darlene A

    2017-03-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and cortisol are the most abundant hormones of the human fetal and adult adrenals released as end products of a tightly coordinated endocrine response to stress. Together, they mediate short- and long-term stress responses and enable physiological and behavioral adjustments necessary for maintaining homeostasis. Detrimental effects of chronic or repeated elevations in cortisol on behavioral and emotional health are well documented. Evidence for actions of DHEA that offset or oppose those of cortisol has stimulated interest in examining their levels as a ratio, as an alternate index of adrenocortical activity and the net effects of cortisol. Such research necessitates a thorough understanding of the co-actions of these hormones on physiological functioning and in association with developmental outcomes. This review addresses the state of the science in understanding the role of DHEA, cortisol, and their ratio in typical development and developmental psychopathology. A rationale for studying DHEA and cortisol in concert is supported by physiological data on the coordinated synthesis and release of these hormones in the adrenal and by their opposing physiological actions. We then present evidence that researching cortisol and DHEA necessitates a developmental perspective. Age-related changes in DHEA and cortisol are described from the perinatal period through adolescence, along with observed associations of these hormones with developmental psychopathology. Along the way, we identify several major knowledge gaps in the role of DHEA in modulating cortisol in typical development and developmental psychopathology with implications for future research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. SKA2 Methylation is Involved in Cortisol Stress Reactivity and Predicts the Development of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) after Military Deployment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boks, Marco P.; Rutten, Bart P F; Geuze, Elbert; Houtepen, Lotte C.; Vermetten, Eric; Kaminsky, Zachary; Vinkers, Christiaan H.

    2016-01-01

    Genomic variation in the SKA2 gene has recently been identified as a promising suicide biomarker. In light of its role in glucocorticoid receptor transactivation, we investigated whether SKA2 DNA methylation influences cortisol stress reactivity and is involved in the development of post-traumatic

  4. Factors related to the cortisol awakening response of children working on the streets and siblings, before and after 2 years of a psychosocial intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Andrea Feijo; Juruena, Mario Francisco; Maciel, Mariana Rangel; Cavalcante-Nobrega, Luciana Porto; Cividanes, Giuliana Claudia; Fossaluza, Victor; Calsavara, Vinicius; Mello, Marcelo Feijo; Cleare, Anthony James; Mari, Jair de Jesus

    2015-02-28

    The study objective was to observe the cortisol awakening response (CAR) pattern before and after a psychosocial intervention with children from dysfunctional families who had at least one child working on the streets, and to verify factors related to it. Two hundred and eleven children between 7 and 14 years old were selected and 191 were included, 178 were re-evaluated 2 years after, of whom 113 had cortisol measures completed. Besides cortisol, they were evaluated at baseline and at end point regarding: abuse/neglect, mental health symptoms, exposure to urban violence and family environment. There was no significant difference between the CAR area under the curve (AUC) before and after the intervention. Two regression analysis models were built to evaluate factors related to the CAR before and after intervention. Before the intervention, working on the streets (vs. not) was related to a greater cortisol increase after awakening, at follow-up, having suffered physical punishment (vs. not) was related to a flattened cortisol response. The intervention was not associated with changes in the magnitude of the CAR AUC, though the CAR was associated with psychosocial stressors pre- and post-intervention. Effective interventions for children at risk that might shape a physiological cortisol response are still needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. AUC-Maximizing Ensembles through Metalearning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeDell, Erin; van der Laan, Mark J; Petersen, Maya

    2016-05-01

    Area Under the ROC Curve (AUC) is often used to measure the performance of an estimator in binary classification problems. An AUC-maximizing classifier can have significant advantages in cases where ranking correctness is valued or if the outcome is rare. In a Super Learner ensemble, maximization of the AUC can be achieved by the use of an AUC-maximining metalearning algorithm. We discuss an implementation of an AUC-maximization technique that is formulated as a nonlinear optimization problem. We also evaluate the effectiveness of a large number of different nonlinear optimization algorithms to maximize the cross-validated AUC of the ensemble fit. The results provide evidence that AUC-maximizing metalearners can, and often do, out-perform non-AUC-maximizing metalearning methods, with respect to ensemble AUC. The results also demonstrate that as the level of imbalance in the training data increases, the Super Learner ensemble outperforms the top base algorithm by a larger degree.

  6. Modulation of attentional inhibition by norepinephrine and cortisol after psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skosnik, P D; Chatterton, R T; Swisher, T; Park, S

    2000-04-01

    Two of the most salient physiological responses to stress are increased norepinephrine (NE) and cortisol (CORT) activities. However, it is unclear how these neurochemical events affect cognition, especially attention. We examined the effects of mild psychological stress on selective attention, as assessed by the negative priming (NP) paradigm. Salivary measures of the stress hormone CORT and alpha-amylase (a correlate of NE) were assayed to probe the relationship between the stress response and attentional inhibition. Healthy subjects (N = 20) engaged in the attention task, which was then followed by 15 min of a stressful video game before a return to the attentional task. Baseline saliva samples were obtained before the experiment began, 1 min after the video-game stressor, and 20 min post-stress. Subjects showed a significant reduction in NP and a decrease in reaction time (RT) after the video game. Moreover, alpha-amylase levels increased significantly after the stressor, indicating the role of NE in the acute stress response. While CORT levels remained unchanged after stress, CORT correlated significantly with both NP scores and RT after the stressor. These results imply that mild psychological stress can significantly alter attentional processes. Given the increase in alpha-amylase and the correlation between attention and CORT after stress, it seems likely that attentional processes are under tight control by brain systems which mediate the fight-or-flight response.

  7. The Open AUC Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cölfen, Helmut; Laue, Thomas M; Wohlleben, Wendel; Schilling, Kristian; Karabudak, Engin; Langhorst, Bradley W; Brookes, Emre; Dubbs, Bruce; Zollars, Dan; Rocco, Mattia; Demeler, Borries

    2010-02-01

    Progress in analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) has been hindered by obstructions to hardware innovation and by software incompatibility. In this paper, we announce and outline the Open AUC Project. The goals of the Open AUC Project are to stimulate AUC innovation by improving instrumentation, detectors, acquisition and analysis software, and collaborative tools. These improvements are needed for the next generation of AUC-based research. The Open AUC Project combines on-going work from several different groups. A new base instrument is described, one that is designed from the ground up to be an analytical ultracentrifuge. This machine offers an open architecture, hardware standards, and application programming interfaces for detector developers. All software will use the GNU Public License to assure that intellectual property is available in open source format. The Open AUC strategy facilitates collaborations, encourages sharing, and eliminates the chronic impediments that have plagued AUC innovation for the last 20 years. This ultracentrifuge will be equipped with multiple and interchangeable optical tracks so that state-of-the-art electronics and improved detectors will be available for a variety of optical systems. The instrument will be complemented by a new rotor, enhanced data acquisition and analysis software, as well as collaboration software. Described here are the instrument, the modular software components, and a standardized database that will encourage and ease integration of data analysis and interpretation software.

  8. Sex-specific association between functional neuropeptide S receptor gene (NPSR1) variants and cortisol and central stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streit, Fabian; Akdeniz, Ceren; Haddad, Leila; Kumsta, Robert; Entringer, Sonja; Frank, Josef; Yim, Ilona S; Zänkert, Sandra; Witt, Stephanie H; Kirsch, Peter; Rietschel, Marcella; Wüst, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    The brain neuropeptide S (NPS) system has recently generated substantial interest and may be of major relevance for central stress regulation. The NPS receptor (NPSR1) is highly expressed in the limbic system, exogenous NPS exerts pronounced anxiolytic and fear-attenuating effects in rodents and extensive close crosstalk between the NPS system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been demonstrated. In humans, associations between NPSR1 variants and anxiety and panic disorder, as well as amygdala responsiveness to fear- relevant faces and prefrontal cortex activity in a fear conditioning paradigm have been reported. Moreover, a NPSR1 sequence variant was found to be associated with cortisol stress responses in males. Here, we performed a haplotype-based analysis covering three functional NPSR1 single nucleotide polymorphisms in the promoter (rs2530547), in exon 3 (rs324981) and exon 6 (rs727162) in 277 healthy subjects who were exposed to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). A significant sex-specific association with salivary cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress was detected for the common TTC haplotype 2 (frequency of about 20%). In an additional study using an imaging genetics approach, 65 healthy subjects were exposed to a stress paradigm for scanner environments (“ScanSTRESS”). We found a significant and, again, sex-specific interaction between rs324981 (whose minor T-allele is harbored by haplotype 2) and the neural stress response in a cluster close to the parahippocampal gyrus (whole brain corrected). Moreover, as in the TSST sample, NPSR1 variation was associated with salivary cortisol responses (on a trend level) in a sex-specific way. In summary, our preliminary findings in two independent cohorts exposed to different stress paradigms suggest that the NPS system significantly influences acute stress responses and that sequence variation in NPSR1 may contribute to sex differences in stress regulation. Copyright © 2016

  9. Born to yawn? Cortisol linked to yawning: a new hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Simon B N

    2011-11-01

    Yawning has become an interesting and curious scientific conundrum. Links between several neurological disorders can be found through the commonality of yawning episodes and contagious yawning. However, the reasons why we yawn are uncertain. Cortisol levels are known to rise during stress and fatigue; yawning may occur when we are under stress or tired. We do not know whether cortisol levels fluctuate during yawning. Potentially, yawning and cortisol levels may provide a valuable diagnostic tool and warning of untoward underlying neurological problems. A new hypothesis is proposed that links cortisol levels with yawning episodes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Hair as a long-term retrospective cortisol calendar in orang-utans (Pongo spp.): new perspectives for stress monitoring in captive management and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlitz, Esther H D; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Stalder, Tobias; van Schaik, Carolus P

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether the method of hair cortisol analysis is applicable to orang-utans (Pongo spp.) and can help to advance the objective monitoring of stress in non-human primates. Specifically, we examined whether fundamental prerequisites for hair cortisol analysis are given in orang-utans and, subsequently, whether segmental hair analysis may provide a retrospective calendar of long-term cortisol levels. For this, hair samples were examined from 71 zoo-living orang-utans (38 males, mean age=22.5years; 33 females, mean age=24years) for which detailed records of past living conditions were available. Hair samples were cut from defined body regions and were analyzed either in full length or in segments. Results showed that hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) were unrelated to age or sex of the individual animal. HCC were found to be higher in orang-utans, with perceived long-term stressful periods (mean HCC=43.6±26.5pg/mg, n=13) compared to animals without perceived stressful periods (19.3±5.5pg/mg, n=55, P40cm. The possibility of obtaining a retrospective calendar of stress-related cortisol changes through hair analysis was further supported by data of three case studies showing close correspondence between the segmental HCC results and keeper reports of stress exposure during the respective time periods. Finally, low within-animal variation in HCC from different body regions (CV%: 14.3) suggested that this method may also be applicable to naturally shed hair, e.g., as found in nests of wild orang-utans and other great apes. Therefore, using HCC may provide an ideal non-invasive tool for both captive management as well as conservation in orang-utans and potentially other great apes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Ambulatory assessed implicit affect is associated with salivary cortisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joram eMossink

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the presumed pathways linking negative emotions to adverse somatic health is an overactive HPA-axis, usually indicated by elevated cortisol levels. Traditionally, research has focused on consciously reported negative emotions. Yet, given that the majority of information processing occurs without conscious awareness, stress physiology might also be influenced by affective processes that people are not aware of. In a 24-hour ambulatory study we examined whether cortisol levels were associated with two implicit measures. Implicit affect was assessed using the Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test, and implicit negative memory bias was assessed with the word fragment completion tasks. In 55 healthy participants, we measured subjective stress levels, worries, implicit and explicit affect each hour during waking hours. Also, saliva samples were collected at three fixed times during the day, as well as upon waking and 30 minutes thereafter (cortisol awakening response. Multilevel analyses of the daytime cortisol levels revealed that the presence of an implicit negative memory bias was associated with increased cortisol levels. Additionally, implicit PA and, unexpectedly, implicit NA were negatively associated with cortisol levels. Finally, participants demonstrating higher levels of implicit sadness during the first measurement day, had a stronger cortisol rise upon awakening at the next day. Contrary to previous research, no associations between explicit affect and cortisol were apparent. The current study was the first to examine the concurrent relation between implicit measures and stress physiology in daily life. The results suggest that the traditional focus on consciously reported feelings and emotions is limited, and that implicit measures can add to our understanding of how stress and emotions contribute to daily physiological activity and, in the long term, health problems.

  12. Idle behaviors of the hippocampus reflect endogenous cortisol levels in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomason, Moriah E; Tocco, Maria A; Quednau, Kelly A; Bedway, Andrea R; Carré, Justin M

    2013-06-01

    Compelling evidence indicates that disruption in functional connectivity (FC) in brain networks underlies many psychiatric and developmental disorders. Current theory posits that biological (i.e., cortisol) and environmental (i.e., stress) experiences in early life are strong determinants in the development of functional brain systems and formative in the genesis of such disorders. The objective of this study was to examine the extent to which individual differences in cortisol concentrations during FC magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) would map onto variability in hippocampal to default mode network (DMN) connectivity in typically developing youth. Salivary cortisol and FC MRI data were collected concurrently in 33 scan-naive 7- to 15-year-old participants. Twenty-nine of these participants previously completed the Trier Social Stress Test. Hippocampal to DMN FC and endogenous cortisol variability during MRI were examined. A possible association between MRI cortisol and cortisol response to the Trier Social Stress Test during the preceding visit or a participant's ratings of anxiety during MRI was tested. There were significant positive relations between MRI cortisol levels and measurements in the following 3 areas: hippocampal to DMN FC during the resting state, cortisol levels during the Trier Social Stress Test, and fear/anxiety ratings during MRI. Fear/anxiety ratings during MRI also related to self-reported anxiety on standardized measurements. This study shows for the first time that FC of the hippocampus is altered with changing cortisol responsivity in youth. Altered FC during the resting state may represent altered alertness or monitoring resulting from variation in glucocorticoid function in youth, which carries implications for the effect of stress on response monitoring and decision making. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Psychosocial factors at home and at work and levels of salivary cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eller, Nanna Hurwitz; Netterstrøm, Bo; Hansen, Ase Marie

    2006-01-01

    Salivary cortisol as a physiological measure of stress has attracted great interest in recent years.......Salivary cortisol as a physiological measure of stress has attracted great interest in recent years....

  14. Cortisol boosts risky decision-making behavior in men but not in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluen, Lisa Marieke; Agorastos, Agorastos; Wiedemann, Klaus; Schwabe, Lars

    2017-10-01

    Acute stress may escalate risky decision-making in men, while there is no such effect in women. Although first evidence links these gender-specific effects of stress to stress-induced changes in cortisol, whether elevated cortisol is indeed sufficient to boost risk-taking, whether a potential cortisol effect depends on simultaneous noradrenergic activation, and whether cortisol and noradrenergic activation exert distinct effects on risk-taking in men and women is unknown. In this experiment, we therefore set out to elucidate the impact of cortisol and noradrenergic stimulation on risky decision-making in men and women. In a fully-crossed, placebo-controlled, double-blind design, male and female participants received orally either a placebo, hydrocortisone, yohimbine, an alpha-2-adrenoceptor-antagonist leading to increased noradrenergic stimulation, or both drugs before completing the balloon analogue risk task, a validated measure of risk-taking. Overall, participants' choice was risk-sensitive as reflected in reduced responding in high- compared to moderate- and low-risk conditions. Cortisol, however, led to a striking increase in risk-taking in men, whereas it had no effect on risk-taking behavior in women. Yohimbine had no such effect and the gender-specific effect of cortisol was not modulated by yohimbine. Our data show that cortisol boosts risk-taking behavior in men but not in women. This differential effect of cortisol on risk-taking may drive gender differences in risky decision-making under stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Influences of early shift work on the diurnal cortisol rhythm, mood and sleep: within-subject variation in male airline pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostock, Sophie; Steptoe, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    We aimed to investigate how early and late work shifts influenced the diurnal cortisol rhythm using a within-subjects study design. Participants were 30 healthy male non-smoking pilots, mean age 39.4, employed by a short-haul airline. The standard rotating shift pattern consisted of 5 early shifts (starting before 0600 h), followed by 3 rest days, 5 late shifts (starting after 1200 h) and 4 rest days. Pilots sampled saliva and completed subjective mood ratings in a logbook 6 times over the day on two consecutive early shift days, two late days and two rest days. Sampling was scheduled at waking, waking+30 m, waking+2.5 h, waking+8 h, waking+12 h and bedtime. Waking time, sleep duration, sleep quality and working hours were also recorded. Cortisol responses were analysed with repeated measures analysis of variance with shift condition (early, late, rest) and sample time (1-6) as within-subject factors. Early shifts were associated with a higher cortisol increase in response to awakening (CAR(i)), a greater total cortisol output over the day (AUC(G)) and a slower rate of decline over the day than late shifts or rest days. Early shifts were also associated with shorter sleep duration but co-varying for sleep duration did not alter the effects of shift on the cortisol rhythm. Both types of work shift were associated with more stress, tiredness and lower happiness than rest days, but statistical adjustment for mood ratings did not alter the findings. Early shift days were associated with significantly higher levels of circulating cortisol during waking hours than late shifts or rest days. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cortisol in hair measured in young adults - a biomarker of major life stressors?

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    Theodorsson Elvar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stress as a cause of illness has been firmly established. In public health and stress research a retrospective biomarker of extended stress would be an indispensible aid. The objective of this pilot study was to investigate whether concentrations of cortisol in hair correlate with perceived stress, experiences of serious life events, and perceived health in young adults. Methods Hair samples were cut from the posterior vertex area of (n = 99 university students who also answered a questionnaire covering experiences of serious life events, perceived Stress Scale and perceived health during the last three months. Cortisol was measured using a competitive radioimmunoassay in methanol extracts of hair samples frozen in liquid nitrogen and mechanically pulverised. Results Mean cortisol levels were significantly related to serious life events (p = 0.045, weakly negatively correlated to perceived stress (p = 0.025, r = -0.061 but nor affected by sex, coloured/permed hair, intake of pharmaceuticals or self-reported health. In a multiple regression model, only the indicator of serious life events had an independent (p = 0.041 explanation of increased levels of cortisol in hair. Out of four outliers with extremely high cortisol levels two could be contacted, both reported serious psychological problems. Conclusions These findings suggest that measurement of cortisol in hair could serve as a retrospective biomarker of increased cortisol production reflecting exposure to major life stressors and possibly extended psychological illness with important implications for research, clinical practice and public health. Experience of serious life events seems to be more important in raising cortisol levels in hair than perceived stress.

  17. Trait Rumination Predicts Elevated Evening Cortisol in Sexual and Gender Minority Young Adults.

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    Zoccola, Peggy M; Manigault, Andrew W; Figueroa, Wilson S; Hollenbeck, Cari; Mendlein, Anna; Woody, Alex; Hamilton, Katrina; Scanlin, Matt; Johnson, Ryan C

    2017-11-09

    Stress may contribute to illness through the impaired recovery or sustained activity of stress-responsive biological systems. Rumination, or mental rehearsal of past stressors, may alter the body's stress-responsive systems by amplifying and prolonging exposure to physiological mediators, such as cortisol. The primary aim of the current investigation was to test the extent to which the tendency to ruminate on stress predicts diminished diurnal cortisol recovery (i.e., elevated evening cortisol) in a sample of sexual and gender minority young adults. Participants included 58 lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender young adults ( M age = 25.0, SD = 4.1) who completed an initial online survey that assessed trait rumination and current depressed mood. Participants completed daily evening questionnaires and provided salivary cortisol samples at wake, 45 min post-wake, 12 h post-wake, and at bedtime over seven consecutive days. Trait rumination predicted significantly higher cortisol concentrations at bedtime, but was unrelated to other cortisol indices (e.g., morning cortisol, diurnal slope, total output). The association with trait rumination was not accounted for by daily negative affect, and was largely independent of depressed mood. These results have implications for identifying and treating those who may be at risk for impaired diurnal cortisol recovery and associated negative health outcomes.

  18. Trait Rumination Predicts Elevated Evening Cortisol in Sexual and Gender Minority Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peggy M. Zoccola

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Stress may contribute to illness through the impaired recovery or sustained activity of stress-responsive biological systems. Rumination, or mental rehearsal of past stressors, may alter the body’s stress-responsive systems by amplifying and prolonging exposure to physiological mediators, such as cortisol. The primary aim of the current investigation was to test the extent to which the tendency to ruminate on stress predicts diminished diurnal cortisol recovery (i.e., elevated evening cortisol in a sample of sexual and gender minority young adults. Participants included 58 lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender young adults (Mage = 25.0, SD = 4.1 who completed an initial online survey that assessed trait rumination and current depressed mood. Participants completed daily evening questionnaires and provided salivary cortisol samples at wake, 45 min post-wake, 12 h post-wake, and at bedtime over seven consecutive days. Trait rumination predicted significantly higher cortisol concentrations at bedtime, but was unrelated to other cortisol indices (e.g., morning cortisol, diurnal slope, total output. The association with trait rumination was not accounted for by daily negative affect, and was largely independent of depressed mood. These results have implications for identifying and treating those who may be at risk for impaired diurnal cortisol recovery and associated negative health outcomes.

  19. Writing About Past Failures Attenuates Cortisol Responses and Sustained Attention Deficits Following Psychosocial Stress

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    DiMenichi, Brynne C.; Lempert, Karolina M.; Bejjani, Christina; Tricomi, Elizabeth

    2018-01-01

    Acute stress can harm performance. Paradoxically, writing about stressful events—such as past failures—has been shown to improve cognitive functioning and performance, especially in tasks that require sustained attention. Yet, there is little physiological evidence for whether writing about past failures or other negative events improves performance by reducing stress. In this experiment, we studied the effects of an acute psychosocial stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test, on attentional performance and salivary cortisol release in humans. Additionally, we investigated whether an expressive writing task could reduce the detrimental effects of stress, both on performance and physiological response. We found that when individuals were asked to write about a past failure before experiencing a stressor, they exhibited attenuated stress responses. Moreover, those who wrote about a past failure before being exposed to stress also exhibited better behavioral performance. Our results suggest that writing about a previous failure may allow an individual to experience a new stressor as less stressful, reducing its physiological and behavioral effects. PMID:29628878

  20. CRH-stimulated cortisol release and food intake in healthy, non-obese adults.

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    George, Sophie A; Khan, Samir; Briggs, Hedieh; Abelson, James L

    2010-05-01

    There is considerable anecdotal and some scientific evidence that stress triggers eating behavior, but underlying physiological mechanisms remain uncertain. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a key mediator of physiological stress responses and may play a role in the link between stress and food intake. Cortisol responses to laboratory stressors predict consumption but it is unclear whether such responses mark a vulnerability to stress-related eating or whether cortisol directly stimulates eating in humans. We infused healthy adults with corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) at a dose that is subjectively undetectable but elicits a robust endogenous cortisol response, and measured subsequent intake of snack foods, allowing analysis of HPA reactivity effects on food intake without the complex psychological effects of a stress paradigm. CRH elevated cortisol levels relative to placebo but did not impact subjective anxious distress. Subjects ate more following CRH than following placebo and peak cortisol response to CRH was strongly related to both caloric intake and total consumption. These data show that HPA axis reactivity to pharmacological stimulation predicts subsequent food intake and suggest that cortisol itself may directly stimulate food consumption in humans. Understanding the physiological mechanisms that underlie stress-related eating may prove useful in efforts to attack the public health crises created by obesity. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Salivary cortisol day curves in Addison's disease in patients on hydrocortisone replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, I L; Levitt, N S; Van der Walt, J S; Schatz, D A; Johannsson, G; Haarburger, D H; Pillay, T S

    2013-01-01

    Using salivary cortisol (SC) measurements, cortisol exposure in Addison's disease patients on hydrocortisone replacement was determined and compared with healthy controls. Cortisol pharmacokinetics was assessed in 31 patients with Addison's disease on replacement hydrocortisone doses (median daily dose 20 mg; range 5-50 mg) and 30 healthy control subjects. Saliva samples (n=16) were collected between 08:00 and 00:00 h in 1 day, using a passive drool technique. Cortisol exposure was evaluated by noncompartmental approach. In the patients, cortisol exposure was significantly higher than in controls: median inter-quartile range (IQR) peak cortisol (C(max)) 174.5 (59.3-837.0) vs. 6.50 (4.7-19.3) nmol/l, p=0.0001; area under the curve (AUC) 390.1 (177.1-928.9) vs. 21.4 (14.6-28.4) minutes*nmol/l, p=0.0001, trough cortisol level (C(min)) 0.49 (0.49-0.96) vs. 0.49 (0.49-0.49) nmol/l, p=0.02, occurring at 480.0 (0.1-660.0) vs. 405.0 (180.0-570.0) min, p=0.56. First peak cortisol was 174.5 (53.0-754.7) vs. 6.27 (3.90-8.47) nmol/l, p=0.0001 and second peak cortisol 18.90 (5.22-76.9) vs. 3.12 (1.76-4.79) nmol/l, p=0.0001. The time to first peak cortisol differed between the 2 groups, 30 (30-75) vs. 0.1 (0.1-30) minutes; p=0.0001. At doses studied, hydrocortisone replacement therapy results in cortisol pharmacokinetics being markedly different from endogenous cortisol profiles in healthy control subjects. Addison's disease patients had significantly higher SC levels compared to healthy control subjects. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Hair cortisol detection in dairy cattle by using EIA: protocol validation and correlation with faecal cortisol metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallo-Parra, O; Manteca, X; Sabes-Alsina, M; Carbajal, A; Lopez-Bejar, M

    2015-06-01

    Hair may be a useful matrix to detect cumulative cortisol concentrations in studies of animal welfare and chronic stress. The aim of this study was to validate a protocol for cortisol detection in hair from dairy cattle by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Seventeen adult Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were used during the milking period. Hair cortisol concentration was assessed in 25-day-old hair samples taken from the frontal region of the head, analysing black and white coloured hair separately. Concentrations of cortisol metabolites were determined in faeces collected twice a week during the same period of time. There was a high correlation between cortisol values in faeces and cortisol in white colour hair samples but such correlation was not significant with the black colour hair samples. The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were 4.9% and 10.6%, respectively. The linearity showed R 2=0.98 and mean percentage error of -10.8 ± 1.55%. The extraction efficiency was 89.0 ± 23.52% and the parallelism test showed similar slopes. Cortisol detection in hair by using EIA seems to be a valid method to represent long-term circulating cortisol levels in dairy cattle.

  3. Low plasma cortisol and fecal cortisol metabolite measures as indicators of compromised welfare in domestic horses (Equus caballus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi Pawluski

    Full Text Available The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis response to chronic stress is far from straight forward, particularly with regards to animal welfare. There are reports of no effect as well as both decreases and increases in cortisol after chronic stressors. Therefore, the first aim of the present study was to determine how measures of compromised welfare, such as chronic pain and haematological anomalies, related to cortisol levels in domestic horses (Equus caballus. Domestic horses are an informative model to investigate the impact of chronic stress (due to environment, pain, work, housing conditions… on the HPA axis. The second aim was to determine whether levels of fecal cortisol metabolites (FCM may be used as an indicator of welfare measures. The present study used fifty-nine horses (44 geldings and 15 mares, from three riding centres in Brittany, France. The primary findings show that horses whose welfare was clearly compromised (as indicated by an unusual ears backward position, presence of vertebral problems or haematological anomalies, e.g. anaemia also had lower levels of both FCM and plasma cortisol. This work extends our previous findings showing that withdrawn postures, indicators of depressive-like behavior in horses, are associated with lower plasma cortisol levels. We also found that evening plasma cortisol levels positively correlated with FCM levels in horses. Future research aims to determine the extent to which factors of influence on welfare, such as living conditions (e.g. single stalls versus group housing in pasture or paddocks, early life factors, and human interaction, act as mediators of cortisol levels in horses.

  4. Cortisol Reactivity to Social Stress as a Mediator of Early Adversity on Risk and Adaptive Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Abar, Beau; Lester, Barry M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R.; Whitaker, Toni M.; Hammond, Jane A.

    2014-01-01

    Children chronically exposed to stress early in life are at increased risk for maladaptive outcomes, though the physiological mechanisms driving these effects are unknown. Cortisol reactivity was tested as a mediator of the relation between prenatal substance exposure and/or early adversity on adaptive and maladaptive outcomes. Data were drawn…

  5. INFLUENCE OF NATURAL IMMUNOMODULATORS ON PROTEIN FRACTIONS AND CORTISOL CONTENT IN RABBIT BLOOD UNDER STRESS

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    Grabovskyi S.

    2015-08-01

    feed increases the Prealbumin concentration in rabbits blood plasma of two experimental groups twice (P ≤ 0.05 and 2.8 times (P ≤ 0.01 compared to the control. Cortisol level in rabbits (which further added to the feed of spleen extract (I research group blood plasma was reliable lower by 40 % (Р<0.05 compared to control, that may to indicate decreasing of stress before slaughter. On the rabbits feeding final stage is necessary to consider a pre-slaughter stress and to apply of natural origin biologically active substances. The results which obtained can to use in researches of stress hormones, such as cortisol, on farm animals for organism resistance increasing, correction and avoid their pre-slaughter stress and improve product quality.

  6. Examining Infants' Cortisol Responses to Laboratory Tasks among Children Varying in Attachment Disorganization: Stress Reactivity or Return to Baseline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Kristin; Dozier, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Cortisol is a hormone involved in mounting a stress response in humans. The evidence of stress reactivity among young children has been mixed, however. In the present study, the order of two laboratory tasks (i.e., Strange Situation and play) was counterbalanced, and home saliva samples were obtained. Saliva samples were also collected upon the…

  7. Parenting stressors and morning cortisol in a sample of working mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibel, Leah C; Mercado, Evelyn; Trumbell, Jill M

    2012-10-01

    The cortisol awakening response (CAR) is a normative rise in cortisol levels across the 30 minutes post awakening. Both the levels and the degree of change in cortisol across this time period are sensitive to the perceived challenges of the day and are thought to prepare the individual to meet these tasks. However, working parents of young children may be under unique strains at this time as they attempt to simultaneously care for their children while also preparing themselves for the workday ahead. In these analyses we examined the contributions of both work and parenting stress on maternal cortisol levels and awakening responses, and how these relationships differed on workdays compared with nonworkdays. To do this, saliva samples were collected from 56 working mothers (25% single) with a child between the ages of 2 and 4 years old (mode = 2 children), at awakening and 30 min postawakening. Samples were collected on 4 consecutive days-2 nonworkdays followed by 2 workdays. Analyses revealed mothers reporting higher levels of parenting stress had higher average a.m. cortisol on workdays compared with nonworkdays. Further, mothers reporting a combination of high job strain and high parenting stress had significantly higher cortisol levels and steeper CAR increases on workdays compared with nonworkdays. Findings are discussed by integrating knowledge from the fields of parenting stress, work-family, and stress physiology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Melatonin and cortisol profiles in late midlife and their association with age-related changes in cognition

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    Waller KL

    2016-01-01

    -hour mean melatonin concentration (high-functioning group: 4.80±0.70 pg/mL, vs cognitively impaired group: 4.81±0.76 pg/mL; P>0.05 (or the area under the curve, AUC was not significantly different between the two groups. Cortisol levels were low during the night, and peaked at approximately 8 am. Median cortisol concentrations were similar at all times, as were the 24-hour mean cortisol concentrations and AUC. To the best of our knowledge, ours is the first study to assess circadian measures (ie, melatonin and cortisol in healthy middle-aged men with different cognitive trajectories in midlife. We found evidence of altered circadian rhythms with a reduced nocturnal melatonin response at 4 am in men with cognitive impairment. The 24-hour concentration and AUC of melatonin and cortisol were similar in the cognitively high-functioning group and in the cognitively impaired. Keywords: diurnal variation, middle-aged males, minimal cognitive impairment

  9. Cortisol acutely reduces selective attention for erotic words in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Peter; Berling, Sylvia

    2011-10-01

    Psychological stress prompts activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis resulting in increased release of cortisol. Long-term HPA aberrations have been observed for stress-related affective disorders but research into acute effects of cortisol on affect-regulation has only recently begun. Previous studies reported that exogenous cortisol acutely attenuated automatic attentional processing of task-irrelevant threatening information. This has been taken to suggest that cortisol may have acute anxiolytic properties, possibly through facilitating inhibition of threatening information. However, the role of cortisol in attentional inhibition of non-threatening arousing stimuli remained unclear. Therefore acute effects of 40 mg cortisol on performance of a masked and unmasked emotional Stroop task (EST) were assessed. Results for only the unmasked task demonstrated EST interference (interpreted as increased automatic attention) for erotic stimuli which was abolished by cortisol administration. This implies that effects of cortisol may not be restricted to attenuation of specifically anxiogenic information processing, as previously suggested. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. AucPR: an AUC-based approach using penalized regression for disease prediction with high-dimensional omics data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenbao; Park, Taesung

    2014-01-01

    It is common to get an optimal combination of markers for disease classification and prediction when multiple markers are available. Many approaches based on the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) have been proposed. Existing works based on AUC in a high-dimensional context depend mainly on a non-parametric, smooth approximation of AUC, with no work using a parametric AUC-based approach, for high-dimensional data. We propose an AUC-based approach using penalized regression (AucPR), which is a parametric method used for obtaining a linear combination for maximizing the AUC. To obtain the AUC maximizer in a high-dimensional context, we transform a classical parametric AUC maximizer, which is used in a low-dimensional context, into a regression framework and thus, apply the penalization regression approach directly. Two kinds of penalization, lasso and elastic net, are considered. The parametric approach can avoid some of the difficulties of a conventional non-parametric AUC-based approach, such as the lack of an appropriate concave objective function and a prudent choice of the smoothing parameter. We apply the proposed AucPR for gene selection and classification using four real microarray and synthetic data. Through numerical studies, AucPR is shown to perform better than the penalized logistic regression and the nonparametric AUC-based method, in the sense of AUC and sensitivity for a given specificity, particularly when there are many correlated genes. We propose a powerful parametric and easily-implementable linear classifier AucPR, for gene selection and disease prediction for high-dimensional data. AucPR is recommended for its good prediction performance. Beside gene expression microarray data, AucPR can be applied to other types of high-dimensional omics data, such as miRNA and protein data.

  11. Stress through the mind of the beholder: preliminary differences in child and maternal perceptions of child stress in relation to child cortisol and cardiovascular activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allwood, Maureen A; Gaffey, Allison E; Vergara-Lopez, Chrystal; Stroud, Laura R

    2017-07-01

    The present study examined associations among parent and child reports of youth's stressful life events (SLEs), perceived stress, and biological measures of stress activity (i.e. cortisol and cardiovascular activity). Examining these aspects of youth stress presents several challenges. Unlike adult studies of individual differences in which information regarding SLEs, perceptions of events, and biological activity are gathered from one individual, assessment of individual differences among children usually involves other informants (e.g. parent). However, parent and child reports of SLEs and the child's psychological response to such events are often discordant. Moreover, examinations of youth perception of stress are hampered by limitations of child cognitive processes, as well as parents' limited knowledge of their child's perception of stress. In a preliminary effort to unscramble the complex effects of youth SLEs and perceived stress in relation to biological response to acute stressors, this study examined 51 boys and girls aged 7-16, with no history of psychopathology or medical concerns. Contrary to hypotheses, findings revealed that compared to actual experiences of stress, perceived stress has greater associations with both cortisol and cardiovascular activity. That is, perceived stress is more biologically salient relative to actual stress. Results also suggest that informant differences may explain some previous inconsistent findings in studies of youth's stress reactivity. The current findings mirror the adult studies that show appraisal and perception of traumatic and stressful events may be more predictive of negative health and mental health outcomes than the severity of the events. Further studies are needed to understand the impact of youth's perceptions of stress on their biological stress reactions and later health outcomes such as clinical disorders.

  12. Gender differences in automatic thoughts and cortisol and alpha-amylase responses to acute psychosocial stress in patients with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.

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    Kanehisa, Masayuki; Kawashima, Chiwa; Nakanishi, Mari; Okamoto, Kana; Oshita, Harumi; Masuda, Koji; Takita, Fuku; Izumi, Toshihiko; Inoue, Ayako; Ishitobi, Yoshinobu; Higuma, Haruka; Ninomiya, Taiga; Akiyoshi, Jotaro

    2017-08-01

    Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) has a pervasive pattern of preoccupation with orderliness, perfection, and mental and interpersonal control at the expense of flexibility, openness, and efficiency. The aims of the present study were to explore the relationship between OCPD and psychological stress and psychological tests. We evaluated 63 OCPD patients and 107 healthy controls (HCs). We collected saliva samples from patients and controls before and after a social stress procedure, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), to measure the concentrations of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) and salivary cortisol. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), Profile of Mood State (POMS), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Social Adaptation Self-Evaluation Scale (SASS), and Depression and Anxiety Cognition Scale (DACS) were administered to patients and HCs. Following TSST exposure, the salivary amylase and cortisol levels were significantly decreased in male patients compared with controls. Additionally, OCPD patients had higher CTQ, POMS, STAI, and BDI scores than HCs and exhibited significantly higher anxiety and depressive states. OCPD patients scored higher on future denial and threat prediction as per the DACS tool. According to a stepwise regression analysis, STAI, POMS, and salivary cortisol responses were independent predictors of OCPD. Our results suggested that attenuated sympathetic and parasympathetic reactivity in male OCPD patients occurs along with attenuated salivary amylase and cortisol responses to the TSST. In addition, there was a significant difference between OCPD patients and HCs in child trauma, mood, anxiety, and cognition. The finding support the modeling role of cortisol (20min) on the relationships between STAI trait and depression among OCPD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Problematic Internet use, excessive alcohol consumption, their comorbidity and cardiovascular and cortisol reactions to acute psychological stress in a student population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibbey, Adam; Phillips, Anna C; Ginty, Annie T; Carroll, Douglas

    2015-06-01

    Problematic Internet use and excessive alcohol consumption have been associated with a host of maladaptive outcomes. Further, low (blunted) cardiovascular and stress hormone (e.g. cortisol) reactions to acute psychological stress are a feature of individuals with a range of adverse health and behavioural characteristics, including dependencies such as tobacco and alcohol addiction. The present study extended this research by examining whether behavioural dependencies, namely problematic Internet use, excessive alcohol consumption, and their comorbidity would also be associated with blunted stress reactivity. A large sample of university students (N = 2313) were screened using Internet and alcohol dependency questionnaires to select four groups for laboratory testing: comorbid Internet and alcohol dependence (N = 17), Internet dependence (N = 17), alcohol dependence (N = 28), and non-dependent controls (N = 26). Cardiovascular activity and salivary cortisol were measured at rest and in response to a psychological stress protocol comprising of mental arithmetic and public speaking tasks. Neither problematic Internet behaviour nor excessive alcohol consumption, either individually or in combination, were associated with blunted cardiovascular or cortisol stress reactions. Discussion It is possible that problematic Internet behaviour and excessive alcohol consumption in a student population were not related to physiological reactivity as they may not reflect ingrained addictions but rather an impulse control disorder and binging tendency. The present results serve to indicate some of the limits of the developing hypothesis that blunted stress reactivity is a peripheral marker of the central motivational dysregulation in the brain underpinning a wide range of health and behavioural problems.

  14. Stress responses in lambs castrated with three different methods

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    Paola Sandra Nicolussi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work was conducted to evaluate the animal response to stress in lambs caused by three different castration techniques. Forty-six male lambs aged 4-5 months were randomly allocated to one of four groups including Burdizzo (B, scrotal ablation (SA, orchiectomy (OR and control handling (H. Local anaesthesia (lidocaine 2% was administered in both spermatic cords and the scrotal neck of lambs before each treatment. Blood samples were collected at -30, -10, +1, +20, +40, +60, +120, and +180 minutes. Serum cortisol concentrations were determined using a competitive immunoassay and the area under the curve (AUC was calculated for each lamb. The following biochemical parameters were assayed for each animal at each time point: alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, creatine kinase (CK and glucose (GLU. The time needed for total lesion resolution and weight gain of each animal was recorded. Orchiectomy elicits the greatest cortisol response, significantly greater than that seen in similarly handled controls (P≤0.01, Burdizzo and scrotal ablation groups (P≤0.05. The serum cortisol AUC was higher in the scrotal ablation group (P≤0.05 than controls, but lower than in the orchiectomy group (P≤0.05. The Burdizzo group didn’t differ from controls. Serum glucose levels of the castrated lambs differed significantly from the control group, following a trend similar to cortisol. No change was seen in ALT, AST, LDH or CK. No difference in weight gain was seen among the groups. Our results suggest that use of the Burdizzo is the preferable castration technique for adult lambs, while scrotal ablation is a valid surgical alternative to orchiectomy and permits more rapid wound healing that is ideal for extensive management where flocks are not under close observation.

  15. Momentary work worries, marital disclosure, and salivary cortisol among parents of young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slatcher, Richard B; Robles, Theodore F; Repetti, Rena L; Fellows, Michelle D

    2010-11-01

    To investigate whether worries about work are linked to people's own cortisol levels and their spouses' cortisol levels in everyday life and whether marital factors may moderate these links. Although research has shown that satisfying marriages can buffer the physiological effects of everyday stress, the specific mechanisms through which marriage influences the processing and transmission of stress have not yet been identified. Thirty-seven healthy married couples completed baseline measures and then provided saliva samples and indicated their worries about work for six times a day from a Saturday morning through a Monday evening. Wives' cortisol levels were associated positively with their own work worries (p = .008) and with their husbands' work worries (p = .006). Husbands' cortisol levels were associated positively only with their own work worries (p = .015). Wives low in both marital satisfaction and disclosure showed a stronger association between work worries and cortisol compared with wives reporting either high marital satisfaction and/or high marital disclosure. These results suggest that momentary feelings of stress affect not only one's own cortisol levels but affect close others' cortisol levels as well. Furthermore, they suggest that, for women, the stress-buffering effects of a happy marriage may be partially explained by the extent to which they disclose their thoughts and feelings with their spouses.

  16. A low cortisol response to acute stress is related to worse basal memory performance in older people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almela, M.; Hidalgo, V.; van der Meij, L.; Villada, C.; Pulopulos, M. M.; Salvador, A.

    2014-01-01

    Age-related memory decline has been associated with a faulty regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis). The aim of this study was to investigate whether the magnitude of the stress-induced cortisol increase is related to memory performance when memory is measured in

  17. Summary cortisol reactivity indicators: Interrelations and meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer E. Khoury

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA axis has involved a proliferation of cortisol indices. We surveyed recently published HPA-related articles and identified 15 such indices. We sought to clarify their biometric properties, specifically, how they interrelate and what they mean, because such information is rarely offered in the articles themselves. In the present article, the primary samples consist of community mothers and their infants (N = 297, who participated in two challenges, the Toy Frustration Paradigm and the Strange Situation Procedure. We sought to cross-validate findings from each of these samples against the other, and also against a clinically depressed sample (N = 48 and a sample of healthy older adults (N = 51 who participated in the Trier Social Stress Test. Cortisol was collected from all participants once before and twice after the challenges. These heterogenous samples were chosen to obtain the greatest possible range in cortisol levels and stress response regulation. Using these data, we computed the 15 summary cortisol indices identified in our literature survey. We assessed inter-relations amongst indices and determined their underlying dimensions via principal component analysis (PCA. The PCAs consistently extracted two components, accounting for 79%–93% of the variance. These components represent “total cortisol production” and “change in cortisol levels.” The components were highly congruent across challenge, time, and sample. High variable loadings and explained factor variance suggest that all indices represent their underlying dimensions very well. Thus the abundance of summary cortisol indices currently represented in the literature appears superfluous.

  18. Association of suboptimal health status with psychosocial stress, plasma cortisol and mRNA expression of glucocorticoid receptor α/β in lymphocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yu-Xiang; Dong, Jing; Liu, You-Qin; Zhang, Jie; Song, Man-Shu; He, Yan; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Suboptimal health status (SHS) has become a new public health challenge in China. This study investigated whether high SHS is associated with psychosocial stress, changes in cortisol level and/or glucocorticoid receptor (GR) isoform expression. Three-hundred eighty-six workers employed in three companies in Beijing were recruited. The SHS score was derived from data collection in the SHS questionnaire (SHSQ-25). The short standard version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) was used to assess job-related psychosocial stress. The mean value of the five scales of COPSOQ and distribution of plasma cortisol and mRNA expression of GRα/GRβ between the high level of SHS group and the low level of SHS group were compared using a general linear model procedure. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to analyze the effect of psychosocial stress on SHS. We identified three factors that were predictive of SHS, including "demands at work", "interpersonal relations and leadership" and "insecurity at work". Significantly higher levels of plasma cortisol and GRβ/GRα mRNA ratio were observed among the high SHS group. High level of SHS is associated with decreased mRNA expression of GRα. This study confirmed the association between chronic psychosocial stress and SHS, indicating that improving the psychosocial work environment may reduce SHS and then prevent chronic diseases effectively.

  19. Biobehavioral Factors in Child Health Outcomes: The Roles of Maternal Stress, Maternal-Child Engagement, Salivary Cortisol, and Salivary Testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clowtis, Licia M; Kang, Duck-Hee; Padhye, Nikhil S; Rozmus, Cathy; Barratt, Michelle S

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to high levels of maternal stress and ineffective maternal-child engagement (MC-E) may adversely affect child health-related outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of maternal stress and MC-E on maternal and child biological responses (salivary cortisol and testosterone) and child health outcome in mother-child dyads of preschool children (3-5.9 years) in a low socioeconomic setting. Observational and biobehavioral data were collected from 50 mother-child dyads in a preschool setting. Assessments included maternal stress with the Perceived Stress Scale, child health outcomes with the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, and MC-E with videotaped mother-child interactions and scored with the Keys to Interactive Parenting Scale. Morning and evening saliva samples were collected from mother and child for biological assays. Maternal stress was negatively correlated with MC-E (r = -.32, p health outcome (r = -.33, p health outcome. Maternal stress and MC-E during mother-child interactions play a significant role in the regulation of child stress physiology and child health outcome. Elevated cortisol and testosterone related to high maternal stress and low MC-E may increase the child's vulnerability to negative health outcomes-if sustained. More biobehavioral research is needed to understand how parent-child interactions affect child development and health outcomes in early childhood.

  20. BDNF Val66Met polymorphism is associated with higher anticipatory cortisol stress response, anxiety, and alcohol consumption in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colzato, Lorenza S; Van der Does, A J Willem; Kouwenhoven, Coen; Elzinga, Bernet M; Hommel, Bernhard

    2011-11-01

    The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a key protein in maintaining neuronal integrity. The BDNF gene is thought to play an important role in the pathophysiology of mood and anxiety disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate, for the first time in a single study, the association between BDNF Val(66)Met polymorphism, anxiety, alcohol consumption, and cortisol stress response. 98 healthy university students (54 females and 44 males), genotyped for the Val(66)Met polymorphism, participated in a physical-stress procedure (cold pressure test, CPT) after having been informed that they would undergo a painful experience. Indices of anxiety and of stress were collected from repeated measurement of salivary cortisol, blood pressure, and heart rate. BDNF Met carriers, were more anxious during the CPT (pBDNF Val(66)Met polymorphism with HPA axis reactivity to stress was not modulated by gender. These results suggest that Met carriers are particularly sensitive in anticipating stressful events, which extends previous findings on the moderating role of the BDNF Val(66)Met polymorphism in the face of stressful life events. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Indagation of serum and salivary reactive oxygen metabolite and cortisol levels in chronic periodontitis and stress-induced chronic periodontitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakar, Uma; Thyagarajan, Ramakrishnan; Jeyapal, Bhagyameena; Jagadeesh, Sushuruthi; Jayakumar, Parvathee

    2017-01-01

    Periodontal disease is not a conventional bacterial infection but is an inflammatory disease initiated by immune response against a group of microorganisms in susceptible hosts. There are many intriguing researches that unfold the secrets of chronic periodontitis. The current researches in chronic periodontitis are directed toward an approach that respects the scientific relationship between the various risk factors, the genetic factors, and the progression of the disease. This study aims to evaluate the cortisol and reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM) concentration in serum and to find out their association in periodontal health and disease. In this study, totally thirty patients have been taken and divided into two groups of chronic periodontitis (Group I) and stress-induced chronic periodontitis (Group II) and evaluated the correlation between the ROM and cortisol levels in them. This is the first study, where both the levels of ROM and cortisol are checked in the serum and saliva. The analysis is done to check the association between them. The data were statistically analyzed using software program (SPSSV 16), Pearson correlation, and paired t -test. Comparison of the mean ROM levels in Group I and Group II showed that mean ROM level in Group II is highly significant than Group I. Our study suggests that stress can have a role in the progression of periodontal disease by increasing the cortisol and ROM levels.

  2. Short-term impact of a stress management and health promotion program on perceived stress, parental stress, health locus of control, and cortisol levels in parents of children and adolescents with diabetes type 1: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiouli, Eleni; Pavlopoulos, Vassilis; Alexopoulos, Evangelos C; Chrousos, George; Darviri, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Parents of children and adolescents with diabetes type 1 (DT1) usually experience high stress levels, as they have to cope with multiple demands in their everyday life. Different complex interventions have been implemented, which sometimes have led to opposite results. The purpose of this study was to assess stress levels in parents of children and adolescents with DT1 and to evaluate the effectiveness of a stress management program (progressive muscle relaxation combined with diaphragmatic breathing) in reducing perceived and parenting stress, increasing internal locus of control, promoting healthy lifestyle, and normalizing cortisol levels. Randomized controlled trial. A total of 44 parents were randomly assigned to the intervention group (performing relaxation for eight weeks, n = 19) and control group (n = 25). Pre-post measurements included cortisol levels, lifestyle characteristics, perceived stress, perception of health, and parenting stress. A statistically significant decrease in perceived stress (from 27.21 to 19.00, P = .001), as well as in parenting stress (from 85.79 to 73.68, P = .003), was observed in the intervention group. A statistically significant difference was found in perceived stress between the two groups after the intervention (Dmean = 6.64, P = .010). No significant difference was revealed between or within the groups in cortisol levels. Significant improvement was reported by the subjects of the intervention group in various lifestyle parameters. Relaxation techniques seem to have a positive impact on stress and on various lifestyle factors in parents of children and adolescents with DT1. Future research on long-term benefits of an intervention program comprising of various relaxation schemes is warranted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. True or false? Memory is differentially affected by stress-induced cortisol elevations and sympathetic activity at consolidation and retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, Tom; Otgaar, Henry; Candel, Ingrid; Wolf, Oliver T

    2008-11-01

    Adrenal stress hormones released in response to acute stress may yield memory-enhancing effects when released post-learning and impairing effects at memory retrieval, especially for emotional memory material. However, so far these differential effects of stress hormones on the various memory phases for neutral and emotional memory material have not been demonstrated within one experiment. This study investigated whether, in line with their effects on true memory, stress and stress-induced adrenal stress hormones affect the encoding, consolidation, and retrieval of emotional and neutral false memories. Participants (N=90) were exposed to a stressor before encoding, during consolidation, before retrieval, or were not stressed and then were subjected to neutral and emotional versions of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott word list learning paradigm. Twenty-four hours later, recall of presented words (true recall) and non-presented critical lure words (false recall) was assessed. Results show that stress exposure resulted in superior true memory performance in the consolidation stress group and reduced true memory performance in the retrieval stress group compared to the other groups, predominantly for emotional words. These memory-enhancing and memory-impairing effects were strongly related to stress-induced cortisol and sympathetic activity measured via salivary alpha-amylase levels. Neutral and emotional false recall, on the other hand, was neither affected by stress exposure, nor related to cortisol and sympathetic activity following stress. These results demonstrate the importance of stress-induced hormone-related activity in enhancing memory consolidation and in impairing memory retrieval, in particular for emotional memory material.

  4. Circulating cortisol levels after exogenous cortisol administration are higher in women using hormonal contraceptives: data from two preliminary studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffey, Allison E; Wirth, Michelle M; Hoks, Roxanne M; Jahn, Allison L; Abercrombie, Heather C

    2014-07-01

    Exogenous cortisol administration has been used to test the influence of glucocorticoids on a variety of outcomes, including memory and affect. Careful control of factors known to influence cortisol and other endogenous hormone levels is central to the success of this research. While the use of hormonal birth control (HBC) is known to exert many physiological effects, including decreasing the salivary cortisol response to stress, it is unknown how HBC influences circulating cortisol levels after exogenous cortisol administration. To determine those effects, we examined the role of HBC on participants' cortisol levels after receiving synthetic cortisol (hydrocortisone) in two separate studies. In Study 1, 24 healthy women taking HBC and 26 healthy men were administered a 0.1 mg/kg body weight intravenous dose of hydrocortisone, and plasma cortisol levels were measured over 3 h. In Study 2, 61 participants (34 women; 16 were on HBC) received a 15 mg hydrocortisone pill, and salivary cortisol levels were measured over 6 h. Taken together, results from these studies suggest that HBC use is associated with a greater cortisol increase following cortisol administration. These data have important methodological implications: (1) when given a controlled dose of hydrocortisone, cortisol levels may increase more dramatically in women taking HBC versus women not on HBC or men; and (2) in studies manipulating cortisol levels, women on hormonal contraceptives should be investigated as a separate group.

  5. Writing About Past Failures Attenuates Cortisol Responses and Sustained Attention Deficits Following Psychosocial Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brynne C. DiMenichi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute stress can harm performance. Paradoxically, writing about stressful events—such as past failures—has been shown to improve cognitive functioning and performance, especially in tasks that require sustained attention. Yet, there is little physiological evidence for whether writing about past failures or other negative events improves performance by reducing stress. In this experiment, we studied the effects of an acute psychosocial stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test, on attentional performance and salivary cortisol release in humans. Additionally, we investigated whether an expressive writing task could reduce the detrimental effects of stress, both on performance and physiological response. We found that when individuals were asked to write about a past failure before experiencing a stressor, they exhibited attenuated stress responses. Moreover, those who wrote about a past failure before being exposed to stress also exhibited better behavioral performance. Our results suggest that writing about a previous failure may allow an individual to experience a new stressor as less stressful, reducing its physiological and behavioral effects.

  6. Symptom-specific associations between low cortisol responses and functional somatic symptoms : The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, K.A.; Oldehinkel, A.J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Hunfeld, J.A.; Ormel, J.; Rosmalen, J.G.

    Background: Functional somatic symptoms (FSS), like chronic pain and overtiredness, are often assumed to be stress-related. Altered levels of the stress hormone cortisol could explain the association between stress and somatic complaints. We hypothesized that low cortisol levels after awakening and

  7. Associations between basal cortisol levels and memory retrieval in healthy young individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Ackermann, Sandra; Hartmann, Francina; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; de Quervain, Dominique J-F; Rasch, Björn

    2013-01-01

    Cortisol is known to affect memory processes. On the one hand, stress-induced or pharmacologically induced elevations of cortisol levels enhance memory consolidation. On the other hand, such experimentally induced elevations of cortisol levels have been shown to impair memory retrieval. However, the effects of individual differences in basal cortisol levels on memory processes remain largely unknown. Here we tested whether individual differences in cortisol levels predict picture learning and...

  8. Momentary relationship between cortisol secretion and symptoms in patients with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Samuel A; Williams, David A; Harris, Richard E; Kop, Willem J; Groner, Kimberly H; Ambrose, Kirsten; Lyden, Angela K; Gracely, Richard H; Crofford, Leslie J; Geisser, Michael E; Sen, Ananda; Biswas, Pinaki; Clauw, Daniel J

    2005-11-01

    To compare the momentary association between salivary cortisol levels and pain, fatigue, and stress symptoms in patients with fibromyalgia (FM), and to compare diurnal cycles of cortisol secretion in patients with FM and healthy control subjects in a naturalistic environment. Twenty-eight patients with FM and 27 healthy control subjects completed assessments on salivary cortisol levels and pain, fatigue, and stress symptoms, 5 times a day for 2 consecutive days, while engaging in usual daily activities. Only those participants who adhered to the protocol (assessed via activity monitor) were included in the final analyses. Twenty FM patients and 16 healthy control subjects adhered to the protocol. There were no significant differences in cortisol levels or diurnal cortisol variation between FM patients and healthy controls. Among women with FM, a strong relationship between cortisol level and current pain symptoms was observed at the waking time point (t = 3.35, P = 0.008) and 1 hour after waking (t = 2.97, P = 0.011), but not at the later 3 time points. This association was not due to differences in age, number of symptoms of depression, or self-reported history of physical or sexual abuse. Cortisol levels alone explained 38% and 14% of the variation in pain at the waking and 1 hour time points, respectively. No relationship was observed between cortisol level and fatigue or stress symptoms at any of the 5 time points. Among women with FM, pain symptoms early in the day are associated with variations in function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

  9. Children's Cortisol Patterns and the Quality of the Early Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajaniemi, Nina; Suhonen, Eira; Kontu, Elina; Rantanen, Pekka; Lindholm, Harri; Hyttinen, Sirpa; Hirvonen, Ari

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of early educational quality on children's cortisol levels. It was hypothesised that the environmental stressors might load children's immature stress regulative systems thus affecting their diurnal cortisol levels. The study sample consisted of 146 preschool-aged children. Cortisol was measured…

  10. Impaired Memory Retrieval Correlates with Individual Differences in Cortisol Response but Not Autonomic Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranel, Daniel; Adolphs, Ralph; Buchanan, Tony W.

    2006-01-01

    Stress can enhance or impair memory performance. Both cortisol release and sympathetic nervous system responses have been implicated in these differential effects. Here we investigated how memory retrieval might be affected by stress-induced cortisol release, independently of sympathetic nervous system stress responses. Thirty-two healthy…

  11. Effects of acute stress on aggression and the cortisol response in the African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manuel, R.; Boerrigter, J.G.J.; Cloosterman, M.; Gorissen, M.; Flik, G.; Bos, van den R.; Vis, van de H.

    2016-01-01

    African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus were housed under continuous dim light (1lx) or 12L:12D (350-0lx) cycles. The number of skin lesions, as indicator of aggressive acts, and plasma cortisol levels, as indicator of stress-axis activity, were measured at baseline as well as following a

  12. Indagation of serum and salivary reactive oxygen metabolite and cortisol levels in chronic periodontitis and stress-induced chronic periodontitis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Sudhakar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal disease is not a conventional bacterial infection but is an inflammatory disease initiated by immune response against a group of microorganisms in susceptible hosts. There are many intriguing researches that unfold the secrets of chronic periodontitis. The current researches in chronic periodontitis are directed toward an approach that respects the scientific relationship between the various risk factors, the genetic factors, and the progression of the disease. Aim: This study aims to evaluate the cortisol and reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM concentration in serum and to find out their association in periodontal health and disease. Materials and Methods: In this study, totally thirty patients have been taken and divided into two groups of chronic periodontitis (Group I and stress-induced chronic periodontitis (Group II and evaluated the correlation between the ROM and cortisol levels in them. This is the first study, where both the levels of ROM and cortisol are checked in the serum and saliva. The analysis is done to check the association between them. Statistical Analysis: The data were statistically analyzed using software program (SPSSV 16, Pearson correlation, and paired t-test. Results: Comparison of the mean ROM levels in Group I and Group II showed that mean ROM level in Group II is highly significant than Group I. Conclusion: Our study suggests that stress can have a role in the progression of periodontal disease by increasing the cortisol and ROM levels.

  13. Short-term and long-term effects of transient exogenous cortisol manipulation on oxidative stress in juvenile brown trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birnie-Gauvin, Kim; Peiman, Kathryn S.; Larsen, Martin Hage

    2017-01-01

    available for physiological functions like defence against oxidative stress. Using brown trout (Salmo trutta), we evaluated the short-term (2 weeks) and long-term (4 months over winter) effects of exogenous cortisol manipulations (versus relevant shams and controls) on the oxidative status of wild juveniles...

  14. Reduced Cortisol Metabolism during Critical Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonen, Eva; Vervenne, Hilke; Meersseman, Philippe; Andrew, Ruth; Mortier, Leen; Declercq, Peter E.; Vanwijngaerden, Yoo-Mee; Spriet, Isabel; Wouters, Pieter J.; Perre, Sarah Vander; Langouche, Lies; Vanhorebeek, Ilse; Walker, Brian R.; Van den Berghe, Greet

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Critical illness is often accompanied by hypercortisolemia, which has been attributed to stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. However, low corticotropin levels have also been reported in critically ill patients, which may be due to reduced cortisol metabolism. METHODS In a total of 158 patients in the intensive care unit and 64 matched controls, we tested five aspects of cortisol metabolism: daily levels of corticotropin and cortisol; plasma cortisol clearance, metabolism, and production during infusion of deuterium-labeled steroid hormones as tracers; plasma clearance of 100 mg of hydrocortisone; levels of urinary cortisol metabolites; and levels of messenger RNA and protein in liver and adipose tissue, to assess major cortisol-metabolizing enzymes. RESULTS Total and free circulating cortisol levels were consistently higher in the patients than in controls, whereas corticotropin levels were lower (PCortisol production was 83% higher in the patients (P=0.02). There was a reduction of more than 50% in cortisol clearance during tracer infusion and after the administration of 100 mg of hydrocortisone in the patients (P≤0.03 for both comparisons). All these factors accounted for an increase by a factor of 3.5 in plasma cortisol levels in the patients, as compared with controls (Pcortisol clearance also correlated with a lower cortisol response to corticotropin stimulation. Reduced cortisol metabolism was associated with reduced inactivation of cortisol in the liver and kidney, as suggested by urinary steroid ratios, tracer kinetics, and assessment of liver-biopsy samples (P≤0.004 for all comparisons). CONCLUSIONS During critical illness, reduced cortisol breakdown, related to suppressed expression and activity of cortisol-metabolizing enzymes, contributed to hypercortisolemia and hence corticotropin suppression. The diagnostic and therapeutic implications for critically ill patients are unknown. (Funded by the Belgian

  15. AucPR: An AUC-based approach using penalized regression for disease prediction with high-dimensional omics data

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Wenbao; Park, Taesung

    2014-01-01

    Motivation It is common to get an optimal combination of markers for disease classification and prediction when multiple markers are available. Many approaches based on the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) have been proposed. Existing works based on AUC in a high-dimensional context depend mainly on a non-parametric, smooth approximation of AUC, with no work using a parametric AUC-based approach, for high-dimensional data. Results We propose an AUC-based approach u...

  16. Overweight and obese children have lower cortisol levels than normal weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjölhede, E Allansson; Gustafsson, P E; Gustafsson, P A; Nelson, N

    2014-03-01

    The stress hormone cortisol is vital to survival, and a disturbed circadian rhythm can be deleterious to health. However, little is known about cortisol levels in healthy children. The aim of this study was to examine cortisol levels in relation to body mass index (BMI), age and sex. Salivary samples were collected in early morning, late morning and evening, on four consecutive days, from 342 children aged 6-12 years using Salivette(®) tubes. Samples were analysed using a commercial enzyme immunoassay (EIA). School nurses measured the children's height and weight, and these measurements were used to calculate their BMI. The children displayed a circadian rhythm in cortisol secretion, with morning zeniths and evening nadirs. Average cortisol levels in early morning, late morning and evening were significantly lower in overweight and obese children than in their normal weight counterparts. Cortisol levels did not vary significantly with age or sex. Our findings may suggest cortisol suppression in overweight and obese children. We found no evidence that sex or age influences cortisol levels. These findings highlight the need for further research on the relationship between stress and obesity in children. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The low single nucleotide polymorphism heritability of plasma and saliva cortisol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Alexander; Direk, Nese; Crawford, Andrew A; Mirza, Saira; Adams, Hieab; Bolton, Jennifer; Hayward, Caroline; Strachan, David P; Payne, Erin K; Smith, Jennifer A; Milaneschi, Yuri; Penninx, Brenda; Hottenga, Jouke J; de Geus, Eco; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; van der Most, Peter J; de Rijke, Yolanda; Walker, Brian R; Tiemeier, Henning

    2017-11-01

    Cortisol is an important stress hormone affected by a variety of biological and environmental factors, such as the circadian rhythm, exercise and psychological stress. Cortisol is mostly measured using blood or saliva samples. A number of genetic variants have been found to contribute to cortisol levels with these methods. While the effects of several specific single genetic variants is known, the joint genome-wide contribution to cortisol levels is unclear. Our aim was to estimate the amount of cortisol variance explained by common single nucleotide polymorphisms, i.e. the SNP heritability, using a variety of cortisol measures, cohorts and analysis approaches. We analyzed morning plasma (n=5705) and saliva levels (n=1717), as well as diurnal saliva levels (n=1541), in the Rotterdam Study using genomic restricted maximum likelihood estimation. Additionally, linkage disequilibrium score regression was fitted on the results of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) performed by the CORNET consortium on morning plasma cortisol (n=12,597) and saliva cortisol (n=7703). No significant SNP heritability was detected for any cortisol measure, sample or analysis approach. Point estimates ranged from 0% to 9%. Morning plasma cortisol in the CORNET cohorts, the sample with the most power, had a 6% [95%CI: 0-13%] SNP heritability. The results consistently suggest a low SNP heritability of these acute and short-term measures of cortisol. The low SNP heritability may reflect the substantial environmental and, in particular, situational component of these cortisol measures. Future GWAS will require very large sample sizes. Alternatively, more long-term cortisol measures such as hair cortisol samples are needed to discover further genetic pathways regulating cortisol concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. When endocrinology and democracy collide: emotions, cortisol and voting at national elections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waismel-Manor, Israel; Ifergane, Gal; Cohen, Hagit

    2011-11-01

    Faced with stressful experiences, such as uncertainty or novelty, the adrenal glands secrete glucocorticoid hormones to help us cope with stress. Since many decision-making situations are stressful, there is reason to believe that voting is a stressful event. In this study, we asked voters in Israel's national election (N=113) to report on their general affective state immediately before entering the polling place using the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) and to provide us with a saliva sample through which we could evaluate their cortisol levels. Compared to a second sample of voters who reported their affective state on election night (N=70), we found that voters at the ballot box had higher positive and negative affect. Moreover, our voters at the polling place exhibited cortisol levels that were significantly higher than their own normal levels obtained on a similar day, and significantly higher than those of a second control group sampled the day after the elections (N=6). Our data demonstrate that elections are exciting, yet stressful events, and it is this stress, among other factors, that elevates the cortisol levels of voters. Since elevated cortisol has been found to affect memory consolidation, impair memory retrieval and lead to risk-seeking behavior, we discuss how these outcomes of elevated cortisol levels may affect voting in general and the field of electoral studies in particular. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  19. Time-dependent effects of cortisol on the contextualization of emotional memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ast, Vanessa A; Cornelisse, Sandra; Meeter, Martijn; Joëls, Marian; Kindt, Merel

    2013-12-01

    The inability to store fearful memories into their original encoding context is considered to be an important vulnerability factor for the development of anxiety disorders like posttraumatic stress disorder. Altered memory contextualization most likely involves effects of the stress hormone cortisol, acting via receptors located in the memory neurocircuitry. Cortisol via these receptors induces rapid nongenomic effects followed by slower genomic effects, which are thought to modulate cognitive function in opposite, complementary ways. Here, we targeted these time-dependent effects of cortisol during memory encoding and tested subsequent contextualization of emotional and neutral memories. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled design, 64 men were randomly assigned to one of three groups: 1) received 10 mg hydrocortisone 30 minutes (rapid cortisol effects) before a memory encoding task; 2) received 10 mg hydrocortisone 210 minutes (slow cortisol) before a memory encoding task; or 3) received placebo at both times. During encoding, participants were presented with neutral and emotional words in unique background pictures. Approximately 24 hours later, context dependency of their memories was assessed. Recognition data revealed that cortisol's rapid effects impair emotional memory contextualization, while cortisol's slow effects enhance it. Neutral memory contextualization remained unaltered by cortisol, irrespective of the timing of the drug. This study shows distinct time-dependent effects of cortisol on the contextualization of specifically emotional memories. The results suggest that rapid effects of cortisol may lead to impaired emotional memory contextualization, while slow effects of cortisol may confer protection against emotional memory generalization. © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry.

  20. Correcting AUC for Measurement Error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Bernard; Tworoger, Shelley; Qiu, Weiliang

    2015-12-01

    Diagnostic biomarkers are used frequently in epidemiologic and clinical work. The ability of a diagnostic biomarker to discriminate between subjects who develop disease (cases) and subjects who do not (controls) is often measured by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). The diagnostic biomarkers are usually measured with error. Ignoring measurement error can cause biased estimation of AUC, which results in misleading interpretation of the efficacy of a diagnostic biomarker. Several methods have been proposed to correct AUC for measurement error, most of which required the normality assumption for the distributions of diagnostic biomarkers. In this article, we propose a new method to correct AUC for measurement error and derive approximate confidence limits for the corrected AUC. The proposed method does not require the normality assumption. Both real data analyses and simulation studies show good performance of the proposed measurement error correction method.

  1. Child drawings and salivary cortisol in children undergoing preoperative procedures associated with day surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennström, Berith; Törnhage, Carl-Johan; Hedelin, Hans; Nasic, Salmir; Bergh, Ingrid

    2013-12-01

    Perioperative procedures in children can impair their emotional status negatively with stress and/or anxiety. Cortisol concentrations and drawings could be helpful in gaining information about a child's levels of stress and/or anxiety when attending the hospital for surgery. The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of anxiety and stress as well as to explore the association between objective measures of stress (cortisol concentration in saliva) and subjective assessment of hospital anxiety (children's drawings) as interpreted by the Swedish version of the Child Drawing: Hospital manual. A total of 93 children scheduled for day surgery were included. Salivary cortisol was sampled preoperatively on the day of surgery at which time the children were also requested to make a drawing of a person at the hospital. Results showed no association between salivary cortisol concentration and the CD:H score. The drawings and salivary cortisol concentration preoperatively on the day of surgery reflect different components of the conditions of fear, anxiety, or stress emerging in the situation. Copyright © 2013 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Maternal Cortisol Mediates Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Interrenal Axis Development in Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesan, Dinushan; Vijayan, Mathilakath M.

    2016-01-01

    In zebrafish (Danio rerio), de novo synthesis of cortisol in response to stressor exposure commences only after hatch. Maternally deposited cortisol is present during embryogenesis, but a role for this steroid in early development is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that maternal cortisol is essential for the proper development of hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis activity and the onset of the stressor-induced cortisol response in larval zebrafish. In this study, zygotic cortisol content was manipulated by microinjecting antibody to sequester this steroid, thereby making it unavailable during embryogenesis. This was compared with embryos containing excess cortisol by microinjection of exogenous steroid. The resulting larval phenotypes revealed distinct treatment effects, including deformed mesoderm structures when maternal cortisol was unavailable and cardiac edema after excess cortisol. Maternal cortisol unavailability heightened the cortisol stress response in post-hatch larvae, whereas excess cortisol abolished the stressor-mediated cortisol elevation. This contrasting hormonal response corresponded with altered expression of key HPI axis genes, including crf, 11B hydroxylase, pomca, and star, which were upregulated in response to reduced cortisol availability and downregulated when embryos had excess cortisol. These findings for the first time underscore a critical role for maternally deposited cortisol in programming HPI axis development and function in zebrafish. PMID:26940285

  3. Long-term stability of salivary cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, A H; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2005-01-01

    either stored in small vials or spiked to polyester Salivette tampons before analysis for cortisol using Spectria RIA kits. The effects of storage were evaluated by a linear regression model (mixed procedure) on a logarithmic scale. No effects on cortisol concentrations were found after storage of saliva......The measurement of salivary cortisol provides a simple, non-invasive, and stress-free measure frequently used in studies of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. In research projects, samples are often required to be stored for longer periods of time either because of the protocol...... of the project or because of lack of funding for analysis. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of long-term storage of samples on the amounts of measurable cortisol. Ten pools of saliva were collected on polyester Salivette tampons from five subjects. After centrifugation the samples were...

  4. Trait Rumination Predicts Elevated Evening Cortisol in Sexual and Gender Minority Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Peggy M. Zoccola; Andrew W. Manigault; Wilson S. Figueroa; Cari Hollenbeck; Anna Mendlein; Alex Woody; Katrina Hamilton; Matt Scanlin; Ryan C. Johnson

    2017-01-01

    Stress may contribute to illness through the impaired recovery or sustained activity of stress-responsive biological systems. Rumination, or mental rehearsal of past stressors, may alter the body’s stress-responsive systems by amplifying and prolonging exposure to physiological mediators, such as cortisol. The primary aim of the current investigation was to test the extent to which the tendency to ruminate on stress predicts diminished diurnal cortisol recovery (i.e., elevated evening cortiso...

  5. Mindfulness practice reduces cortisol blunting during chemotherapy: A randomized controlled study of colorectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, David S; Peng, Cheng; Sleight, Alix G; Nguyen, Nathalie; Lenz, Heinz-Josef; Figueiredo, Jane C

    2017-08-15

    The objective of this randomized clinical experiment was to test the influence of a mindfulness meditation practice, when delivered during 1 session of active chemotherapy administration, on the acute salivary cortisol response as a marker of neuroendocrine system activity in cancer patients. A mindfulness, attention-control, or resting exposure was assigned to 57 English- or Spanish-speaking colorectal cancer patients at 1 county oncology clinic and 1 university oncology clinic at the start of chemotherapy. Saliva samples were collected at the start of chemotherapy and at subsequent 20-minute intervals during the first 60 minutes of chemotherapy (4 samples in all). Self-reporting on biobehavioral assessments after chemotherapy included distress, fatigue, and mindfulness. An area-under-the-curve analysis (AUC) showed a relative increase in cortisol reactivity in the mindfulness group after adjustments for biological and clinical measures (β = 123.21; P = .03). More than twice as many patients in the mindfulness group versus the controls displayed a cortisol rise from the baseline to 20 minutes (69% vs 34%; P = .02). AUC values were uncorrelated with biobehavioral measure scores, although mindfulness scores were inversely correlated with fatigue (r = -0.46; P mindfulness practice during chemotherapy can reduce the blunting of neuroendocrine profiles typically observed in cancer patients. Implications include support for the use of mindfulness practice in integrative oncology. Cancer 2017;123:3088-96. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  6. The effect of an adverse psychological environment on salivary cortisol levels in the elderly differs by 5-HTTLPR genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancelin, Marie-Laure; Scali, Jacqueline; Norton, Joanna; Ritchie, Karen; Dupuy, Anne-Marie; Chaudieu, Isabelle; Ryan, Joanne

    2017-12-01

    An adverse psychological environment (e.g. stressful events or depression) has been shown to influence basal cortisol levels and cortisol response to stress. This differs depending on the adverse stimuli, but also varies across individuals and may be influenced by genetic predisposition. An insertion/deletion polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene ( 5-HTTLPR ) is a strong candidate in this regard. To investigate how stressful life events and depression are associated with diurnal cortisol levels in community-dwelling elderly and determine whether this varies according to genetic variability in the 5-HTTLPR . This population-based study included 334 subjects aged 65 and older (mean (SD) = 76.5 (6.3)). Diurnal cortisol was measured on two separate days, under quiet (basal) and stressful conditions. The number of recent major stressful events experienced during the past year was assessed from a 12-item validated questionnaire as an index of cumulative recent stressful events. Lifetime trauma was evaluated using the validated Watson's PTSD inventory, which evaluates the most severe traumatic or frightening experience according to DSM criteria. Depression was defined as having a Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) diagnosis of current major depressive disorder or high levels of depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale ≥16). 5-HTTLPR genotyping was performed on blood samples. Exposure to stressful life events was associated with lower basal evening cortisol levels overall, and in the participants with the 5-HTTLPR L allele but not the SS genotype. The greatest effects (over 50% decrease, p traumas. Participants with the L allele also had higher evening cortisol stress response. Conversely, depression tended to be associated with a 42% higher basal morning cortisol in the SS participants specifically, but did not modify the association between stressful events and cortisol levels. An adverse psychological

  7. Psychological stress during exercise: cardiorespiratory and hormonal responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Heather E; Weldy, Michael L; Fabianke-Kadue, Emily C; Orndorff, G R; Kamimori, Gary H; Acevedo, Edmund O

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the cardiorespiratory (CR) and stress hormone responses to a combined physical and mental stress. Eight participants (VO2(max) = 41.24 +/- 6.20 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) completed two experimental conditions, a treatment condition including a 37 min ride at 60% of VO2(max) with participants responding to a computerized mental challenge dual stress condition (DSC) and a control condition of the same duration and intensity without the mental challenge exercise alone condition (EAC). Significant interactions across time were found for CR responses, with heart rate, ventilation, and respiration rate demonstrating higher increases in the DSC. Additionally, norepinephrine was significantly greater in the DSC at the end of the combined challenge. Furthermore, cortisol area-under-the-curve (AUC) was also significantly elevated during the DSC. These results demonstrate that a mental challenge during exercise can exacerbate the stress response, including the release of hormones that have been linked to negative health consequences (cardiovascular, metabolic, autoimmune illnesses).

  8. A prospective study on personality and the cortisol awakening response to predict posttraumatic stress symptoms in response to military deployment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zuiden, Mirjam; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Rademaker, Arthur R.; Vermetten, Eric; Heijnen, Cobi J.; Geuze, Elbert

    2011-01-01

    Few prospective studies on pre-trauma predictors for subsequent development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been conducted. In this study we prospectively investigated whether pre-deployment personality and the cortisol awakening response (CAR) predicted development of PTSD symptoms in

  9. Relationship between effort-reward imbalance and hair cortisol concentration in female kindergarten teachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qi, Xingliang; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Yapeng; Ji, Shuang; Chen, Zheng; Sluiter, Judith K.; Deng, Huihua

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the relationship between effort-reward imbalance and hair cortisol concentration among teachers to examine whether hair cortisol can be a biomarker of chronic work stress. Hair samples were collected from 39 female teachers from three kindergartens. Cortisol was

  10. Scalable Nonlinear AUC Maximization Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid, Majdi; Ray, Indrakshi; Chitsaz, Hamidreza

    2017-01-01

    The area under the ROC curve (AUC) is a measure of interest in various machine learning and data mining applications. It has been widely used to evaluate classification performance on heavily imbalanced data. The kernelized AUC maximization machines have established a superior generalization ability compared to linear AUC machines because of their capability in modeling the complex nonlinear structure underlying most real world-data. However, the high training complexity renders the kernelize...

  11. Initial validation of blubber cortisol and progesterone as indicators of stress response and maturity in an otariid; the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu-McCoy, Nicole E; Sherman, Kathryn K; Trego, Marisa L; Crocker, Daniel E; Kellar, Nicholas M

    2017-10-01

    Chronic stress can have detrimental effects on an individual's health and reproductive success. The use of cortisol quantification as an indicator of stress in free-ranging cetaceans and phocids is increasing but no studies have applied this technique on blubber in otariids. We measured cortisol concentrations in blubber samples obtained from California sea lions, Zalophus californianus, stranded in San Diego County and those incidentally killed in the California drift gillnet fishery. We also measured progesterone concentrations to assess female reproductive status and, in males, as a potential secondary measure of adrenal steroid production. Blubber cortisol and progesterone values were compared across demographic groups (sex and maturity), season, and proportion blubber lipid extracted. Stranded animals (247.3±70.767 SE ng/gblubber) had significantly higher cortisol concentrations compared to fishery bycaught (8.1±2.108 SE ng/gblubber) animals. These findings are likely driven by inherent differences in the cause of death and associated nutritional state coupled with the mean duration of expiration for these two groups of animals (i.e., the duration from an animal's initial perception of the threat-to-self until death). The duration of transition from healthy state to death in stranded animals is on the order of many hours to weeks while in fishery bycaught animals, this transition occurs much more rapidly (i.e., seconds to tens of minutes). The presumed longer duration of the mortality event in stranded animals gives sufficient time for elevated cortisol to diffuse into the blubber. No significant differences between demographic groups, or season were found. However, blubber cortisol declined inversely with proportion blubber lipid extracted, suggesting utility in assessing long-term nutritional status. Blubber progesterone was significantly higher in mature females than immature females (153.8±54.546 SE ng/gblubber and 9.7±3.60 SE ng/gblubber respectively

  12. Comparison of cortisol exposures and pharmacodynamic adrenal steroid responses to hydrocortisone suspension vs. commercial tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafoglou, Kyriakie; Gonzalez-Bolanos, Maria T; Zimmerman, Cheryl L; Boonstra, Timothy; Yaw Addo, O; Brundage, Richard

    2015-04-01

    The Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guidelines on congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) recommend against using hydrocortisone suspension based on a study that examined a commercial suspension. Our objective was to examine the absorption of an extemporaneously prepared hydrocortisone suspension and compare it to tablets. Secondary objectives were to evaluate the 17-hydroxyprogesterone and androstenedione adrenal steroid responses. Using a parallel design, 34 children diagnosed with CAH received either suspension (n = 9; median age 1.8 years) or tablets (n = 25; median age 7.5 years). Patients were given their usual morning hydrocortisone formulation and dose; 12 serial blood samples were obtained and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. The mg/m(2) dose-normalized cortisol AUCs were no different in the suspension and tablet groups (P = ·06), nor was there a significant difference in the C(max) or T(max) (P = .08 and P = .41, respectively). Although there were no differences in the 17-hydroxyprogesterone change-from-baseline AUCs, baseline concentrations, or the nadir concentrations when comparing suspension and tablet formulations, the androstenedione values were significantly lower as expected in the younger aged suspension group. Our results offer compelling evidence that an extemporaneously prepared hydrocortisone suspension provides comparable cortisol exposures to commercially available tablet formulations in children and can be used to safely and effectively treat CAH. © 2014, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  13. Lack of cortisol response in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD undergoing a diagnostic interview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Quervain Dominique JF

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background According to DSM-IV, the diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD requires the experience of a traumatic event during which the person's response involved intense fear, helplessness, or horror. In order to diagnose PTSD, clinicians must interview the person in depth about his/her previous experiences and determine whether the individual has been traumatized by a specific event or events. However, asking questions about traumatic experiences can be stressful for the traumatized individual and it has been cautioned that subsequent "re-traumatization" could occur. This study investigated the cortisol response in traumatized refugees with PTSD during a detailed and standardized interview about their personal war and torture experiences. Methods Participants were male refugees with severe PTSD who solicited an expert opinion in the Psychological Research Clinic for Refugees of the University of Konstanz. 17 patients were administered the Vivo Checklist of War, Detention, and Torture Events, a standardized interview about traumatic experiences, and 16 subjects were interviewed about absorption behavior. Self-reported measures of affect and arousal, as well as saliva cortisol were collected at four points. Before and after the experimental intervention, subjects performed a Delayed Matching-to-Sample (DMS task for distraction. They also rated the severity of selected PTSD symptoms, as well as the level of intrusiveness of traumatic memories at that time. Results Cortisol excretion diminished in the course of the interview and showed the same pattern for both groups. No specific response was detectable after the supposed stressor. Correspondingly, ratings of subjective well-being, memories of the most traumatic event(s and PTSD symptoms did not show any significant difference between groups. Those in the presumed stress condition did not perform worse than persons in the control condition after the stressor. However, both

  14. The effect of an adverse psychological environment on salivary cortisol levels in the elderly differs by 5-HTTLPR genotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Laure Ancelin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: An adverse psychological environment (e.g. stressful events or depression has been shown to influence basal cortisol levels and cortisol response to stress. This differs depending on the adverse stimuli, but also varies across individuals and may be influenced by genetic predisposition. An insertion/deletion polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR is a strong candidate in this regard. Objective: To investigate how stressful life events and depression are associated with diurnal cortisol levels in community-dwelling elderly and determine whether this varies according to genetic variability in the 5-HTTLPR. Methods: This population-based study included 334 subjects aged 65 and older (mean (SD = 76.5 (6.3. Diurnal cortisol was measured on two separate days, under quiet (basal and stressful conditions. The number of recent major stressful events experienced during the past year was assessed from a 12-item validated questionnaire as an index of cumulative recent stressful events. Lifetime trauma was evaluated using the validated Watson's PTSD inventory, which evaluates the most severe traumatic or frightening experience according to DSM criteria. Depression was defined as having a Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI diagnosis of current major depressive disorder or high levels of depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale ≥16. 5-HTTLPR genotyping was performed on blood samples. Results: Exposure to stressful life events was associated with lower basal evening cortisol levels overall, and in the participants with the 5-HTTLPR L allele but not the SS genotype. The greatest effects (over 50% decrease, p < 0.001 were observed for the LL participants having experienced multiple recent stressful events or severe lifetime traumas. Participants with the L allele also had higher evening cortisol stress response. Conversely, depression tended to be associated with a 42

  15. Modulatory mechanisms of cortisol effects on emotional learning and memory: novel perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ast, Vanessa A; Cornelisse, Sandra; Marin, Marie-France; Ackermann, Sandra; Garfinkel, Sarah N; Abercrombie, Heather C

    2013-09-01

    It has long been known that cortisol affects learning and memory processes. Despite a wealth of research dedicated to cortisol effects on learning and memory, the strength or even directionality of the effects often vary. A number of the factors that alter cortisol's effects on learning and memory are well-known. For instance, effects of cortisol can be modulated by emotional arousal and the memory phase under study. Despite great advances in understanding factors that explain variability in cortisol's effects, additional modulators of cortisol effects on memory exist that are less widely acknowledged in current basic experimental research. The goal of the current review is to disseminate knowledge regarding less well-known modulators of cortisol effects on learning and memory. Since several models for the etiology of anxiety, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), incorporate stress and the concomitant release of cortisol as important vulnerability factors, enhanced understanding of mechanisms by which cortisol exerts beneficial as opposed to detrimental effects on memory is very important. Further elucidation of the factors that modulate (or alter) cortisol's effects on memory will allow reconciliation of seemingly inconsistent findings in the basic and clinical literatures. The present review is based on a symposium as part of the 42nd International Society of Psychoneuroendocrinology Conference, New York, USA, that highlighted some of those modulators and their underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pregnancy Anxiety and Prenatal Cortisol Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Heidi S.; Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Glynn, Laura M.; Hobel, Calvin J.; Sandman, Curt A.

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy anxiety is a potent predictor of adverse birth and infant outcomes. The goal of the current study was to examine one potential mechanism whereby these effects may occur by testing associations between pregnancy anxiety and maternal salivary cortisol on 4 occasions during pregnancy in a sample of 448 women. Higher mean levels of pregnancy anxiety over the course of pregnancy predicted steeper increases in cortisol trajectories compared to lower pregnancy anxiety. Significant differences between cortisol trajectories emerged between 30 to 31 weeks of gestation. Results remained significant when adjusted for state anxiety and perceived stress. Neither changes in pregnancy anxiety over gestation, nor pregnancy anxiety specific to only a particular time in pregnancy predicted cortisol. These findings provide support for one way in which pregnancy anxiety may influence maternal physiology and contribute to a growing literature on the complex biological pathways linking pregnancy anxiety to birth and infant outcomes. PMID:24769094

  17. Maternal mood and concordant maternal and infant salivary cortisol during heel lance while in kangaroo care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castral, T C; Warnock, F; Dos Santos, C B; Daré, M F; Moreira, A C; Antonini, S R R; Scochi, C G S

    2015-03-01

    Maternal kangaroo care (MKC) is a naturalistic intervention that alleviates neonatal pain, and mothers are assumed to play a stress regulatory role in MKC. Yet, no MKC infant pain study has examined relationship between maternal and infant stress reactivity concurrently, or whether post-partum depression and/or anxiety (PPDA) alters maternal and neonatal stress response and the regulatory effects of MKC. To examine the concordance of salivary cortisol reactivity between 42 mothers and their stable preterm infants during routine infant heel lance (HL) while in MKC and to compare salivary cortisol between groups of mothers with and without PPDA and their infants. Maternal and infant salivary cortisol samples were collected pre-HL and 20 min post-HL with two additional maternal samples at night and in the morning. Mothers and infants were allocated to with PPDA versus without PPDA study groups on the basis of maternal post-natal mental health assessment scores. Higher mothers' cortisol pre-HL was weakly associated with higher infants' salivary cortisol in response to the HL procedure. Maternal depression and/or anxiety were not associated with infants' cortisol. During HL, both groups of mothers and infants showed no change in salivary cortisol. Concordance between mother and infant salivary cortisol supports the maternal stress regulatory role in MKC. MKC may have stress regulatory benefits for mothers and their preterm infants during HL independent of PPDA. Future MKC studies that target mothers with altered mood will help to build on these findings. © 2014 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  18. Exogenous testosterone enhances cortisol and affective responses to social-evaluative stress in dominant men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Erik L; Christian, Colton B; Morales, Pablo J; Harbaugh, William T; Mayr, Ulrich; Mehta, Pranjal H

    2017-11-01

    Stress often precedes the onset of mental health disorders and is linked to negative impacts on physical health as well. Prior research indicates that testosterone levels are related to reduced stress reactivity in some cases but correlate with increased stress responses in other cases. To resolve these inconsistencies, we tested the causal influence of testosterone on stress reactivity to a social-evaluative stressor. Further, prior work has failed to consider status-relevant individual differences such as trait dominance that may modulate the influence of testosterone on responses to stressors. Participants (n=120 males) were randomly assigned to receive exogenous testosterone or placebo (n=60 testosterone treatment group) via topical gel prior to a well-validated social-evaluative stressor. Compared to placebo, testosterone significantly increased cortisol and negative affect in response to the stressor, especially for men high in trait dominance (95% confidence intervals did not contain zero). The findings suggest that the combination of high testosterone and exposure to status-relevant social stress may confer increased risk for stress-mediated disorders, particularly for individuals high in trait dominance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Prolactin and cortisol levels in women with endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Lima

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Endometriosis is a progressive estrogen-dependent disease affecting women during their reproductive years. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether endometriosis is associated with stress parameters. We determined cortisol and prolactin levels in serum, peritoneal and follicular fluid from infertile women with endometriosis and fertile women without the disease. The extent of the disease was staged according to the revised American Fertility Society classification (1997. Serum and peritoneal fluid were collected from 49 women aged 19 to 39 years undergoing laparoscopy. Eighteen women had stage I-II endometriosis and 10 had stage III-IV. Controls were 21 women undergoing laparoscopy for tubal sterilization. Follicular fluid was obtained from 39 women aged 25-39 years undergoing in vitro fertilization (21 infertile women with endometriosis and 18 infertile women without endometriosis. Serum prolactin levels were significantly higher in infertile women with stage III-IV endometriosis (28.9 ± 2.1 ng/mL than in healthy controls (13.2 ± 2.1 ng/mL. Serum cortisol levels were significantly higher in infertile women with stage III-IV endometriosis (20.1 ± 1.3 ng/mL than in controls (10.5 ± 1.4 ng/mL. Cortisol and prolactin levels in follicular fluid and peritoneal fluid did not differ significantly between groups. The high levels of cortisol and prolactin in the serum from women with endometriosis might contribute to the subfertility frequently associated with the disease. Moreover, since higher levels of cortisol and prolactin are often associated with stress, it is probable that stress might contribute to the development of endometriosis and its progression to advanced stages of the disease.

  20. A two-year follow-up study of salivary cortisol concentration and the risk of depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard; Kolstad, Henrik A.; Mikkelsen, Sigurd

    2013-01-01

    employees. Morning and evening salivary cortisol concentration were measured for each participant. Participants reporting high levels of depressive, burnout, or stress symptoms, assessed by questionnaires were assigned to a psychiatric interview. In this interview 98 participants were diagnosed......Stress is a suspected cause of depression. High cortisol concentration, a biomarker of an activated stress response, has been found in depressed patients. The aim of this study was to determine if a high level of salivary cortisol is a risk factor of depression. In 2007, we enrolled 4467 public...

  1. Cortisol shifts financial risk preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Narayanan; Hardy, Ben; Page, Lionel; Schaffner, Markus; Graggaber, Johann; Powlson, Andrew S; Fletcher, Paul C; Gurnell, Mark; Coates, John

    2014-03-04

    Risk taking is central to human activity. Consequently, it lies at the focal point of behavioral sciences such as neuroscience, economics, and finance. Many influential models from these sciences assume that financial risk preferences form a stable trait. Is this assumption justified and, if not, what causes the appetite for risk to fluctuate? We have previously found that traders experience a sustained increase in the stress hormone cortisol when the amount of uncertainty, in the form of market volatility, increases. Here we ask whether these elevated cortisol levels shift risk preferences. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over protocol we raised cortisol levels in volunteers over 8 d to the same extent previously observed in traders. We then tested for the utility and probability weighting functions underlying their risk taking and found that participants became more risk-averse. We also observed that the weighting of probabilities became more distorted among men relative to women. These results suggest that risk preferences are highly dynamic. Specifically, the stress response calibrates risk taking to our circumstances, reducing it in times of prolonged uncertainty, such as a financial crisis. Physiology-induced shifts in risk preferences may thus be an underappreciated cause of market instability.

  2. Cortisol shifts financial risk preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Narayanan; Hardy, Ben; Page, Lionel; Schaffner, Markus; Graggaber, Johann; Powlson, Andrew S.; Fletcher, Paul C.; Gurnell, Mark; Coates, John

    2014-01-01

    Risk taking is central to human activity. Consequently, it lies at the focal point of behavioral sciences such as neuroscience, economics, and finance. Many influential models from these sciences assume that financial risk preferences form a stable trait. Is this assumption justified and, if not, what causes the appetite for risk to fluctuate? We have previously found that traders experience a sustained increase in the stress hormone cortisol when the amount of uncertainty, in the form of market volatility, increases. Here we ask whether these elevated cortisol levels shift risk preferences. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over protocol we raised cortisol levels in volunteers over 8 d to the same extent previously observed in traders. We then tested for the utility and probability weighting functions underlying their risk taking and found that participants became more risk-averse. We also observed that the weighting of probabilities became more distorted among men relative to women. These results suggest that risk preferences are highly dynamic. Specifically, the stress response calibrates risk taking to our circumstances, reducing it in times of prolonged uncertainty, such as a financial crisis. Physiology-induced shifts in risk preferences may thus be an underappreciated cause of market instability. PMID:24550472

  3. Determinants of cortisol during pregnancy - The ABCD cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleker, Laura S.; Roseboom, Tessa J.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G.; Reynolds, Rebecca M.; de Rooij, Susanne R.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Psychosocial stress during pregnancy has been proposed as a major contributor of glucocorticoid-mediated programming of the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis, with later adverse health consequences. However, evidence linking maternal stress to maternal cortisol values

  4. Determinants of cortisol during pregnancy - The ABCD cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleker, Laura S; Roseboom, Tessa J; Vrijkotte, Tanja G; Reynolds, Rebecca M; de Rooij, Susanne R

    BACKGROUND: Psychosocial stress during pregnancy has been proposed as a major contributor of glucocorticoid-mediated programming of the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis, with later adverse health consequences. However, evidence linking maternal stress to maternal cortisol values

  5. Cortisol Awakening Response, Internalizing Symptoms, and Life Satisfaction in Emerging Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shen Chong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The cortisol awakening response (CAR has been associated with depression and a broader range of internalizing problems. Emerging adulthood is characterized by numerous stressful transitional life events. Furthermore, the functioning of the neurobiological stress system changes across development. These considerations underscore the importance of evaluating the physiological stress system in emerging adults in identifying the extent to which cortisol levels vary with risk and protective factors for mental health. The present study evaluated the association between internalizing symptoms and perceived life satisfaction with CAR in 32 young adults. Three saliva samples were collected to measure cortisol levels upon awakening and participants completed the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS and Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS. Results show a significant positive correlation between area under the curve for CAR with internalizing symptoms (DASS total and the DASS-depression subscale, but not with life satisfaction. Study limitations, implications, and future directions for these finding were discussed.

  6. Traumatic memories, post-traumatic stress disorder and serum cortisol levels in long-term survivors of the acute respiratory distress syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hauer, Daniela; Weis, Florian; Krauseneck, Till; Vogeser, Michael; Schelling, Gustav; Roozendaal, Benno

    2009-01-01

    Survivors of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) often report traumatic memories from the intensive care unit (ICU) and display a high incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). As it is known that subjects with PTSD often show sustained reductions in circulating cortisol

  7. Long-term stability of diurnal salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase secretion patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoluda, Nadine; La Marca, Roberto; Gollwitzer, Mario; Müller, Andreas; Limm, Heribert; Marten-Mittag, Birgitt; Gündel, Harald; Angerer, Peter; Nater, Urs M

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate long-term stability and variability of diurnal cortisol and alpha-amylase patterns. Diurnal cortisol and alpha-amylase secretion patterns were assessed on a single workday with three waves of measurement across a total time period of 24months in 189 participants. Separate hierarchical linear models were analyzed, with and without a number of potential predictor variables (age, BMI, smoking, chronic stress, stress reactivity). While low long-term stability was found in diurnal cortisol, the stability of diurnal alpha-amylase was moderate across the time period of 24months. Several predictor variables had a positive impact on diurnal cortisol and alpha-amylase secretion patterns averaged across waves. Our findings underpin the notion that long-term stability is not necessarily warranted in longitudinal studies. It is important to choose an appropriate study design when attempting to disentangle clinically and biologically relevant changes from naturally occurring variations in diurnal cortisol and alpha-amylase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Direct immune-detection of cortisol by chemiresistor graphene oxide sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yo-Han; Lee, Kyungmin; Jung, Hunsang; Kang, Hee Kyung; Jo, Jihoon; Park, In-Kyu; Lee, Hyun Ho

    2017-12-15

    In this study, a biosensor to detect a stress biomarker of cortisol using cortisol monoclonal antibody (c-Mab) covalently immobilized on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) channel as electrical sensing element was demonstrated. Highly specific immune-recognition between the c-Mab and the cortisol was identified and characterized on a basis of resistance change at the rGO channel based chemiresistor sensor achieving the limit of detection of 10pg/mL (27.6 pM). In addition, cortisol concentrations of real human salivary sample and buffer solution of rat adrenal gland acute slices, which could secret the cortisol induced by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), were directly measured by the chemiresistor corresponding to the specific sensing of the cortisol. The rGO chemiresistor could selectively measure the cortisol levels in spite of diverse neuroendocrine's existence. The potential perspective of this study can be a protocol of new cortisol sensor development, which will be applicable to point-of-care testing (POCT) targeted for salivary cortisol, in vitro psychobiological study on cortisol induction, and implantable sensor chip in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Expensive egos: narcissistic males have higher cortisol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Reinhard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Narcissism is characterized by grandiosity, low empathy, and entitlement. There has been limited research regarding the hormonal correlates of narcissism, despite the potential health implications. This study examined the role of participant narcissism and sex on basal cortisol concentrations in an undergraduate population. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Participants were 106 undergraduate students (79 females, 27 males, mean age 20.1 years from one Midwestern and one Southwestern American university. Narcissism was assessed using the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, and basal cortisol concentrations were collected from saliva samples in a laboratory setting. Regression analyses examined the effect of narcissism and sex on cortisol (log. There were no sex differences in basal cortisol, F(1,97 = .20, p = .65, and narcissism scores, F(1,97 = .00, p = .99. Stepwise linear regression models of sex and narcissism and their interaction predicting cortisol concentrations showed no main effects when including covariates, but a significant interaction, β = .27, p = .04. Narcissism was not related to cortisol in females, but significantly predicted cortisol in males. Examining the effect of unhealthy versus healthy narcissism on cortisol found that unhealthy narcissism was marginally related to cortisol in females, β = .27, p = .06, but significantly predicted higher basal cortisol in males, β = .72, p = .01, even when controlling for potential confounds. No relationship was found between sex, narcissism, or their interaction on self-reported stress. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the HPA axis is chronically activated in males with unhealthy narcissism. This constant activation of the HPA axis may have important health implications.

  10. Expensive Egos: Narcissistic Males Have Higher Cortisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard, David A.; Konrath, Sara H.; Lopez, William D.; Cameron, Heather G.

    2012-01-01

    Background Narcissism is characterized by grandiosity, low empathy, and entitlement. There has been limited research regarding the hormonal correlates of narcissism, despite the potential health implications. This study examined the role of participant narcissism and sex on basal cortisol concentrations in an undergraduate population. Methods and Findings Participants were 106 undergraduate students (79 females, 27 males, mean age 20.1 years) from one Midwestern and one Southwestern American university. Narcissism was assessed using the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, and basal cortisol concentrations were collected from saliva samples in a laboratory setting. Regression analyses examined the effect of narcissism and sex on cortisol (log). There were no sex differences in basal cortisol, F(1,97) = .20, p = .65, and narcissism scores, F(1,97) = .00, p = .99. Stepwise linear regression models of sex and narcissism and their interaction predicting cortisol concentrations showed no main effects when including covariates, but a significant interaction, β = .27, p = .04. Narcissism was not related to cortisol in females, but significantly predicted cortisol in males. Examining the effect of unhealthy versus healthy narcissism on cortisol found that unhealthy narcissism was marginally related to cortisol in females, β = .27, p = .06, but significantly predicted higher basal cortisol in males, β = .72, p = .01, even when controlling for potential confounds. No relationship was found between sex, narcissism, or their interaction on self-reported stress. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the HPA axis is chronically activated in males with unhealthy narcissism. This constant activation of the HPA axis may have important health implications. PMID:22292062

  11. Cortisol and politics: variance in voting behavior is predicted by baseline cortisol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Jeffrey A; Smith, Kevin B; Alford, John R; Guck, Adam; Birnie, Andrew K; Hibbing, John R

    2014-06-22

    Participation in electoral politics is affected by a host of social and demographics variables, but there is growing evidence that biological predispositions may also play a role in behavior related to political involvement. We examined the role of individual variation in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis parameters in explaining differences in self-reported and actual participation in political activities. Self-reported political activity, religious participation, and verified voting activity in U.S. national elections were collected from 105 participants, who were subsequently exposed to a standardized (nonpolitical) psychosocial stressor. We demonstrated that lower baseline salivary cortisol in the late afternoon was significantly associated with increased actual voting frequency in six national elections, but not with self-reported non-voting political activity. Baseline cortisol predicted significant variation in voting behavior above and beyond variation accounted for by traditional demographic variables (particularly age of participant in our sample). Participation in religious activity was weakly (and negatively) associated with baseline cortisol. Our results suggest that HPA-mediated characteristics of social, cognitive, and emotional processes may exert an influence on a trait as complex as voting behavior, and that cortisol is a better predictor of actual voting behavior, as opposed to self-reported political activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cortisol and Politics: Variance in Voting Behavior is Predicted by Baseline Cortisol Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Jeffrey A.; Smith, Kevin B.; Alford, John R.; Guck, Adam; Birnie, Andrew K.; Hibbing, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Participation in electoral politics is affected by a host of social and demographics variables, but there is growing evidence that biological predispositions may also play a role in behavior related to political involvement. We examined the role of individual variation in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis parameters in explaining differences in self-reported and actual participation in political activities. Self-reported political activity, religious participation, and verified voting activity in U.S. national elections were collected from 105 participants, who were subsequently exposed to a standardized (nonpolitical) psychosocial stressor. We demonstrated that lower baseline salivary cortisol in the late afternoon was significantly associated with increased actual voting frequency in six national elections, but not with self-reported non-voting political activity. Baseline cortisol predicted significant variation in voting behavior above and beyond variation accounted for by traditional demographic variables (particularly age of participant in our sample). Participation in religious activity was weakly (and negatively) associated with baseline cortisol. Our results suggest that HPA-mediated characteristics of social, cognitive, and emotional processes may exert an influence on a trait as complex as voting behavior, and that cortisol is a better predictor of actual voting behavior, as opposed to self-reported political activity. PMID:24835544

  13. An oral multiparticulate, modified-release, hydrocortisone replacement therapy that provides physiological cortisol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Martin; Debono, Miguel; Huatan, Hiep; Merke, Deborah; Arlt, Wiebke; Ross, Richard J

    2014-04-01

    It is not possible with current hydrocortisone replacement to mimic the diurnal cortisol profile in patients with adrenal insufficiency. Previous attempts with modified-release technology were unsuccessful. Our objective was to develop hydrocortisone formulations that recreate the diurnal cortisol profile using multiparticulate technology. Screening by in vitro dissolution profiles, pharmacokinetic (PK) testing in dexamethasone-suppressed dogs and humans, and comparison with a reference population. Field laboratories and clinical research facility. Formulations were generated using an enteric (delayed release) design configuration with an extended (sustained release) dissolution profile. In vitro dissolution confirmed delayed and sustained hydrocortisone release. However, in dogs and humans, sustained release resulted in reduced bioavailability. A formulation, DIURF-006, was developed that maintained delayed release but omitted the sustained-release functionality. PK characterization of DIURF-006 showed that, despite absence of a sustained-release component, absorption was sufficiently sustained to deliver extended hydrocortisone absorption. In dexamethasone-suppressed volunteers (n = 16) receiving a twice-daily 'toothbrush' regimen (20 mg at 23:00 h and 10 mg at 07:00 h), DIURF-006 gave a similar cortisol profile to physiological cortisol levels: DIURF-006 vs physiological, Geomean AUC 5610 vs 4706 h * nmol/l, Geomean Cmax 665 vs 594 nmol/l and Median Tmax 8·5 h vs clock time 08:12 h for peak cortisol. The relative bioavailability of DIURF-006 vs hydrocortisone was 89%, and cortisol levels increased linearly with doses between 5 and 30 mg. A multiparticulate oral hydrocortisone formulation with only an enteric coat provides delayed and sustained absorption and when given in a 'toothbrush' regimen provides physiological cortisol exposure. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Mindfulness Intervention for Stress Eating to Reduce Cortisol and Abdominal Fat among Overweight and Obese Women: An Exploratory Randomized Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Daubenmier

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychological distress and elevated cortisol secretion promote abdominal fat, a feature of the Metabolic Syndrome. Effects of stress reduction interventions on abdominal fat are unknown. Forty-seven overweight/obese women (mean BMI =31.2 were randomly assigned to a 4-month intervention or waitlist group to explore effects of a mindfulness program for stress eating. We assessed mindfulness, psychological distress, eating behavior, weight, cortisol awakening response (CAR, and abdominal fat (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry pre- and posttreatment. Treatment participants improved in mindfulness, anxiety, and external-based eating compared to control participants. Groups did not differ on average CAR, weight, or abdominal fat over time. However, obese treatment participants showed significant reductions in CAR and maintained body weight, while obese control participants had stable CAR and gained weight. Improvements in mindfulness, chronic stress, and CAR were associated with reductions in abdominal fat. This proof of concept study suggests that mindfulness training shows promise for improving eating patterns and the CAR, which may reduce abdominal fat over time.

  15. Mindfulness Intervention for Stress Eating to Reduce Cortisol and Abdominal Fat among Overweight and Obese Women: An Exploratory Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daubenmier, Jennifer; Kristeller, Jean; Hecht, Frederick M; Maninger, Nicole; Kuwata, Margaret; Jhaveri, Kinnari; Lustig, Robert H; Kemeny, Margaret; Karan, Lori; Epel, Elissa

    2011-01-01

    Psychological distress and elevated cortisol secretion promote abdominal fat, a feature of the Metabolic Syndrome. Effects of stress reduction interventions on abdominal fat are unknown. Forty-seven overweight/obese women (mean BMI = 31.2) were randomly assigned to a 4-month intervention or waitlist group to explore effects of a mindfulness program for stress eating. We assessed mindfulness, psychological distress, eating behavior, weight, cortisol awakening response (CAR), and abdominal fat (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) pre- and posttreatment. Treatment participants improved in mindfulness, anxiety, and external-based eating compared to control participants. Groups did not differ on average CAR, weight, or abdominal fat over time. However, obese treatment participants showed significant reductions in CAR and maintained body weight, while obese control participants had stable CAR and gained weight. Improvements in mindfulness, chronic stress, and CAR were associated with reductions in abdominal fat. This proof of concept study suggests that mindfulness training shows promise for improving eating patterns and the CAR, which may reduce abdominal fat over time.

  16. Time course of cortisol loss in hair segments under immersion in hot water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jifeng; Xie, Qiaozhen; Gao, Wei; Xu, Youyun; Wang, Shuang; Deng, Huihua; Lu, Zuhong

    2012-02-18

    Hair cortisol is supposed to be a good biomarker of chronic stress. Major loss of hair cortisol in long-term exposure to environmental factors affected strongly its proper assessment of chronic stress in human. However, there was no research on time course of hair cortisol loss during the long-term exposure. Hair samples with longer than 1cm in the posterior vertex region were cut as close as possible to the scalp. The 1-cm hair samples were treated by ultraviolet irradiation or immersion in shampoo solution or water immersion at 40, 65 and 80°C. Hair cortisol content was determined with high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Ultraviolet irradiation and immersion in shampoo solution and hot water gave rise to the significant cortisol loss in hair. Hair cortisol content was sharply decreased with water immersion duration during initial stage and slowly decreased in the following stage. The 2-stage loss process with water immersion duration modeled to some extent time course of hair cortisol loss in long-term exposure to external environments. Cortisol from hair samples closest to the scalp in the posterior vertex could represent more accurately central hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Measuring cortisol in the water as an indicator of stress caused by increased loading density in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruane, N.M.; Komen, J.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of a high loading density for a period of 28 days on growth, water quality and stress parameters in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was investigated. In addition, cortisol levels in the water were measured during the experiment to investigate if a relationship exists between loading

  18. Cortisol Levels and Children's Orientation in Day Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reunamo, Jyrki; Sajaniemi, Nina; Suhonen, Eira; Kontu, Elina

    2012-01-01

    Children's stress in day care is related to the stressful qualities of the environment and to children's orientations in that environment. The study involved 55 children in five day centres in Finland. Baseline saliva samples for measuring cortisol (stress) levels were collected five times during the day. Children were interviewed to measure their…

  19. Adolescents' increasing stress response to social evaluation: pubertal effects on cortisol and alpha-amylase during public speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bos, Esther; de Rooij, Mark; Miers, Anne C; Bokhorst, Caroline L; Westenberg, P Michiel

    2014-01-01

    Stress responses to social evaluation are thought to increase during adolescence, which may be due to pubertal maturation. However, empirical evidence is scarce. This study is the first to investigate the relation between pubertal development and biological responses to a social-evaluative stressor longitudinally. Participants performed the Leiden Public Speaking Task twice, with a 2-year interval (N = 217; age at Time 1: 8-17 years). The results support an increase in sensitivity to social evaluation during adolescence. The overall cortisol and alpha-amylase responses increased-both between and within participants-and were more strongly related to self-reported pubertal development than to age. The cortisol response shifted from speech delivery toward anticipation. The alpha-amylase response increased in both phases. © 2013 The Authors. Child Development © 2013 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  20. Effect of cortisol on muscle sympathetic nerve activity in Pima Indians and Caucasians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vozarova, Barbora; Weyer, Christian; Snitker, Soren

    2003-01-01

    . Although glucocorticoids inhibit SNS activity, Pima Indians are not hypercortisolemic compared with Caucasians. This does not exclude the possibility that the SNS is more responsive to an inhibitory effect of cortisol in the former than in the latter group. We measured fasting plasma ACTH and cortisol...... (metyrapone) followed by cortisol replacement (hydrocortisone) on plasma ACTH, cortisol, and MSNA. There were no ethnic differences in fasting plasma ACTH or cortisol, but MSNA adjusted for percent body fat was lower in Pimas than in Caucasians (P cortisol...... to a tonic inhibitory effect of cortisol. However, an acute release of cortisol is likely to more effectively contain sympathoexcitation during stress in Pima Indians than in Caucasians, which may be an important mechanism of cardioprotection in this Native American population....

  1. Political influence associates with cortisol and health among egalitarian forager-farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Rueden, Christopher R.; Trumble, Benjamin C.; Emery Thompson, Melissa; Stieglitz, Jonathan; Hooper, Paul L.; Blackwell, Aaron D.; Kaplan, Hillard S.; Gurven, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives: Low social status increases risk of disease due, in part, to the psychosocial stress that accompanies feeling subordinate or poor. Previous studies report that chronic stress and chronically elevated cortisol can impair cardiovascular and immune function. We test whether lower status is more benign in small-scale, relatively egalitarian societies, where leaders lack coercive authority and there is minimal material wealth to contest. Methodology: Among Tsimane’ forager-horticulturalists of lowland Bolivia, we compare informal political influence among men with urinary cortisol, immune activation (innate and acquired), and morbidity as assessed during routine medical exams. Results: After controlling for potential confounds, we find that politically influential men have lower cortisol, and that this association is partly attributable to access to social support. Cortisol is positively associated with men’s income, which may reflect chronic psychosocial stress from market involvement. Greater influence is also associated with lower probability of respiratory infection, which is a frequent source of morbidity among Tsimane’. Among men who lost influence over a 4-year period, cortisol and probability of respiratory infection were higher the greater the decline in influence. Conclusions and implications: Deleterious effects of low status on health are not merely ‘diseases of civilization’ but may result from how (even subtle) status differences structure human behavior. PMID:25214482

  2. Direct assay for urine cortisol with cortisol kit TFB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manaka, Yukiko; Watanabe, Michiko; Hosoya, Takaaki [Yamagata Univ. (Japan). Hospital

    2002-05-01

    We examined Cortisol Kit TFB for direct assay of urine cortisol. And the multiplication by dilution factor of urine cortisol values in this kit was examined. The coefficient of correlation of cortisol levels (46 urine samples) between Cortisol Kit TFB and Chemilumi ACS-Cortisol II, which is another kit for direct assay of urine cortisol, was r=0.858, y=1.86x+38.2 (p<0.001). There were differences between the both cortisol levels of each urine sample in spite of the good coefficient of correlation. The urine cortisol values obtained from the standard curve in addition of 50 {mu}l of zero standard were 50-80% of the values obtained from the standard curve in the package insert. These results suggest that the specificity of the antibodies of both direct assay kits for urine cortisol may be different each other, and the multiplication by 1.09, the dilution factor due to the addition of zero standard to only urine sample, is unnecessary although it is indispensable for urine samples to add zero standard. Cortisol Kit TFB was very convenient for its easy assay procedure and short incubation. (author)

  3. Direct assay for urine cortisol with cortisol kit TFB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manaka, Yukiko; Watanabe, Michiko; Hosoya, Takaaki

    2002-01-01

    We examined Cortisol Kit TFB for direct assay of urine cortisol. And the multiplication by dilution factor of urine cortisol values in this kit was examined. The coefficient of correlation of cortisol levels (46 urine samples) between Cortisol Kit TFB and Chemilumi ACS-Cortisol II, which is another kit for direct assay of urine cortisol, was r=0.858, y=1.86x+38.2 (p<0.001). There were differences between the both cortisol levels of each urine sample in spite of the good coefficient of correlation. The urine cortisol values obtained from the standard curve in addition of 50 μl of zero standard were 50-80% of the values obtained from the standard curve in the package insert. These results suggest that the specificity of the antibodies of both direct assay kits for urine cortisol may be different each other, and the multiplication by 1.09, the dilution factor due to the addition of zero standard to only urine sample, is unnecessary although it is indispensable for urine samples to add zero standard. Cortisol Kit TFB was very convenient for its easy assay procedure and short incubation. (author)

  4. Dating couples' attachment styles and patterns of cortisol reactivity and recovery in response to a relationship conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Sally I; Pietromonaco, Paula R; Gunlicks, Meredith; Sayer, Aline

    2006-04-01

    This study investigated theoretically predicted links between attachment style and a physiological indicator of stress, salivary cortisol levels, in 124 heterosexual dating couples. Cortisol was assessed at 7 points before and after an experimental conflict negotiation task, creating a trajectory of stress reactivity and recovery for each participant. Growth modeling of cortisol data tested hypotheses that (a) insecurely attached individuals show patterns of greater physiological stress reactions to interpersonal conflict than do securely attached individuals and (b) people with insecurely attached partners show patterns of greater stress in reaction to relationship conflict than those with securely attached partners. Hypothesis 1 was supported, but men and women differed in the type of insecure attachment that predicted stress trajectories. Hypothesis 2 was supported for men, but not for women. The discussion emphasizes the role of gender role norms and partner characteristics in understanding connections between adult attachment and patterns of cortisol responses to interpersonal stress.

  5. Cortisol level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enable JavaScript. The cortisol blood test measures the level of cortisol in the blood. Cortisol is a ... in the morning. This is important, because cortisol level varies throughout the day. You may be asked ...

  6. Work stress and hair cortisol levels among workers in a Bangladeshi ready-made garment factory - Results from a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinisch, Maria; Yusuf, Rita; Li, Jian; Stalder, Tobias; Bosch, Jos A; Rahman, Omar; Strümpell, Christian; Ashraf, Hasan; Fischer, Joachim E; Loerbroks, Adrian

    2014-12-01

    Evidence on the association of work stress with cortisol levels is inconsistent and mostly stems from Western countries, with limited generalizability to other regions of the world. These inconsistencies may partly be due to methodological limitations associated with the measurement of cortisol secretion in saliva, serum or urine. The present study set out to explore associations of work stress with long-term integrated cortisol levels in hair among 175 workers of an export oriented ready-made garment (RMG) factory in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Work-related demands (WD), interpersonal resources (IR) and work-related values (WV) were assessed using a psychometrically evaluated interview. WD consisted of four items on physical demands, time pressure, worries about mistakes and exposure to abusive language. IR comprised five items addressing support, recognition, adequate payment, workers' trust in the management, and the management's trust in workers, as perceived by the workers. WV captured job security, promotion prospects and job latitude by three items. Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Stepwise multivariable linear regression models (backward elimination of predictors) were used to estimate associations of HCC with the three work stress components. For significant work stress component(s), further multivariable linear regression analyses were conducted to explore whether, and if so, which individual item(s) contributed most. The mean HCC equaled 3.27 (SD 2.58) pg/mg. HCC were found to be significantly associated with WV (beta=0.209, p=0.021). Additional analyses of the three WV items revealed that this association was largely driven the item on "promotion prospects" (beta=0.230, p=0.007) implying that the perception of good promotion prospects was associated with higher HCC. The finding of elevated HCC with good promotion prospects may initially seem counter-intuitive, but is supported by research documenting

  7. Salivary cortisol and immunoglobulin A: responses to stress as predictors of health complaints reported by caregivers of offspring with autistic spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Andrés-García, S; Moya-Albiol, L; González-Bono, E

    2012-09-01

    In the caregiving model of chronic stress, few studies have been conducted with young middle-aged samples and no data exists about acute stress response in this population. To extend knowledge in this issue, health complaints and psychological, endocrine, and immunological responses to stress have been assessed in a cross-sectional sample of 41 parents of offspring with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) in comparison with 37 non-caregiver parents. Salivary cortisol and immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels were measured before, during, and after a mental psychosocial stressor, while mood and state anxiety were evaluated before and after the stress. Health complaints, personality traits, socio-economic status, and characteristics of the care recipient were assessed. Caregivers reported more health complaints showing buffered cortisol and IgA responses and greater increases in fatigue to acute stress than the controls. In terms of predictive power of health complaints, IgA levels, care status, and severity of the care recipient are especially relevant for caregivers. Results strongly suggest a dysregulation in the immune and hormonal stress-induced responses in middle-aged caregivers, with immune component and care characteristics as the main modulators of health complaints. A deficit in the adaptive capability of stress response is plausible in this population, emphasizing the need to consider family approaches when planning protocols for assistance to ASD patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Relationship between salivary cortisol levels and regional cerebral glucose metabolism in nondemented elderly subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Young Bin; Cho, Sang Soo; Lee, Sung Ha; Chey, Jean Yung; Kim, Sang Eun

    2004-01-01

    Cortisol is a primary stress hormone for flight-or-fight response in human. Increased levels of cortisol have been associated with memory and learning impairments. However, little is known about the role of cortisol on brain/cognitive functions in older adults. We compared regional cerebral glucose metabolism between elderly subjects with high and low cortisol levels using FDG PET. Salivary cortisol levels were measured four times during a day, and an average of the four measurements was used as the standard cortisol level for the analyses. From a population of 120 nondemented elderly subjects, 19 (mean age, 70.1±4.9 y: 2 males and 17 females) were identified as the high (> mean + 1 SD of the total population) cortisol subjects (mean cortisol, 0.69±0.09 μ g/dL), while 14 (mean age, 67.2±4.5 y: all females) as the low (< mean 1 SD) cortisol (mean cortisol, 0.27±0.03 μ g/dL). A voxel-wise comparison of FDG PET images from the high and low cortisol subjects was performed using SPM99. When compared with the low cortisol group, the high cortisol group had significant hypometabolism in the right middle temporal gyrus, left precuneus, right parahippocampal gyrus, right inferior temporal and superior temporal gyri (P < 0.01 uncorrected, k = 100). There was no significant increase of glucose metabolism in the high cortisol group compared with the low cortisol group (P < 0.01 uncorrected, k = 100). The high cortisol elderly subjects had hypometabolism in the parahippocampal and temporal gyri and precuneus, regions involved in memory and other cognitive functions. This may represent the preclinical metabolic correlates of forthcoming cognitive dysfunction associated with stress in the elderly. Longitudinal studies of brain metabolism and cognitive function are warranted

  9. Relationship between salivary cortisol levels and regional cerebral glucose metabolism in nondemented elderly subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Young Bin; Cho, Sang Soo; Lee, Sung Ha; Chey, Jean Yung; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Cortisol is a primary stress hormone for flight-or-fight response in human. Increased levels of cortisol have been associated with memory and learning impairments. However, little is known about the role of cortisol on brain/cognitive functions in older adults. We compared regional cerebral glucose metabolism between elderly subjects with high and low cortisol levels using FDG PET. Salivary cortisol levels were measured four times during a day, and an average of the four measurements was used as the standard cortisol level for the analyses. From a population of 120 nondemented elderly subjects, 19 (mean age, 70.1{+-}4.9 y: 2 males and 17 females) were identified as the high (> mean + 1 SD of the total population) cortisol subjects (mean cortisol, 0.69{+-}0.09 {mu} g/dL), while 14 (mean age, 67.2{+-}4.5 y: all females) as the low (< mean 1 SD) cortisol (mean cortisol, 0.27{+-}0.03 {mu} g/dL). A voxel-wise comparison of FDG PET images from the high and low cortisol subjects was performed using SPM99. When compared with the low cortisol group, the high cortisol group had significant hypometabolism in the right middle temporal gyrus, left precuneus, right parahippocampal gyrus, right inferior temporal and superior temporal gyri (P < 0.01 uncorrected, k = 100). There was no significant increase of glucose metabolism in the high cortisol group compared with the low cortisol group (P < 0.01 uncorrected, k = 100). The high cortisol elderly subjects had hypometabolism in the parahippocampal and temporal gyri and precuneus, regions involved in memory and other cognitive functions. This may represent the preclinical metabolic correlates of forthcoming cognitive dysfunction associated with stress in the elderly. Longitudinal studies of brain metabolism and cognitive function are warranted.

  10. Effects of Cortisol on Short and Long Term Diet and Morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peiman, Kathryn S.; Birnie-Gauvin, Kim; Larsen, Martin Hage

    2017-01-01

    Glucocorticoids such as cortisol are released during stressful events. However, many of the effects of cortisol on animals in the wild are still poorly documented. We evaluated the effects of artificially elevated cortisol on diet and morphology over the short term (2 weeks) and long term (4 months......) using a wild population of juvenile semi-anadromous brown trout (Salmo trutta) in Denmark. We caught, tagged and manipulated juvenile fish while in their natal freshwater streams in the fall. Manipulations consisted of an exogenous intracoelomic injection of cortisol suspended in vegetable shortening...... using geometric morphometrics. Cortisol affected carbon stable isotope signatures but had minimal effects on nitrogen isotopes and morphology. Irrespective of treatment, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope values increased over time. This study shows that cortisol can have both short and long term...

  11. Growth hormone, prolactin and cortisol response to exercise in patients with depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Jesper; Nordentoft, Merete; Mohammad-Nezhad, Mahdi

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A blunted growth hormone and prolactin response to pharmacological stress test have previously been found in depressed patients, as well as an increased cortisol response to psychosocial stress. This study investigated these hormones in response to acute exercise using an incremental...... bicycle test. METHOD: A cross-sectional comparison of cortisol, growth hormone, and prolactin in depressed (n=137) and healthy (n=44) subjects during rest and in response to an incremental bicycle test. Secondly, we tested the depressed patients again after a 4-month randomized naturalistic exercise...... intervention. RESULTS: Resting plasma levels of growth hormone (GH), cortisol, or prolactin (PRL) did not differ between depressed and healthy subjects (all p-values>.12). In response to an incremental bicycle test the GH (p=.02) and cortisol (p=.05) response in depressed was different compared to healthy...

  12. Scales tell a story on the stress history of fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Johan; Metz, Juriaan Rogier; Ampe, Bart; Decostere, Annemie; Flik, Gert; De Saeger, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Fish faced with stressful stimuli launch an endocrine stress response through activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI-) axis to release cortisol into the blood. Scientifically validated biomarkers to capture systemic cortisol exposure over longer periods of time are of utmost importance to assess chronic stress in governmental, wildlife, aquaculture and scientific settings. Here we demonstrate that cortisol in scales of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) is the long-sought biomarker for chronic stress. Undisturbed (CTR) and daily stressed (STRESS) carp were compared. Dexamethasone (DEX) or cortisol (CORT) fed fish served as negative and positive controls, respectively. Scale cortisol was quantified with a validated ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method. An increase in scale cortisol content was found in STRESS and CORT but not in CTR and DEX fish. Scale cortisol content reflects its accumulation in a stressor and time dependent manner and validates the scale cortisol content as biomarker for chronic stress. Plasma analyses confirmed that (i) CTR, DEX and CORT treatments were effective, (ii) plasma cortisol of STRESS fish showed no signs of chronic HPI-axis activation, and (iii) plasma cortisol is a poor predictor for chronic stress. The expression of HPI key genes crf, pomc, and star were up-regulated in STRESS fish in the absence of a plasma cortisol response, as was the target gene of cortisol encoding subunit α1 of the Na+/K+-ATPase in gills. When lost, scales of fish regenerate fast. Regenerated scales corroborate our findings, offering (i) unsurpassed time resolution for cortisol incorporation and as such for stressful events, and (ii) the possibility to investigate stress in a well defined and controlled environment and time frame creating novel opportunities for bone physiological research. We conclude that the cortisol content in ontogenetic and regenerated scales is an innovative biomarker for chronic

  13. Contextual control over expression of fear is affected by cortisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Anna Van Ast

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available At the core of anxiety disorders is the inability to use contextual information to modulate behavioral responses to potentially threatening events. Models of the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders incorporate stress and concomitant stress hormones as important vulnerability factors, while others emphasize sex as an important factor. However, translational basic research has not yet investigated the effects of stress hormones and sex on the ability to use contextual information to modulate responses to threat. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was threefold: first, we aimed at developing an experimental paradigm specifically capable of capturing contextual modulation of the expression of fear. Second, we tested whether cortisol would alter the contextualization of fear expression. Third, we aimed at assessing whether alterations in contextualization due to cortisol were different for men and women. Healthy participants (n = 42 received placebo or hydrocortisone (20 mg prior to undergoing a newly developed differential contextual fear conditioning paradigm. The results indicated that people rapidly acquire differential contextual modulation of the expression of fear, as measured by fear potentia